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Sample records for ultimately controlling specific

  1. Classification of radioactive waste and determination of waste specifications as well as conditions of acceptance for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1983-04-01

    The determination of waste specification and conditions of acceptance must follow a certain scheme, the basics of which will be presented. First the types of waste and the ultimate storage facilities will be characterized. The various categories of waste will be listed in a universally valid system, and the preliminary conditioning options will be determined. Based on the results of safety analysis taking into account the whole system - geological circumstances, ultimate store mines, types and forms of waste - specifications for the various ultimate store products are to be derived following iterative methods. Suggestions though not of a binding nature and probably subject to eventual revisions in part will be presented. To ensure the safety goals, i.e. the exclusion of radioactivity from the human biosphere, appropriate quality control is required concerning the production and the acceptance at the ultimate store. The guiding principles to be heeded will be discussed in brief. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Ultimate intra-wafer critical dimension uniformity control by using lithography and etch tool corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Michael; Wise, Rich; Reijnen, Liesbeth; Viatkina, Katja; Jaenen, Patrick; Luca, Melisa; Mernier, Guillaume; Chahine, Charlotte; Hellin, David; Kam, Benjamin; Sobieski, Daniel; Vertommen, Johan; Mulkens, Jan; Dusa, Mircea; Dixit, Girish; Shamma, Nader; Leray, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    With shrinking design rules, the overall patterning requirements are getting aggressively tighter. For the 7-nm node and below, allowable CD uniformity variations are entering the Angstrom region (ref [1]). Optimizing inter- and intra-field CD uniformity of the final pattern requires a holistic tuning of all process steps. In previous work, CD control with either litho cluster or etch tool corrections has been discussed. Today, we present a holistic CD control approach, combining the correction capability of the etch tool with the correction capability of the exposure tool. The study is done on 10-nm logic node wafers, processed with a test vehicle stack patterning sequence. We include wafer-to-wafer and lot-to-lot variation and apply optical scatterometry to characterize the fingerprints. Making use of all available correction capabilities (lithography and etch), we investigated single application of exposure tool corrections and of etch tool corrections as well as combinations of both to reach the lowest CD uniformity. Results of the final pattern uniformity based on single and combined corrections are shown. We conclude on the application of this holistic lithography and etch optimization to 7nm High-Volume manufacturing, paving the way to ultimate within-wafer CD uniformity control.

  3. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zahra; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Troccaz, Olivier; Baudry, Jacques; Pinay, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    Direct and indirect effects from human activity have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. Despite an abundance of studies investigating the impact of agricultural activity on water quality, our understanding of what determines the capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients remains limited. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments by investigating the relationship between catchment characteristics, stream discharge, and water chemistry. We analyzed a 5-year, high-frequency water chemistry data set from three catchments in western France ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2. The relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations differed between the three catchments and was associated with hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness had relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions, indicating high resilience to human disturbance. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and interannual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of phosphate (PO43-) and ammonium (NH4+) in streams during low flow conditions and strong increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land-use configuration) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on water quality was both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent

  4. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker’s actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions—if they are logged at all....... Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...

  5. Nutrient availability and the ultimate control of the biological carbon pump in the western tropical South Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutin, Thierry; Wagener, Thibaut; Caffin, Mathieu; Fumenia, Alain; Gimenez, Audrey; Baklouti, Melika; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Pujo-Pay, Mireille; Leblanc, Karine; Lefevre, Dominique; Helias Nunige, Sandra; Leblond, Nathalie; Grosso, Olivier; de Verneil, Alain

    2018-05-01

    N input by N2 fixation and carbon export. The low iron availability in the SP gyre and P availability in the MA during the stratified period may appear as the ultimate control of N input by N2 fixation. Because of the huge volume of water to consider, and because the SP Ocean is the place of intense denitrification in the east (N sink) and N2 fixation in the west (N source), precise seasonal C, N, P, and iron (Fe) budgets would be of prime interest to understand the efficiency, at the present time and in the future, of the oceanic biological carbon pump.

  6. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  7. Stalking the ultimate particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you missed the ARTE programme entitled "L'Ultime Particule" broadcast in February, you have another chance to catch it in CERN's Main Auditorium on 13 March. "L'Ultime Particule" is a documentary by the French director Michel Andrieu that seeks to explain particle physics through a contemplative quest for the research physicists of matter of today and yesteryear. Invariably kitted out in a red parka and a soft hat, the programme's investigator scours the planet and the archives in search of the research physicists who are stalking the ultimate particle, the Higgs boson, in their quest to understand the structure of matter. Naturally enough, CERN is an important stage of his journey where Michel Andrieu and his team spent several days last year. Both from the physics and metaphysical points of view, "L'Ultime Particule" is worth seeing. The film's director, Michel Andrieu, will introduce his documentary and answer questions from the audience after the documentary has been shown. L'Ultime Particule by Mic...

  8. The ultimate quotable Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein's Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein's life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson's authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice.

  9. Assessment and characterization of radioactive waste for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Warnecke, E.

    1986-01-01

    The waste specifications determined from site safety analyses define the requirements to be met by waste forms for ultimate storage. Product quality control is the process step ensuring compliance with the conditions to be met for ultimate storage. For this purpose, radionuclide inventory, fixation method, container type, waste form and quantity, and type of waste are the most significant items on the checking list. (DG) [de

  10. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  11. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  12. Fasting - the ultimate diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A M

    2007-05-01

    Adult humans often undertake acute fasts for cosmetic, religious or medical reasons. For example, an estimated 14% of US adults have reported using fasting as a means to control body weight and this approach has long been advocated as an intermittent treatment for gross refractory obesity. There are unique historical data sets on extreme forms of food restriction that give insight into the consequences of starvation or semi-starvation in previously healthy, but usually non-obese subjects. These include documented medical reports on victims of hunger strike, famine and prisoners of war. Such data provide a detailed account on how the body adapts to prolonged starvation. It has previously been shown that fasting for the biblical period of 40 days and 40 nights is well within the overall physiological capabilities of a healthy adult. However, the specific effects on the human body and mind are less clearly documented, either in the short term (hours) or in the longer term (days). This review asks the following three questions, pertinent to any weight-loss therapy, (i) how effective is the regime in achieving weight loss, (ii) what impact does it have on psychology? and finally, (iii) does it work long-term?

  13. The Ultimate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterp......One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However......, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming...... living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound...

  14. The discovery of how gender influences age immunological mechanisms in health and disease, and the identification of ageing gender-specific biomarkers, could lead to specifically tailored treatment and ultimately improve therapeutic success rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berghella Anna

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The control of human health and diseases in the elderly population is becoming a challenge, since mean age and life expectation are progressively increasing as well as chronic degenerative diseases. These disorders are of complex diagnosis and they are difficult to be treated, but it is hoped that the predictive medicine will lead to more specific and effective treatment by using specific markers to identify persons with high risk of developing disease, before the clinical manifestation. Peripheral blood targets and biomarkers are currently the most practical, non-invasive means of disease diagnosing, predicting prognosis and therapeutic response. Human longevity is directly correlated with the optimal functioning of the immune system. Recent findings indicate that the sexual dimorphism of T helper (Th cytokine pathways and the regulation of Th cell network homeostasis are normally present in the immune response and undergoes to adverse changes with ageing. Furthermore, immune senescence affects both men and women, but it does not affect them equally. Therefore, we hypothesize that the comprehension of the interferences between these gender specific pathways, the ageing immunological mechanism in pathological or healthy state and the current therapies, could lead to specifically tailored treatment and eventually improve the therapeutic success rates. Reaching this aim requires the identification of ageing gender-specific biomarkers that could easily reveal the above mentioned correlations.

  15. Site-specific weed control technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Svend; Søgaard, Henning Tangen; Kudsk, Per

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific weed control technologies are defined as machinery or equipment embedded with technologies that detect weeds growing in a crop and, taking into account predefined factors such as economics, takes action to maximise the chances of successfully controlling them. In the article, we...... describe the basic parts of site specific weed control technologies, comprising of weed sensing systems, weed management models and precision weed control implements. A review of state-of-the-art technologies shows that several weed sensing systems and precision implements have been developed over the last...... of knowledge about the economic and environmental potential for increasing the resolution of weed control. The integration of site-specific information on weed distribution, weed species composition and density, and the effect on crop yield, is decisive for successful site-specific weed management.   Keywords...

  16. Specification of EDITH motion control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitwieser, H.; Frank, A.; Holler, E.; Suess, U.; Leinemann, K.

    1990-09-01

    EDITH is an experimental device for in vessel handling at NET/ITER. The purpose of EDITH is: Testing of ABS (articulated boom system) components; testing and validation of remote handling procedures; testing and validation of ABS end-effectors; testing of ABS control system features and verification of control system concepts. This document, after describing the environment in which the control system is to operate, specifies architecture and functionality to be implemented by the EDITH motion control system software, thereby taking full reference to the control system specification for TARM, which was decided to be the base for the implementation. (orig.) [de

  17. Cdc42-mediated tubulogenesis controls cell specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Sand, Fredrik Wolfhagen; Greiner, Thomas Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how cells polarize and coordinate tubulogenesis during organ formation is a central question in biology. Tubulogenesis often coincides with cell-lineage specification during organ development. Hence, an elementary question is whether these two processes are independently controlled......, or whether proper cell specification depends on formation of tubes. To address these fundamental questions, we have studied the functional role of Cdc42 in pancreatic tubulogenesis. We present evidence that Cdc42 is essential for tube formation, specifically for initiating microlumen formation and later...... for maintaining apical cell polarity. Finally, we show that Cdc42 controls cell specification non-cell-autonomously by providing the correct microenvironment for proper control of cell-fate choices of multipotent progenitors. For a video summary of this article, see the PaperFlick file with the Supplemental Data...

  18. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  19. Concussion Prevalence in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Damien J.; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D.; Tybor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultimate Frisbee (ultimate) is a fast-growing, popular sport played nationally by over 4 million athletes. While several studies have examined injury rates in ultimate, no work has investigated the prevalence of concussions specifically or players’ knowledge and management of those injuries. Purpose: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of concussions in ultimate and to assess players’ knowledge of concussions as well as their concussion management behaviors. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: From June to November 2015, we collected ultimate-related concussion data via an anonymous web-based survey, the Concussion in Ultimate Frisbee Survey, from a convenience sample of 787 male and female ultimate players across the United States. Results: There were 553 male and 234 female respondents included in the analysis; 26.58% of men and 24.79% of women reported that they had sustained at least 1 concussion while playing ultimate, with 45.58% and 43.10% of those men and women, respectively, reporting multiple concussions. A total of 67.81% of men and 78.21% of women stated that they would remove themselves from play after sustaining a given concussion, although 45.99% of men and 37.62% of women indicated that they had returned to play in the same game or practice. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that concussions do commonly occur in competitive ultimate and that better education and management of concussions in ultimate athletes are needed. This study is an important first step in deepening our understanding of these issues. PMID:29552572

  20. Specificity and robustness in transcription control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Anirvan M; Djordjevic, Marko; Shraiman, Boris I

    2002-02-19

    Recognition by transcription factors of the regulatory DNA elements upstream of genes is the fundamental step in controlling gene expression. How does the necessity to provide stability with respect to mutation constrain the organization of transcription control networks? We examine the mutation load of a transcription factor interacting with a set of n regulatory response elements as a function of the factor/DNA binding specificity and conclude on theoretical grounds that the optimal specificity decreases with n. The predicted correlation between variability of binding sites (for a given transcription factor) and their number is supported by the genomic data for Escherichia coli. The analysis of E. coli genomic data was carried out using an algorithm suggested by the biophysical model of transcription factor/DNA binding. Complete results of the search for candidate transcription factor binding sites are available at http://www.physics.rockefeller.edu/~boris/public/search_ecoli.

  1. Domain-Specific Control of Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Szu-Hung; Yeh, Yei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that loading information on working memory affects selective attention. However, whether the load effect on selective attention is domain-general or domain-specific remains unresolved. The domain-general effect refers to the findings that load in one content (e.g. phonological) domain in working memory influences processing in another content (e.g., visuospatial) domain. Attentional control supervises selection regardless of information domain. The domain-specific effect refers to the constraint of influence only when maintenance and processing operate in the same domain. Selective attention operates in a specific content domain. This study is designed to resolve this controversy. Across three experiments, we manipulated the type of representation maintained in working memory and the type of representation upon which the participants must exert control to resolve conflict and select a target into the focus of attention. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants maintained digits and nonverbalized objects, respectively, in working memory while selecting a target in a letter array. In Experiment 2, we presented auditory digits with a letter flanker task to exclude the involvement of resource competition within the same input modality. In Experiments 3a and 3b, we replaced the letter flanker task with an object flanker task while manipulating the memory load on object and digit representation, respectively. The results consistently showed that memory load modulated distractibility only when the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in the same domain. The magnitude of distractor interference was larger under high load than under low load, reflecting a lower efficacy of information prioritization. When the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in different domains, memory load did not modulate distractibility. Control of processing priority in selective attention demands domain-specific resources. PMID:24866977

  2. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Redner, S

    2004-01-01

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed

  3. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, F [Department of Physics, Center for BioDynamics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Redner, S [Department of Physics, Center for Polymer Studies, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2004-09-03

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed.

  4. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S M; Larsen, G C; Antoniou, I; Lind, S O; Courtney, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  5. Ultimate Explanations of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We humans are collectively driven by a powerful - yet not fully explained - instinct to understand. We would like to see everything established, proven, laid bare. The more important an issue, the more we desire to see it clarified, stripped of all secrets, all shades of gray. What could be more important than to understand the Universe and ourselves as a part of it? To find a window onto our origin and our destiny? This book examines how far our modern cosmological theories - with their sometimes audacious models, such as inflation, cyclic histories, quantum creation, parallel universes - can take us towards answering these questions. Can such theories lead us to ultimate truths, leaving nothing unexplained? Last, but not least, Heller addresses the thorny problem of why and whether we should expect to find theories with all-encompassing explicative power.

  6. Endothelial ERK signaling controls lymphatic fate specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong; Atri, Deepak; Eichmann, Anne; Simons, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels are thought to arise from PROX1-positive endothelial cells (ECs) in the cardinal vein in response to induction of SOX18 expression; however, the molecular event responsible for increased SOX18 expression has not been established. We generated mice with endothelial-specific, inducible expression of an RAF1 gene with a gain-of-function mutation (RAF1S259A) that is associated with Noonan syndrome. Expression of mutant RAF1S259A in ECs activated ERK and induced SOX18 and PROX1 expression, leading to increased commitment of venous ECs to the lymphatic fate. Excessive production of lymphatic ECs resulted in lymphangiectasia that was highly reminiscent of abnormal lymphatics seen in Noonan syndrome and similar “RASopathies.” Inhibition of ERK signaling during development abrogated the lymphatic differentiation program and rescued the lymphatic phenotypes induced by expression of RAF1S259A. These data suggest that ERK activation plays a key role in lymphatic EC fate specification and that excessive ERK activation is the basis of lymphatic abnormalities seen in Noonan syndrome and related diseases. PMID:23391722

  7. Ultimate explanations and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Machado, Armando; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2018-07-01

    Researchers have unraveled multiple cases in which behavior deviates from rationality principles. We propose that such deviations are valuable tools to understand the adaptive significance of the underpinning mechanisms. To illustrate, we discuss in detail an experimental protocol in which animals systematically incur substantial foraging losses by preferring a lean but informative option over a rich but non-informative one. To understand how adaptive mechanisms may fail to maximize food intake, we review a model inspired by optimal foraging principles that reconciles sub-optimal choice with the view that current behavioral mechanisms were pruned by the optimizing action of natural selection. To move beyond retrospective speculation, we then review critical tests of the model, regarding both its assumptions and its (sometimes counterintuitive) predictions, all of which have been upheld. The overall contention is that (a) known mechanisms can be used to develop better ultimate accounts and that (b) to understand why mechanisms that generate suboptimal behavior evolved, we need to consider their adaptive value in the animal's characteristic ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Therapy control of specific hymenoptera venom allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, W; Wichmann, G; Dietz, A

    2010-12-01

    In Germany anaphylactic reactions after insect stings are mostly caused by honey bee (Apis mellifera) and wasp (Vespula vulgaris, Vespula germanica). In the majority of cases venom immunotherapy is a successful therapy and protects patients from recurrent systemic anaphylactic reaction. In some patients persistent severe reactions after insect sting can even occur in spite of venom therapy, as a sign of therapy failure. It is important to identify these patients, who do not benefit from venom immunotherapy, in an early stage of therapy. In this case dose rate of venom immunotherapy must be adjusted for a successful therapy outcome. Up to now skin prick tests, specific IgE-antibodies and in vitro diagnostics are not suitable for detecting therapy failure. Patients with treatment failure can be diagnosed by insect sting test and almost all of them will become fully protected by increasing the maintenance dose. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Cooperative adaptive cruise control : tradeoffs between control and network specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oncu, S.; Wouw, van de N.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we consider a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) system which regulates inter-vehicle distances in a vehicle string. Improved performance can be achieved by utilizing information exchange between vehicles through wireless communication besides local sensor measurements.

  10. Characterisation of reactor control rod drives. Specification 1-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    The committee 'Kernreaktorregelung' of VDI/VDE-Gesellschaft Mess- und Regelungstechnik has developed 6 specifications (Typenblaetter) of reactor control rod drives. The specifications are aimed at giving engineers in reactor control systems an outline concerning the function as well as some construction characteristics. (orig./LN) [de

  11. Ultimate-gradient accelerators physics and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich

    1995-01-01

    As introduction, the needs and ways for ultimate acceleration gradients are discussed briefly. The Plasma Wake Field Acceleration is analized in the most important details. The structure of specific plasma oscillations and "high energy driver beam SP-plasma" interaction is presented, including computer simulation of the process. Some pratical ways to introduce the necessary mm-scale bunching in driver beam and to arrange sequential energy multiplication are dicussed. The influence of accelerating beam particle - plasma binary collisions is considered, also. As applications of PWFA, the use of proton super-colliders beams (LHC and Future SC) to drive the "multi particle types" accelerator, and the arrangements for the electron-positron TeV range collider are discussed.

  12. The dream of an ultimate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1997-10-01

    Steven Weinberg describes how the dream of an ultimate theory began when one tried to unify the fundamental laws governing the stars constellations as elementary particles: electromagnetism, weak-electro theory then standard model which gives only one quantity out of its fields, the gravitation. He tries to explain to what an ultimate theory could look like. but the dream of an ultimate theory is not yet realized, there are some elementary particles to find before and then to build superconducting super colliders. The europe made it. the dream of an ultimate theory became an european dream. (N.C.)

  13. Control system specification for a cyclotron and neutron therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacky, J.; Risler, R.; Kalet, I.; Wootton, P.; Barke, A.; Brossard, S.; Jackson, R.

    1991-01-01

    It is usually considered an essential element of good practice in engineering to produce a specification for a system before building it. However, it has been found to be quite difficult to produce useful specifications of large software systems. The authors have nearly completed a comprehensive specification for the computer control system of a cyclotron and treatment facility that provides particle beams for cancer treatments with fast neutrons, production of medical isotopes, and physics experiments. They describe the control system as thoroughly as is practical using standard technical English, supplemented by tables, diagrams, and some algebraic equations. This specification comprises over 300 single-spaced pages. A more precise and compact specification might be achieved by making greater use of formal mathematical notations instead of English. They have begun work on a formal specification of the system, using the Z and Petri net notations

  14. Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This subsystem specification establishes the interface and performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem. The DST Monitor and Control Subsystem consists of the new and existing equipment that will be used to provide tank farm operators with integrated local monitoring and control of the DST systems to support Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). New equipment will provide automatic control and safety interlocks where required and provide operators with visibility into the status of DST subsystem operations (e.g., DST mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers) and the ability to manually control specified DST functions as necessary. This specification is intended to be the basis for new project/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program

  15. Physical demands in competitive ultimate frisbee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate...... = 0.74, p ≤ 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance....

  16. Controlled Retrieval of Specific Context Information in Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsbach, Thomas C; Friehe, Mary J; Teten, Amy Fair; Reimer, Jason F; Armendarez, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This study adapted a procedure used by Luo and Craik (2009) to examine whether developmental differences exist in the ability to use controlled retrieval processes to access the contextual details of memory representations. Participants from 3 age groups (mean ages 9, 12, and 25 years) were presented with words in 3 study contexts: with a black-and-white picture, with a color picture, or alone without a picture. Six recognition tests were then presented that varied in the demands (high or low) placed on the retrieval of specific contextual information. Each test consisted of a mixture of words that were old targets from 1 study context, distractors (i.e., previously studied words from a different context), and completely new words. A high-specificity and a low-specificity test list was paired with each test question, with high and low specificity being determined by the nature of the distractors used in a test list. High-specificity tests contained words that were studied in similar contexts: old targets (e.g., words studied with black-and-white pictures) and distractors (e.g., words studied with color pictures). In contrast, low-specificity tests contained words that were studied in dissimilar contexts: old targets (e.g., words studied with black-and-white pictures) and distractors (e.g., words previously studied without a picture). Relative to low-specificity tests, the retrieval conditions of high-specificity tests were assumed to place greater demands on the controlled access of specific contextual information. Analysis of recollection scores revealed that age differences were present on high-but not low-specificity tests, with the performance of 9-year-olds disproportionately affected by the retrieval demands of high-specificity tests.

  17. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanal, Julien; Guay, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1) showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified) than for controlled (introjected and external) motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects. PMID:26247788

  18. Oxalate secretion by ectomycorrhizal Paxillus involutus is mineral-specific and controls calcium weathering from minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalenberger, A.; Duran, A. L.; Bray, A. W.; Bridge, J.; Bonneville, S.; Benning, L. G.; Romero-Gonzalez, M. E.; Leake, J. R.; Banwart, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Trees and their associated rhizosphere organisms play a major role in mineral weathering driving calcium fluxes from the continents to the oceans that ultimately control long-term atmospheric CO2 and climate through the geochemical carbon cycle. Photosynthate allocation to tree roots and their mycorrhizal fungi is hypothesized to fuel the active secretion of protons and organic chelators that enhance calcium dissolution at fungal-mineral interfaces. This was tested using 14CO2 supplied to shoots of Pinus sylvestris ectomycorrhizal with the widespread fungus Paxillus involutus in monoxenic microcosms, revealing preferential allocation by the fungus of plant photoassimilate to weather grains of limestone and silicates each with a combined calcium and magnesium content of over 10 wt.%. Hyphae had acidic surfaces and linear accumulation of weathered calcium with secreted oxalate, increasing significantly in sequence: quartz, granite mineral-specific oxalate exudation in ectomycorrhizal weathering to dissolve calcium bearing minerals, thus contributing to the geochemical carbon cycle. PMID:26197714

  19. Structured flowcharts for control logic specification in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, C.W.; Claborn, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) contains several subsystems employing sophisticated chemical and physical processes to purify, transport, and capture the isotopes of hydrogen. The ultimate responsibility for the correct and safe operation of these subsystems lies with their designers. However, the logic is implemented in a computer system with program control. A means to insure unambiguous specification of the control logic in a form understandable to both the non-programming designers and the software staff was required. The computer programs are written in RATFOR, a language providing clear control structures and powerful symbol definition facilities. However, the actual code was considered unsatisfactory as a means of primary specification by the non-programming designers. On the other hand, simple English language descriptions of the desired behavior were not precise enough to insure correctness. Experimentation with traditional flowcharts proved that they were more difficult to follow than the RATFOR code. On the other hand, the use of structured flowcharts derived from those introduced by Nassi and Shneidermanl have proven to be very powerful. Using simple geometric forms for the basic control structures such as loops and conditional tests, and by using expansion rather than connection as the means of reducing any flowchart to a single page, a specification that is both understandable and precise has been obtained. A computer code automates the production and modification of these flowcharts. Combining these flowcharts with primitive subroutines which hide most of the details of control implementation has provided an effective medium for algorithm specification and validation. Examples of the flowcharts and the language used to specify them will be given

  20. Muscle Control and Non-specific Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marc; Deckers, Kristiaan; Eldabe, Sam; Kiesel, Kyle; Gilligan, Chris; Vieceli, John; Crosby, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the most prevalent of the painful musculoskeletal conditions. CLBP is a heterogeneous condition with many causes and diagnoses, but there are few established therapies with strong evidence of effectiveness (or cost effectiveness). CLBP for which it is not possible to identify any specific cause is often referred to as non-specific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). One type of NSCLBP is continuing and recurrent primarily nociceptive CLBP due to vertebral joint overload subsequent to functional instability of the lumbar spine. This condition may occur due to disruption of the motor control system to the key stabilizing muscles in the lumbar spine, particularly the lumbar multifidus muscle (MF). This review presents the evidence for MF involvement in CLBP, mechanisms of action of disruption of control of the MF, and options for restoring control of the MF as a treatment for NSCLBP. Imaging assessment of motor control dysfunction of the MF in individual patients is fraught with difficulty. MRI or ultrasound imaging techniques, while reliable, have limited diagnostic or predictive utility. For some patients, restoration of motor control to the MF with specific exercises can be effective, but population results are not persuasive since most patients are unable to voluntarily contract the MF and may be inhibited from doing so due to arthrogenic muscle inhibition. Targeting MF control with restorative neurostimulation promises a new treatment option. © 2017 The Authors. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Neuromodulation Society.

  1. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  2. Context-specific control and context selection in conflict tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouppe, Nathalie; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Verguts, Tom; Notebaert, Wim

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated whether participants prefer contexts with relatively little cognitive conflict and whether this preference is related to context-specific control. A conflict selection task was administered in which participants had to choose between two categories that contained different levels of conflict. One category was associated with 80% congruent Stroop trials and 20% incongruent Stroop trials, while the other category was associated with only 20% congruent Stroop trials and 80% incongruent Stroop trials. As predicted, participants selected the low-conflict category more frequently, indicating that participants avoid contexts with high-conflict likelihood. Furthermore, we predicted a correlation between this preference for the low-conflict category and the control implementation associated with the categories (i.e., context-specific proportion congruency effect, CSPC effect). Results however did not show such a correlation, thereby failing to support a relationship between context control and context selection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrated flight/propulsion control - Subsystem specifications for performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, W. K.; Rock, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is presented for calculating multiple subsystem specifications given a number of performance requirements on the integrated system. This procedure applies to problems where the control design must be performed in a partitioned manner. It is based on a structured singular value analysis, and generates specifications as magnitude bounds on subsystem uncertainties. The performance requirements should be provided in the form of bounds on transfer functions of the integrated system. This form allows the expression of model following, command tracking, and disturbance rejection requirements. The procedure is demonstrated on a STOVL aircraft design.

  4. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  5. Quality control of specific patient in radiotherapy with modulated intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberbuj, P D; Tapia Coca, R C

    2012-01-01

    In this work we comment the details of the patient specific quality controls of the first Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy treatment done at Roffo Institute. These controls consisted in two sets of measurements: absolute dose with ionization chamber and relative dose with two dosimetric systems (Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic films and the PTW 729 ionization chambers array). Two of the filters did not pass the dosimetrical tests, and they were manufactured again. The new filters passed the tests. For the relative two-dimensional measurements the radiochromic films had a better performance than the array due to their higher spatial resolution (author)

  6. Test specifications for the waste information and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, D.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document describes the test specifications for the testing of the WICS system. The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Hazardous Material Control Group (HMC) of the 222-S Laboratory has requested the development of a system to help resolve many of the difficulties associated with tracking and data collection of containers and drums of waste. This system has been identified as Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The request for developing and implementing WICS has been made to the Automation and Simulation Engineering Group (ASE)

  7. Librarians Are the Ultimate Knowledge Managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koina, Cathie

    2003-01-01

    Librarians are the ultimate knowledge managers. Everyone knows that. After all, haven't they been the custodians of documented knowledge for centuries? Who could possibly do it better than them? Well, then why aren't people knocking down their doors, begging them to be the knowledge managers of the organisation? Are they just ignorant of how…

  8. Trajectory Specification for Automation of Terminal Air Traffic Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paielli, Russell A.

    2016-01-01

    "Trajectory specification" is the explicit bounding and control of aircraft tra- jectories such that the position at each point in time is constrained to a precisely defined volume of space. The bounding space is defined by cross-track, along-track, and vertical tolerances relative to a reference trajectory that specifies position as a function of time. The tolerances are dynamic and will be based on the aircraft nav- igation capabilities and the current traffic situation. A standard language will be developed to represent these specifications and to communicate them by datalink. Assuming conformance, trajectory specification can guarantee safe separation for an arbitrary period of time even in the event of an air traffic control (ATC) sys- tem or datalink failure, hence it can help to achieve the high level of safety and reliability needed for ATC automation. As a more proactive form of ATC, it can also maximize airspace capacity and reduce the reliance on tactical backup systems during normal operation. It applies to both enroute airspace and the terminal area around airports, but this paper focuses on arrival spacing in the terminal area and presents ATC algorithms and software for achieving a specified delay of runway arrival time.

  9. Control of Auditory Attention in Children With Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorino, Kristen R; Schwartz, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) appear to demonstrate deficits in attention and its control. Selective attention involves the cognitive control of attention directed toward a relevant stimulus and simultaneous inhibition of attention toward irrelevant stimuli. The current study examined attention control during a cross-modal word recognition task. Twenty participants with SLI (ages 9-12 years) and 20 age-matched peers with typical language development (TLD) listened to words through headphones and were instructed to attend to the words in 1 ear while ignoring the words in the other ear. They were simultaneously presented with pictures and asked to make a lexical decision about whether the pictures and auditory words were the same or different. Accuracy and reaction time were measured in 5 conditions, in which the stimulus in the unattended channel was manipulated. The groups performed with similar accuracy. Compared with their peers with TLD, children with SLI had slower reaction times overall and different within-group patterns of performance by condition. Children with TLD showed efficient inhibitory control in conditions that required active suppression of competing stimuli. Participants with SLI had difficulty exerting control over their auditory attention in all conditions, with particular difficulty inhibiting distractors of all types.

  10. Towards functional specification independent of control system suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galara, D.; Leret, E.

    1997-01-01

    For the next nuclear power plant generation, REP 2000, the Engineering and construction Division (ED) and the Research and development Division (R and D) of Electricite de France are working together in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) to improve its engineering method and tools. This method and these tools are defined on the basis of the experience feedback from the N4 nuclear power plant generation and the current information technology, to improve engineering competitiveness and quality of control applications. We intend to decouple the I and C processing from the I and C Human Machine Interface (HMI), because methods and tools are different. In this paper, we only focus on method and tools for I and C processing. We define the I and C processing life cycle into three phases. The first phase is the specification of the control application processing, the product of which is called Functional Requirement Diagrams (FRDs). The second phase is the design of the I and C system. This phase is subdivided into two steps. The step 1 is the distribution of the FRDs into an I and C architecture. The step 2 is the allocation of resources of the I and C system, to support the distributed FRDs. The third phase is the implementation of the distributed FRDs into I and C equipment. The aim of the Engineering Division is to achieve formal FRDs, independent of I and C suppliers. This allows a large improvement for the quality of the specification and the dimensioning of the I and C system before calls for tenders. For the specification phase, studies are almost completed. For the design and the implementation phases, studies and experiments are in progress with European I and C system suppliers. As a conclusion, we present the interest of EDF for standards and especially IEC 1131 improvements. (author). 5 figs

  11. Towards functional specification independent of control system suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galara, D; Leret, E [Electricite de France, Research and Development Div., Power Plant Control Branch, Chatou (France)

    1997-07-01

    For the next nuclear power plant generation, REP 2000, the Engineering and construction Division (ED) and the Research and development Division (R and D) of Electricite de France are working together in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) to improve its engineering method and tools. This method and these tools are defined on the basis of the experience feedback from the N4 nuclear power plant generation and the current information technology, to improve engineering competitiveness and quality of control applications. We intend to decouple the I and C processing from the I and C Human Machine Interface (HMI), because methods and tools are different. In this paper, we only focus on method and tools for I and C processing. We define the I and C processing life cycle into three phases. The first phase is the specification of the control application processing, the product of which is called Functional Requirement Diagrams (FRDs). The second phase is the design of the I and C system. This phase is subdivided into two steps. The step 1 is the distribution of the FRDs into an I and C architecture. The step 2 is the allocation of resources of the I and C system, to support the distributed FRDs. The third phase is the implementation of the distributed FRDs into I and C equipment. The aim of the Engineering Division is to achieve formal FRDs, independent of I and C suppliers. This allows a large improvement for the quality of the specification and the dimensioning of the I and C system before calls for tenders. For the specification phase, studies are almost completed. For the design and the implementation phases, studies and experiments are in progress with European I and C system suppliers. As a conclusion, we present the interest of EDF for standards and especially IEC 1131 improvements. (author). 5 figs.

  12. [Technological innovations in radiation oncology require specific quality controls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, E; Mathot, M

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, the field of radiotherapy has benefited from major technological innovations and continuously improving treatment efficacy, comfort and safety of patients. This mainly concerns the imaging techniques that allow 4D CT scan recording the respiratory phases, on-board imaging on linear accelerators that ensure perfect positioning of the patient for treatment and irradiation techniques that reduce very significantly the duration of treatment sessions without compromising quality of the treatment plan, including IMRT (Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy) and VMAT (Volumetric Modulated Arc therapy). In this context of rapid technological change, it is the responsibility of medical physicists to regularly and precisely monitor the perfect functioning of new techniques to ensure patient safety. This requires the use of specific quality control equipment best suited to these new techniques. We will briefly describe the measurement system Delta4 used to control individualized treatment plan for each patient treated with VMAT technology.

  13. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  14. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  15. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  16. Z Specification of Gate and Apron Control Management at Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazir Ahmad Zafar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling of an air traffic control (ATC system is an open issue and has become a challenging problem due to its complexity and increase of traffic at airports and in airspace. Consequently, automated ATC systems are suggested to improve efficiency ensuring the safety standards. It is reported that the number of collisions that occurred at airports surface is three times larger than in airspace. Further, it is observed that gates and aprons congestions cause significant delays at airports; hence, effective monitoring and guidance mechanisms are required to control ground air traffic. In this paper, formal procedure of managing air traffic from gate to enter in the active area of airport for taxiing is provided using Z notation. An integration of gate and apron controllers is described to manipulate the information for correct decision making and flow management. Graph theory is used for representation of airport topology and appropriate routs. In static part of the model, safety properties are described in terms of invariants over the critical data types. In dynamic model, the state space is updated by defining pre- and postconditions ensuring the safety. Formal specification is analysed using Z/Eves tool.

  17. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  18. Temporally-controlled site-specific recombination in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hans

    Full Text Available Conventional use of the site-specific recombinase Cre is a powerful technology in mouse, but almost absent in other vertebrate model organisms. In zebrafish, Cre-mediated recombination efficiency was previously very low. Here we show that using transposon-mediated transgenesis, Cre is in fact highly efficient in this organism. Furthermore, temporal control of recombination can be achieved by using the ligand-inducible CreER(T2. Site-specific recombination only occurs upon administration of the drug tamoxifen (TAM or its active metabolite, 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen (4-OHT. Cre-mediated recombination is detectable already 4 or 2 hours after administration of TAM or 4-OHT, demonstrating fast recombination kinetics. In addition, low doses of TAM allow mosaic labeling of single cells. Combined, our results show that conditional Cre/lox will be a valuable tool for both, embryonic and adult zebrafish studies. Furthermore, single copy insertion transgenesis of Cre/lox constructs suggest a strategy suitable also for other organisms.

  19. Model-based analysis of context-specific cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. King

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Interference resolution is improved for stimuli presented in contexts (e.g. locations associated with frequent conflict. This phenomenon, the context-specific proportion congruent (CSPC effect, has challenged the traditional juxtaposition of automatic and controlled processing because it suggests that contextual cues can prime top-down control settings in a bottom-up manner. We recently obtained support for this priming of control hypothesis with fMRI by showing that CSPC effects are mediated by contextually-cued adjustments in processing selectivity. However, an equally plausible explanation is that CSPC effects reflect adjustments in response caution triggered by expectancy violations (i.e. prediction errors when encountering rare events as compared to common ones (e.g. high-conflict incongruent trials in a task context associated with infrequent conflict. Here, we applied a quantitative model of choice, the linear ballistic accumulator (LBA, to distil the reaction time and accuracy data from four independent samples that performed a modified flanker task into latent variables representing the psychological processes underlying task-related decision making. We contrasted models which differentially accounted for CSPC effects as arising either from contextually-cued shifts in the rate of sensory evidence accumulation (drift models or in the amount of evidence required to reach a decision (threshold models. For the majority of the participants, the LBA ascribed CSPC effects to increases in response threshold for contextually-infrequent trial types (e.g. low-conflict congruent trials in the frequent conflict context, suggesting that the phenomenon may reflect more a prediction error-triggered shift in decision criterion rather than enhanced sensory evidence accumulation under conditions of frequent conflict.

  20. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  1. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, R.M.; Manrique, M.A.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented

  2. Focused ion beam technology and ultimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierak, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    In this topical review, the potential of the focused ion beam (FIB) technology and ultimate applications are reviewed. After an introduction to the technology and to the operating principles of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), of ion optics and instrument architectures, several applications are described and discussed. First, the application of FIB for microcircuit inspection, metrology and failure analysis is presented. Then, we introduce and illustrate some advanced patterning schemes we propose as next generation FIB processing examples. These patterning schemes are (i) local defect injection or smoothing in magnetic thin film direct patterning, (ii) functionalization of graphite substrates to guide organization of clusters, (iii) local and selective epitaxy of III–V semiconductor quantum dots and (iv) FIB patterned solid-state nanopores for biological molecules manipulation and analysis. We conclude this work by giving our vision of the future developments for FIB technology. (topical review)

  3. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. UHS, Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.; Nuttle, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function of wind speed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. 2 - Method of solution: The transfer of heat and water vapor is modeled using an equilibrium temperature procedure for an UHS cooling pond. The UHS spray pond model considers heat, mass, and momentum transfer from a single water drop with the surrounding air, and modification of the surrounding air resulting from the heat, mass, and momentum transfer from many drops in different parts of a spray field. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program SPRCO uses RANF, a uniform random number generator which is an intrinsic function on the CDC. All programs except COMET use the NAMELIST statement, which is non standard. Otherwise these programs conform to the ANSI Fortran 77 standard. The meteorological data scanning procedure requires tens of years of recorded data to be effective. The models and methods, provided as useful tool for UHS analyses of cooling ponds and spray ponds, are intended as guidelines only. Use of these methods does not automatically assure NRC approval, nor are they required procedures for nuclear-power-plant licensing

  5. Context-specific attentional sampling: Intentional control as a pre-requisite for contextual control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosowsky, Nicholaus P; Crump, Matthew J C

    2016-08-01

    Recent work suggests that environmental cues associated with previous attentional control settings can rapidly and involuntarily adjust attentional priorities. The current study tests predictions from adaptive-learning and memory-based theories of contextual control about the role of intentions for setting attentional priorities. To extend the empirical boundaries of contextual control phenomena, and to determine whether theoretical principles of contextual control are generalizable we used a novel bi-dimensional stimulus sampling task. Subjects viewed briefly presented arrays of letters and colors presented above or below fixation, and identified specific stimuli according to a dimensional (letter or color) and positional cue. Location was predictive of the cued dimension, but not the position or identity. In contrast to previous findings, contextual control failed to develop through automatic, adaptive-learning processes. Instead, previous experience with intentionally changing attentional sampling priorities between different contexts was required for contextual control to develop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthesizing Flight Software (FSW) Discrete Controllers from Formal Specifications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a Domain Specific Language (DSL) approach to interpret requirements and map them to formal specifications and legacy formats; explore and...

  7. Specific schistosomiasis treatment as a strategy for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The great hope for schistosomiasis treatment began with the development of oxamniquine and praziquantel. These drugs can be administered orally in a single dose and have a high curative power with minor side effects. In this study, we carried out a field experiment involving a population of 3,782 people. The population was examined at four localities in Minas Gerais within the valleys of the Doce and Jequitinhonha Rivers. In this cohort, there were 1,790 patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni (47.3% and we showed that only 1,403 (78.4% could be treated with oxamniquine in a single dose of 12.5-20 mg/kg orally. The other 387 (21.6% were not treated during the first stage because of contraindications (pregnancy or impeditive diseases, absences or refusals. It was observed that, on average, 8.8-17% of the infected patients continued to excrete S. mansoni eggs at the end of the 2nd month after treatment and 30-32% of the cohort was infected by the end of the 24th month. In one of the areas that we followed-up for a total of 30 years, the prevalence of the infection with S. mansoni fell from 60.8-19.3% and the hepatosplenic form of the disease dropped from 5.8-1.3%. We conclude that specific treatment of schistosomiasis reduces the prevalence of infection in the short-term and the morbidity due to schistosomiasis in medium to long-term time frames, but does not help to control disease transmission.

  8. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  9. Core Community Specifications for Electron Microprobe Operating Systems: Software, Quality Control, and Data Management Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournelle, John; Carpenter, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Modem electron microprobe systems have become increasingly sophisticated. These systems utilize either UNIX or PC computer systems for measurement, automation, and data reduction. These systems have undergone major improvements in processing, storage, display, and communications, due to increased capabilities of hardware and software. Instrument specifications are typically utilized at the time of purchase and concentrate on hardware performance. The microanalysis community includes analysts, researchers, software developers, and manufacturers, who could benefit from exchange of ideas and the ultimate development of core community specifications (CCS) for hardware and software components of microprobe instrumentation and operating systems.

  10. The ultimate challenge of cloacal exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Carmichael, Polly A; Hines, Melissa; Ransley, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Our review addresses the various system abnormalities associated with cloacal exstrophy and revisits the question of gender assignment. Gender assignment decisions and psychological aspects of gender issues have become the "ultimate challenge." Exploration of gender identity, gender role behavior and sexual orientation has just begun. A comprehensive literature review was performed with all world literature regarding the current management of cloacal exstrophy. Research focused on management principles, outcomes and documentation of concurrent anomalies. We also describe original research evaluating gender identity in our own series of patients raised as girls to illustrate the challenge of treatment and augment the available literature, which is scant. Abnormalities of the vertebral column ranged from hemivertebra to myelomeningocele. With magnetic resonance imaging, the incidence of spinal dysraphism approached 100% and cord tethering was also more frequently recognized. For children with the short bowel syndrome, advances in antibiotic usage, and parenteral and enteral nutrition have increased the survival rate and reduced morbidity. A neurological component has been recognized for bladder function, bladder neck continence, lower extremity function and erectile capacity. Mitrofanoff-type reconstruction with bladder neck closure and continent catheterizable stoma dramatically increased continence. Diminutive or absent penis has been documented in 30% of males, and no documentation of paternity exists. The majority of females have bicornuate uterus. However, ovaries and tubes were generally normal. No reports of proven fertility exist. The strategy and timing of surgery relating to gender assignment remain controversial. A desperate need exists for research focusing on gender development and quality of life. Until that time, a cautious watchful approach may be most appropriate as our patients with cloacal exstrophy mature into adulthood.

  11. Specifications, quality control, manufacturing, and testing of accelerator magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Einfeld, D

    2010-01-01

    The performance of the magnets plays an important role in the functioning of an accelerator. Most of the magnets are designed at the accelerator laboratory and built by industry. The link between the laboratory and the manufacturer is the contract containing the Technical Specifications of the magnets. For an overview of the contents of the Technical Specifications, the specifications for the magnets of ALBA (bending, quadrupole, and sextupole) are described in this paper. The basic rules of magnet design are reviewed in Appendix A.

  12. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyungjun [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Mi-Ryoung, E-mail: msong@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Bioimaging Research Center and Cell Dynamics Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-07

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  13. Diverse FGF receptor signaling controls astrocyte specification and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyungjun; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2010-01-01

    During CNS development, pluripotency neuronal progenitor cells give rise in succession to neurons and glia. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), a major signal that maintains neural progenitors in the undifferentiated state, is also thought to influence the transition from neurogenesis to gliogenesis. Here we present evidence that FGF receptors and underlying signaling pathways transmit the FGF-2 signals that regulate astrocyte specification aside from its mitogenic activity. Application of FGF-2 to cortical progenitors suppressed neurogenesis whereas treatment with an FGFR antagonist in vitro promoted neurogenesis. Introduction of chimeric FGFRs with mutated tyrosine residues into cortical progenitors and drug treatments to specifically block individual downstream signaling pathways revealed that the overall activity of FGFR rather than individual autophosphorylation sites is important for delivering signals for glial specification. In contrast, a signal for cell proliferation by FGFR was mainly delivered by MAPK pathway. Together our findings indicate that FGFR activity promotes astrocyte specification in the developing CNS.

  14. System requirements specification for waste information and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.R.

    1994-09-01

    This document defines the requirements for the Waste Information and Control System (WICS). The document defines the functions, constraints, and objectives that pertain to WICS. This shall serve as the baseline document to ensure the needs of the Hazardous Material Control group (HMC) at 222-S Laboratory are met with regard to assurance of accuracy and quality of data taken with WICS

  15. Reprogrammable Controller Design From High-Level Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Benmohammed

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Existing techniques in high-level synthesis mostly assume a simple controller architecture model in the form of a single FSM. However, in reality more complex controller architectures are often used. On the other hand, in the case of programmable processors, the controller architecture is largely defined by the available control-flow instructions in the instruction set. With the wider acceptance of behavioral synthesis, the application of these methods for the design of programmable controllers is of fundamental importance in embedded system technology. This paper describes an important extension of an existing architectural synthesis system targeting the generation of ASIP reprogrammable architectures. The designer can then generate both style of architecture, hardwired and programmable, using the same synthesis system and can quickly evaluate the trade-offs of hardware decisions.

  16. The LHCb Silicon Tracker - Control system specific tools and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, G; Esperante Pereira, D; Gallas, A; Pazos Alvarez, A; Perez Trigo, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Saborido, J; Amhis, Y; Bay, A; Blanc, F; Bressieux, J; Conti, G; Dupertuis, F; Fave, V; Frei, R; Gauvin, N; Haefeli, G; Keune, A; Luisier, J; Marki, R; Muresan, R; Nakada, T; Needham, M; Knecht, M; Schneider, O; Tran, M; Anderson, J; Buechler, A; Bursche, A; Chiapolini, N; De Cian, M; Elsasser, C; Salzmann, C; Saornil Gamarra, S; Steiner, S; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; van Tilburg, J; Tobin, M; Vollhardt, A; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Bauer, C; Britsch, M; Maciuc, F; Schmelling, M; Voss, H; Iakovenko, V; Okhrimenko, O; Pugatch, V

    2014-01-01

    The Experiment Control System (ECS) of the LHCb Silicon Tracker sub-detectors is built on the integrated LHCb ECS framework. Although all LHCb sub-detectors use the same framework and follow the same guidelines, the Silicon Tracker control system uses some interesting additional features in terms of operation and monitoring. The main details are described in this document. Since its design, the Silicon Tracker control system has been continuously evolving in a quite disorganized way. Some major maintenance activities are required to be able to keep improving. A description of those activities can also be found here.

  17. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  18. Transcription Factor Zbtb20 Controls Regional Specification of Mammalian Archicortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial expression of sets of transcription factors (TFs) along the mammalian cortex controls its subdivision into functional areas. Unlike neocortex, only few recent data suggest genetic mechanisms controlling the regionalization of the archicortex. TF Emx2 plays a crucial role in patterning...... later on becoming restricted exclusively to postmitotic neurons of hippocampus (Hi) proper, dentate gyrus (DG), and two transitory zones, subiculum (S) and retrosplenial cortex (Rsp). Analysis of Zbtb20-/- mice revealed altered cortical patterning at the border between neocortex and archicortex...

  19. Experts and the ultimate issue rule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, R.A.; Abels, D.; Bruin, D.; Van der Wilt, H.

    2016-01-01

    Adjudication of complex criminality requires specific knowledge of a diverse set of complex and technical topics. A judge does not have the required knowledge to interpret and value all the facts in the case properly, nor can he be expected to gain this kind of knowledge. Therefore, opinions of

  20. Discretionary Information Flow Control for Interaction-Oriented Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    system for statically checking if a system specification ensures an information flow policy. The approach is illustrated with two archetypal examples of distributed and parallel computing systems: a protocol for an identity-secured data providing service and a parallel MapReduce computation....

  1. Quality control of the concentration measurement of specific radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, Luis Guillermo; Badilla, Mauricio

    2008-01-01

    The counting efficiency of a gamma spectroscopy chain with a Ge (H.p) detector was measured. The Monte Carlo simulation and standard reference materials, in order to calculate the specific activity from 4 reference materials, and from intercomparison samples were used. The purpose was to evaluate the analytical results obtained in the Laboratorio de Espectroscopia Gamma. (author) [es

  2. Control valve sizing and specification: The first step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkins, J.F.; Hoyle, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Today's modern control valve can satisfy almost any application. Special trim, materials, operators, and body configurations have been developed to meet the most severe operating conditions. The missing link in the chain connecting design to application is often the interpretation and communication of the requirements for determining the proper valve for each application. This paper addresses an important but often neglected requirement for proper selection and sizing of control valves: the determination of correct input data. It presents criteria necessary to ensure that the data given the manufacturer accurately reflects the conditions under which the control valve will operate. It highlights the importance of communication between the system design engineer, the valve specifying engineer, and the control valve supplier, to ensure that the final system design meets the true requirements of the application. An example is provided of a simple liquid-handling system, for which line losses and variations in flow and equipment capacities are tabulated and requirements shown graphically on typical control valve characteristic curves. The effects of seemingly harmless, conservative assumptions regarding line losses, equipment capacities and selection, sizing practices, and the selection of various flow data can have on the final valve selection are illustrated. Also discussed is the proper selection of equipment and input data, based on the example

  3. Power sources compared : The ultimate truth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, S.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Especially, during the last decade the demand for portable power is steadily rising due to the increasing wireless products integrated in our day-to-day lives (cellular phone, personal digital assistant (PDA) and of course the remote control for your television set or VCR). These portable consumer

  4. Control of sporulation-specific cell division in Streptomyces coelicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noens, Elke

    2007-01-01

    During developmental cell division in sporulation-committed aerial hyphae of streptomycetes, up to a hundred septa are simultaneously produced, in close harmony with synchromous chromosome condensation and segregation. Several unique protein families are involved in the control of this process,

  5. Specificity of continuous auditing approach on information technology internal controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaćanski Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary business world, can not be imagined without the use of information technology in all aspects of business. The use of information technology in manufacturing and non-production companies' activities can greatly facilitate and accelerate the process of operation and control. Because of its complexity, they possess vulnerable areas and provide space for the emergence of accidental and intentional frauds that can significantly materially affect the business decisions made by the companies' management. Implementation of internal controls can greatly reduce the level of errors that can contribute to making the wrong decisions. In order to protect the operating system, the company's management implement an internal audit to periodically examine the fundamental quality of the internal control systems. Since the internal audit, according to its character, only periodically checks quality of internal control systems and information technologies to be reported to the manager, the problem arises in the process of in wrong time reporting the management structures of the business entity. To eliminate this problem, management implements a special approach to internal audit, called continuous auditing.

  6. Tuberculosis control: decentralization, local planning and management specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueiro, Janaína Von Söhsten; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Trigueiro, Débora Raquel Soares Guedes

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to analyze, according to the perception of health managers, the practices that guide tuberculosis control actions in cities in the metropolitan region of João Pessoa - PB, Brazil. This qualitative study involved eight professionals in management functions. Testimonies were collected through semi-structured interviews between May and June 2009 and organized through content analysis. Despite the acknowledged benefits of tuberculosis control action decentralization, local planning indicates the predominance of a bureaucratic model that is restricted to negotiation and supplies. Local programming is centered on the coordinator, which shows a command line and vertical management that lead to the fragmentation of the work process. Management action should follow an innovative and transformative route that surpasses bureaucratic barriers and faces the biggest challenge it is proposed: to balance professional interrelations with a view to improving health work performance.

  7. Spasmodic Dysphonia: a Laryngeal Control Disorder Specific to Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2016-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that emerges in middle age, is usually sporadic, and affects intrinsic laryngeal muscle control only during speech. Spasmodic bursts in particular laryngeal muscles disrupt voluntary control during vowel sounds in adductor SD and interfere with voice onset after voiceless consonants in abductor SD. Little is known about its origins; it is classified as a focal dystonia secondary to an unknown neurobiological mechanism that produces a chronic abnormality of laryngeal motor neuron regulation during speech. It develops primarily in females and does not interfere with breathing, crying, laughter, and shouting. Recent postmortem studies have implicated the accumulation of clusters in the parenchyma and perivascular regions with inflammatory changes in the brainstem in one to two cases. A few cases with single mutations in THAP1, a gene involved in transcription regulation, suggest that a weak genetic predisposition may contribute to mechanisms causing a nonprogressive abnormality in laryngeal motor neuron control for speech but not for vocal emotional expression. Research is needed to address the basic cellular and proteomic mechanisms that produce this disorder to provide intervention that could target the pathogenesis of the disorder rather than only providing temporary symptom relief. PMID:21248101

  8. Spasmodic dysphonia: a laryngeal control disorder specific to speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Christy L

    2011-01-19

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that emerges in middle age, is usually sporadic, and affects intrinsic laryngeal muscle control only during speech. Spasmodic bursts in particular laryngeal muscles disrupt voluntary control during vowel sounds in adductor SD and interfere with voice onset after voiceless consonants in abductor SD. Little is known about its origins; it is classified as a focal dystonia secondary to an unknown neurobiological mechanism that produces a chronic abnormality of laryngeal motor neuron regulation during speech. It develops primarily in females and does not interfere with breathing, crying, laughter, and shouting. Recent postmortem studies have implicated the accumulation of clusters in the parenchyma and perivascular regions with inflammatory changes in the brainstem in one to two cases. A few cases with single mutations in THAP1, a gene involved in transcription regulation, suggest that a weak genetic predisposition may contribute to mechanisms causing a nonprogressive abnormality in laryngeal motor neuron control for speech but not for vocal emotional expression. Research is needed to address the basic cellular and proteomic mechanisms that produce this disorder to provide intervention that could target the pathogenesis of the disorder rather than only providing temporary symptom relief.

  9. Mars One the ultimate reality TV show?

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book dissects the hype and hubris of the Mars One venture. Every aspect of the mission design is scrutinized, from the haphazard selection process to the unproven mission architecture. A controversial project, many professional astronauts consider Mars One a reckless attempt, yet it gained popular attention. This go-to reference guide provides the reader with insights into the myriad issues arising from the project's loss of funding, loss of sponsorship, loss of TV rights. It explains what contributed to an overly optimistic assessment of Mars One's mission-specific technology, and what captivated the public and the many willing candidates despite these flaws. From the author of Survival and Sacrifice in Mars Exploration (2015) among many more books on spacefaring, this is yet another up-to-the-minute account of an emerging player in the private space market from an expert on the subject.

  10. Healthy aging: The ultimate preventative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberlein, Matt; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Martin, George M

    2015-12-04

    Age is the greatest risk factor for nearly every major cause of mortality in developed nations. Despite this, most biomedical research focuses on individual disease processes without much consideration for the relationships between aging and disease. Recent discoveries in the field of geroscience, which aims to explain biological mechanisms of aging, have provided insights into molecular processes that underlie biological aging and, perhaps more importantly, potential interventions to delay aging and promote healthy longevity. Here we describe some of these advances, along with efforts to move geroscience from the bench to the clinic. We also propose that greater emphasis should be placed on research into basic aging processes, because interventions that slow aging will have a greater effect on quality of life compared with disease-specific approaches. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Multiobjective Control for Multivariable Systems with Mixed-sensitivity Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    A series of multi objective H-infinity design problems are considered in this paper. The problems are formulated as a number of coupled H-infinity design problems. These H-infinity problems can be formulated as sensitivity problems, complementary sensitivity problems, or control sensitivity...... problems for every output (or input) in the system. It turns out that these multi objective H-infinity design problems, based on a number of different types of sensitivity problems, can be exactly decoupled into k H-infinity sensitivity problems for stable systems, where k is the number of outputs (for...

  12. Preliminary Specifications for the PS Transverse Damper Control Interface

    CERN Document Server

    Blas, A

    2003-01-01

    The transverse feedback system foreseen for the PS in 2004 is composed of different units to be remotely controlled and monitored: the pick-up amplifiers, the DSPU, the fine delay, the driver and power amplifiers. A special VME unit being dedicated to the pick-up amplifier ("The VMOD-TRX: a device for communication with remote instrumentation", A. Barreira Sevillano, J. Belleman, PS/BD/Note 96-02), the new interface will have to deal with the remaining parts of the loop.

  13. Ultimate Performance of the ATLAS Superconducting Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Ruber, R; Kawai, M; Kondo, Y; Doi, Y; Haruyama, T; Haug, F; Kate, H ten; Kondo, T; Pirotte, O; Metselaar, J; Mizumaki, S; Olesen, G; Sbrissa, E; Yamamoto, A

    2007-01-01

    A 2 tesla, 7730 ampere, 39 MJ, 45 mm thin superconducting solenoid with a 2.3 meters warm bore and 5.3 meters length, is installed in the center of the ATLAS detector and successfully commissioned. The solenoid shares its cryostat with one of the detector's calorimeters and provides the magnetic field required for the inner detectors to accurately track collision products from the LHC at CERN. After several years of a stepwise construction and test program, the solenoid integration 100 meters underground in the ATLAS cavern is completed. Following the on-surface acceptance test, the solenoid is now operated with its final cryogenic, powering and control system. A re-validation of all essential operating parameters is completed. The performance and test results of underground operation are reported and compared to those previously measured.

  14. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel DEAB. Systems analysis. Ultimate disposal concepts. Final report. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.

    1995-10-01

    The results elaborated under the project, systems analysis of mixed radwaste disposal concepts and systems analysis of ultimate disposal concepts, provide a comprehensive description and assessment of a radwaste repository, for heat generating wastes and for wastes with negligible heat generation, and thus represent the knowledge basis for forthcoming planning work for a repository in an abandoned salt mine. A fact to be considered is that temperature field calculations have shown that there is room for further optimization with regard to the mine layout. The following aspects have been analysed: (1) safety of operation; (2) technical feasibility and realisation and licensability of the concepts; (3) operational aspects; (4) varieties of utilization of the salt dome for the intended purpose (boreholes for waste emplacement, emplacement in galleries, multi-horizon systems); (5) long-term structural stability of the mine; (6) economic efficiency; (7) nuclear materials safeguards. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Efficiency Of Different Teaching Models In Teaching Of Frisbee Ultimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuffová Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of two frisbee ultimate teaching models at 8-year grammar schools relative to age. In the experimental group was used a game based model (Teaching Games for Understanding and in the control group the traditional model based on teaching techniques. 6 groups of female students took part in experiment: experimental group 1 (n=10, age=11.6, experimental group 2 (n=12, age=13.8, experimental group 3 (n=14, age =15.8, control group 1 (n=11, age =11.7, control group 2 (n=10, age =13.8 and control group 3 (n=9, age =15.8. Efficiency of the teaching models was evaluated based of game performance and special knowledge results. Game performance was evaluated by the method of game performance assessment based on GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument through video record. To verify level of knowledge, we used a knowledge test, which consisted of questions related to the rules and tactics knowledge of frisbee ultimate. To perform statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Game performance assessment and knowledge level indicated higher efficiency of TGfU in general, but mostly statistically insignificant. Experimental groups 1 and 2 were significantly better in the indicator that evaluates tactical aspect of game performance - decision making (p<0.05. Experimental group 3 was better in the indicator that evaluates skill execution - disc catching. The results showed that the students of the classes taught by game based model reached partially better game performance in general. Experimental groups achieved from 79.17 % to 80 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 75 % to 87.5 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test. Control groups achieved from 57.69 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 51.92 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test.

  16. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  17. Sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigo, P.; Sarghiuta, R.; Estefen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive sensitivity analysis carried out by the Committee III.1 "Ultimate Strength" of ISSC?2003 in the framework of a benchmark on the ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels. Previously, different benchmarks were presented by ISSC committees on ul...

  18. Characterisation of reactor control rod drives. Specification 1-6. Reaktorstellstabantriebe. Typenblaetter 1-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-03-01

    The committee 'Kernreaktorregelung' of VDI/VDE-Gesellschaft Mess- und Regelungstechnik has developed 6 specifications (Typenblaetter) of reactor control rod drives. The specifications are aimed at giving engineers in reactor control systems an outline concerning the function as well as some construction characteristics. (orig./LN).

  19. Application of a path sensitizing method on automated generation of test specifications for control software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Yuuichi; Fukuda, Mitsuko

    1995-01-01

    An automated generation method for test specifications has been developed for sequential control software in plant control equipment. Sequential control software can be represented as sequential circuits. The control software implemented in a control equipment is designed from these circuit diagrams. In logic tests of VLSI's, path sensitizing methods are widely used to generate test specifications. But the method generates test specifications at a single time only, and can not be directly applied to sequential control software. The basic idea of the proposed method is as follows. Specifications of each logic operator in the diagrams are defined in the software design process. Therefore, test specifications of each operator in the control software can be determined from these specifications, and validity of software can be judged by inspecting all of the operators in the logic circuit diagrams. Candidates for sensitized paths, on which test data for each operator propagates, can be generated by the path sensitizing method. To confirm feasibility of the method, it was experimentally applied to control software in digital control equipment. The program could generate test specifications exactly, and feasibility of the method was confirmed. (orig.) (3 refs., 7 figs.)

  20. Ultimate Bound of a 3D Chaotic System and Its Application in Chaos Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiezhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ellipsoidal ultimate boundary regions of a special three-dimensional (3D chaotic system are proposed. To this chaotic system, the linear coefficient of the ith state variable in the ith state equation has the same sign; it also has two one-order terms and one quadratic cross-product term in each equation. A numerical solution and an analytical expression of the ultimate bounds are received. To get the analytical expression of the ultimate boundary region, a new result of one maximum optimization question is proved. The corresponding ultimate boundary regions are demonstrated through numerical simulations. Utilizing the bounds obtained, a linear controller is proposed to achieve the complete chaos synchronization. Numerical simulation exhibits the feasibility of the designed scheme.

  1. A simplified approach to control system specification and design using domain modelling and mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludgate, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of accelerator-domain and computer-domain modelling have led to a better understanding of the 'art' of control system specification and design. It now appears possible to 'compile' a control system specification to produce the architectural design. The information required by the 'compiler' is discussed and one hardware optimization algorithm presented. The desired characteristics of the hardware and software components of a distributed control system architecture are discussed and the shortcomings of some commercial products. (author)

  2. Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable

  3. ZIO: The Ultimate Linux I/O Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Cobas, J D; Rubini, A; Nellaga, S; Vaga, F

    2014-01-01

    ZIO (with Z standing for “The Ultimate I/O” Framework) was developed for CERN with the specific needs of physics labs in mind, which are poorly addressed in the mainstream Linux kernel. ZIO provides a framework for industrial, high-bandwith, high-channel count I/O device drivers (digitizers, function generators, timing devices like TDCs) with performance, generality and scalability as design goals. Among its features, it offers abstractions for • both input and output channels, and channel sets • run-time selection of trigger types • run-time selection of buffer types • sysfs-based configuration • char devices for data and metadata • a socket interface (PF ZIO) as alternative to char devices In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of ZIO, and describe representative cases of driver development for typical and exotic applications: drivers for the FMC (FPGAMezzanine Card, see [1]) boards developed at CERN like the FMC ADC 100Msps digitizer, FMC TDC timestamp counter, and FMC DEL ...

  4. Episodic foresight and anxiety: Proximate and ultimate perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloyan, Beyon; Bulley, Adam; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between episodic foresight and anxiety from an evolutionary perspective, proposing that together they confer an advantage for modifying present moment decision-making and behaviour in the light of potential future threats to fitness. We review the body of literature on the role of episodic foresight in anxiety, from both proximate and ultimate perspectives. We propose that anxious feelings associated with episodic simulation of possible threat-related future events serve to imbue these simulations with motivational currency. Episodic and semantic details of a future threat may be insufficient for motivating its avoidance, but anxiety associated with a simulation can provoke adaptive threat management. As such, we detail how anxiety triggered by a self-generated, threat-related future simulation prepares the individual to manage that threat (in terms of its likelihood and/or consequences) over greater temporal distances than observed in other animals. We then outline how anxiety subtypes may represent specific mechanisms for predicting and managing particular classes of fitness threats. This approach offers an inroad for understanding the nature of characteristic future thinking patterns in anxiety disorders and serves to illustrate the adaptive function of the mechanism from which clinical anxiety deviates. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Control system design specification of advanced spent fuel management process units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. H.; Kim, S. H.; Yoon, J. S

    2003-06-01

    In this study, the design specifications of instrumentation and control system for advanced spent fuel management process units are presented. The advanced spent fuel management process consists of several process units such as slitting device, dry pulverizing/mixing device, metallizer, etc. In this study, the control and operation characteristics of the advanced spent fuel management mockup process devices and the process devices developed in 2001 and 2002 are analysed. Also, a integral processing system of the unit process control signals is proposed, which the operation efficiency is improved. And a redundant PLC control system is constructed which the reliability is improved. A control scheme is proposed for the time delayed systems compensating the control performance degradation caused by time delay. The control system design specification is presented for the advanced spent fuel management process units. This design specifications can be effectively used for the detail design of the advanced spent fuel management process.

  6. Ultimate Lateral Capacity of Rigid Pile in c- φ Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-min

    2018-03-01

    To date no analytical solution of the pile ultimate lateral capacity for the general c- φ soil has been obtained. In the present study, a new dimensionless embedded ratio was proposed and the analytical solutions of ultimate lateral capacity and rotation center of rigid pile in c- φ soils were obtained. The results showed that both the dimensionless ultimate lateral capacity and dimensionless rotation center were the univariate functions of the embedded ratio. Also, the ultimate lateral capacity in the c- φ soil was the combination of the ultimate lateral capacity ( f c ) in the clay, and the ultimate lateral capacity ( f φ ) in the sand. Therefore, the Broms chart for clay, solution for clay ( φ=0) put forward by Poulos and Davis, solution for sand ( c=0) obtained by Petrasovits and Awad, and Kondner's ultimate bending moment were all proven to be the special cases of the general solution in the present study. A comparison of the field and laboratory tests in 93 cases showed that the average ratios of the theoretical values to the experimental value ranged from 0.85 to 1.15. Also, the theoretical values displayed a good agreement with the test values.

  7. 49 CFR 236.925 - Training specific to control office personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable to the train control system, including provision for movement and protection of roadway workers... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training specific to control office personnel. 236... INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES...

  8. 49 CFR 236.1045 - Training specific to office control personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... control system, including provision for movement and protection of roadway workers, unequipped trains... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training specific to office control personnel. 236... INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES...

  9. Excess glycogen does not resolve high ultimate pH of oxidative muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Oliver, Emily M; Apaoblaza, Ariel; Scheffler, Tracy L; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen content can impact the extent of postmortem pH decline. Compared to glycolytic muscles, oxidative muscles contain lower glycogen levels antemortem which may contribute to the higher ultimate pH. In an effort to explore further the participation of glycogen in postmortem metabolism, we postulated that increasing the availability of glycogen would drive additional pH decline in oxidative muscles to equivalent pH values similar to the ultimate pH of glycolytic muscles. Glycolysis and pH declines were compared in porcine longissimus lumborum (glycolytic) and masseter (oxidative) muscles using an in vitro system in the presence of excess glycogen. The ultimate pH of the system containing longissimus lumborum reached a value similar to that observed in intact muscle. The pH decline of the system containing masseter samples stopped prematurely resulting in a higher ultimate pH which was similar to that of intact masseter muscle. To investigate further, we titrated powdered longissimus lumborum and masseter samples in the reaction buffer. As the percentage of glycolytic sample increased, the ultimate pH decreased. These data show that oxidative muscle produces meat with a high ultimate pH regardless of glycogen content and suggest that inherent muscle factors associated with glycolytic muscle control the extent of pH decline in pig muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accounting conservatism,ultimate ownership and investment efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Xu; Xia Wang; Nina Han

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze and examine the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behavior in China.Design/methodology/approach-By combining a developed theoretical framework and empirical study,this paper examines the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment.The sample and data are all collected from Wind and CAMAR databases.Findings-The paper finds that the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly positive when inside capital is not enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can expend the level of investment by decreasing information asymmetry and cost of capital;however,the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly negative when inside capital is enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can curtail the level of investment by mitigating the interest conflicts between management and outside shareholders and decreasing agency costs.Additionally,the paper finds that the severity of information asymmetry and agency problem affects the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behaviour,and the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is weaker for firms with ultimate ownership controller as local government or individuals.Originality/value-This is the first paper to analyze and examine the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment in China directly.The findings are also useful to explain the awkward predicament found by prior literature.

  11. Internal-Model-Principle-Based Specific Harmonics Repetitive Controller for Grid-Connected PWM Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhou Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the general properties of IMP-based controller and presents an internal-model-principle-based (IMP-based specific harmonics repetitive control (SHRC scheme. The proposed SHRC is effective for specific nk±m order harmonics, with n>m≥0 and k=0,1,2,…. Using the properties of exponential function, SHRC can also be rewritten into the format of multiple resonant controllers in parallel, where the control gain of SHRC is n/2 multiple of that of conventional RC (CRC. Therefore, including SHRC in a stable closed-loop feedback control system, asymptotic disturbance eliminating, or reference tracking for any periodic signal only including these specific harmonic components at n/2 times faster error convergence rate compared with CRC can be achieved. Application examples of SHRC controlled three-phase/single-phase grid-connected PWM inverters demonstrate the effectiveness and advantages of the proposed SHRC scheme.

  12. Influence of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive consideration regarding influence mechanisms of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells is taken to satisfy requirement of deep-sea structural design. The feasibility of innovative numerical procedure that combines welding simulation and non-linear buckling analysis is verified by a good agreement to experimental and theoretical results. Spherical shells with a series of wall thicknesses to radius ratios are studied. Residual stress and deformations from welding process are investigated separately. Variant influence mechanisms are discovered. Residual stress is demonstrated to be influential to stress field and buckling behavior but not to the ultimate strength. Deformations are proved to have a significant impact on ultimate strength. When central angles are less than critical value, concave magnitudes reduce ultimate strengths linearly. However, deformations with central angles above critical value are of much greater harm. Less imperfection susceptibility is found in spherical shells with larger wall thicknesses to radius ratios.

  13. Ultimate guide to YouTube for business

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate Guide to YouTube for Business helps small business owners create marketing videos to help promote their products, share their story, build a community around their brand without spending a fortune-all the while making money.

  14. Ultimate Opening Combined with Area Stability Applied to Urban Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotegui , Beatriz; Serna , Andrés; Hernández , Jorge

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the use of ultimate opening in urban analysis context. It demonstrates the efficiency of this approach for street level elevation images, derived from 3D point clouds acquired by terrestrial mobile mapping systems. An area-stability term is introduced in the residual definition, reducing the over-segmentation of the vegetation while preserving small significant regions. We compare two possible combinations of the Ultimate Opening and the Area Stabil...

  15. Direct ultimate disposal - state of investigations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a decision adopted by the Prime Ministers on 25/10/90, the principles governing preventive waste management of nuclear power plants are reviewed. Increasing importance is attached to the direct ultimate disposal alternative. The legal and political framework, the technology involved, the state of developments, future activities under the R and D programme as well as a cost estimate of direct ultimate disposal are presented. (orig.) [de

  16. Simulation of facial expressions using person-specific sEMG signals controlling a biomechanical face model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Merijn; Balm, Alfons J M; van Alphen, Maarten J A; Smeele, Ludi E; Stavness, Ian; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    2018-01-01

    Functional inoperability in advanced oral cancer is difficult to assess preoperatively. To assess functions of lips and tongue, biomechanical models are required. Apart from adjusting generic models to individual anatomy, muscle activation patterns (MAPs) driving patient-specific functional movements are necessary to predict remaining functional outcome. We aim to evaluate how volunteer-specific MAPs derived from surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals control a biomechanical face model. Muscle activity of seven facial muscles in six volunteers was measured bilaterally with sEMG. A triple camera set-up recorded 3D lip movement. The generic face model in ArtiSynth was adapted to our needs. We controlled the model using the volunteer-specific MAPs. Three activation strategies were tested: activating all muscles [Formula: see text], selecting the three muscles showing highest muscle activity bilaterally [Formula: see text]-this was calculated by taking the mean of left and right muscles and then selecting the three with highest variance-and activating the muscles considered most relevant per instruction [Formula: see text], bilaterally. The model's lip movement was compared to the actual lip movement performed by the volunteers, using 3D correlation coefficients [Formula: see text]. The correlation coefficient between simulations and measurements with [Formula: see text] resulted in a median [Formula: see text] of 0.77. [Formula: see text] had a median [Formula: see text] of 0.78, whereas with [Formula: see text] the median [Formula: see text] decreased to 0.45. We demonstrated that MAPs derived from noninvasive sEMG measurements can control movement of the lips in a generic finite element face model with a median [Formula: see text] of 0.78. Ultimately, this is important to show the patient-specific residual movement using the patient's own MAPs. When the required treatment tools and personalisation techniques for geometry and anatomy become available, this may

  17. Software requirements specification for the program analysis and control system risk management module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHAEFER, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    TWR Program Analysis and Control System Risk Module is used to facilitate specific data processes surrounding the Risk Management program of the Tank Waste Retrieval environment. This document contains the Risk Management system requirements of the database system

  18. DEVS representation of dynamical systems - Event-based intelligent control. [Discrete Event System Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown how systems can be advantageously represented as discrete-event models by using DEVS (discrete-event system specification), a set-theoretic formalism. Such DEVS models provide a basis for the design of event-based logic control. In this control paradigm, the controller expects to receive confirming sensor responses to its control commands within definite time windows determined by its DEVS model of the system under control. The event-based contral paradigm is applied in advanced robotic and intelligent automation, showing how classical process control can be readily interfaced with rule-based symbolic reasoning systems.

  19. MULTILOOP PI CONTROLLER FOR ACHIEVING SIMULTANEOUS TIME AND FREQUENCY DOMAIN SPECIFICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SENTHILKUMAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the controllers in control system are designed to satisfy either time domain or frequency domain specifications. This work presents the computation of a multiloop PI controller for achieving time and frequency domain specifications simultaneously. The desired time and frequency domain measures are to be specified initially to the design. To obtain the desired value of the performance measures the graphical relationship between the PI controller and the performance criteria is given. Thus by using graphical method a set of PI controller parameters to meet the desired performance measures are obtained in an effective and simpler way. The coupled tank has become a classic design of control engineering for multivariable process. The proposed control strategy has been implemented in the same coupled tank process and validated through simulation studies.

  20. Specific Methods of Information Security for Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Automate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Vyacheslavovich Ivanov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to specific methods of information security for nuclear materials control and accounting automate systems which is not required of OS and DBMS certifications and allowed to programs modification for clients specific without defenses modification. System ACCORD-2005 demonstrates the realization of this method.

  1. Ultimate - a new generation of gasoline and diesel fuels; Ultimate - eine neue Generation von Otto- und Dieselkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strempel, G. [Aral Forschung/Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany); Beckwith, P. [BP Fuels Management Group, Pangbourne (United Kingdom); Froehling, J. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Labor/Analytik; Baron, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Motor- und Fahrzeuglaboratorium; Sauermann, P.; Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktentwicklung; Doermer, W. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktqualitaet

    2005-06-01

    With the launch of Ultimate 100 gasoline and Ultimate Diesel, motorists in Germany now have the opportunity to choose new advanced performance fuels designed to get the very best from their engines. This article gives details of the technical development behind these fuels, their wide range of benefits, and how it is possible to manufacture fuels which meet the considerable technical challenge of achieving both more performance and less pollution. (orig.)

  2. THE ULTIMATE STATE CONCEPT APPLIED TO TUNNEL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Hudec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The most questionable are the values of pressures between rock and support resulting from common deformations on the contact area between rock and support. Therefore the modelling and design of the tunnel support is not reliable, if it is based on active rock pressure resulting from this common deformations. The inversion of the design procedure is proposed. Instead of the active extreme pressure of the rock on support, the influence of ultimate reaction of the support on the rock has to be analysed. This procedure can be performed using the ultimate load principle, as proposed by Eurocodc 7 (Geotechnies. Normally, the rock has the tendency to increase the common conver¬gence until the support reaches its ultimate state. So, loading of profile boundary with the ultimate possible reaction of the support is very plausible. The reactive support pressures have to be probable and itself in equilibrium. The ultimate reactive load has to be reduced by Euro-code safety factor for structural elements and applied on the rock with given properties, or alternatively (as proposed by Eurocode 7 the soil or rock properties have to be diminished and calculated with full ultimate support pressures. If the rock with given (or proposed pro¬perties and loaded with ultimate reactive pressures resulting from supposed support, satisfy its failure criterion, then is the compound system support-rock verificatcd. By this procedure, the number of relevant material properties is reduce to the primary stress ratio and the constants defining the failure criterion. The verification can be performed by any of numerical methods, but we prefer here used boundary elements method (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Dual-specificity anti-sigma factor reinforces control of cell-type specific gene expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Serrano

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression during spore development in Bacillus subtilis is controlled by cell type-specific RNA polymerase sigma factors. σFand σE control early stages of development in the forespore and the mother cell, respectively. When, at an intermediate stage in development, the mother cell engulfs the forespore, σF is replaced by σG and σE is replaced by σK. The anti-sigma factor CsfB is produced under the control of σF and binds to and inhibits the auto-regulatory σG, but not σF. A position in region 2.1, occupied by an asparagine in σG and by a glutamate in οF, is sufficient for CsfB discrimination of the two sigmas, and allows it to delay the early to late switch in forespore gene expression. We now show that following engulfment completion, csfB is switched on in the mother cell under the control of σK and that CsfB binds to and inhibits σE but not σK, possibly to facilitate the switch from early to late gene expression. We show that a position in region 2.3 occupied by a conserved asparagine in σE and by a conserved glutamate in σK suffices for discrimination by CsfB. We also show that CsfB prevents activation of σG in the mother cell and the premature σG-dependent activation of σK. Thus, CsfB establishes negative feedback loops that curtail the activity of σE and prevent the ectopic activation of σG in the mother cell. The capacity of CsfB to directly block σE activity may also explain how CsfB plays a role as one of the several mechanisms that prevent σE activation in the forespore. Thus the capacity of CsfB to differentiate between the highly similar σF/σG and σE/σK pairs allows it to rinforce the cell-type specificity of these sigma factors and the transition from early to late development in B. subtilis, and possibly in all sporeformers that encode a CsfB orthologue.

  4. Treated effluent disposal system process control computer software requirements and specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The software requirements for the monitor and control system that will be associated with the effluent collection pipeline system known as the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal System is covered. The control logic for the two pump stations and specific requirements for the graphic displays are detailed

  5. Domain Specific Aspects of Locus of Control: Implications for Modifying Locus of Control Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert H.; Gaa, John P.

    1977-01-01

    Goal-setting conferences were employed to improve LOC orientation for academic achievement situations among junior high school students (N=36). Results were interpreted as supporting domain-specific aspects of LOC. Results implied that educators can design programs to modify LOC orientation. (Author)

  6. Ultimate load capacity assessment of reinforced concrete shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop capability for prediction of ultimate load capacity of reinforced concrete shell structures. The present finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) adopts a degenerate concept of formulating general isoparametric shell element with a layered approach in the thickness direction. Different failure modes such as crushing, tensile cracking and reinforcement yielding are recognised for various problems. The structure fails by crushing of concrete when the concrete strain/stress reaches the ultimate stress or strain of concrete. Material nonlinearities as a result of tension cracking, tension stiffening between reinforcement and concrete in cracked region and yielding of reinforcement are considered along with geometric nonlinearity. Thus with this code it is possible to predict the pressure at which the first cracking, first through thickness cracking, first yielding of reinforcement occurs. After validating the code with few bench mark problems for different failure modes a reinforced concrete nuclear containment is analysed for its ultimate capacity and the results are matched with the published results. Further the ultimate load capacity of outer containment wall of Narora Atomic Power Station is predicted. It is observed that containment fails in membrane region and has a sufficient margin against design pressure. (author). 9 refs., 56 figs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix with 4 tabs

  7. Unhealthy weight control behaviors mediate the association between weight status and weight-specific health-related quality of life in treatment-seeking youth who are obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Crystal S; Gowey, Marissa A; Cohen, Megan J; Silverstein, Janet; Janicke, David M

    2017-03-01

    Examine whether unhealthy and extreme weight control behaviors (WCBs) mediate the relationship between youth weight status and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in treatment-seeking youth who are overweight and obese (OV/OB). 82 youth 10-17 years of age who were OV/OB and attending an outpatient obesity-related medical appointment completed measures assessing unhealthy and extreme WCBs and disease-specific HRQOL. Parents completed a demographic questionnaire and medical staff measured youth height and weight. Regression analyses revealed that unhealthy WCBs mediated the associations between youth weight status and emotional and social avoidance disease-specific HRQOL, such that higher body mass index (BMI) predicted unhealthy WCBs, which were ultimately associated with poorer emotional and social HRQOL. Mediation analyses were not significant for total, physical, teasing/marginalization, and positive attributes disease-specific HRQOL. In addition, extreme WCBs did not mediate the association between youth weight status and any subscales of the disease-specific HRQOL measure. Weight status is an important predictor of disease-specific HRQOL in OV/OB youth; however, the association with emotional and social HRQOL is partially accounted for by youth engagement in unhealthy WCBs. Clinicians and researchers should assess WCBs and further research should explore and evaluate appropriate intervention strategies to address unhealthy WCBs in pediatric weight management prevention and treatment efforts.

  8. Design, Specification, and Synthesis of Aircraft Electric Power Systems Control Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan

    Cyber-physical systems integrate computation, networking, and physical processes. Substantial research challenges exist in the design and verification of such large-scale, distributed sensing, actuation, and control systems. Rapidly improving technology and recent advances in control theory, networked systems, and computer science give us the opportunity to drastically improve our approach to integrated flow of information and cooperative behavior. Current systems rely on text-based specifications and manual design. Using new technology advances, we can create easier, more efficient, and cheaper ways of developing these control systems. This thesis will focus on design considerations for system topologies, ways to formally and automatically specify requirements, and methods to synthesize reactive control protocols, all within the context of an aircraft electric power system as a representative application area. This thesis consists of three complementary parts: synthesis, specification, and design. The first section focuses on the synthesis of central and distributed reactive controllers for an aircraft elec- tric power system. This approach incorporates methodologies from computer science and control. The resulting controllers are correct by construction with respect to system requirements, which are formulated using the specification language of linear temporal logic (LTL). The second section addresses how to formally specify requirements and introduces a domain-specific language for electric power systems. A software tool automatically converts high-level requirements into LTL and synthesizes a controller. The final sections focus on design space exploration. A design methodology is proposed that uses mixed-integer linear programming to obtain candidate topologies, which are then used to synthesize controllers. The discrete-time control logic is then verified in real-time by two methods: hardware and simulation. Finally, the problem of partial observability and

  9. Ductility and Ultimate Capacity of Prestressed Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear numerical analysis of the structural behaviour of prestressed steel reinforced concrete (PSRC beams was carried out by using finite element analysis software ABAQUS. By comparing the load-deformation curves, the rationality and reliability of the finite element model have been confirmed; moreover, the changes of the beam stiffness and stress in the forcing process and the ultimate bearing capacity of the beam were analyzed. Based on the model, the effect of prestressed force, and H-steel to the stiffness, the ultimate bearing capacity and ductility of beam were also analyzed.

  10. Ultimate load model test for Sizewell 'B' primary containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the factors influencing the adoption of an ultimate load factor for the Sizewell 'B' PWR primary containment structure. As part of the validation process for the ultimate load analysis method, a proposal has been made by Nuclear Design Associates to build and test a 1/10th scale model of the containment structure, which would proceed following the granting of section 2 consent for Sizewell 'B'. The modelling principles, construction method and test proposals are examined in some detail. The proposal is currently being considered by the CEGB's Project Management Team. (author)

  11. Ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU 6 containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, J.P.; Pradolin, L.; Mamet, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical work carried out and the results obtained when determining the ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the containment structures of CANDU 6 nuclear power plants. The purpose of the analysis work was to demonstrate that such containment structures are capable of meeting design requirements under the most severe accident conditions. For this concrete vessel subjected to internal pressure, the UPC was defined as the pressure causing through cracking in the concrete. The present paper deals with the overall behaviour of the containment. The presence of openings, penetrations and the ultimate pressure of the airlocks were considered separately. (author)

  12. ''Project Crystal'' for ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    NAGRA (The National Association for storage of radioactive waste) in Baden has launched in North Switzerland an extensive geological research program. The current research program, under the title of ''Project Crystal'', aims at providing the scientific knowledge which is required for the assessment of the suitability of the crystalline sub-soil of North Switzerland for the ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste. Safety and feasibility of such ultimate storage are in the forefront of preoccupations. Scientific institutes of France, Germany, USA and Canada are cooperating more particularly on boring research and laboratory analyses. Technical data are given on the USA and German installations used. (P.F.K.)

  13. Trump er gældsøkonomiens ultimative illusionist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne.......Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne....

  14. Specification of safety requirements for waste packages with respect to practicable quality control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruendler, D.; Wurtinger, W.

    1987-01-01

    Waste packages for disposal in a repository in the Federal Republic of Germany have to meet safety requirements derived from site specific safety analyses. The examination of the waste packages with regard to compliance with these requirements is the main objective of quality control measures. With respect to quality control the requirements have to be specified in a way that practicable control measures can be applied. This is dealt with for the quality control of the activity inventory and the quality control of the waste form. The paper discusses the determination of the activity of hard-to-measure radionuclides and the specification of safety related requirements for the waste form and the packaging using typical examples

  15. Humans with chimpanzee-like major histocompatibility complex-specificities control HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoof, Ilka; Kesmir, Can; Lund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    and the progression rate to AIDS. Chimpanzees control HIV-1 viral replication and develop a chronic infection without progressing to AIDS. A similar course of disease is observed in human long-term non-progressors. Objective: To investigate if long-term non-progressors and chimpanzees have functional similarities...... in their MHC class I repertoire. Methods: We compared the specificity of groups of human MHC molecules associated with different levels of viremia in HIV-1 infected individuals with those of chimpanzee. Results and conclusion: We demonstrate that human MHC with control of HIV-1 viral load share binding motifs...... with chimpanzee MHC. Moreover, we find that chimpanzee and human MHC associated with low viral load are predicted to elicit broader Gag-specific immune responses than human MHC associated with high viral load, thus supporting earlier findings that Gag-specific immune responses are essential for HIV-1 control....

  16. Ultimate deformation capacity of reinforced concrete slabs underblast load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Weerheijm, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a test method to determine the deformation capacity and the resistance-deformation curve of blast-loaded slabs is described. This method was developed at TNO-PML. The method has been used to determine the ultimate deformation capacity of some simply supported reinforced concrete slabs

  17. 49 Stories That Make an Ultimate STEM Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Swati; Mehta, Rohit; Berzina-Pitcher, Inese; Seals, Christopher; Mishra, Punya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed what 49 large urban public school district STEM teachers enrolled in a year-long graduate certificate and fellowship program at a large Midwestern university considered as their amazing teaching moments. They were asked to share their amazing teaching moments that would make an Ultimate Lesson Plan in STEM. In smaller…

  18. Ultimate capabilities of soft x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A.V.; Zorev, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    Nonimaging soft X-ray optics is examined. The ultimate capabilities of a number of X-ray optical components designed for concentration and collimation of radiation from point sources are determined. The applications of X-ray optics are discussed together with the properties of materials in the X-ray range

  19. Safety related aspects of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Solutions and questions related to nuclear waste management are presented. In particular, long-term safety of repositories in Germany and Sweden is considered, with special attention being paid to methods of detection, geotechnical barriers and post-operational phase of salt dome repositories, and conditioning of wastes to make them fit for ultimate disposal. (DG) [de

  20. Analysis of ultimate-heat-sink spray ponds. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1981-08-01

    This report develops models which can be utilized in the design of certain types of spray ponds used in ultimate heat sinks at nuclear power plants, and ways in which the models may be employed to determine the design basis required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.27

  1. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation

  2. Patient-specific dosimetric endpoints based treatment plan quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ting; Zhou, Linghong; Staub, David; Chen, Mingli; Lu, Weiguo; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Xun; Li, Yongbao; Jiang, Steve B; Gu, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the optimal plan for each patient is specific due to unique patient anatomy. To achieve such a plan, patient-specific dosimetric goals reflecting each patient’s unique anatomy should be defined and adopted in the treatment planning procedure for plan quality control. This study is to develop such a personalized treatment plan quality control tool by predicting patient-specific dosimetric endpoints (DEs). The incorporation of patient specific DEs is realized by a multi-OAR geometry-dosimetry model, capable of predicting optimal DEs based on the individual patient’s geometry. The overall quality of a treatment plan is then judged with a numerical treatment plan quality indicator and characterized as optimal or suboptimal. Taking advantage of clinically available prostate volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plans, we built and evaluated our proposed plan quality control tool. Using our developed tool, six of twenty evaluated plans were identified as sub-optimal plans. After plan re-optimization, these suboptimal plans achieved better OAR dose sparing without sacrificing the PTV coverage, and the dosimetric endpoints of the re-optimized plans agreed well with the model predicted values, which validate the predictability of the proposed tool. In conclusion, the developed tool is able to accurately predict optimally achievable DEs of multiple OARs, identify suboptimal plans, and guide plan optimization. It is a useful tool for achieving patient-specific treatment plan quality control. (paper)

  3. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Context Specificity of Post-Error and Post-Conflict Cognitive Control Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Sarah E.; Cho, Raymond Y.

    2014-01-01

    There has been accumulating evidence that cognitive control can be adaptively regulated by monitoring for processing conflict as an index of online control demands. However, it is not yet known whether top-down control mechanisms respond to processing conflict in a manner specific to the operative task context or confer a more generalized benefit. While previous studies have examined the taskset-specificity of conflict adaptation effects, yielding inconsistent results, control-related performance adjustments following errors have been largely overlooked. This gap in the literature underscores recent debate as to whether post-error performance represents a strategic, control-mediated mechanism or a nonstrategic consequence of attentional orienting. In the present study, evidence of generalized control following both high conflict correct trials and errors was explored in a task-switching paradigm. Conflict adaptation effects were not found to generalize across tasksets, despite a shared response set. In contrast, post-error slowing effects were found to extend to the inactive taskset and were predictive of enhanced post-error accuracy. In addition, post-error performance adjustments were found to persist for several trials and across multiple task switches, a finding inconsistent with attentional orienting accounts of post-error slowing. These findings indicate that error-related control adjustments confer a generalized performance benefit and suggest dissociable mechanisms of post-conflict and post-error control. PMID:24603900

  5. Polyfunctional HIV-Specific Antibody Responses Are Associated with Spontaneous HIV Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E Ackerman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elite controllers (ECs represent a unique model of a functional cure for HIV-1 infection as these individuals develop HIV-specific immunity able to persistently suppress viremia. Because accumulating evidence suggests that HIV controllers generate antibodies with enhanced capacity to drive antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC that may contribute to viral containment, we profiled an array of extra-neutralizing antibody effector functions across HIV-infected populations with varying degrees of viral control to define the characteristics of antibodies associated with spontaneous control. While neither the overall magnitude of antibody titer nor individual effector functions were increased in ECs, a more functionally coordinated innate immune-recruiting response was observed. Specifically, ECs demonstrated polyfunctional humoral immune responses able to coordinately recruit ADCC, other NK functions, monocyte and neutrophil phagocytosis, and complement. This functionally coordinated response was associated with qualitatively superior IgG3/IgG1 responses, whereas HIV-specific IgG2/IgG4 responses, prevalent among viremic subjects, were associated with poorer overall antibody activity. Rather than linking viral control to any single activity, this study highlights the critical nature of functionally coordinated antibodies in HIV control and associates this polyfunctionality with preferential induction of potent antibody subclasses, supporting coordinated antibody activity as a goal in strategies directed at an HIV-1 functional cure.

  6. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M; Rosebrock, Adam P; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R

    2009-10-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  7. Daughter-Specific Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Talia, Stefano; Wang, Hongyin; Skotheim, Jan M.; Rosebrock, Adam P.; Futcher, Bruce; Cross, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle. PMID:19841732

  8. Daughter-specific transcription factors regulate cell size control in budding yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Talia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In budding yeast, asymmetric cell division yields a larger mother and a smaller daughter cell, which transcribe different genes due to the daughter-specific transcription factors Ace2 and Ash1. Cell size control at the Start checkpoint has long been considered to be a main regulator of the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle, resulting in longer G1 in the smaller daughter cells. Our recent data confirmed this concept using quantitative time-lapse microscopy. However, it has been proposed that daughter-specific, Ace2-dependent repression of expression of the G1 cyclin CLN3 had a dominant role in delaying daughters in G1. We wanted to reconcile these two divergent perspectives on the origin of long daughter G1 times. We quantified size control using single-cell time-lapse imaging of fluorescently labeled budding yeast, in the presence or absence of the daughter-specific transcriptional regulators Ace2 and Ash1. Ace2 and Ash1 are not required for efficient size control, but they shift the domain of efficient size control to larger cell size, thus increasing cell size requirement for Start in daughters. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments show that Ace2 and Ash1 are direct transcriptional regulators of the G1 cyclin gene CLN3. Quantification of cell size control in cells expressing titrated levels of Cln3 from ectopic promoters, and from cells with mutated Ace2 and Ash1 sites in the CLN3 promoter, showed that regulation of CLN3 expression by Ace2 and Ash1 can account for the differential regulation of Start in response to cell size in mothers and daughters. We show how daughter-specific transcriptional programs can interact with intrinsic cell size control to differentially regulate Start in mother and daughter cells. This work demonstrates mechanistically how asymmetric localization of cell fate determinants results in cell-type-specific regulation of the cell cycle.

  9. Using domain specific languages to improve the development of a power control unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    To improve the design of a power control unit at Philips, two Domain Specific Languages (DSLs) have been used. The first DSL provides a concise and readable notation for the essential state transitions. It is used to generate both configuration files and analysis models. In addition, we also

  10. Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations : systematic review and case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jentink, Janneke; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria A.; Morris, Joan K.; Wellesley, Diana; Garne, Ester; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify specific major congenital malformations associated with use of carbamazepine in the first trimester of pregnancy. Design A review of all published cohort studies to identify key indications and a population based case-control study to test these indications. Setting Review of

  11. Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control. Volume III: Inspection Procedures for Specific Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburd, Melvin I.

    The Field Operations and Enforcement Manual for Air Pollution Control, Volume III, explains in detail the following: inspection procedures for specific sources, kraft pulp mills, animal rendering, steel mill furnaces, coking operations, petroleum refineries, chemical plants, non-ferrous smelting and refining, foundries, cement plants, aluminum…

  12. Dual substrate feedback control of specific growth-rate in vaccine production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, R.; Beuvery, E.C.; Vries, D.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Unexpectedly, primary concern of bio-pharmaceutical industry is not optimisation of product yield or cost reduction, but consistency in production and product quality. This paper describes the methodology and experimental results of specific growth-rate control for vaccine production. The

  13. Area-specific temporal control of corticospinal motor neuron differentiation by COUP-TFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; De Leonibus, Elvira; Jabaudon, Denis; Lodato, Simona; Alfano, Christian; Mele, Andrea; Macklis, Jeffrey D.; Studer, Michèle

    2010-01-01

    Transcription factors with gradients of expression in neocortical progenitors give rise to distinct motor and sensory cortical areas by controlling the area-specific differentiation of distinct neuronal subtypes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this area-restricted control are still unclear. Here, we show that COUP-TFI controls the timing of birth and specification of corticospinal motor neurons (CSMN) in somatosensory cortex via repression of a CSMN differentiation program. Loss of COUP-TFI function causes an area-specific premature generation of neurons with cardinal features of CSMN, which project to subcerebral structures, including the spinal cord. Concurrently, genuine CSMN differentiate imprecisely and do not project beyond the pons, together resulting in impaired skilled motor function in adult mice with cortical COUP-TFI loss-of-function. Our findings indicate that COUP-TFI exerts critical areal and temporal control over the precise differentiation of CSMN during corticogenesis, thereby enabling the area-specific functional features of motor and sensory areas to arise. PMID:20133588

  14. PCR assay with host specific internal control forStaphylococcus aureus from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cantekin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of the most important and common pathogens of bovine mastitis. Polymerase Chain Reaction is frequently proposed in the diagnosis of S. aureus directly from milk samples instead of classical culture. However, false-negative results may occur in the polymerase chain reaction analysis performed directly from clinical material. For the purpose of disclosing the false negative results, the use of internal amplification controls can be beneficial. Therefore, in this study a new polymerase chain reaction technique with host specific internal amplification control was developed by optimizing S. aureus-specific primers in combination with bovine specific primers. The effectiveness of the developed technique in this study was attempted in milk samples from bovine subclinical mastitis. This technique has the potential to detect S. aureus from bovine milk samples or dairy products.

  15. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, Y.; Murakawa, T.; Shimamura, K.; Oishi, M.; Ohyama, T.; Kurita, N.

    2015-01-01

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA

  16. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, Y., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Murakawa, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Shimamura, K., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Oishi, M., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Ohyama, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Kurita, N., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.

  17. Performance of an automatic dose control system for CT. Specifications and basic phantom tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, H.D. [Wissenschaft und Technik fuer die Radiolgoe, Dr. HD Nagel, Buchholz (Germany); Stumpp, P.; Kahn, T.; Gosch, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To assess the performance and to provide more detailed insight into the characteristics and limitations of devices for automatic dose control (ADC) in CT. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive study on DoseRight 2.0, the ADC system provided by Philips for its Brilliance CT scanners, was conducted. Phantom tests were carried out on a 64-slice scanner (Brilliance 64) using assorted quality control (QC) phantoms that allowed verification of the basic specifications. If feasible, the findings were verified by model calculations based on known specifications. Results: For all tests, the dose reductions and modulation characteristics fully met the values expected from the specifications. Adverse effects due to increased image noise were only moderate as a result of the 'adequate noise system' design that employs comparatively gentle modulation, and the additional use of adaptive filtration. Conclusion: Simple tests with QC phantoms allow evaluation of the most relevant characteristics of devices for ADC in CT. (orig.)

  18. The role of emotional inhibitory control in specific internet addiction - an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Julia; Hoffmann, Sabine; Mier, Daniela; Reinhard, Iris; Beutel, Martin; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kiefer, Falk; Mann, Karl; Leménager, Tagrid

    2017-05-01

    Addicts to specific internet applications involving communication features showed increased social anxiety, emotional competence deficits and impaired prefrontal-related inhibitory control. The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) likely plays an important role in cognitive control and negative affect (such as social exclusion, pain or anxiety). To assess (social) anxiety-related inhibitory control in specific internet addiction (addicted use of games and social networks) and its relation to altered dACC activation. N=44 controls and n=51 specific internet addicts completed an anxious words-based Affective Go/No-Go task (AGN). A subsample of n=23 healthy controls and n=25 specific internet addicts underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing an Emotional Stroop Task (EST) with socially anxious, positive, negative and neutral words. Subgroups of internet gaming and social network addicts were exploratively assessed. Psychometric measures of social anxiety, emotional competence and impulsivity were additionally explored. Specific internet addicts showed higher impulsivity, social anxiety and reduced emotional competence. Between-group differences in AGN and EST behavioral measures were not detected. No group differences were found in the dACC, but explorative analyses revealed decreased left middle and superior temporal gyrus activation during interference of socially anxious words in internet gaming and relative to social network addicts. Given the function of the left middle temporal gyrus in the retrieval of words or expressions during communication, our findings give a first hint that social words might be less retrievable in the semantic storage of internet gaming addicts, possibly indicating deficiencies in handling speech in social situations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cable tray ultimate strength test employing a large shaker table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, K.; Myojin, K.; Imai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Fuyama, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Takasago (Japan); Kokubo, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industdries Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Ultimate behaviors of cable trays, used in nuclear plants, have not been well studied since cable trays are designed based on conservative design criteria. In this study, by employing a large shaker table, an ultimate strength test was conducted for cable trays used in nuclear power plants. This report describes the results of shaker table test. The following results were obtained. First, in an S{sub 2} earthquake, the damping ratio was so large - more than 30% due to the rubbing of cables - that a large response was not present and the strains in the support were within the elastic limits. Secondly, the support was strong enough to sustain the cable trays even when the strain in the support was 20 times larger than the elastic limit. (authors)

  20. Landau damping: the mechanics model and its ultimate entropy gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Kluge, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Classical mechanics has only been invoked to account for Landau damping in a rather half-hearted way, alongside plasma perturbation theory. In particular this invocation is essential for the study of the saturation, or post-linear (or 'nonlinear') regime of the damping initiated by Dawson and O'Neill. By embracing mechanics wholeheartedly here, with its attendant phase space, one can access results, old and new, cleanly and directly, and with one fewer numerical integration for the post-linear regime. By using a summation technique familiar in semiclassical quantum mechanics (Poisson summation), the one remaining numerical integration can be much improved in accuracy. Also accessible from mechanics is the ultimate entropy gain. Though zero for any finite time (in the absence of coarse graining), the entropy gain is ultimately non-zero (at infinite time the required coarse graining is zero). It is calculated analytically by using the appropriate asymptotics, hitherto not fully exploited.

  1. Multiple-Input Subject-Specific Modeling of Plasma Glucose Concentration for Feedforward Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, Kaylee; Cinar, Ali; Mei, Yong; Roggendorf, Amy; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Quinn, Laurie; Rollins, Derrick K

    2014-11-26

    The ability to accurately develop subject-specific, input causation models, for blood glucose concentration (BGC) for large input sets can have a significant impact on tightening control for insulin dependent diabetes. More specifically, for Type 1 diabetics (T1Ds), it can lead to an effective artificial pancreas (i.e., an automatic control system that delivers exogenous insulin) under extreme changes in critical disturbances. These disturbances include food consumption, activity variations, and physiological stress changes. Thus, this paper presents a free-living, outpatient, multiple-input, modeling method for BGC with strong causation attributes that is stable and guards against overfitting to provide an effective modeling approach for feedforward control (FFC). This approach is a Wiener block-oriented methodology, which has unique attributes for meeting critical requirements for effective, long-term, FFC.

  2. O tratamento específico como arma no controle da esquistossomose Specific therapy in the control of schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Bina

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The specific treatment of schistosomiasis has been though to prevent or revert severe forms of the disease, since 1957. Starting in 1977, prospective and controlled studies performed in different endemic areas of Brazil were able to confirm such facts. The new drugs, of high efficacy and well tolerated - Oxamniquine and Praziquantel - can actually prevent and cure the severe forms of some patients, contributing to change the morbidity pattern of the disease, thus being considered as important weapons in its control. Analysis of the Brazilian articles on the subject is presented.

  3. A comparison of international criteria for the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.

    1985-01-01

    In countries other than the Federal Republic of Germany and internationally there are no comprehensive codes referring to criteria and safety requirements except those of the IAEA and USA. In other countries there exist safety goals for the ultimate storage or for purely geological criteria. The degree of detailing regulations differs widely abroad and internationally. Safety goals abroad and internationally as well as measures for their realisation in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations are in line with the German safety goals. The IAEA refers to general aspects of geological, waste technology and ultimate storage technology criteria. In the USA, ultimate storage technology criteria have been quantified in part. The quantitative geological criteria existing in Great Britain and in the Netherlands are only relevant in as much as safety analyses must be performed for a specific site to provide evidence for the safety of this site. The comparison shows that most requirements pronounced abroad are also made for the Federal Republic of Germany. Some requirements are more specified in the Federal Republic of Germany, some are more detailed abroad. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Management and ultimate storage of wastes from nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The annotation on R and D prorgam 86 parts I-II have been brought together in the present report part I, together with some general viewpoints, and been classified according to subject. Part II of the present report comprises viewpoints of 'Research Program 1987-1992' and part III of 'Alternative methods of ultimate storage'. Swedish and French viewpoints are presented in Swedish, the remaining foreign material in English. The comments are grouped in subject catergories. (O.S.)

  5. The ultimate challenge of pregnancy-associated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R.; Tahira, A.

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy associated breast carcinoma requires making judicious use of all diagnostic modalities and the therapeutic options of surgery, irradiation, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy to enhance survival rates. Individualization of treatment for each patient is the key to success. The effects on future fertility, the time interval before next conception, and whether to breast feed or not are all well-documented. A multidisciplinary coordinated team approach to this ultimate challenge of patient care will prove fruitful. (author)

  6. Ultimate Gradient Limitation in Niobium Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchin, Mattia [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, Anna [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Posen, Sam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Romanenko, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zasadzinski, John [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The present study is addressed to the theoretical description of the ultimate gradient limitation in SRF cavities. Our intent is to exploit experimental data to confirm models which provide feed-backs on how to improve the current state-of-art. New theoretical insight on the cavities limiting factor can be suitable to improve the quench field of N-doped cavities, and therefore to take advantage of high Q0 at high gradients.

  7. Ultimate capacity of piles penetrating in weak soil layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pile foundation is one of the most popular forms of deep foundations. They are routinely employed to transfer axial structure loads through the soft soil to stronger bearing strata. Piles generally used to increase the load carrying capacity of the foundation and reduce the settlement of the foundation. On the other hand, many cases in practice where piles pass through different layers of soil that contain weak layers located at different depths and extension, also some time cavities with a different shape, size, and depth are found. In this study, a total of 96 cases is considered and simulated in PLAXIS 2D program aiming to understand the influence of weak soil on the ultimate pile capacity. The piles embedded in the dense sand with a layer of weak soil at different extension and location. The cross section of the geometry used in this study was designed as an axisymmetric model with the 15-node element; the boundary condition recommended at least 5D in the horizontal direction, and (L+5D in the vertical direction where D and L are the diameter and length of pile, respectively. The soil is modeled as Mohr-Coulomb, with five input parameters and the behavior of pile material represented by the linear elastic model. The results of the above cases are compared with the results found in a pile embedded in dense soil without weak layers or cavities. The results indicated that the existence of weak soil layer within the surrounding soil around the pile decreases the ultimate capacity. Furthermore, it has been found that increase in the weak soil width (extension leads to reduction in the ultimate capacity of the pile. This phenomenon is applicable to all depth of weak soil. The influence of weak layer extension on the ultimate capacity is less when it is presentin the upper soil layers.

  8. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π 0 ,η,η ′ ) decay channels for the ψ ′ looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc ¯ intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  9. Hydrogeological problems in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uerpmann, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The following work shows how one can achieve the safe closure of ultimate-stored radioactive wastes by connecting a series of various barriers to the biosphere. The propagation of radionuclides by ground water is considered to be the most important long-term transport mechanism. Salt occurences in the Federal Republic of Germany are considered to be the best form suitable for end storage formations for known reasons. When not observing mining and hydrogeological knowledge, the danger of uncontrollable water flow in the end storage can arise from the water solubility of the salt rocks. Therefore the filling of salt mines and the subsequent procedures are dealt with in detail. The leading of radioactive nuclides is influenced by the properties of the ultimately stored wastes and by the quality of the remaining filling of the caves. These problems are dealt with in detail. A series of barriers to the closure of the underground caves are suggested and discussed. The most important barriers consist of the stability of the corresponding selected end storage structure. Possible arrangements of the storage cave are given which even after storage must maintain a high stability. Proposals are made on how the ultimately stored wastes can protect themselves against contact with free water or salt solutions. (orig.) [de

  10. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  11. Clinical Control of HIV-1 by Cytotoxic T Cells Specific for Multiple Conserved Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakoshi, Hayato; Akahoshi, Tomohiro; Koyanagi, Madoka; Chikata, Takayuki; Naruto, Takuya; Maruyama, Rie; Tamura, Yoshiko; Ishizuka, Naoki; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Oka, Shinichi; Takiguchi, Masafumi

    2015-05-01

    Identification and characterization of CD8(+) T cells effectively controlling HIV-1 variants are necessary for the development of AIDS vaccines and for studies of AIDS pathogenesis, although such CD8(+) T cells have been only partially identified. In this study, we sought to identify CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 variants in 401 Japanese individuals chronically infected with HIV-1 subtype B, in which protective alleles HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 are very rare, by using comprehensive and exhaustive methods. We identified 13 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 in Japanese individuals, though 9 of these epitopes were not previously reported. The breadths of the T cell responses to the 13 epitopes were inversely associated with plasma viral load (P = 2.2 × 10(-11)) and positively associated with CD4 count (P = 1.2 × 10(-11)), indicating strong synergistic effects of these T cells on HIV-1 control in vivo. Nine of these epitopes were conserved among HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals, whereas three out of four nonconserved epitopes were cross-recognized by the specific T cells. These findings indicate that these 12 epitopes are strong candidates for antigens for an AIDS vaccine. The present study highlighted a strategy to identify CD8(+) T cells controlling HIV-1 and demonstrated effective control of HIV-1 by those specific for 12 conserved or cross-reactive epitopes. HLA-B*27-restricted and HLA-B*57-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a key role in controlling HIV-1 in Caucasians and Africans, whereas it is unclear which CTLs control HIV-1 in Asian countries, where HLA-B*57 and HLA-B*27 are very rare. A recent study showed that HLA-B*67:01 and HLA-B*52:01-C*12:02 haplotypes were protective alleles in Japanese individuals, but it is unknown whether CTLs restricted by these alleles control HIV-1. In this study, we identified 13 CTLs controlling HIV-1 in Japan by using comprehensive and exhaustive methods. They included 5 HLA-B*52:01-restricted

  12. Ultrasonic Control of welded joints by using specific PC generated AVG diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondon Torriente, S.; Galeano Alvarez, N.J.; Frometas Castillo, T.; Gonzalez Mastrapa, J.J. Unidad Presupuestada Inversionista Para la Construccion de la Central Electronuclear de Juragua, Juragua . Laboratorio de Metales.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes an algoritm easy to be implemented in a modern personnel computer (PC), which can be used to obtain the specific AVG diagrams required during the ultrasonic control of welded joints by the AVG method. The algoritm is illustrated by means of the derivation of some specific diagrams corresponding to given inspection testing. Also some results and standard practices given in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used in recent issues of several international codes are outlined, which can be used to overcome common problems founded during the practical use of the AVG method with conventional shear wave ultrasonic transducers

  13. Welfare specifications and optimal control of climate change. An application of fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tol, Richard S.J. [Centre for Marine and Climate Research, Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The sensitivity of the optimal control of carbon dioxide emissions to the specification of the social welfare function is systematically explored using the FUND model. Increasing risk aversion emphasises climate change damages relative to emission reduction costs, but at the same time increases the discount rate of consumption. Without international co-operation, the discount rate effect dominates so that optimal control decreases with increasing risk aversion. With international co-operation, optimal control first increases then decreases with increasing risk aversion. Since climate change falls heaviest on the poor, optimal control increases with increasing inequity aversion. Full-fledged intergenerational welfare functions on the one hand emphasise climate change damages but on the other hand place more weight on current, poorer generations. In FUND, the two tendencies almost cancel.

  14. Alcohol-specific parenting, adolescents' self-control, and alcohol use: a moderated mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Ina M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2014-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that parental rules about alcohol are important in curbing adolescents' alcohol use. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which the direct link between alcohol-specific parenting and alcohol use is obtained. In this study, we investigated the mediating effect of adolescent self-control on the relationship between alcohol-specific rules and adolescents' drinking behavior and whether this mediation effect depends on the level of quality of communication. A total of 883 adolescents participated in this longitudinal study at ages 13, 14, and 15 years. Strict rules predicted lower rates of drinking, but no direct effect of the quality of communication on adolescents' alcohol use was found. A higher level of self-control was related to lower rates of drinking in adolescents. The indirect effect of rules about alcohol through adolescents' self-control was statistically significant, yet only in adolescents with high qualitative parent-child communication about alcohol. In adolescents with low quality of parent-child communication, self-control was not related to drinking. These findings imply that strict rule setting in combination with qualitative parent-child communication is an important target for prevention. In addition, findings point at the importance of high qualitative parent-child communication for adolescents' motivation to engage in self-control to avoid drinking.

  15. The ultimate safe (US) Reactor: A concept for the third millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor is based on a novel safety concept. Fission products in the reactor are allowed to accumulate only to a level at which they would constitute a harmless source term. Removal of fission products also removes the decay heat - the driving force for the source term. The reactor has no excess criticality and is controlled by the reactivity temperature coefficient. Safety is inherent and passive. Waste is removed from the site promptly

  16. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoek, Pim [Minnetonka, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Rush, Brian [Minneapolis, MN

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  17. FOODBORNE VIRUSES AND FOOD HANDLERS TRAINING: A SPECIFIC PROJECT FOR OFFICIAL CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tentenni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to describe the results of an official control project forwarded on the evaluation of prevention of foodborne viruses diseases. The authors describe the real diffusion of noroviruses and sapoviruses including their general features. The Official control carried out is focused on the valuation of specific prevention measures put in place by food business operators in order to avoid fecal-oral contaminations. Assessment on procedures on GMP, GHP and HACCP were followed by a specific valuation of food handlers training based on a questionnaire .The results show that in small and less developed food industries there is a lack in considering fecal-oral route contaminations and an important need of correct training aimed principally at improving knowledge of Good Hygienic Practices and contamination of food.

  18. Weed control by direct injection of plant protection products according to specific situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krebs, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming in agriculture allows a site-specific management of the crop. The aim of plant protection is to apply plant protection products (PPP according to the site specific requirements on the field. Within the context of a research program to promote innovation, a sprayer with direct injection of plant protection products was developed. The direct injection offers site specific spraying of different individual PPP in a single pass. The sprayer prototype is equipped with a special spray boom combining three nozzle lines. In order to prevent delay times, the nozzle lines are preloaded before spraying. First results for weed control from test stand measurements and field trials showed that the injection pumps work with high accuracy. The prototype can be used without delay times site specific with up to three different herbicides. Field trials for site-specific weed control in winter wheat demonstrate the applicability of the system under practical conditions. By treatment of subareas herbicides and therefore costs could be saved. A reduction in yield compared with the conventionally treated field areas could not be ascertained. Also an efficacy reduction through washout of active ingredient from target surfaces due to simultaneous use of all three nozzle lines with up to 1050 l/ha application rate could not be detected. At high water spray rates, the efficacy effect occurs delayed. Overall, the newly developed direct injection system proved fieldabillity during the first tests. So weed control can be carried out situation-responsive, which can save herbicides and environmental impacts are reduced.

  19. DMPD: DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory response. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17114416 DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of the...ml) (.csml) Show DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phosphatases in control of theinflammatory resp...onse. PubmedID 17114416 Title DUSP meet immunology: dual specificity MAPK phospha

  20. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers The Ultimate Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2010-01-01

    If you already have a good knowledge of Adobe Photoshop and are looking to advance your skills, Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers: The Ultimate Workshop is the book you've been waiting for.  Renowned photographers Martin Evening and Jeff Schewe impart their Photoshop tips and workflow, showing you how to use a vast array of rarely seen advanced Photoshop techniques.  Whether the subject is serious retouching work, weird and wonderful compositions, or planning a shoot before you've even picked up a camera, you can be sure that the advice is based on years of practical experience.

  1. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-03-07

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π{sup 0},η,η{sup ′}) decay channels for the ψ{sup ′} looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc{sup ¯} intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  2. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  3. Predictive Direct Torque Control Application-Specific Integrated Circuit of an Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Ming Sung

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a modified predictive direct torque control (PDTC application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC of a motor drive with a fuzzy controller for eliminating sampling and calculating delay times in hysteresis controllers. These delay times degrade the control quality and increase both torque and flux ripples in a motor drive. The proposed fuzzy PDTC ASIC calculates the stator’s magnetic flux and torque by detecting the three-phase current, three-phase voltage, and rotor speed, and eliminates the ripples in the torque and flux by using a fuzzy controller and predictive scheme. The Verilog hardware description language was used to implement the hardware architecture, and the ASIC was fabricated by the Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company through a 0.18-μm 1P6M CMOS process that involved a cell-based design method. The measurements revealed that the proposed fuzzy PDTC ASIC of the three-phase induction motor yielded a test coverage of 96.03%, fault coverage of 95.06%, chip area of 1.81 × 1.81 mm2, and power consumption of 296 mW, at an operating frequency of 50 MHz and a supply voltage of 1.8 V.

  4. Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    then in combina-tion with the ultimate limit state requirements leads to the specific constitutive relations. As a result finite element models based on shell elements incorporating a structural and a loading model are introduced and described in detail. Applying these models the ultimate capacity of the support...... on the basis of literature review and measurement data from a prototype Multibrid M5000 support structure. In combination with the developed structural and loading models, sensitivity analyses in regard to the responses are peiformed to enhance the understanding and to refine the developed models. To this end...... variables on the responses including nonlinearity the refinement of the model is performed on a quantitative basis....

  5. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  6. Is there a specific hemodynamic effect in reflexology? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jenny; Thomson, Patricia; Irvine, Kathleen; Leslie, Stephen J

    2013-04-01

    Reflexology claims that the feet are representative of the body and that massage to specific points of the feet increases blood supply to "mapped" organs in the body. This review provides the first systematic evaluation of existing reflexology randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine whether there is any evidence to suggest the existence of a reflexology treatment-related hemodynamic effect; to examine whether reflexology researchers used study designs that systematically controlled for nonspecific effects in order to isolate this specific component; and to highlight some of the methodological challenges that need to be overcome to demonstrate specific and beneficial hemodynamic effects. Fifty-two RCTs of reflexology published from 1990 to September 2011 were initially retrieved. Cardiorespiratory Department, Highland Heartbeat Centre, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness. Adult subjects. Studies using reflexology foot massage techniques as the intervention versus sham reflexology treatment, simple foot massage, conventional treatment, or no treatment as the control were then selected. OUTCOME MEASURES included any hemodynamic parameter potentially involved in the regulation of circulating blood volume and flow, including heart rate and systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure. Seven RCTs suggested that reflexology has an effect on selected cardiovascular parameters; however, five of these delivered the reflexology intervention as a whole complex treatment, with the data collector often delivering the intervention themselves. This systematic review found that although reflexology has been shown to have an effect on selected hemodynamic variables, the lack of methodological control for nonspecific general massage effects means that there is little convincing evidence at this time to suggest the existence of a specific treatment-related hemodynamic effect. Furthermore, the review found that few studies of reflexology controlled for nonspecific effects in order

  7. A shot parameter specification subsystem for automated control of PBFA II accelerator shots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports on the shot parameter specification subsystem (SPSS), an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II). This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The author discusses how the PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes

  8. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hassa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  9. Symptom-specific amygdala hyperactivity modulates motor control network in conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassa, Thomas; Sebastian, Alexandra; Liepert, Joachim; Weiller, Cornelius; Schmidt, Roger; Tüscher, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Initial historical accounts as well as recent data suggest that emotion processing is dysfunctional in conversion disorder patients and that this alteration may be the pathomechanistic neurocognitive basis for symptoms in conversion disorder. However, to date evidence of direct interaction of altered negative emotion processing with motor control networks in conversion disorder is still lacking. To specifically study the neural correlates of emotion processing interacting with motor networks we used a task combining emotional and sensorimotor stimuli both separately as well as simultaneously during functional magnetic resonance imaging in a well characterized group of 13 conversion disorder patients with functional hemiparesis and 19 demographically matched healthy controls. We performed voxelwise statistical parametrical mapping for a priori regions of interest within emotion processing and motor control networks. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was used to test altered functional connectivity of emotion and motor control networks. Only during simultaneous emotional stimulation and passive movement of the affected hand patients displayed left amygdala hyperactivity. PPI revealed increased functional connectivity in patients between the left amygdala and the (pre-)supplemental motor area and the subthalamic nucleus, key regions within the motor control network. These findings suggest a novel mechanistic direct link between dysregulated emotion processing and motor control circuitry in conversion disorder.

  10. The prospects of transition metal dichalcogenides for ultimately scaled CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, S.; Kinberger, W.; Granzner, R.; Fiori, G.; Schwierz, F.

    2018-05-01

    MOSFET gate length scaling has been a main source of progress in digital electronics for decades. Today, researchers still spend considerable efforts on reducing the gate length and on developing ultimately scaled MOSFETs, thereby exploring both new device architectures and alternative channel materials beyond Silicon such as two-dimensional TMDs (transition metal dichalcogenide). On the other hand, the envisaged scaling scenario for the next 15 years has undergone a significant change recently. While the 2013 ITRS edition required a continuation of aggressive gate length scaling for at least another 15 years, the 2015 edition of the ITRS suggests a deceleration and eventually a levelling off of gate length scaling and puts more emphasis on alternative options such as pitch scaling to keep Moore's Law alive. In the present paper, future CMOS scaling is discussed in the light of emerging two-dimensional MOSFET channel, in particular two-dimensional TMDs. To this end, the scaling scenarios of the 2013 and 2015 ITRS editions are considered and the scaling potential of TMD MOSFETs is investigated by means of quantum-mechanical device simulations. It is shown that for ultimately scaled MOSFETs as required in the 2013 ITRS, the heavy carrier effective masses of the Mo- and W-based TMDs are beneficial for the suppression of direct source-drain tunneling, while to meet the significantly relaxed scaling targets of the 2016 ITRS heavy-effective-mass channels are not needed.

  11. The ultimate security bounds of quantum key distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, G.M.; Alber, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols exploit quantum correlations in order to establish a secure key between two legitimate users. Recent work on QKD has revealed a remarkable link between quantum and secret correlations. In this talk we report on recent results concerning the ultimate upper security bounds of various QKD schemes (i.e., the maximal disturbance up to which the two legitimate users share quantum correlations) under the assumption of general coherent attacks. In particular, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of QKD schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases. As long as the two legitimate users focus on the sifted key and treat each pair of data independently during the post processing, our results are valid for arbitrary dimensions of the information carriers. The bound we have derived is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is also discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions, however, such equivalence is generally no longer valid. (author)

  12. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  13. Cellular specificity of HIV-1 replication can be controlled by LTR sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed-Inderbitzin, Edward; Maury, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    Two well-established determinants of retroviral tropism are envelope sequences that regulate entry and LTR sequences that can regulate viral expression in a cell-specific manner. Studies with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have demonstrated that tropism of this virus maps primarily to variable envelope sequences. Studies have demonstrated that T cell and macrophage-specific transcription factor binding motifs exist in the upstream region of the LTR U3; however, the ability of the core enhancer/promoter proximal elements (two NF-κB and three Sp1 sites) to function well in macrophages and T cells have led many to conclude that HIV LTR sequences are not primary determinants of HIV tropism. To determine if cellular specificity could be imparted to HIV by the core enhancer elements, the enhancer/promoter proximal region of the HIV LTR was substituted with motifs that control gene expression in a myeloid-specific manner. The enhancer region from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) when substituted for the HIV enhancer/promoter proximal region was found to drive expression in a macrophage-specific manner and was responsive to HIV Tat. The addition of a 5' methylation-dependent binding site (MDBP) and a promoter proximal Sp1 motif increased expression without altering cellular specificity. Spacing between the promoter proximal region and the TATA box was also found to influence LTR activity. Infectivity studies using chimeric LTRs within the context of a dual-tropic infectious molecular clone established that these LTRs directed HIV replication and production of infectious virions in macrophages but not primary T cells or T cell lines. This investigation demonstrates that cellular specificity can be imparted onto HIV-1 replication at the level of viral transcription and not entry

  14. Exploiting Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans in Human Neurogenesis—Controlling Lineage Specification and Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unspecialized, self-renewing stem cells have extraordinary application to regenerative medicine due to their multilineage differentiation potential. Stem cell therapies through replenishing damaged or lost cells in the injured area is an attractive treatment of brain trauma and neurodegenerative neurological disorders. Several stem cell types have neurogenic potential including neural stem cells (NSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Currently, effective use of these cells is limited by our lack of understanding and ability to direct lineage commitment and differentiation of neural lineages. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs are ubiquitous proteins within the stem cell microenvironment or niche and are found localized on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix (ECM, where they interact with numerous signaling molecules. The glycosaminoglycan (GAG chains carried by HSPGs are heterogeneous carbohydrates comprised of repeating disaccharides with specific sulfation patterns that govern ligand interactions to numerous factors including the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs and wingless-type MMTV integration site family (Wnts. As such, HSPGs are plausible targets for guiding and controlling neural stem cell lineage fate. In this review, we provide an overview of HSPG family members syndecans and glypicans, and perlecan and their role in neurogenesis. We summarize the structural changes and subsequent functional implications of heparan sulfate as cells undergo neural lineage differentiation as well as outline the role of HSPG core protein expression throughout mammalian neural development and their function as cell receptors and co-receptors. Finally, we highlight suitable biomimetic approaches for exploiting the role of HSPGs in mammalian neurogenesis to control and tailor cell differentiation into specific lineages. An improved ability to control stem cell specific neural

  15. Tree-, stand- and site-specific controls on landscape-scale patterns of transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrin Hassler, Sibylle; Weiler, Markus; Blume, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    Transpiration is a key process in the hydrological cycle, and a sound understanding and quantification of transpiration and its spatial variability is essential for management decisions as well as for improving the parameterisation and evaluation of hydrological and soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer models. For individual trees, transpiration is commonly estimated by measuring sap flow. Besides evaporative demand and water availability, tree-specific characteristics such as species, size or social status control sap flow amounts of individual trees. Within forest stands, properties such as species composition, basal area or stand density additionally affect sap flow, for example via competition mechanisms. Finally, sap flow patterns might also be influenced by landscape-scale characteristics such as geology and soils, slope position or aspect because they affect water and energy availability; however, little is known about the dynamic interplay of these controls.We studied the relative importance of various tree-, stand- and site-specific characteristics with multiple linear regression models to explain the variability of sap velocity measurements in 61 beech and oak trees, located at 24 sites across a 290 km2 catchment in Luxembourg. For each of 132 consecutive days of the growing season of 2014 we modelled the daily sap velocity and derived sap flow patterns of these 61 trees, and we determined the importance of the different controls.Results indicate that a combination of mainly tree- and site-specific factors controls sap velocity patterns in the landscape, namely tree species, tree diameter, geology and aspect. For sap flow we included only the stand- and site-specific predictors in the models to ensure variable independence. Of those, geology and aspect were most important. Compared to these predictors, spatial variability of atmospheric demand and soil moisture explains only a small fraction of the variability in the daily datasets. However, the temporal

  16. Joint-Specific Play Controller for Upper Extremity Therapy: Feasibility Study in Children With Wrist Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Megan M.; Basseches, Benjamin; Schwartz, Joel B.; Kerman, Karen; Trask, Christine; Brideau, Holly; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Challenges with any therapeutic program for children include the level of the child's engagement or adherence. Capitalizing on one of the primary learning avenues of children, play, the approach described in this article is to develop therapeutic toy and game controllers that require specific and repetitive joint movements to trigger toy/game activation. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate a specially designed wrist flexion and extension play controller in a cohort of children with upper extremity motor impairments (UEMIs). The aim was to understand the relationship among controller play activity, measures of wrist and forearm range of motion (ROM) and spasticity, and ratings of fun and difficulty. Design This was a cross-sectional study of 21 children (12 male, 9 female; 4–12 years of age) with UEMIs. Methods All children participated in a structured in-clinic play session during which measurements of spasticity and ROM were collected. The children were fitted with the controller and played with 2 toys and 2 computer games for 5 minutes each. Wrist flexion and extension motion during play was recorded and analyzed. In addition, children rated the fun and difficulty of play. Results Flexion and extension goal movements were repeatedly achieved by children during the play session at an average frequency of 0.27 Hz. At this frequency, 15 minutes of play per day would result in approximately 1,700 targeted joint motions per week. Play activity was associated with ROM measures, specifically supination, but toy perception ratings of enjoyment and difficulty were not correlated with clinical measures. Limitations The reported results may not be representative of children with more severe UEMIs. Conclusions These outcomes indicate that the therapeutic controllers elicited repetitive goal movements and were adaptable, enjoyable, and challenging for children of varying ages and UEMIs. PMID:27197824

  17. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Dijk, Hylke W; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs.

  18. Randomised controlled trial of site specific advice on school travel patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, D; DiGuiseppi, C; Gross, M; Afolabi, E; Roberts, I

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of site specific advice from a school travel coordinator on school travel patterns. Cluster randomised controlled trial of children attending 21 primary schools in the London boroughs of Camden and Islington. A post-intervention survey measured the proportion of children walking, cycling, or using public transport for travel to school, and the proportion of parents/carers very or quite worried about traffic and abduction. The proportion of schools that developed and implemented travel plans was assessed. One year post-intervention, nine of 11 intervention schools and none of 10 control schools had travel plans. Proportions of children walking, cycling, or using public transport on the school journey were similar in intervention and control schools. The proportion of parents who were very or quite worried about traffic danger was similar in the intervention (85%) and control groups (87%). However, after adjusting for baseline and other potential confounding factors we could not exclude the possibility of a modest reduction in parental concern about traffic danger as a result of the intervention. Having a school travel coordinator increased the production of school travel plans but there was no evidence that this changed travel patterns or reduced parental fears. Given the uncertainty about effectiveness, the policy of providing school travel coordinators should only be implemented within the context of a randomised controlled trial.

  19. LHCb: The LHCb Silicon Tracker - Control system specific tools and challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Saornil Gamarra, S

    2013-01-01

    The experiment control system of the LHCb experiment is continuously evolving and improving. The guidelines and structure initially defined are kept, and more common tools are made available to all sub-detectors. Although the main system control is mostly integrated and actions are executed in common for the whole LHCb experiment, there is some degree of freedom for each sub-system to implement the control system using these tools or by creating new ones. The implementation of the LHCb Silicon Tracker control system was extremely disorganized and with little documentation. This was due to either lack of time and manpower, and/or to limited experience and specifications. Despite this, the Silicon Tracker control system has behaved well during the first LHC run. It has continuously evolved since the start of operation and been adapted to the needs of operators with very different degrees of expertise. However, improvements and corrections have been made on a best effort basis due to time constraints placed by t...

  20. Host specificity of turkey and chicken Eimeria: controlled cross-transmission studies and a phylogenetic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrba, Vladimir; Pakandl, Michal

    2015-03-15

    Protozoan parasites of the Eimeria genus have undergone extensive speciation and are now represented by a myriad of species that are specialised to different hosts. These species are highly host-specific and usually parasitise single host species, with only few reported exceptions. Doubts regarding the strict host specificity were frequent in the original literature describing coccidia parasitising domestic turkeys. The availability of pure characterised lines of turkey and chicken Eimeria species along with the recently developed quantitative PCR identification of these species allowed to investigate the issue of host specificity using well-controlled cross-transmission experiments. Seven species of gallinaceous birds (Gallus gallus, Meleagris gallopavo, Alectoris rufa, Perdix perdix, Phasianus colchicus, Numida meleagris and Colinus virginianus) were inoculated with six species and strains of turkey Eimeria and six species of chicken coccidia and production of oocysts was monitored. Turkey Eimeria species E. dispersa, E. innocua and E. meleagridis could complete their development in the hosts from different genera or even different families. Comparison of phylogenetic positions of these Eimeria species according to 18S rDNA and COI showed that the phylogeny cannot explain the observed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that the adaptation of Eimeria parasites to foreign hosts is possible and might play a significant role in the evolution and diversification of this genus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis of Isomeric Phosphoubiquitin Chains Reveals that Phosphorylation Controls Deubiquitinase Activity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Huguenin-Dezot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin is post-translationally modified by phosphorylation at several sites, but the consequences of these modifications are largely unknown. Here, we synthesize multi-milligram quantities of ubiquitin phosphorylated at serine 20, serine 57, and serine 65 via genetic code expansion. We use these phosphoubiquitins for the enzymatic assembly of 20 isomeric phosphoubiquitin dimers, with different sites of isopeptide linkage and/or phosphorylation. We discover that phosphorylation of serine 20 on ubiquitin converts UBE3C from a dual-specificity E3 ligase into a ligase that primarily synthesizes K48 chains. We profile the activity of 31 deubiquitinases on the isomeric phosphoubiquitin dimers in 837 reactions, and we discover that phosphorylation at distinct sites in ubiquitin can activate or repress cleavage of a particular linkage by deubiquitinases and that phosphorylation at a single site in ubiquitin can control the specificity of deubiquitinases for distinct ubiquitin linkages.

  2. Enhanced specific capacitance of modified needle cokes by controlling oxidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Choi, In-Sik; Soo Kim, Hyun; Tack Kim, Yu

    2010-01-01

    The electric double-layer performance of needle cokes can be affected by the morphology of structures. Hence, we introduce modified needle cokes by using simple oxidation treatment. The degree of graphitization with high specific capacitance is controlled by acid and heat treatment. The active sites of cokes are increased with increasing oxidation time. Dilute nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3 ) are used for the activation of cokes. In this case, the interlayer distance is dramatically increased from 3.5 to 8.9 A. The specific capacitances are 33 F g -1 and 30 F ml -1 , respectively, on a two-electrode system with a potential range of 0-2.5 V. The behaviors of double-layer capacitance are demonstrated by the charge-discharge process and the morphologies of modified needle cokes are analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM, BET and elemental analysis.

  3. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  4. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  5. ONE FINANCIAL REPORTING GLOBAL LANGUAGE: THE ULTIMATE GOAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Limijaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the extent to which international accounting standards is applied and whether it is the ultimate goal. Up until the end of 2016, approximately there are 84% of the 149 jurisdictions analysed which require IFRS for all or most domestic publicly accountable entities. This may indicate that we are not that much further from having a single set of globally-accepted accounting standards. However, there is more to financial reporting than just accounting standards alone, such as the political aspect of accounting standard-setting, translation issues surrounding IFRS adoption, the US position and the complexity of financial reporting. Improving financial reporting quality needs more than just having global accounting standards, rather, it is also essential to consider the preparers’ incentives and other institutions surrounding the firm. Stakeholders need to broaden the perspective when viewing financial reporting, so that it will not be focused merely on accounting standards alone.

  6. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  7. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  8. Novel Genes Involved in Controlling Specification of Drosophila FMRFamide Neuropeptide Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivik, Caroline; Bahrampour, Shahrzad; Ulvklo, Carina; Nilsson, Patrik; Angel, Anna; Fransson, Fredrik; Lundin, Erika; Renhorn, Jakob; Thor, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    The expression of neuropeptides is often extremely restricted in the nervous system, making them powerful markers for addressing cell specification . In the developing Drosophila ventral nerve cord, only six cells, the Ap4 neurons, of some 10,000 neurons, express the neuropeptide FMRFamide (FMRFa). Each Ap4/FMRFa neuron is the last-born cell generated by an identifiable and well-studied progenitor cell, neuroblast 5-6 (NB5-6T). The restricted expression of FMRFa and the wealth of information regarding its gene regulation and Ap4 neuron specification makes FMRFa a valuable readout for addressing many aspects of neural development, i.e., spatial and temporal patterning cues, cell cycle control, cell specification, axon transport, and retrograde signaling. To this end, we have conducted a forward genetic screen utilizing an Ap4-specific FMRFa-eGFP transgenic reporter as our readout. A total of 9781 EMS-mutated chromosomes were screened for perturbations in FMRFa-eGFP expression, and 611 mutants were identified. Seventy-nine of the strongest mutants were mapped down to the affected gene by deficiency mapping or whole-genome sequencing. We isolated novel alleles for previously known FMRFa regulators, confirming the validity of the screen. In addition, we identified novel essential genes, including several with previously undefined functions in neural development. Our identification of genes affecting most major steps required for successful terminal differentiation of Ap4 neurons provides a comprehensive view of the genetic flow controlling the generation of highly unique neuronal cell types in the developing nervous system. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary causes and proximate (mechanistic correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life, whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our

  10. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  11. Turbine Control System Replacement at NPP NEK; System Specifics, Project Experience and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.; Zilavy, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The main intention of this paper is to present feedback from the implementation of the new Turbine Control System (TCS) replacement project at Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) NEK - Krsko. From the plant construction time and the first plant start-up in 1981, the NPP NEK TG (Turbine-Generator) set was controlled and monitored by DEH (Digital Electro Hydraulic) Mod II Control System designed in 70's based on P2500 CPU and number of I/O controllers and modules. The P2500 CPU and associated controllers were built with discrete TTL components (TTL logic chips) and the P2500 CPU had 64k of 16 bit words of ferrite core memory. For that time, DEH Mod II had sophisticated MCR (Main Control Room) HMI (Human Machine Interface) based on digital functional keyboards, one alphanumeric black and white CRT monitor and printer. After twenty eight years of operation and because of several other reasons that are explained in the paper, NEK decided to replace the old DEH Mod II Control system with the new Emerson Ovation based DCS (Distributed Control System) on redundant platform for the control and monitoring of secondary plant systems in the NPP Krsko (NEK), and the new system was named PDEH (Programmable Digital Electro Hydraulic) TCS. In May 2007, NEK signed the turn-key contract with Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) for the project of replacement of the TCS, Turbine Emergency Trip System (ETS), Moisture Separator Reheater (MSR) control and some other control and monitoring functions. WEC subcontracted a number of other companies for equipment delivery, AE (Architect Engineering Design) activities, specific software development tasks (changes of KFSS - Krsko Full Scope Simulator and PIS - Process Information System interface) and field installation activities. The subject project enveloped implementation of PDEH system on three application platforms: BG KFSS (Background KFSS), FG KFSS (Foreground KFSS) and PDEH system installed in the plant. The HMI for the BG KFSS platform

  12. Understanding the mechanism of nanotube synthesis for controlled production of specific (n,m) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resasco, Daniel E.

    2010-02-11

    This report shows the extensive research on the mechanism responsible for the formation of single walled carbon nanotubes in order to get control over their structural parameters (diameter and chirality). Catalyst formulations, pre-treatment conditions, and reaction conditions are described in detail as well as mechanisms to produce nanotubes structures of specific arrays (vertical forest, nanotube pillars). Applications of SWNT in different fields are also described in this report. In relation to this project five students have graduated (3 PhD and 2 MS) and 35 papers have been published.

  13. Tunable translational control using site-specific unnatural amino acid incorporation in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Translation of target gene transcripts in Escherichia coli harboring UAG amber stop codons can be switched on by the amber-codon-specific incorporation of an exogenously supplied unnatural amino acid, 3-iodo-L-tyrosine. Here, we report that this translational switch can control the translational efficiency at any intermediate magnitude by adjustment of the 3-iodo-L-tyrosine concentration in the medium, as a tunable translational controller. The translational efficiency of a target gene reached maximum levels with 10−5 M 3-iodo-L-tyrosine, and intermediate levels were observed with suboptimal concentrations (approximately spanning a 2-log10 concentration range, 10−7–10−5 M. Such intermediate-level expression was also confirmed in individual bacteria.

  14. Sport Skill-Specific Expertise Biases Sensory Integration for Spatial Referencing and Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalassinos, Michalis; Fotiadis, Giorgos; Arabatzi, Fotini; Isableu, Brice; Hatzitaki, Vassilia

    2017-09-15

    The authors asked how sport expertise modulates visual field dependence and sensory reweighting for controlling posture. Experienced soccer athletes, ballet dancers, and nonathletes performed (a) a Rod and Frame test and (b) a 100-s bipedal stance task during which vision and proprioception were successively or concurrently disrupted in 20-s blocks. Postural adaptation was assessed in the mean center of pressure displacement, root mean square of center of pressure velocity and ankle muscles integrated electromyography activity. Soccer athletes were more field dependent than were nonathletes. During standing, dancers were more destabilized by vibration and required more time to reweigh sensory information compared with the other 2 groups. These findings reveal a sport skill-specific bias in the reweighing of sensory inputs for spatial orientation and postural control.

  15. High-Level software requirements specification for the TWRS controlled baseline database system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, S.G.

    1998-01-01

    This Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is an as-built document that presents the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Controlled Baseline Database (TCBD) in its current state. It was originally known as the Performance Measurement Control System (PMCS). Conversion to the new system name has not occurred within the current production system. Therefore, for simplicity, all references to TCBD are equivalent to PMCS references. This SRS will reference the PMCS designator from this point forward to capture the as-built SRS. This SRS is written at a high-level and is intended to provide the design basis for the PMCS. The PMCS was first released as the electronic data repository for cost, schedule, and technical administrative baseline information for the TAAS Program. During its initial development, the PMCS was accepted by the customer, TARS Business Management, with no formal documentation to capture the initial requirements

  16. Location specific solidification microstructure control in electron beam melting of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narra, Sneha P.; Cunningham, Ross; Beuth, Jack; Rollett, Anthony D.

    2018-01-01

    Relationships between prior beta grain size in solidified Ti-6Al-4V and melting process parameters in the Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process are investigated. Samples are built by varying a machine-dependent proprietary speed function to cover the process space. Optical microscopy is used to measure prior beta grain widths and assess the number of prior beta grains present in a melt pool in the raster region of the build. Despite the complicated evolution of beta grain sizes, the beta grain width scales with melt pool width. The resulting understanding of the relationship between primary machine variables and prior beta grain widths is a key step toward enabling the location specific control of as-built microstructure in the EBM process. Control of grain width in separate specimens and within a single specimen is demonstrated.

  17. Physically consistent data assimilation method based on feedback control for patient-specific blood flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Satoshi; Adib, Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wada, Shigeo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel data assimilation method for patient-specific blood flow analysis based on feedback control theory called the physically consistent feedback control-based data assimilation (PFC-DA) method. In the PFC-DA method, the signal, which is the residual error term of the velocity when comparing the numerical and reference measurement data, is cast as a source term in a Poisson equation for the scalar potential field that induces flow in a closed system. The pressure values at the inlet and outlet boundaries are recursively calculated by this scalar potential field. Hence, the flow field is physically consistent because it is driven by the calculated inlet and outlet pressures, without any artificial body forces. As compared with existing variational approaches, although this PFC-DA method does not guarantee the optimal solution, only one additional Poisson equation for the scalar potential field is required, providing a remarkable improvement for such a small additional computational cost at every iteration. Through numerical examples for 2D and 3D exact flow fields, with both noise-free and noisy reference data as well as a blood flow analysis on a cerebral aneurysm using actual patient data, the robustness and accuracy of this approach is shown. Moreover, the feasibility of a patient-specific practical blood flow analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Organ-specific autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes mellitus: Screening with respect to glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ghada A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is a tissue-specific autoimmune disease and often associated with other autoimmune diseases; so our study aimed to define the occurrence of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb and thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb in autoimmune thyroid disease (AIT, tissue transglutaminase antibody (TTGAb in celiac disease, And to evaluate the relationship between the presence of these antibodies and glycemic control. Our retrospective study included 60 Kuwaiti patients with T1D who attended and follow in Diabetes outpatient clinics of Kuwait primary health care centers during the period of 2014-2015. For them, recorded data for age, sex, duration of diabetes, Body Mass Index (BMI, HbA1c was reviewed. Patients were screened for the presence of Specific antibodies to islet antigens (ICAb, glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADAb, insulin autoantibodies (IAA, TPOAb, TGAb, TTGAb and also thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH were measured by ELISA. Of the total 60 patients (20 men, 40women, mean age was17.95 ± (5.44 y; the mean duration of diabetes was 6.63 ± (4.27 y; mean HbA1c was 10.41± (1.96 %. Only 58 (96.7% wer e positive for GADAb, 32 (53.3% were positive for ICAb, and 48 (80% were positive for IAA, 14 (23.3% patients were positive for TPOAb, 11 (18.3% were positive for TGAb, 10 (16.7 % were positive for both TPOAb and TGAb; furthermore 8 (13.3% patients were positive for TTGAb. Neither organ-specific autoimmune disease (AIT and celiac disease nor pancreatic β cells autoantibodies had a significant association with the glycemic control. In our study, we confirmed the high prevalence of a second organ-specific autoimmune disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Also Subclinical forms of these disorders have no influence on diabetes control. Further research will be necessary to test these relationships in a prospective follow-up study

  19. Investigation of the cofactor controlled substrate specificity of yeast inorganic pyrophosphatase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaway-Mariano, D.; Barry, R.J.; Brush, T.; Ting, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The PPase reaction requires the participation of three metal ion cofactors. One metal ion binds to PP activating it for reaction and the other two bind to the enzyme activating it for catalysis. Of the metal ions tested only Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ , Mn 2+ can perform all these roles. Most trivalent metal ions can function to activate the PP for reaction but cannot activate the enzyme for catalysis. The Mg 2+ activated enzyme is specific for M-PP and M-PPS complexes while the Zn 2+ activated enzyme also acts on metal complexes of PPP, PPPOR, PPOR and PPF. 18 O-Incorporation studies show that the substituted phosphoryl group of the unsymmetrical PP complexes always serves as the leaving group. To gain insight into the mechanism of the cofactor control over the substrate specificity the order of substrate/cofactor binding to the enzyme was examined. Dead end inhibition studies in which Cr(III)PP served as substrate and Mg 2+ as cofactor indicate that the mechanism is rapid equilibrium ordered (CrPP binds first) while dead end inhibitor induced activator inhibition studies with Mg 2+ and MgPP indicate that the kinetic mechanism is steady state preferred order. Cofactor-enzyme binding was studied as a function of substrate structure and the results obtained rule out interference of Mg 2+ binding by substrate analogs as an explanation for the different substrate specificities of the Zn 2+ and Mg 2+ activated enzymes

  20. DREAM Controls the On/Off Switch of Specific Activity-Dependent Transcription Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellström, Britt; Sahún, Ignasi; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Murtra, Patricia; Gomez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Savignac, Magali; Oliveros, Juan C.; Gonzalez, Paz; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Knafo, Shira; Zhuo, Min; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Errington, Michael L.; Maldonado, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier; Jefferys, John G. R.; Bliss, Tim V. P.; Dierssen, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Changes in nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis activate specific gene expression programs and are central to the acquisition and storage of information in the brain. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator), also known as calsenilin/KChIP-3 (K+ channel interacting protein 3), is a Ca2+-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca2+-dependent manner. To study the function of DREAM in the brain, we used transgenic mice expressing a Ca2+-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM). Using genome-wide analysis, we show that DREAM regulates the expression of specific activity-dependent transcription factors in the hippocampus, including Npas4, Nr4a1, Mef2c, JunB, and c-Fos. Furthermore, DREAM regulates its own expression, establishing an autoinhibitory feedback loop to terminate activity-dependent transcription. Ablation of DREAM does not modify activity-dependent transcription because of gene compensation by the other KChIP family members. The expression of daDREAM in the forebrain resulted in a complex phenotype characterized by loss of recurrent inhibition and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus and impaired learning and memory. Our results indicate that DREAM is a major master switch transcription factor that regulates the on/off status of specific activity-dependent gene expression programs that control synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. PMID:24366545

  1. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  2. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  3. ULtiMATE system for rapid assembly of customized TAL effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiao Yang

    Full Text Available Engineered TAL-effector nucleases (TALENs and TALE-based constructs have become powerful tools for eukaryotic genome editing. Although many methods have been reported, it remains a challenge for the assembly of designer-based TALE repeats in a fast, precise and cost-effective manner. We present an ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector system for speedy and accurate assembly of customized TALE constructs. This method takes advantage of uracil-specific excision reagent (USER to create multiple distinct sticky ends between any neighboring DNA fragments for specific ligation. With pre-assembled templates, multiple TALE DNA-binding domains could be efficiently assembled in order within hours with minimal manual operation. This system has been demonstrated to produce both functional TALENs for effective gene knockout and TALE-mediated gene-specific transcription activation (TALE-TA. The feature of both ease-of-operation and high efficiency of ULtiMATE system makes it not only an ideal method for biologic labs, but also an approach well suited for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions.

  4. Statistical process control analysis for patient-specific IMRT and VMAT QA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghangthum, Taweap; Suriyapee, Sivalee; Srisatit, Somyot; Pawlicki, Todd

    2013-05-01

    This work applied statistical process control to establish the control limits of the % gamma pass of patient-specific intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA), and to evaluate the efficiency of the QA process by using the process capability index (Cpml). A total of 278 IMRT QA plans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were measured with MapCHECK, while 159 VMAT QA plans were undertaken with ArcCHECK. Six megavolts with nine fields were used for the IMRT plan and 2.5 arcs were used to generate the VMAT plans. The gamma (3%/3 mm) criteria were used to evaluate the QA plans. The % gamma passes were plotted on a control chart. The first 50 data points were employed to calculate the control limits. The Cpml was calculated to evaluate the capability of the IMRT/VMAT QA process. The results showed higher systematic errors in IMRT QA than VMAT QA due to the more complicated setup used in IMRT QA. The variation of random errors was also larger in IMRT QA than VMAT QA because the VMAT plan has more continuity of dose distribution. The average % gamma pass was 93.7% ± 3.7% for IMRT and 96.7% ± 2.2% for VMAT. The Cpml value of IMRT QA was 1.60 and VMAT QA was 1.99, which implied that the VMAT QA process was more accurate than the IMRT QA process. Our lower control limit for % gamma pass of IMRT is 85.0%, while the limit for VMAT is 90%. Both the IMRT and VMAT QA processes are good quality because Cpml values are higher than 1.0.

  5. Organization of a system of guarantee of quality for the control of specifications of chemical reagents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante Gutierrez, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Analytic methods were implemented based on valuations acid-base and redox for the quantitative determination of sodium hidroxid, iodine and iron chloride III, like part of a system of quality for the technical specifications of these reagents. The planning of its system of quality includes two fundamental parts: insurance and control of quality. In the insurance part the state of operation of the team that you uses settled down, gauges the one that achieve to maintain under the supervision of a single operator (electronic equip and glassware) and the design of the appropriate documents settled down to carry out the periodic supervision of the acting of the same ones and other aspects characteristic of the system (experimental results). Also protocolized and validated the analytic methods to use following the approaches of precision given by ASTM, organism whose methodologies are recognized in the country like official; other procedures, as that of calibration of the volumetric equipments, they were also protocolized. In the part of control of quality, the limits settled down and procedures were applied the scales and used other, to the necessary distilled water to carry out the determinations and to the used chemical reagents. With base in the obtained results you determines that the analyzed reagents fulfill the specifications of ACS (and with those reported by the maker) at the same time settled down that the laboratory 09 of the Chemistry School, used in a large part of development of this project, it didn't fulfill the necessary requirements so that it works as laboratory of control of quality. As an alternative, the administration of the School outlines as solution the use of the Laboratory of Insurance of the Quality from the Unit of Service to the Industry for such end [es

  6. Tissue-specific control of latent CMV reactivation by regulatory T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Almanan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV causes a persistent, lifelong infection. CMV persists in a latent state and undergoes intermittent subclinical viral reactivation that is quelled by ongoing T cell responses. While T cells are critical to maintain control of infection, the immunological factors that promote CMV persistence remain unclear. Here, we investigated the role of regulatory T cells (Treg in a mouse model of latent CMV infection using Foxp3-diphtheria toxin receptor (Foxp3-DTR mice. Eight months after infection, MCMV had established latency in the spleen, salivary gland, lung, and pancreas, which was accompanied by an increased frequency of Treg. Administration of diphtheria toxin (DT after establishment of latency efficiently depleted Treg and drove a significant increase in the numbers of functional MCMV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Strikingly, Treg depletion decreased the number of animals with reactivatable latent MCMV in the spleen. Unexpectedly, in the same animals, ablation of Treg drove a significant increase in viral reactivation in the salivary gland that was accompanied with augmented local IL-10 production by Foxp3-CD4+T cells. Further, neutralization of IL-10 after Treg depletion significantly decreased viral load in the salivary gland. Combined, these data show that Treg have divergent control of MCMV infection depending upon the tissue. In the spleen, Treg antagonize CD8+ effector function and promote viral persistence while in the salivary gland Treg prevent IL-10 production and limit viral reactivation and replication. These data provide new insights into the organ-specific roles of Treg in controlling the reactivation of latent MCMV infection.

  7. Tissue architecture: the ultimate regulator of breast epithelial function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissell, Mina J; Rizki, Aylin; Mian, Saira

    2003-10-20

    A problem in developmental biology that continues to take center stage is how higher organisms generate diverse tissues and organs given the same cellular genotype. In cell and tumor biology, the key question is not the production of form, but its preservation: how do tissues and organs maintain homeostasis, and how do cells within tissues lose or overcome these controls in cancer? Undoubtedly, mechanisms that maintain tissue specificity should share features with those employed to drive formation of the tissues. However, they are unlikely to be identical. At a simplistic level, developmental pathways may be thought of as a series of extremely rapid short-term events. Each new step depends on what came before, and the outcome is the organism itself at birth. All organs, with a few notable exceptions, such as the mammary gland and the brain, 'arrive' together and are complete when the organism is born. In mice and humans, these events occur in a mere 21 days and 9 months respectively. The stability of the differentiated state and the homeostasis of the organism, on the other hand, will last 40-110 times longer. How does the organism achieve this feat? How are tissues maintained? These questions also relate fundamentally to how tissues become malignant and, although not discussed here, to aging. While there is much literature on differentiation - loosely defined as the gain of a single or a series of functions - we know much less about the forces and the pathways that maintain organ morphology and function as a unit. This may be partly because it is difficult to study a tissue as a unit in vivo and there are few techniques that allow maintenance of organs in vitro long enough and in such a way as to make cell and molecular biology experiments possible. Techniques for culturing cells in three-dimensional gels (3D) as a surrogate for tissues, however, have been steadily improving and the method is now used by several laboratories. In this commentary we

  8. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  9. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  10. Ultimate storage of radioactive wastes annual report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is a cooperative effort by the Company for Radiation and Environmental Research, Munich, and the Company for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe, and provides a survey of work carried out during 1973 in the area of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes. Mining and construction works which were carried out in the Asse Salt Mine near Remlingen both underground as well as above the ground and which were used for repair, maintenance and expansion of the operation consistent with its future tasks are reported. The storage of low-level wastes at the 750 m level and also the test-oriented storage of medium-level waste materials at the 490 m level were carried out within the reporting period. Shielded storage casks S7V developed by the GfK were used for the first time in September for transporting 200 l iron-hooped drums filled with medium-level radioactive wastes to Asse, each shipment always containing seven drums. With two round-trips a week taking place between the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe and the Asse II shaft installation, 14 drums were brought each week so that, by the end of the year, the quantity in storage amounted to a total of 233 drums. Further information is provided concerning the present status of research work in the fields of oromechanics, geology and hydrology as well as other findings. Further, storage techniques are discussed which are presently in the planning stage

  11. Thermal performance measurements on ultimate heat sinks--cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.; Abbey, O.B.

    1977-12-01

    The primary objective of the studies described is to obtain the requisite data, with respect to modeling requirements, to characterize thermal performance of heat sinks for nuclear facilities existing at elevated water temperatures in result of experiencing a genuinely large heat load and responding to meteorological influence. The data should reflect thermal performance for combinations leading to worst-case meteorological influence. A geothermal water retention basin has been chosen as the site for the first measurement program and data have been obtained in the first of several experiments scheduled to be performed there. These data illustrate the thermal and water budgets during episodes of cooling from an initially high pond water bulk temperature. Monitoring proceeded while the pond experienced only meteorological and seepage influence. The data are discussed and are presented as a data volume which may be used for calculation purposes. Suggestions for future measurement programs are stated with the intent to maintain and improve relevance to nuclear ultimate heat sinks while continuing to examine the performance of the analog geothermal pond. It is further suggested that the geothermal pond, with some modification, may be a suitable site for spray pond measurements

  12. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm 2 . The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  13. Prediction of Adolescents’ Glycemic Control 1 Year After Diabetes-Specific Family Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Marisa E.; Guilfoyle, Shanna M.; Dolan, Lawrence M.; Hood, Korey K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test adherence to blood glucose monitoring (BGM) as a mediator between diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] levels) for 1 year. Design Three waves of prospective data spanning 1 year. Setting Diabetes clinic in a large tertiary care children’s hospital in the Midwestern United States. Participants One hundred forty-five dyads composed of an adolescent (aged 13–18 years) with type 1 diabetes mellitus and a parent. Main Exposures Adolescent- and parent-rated diabetes-specific family conflict and mean daily BGM frequency obtained through meter downloads. Main Outcome Measure Levels of HbA1c, abstracted from the medical record. Results In separate general linear models, higher adolescent-rated family conflict scores at baseline predicted less frequent BGM at 6 months (β=−0.08 [P=.01]) and higher HbA1c levels at 12 months (β=0.08 [P=.02]). In the multivariate model including baseline conflict and BGM as predictors of HbA1c levels, BGM was a significant predictor (β=−0.24 [P=.007]) and conflict was no longer significant (β=0.05 [P=.11]), supporting the mediation hypothesis. Post hoc probing showed that BGM explained 24% of the variance in the conflict-HbA1c link. The mediation between parent-reported conflict andHbA1c levels via BGM adherence was partially supported (conflict predicting HbA1c in the zero-order equation, β=−0.24 [P=.004]; multivariate equation, β=0.06 [P=.02]), and BGM frequency explained 16% of the conflict-HbA1c link. Conclusions Diabetes-specific family conflict in adolescence predicts deteriorations in BGM and subsequent glycemic control for at least 1 year. Results support ongoing intervention research designed to reduce family conflict and thus prevent a trajectory of declining adherence and glycemic control across adolescence. PMID:21727273

  14. Specific Midgut Region Controlling the Symbiont Population in an Insect-Microbe Gut Symbiotic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Kim, Na Hyang; Jang, Ho Am; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Kim, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Many insects possess symbiotic bacteria that affect the biology of the host. The level of the symbiont population in the host is a pivotal factor that modulates the biological outcome of the symbiotic association. Hence, the symbiont population should be maintained at a proper level by the host's control mechanisms. Several mechanisms for controlling intracellular symbionts of insects have been reported, while mechanisms for controlling extracellular gut symbionts of insects are poorly understood. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a betaproteobacterial extracellular symbiont of the genus Burkholderia in the midgut symbiotic organ designated the M4 region. We found that the M4B region, which is directly connected to the M4 region, also harbors Burkholderia symbiont cells, but the symbionts therein are mostly dead. A series of experiments demonstrated that the M4B region exhibits antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial activity is specifically potent against the Burkholderia symbiont but not the cultured Burkholderia and other bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of the M4B region was detected in symbiotic host insects, reaching its highest point at the fifth instar, but not in aposymbiotic host insects, which suggests the possibility of symbiont-mediated induction of the antimicrobial activity. This antimicrobial activity was not associated with upregulation of antimicrobial peptides of the host. Based on these results, we propose that the M4B region is a specialized gut region of R. pedestris that plays a critical role in controlling the population of the Burkholderia gut symbiont. The molecular basis of the antimicrobial activity is of great interest and deserves future study. PMID:24038695

  15. A Specific Population of Reticulospinal Neurons Controls the Termination of Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvin, Laurent; Grätsch, Swantje; Trillaud-Doppia, Emilie; Gariépy, Jean-François; Büschges, Ansgar; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-06-14

    Locomotion requires the proper sequencing of neural activity to start, maintain, and stop it. Recently, brainstem neurons were shown to specifically stop locomotion in mammals. However, the cellular properties of these neurons and their activity during locomotion are still unknown. Here, we took advantage of the lamprey model to characterize the activity of a cell population that we now show to be involved in stopping locomotion. We find that these neurons display a burst of spikes that coincides with the end of swimming activity. Their pharmacological activation ends ongoing swimming, whereas the inactivation of these neurons dramatically impairs the rapid termination of swimming. These neurons are henceforth referred to as stop cells, because they play a crucial role in the termination of locomotion. Our findings contribute to the fundamental understanding of motor control and provide important details about the cellular mechanisms involved in locomotor termination. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Interpretation of the source-specific substantive control measures of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mingqing

    2015-02-01

    Being persistent, toxic, and bio-accumulative, Mercury (Hg) seriously affects the environment and human health. Due to Hg's attribute of long-range environmental transport across national borders, especially through atmospheric transport, no country can fully protect its environment and human health with its own efforts, without global cooperation. The Minamata Convention on Mercury, which was formally adopted and opened for signature in October 2013, is the only global environmental regime on the control of Hg pollution. Its main substantive control measures are source-specific: its phasing-out, phasing-down, and other main substantive requirements all direct to specific categories of pollution sources through the regulation of specific sectors of the economy and social life. This Convention does not take a national quota approach to quantify the Parties' nationwide total allowable consumption or discharge of Hg or Hg compounds, nor does it quantify their nationwide total reduction requirements. This paper attempts to find the underlying reasons for this source-specific approach and offers two interpretations. One possible interpretation is that Hg might be a non-threshold pollutant, i.e., a pollutant without a risk-free value of concentration. The existence of a reference dose (RfD), reference concentration (RfC), provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI), minimal risk level (MRL) or other similar reference values of Hg does not necessarily mean that Hg cannot be regarded as non-threshold because such reference values have scientific uncertainties and may also involve policy considerations. Another interpretation is that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity. There is evidence that negotiators might have treated Hg as non-threshold, or at least accepted that Hg lacks a feasibly determinable total allowable quantity: (1) The negotiators were informed about the serious situations of the current emissions, releases, and legacy deposition; (2

  17. A Transcript-Specific eIF3 Complex Mediates Global Translational Control of Energy Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meera; Su, Dan; Scheliga, Judith S; Pluskal, Tomáš; Boronat, Susanna; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Campos, Alexandre Rosa; Qi, Feng; Hidalgo, Elena; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro; Wolf, Dieter A

    2016-08-16

    The multi-subunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3 is thought to assist in the recruitment of ribosomes to mRNA. The expression of eIF3 subunits is frequently disrupted in human cancers, but the specific roles of individual subunits in mRNA translation and cancer remain elusive. Using global transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic profiling, we found a striking failure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells lacking eIF3e and eIF3d to synthesize components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, leading to a defect in respiration, endogenous oxidative stress, and premature aging. Energy balance was maintained, however, by a switch to glycolysis with increased glucose uptake, upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, and strict dependence on a fermentable carbon source. This metabolic regulatory function appears to be conserved in human cells where eIF3e binds metabolic mRNAs and promotes their translation. Thus, via its eIF3d-eIF3e module, eIF3 orchestrates an mRNA-specific translational mechanism controlling energy metabolism that may be disrupted in cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring panel. Specifications and methods for testing radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roguin, Andre.

    1976-02-01

    This document will be of interest to users and makers of neutron and gamma radiations detectors in the field of nuclear reactor control and protection. Information is given which will enable users to optimize their choice and methods of using equipment, and makers to optimize their methods of fabrication. It should also serve as a model from which official specifications, technical instructions and test methods for these detectors, could be established. A detailed description is given of the appropriate parameters, terminology and notations. General specifications, operating conditions and test methods are indicated. The following detectors are studied: in-core detectors: fission ionization chambers, self powered neutron detectors (S.P.N.D.); out-core detectors: boron ionization chambers (for monitoring), boron trifluoride proportional counter tubes, boron lined proportional counter tubes, helium-3 proportional counter tubes. The devices described in the document are intended for industrial radiation monitoring applications and not for calibration standards (dosimetry) or for health physics measurement purposes. They are characterized by their fidelity, fast response, reliability and long lifetimes [fr

  19. Dosimetric characterization of an a-based EPID for quality control if patient-specific IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrinaga Cortina, Eduardo Francisco; Alfonso Laguardia, Rodolfo; Silvestre Patallo, Ileana; Garcia Yip, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic portal imaging devices, EPID for its acronym in English is a technology widely used for verification of patient positioning on linear accelerators routinely. Its use as a dosimetry device is not as widespread, although many researches in this field. It assessed the availability and versatility of the use EPID based on an amorphous silicon (a-Si) as a means of quality control specific patient for a methodology of Radiation Intensity Modulated IMRT. Dosimetric parameters were determined for the linearity of dose versus response, dispersion and sensitivity factors off-axis radiation. For absolute measurements the linearity of the dose-response relationship EPID was better than 1.1 and 1.5% for photon beams of 6 and 15mV respectively, in the range from 2 to 500 UM. The dose dependence with field size was studied and compared with the factors of dispersion in water at different depths, in agreement with those measured at 5 cm depth, Scp (z = 5cm). Off-axis sensitivity of the EPID was determined by comparing the measured profiles versus the same profiles at different depths in water. The best correspondence was observed at 5 cm depth, where the EPID response underestimates the dose to 4% for all sizes of fields in the plateau area. The EPID can be used for the evaluation of dosimetric parameters of the beam at a specific depth in water of 5 cm and a discrepancy in an acceptable maximum rate of 4%. (author)

  20. A Transcript-Specific eIF3 Complex Mediates Global Translational Control of Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Shah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The multi-subunit eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3 is thought to assist in the recruitment of ribosomes to mRNA. The expression of eIF3 subunits is frequently disrupted in human cancers, but the specific roles of individual subunits in mRNA translation and cancer remain elusive. Using global transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic profiling, we found a striking failure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells lacking eIF3e and eIF3d to synthesize components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, leading to a defect in respiration, endogenous oxidative stress, and premature aging. Energy balance was maintained, however, by a switch to glycolysis with increased glucose uptake, upregulation of glycolytic enzymes, and strict dependence on a fermentable carbon source. This metabolic regulatory function appears to be conserved in human cells where eIF3e binds metabolic mRNAs and promotes their translation. Thus, via its eIF3d-eIF3e module, eIF3 orchestrates an mRNA-specific translational mechanism controlling energy metabolism that may be disrupted in cancer.

  1. Workshop summary: detection, impact, and control of specific pathogens in animal resource facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Keith G; Riley, Lela K; Kent, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances, infectious diseases remain a threat to animal facilities, continue to affect animal health, and serve as potential confounders of experimental research. A workshop entitled Detection, Impact, and Control of Specific Pathogens in Animal Resource Facilities was sponsored by the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) and National Institutes of Aging (NIA) and held April 23-24, 2009, at the Lister Hill Conference Center on the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) Bethesda campus. The meeting brought together laboratory animal scientists and veterinarians with experience in fish, rodent, and nonhuman primate models to identify common issues and problems. Session speakers addressed (1) common practices and current knowledge of these species, (2) new technologies in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, (3) impact of environmental quality on infectious disease, (4) normal microbial flora in health and disease, (5) genetics and infectious disease, and (6) specific infectious agents and their impact on research. Attendees discussed current challenges and future needs, highlighting the importance of education and training, the funding of critical infrastructure and resource research, and the need for improved communication of disease risks and integration of these risks with strategic planning. NIH and NCRR have a strong record of supporting resource initiatives that have helped address many of these issues and recent efforts have focused on the building of consortium activities among such programs. This manuscript summarizes the presentations and conclusions of participants at the meeting; abstracts and a full conference report are available online (www.ncrr.nih.gov).

  2. Natural controlled HIV infection: Preserved HIV-specific immunity despite undetectable replication competent virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterboer, Nico; Groeneveld, Paul H.P.; Jansen, Christine A.; Vorst, Teun J.K. van der; Koning, Fransje; Winkel, Carel N.; Duits, Ashley J.; Miedema, Frank; Baarle, Debbie van; Rij, Ronald P. van; Brinkman, Kees; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    2005-01-01

    Long-term non-progressive HIV infection, characterized by low but detectable viral load and stable CD4 counts in the absence of antiviral therapy, is observed in about 5% of HIV-infected patients. Here we identified four therapy naive individuals who are strongly seropositive for HIV-1 but who lack evidence of detectable HIV p24 antigen, plasma RNA, and proviral DNA in routine diagnostic testing. With an ultrasensitive PCR, we established that frequencies of pol proviral DNA sequences were as low as 0.2-0.5 copies/10 6 PBMC. HIV could not be isolated using up to 30 x 10 6 patient PBMC. One individual was heterozygous for CCR5 Δ32, but CCR5 expression on CD4 + T cells was normal to high in all four individuals. In vitro R5 and X4 HIV-1 susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of all study subjects was significantly lower than the susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of healthy blood donors. All individuals expressed protective HLA-B*58s alleles and showed evidence of HIV-specific cellular immunity either by staining with HLA-B*57 tetramers folded with an HIV RT or gag peptide or after stimulation with HIV-1 p24 gag, RT, or nef peptides in ELIspot analysis. HIV-specific CD4 + T helper cells were demonstrated by proliferation of CD4 + T cells and intracellular staining for IL-2 and IFNγ after stimulation with an HIV-gag peptide pool. Sera of all individuals showed antibody-mediated neutralization of both R5 and X4 HIV-1 variants. These data implicate that very low-level antigen exposure is sufficient for sustained HIV-specific immunity and suggest the possibility of a multi-factorial control of HIV infection

  3. Retroviral vectors encoding ADA regulatory locus control region provide enhanced T-cell-specific transgene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Alice T; Ball, Bret G; Weber, Erin; Gallaher, Timothy K; Gluzman-Poltorak, Zoya; Anderson, French; Basile, Lena A

    2009-12-30

    Murine retroviral vectors have been used in several hundred gene therapy clinical trials, but have fallen out of favor for a number of reasons. One issue is that gene expression from viral or internal promoters is highly variable and essentially unregulated. Moreover, with retroviral vectors, gene expression is usually silenced over time. Mammalian genes, in contrast, are characterized by highly regulated, precise levels of expression in both a temporal and a cell-specific manner. To ascertain if recapitulation of endogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression can be achieved in a vector construct we created a new series of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) based retroviral vector that carry human regulatory elements including combinations of the ADA promoter, the ADA locus control region (LCR), ADA introns and human polyadenylation sequences in a self-inactivating vector backbone. A MuLV-based retroviral vector with a self-inactivating (SIN) backbone, the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), as a reporter gene, was generated. Subsequent vectors were constructed from this basic vector by deletion or addition of certain elements. The added elements that were assessed are the human ADA promoter, human ADA locus control region (LCR), introns 7, 8, and 11 from the human ADA gene, and human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Retroviral vector particles were produced by transient three-plasmid transfection of 293T cells. Retroviral vectors encoding eGFP were titered by transducing 293A cells, and then the proportion of GFP-positive cells was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Non T-cell and T-cell lines were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and the yield of eGFP transgene expression was evaluated by FACS analysis using mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) detection. Vectors that contained the ADA LCR were preferentially expressed in T-cell lines. Further improvements

  4. Retroviral vectors encoding ADA regulatory locus control region provide enhanced T-cell-specific transgene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Murine retroviral vectors have been used in several hundred gene therapy clinical trials, but have fallen out of favor for a number of reasons. One issue is that gene expression from viral or internal promoters is highly variable and essentially unregulated. Moreover, with retroviral vectors, gene expression is usually silenced over time. Mammalian genes, in contrast, are characterized by highly regulated, precise levels of expression in both a temporal and a cell-specific manner. To ascertain if recapitulation of endogenous adenosine deaminase (ADA) expression can be achieved in a vector construct we created a new series of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MuLV) based retroviral vector that carry human regulatory elements including combinations of the ADA promoter, the ADA locus control region (LCR), ADA introns and human polyadenylation sequences in a self-inactivating vector backbone. Methods A MuLV-based retroviral vector with a self-inactivating (SIN) backbone, the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter (PGK) and the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), as a reporter gene, was generated. Subsequent vectors were constructed from this basic vector by deletion or addition of certain elements. The added elements that were assessed are the human ADA promoter, human ADA locus control region (LCR), introns 7, 8, and 11 from the human ADA gene, and human growth hormone polyadenylation signal. Retroviral vector particles were produced by transient three-plasmid transfection of 293T cells. Retroviral vectors encoding eGFP were titered by transducing 293A cells, and then the proportion of GFP-positive cells was determined using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Non T-cell and T-cell lines were transduced at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1 and the yield of eGFP transgene expression was evaluated by FACS analysis using mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) detection. Results Vectors that contained the ADA LCR were preferentially expressed in T

  5. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  6. HPMA Copolymer-Drug Conjugates with Controlled Tumor-Specific Drug Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytil, Petr; Koziolová, Eva; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, numerous polymer drug carrier systems are designed and synthesized, and their properties are evaluated. Many of these systems are based on water-soluble polymer carriers of low-molecular-weight drugs and compounds, e.g., cytostatic agents, anti-inflammatory drugs, or multidrug resistance inhibitors, all covalently bound to a carrier by a biodegradable spacer that enables controlled release of the active molecule to achieve the desired pharmacological effect. Among others, the synthetic polymer carriers based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers are some of the most promising carriers for this purpose. This review focuses on advances in the development of HPMA copolymer carriers and their conjugates with anticancer drugs, with triggered drug activation in tumor tissue and especially in tumor cells. Specifically, this review highlights the improvements in polymer drug carrier design with respect to the structure of a spacer to influence controlled drug release and activation, and its impact on the drug pharmacokinetics, enhanced tumor uptake, cellular trafficking, and in vivo antitumor activity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Nutrition impact symptoms in advanced cancer patients: frequency and specific interventions, a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omlin, Aurelius; Blum, David; Wierecky, Jan; Haile, Sarah R; Ottery, Faith D; Strasser, Florian

    2013-03-01

    Involuntary weight loss (IWL) is frequent in advanced cancer patients causing compromised anticancer treatment outcomes and function. Cancer cachexia is influenced by nutrition impact symptoms (NIS). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency of NIS in advanced patients and to assess specific interventions guided by a 12-item NIS checklist. Consecutive patients from an outpatient nutrition-fatigue clinic completed the NIS checklist. The NIS checklist was developed based on literature review and multiprofessional clinical expert consensus. Chart review was performed to detect defined NIS typical interventions. Oncology outpatients not seen in the nutrition-fatigue clinic were matched for age, sex, and tumor to serve as controls. In 52 nutrition-fatigue clinic patients, a mixed cancer population [IWL in 2 months 5.96 % (mean)], the five most frequent NIS were taste and smell alterations 27 %, constipation 19 %, abdominal pain 14 %, dysphagia 12 %, and epigastric pain 10 %. A statistically significant difference for NIS typical interventions in patients with taste and smell alterations (p = 0.04), constipation (p = 0.01), pain (p = 0.0001), and fatigue (p = 0.0004) were found compared to the control population [mixed cancer, 3.53 % IWL in 2 months (mean)]. NIS are common in advanced cancer patients. The NIS checklist can guide therapeutic nutrition-targeted interventions. The awareness for NIS will likely evoke more research in assessment, impact, and treatment.

  8. Can Internal Conversion BE Controlled by Mode-Specific Vibrational Excitation in Polyatomic Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnov, Alexander; Epshtein, Michael; Bar, Ilana

    2017-06-01

    Nonadiabatic processes, dominated by dynamic passage of reactive fluxes through conical intersections (CIs) are considered to be appealing means for manipulating reaction paths. One approach that is considered to be effective in controlling the course of dissociation processes is the selective excitation of vibrational modes containing a considerable component of motion. Here, we have chosen to study the predissociation of the model test molecule, methylamine and its deuterated isotopologues, excited to well-characterized quantum states on the first excited electronic state, S_{1}, by following the N-H(D) bond fission dynamics through sensitive H(D) photofragment probing. The branching ratios between slow and fast H(D) photofragments, the internal energies of their counter radical photofragments and the anisotropy parameters for fast H photofragments, confirm correlated anomalies for predissociation initiated from specific rovibronic states, reflecting the existence of a dynamic resonance in each molecule. This resonance strongly depends on the energy of the initially excited rovibronic states, the evolving vibrational mode on the repulsive S_{1} part during N-H(D) bond elongation, and the manipulated passage through the CI that leads to radicals excited with C-N-H(D) bending and preferential perpendicular bond breaking, relative to the photolyzing laser polarization, in molecules containing the NH_{2} group. The indicated resonance plays an important role in the bifurcation dynamics at the CI and can be foreseen to exist in other photoinitiated processes and to control their outcome.

  9. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding. PMID:27242810

  10. Sunflower Resistance to Broomrape (Orobanche cumana) Is Controlled by Specific QTLs for Different Parasitism Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Boniface, Marie-Claude; Pouilly, Nicolas; Velasco, Leonardo; Pérez-Vich, Begoña; Vincourt, Patrick; Muños, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape) is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation. In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with Helianthus debilis). Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i) early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii) young tubercle and (iii) shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey) and for the three stages of broomrape development. The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  11. Sunflower resistance to broomrape (Orobanche cumana is controlled by specific QTLs for different parasitism stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann eLouarn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche cumana (sunflower broomrape is an obligatory and non-photosynthetic root parasitic plant that specifically infects the sunflower. It is located in Europe and in Asia, where it can cause yield losses of over 80%. More aggressive races have evolved, mainly around the Black Sea, and broomrape can rapidly spread to new areas. Breeding for resistance seems to be the most efficient and sustainable approach to control broomrape infestation.In our study, we used a population of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, derived from a cross between the two lines HA89 and LR1 (a line derived from an interspecific cross with H. debilis. Rhizotrons, pots and field experiments were used to characterize all RILs for their resistance to O. cumana race F parasitism at three post vascular connection life stages: (i early attachment of the parasite to the sunflower roots, (ii young tubercle and (iii shoot emergence. In addition, RIL resistance to race G at young tubercle development stage was evaluated in pots. The entire population was genotyped, and QTLs were mapped. Different QTLs were identified for each race (F from Spain and G from Turkey and for the three stages of broomrape development.The results indicate that there are several quantitative resistance mechanisms controlling the infection by O. cumana that can be used in sunflower breeding.

  12. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Joonwon, E-mail: joonwonbae@gmail.com [Department of Applied Chemistry, Dongduk Women' s University, Seoul 136-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungwook [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jongnam, E-mail: jnpark@unist.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO{sub 2}) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids.

  13. System-level Specifications of the Timing and Fast Control system for the LHCb Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Alessio, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times the initial design luminosity. The various sub-systems in the readout architecture will need to be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the specifications of the new Timing and Fast Control (S- TFC) system. We define the requirements for the new S-TFC, and specify its architecture and the individual components. The system is based on a single new Readout Supervisor (S-ODIN) instantiating several S-TFC masters to allow partitioning. The communication with the readout electronics is ensured by a shared high-speed optical link network for both the distribution of timing and synchronous control information, as well as trigger/throttle communication. An interface board (SOL40) with fan-out capabilities for timing and synchronous information and fan-in capabilities for throttle and rate regulation of the...

  14. Controlled specific placement of nanoparticles into microdomains of block copolymer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kim, Jungwook; Park, Jongnam

    2014-01-01

    Conceptually attractive hybrid materials composed of nanoparticles and elegant block copolymers have become important for diverse applications. In this work, controlled specific placement of nanoparticles such as gold (Au) and titania (TiO 2 ) into microphase separated domains in poly(styrene)-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) block copolymer thin films was demonstrated. The effect of nanoparticle surface functionality on the spatial location of particles inside polymer film was observed by transmission electron microscopy. It was revealed that the location of nanoparticles was highly dependent on the surface ligand property of nanoparticle. In addition, the microphase separation behavior of thin block copolymer film was also affected by the nanoparticle surface functional groups. This study might provide a way to understand the properties and behaviors of numerous block copolymer/nanoparticle hybrid systems. - Highlights: • Controlled location of nanoparticles in the block copolymer matrix • Tailoring surface functionality of metal nanocrystals • Fabrication of homogeneous nanocomposites using organic inorganic components • Possibility for the preparation of nanohybrids

  15. Lifetime total and beverage specific - alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carruba Giuseppe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated lifetime alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk in a case-control study conducted in Buffalo, NY (1998–2001. Methods The study included 88 men, aged 45 to 85 years with incident, histologically-confirmed prostate cancer and 272 controls. We conducted extensive in-person interviews regarding lifetime alcohol consumption and other epidemiologic data. Results Prostate cancer risk was not associated with lifetime intake of total and beverage specific ethanol. In addition we found no association with number of drinks per day (average drinks per day over the lifetime or drinks per drinking day (average drinks per day on drinking days only over the lifetime. However, we observed an inverse association with the total number of drinking years. Men in the lowest tertile of total drinking years had a two-fold prostate cancer risk than men in the highest tertile (OR 2.16, 95% CI 0.98–4.78, p for trend Conclusion Our results suggest that alcohol intake distribution across lifetime may play a more important role in prostate cancer etiology than total lifetime consumption.

  16. Multilingual home environment and specific language impairment: a case-control study in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuk, Daniel Ka Leung; Wong, Virginia; Leung, Gabriel Matthew

    2005-07-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI) is a common developmental disorder in young children. To investigate the association between multilingual home environment and SLI, we conducted a case-control study in Hong Kong Chinese children over a 4-year period in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. Consecutive medical records of all new referrals below 5 years of age were reviewed and children diagnosed with SLI (case) were compared with those referred with other developmental and behavioural problems who had been assessed as having normal language and overall development (control) using the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale. SLI was defined as those with a language quotient more than one standard deviation below the mean and below the general developmental quotient in children with normal general developmental quotient, but without neurological or other organic diseases. We used binary and ordinal logistic regression to assess any association between SLI and multilingual exposure at home, adjusting for age and gender of subjects, parental age, education level and occupational status, number of siblings, family history of language delay and main caregiver at home. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the effect of covariates on the language comprehension and expression standard scores assessed by the Reynell Developmental Language Scale. A total of 326 cases and 304 controls were included. The mean ages of cases and controls were 2.56 and 2.89 years respectively. Boys predominated in both groups (cases, 75.2%; controls, 60.2%). The children were exposed to between one and four languages at home, the major ones being Cantonese Chinese followed by English. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SLI was 2.94; [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82, 4.74] for multilingual compared with monolingual exposure. A significant linear dose-response relationship was found (OR of SLI = 2.58 [1.72, 3.88] for each additional language to which the child was exposed). Male

  17. S3QL: A distributed domain specific language for controlled semantic integration of life sciences data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lencastre Hermínia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The value and usefulness of data increases when it is explicitly interlinked with related data. This is the core principle of Linked Data. For life sciences researchers, harnessing the power of Linked Data to improve biological discovery is still challenged by a need to keep pace with rapidly evolving domains and requirements for collaboration and control as well as with the reference semantic web ontologies and standards. Knowledge organization systems (KOSs can provide an abstraction for publishing biological discoveries as Linked Data without complicating transactions with contextual minutia such as provenance and access control. We have previously described the Simple Sloppy Semantic Database (S3DB as an efficient model for creating knowledge organization systems using Linked Data best practices with explicit distinction between domain and instantiation and support for a permission control mechanism that automatically migrates between the two. In this report we present a domain specific language, the S3DB query language (S3QL, to operate on its underlying core model and facilitate management of Linked Data. Results Reflecting the data driven nature of our approach, S3QL has been implemented as an application programming interface for S3DB systems hosting biomedical data, and its syntax was subsequently generalized beyond the S3DB core model. This achievement is illustrated with the assembly of an S3QL query to manage entities from the Simple Knowledge Organization System. The illustrative use cases include gastrointestinal clinical trials, genomic characterization of cancer by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA and molecular epidemiology of infectious diseases. Conclusions S3QL was found to provide a convenient mechanism to represent context for interoperation between public and private datasets hosted at biomedical research institutions and linked data formalisms.

  18. Design proposal for ultimate shear strength of tapered steel plate girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bedynek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental and numerical studies on prismatic plate girders subjected to shear can be found in the literature. However, the real structures are frequently designed as non-uniform structural elements. The main objective of the research is the development of a new proposal for the calculation of the ultimate shear resistance of tapered steel plate girders taking into account the specific behaviour of such members. A new mechanical model is presented in the paper and it is used to show the differences between the behaviour of uniform and tapered web panels subjected to shear. EN 1993-1-5 design specifications for the determination of the shear strength for rectangular plates are improved in order to assess the shear strength of tapered elements. Numerical studies carried out on tapered steel plate girders subjected to shear lead to confirm the suitability of the mechanical model and the proposed design expression.

  19. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  20. Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moelholt Jensen, Find

    2008-05-15

    of the profile, also called 'local deformations', to verify a more complex response than that of a Bernoulli-Euler Beam. A large number of mechanical displacement sensors and strain gauges were mounted inside and outside the structure. These measurements further proved highly useful when validating Finite Element based analysis and failure mechanisms should be decided. Finally, comparisons of the ultimate failure loads observed in the full-scale tests are presented and conclusions are drawn based on the mechanisms found. (au)

  1. Ultimate resistance of a reinforced concrete foundation under impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Forasassi, G.; Marconi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of a spent nuclear fuel cask against a reinforced concrete slab of a temporary repository for spent nuclear fuel is numerically analysed. The analysis considers accidental events in which a spent nuclear fuel cask would drop against the floor of a repository during lifting operations. Two types of solutions have been taken into account: a simple reinforced concrete structure and a structure provided with a 40 mm thick steel liner on the impacted surface, connected to a 1600 mm thick concrete bed. The model is assumed to be axisymmetric and positioned on an elastic ground (Winkler model). The concrete has been simulated as: elastic perfectly plastic under compressive stresses limited by a crushing strain; elastic linear under tensile stresses until a cracking stress value and a following decrease of stress characterized by a constant or variable softening modulus; limited ability to resist at shear stresses after cracking characterized by a shear retention factor. The steel of the reinforcement bars and of the cask has been simulated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. Several numerical simulations have been performed in order to determine the influence, on the ultimate resistance of the structure under examination, of the steel liner, of some characteristic parameters of concrete (as the softening module and the shear retention factor) and of the Winkler coefficient values, simulating the elastic behaviour of the ground. The obtained results demonstrate that a steel liner produces a lower stress in the concrete as well as in the reinforcement but the bed is still subjected to the cracking phenomenon throughout its entire width although the crushing is localized to only a few elements near the impact zone. The use of a more complex constitutive equation for the concrete considering the shear retention factor and the softening module has given results which do not differ greatly from those related to a more simplified model. A different degree of

  2. Using formal specification in the Guidance and Control Software (GCS) experiment. Formal design and verification technology for life critical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Doug; Jamsek, Damir

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this task was to investigate how formal methods could be incorporated into a software engineering process for flight-control systems under DO-178B and to demonstrate that process by developing a formal specification for NASA's Guidance and Controls Software (GCS) Experiment. GCS is software to control the descent of a spacecraft onto a planet's surface. The GCS example is simplified from a real example spacecraft, but exhibits the characteristics of realistic spacecraft control software. The formal specification is written in Larch.

  3. Meaningful task-specific training (MTST) for stroke rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Kamal Narayan; Verma, Rajesh; Garg, R K; Sharma, V P; Agarwal, Monika; Aggarwal, G G

    2012-01-01

    The upper extremity motor deficit is one of the functional challenges in post stroke patients. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the meaningful task-specific training (MTST) on the upper extremity motor recovery during the subacute phase after a stroke. This was a randomized, controlled, double-blinded trial in the neurology department of a university hospital and occupational therapy unit of a rehabilitation institute. A convenience sample of 103 people, 4 to 24 weeks (mean, 12.15 weeks) after the stroke, was randomized into 2 groups (MTST, 51; standard training group, 52). Subjects in the Brunnstrom stage of arm recovery of 2 to 5 were included in the study. Ninety-five participants completed the 8-week follow-up. Participants were assigned to receive either the MTST or dose-matched standard training program based on the Brunnstrom stage and Bobath neurodevelopmental technique, 4 to 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Graded Wolf Motor Function Test (GWMFT), and Motor Activity Log (MAL) were outcome measures The MTST group showed a positive improvement in the mean scores on the outcome measures at post and follow-up assessments in comparison to the control group. Further, statistically significant differences were observed in changes between the groups at post and follow-up assessment for FMA, ARAT, GWMFT, and MAL. The MTST produced statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements in the upper extremity motor recovery of the patients who had a subacute stroke.

  4. The Efficacy of Goal Setting in Cardiac Rehabilitation-a Gender-Specific Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm-Balderjahn, Sabine; Brünger, Martin; Michel, Anne; Bongarth, Christa; Spyra, Karla

    2016-08-08

    Patients with coronary heart disease undergo cardiac rehabilitation in order to reduce their cardiovascular risk factors. Often, however, the benefit of rehabilitation is lost over time. It is unclear whether this happens in the same way to men and women. We studied whether the setting of gender-specific behavior goals with an agreement between the doctor and the patient at the end of rehabilitation can prolong its positive effects. This study was performed with a mixed-method design. It consisted of qualitative interviews and group discussions with patients, doctors and other treating personnel, and researchers, as well as a quantitative, randomized, controlled intervention trial in which data were acquired at four time points (the beginning and end of rehabilitation and then 6 and 12 months later). 545 patients, 262 of them women (48.1%), were included. The patients were assigned to a goal checking group (n = 132), a goal setting group (n = 143), and a control group (n = 270). The primary endpoints were health-related behavior (exercise, diet, tobacco consumption), subjective state of health, and medication adherence. The secondary endpoints included physiological protection and risk factors such as blood pressure, cholesterol (HDL, LDL, and total), blood sugar, HbA1c, and body-mass index. The intervention had no demonstrable effect on the primary or secondary endpoints. The percentage of smokers declined to a similar extent in all groups from the beginning of rehabilitation to 12 months after its end (overall figures: 12.4% to 8.6%, p exercise behavior, diet, and subjective state of health also improved over the entire course of the study. Women had a healthier diet than men. Subgroup analyses indicated a possible effect of the intervention on exercise behavior in women who were employed and in men who were not (pgoal setting was not demonstrated. Therefore, no indication for its routine provision can be derived from the study results.

  5. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a Specific And Safe Tool for Insect Pest Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully used bioinsecticide in the integrated pest management programs in the world. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity". Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Versatile strategy for controlling the specificity and activity of engineered T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer S. Y.; Kim, Ji Young; Kazane, Stephanie A.; Choi, Sei-hyun; Yun, Hwa Young; Kim, Min Soo; Rodgers, David T.; Pugh, Holly M.; Singer, Oded; Sun, Sophie B.; Fonslow, Bryan R.; Kochenderfer, James N.; Wright, Timothy M.; Schultz, Peter G.; Young, Travis S.; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Cao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of autologous T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has emerged as a promising cancer therapy. Despite impressive clinical efficacy, the general application of current CAR–T-cell therapy is limited by serious treatment-related toxicities. One approach to improve the safety of CAR-T cells involves making their activation and proliferation dependent upon adaptor molecules that mediate formation of the immunological synapse between the target cancer cell and T-cell. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of structurally defined semisynthetic adaptors we refer to as “switch” molecules, in which anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 antibody fragments are site-specifically modified with FITC using genetically encoded noncanonical amino acids. This approach allows the precise control over the geometry and stoichiometry of complex formation between CD19- or CD22-expressing cancer cells and a “universal” anti-FITC–directed CAR-T cell. Optimization of this CAR–switch combination results in potent, dose-dependent in vivo antitumor activity in xenograft models. The advantage of being able to titrate CAR–T-cell in vivo activity was further evidenced by reduced in vivo toxicity and the elimination of persistent B-cell aplasia in immune-competent mice. The ability to control CAR-T cell and cancer cell interactions using intermediate switch molecules may expand the scope of engineered T-cell therapy to solid tumors, as well as indications beyond cancer therapy. PMID:26759368

  7. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PRA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations form a risk perspective. The configurations of particular interest involve components which are down during power operation. Controlling plant configurations from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser control in areas unimportant to risk

  8. Nanostructuring Biomaterials with Specific Activities towards Digestive Enzymes for Controlled Gastrointestinal Absorption of Lipophilic Bioactive Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Paul; Whitby, Catherine P; Prestidge, Clive A

    2016-11-01

    This review describes the development of novel lipid-based biomaterials that modulate fat digestion for the enhanced uptake of encapsulated lipophilic bioactive compounds (e.g. drugs and vitamins). Specific focus is directed towards analysing how key material characteristics affect the biological function of digestive lipases and manipulate lipolytic digestion. The mechanism of lipase action is a complex, interfacial process, whereby hydrolysis can be controlled by the ability for lipase to access and adsorb to the lipid-in-water interface. However, significant conjecture exists within the literature regarding parameters that influence the activities of digestive lipases. Important findings from recent investigations that strategically examined the interplay between the interfacial composition of the lipid microenvironment and lipolysis kinetics in simulated biophysical environments are presented. The correlation between lipolysis and the rate of solubilisation and absorption of lipophilic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is detailed. Greater insights into the mechanism of lipase action have provided a new approach for designing colloidal carriers that orally deliver poorly soluble compounds, directly impacting the pharmaceutical and food industries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the importance of controlling film architecture in detecting prostate specific antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graça, Juliana Santos; Miyazaki, Celina Massumi; Shimizu, Flavio Makoto; Volpati, Diogo; Mejía-Salazar, J. R.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N., Jr.; Ferreira, Marystela

    2018-03-01

    Immunosensors made with nanostructured films are promising for detecting cancer biomarkers, even at early stages of the disease, but this requires control of film architecture to preserve the biological activity of immobilized antibodies. In this study, we used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to detect Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) with immunosensors produced with layer-by-layer (LbL) films containing anti-PSA antibodies in two distinct film architectures. The antibodies were either adsorbed from solutions in which they were free, or from solutions where they were incorporated into liposomes of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DPPG). Incorporation into DPPG liposomes was confirmed with surface plasmon resonance experiments, while the importance of electrostatic interactions on the electrical response was highlighted using the Finite Difference Time-Domain Method (FDTD). The sensitivity of both architectures was sufficient to detect the threshold value to diagnose prostate cancer (ca. 4 ng mL-1). In contrast to expectation, the sensor with the antibodies incorporated into DPPG liposomes had lower sensitivity, though the range of concentrations amenable to detection increased, according to the fitting of the EIS data using the Langmuir-Freundlich adsorption model. The performance of the two film architectures was compared qualitatively by plotting the data with a multidimensional projection technique, which constitutes a generic approach for optimizing immunosensors and other types of sensors.

  10. Intrauterine exposure to carbamazepine and specific congenital malformations: systematic review and case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jentink, Janneke; Dolk, Helen; Loane, Maria A

    2010-01-01

    To identify specific major congenital malformations associated with use of carbamazepine in the first trimester of pregnancy.......To identify specific major congenital malformations associated with use of carbamazepine in the first trimester of pregnancy....

  11. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  12. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Croon, E M; Blonk, R W B; de Zwart, B C H; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Broersen, J P J

    2002-06-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers (adjusted response 63%) self reported information was gathered by questionnaire on the independent variables (job control, quantitative workload, physical demands, and supervisor demands) and the dependent variables (fatigue and job dissatisfaction). Stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the main effects of job demands and job control and the interaction effect between job control and job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction. The inclusion of physical and supervisor demands in the JD-C model explained a significant amount of variance in fatigue (3%) and job dissatisfaction (7%) over and above job control and quantitative workload. Moreover, in accordance with Karasek's interaction hypothesis, job control buffered the positive relation between quantitative workload and job dissatisfaction. Despite methodological limitations, the results suggest that the inclusion of (occupation) specific job control and job demand measures is a fruitful elaboration of the JD-C model. The occupation specific JD-C model gives occupational stress researchers better insight into the relation between the psychosocial work environment and wellbeing. Moreover, the occupation specific JD-C model may give practitioners more concrete and useful information about risk factors in the psychosocial work environment. Therefore, this model may provide points of departure for effective stress reducing interventions at work.

  13. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Zwart, B.C.H. de; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Broersen, J.P.J.

    2002-01-01

    Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers. From 1181 lorry drivers self reported information was

  14. Job stress, fatigue, and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers: towards an occupation specific model of job demands and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Blonk, R. W. B.; de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Broersen, J. P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Building on Karasek's model of job demands and control (JD-C model), this study examined the effects of job control, quantitative workload, and two occupation specific job demands (physical demands and supervisor demands) on fatigue and job dissatisfaction in Dutch lorry drivers.

  15. Machine-Specific Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quality Control Procedures for Stereotactic Radiosurgery Treatment Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ali; Taghizadeh, Somayeh; Yang, Claus Chunli; R Kanakamedala, Madhava; Morris, Bart; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2017-12-18

    Purpose Magnetic resonance (MR) images are necessary for accurate contouring of intracranial targets, determination of gross target volume and evaluation of organs at risk during stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatment planning procedures. Many centers use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) simulators or regular diagnostic MRI machines for SRS treatment planning; while both types of machine require two stages of quality control (QC), both machine- and patient-specific, before use for SRS, no accepted guidelines for such QC currently exist. This article describes appropriate machine-specific QC procedures for SRS applications. Methods and materials We describe the adaptation of American College of Radiology (ACR)-recommended QC tests using an ACR MRI phantom for SRS treatment planning. In addition, commercial Quasar MRID 3D and Quasar GRID 3D phantoms were used to evaluate the effects of static magnetic field (B 0 ) inhomogeneity, gradient nonlinearity, and a Leksell G frame (SRS frame) and its accessories on geometrical distortion in MR images. Results QC procedures found in-plane distortions (Maximum = 3.5 mm, Mean = 0.91 mm, Standard deviation = 0.67 mm, >2.5 mm (%) = 2) in X-direction (Maximum = 2.51 mm, Mean = 0.52 mm, Standard deviation = 0.39 mm, > 2.5 mm (%) = 0) and in Y-direction (Maximum = 13. 1 mm , Mean = 2.38 mm, Standard deviation = 2.45 mm, > 2.5 mm (%) = 34) in Z-direction and < 1 mm distortion at a head-sized region of interest. MR images acquired using a Leksell G frame and localization devices showed a mean absolute deviation of 2.3 mm from isocenter. The results of modified ACR tests were all within recommended limits, and baseline measurements have been defined for regular weekly QC tests. Conclusions With appropriate QC procedures in place, it is possible to routinely obtain clinically useful MR images suitable for SRS treatment planning purposes. MRI examination for SRS planning can benefit from the improved localization and planning

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  17. Specific MRI quality control: development and production of a multimodal test-object. Assessment of MRI sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedieu, Veronique; Bard, Jean-Jacques; Bonnet, Jacques; Buchheit, Isabelle; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Certaines, Jacques de; Lacaze, Brigitte; Vincensini, Dominique; Joffre, Francis

    2007-02-01

    After a first part recalling the operation principle of a MRI imager and the modalities of acquisition of MRI images (base MNR experiment, image quality, technical issues, artefacts and main defects of MRI imagers), this document addresses the different types of quality control in MRI and regulatory issues. The third part presents the characteristics of a multimodal test-object which has been developed, the parameters of the specific quality control, and control procedures

  18. Relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açıkgöz Çepni, Serap; Kitiş, Yeter

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the healthy lifestyle behaviors and the health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students. The study included 572 undergraduate students of a university in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were collected with the General Characteristics Form, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Health Competence Scale and investigated with the structural equation model. Health-specific self-efficacy was an important predictor of healthy lifestyle behaviors. The Internal health locus of control influenced the healthy lifestyle behaviors through health-specific self-efficacy. The other dimension was the Powerful Others health locus of control that affected healthy lifestyle behaviors, both directly and indirectly, through health-specific self-efficacy. There was a chance that the health locus of control had a negative effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors through self-efficacy. Health-specific self-efficacy is an important prerequisite for changes in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which supports Pender's model. The subscales of the health locus of control vary in their effects on healthy lifestyle behaviors, which partly supports Pender's model. Nurses, by using this model, can examine ways of improving these cognitive-perceptual factors and implement health education programs that are directed towards improving them in young persons. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. Experimental study on ultimate strength and strain behavior of concrete under biaxial compressive stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Yukio

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the ultimate strength failure mode and deformation behavior of concrete under short-term biaxial compressive stresses, as an aid to design and analyze the concrete structures subjected to multiaxial compression such as prestressed or reinforced concrete vessel structures. The experimental work on biaxial compression was carried out on the specimens of three mix proportions and different ages with 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cubic shape in a room controlled at 20 0 C. The results are summarized as follows. (1) To minimize the surface friction between specimens and loading platens, the pads of teflon sheets coated with silicone grease were used. The coefficient of friction was measured and was 3 percent on the average. (2) The test data showed that the strength of the concrete subjected to biaxial compression increased as compared to uniaxial compressive strength, and that the biaxial strength increase was mainly dependent on the ratio of principal stresses, and it was hardly affected by mix proportions and ages. (3) The maximum increase of strength, which occurred at the stress ratio of approximately sigma 2 /sigma 1 = 0.6, was about 27 percent higher than the uniaxial strength of concrete. (4) The ultimate strength in case of biaxial compression could be approximated by the parabolic equation. (Kako, I.)

  20. Secondary Moments due to Prestressing with Different Bond at the Ultimate Limit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvoník Jaroslav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary effects of prestressing develop in statically indeterminate structures (e.g., continuous beams due to the restraint of deformations imposed by hyperstatic restraints. These effects may significantly influence internal forces and stresses in prestressed structures. Secondary effects are influenced by the redundancy of a structural system, which raises the question of whether they will remain constant after a change in the structural system, e.g., due to the development of plastic hinge(s in a critical cross-section(s or after the development of a kinematic mechanism, or if they will disappear when the structure changes into a sequence of simply supported beams. The paper deals with an investigation of the behavior of continuous post-tensioned beams subjected to an ultimate load with significant secondary effects from prestressing. A total of 6 two-span beams prestressed by tendons with different bonds were tested in a laboratory with a load that changed their structural system into a kinematic mechanism. The internal forces and secondary effects of the prestressing were controlled through measurements of the reactions in all the supports. The results revealed that the secondary effects remained as a permanent part of the action on the experimental beams, even after the development of the kinematic mechanism. The results obtained confirmed that secondary effects should be included in all combinations of actions for verifications of ultimate limit states (ULS.

  1. Secondary Moments due to Prestressing with Different Bond at the Ultimate Limit State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvoník, Jaroslav; Pažma, Peter; Vida, Radoslav

    2018-03-01

    Secondary effects of prestressing develop in statically indeterminate structures (e.g., continuous beams) due to the restraint of deformations imposed by hyperstatic restraints. These effects may significantly influence internal forces and stresses in prestressed structures. Secondary effects are influenced by the redundancy of a structural system, which raises the question of whether they will remain constant after a change in the structural system, e.g., due to the development of plastic hinge(s) in a critical cross-section(s) or after the development of a kinematic mechanism, or if they will disappear when the structure changes into a sequence of simply supported beams. The paper deals with an investigation of the behavior of continuous post-tensioned beams subjected to an ultimate load with significant secondary effects from prestressing. A total of 6 two-span beams prestressed by tendons with different bonds were tested in a laboratory with a load that changed their structural system into a kinematic mechanism. The internal forces and secondary effects of the prestressing were controlled through measurements of the reactions in all the supports. The results revealed that the secondary effects remained as a permanent part of the action on the experimental beams, even after the development of the kinematic mechanism. The results obtained confirmed that secondary effects should be included in all combinations of actions for verifications of ultimate limit states (ULS).

  2. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Chris G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2013-05-19

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa.

  3. Specification of requirements for upgrades using digital instrument and control systems. Report prepared within the framework of the international working group on nuclear power plant control and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The need to develop good specifications of requirements for instrument and control (I and C) systems applies throughout the world and is becoming more and more important as more upgrades are planned. Better guidance on how to develop good requirements specifications would support safer, more effective and more economical refits and upgrades. The need for this was pointed out by the IAEA International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI). This report is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held by the IAEA in 1997 and 1998 in Vienna. The scope of the activities described covers a methodology for the determination of requirements and the development of the necessary specifications and plans needed through the life-cycle of digital instrumentation and control systems. It is restricted to technical aspects and indicates subjects which should be included in specifications and plans at different phases

  4. Patient dose rate: An ultimate limit for spatial and density resolution of scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, G.; Wagner, W.

    1979-01-01

    In X-ray scanning systems, picture quality of the reconstructed slices is limited to a maximum spatial as well as density resolution by the applied radiation dose. Density resolution can be improved in proportion to the root of the patient dose, whereas a doubled spatial resolving power requires an eight times higher patient dose, assuming a fixed slice thickness. Only a careful trade-off between the applied patient dose, density resolution and spatial resolution yields a maximal diagnostic value for the physician. Specifications of a scanning system have to take into account these ultimate restrictions, so that picture quality really is limited by the patient's dose rather than by technical constraints. In addition a method is given by which the applied dose can be reduced by focusing the main intensity onto the region of interest, in case that region is known a priori. (orig.) [de

  5. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Krupovic, Mart

    2015-01-01

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order “Megavirales” that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources

  6. Origins and evolution of viruses of eukaryotes: The ultimate modularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koonin, Eugene V., E-mail: koonin@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20894 (United States); Dolja, Valerian V., E-mail: doljav@science.oregonstate.edu [Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Krupovic, Mart, E-mail: krupovic@pasteur.fr [Institut Pasteur, Unité Biologie Moléculaire du Gène chez les Extrêmophiles, Department of Microbiology, Paris 75015 (France)

    2015-05-15

    Viruses and other selfish genetic elements are dominant entities in the biosphere, with respect to both physical abundance and genetic diversity. Various selfish elements parasitize on all cellular life forms. The relative abundances of different classes of viruses are dramatically different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, the great majority of viruses possess double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes, with a substantial minority of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses and only limited presence of RNA viruses. In contrast, in eukaryotes, RNA viruses account for the majority of the virome diversity although ssDNA and dsDNA viruses are common as well. Phylogenomic analysis yields tangible clues for the origins of major classes of eukaryotic viruses and in particular their likely roots in prokaryotes. Specifically, the ancestral genome of positive-strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes might have been assembled de novo from genes derived from prokaryotic retroelements and bacteria although a primordial origin of this class of viruses cannot be ruled out. Different groups of double-stranded RNA viruses derive either from dsRNA bacteriophages or from positive-strand RNA viruses. The eukaryotic ssDNA viruses apparently evolved via a fusion of genes from prokaryotic rolling circle-replicating plasmids and positive-strand RNA viruses. Different families of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses appear to have originated from specific groups of bacteriophages on at least two independent occasions. Polintons, the largest known eukaryotic transposons, predicted to also form virus particles, most likely, were the evolutionary intermediates between bacterial tectiviruses and several groups of eukaryotic dsDNA viruses including the proposed order “Megavirales” that unites diverse families of large and giant viruses. Strikingly, evolution of all classes of eukaryotic viruses appears to have involved fusion between structural and replicative gene modules derived from different sources

  7. LCM and MCM: Specification of a control system using dynamic logic and process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; Lewerentz, Claus; Lindner, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    LCM 3.0 is a specification language based on dynamic logic and process algebra, and can be used to specify systems of dynamic objects that communicate synchronously. LCM 3.0 was developed for the specification of object-oriented information systems, but contains sufficient facilities for the

  8. Acquisition of decision making criteria: reward rate ultimately beats accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Fuat; Simen, Patrick; Niyogi, Ritwik; Saxe, Andrew; Hughes, Jessica A; Holmes, Philip; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2011-02-01

    Speed-accuracy trade-offs strongly influence the rate of reward that can be earned in many decision-making tasks. Previous reports suggest that human participants often adopt suboptimal speed-accuracy trade-offs in single session, two-alternative forced-choice tasks. We investigated whether humans acquired optimal speed-accuracy trade-offs when extensively trained with multiple signal qualities. When performance was characterized in terms of decision time and accuracy, our participants eventually performed nearly optimally in the case of higher signal qualities. Rather than adopting decision criteria that were individually optimal for each signal quality, participants adopted a single threshold that was nearly optimal for most signal qualities. However, setting a single threshold for different coherence conditions resulted in only negligible decrements in the maximum possible reward rate. Finally, we tested two hypotheses regarding the possible sources of suboptimal performance: (1) favoring accuracy over reward rate and (2) misestimating the reward rate due to timing uncertainty. Our findings provide support for both hypotheses, but also for the hypothesis that participants can learn to approach optimality. We find specifically that an accuracy bias dominates early performance, but diminishes greatly with practice. The residual discrepancy between optimal and observed performance can be explained by an adaptive response to uncertainty in time estimation.

  9. The universe as an ultimate macroscopic quantum phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bei-Lok

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We explore two unconventional proposals on the meaning of quantum gravity and the quantum properties of spacetime. The first is an older proposal of mine that general relativity is the hydrodynamic limit of some fundamental theories of the microscopic structure of spacetime and matter, a more specific derivative of the idea of Sakharov. The latter is a more recent thought of mine on the possibility that spacetime is a condensate (Bose or Fermi). These proposals have implications radically different from the conventional views. For the former, spacetime described by a differentiable manifold is regarded as an emergent entity and the metric or connection forms are collective variables valid only at the low energy, long wavelength limit of the micro-theories of spacetime and matter. This view would render irrelevant the traditional efforts to find ways to quantize general relativity, because it would only give us the equivalent of phonon physics, not a theory of electrons or photons, QED. In the second proposal, even without the knowledge of what the 'atom of spacetime' is, the mere thought that spacetime at all energies below the Planck scale, including today's, is quantum rather than classical, has many challenging consequences. We discuss the implications of this view pertaining to issues in gravitation and cosmology, as well as to macroscopic quantum coherence phenomena. (author)

  10. The Small Protein SgrT Controls Transport Activity of the Glucose-Specific Phosphotransferase System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Chelsea R; Park, Seongjin; Fei, Jingyi; Vanderpool, Carin K

    2017-06-01

    The bacterial small RNA (sRNA) SgrS has been a fruitful model for discovery of novel RNA-based regulatory mechanisms and new facets of bacterial physiology and metabolism. SgrS is one of only a few characterized dual-function sRNAs. SgrS can control gene expression posttranscriptionally via sRNA-mRNA base-pairing interactions. Its second function is coding for the small protein SgrT. Previous work demonstrated that both functions contribute to relief of growth inhibition caused by glucose-phosphate stress, a condition characterized by disrupted glycolytic flux and accumulation of sugar phosphates. The base-pairing activity of SgrS has been the subject of numerous studies, but the activity of SgrT is less well characterized. Here, we provide evidence that SgrT acts to specifically inhibit the transport activity of the major glucose permease PtsG. Superresolution microscopy demonstrated that SgrT localizes to the cell membrane in a PtsG-dependent manner. Mutational analysis determined that residues in the N-terminal domain of PtsG are important for conferring sensitivity to SgrT-mediated inhibition of transport activity. Growth assays support a model in which SgrT-mediated inhibition of PtsG transport activity reduces accumulation of nonmetabolizable sugar phosphates and promotes utilization of alternative carbon sources by modulating carbon catabolite repression. The results of this study expand our understanding of a basic and well-studied biological problem, namely, how cells coordinate carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Further, this work highlights the complex activities that can be carried out by sRNAs and small proteins in bacteria. IMPORTANCE Sequencing, annotation and investigation of hundreds of bacterial genomes have identified vast numbers of small RNAs and small proteins, the majority of which have no known function. In this study, we explore the function of a small protein that acts in tandem with a well-characterized small RNA during metabolic

  11. Language-specific strategy for programming hearing aids - A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Nozomu; Suzuki, Nobuyoshi; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Kazuha; Tsukiji, Hiroki; Higashino, Yoshie; Tabuki, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2018-08-01

    Voice-aligned compression (VAC) is a method used in Oticon's hearing aids to provide more comfortable hearing without sacrificing speech discrimination. The complex, non-linear compression curve for the VAC strategy is designed based on the frequency profile of certain spoken Western languages. We hypothesized that hearing aids could be further customized for Japanese-speaking users by modifying the compression curve using the frequency profile of spoken Japanese. A double-blind randomized controlled crossover study was performed to determine whether or not Oticon's modified amplification strategy (VAC-J) provides subjectively preferable hearing aids for Japanese-speaking hearing aid users compared to the same company's original amplification strategy (VAC). The participants were randomized to two groups. The VAC-first group received a pair of hearing aids programmed using the VAC strategy and wore them for three weeks, and then received a pair of hearing aids programmed using VAC-J strategy and wore them for three weeks. The VAC-J-first group underwent the same study, but they received hearing aids in the reverse sequence. A Speech, Spatial and Qualities (SSQ) questionnaire was administered before beginning to use the hearing aids, at the end of using the first pair of hearing aids, and at the end of using the second pair of hearing aids. Twenty-five participants that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria from January 1 to October 31, 2016, were randomized to two groups. Twenty-two participants completed the study. There were no statistically significant differences in the increment of SSQ scores between the participants when using the VAC- or the VAC-J-programmed hearing aids. However, participants preferred the VAC-J strategy to the VAC strategy at the end of the study, and this difference was statistically significant. Japanese-speaking hearing aid users preferred using hearing aids that were fitted with the VAC-J strategy. Our results show that the VAC strategy

  12. Process for extracting residual heat and device for the ultimate absorption of heat for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Lawrence Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a 'heat sink' or device for the ultimate absorption of heat for electric power stations using the most widespread thermal neutron nuclear reactors, namely 'light water' reactors such as boiling or pressurized water reactors. The residual heat given off by these reactors can be safely extracted with this method by using dry cooling. However, the invention does not concern the problems arising from the cooling of the steam used for actuating the steam turbine nor the cooling of the steam exhausted by the turbine or coming from it, but it does concern the 'safety' part of the nuclear power station in which the residual heat discharged in the reactor is controlled and dissipated [fr

  13. 75 FR 69791 - Risk Management Controls for Brokers or Dealers With Market Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... relationship with the ultimate customer, can more effectively implement them. In addition, a broker or dealer... specific risk management controls and supervisory procedures to a customer that is a registered broker... such customer, based on its position in the transaction and relationship with the ultimate customer...

  14. Mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management: associations with diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Erica D; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan M; Rohan, Jennifer M; Pulgaron, Elizabeth R; Drotar, Dennis

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship of mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management to diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control. One hundred thirty-six mothers and fathers of youth with Type 1 diabetes reported on the youth's diabetes management, diabetes-specific family conflict, and amount of paternal involvement in diabetes care. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was used to measure glycemic control. As hypothesized, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management were positively associated with frequency of diabetes-specific family conflict. Contrary to hypotheses, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management predicted poorer glycemic control for youth with less involved fathers only. Results highlight the importance of caregivers being consistent about pediatric illness management and support the idea that informant discrepancies represent an important window into the functioning of the family system. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. The Quest for the Ultimate Anisotropic Banach Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baladi, Viviane

    2017-02-01

    We present a new scale U^{t,s}_p (s1 and -1+1/pBaladi and Tsujii (Ann Inst Fourier 57:127-154, 2007) (or Faure-Roy-Sjöstrand in Open Math J 1:35-81, 2008), the transfer operator acting on U^{t,s}_p can be decomposed into L_{g,b}+L_{g,c}, where L_{g,b} has a controlled norm while a suitable power of L_{g,c} is nuclear. This "nuclear power decomposition" enhances the Lasota-Yorke bounds and makes the spaces U^{t,s}_p amenable to the kneading approach of Milnor-Thurson (Dynamical Systems (Maryland 1986-1987), Springer, Berlin, 1988) (as revisited by Baladi-Ruelle, Baladi in Dynamical Zeta Functions and Dynamical Determinants for Hyperbolic Maps, Monograph, 2016; Baladi and Ruelle in Ergod Theory Dyn Syst 14:621-632, 1994; Baladi and Ruelle in Invent Math 123:553-574, 1996) to study dynamical determinants and zeta functions.

  16. PSA Update Procedures, an Ultimate Need for Living PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, D.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear facilities by their complex nature, change with time. These changes can be both physical (plant modification, etc.), operational (enhanced procedures, etc.) and organizational. In addition, there are also changes in our understanding of the plant, due to operational experience, data collection, technology enhancements, etc. Therefore, it is imperative that PSA model must be frequently up-dated or modified to reflect these changes. Over the last ten years. these has been a remarkable growth of the use of Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The most rapidly growing area of the PSA Applications is their use to support operational decision-making. Many of these applications are characterized by the potential for not only improving the safety level but also for providing guidance on the optimal use of resources and reducing regulatory burden. To enable a wider use of the PSA model as a tool for safety activities it is essential to maintain the model in a controlled state. Moreover, to fulfill requirements for L iving PSA , the PSA model has to be constantly updated and/or monitored to reflect the current plant configuration. It should be noted that the PSA model should not only represent the plant design but should also represent the operational and emergency procedures. To keep the PSA model up-to-date several issues should be clearly defined including: - Responsibility should be divided among the PSA group, - Procedures for implementing changes should be established, and - QA requirements/program should be established to assure documentation and reporting. (author)

  17. Are there gender differences in locus of control specific to alcohol dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew; Martin, Colin R

    2017-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in locus of control in an alcohol-dependent population. Locus of control helps to explain behaviour in terms of internal (the individual is responsible) or external (outside forces, such as significant other people or chance, are responsible) elements. Past research on gender differences in locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence has shown mixed results. There is a need then to examine gender and locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence to ascertain the veracity of any locus of control differences as a function of gender. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control form-C was administered to clients from alcohol dependence treatment centres in the West of Scotland. Independent t-tests were carried out to assess gender differences in alcohol dependence severity and internal/external aspects of locus of control. One hundred and eighty-eight (53% females) participants were recruited from a variety of alcohol dependence treatment centres. The majority of participants (72%) came from Alcoholics Anonymous groups. Women revealed a greater internal locus of control compared with men. Women also had a greater 'significant others' locus of control score than men. Men were more reliant on 'chance' and 'doctors' than women. All these trends were not, however, statistically significant. Gender differences in relation to locus of control and alcohol dependence from past studies are ambiguous. This study also found no clear statistically significant differences in locus of control orientation as a function of gender. This article helps nurses to contextualise health behaviours as a result of internal or external forces. It also helps nursing staff to better understand alcohol dependence treatment in relation to self-efficacy and control. Moreover, it highlights an important concept in health education theory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Whole genome sequencing as the ultimate tool to diagnose tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick van Soolingen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, DNA techniques have been increasingly used in the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. The (sub species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex are usually identified using reverse line blot techniques. The resistance is predicted by the detection of mutations in genes associated with resistance. Nevertheless, all cases are still subjected to cumbersome phenotypic resistance testing. The production of a strain-characteristic DNA fingerprint, to investigate the epidemiology of TB, is done by the 24-locus variable number tandem repeat (VNTR typing. However, most of the molecular techniques in the diagnosis of TB can eventually be replaced by whole genome sequencing (WGS. Many international TB reference laboratories are currently working on the introduction of WGS; however, standardization in the international context is lacking. The European Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm, Sweden organizes a yearly round of quality control on VNTR typing and in 2015 for the first time also WGS. In this first proficiency study, only three out of eight international TB laboratories produced WGS results in line with those of the reference laboratory. The whole process of DNA isolation, purification, quantification, sequencing, and analysis/interpretation of data is still under development. In this presentation, many aspects will be covered that influence the quality and interpretation of WGS results. The turn-around-time, analysis, and utility of WGS will be discussed. Moreover, the experiences in the use of WGS in the molecular epidemiology of TB in The Netherlands are detailed. It can be concluded that many difficulties still have to be conquered. The state of the art is that bacteria still have to be cultured to have sufficient quality and quantity of DNA for succesful WGS. The quality of sequencing has improved significantly over the past 7 years, and the detection of mutations has, therefore

  19. Strontium Optical Lattice Clock: In Quest of the Ultimate Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westergaard, Ph.G.

    2010-10-01

    This thesis presents the latest achievements regarding the Sr optical lattice clock experiment at LNESYRTE, Observatoire de Paris. After having described the general principles for optical lattice clocks and the operation of the clock in question, the emphasis is put on the features that have been added to the experiment since 2007. The most important new elements are an ultra-stable reference cavity for the clock laser, the development of a non-destructive detection technique, and the construction of a second Sr lattice clock. The ultra-stable cavity is constructed from a ULE spacer and fused silica mirrors and has shown a thermal noise floor at 6.5 * 10 -16 , placing it among the best in the world. The non-destructive detection is effectuated by a phase measurement of a weak probe beam that traverses the atoms placed in one arm of a Mach-Zender interferometer. The non-destructive aspect enables a recycling of the atoms from cycle to cycle which consequently increases the duty cycle, allowing for an increase of the stability of the clock. With these new tools the frequency stability is expected to be 2.2 * 10 -16 /√τ for an optimized sequence. The most recent comparisons between the two Sr clocks reach an accuracy level of 10 -16 after about 1000 s, and this way we have been able to characterize lattice related frequency shifts with an unprecedented accuracy. The measurements ensure a control of lattice related effects at the 10 -18 level even for trap depths as large as 50E r . (authors)

  20. Design and integration of components for site specific control of fertilizer application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergeijk, van J.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: Precision Agriculture, Site Specific Agriculture, Global Positioning System, GPS, Fertilizer Application, Information System.

    Spatial and temporal variability in soil, crop and climate characteristics results in non optimal use of fertilizers when the application

  1. B827 Chemical Synthhesis Project - Industrial Control System Integration - Statement of Work & Specification with Attachments 1-14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, F. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-21

    The Chemical Synthesis Pilot Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 827 Complex will be used to synthesize small quantities of material to support research and development. The project will modernize and increase current capabilities for chemical synthesis at LLNL. The primary objective of this project is the conversion of a non-automated hands-on process to a remoteoperation process, while providing enhanced batch process step control, stored recipe-specific parameter sets, process variable visibility, monitoring, alarm and warning handling, and comprehensive batch record data logging. This Statement of Work and Specification provides the industrial-grade process control requirements for the chemical synthesis batching control system, hereafter referred to as the “Control System” to be delivered by the System Integrator.

  2. The ultimate solution. Disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    The borehole disposal concept (BDC) was first presented to ICEM by Potier, J-M in 2005. This paper repeats the basics introduced by Potier and relates further developments. It also documents the history of the development of the BDC. For countries with no access to existing or planned geological disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, the only options for managing high activity or long-lived disused radioactive sources are to store them indefinitely, return them to the supplier or find an alternative method of disposal. Disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS) pose an unacceptable radiological and security risk if not properly managed. Out of control sources have already led to many high-profile incidents or accidents. One needs only to remember the recent accident in India that occurred earlier this year. Countries without solutions in place need to consider the future management of DSRSs urgently. An on-going problem in developing countries is what to do with sources that cannot be returned to the suppliers, sources for which there is no further use, sources that have not been maintained in a working condition and sources that are no longer suitable for their intended purpose. Disposal in boreholes is intended to be simple and effective, meeting the same high standards of long-term radiological safety as any other type of radioactive waste disposal. It is believed that the BDC can be readily deployed with simple, cost-effective technologies. These are appropriate both to the relatively small amounts and activities of the wastes and the resources that can realistically be found in developing countries. The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd (Necsa) has carried out project development and demonstration activities since 1996. The project looked into the technical feasibility, safety and economic viability of BDC under the social, economic, environmental and infrastructural conditions currently prevalent in Africa. Implementation is near at hand with

  3. Model-based specification, analysis and synthesis of servo controllers for lithoscanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, R.; Alberts, W.; Voeten, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    ASML is the world's leading provider of complex lithography systems for the semiconductor industry. Such systems consist of numerous servo control systems. To design such control systems, a multi-disciplinary model-based development environment has been developed. It is based on a set of domain

  4. Specific treatment of problems of the spine (STOPS: design of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy versus advice for people with subacute low back disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Matthew C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low back disorders are a common and costly cause of pain and activity limitation in adults. Few treatment options have demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits apart from advice which is recommended in all international guidelines. Clinical heterogeneity of participants in clinical trials is hypothesised as reducing the likelihood of demonstrating treatment effects, and sampling of more homogenous subgroups is recommended. We propose five subgroups that allow the delivery of specific physiotherapy treatment targeting the pathoanatomical, neurophysiological and psychosocial components of low back disorders. The aim of this article is to describe the methodology of a randomised controlled trial comparing specific physiotherapy treatment to advice for people classified into five subacute low back disorder subgroups. Methods/Design A multi-centre parallel group randomised controlled trial is proposed. A minimum of 250 participants with subacute (6 weeks to 6 months low back pain and/or referred leg pain will be classified into one of five subgroups and then randomly allocated to receive either physiotherapy advice (2 sessions over 10 weeks or specific physiotherapy treatment (10 sessions over 10 weeks tailored according to the subgroup of the participant. Outcomes will be assessed at 5 weeks, 10 weeks, 6 months and 12 months following randomisation. Primary outcomes will be activity limitation measured with a modified Oswestry Disability Index as well as leg and back pain intensity measured on separate 0-10 Numerical Rating Scales. Secondary outcomes will include a 7-point global rating of change scale, satisfaction with physiotherapy treatment, satisfaction with treatment results, the Sciatica Frequency and Bothersomeness Scale, quality of life (EuroQol-5D, interference with work, and psychosocial risk factors (Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Questionnaire. Adverse events and co-interventions will also be measured. Data will be

  5. Cooperativity of HIV-Specific Cytolytic CD4 T Cells and CD8 T Cells in Control of HIV Viremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan; Eller, Michael; Teigler, Jeffrey E.; Maloveste, Sebastien M.; Schultz, Bruce T.; Soghoian, Damien Z.; Lu, Richard; Oster, Alexander F.; Chenine, Agnès-Laurence; Alter, Galit; Dittmer, Ulf; Marovich, Mary; Robb, Merlin L.; Michael, Nelson L.; Bolton, Diane

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT CD4+ T cells play a pivotal role in the control of chronic viral infections. Recently, nontraditional CD4+ T cell functions beyond helper effects have been described, and a role for cytolytic CD4+ T cells in the control of HIV infection has been suggested. We define here the transcriptional, phenotypic, and functional profiles of HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells. Fluidigm BioMark and multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells revealed a distinct transcriptional signature compared to Th1 CD4+ cells but shared similar features with HIV-specific cytolytic CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, HIV-specific cytolytic CD4+ T cells showed comparable killing activity relative to HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and worked cooperatively in the elimination of virally infected cells. Interestingly, we found that cytolytic CD4+ T cells emerge early during acute HIV infection and tightly follow acute viral load trajectory. This emergence was associated to the early viral set point, suggesting an involvement in early control, in spite of CD4 T cell susceptibility to HIV infection. Our data suggest cytolytic CD4+ T cells as an independent subset distinct from Th1 cells that show combined activity with CD8+ T cells in the long-term control of HIV infection. IMPORTANCE The ability of the immune system to control chronic HIV infection is of critical interest to both vaccine design and therapeutic approaches. Much research has focused on the effect of the ability of CD8+ T cells to control the virus, while CD4+ T cells have been overlooked as effectors in HIV control due to the fact that they are preferentially infected. We show here that a subset of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells cooperate in the cytolytic control of HIV replication. Moreover, these cells represent a distinct subset of CD4+ T cells showing significant transcriptional and phenotypic differences compared to HIV-specific Th1 cells but with similarities to CD8+ T cells. These findings are

  6. Network Traffic Features for Anomaly Detection in Specific Industrial Control System Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Mantere

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The deterministic and restricted nature of industrial control system networks sets them apart from more open networks, such as local area networks in office environments. This improves the usability of network security, monitoring approaches that would be less feasible in more open environments. One of such approaches is machine learning based anomaly detection. Without proper customization for the special requirements of the industrial control system network environment, many existing anomaly or misuse detection systems will perform sub-optimally. A machine learning based approach could reduce the amount of manual customization required for different industrial control system networks. In this paper we analyze a possible set of features to be used in a machine learning based anomaly detection system in the real world industrial control system network environment under investigation. The network under investigation is represented by architectural drawing and results derived from network trace analysis. The network trace is captured from a live running industrial process control network and includes both control data and the data flowing between the control network and the office network. We limit the investigation to the IP traffic in the traces.

  7. Technical specifications of variable speed motors for negative pressure control in hot cell area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seon Duk; Bang, H. S.; Cho, W. K

    2002-01-01

    Hot cells are the facilities for handling the high radioactive materials and various R and D activities are performed using hot cells. Therefore the control of air flow in hot cell area is very important technology and it is started with the variable speed motor(VSM) controlling the air handling system in that area. This report describes various technical aspects of VS motors and will be useful for understanding the practical technologies of VS motors and also for optimization of the negative pressure controls in hot cell area.

  8. Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of paroxetine for specific phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, J; Ben-Zion, I Z; Karbofsky, E; Dannon, P

    2000-04-01

    Drugs are not recognized as a standard treatment for specific phobia, despite its apparent similarities to other kinds of phobia. Reluctance on the part of patients and clinicians to see the disorder as more than normal anxiety may explain the apparent resistance to pharmacotherapy. Eleven patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for specific phobia were randomized to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment with placebo or paroxetine up to 20 mg/day. They were assessed weekly with the Fear Questionnaire and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety. Paroxetine showed significant superiority in reducing all measures (ANCOVA for reductions in phobia scores F=7.9, P=0.02). One out of six patients responded to placebo, compared to three out of five patients on paroxetine. This new therapeutic option (i.e. drug treatment) for specific phobia deserves further examination in a larger trial.

  9. Waveband specific transcriptional control of select genetic pathways in vertebrate skin (Xiphophorus maculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ronald B; Boswell, Mikki; Chang, Jordan; Boswell, William T; Lu, Yuan; Navarro, Kaela; Walter, Sean M; Walter, Dylan J; Salinas, Raquel; Savage, Markita

    2018-05-10

    Evolution occurred exclusively under the full spectrum of sunlight. Conscription of narrow regions of the solar spectrum by specific photoreceptors suggests a common strategy for regulation of genetic pathways. Fluorescent light (FL) does not possess the complexity of the solar spectrum and has only been in service for about 60 years. If vertebrates evolved specific genetic responses regulated by light wavelengths representing the entire solar spectrum, there may be genetic consequences to reducing the spectral complexity of light. We utilized RNA-Seq to assess changes in the transcriptional profiles of Xiphophorus maculatus skin after exposure to FL ("cool white"), or narrow wavelength regions of light between 350 and 600 nm (i.e., 50 nm or 10 nm regions, herein termed "wavebands"). Exposure to each 50 nm waveband identified sets of genes representing discrete pathways that showed waveband specific transcriptional modulation. For example, 350-400 or 450-500 nm waveband exposures resulted in opposite regulation of gene sets marking necrosis and apoptosis (i.e., 350-400 nm; necrosis suppression, apoptosis activation, while 450-500 nm; apoptosis suppression, necrosis activation). Further investigation of specific transcriptional modulation employing successive 10 nm waveband exposures between 500 and 550 nm showed; (a) greater numbers of genes may be transcriptionally modulated after 10 nm exposures, than observed for 50 nm or FL exposures, (b) the 10 nm wavebands induced gene sets showing greater functional specificity than 50 nm or FL exposures, and (c) the genetic effects of FL are primarily due to 30 nm between 500 and 530 nm. Interestingly, many genetic pathways exhibited completely opposite transcriptional effects after different waveband exposures. For example, the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway exhibits transcriptional suppression after FL exposure, becomes highly active after 450-500 nm waveband exposure, and again, exhibits strong

  10. Considerations for control system software verification and validation specific to implementations using distributed processor architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, J.K. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, digital control systems have been implemented on centralized processing systems to function in one of several ways: (1) as a single processor control system; (2) as a supervisor at the top of a hierarchical network of multiple processors; or (3) in a client-server mode. Each of these architectures uses a very different set of communication protocols. The latter two architectures also belong to the category of distributed control systems. Distributed control systems can have a central focus, as in the cases just cited, or be quite decentralized in a loosely coupled, shared responsibility arrangement. This last architecture is analogous to autonomous hosts on a local area network. Each of the architectures identified above will have a different set of architecture-associated issues to be addressed in the verification and validation activities during software development. This paper summarizes results of efforts to identify, describe, contrast, and compare these issues

  11. Design specifications and test of the HMPID's control system in the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Carrone, E

    2001-01-01

    The HMPID (High Momentum Particle Identification Detector) is one of the ALICE subdetectors planned to take data at LHC, starting in 2006. Since ALICE will be located underground, the HMPID will be remotely controlled by a Detector Control System (DCS). In this paper we will present the DCS design, accomplished via GRAFCET (GRAphe Fonctionnel de Commande Etape/Transition), the algorithm to translate into code readable by the PLC (the control device) and the first results of a prototype of the Low Voltage Control System. The results achieved so far prove that this way of proceeding is effective and time saving, since every step of the work is autonomous, making the debugging and updating phases simpler.

  12. Is trait resilience characterized by specific patterns of attentional bias to emotional stimuli and attentional control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Judith; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Höfler, Michael; Heinrich, Anke; Zimmermann, Peter; Siegel, Stefan; Schönfeld, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    Attentional processes have been suggested to play a crucial role in resilience defined as positive adaptation facing adversity. However, research is lacking on associations between attentional biases to positive and threat-related stimuli, attentional control and trait resilience. Data stem from the follow-up assessment of a longitudinal study investigating mental health and related factors among German soldiers. Trait resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and attentional control with the Attentional Control Scale. A subset of n = 198 soldiers also completed a dot probe task with happy, neutral and threatening faces. Attentional control was positively related to trait resilience. Results revealed no associations between both attentional biases and trait resilience. However, there was a negative association between attentional bias to threat and trait resilience when attentional control was low and a positive association between attentional bias to threat and trait resilience when attentional control was high. No such associations were found for attentional bias to positive stimuli. Generalizability to other populations may be limited since we exclusively focused on male soldiers. Also, the cross-sectional design does not allow for causal conclusions. Findings suggest that attentional processing may promote trait resilience. Future research on preventive interventions should consider these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can Contingency Learning Alone Account for Item-Specific Control? Evidence from within- and Between-Language ISPC Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Nart Bedin; Misirlisoy, Mine

    2012-01-01

    The item-specific proportion congruence (ISPC) manipulation (Jacoby, Lindsay, & Hessels, 2003) produces larger Stroop interference for mostly congruent items than mostly incongruent items. This effect has been attributed to dynamic control over word-reading processes. However, proportion congruence of an item in the ISPC manipulation is…

  14. Information in learning to co-ordinate and control movements: Is there a need for specificity of practice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelsbergh, Geert J.P.; Van Der Kamp, John

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to defend the thesis that information and movement are tightly coupled and as a result specificity of training is required in order to get meaningful learning effects. This thesis will be illustrated by elaborating upon the role of informational constraints in the control

  15. Quality control analysis : part IV : field simulation of asphaltic concrete specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-02-01

    The report present some of the major findings, from a simulated study of statistical specifications, on three asphaltic concrete projects representing a total of approximately 30, 000 tons of hot mix. The major emphasis of the study has been on the a...

  16. Transcriptional control by G-quadruplexes: In vivo roles and perspectives for specific intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Pablo; David, Aldana; Calcaterra, Nora B

    2017-01-01

    G-quadruplexes are non-canonical DNA secondary structures involved in several genomic and molecular processes. Here, we summarize the main G-quadruplex features and evidences proving the in vivo role on the transcriptional regulation of genes required for zebrafish embryonic development. We also discuss alternative strategies for specifically interfering G-quadruplex in vivo.

  17. Regulatory regions in the rat lactase-phlorizin hydrolase gene that control cell-specific expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, Menno; Krasinski, Stephen D.; Christian, Sara I.; van Schaik, Sandrijn; van den Brink, Gijs R.; Doting, Edwina M. H.; Maas, Saskia M.; Wolthers, Katja C.; Grand, Richard J.; Montgomery, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) is an enterocyte-specific gene whose expression has been well-characterized, not only developmentally but also along the crypt-villus axis and along the length of the small bowel. Previous studies from the authors' laboratory have demonstrated that 2 kb

  18. Vehicle-class Specific Route-guidance of Freeway Traffic by Model-predictive Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreiter, T.; Landman, R.L.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Hegyi, A.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2012-01-01

    Few Active Traffic Management measures proposed in the past consider the distinction of different vehicle classes. Examples of vehicle-class specific measures are truck lanes and high-occupancy/toll (HOT) lanes. We propose that the distinction of different vehicle classes, with different flow

  19. TCR down-regulation controls virus-specific CD8+ T cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...

  20. HIV-Specific B Cell Frequency Correlates with Neutralization Breadth in Patients Naturally Controlling HIV-Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline Rouers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs have been isolated from patients with high viremia but also from HIV controllers that repress HIV-1 replication. In these elite controllers (ECs, multiple parameters contribute to viral suppression, including genetic factors and immune responses. Defining the immune correlates associated with the generation of bnAbs may help in designing efficient immunotherapies. In this study, in ECs either positive or negative for the HLA-B*57 protective allele, in treated HIV-infected and HIV-negative individuals, we characterized memory B cell compartments and HIV-specific memory B cells responses using flow cytometry and ELISPOT. ECs preserved their memory B cell compartments and in contrast to treated patients, maintained detectable HIV-specific memory B cell responses. All ECs presented IgG1+ HIV-specific memory B cells but some individuals also preserved IgG2+ or IgG3+ responses. Importantly, we also analyzed the capacity of sera from ECs to neutralize a panel of HIV strains including transmitted/founder virus. 29% and 21% of HLA-B*57+ and HLA-B*57− ECs, respectively, neutralized at least 40% of the viral strains tested. Remarkably, in HLA-B*57+ ECs the frequency of HIV-Env-specific memory B cells correlated positively with the neutralization breadth suggesting that preservation of HIV-specific memory B cells might contribute to the neutralizing responses in these patients.

  1. How does a specific learning and memory system in the mammalian brain gain control of behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert J; Hong, Nancy S

    2013-11-01

    This review addresses a fundamental, yet poorly understood set of issues in systems neuroscience. The issues revolve around conceptualizations of the organization of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. One intriguing, and somewhat popular, conceptualization is the idea that there are multiple learning and memory systems in the mammalian brain and they interact in different ways to influence and/or control behavior. This approach has generated interesting empirical and theoretical work supporting this view. One issue that needs to be addressed is how these systems influence or gain control of voluntary behavior. To address this issue, we clearly specify what we mean by a learning and memory system. We then review two types of processes that might influence which memory system gains control of behavior. One set of processes are external factors that can affect which system controls behavior in a given situation including task parameters like the kind of information available to the subject, types of training experience, and amount of training. The second set of processes are brain mechanisms that might influence what memory system controls behavior in a given situation including executive functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex; switching mechanisms mediated by ascending neurotransmitter systems, the unique role of the hippocampus during learning. The issue of trait differences in control of different learning and memory systems will also be considered in which trait differences in learning and memory function are thought to potentially emerge from differences in level of prefrontal influence, differences in plasticity processes, differences in ascending neurotransmitter control, differential access to effector systems like motivational and motor systems. Finally, we present scenarios in which different mechanisms might interact. This review was conceived to become a jumping off point for new work directed at understanding these issues. The outcome of

  2. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-01-01

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  3. Case-specific comparison of water pollution control alternatives in peat production; Turvetuotannon vesiensuojeluvaihtoehtojen tapauskohtainen vertailu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, M.; Kaasinen, A.; Heikkinen, K.; Ihme, R.; Kaemae, T.; Alasaarela, E.

    1996-12-31

    The present practice water pollution control in peat production and the elements of planning were analyzed, the water purification methods were classified and their weaknesses estimated. Furthermore, the cost of the water purification constructions was estimated and their significance for the watercourses evaluated. 54 peat production plans were chosen from the catchment areas of the rivers Iijoki, Siikajoki and Pyhaejoki. The suitability of the chosen water pollution control methods was evaluated on the basis of the plans and, further, on the basis of field surveys. The suitability of the purification methods to practical water pollution control was assessed by making plans for 15 peat mining areas. There is a need to develop the planning and implementation of water pollution control in peat mining. The methods that are used do not always work in the expected way in practice. Despite this planning is compatible with the water protection program and the regulations that are in force. The study gives a good idea of how to update the planning instructions for water pollution control. The accompanying report includes plan for 11 peat mining areas. (orig.)

  4. Thermal performance experiments on ultimate heat sinks, spray ponds, and cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.

    1976-12-01

    A program of measurement on a Battelle-Northwest (BNW) spray pond has been completed to prove an integrated instrumentation system for application in future field experiments. The measurement programs in the field will produce data of relevance to the design and understanding of performance for ultimate heat sinks as components of emergency core cooling systems. In the absence of active emergency cooling systems, the data will be obtained on analog systems--prime candidates among these are the naturally-occurring hot ponds at Yellowstone National Park and man-made hot cooling ponds at Savannah River National Laboratory as well as spray ponds at various industrial facilities. The proof experiment has provided data that not only illustrate the effectiveness of the instrumentation system but also display interesting site-specific heat transfer processes. The data to be obtained in the field will also be site specific but must be of generic applicability in modeling for design and performance purposes. The integrated instrumentation system will evolve, through modest modifications and substantial supplementation, to provide the requisite data for the more demanding situation of work in and about hot water

  5. Effects of Hydrotherapy on postural control and electromyography parameters in men with chronic non-specific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mahjur

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of hydrotherapy on postural control and electromyography parameters in men with chronic non-specific low back pain. Thirty men with chronic non-specific LBP divided into two hydrotherapy and control groups, randomly and equally. Electromyographic activity of erector spinae muscles and balance measured for both of groups before and after intervention. Hydrotherapy program was consisted of 24 sessions. Subjects in control group didn’t have any special activity. Two-way variance was used to interpret the data and correlated and independent T-tests were used for analysis of data at the significance level of (P0.05. However, a significant difference observed between two groups in balance index (P<0.05.

  6. Specifications and implementation of the RT MHD control system for the EC launcher of FTU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available To perform real time plasma control experiments using EC heating waves by using the new fast launcher installed on FTU a dedicated data acquisition and elaboration system has been designed recently. A prototypical version of the acquisition/control system has been recently developed and will be tested on FTU machine in its next experimental campaign. The open-source framework MARTe (Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor on Linux/RTAI real-time operating system has been chosen as software platform to realize the control system. Standard open-architecture industrial PCs, based either on VME bus and CompactPCI bus equipped with standard input/output cards are the chosen hardware platform.

  7. Specifications and implementation of the RT MHD control system for the EC launcher of FTU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperti, C.; Alessi, E.; Boncagni, L.; Bruschi, A.; Granucci, G.; Grosso, A.; Iannone, F.; Marchetto, C.; Nowak, S.; Panella, M.; Sozzi, C.; Tilia, B.

    2012-09-01

    To perform real time plasma control experiments using EC heating waves by using the new fast launcher installed on FTU a dedicated data acquisition and elaboration system has been designed recently. A prototypical version of the acquisition/control system has been recently developed and will be tested on FTU machine in its next experimental campaign. The open-source framework MARTe (Multi-threaded Application Real-Time executor) on Linux/RTAI real-time operating system has been chosen as software platform to realize the control system. Standard open-architecture industrial PCs, based either on VME bus and CompactPCI bus equipped with standard input/output cards are the chosen hardware platform.

  8. Specific adaptations of neuromuscular control and knee joint stiffness following sensorimotor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, M; Bruhn, S; Gollhofer, A

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how fixations of the ankle joint during sensorimotor training (SMT) influence adaptations in mechanical stiffness and neuromuscular control of the knee joint. Sixty-three healthy subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups that differed in their degree of ankle joint fixation, which was either barefooted, with an ankle brace or with a ski boot. Mechanical knee joint stiffness and reflex control of m. vastus medialis, m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps femoris, and m. semitendinosus were tested during force controlled anterior tibial displacements. This force was applied as both a fast and a slow stimulus. After the training period the group that trained barefooted showed an increase in mechanical stiffness of the knee joint from 79 +/- 21 (Mean +/- SD) N/mm to 110 +/- 38 N/mm (p boots was able to improve knee joint stiffness from 67 +/- 26 N/mm to 96 +/- 47 N/mm (p knee joint injuries.

  9. The role of tobacco-specific media exposure, knowledge, and smoking status on selected attitudes toward tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly D; Viswanath, K; Blendon, Robert J; Vallone, Donna

    2010-02-01

    In August 2007, the President's Cancer Panel urged the leadership of the nation to "summon the political will to address the public health crisis caused by tobacco use" (President's Cancer Panel, N, 2007, Promoting healthy lifestyles: Policy, program, and personal recommendations for reducing cancer risk. http://deainfo.nci.nih.gov/advisory/pcp/pcp07rpt/pcp07rpt.pdf). While some research has examined predictors of public support for tobacco control measures, little research has examined modifiable factors that may influence public attitudes toward tobacco control. We used the American Legacy Foundation's 2003 American Smoking and Health Survey 2 to examine the contribution of smoking status, knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco, and tobacco-specific media exposure (antitobacco messages, news coverage of tobacco issues, and protobacco advertising) on U.S. adults' attitudes toward tobacco control. In addition, we assessed whether smoking status moderates the relationship between tobacco-specific media exposure and policy attitudes. Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were employed. Results suggest that knowledge of the negative effects of tobacco and smoking status are associated with attitudes toward tobacco control and that exposure to tobacco-specific information in the media plays a role only in some instances. We found no evidence of effect modification by smoking status on the impact of exposure to tobacco-specific media on attitudes toward tobacco control. Understanding the impact of readily modifiable factors that shape policy attitudes is essential if we are to target outreach and education in a way that is likely to sway public support for tobacco control.

  10. Ultimate architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Jencks, Charles

    2007-01-01

    "European physics hothouse CERN recently unveiled Atlas, the world's most powerful particle detector, which it will use to search for the fundamental building blocks of nature from May next year. Charles Jencks describes the experience of getting up clsoe to the engineering marvel that could en up creating a mini-black hole."(5 pages with photos).

  11. Ultimate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An explanation is given of the complexity faced by the scientific researcher in an effort to achieve fusion power. Outlines the theory and current experiments being pursued in this complex project, including visits to five major fusion research laboratories, and interviews with physicists

  12. Nutrition impact symptoms in advanced cancer patients: frequency and specific interventions, a case?control study

    OpenAIRE

    Omlin, Aurelius; Blum, David; Wierecky, Jan; Haile, Sarah R.; Ottery, Faith D.; Strasser, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Background Involuntary weight loss (IWL) is frequent in advanced cancer patients causing compromised anticancer treatment outcomes and function. Cancer cachexia is influenced by nutrition impact symptoms (NIS). The aim of this study was to explore the frequency of NIS in advanced patients and to assess specific interventions guided by a 12-item NIS checklist. Methods Consecutive patients from an outpatient nutrition-fatigue clinic completed the NIS checklist. The NIS checklist was developed b...

  13. Compositional Synthesis of Controllers from Scenario-Based Assume-Guarantee Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenyer, Joel; Kindler, Ekkart

    2013-01-01

    Modern software-intensive systems often consist of multiple components that interact to fulfill complex functions in sometimes safety-critical situations. During the design, it is crucial to specify the system's requirements formally and to detect inconsistencies as early as possible in order to ...... present, in this paper, a novel assume-guarantee-style compositional synthesis technique for MSD specifications. We provide evaluation results underlining the benefit of our approach and formally justify its correctness....

  14. Controlling Bottom Hole Flowing Pressure Within a Specific Range for Efficient Coalbed Methane Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Yin; Hu, Ai-Mei; Zhai, Yu-Yang

    2013-11-01

    The stress state of coal surrounding a coalbed methane (CBM) production well is affected by the bottom hole flowing pressure (BHFP). The permeability of coal shows a marked change under compression. The BHFP must be restricted to a specific range to favor higher permeability in the surrounding coal and thus higher productivity of the well. A new method to determine this specific range is proposed in this paper. Coal has a rather low tensile strength, which induces tensile failure and rock disintegration. The deformation of coal samples under compression has four main stages: compaction, elastic deformation, strain hardening, and strain softening. Permeability is optimal when the coal samples are in the strain softening stage. The three critical values of BHFP, namely, p wmin, p wmid, and p wupper, which correspond to the occurrence of tensile failure, the start of strain softening, and the beginning of plastic deformation, respectively, are derived from theoretical principles. The permeability of coal is in an optimal state when the BHFP is between p wmin and p wmid. The BHFP should be confined to this specific range for the efficient drainage of CBM wells. This method was applied to field operations in three wells in the Hancheng CBM field in China. A comprehensive analysis of drainage data and of the BHFP indicates that the new method is effective and offers significant improvement to current practices.

  15. Specificity control for read alignments using an artificial reference genome-guided false discovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Sven H; Zickmann, Franziska; Renard, Bernhard Y

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimation, comparison and evaluation of read mapping error rates is a crucial step in the processing of next-generation sequencing data, as further analysis steps and interpretation assume the correctness of the mapping results. Current approaches are either focused on sensitivity estimation and thereby disregard specificity or are based on read simulations. Although continuously improving, read simulations are still prone to introduce a bias into the mapping error quantitation and cannot capture all characteristics of an individual dataset. We introduce ARDEN (artificial reference driven estimation of false positives in next-generation sequencing data), a novel benchmark method that estimates error rates of read mappers based on real experimental reads, using an additionally generated artificial reference genome. It allows a dataset-specific computation of error rates and the construction of a receiver operating characteristic curve. Thereby, it can be used for optimization of parameters for read mappers, selection of read mappers for a specific problem or for filtering alignments based on quality estimation. The use of ARDEN is demonstrated in a general read mapper comparison, a parameter optimization for one read mapper and an application example in single-nucleotide polymorphism discovery with a significant reduction in the number of false positive identifications. The ARDEN source code is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/arden/.

  16. Profound Tissue Specificity in Proliferation Control Underlies Cancer Drivers and Aneuploidy Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Laura Magill; Davoli, Teresa; Li, Mamie Z; Li, Yuyang; Xu, Qikai; Naxerova, Kamila; Wooten, Eric C; Bernardi, Ronald J; Martin, Timothy D; Chen, Ting; Leng, Yumei; Liang, Anthony C; Scorsone, Kathleen A; Westbrook, Thomas F; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Elledge, Stephen J

    2018-04-05

    Genomics has provided a detailed structural description of the cancer genome. Identifying oncogenic drivers that work primarily through dosage changes is a current challenge. Unrestrained proliferation is a critical hallmark of cancer. We constructed modular, barcoded libraries of human open reading frames (ORFs) and performed screens for proliferation regulators in multiple cell types. Approximately 10% of genes regulate proliferation, with most performing in an unexpectedly highly tissue-specific manner. Proliferation drivers in a given cell type showed specific enrichment in somatic copy number changes (SCNAs) from cognate tumors and helped predict aneuploidy patterns in those tumors, implying that tissue-type-specific genetic network architectures underlie SCNA and driver selection in different cancers. In vivo screening confirmed these results. We report a substantial contribution to the catalog of SCNA-associated cancer drivers, identifying 147 amplified and 107 deleted genes as potential drivers, and derive insights about the genetic network architecture of aneuploidy in tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. TCR Down-Regulation Controls Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Haks, Mariëlle; Nielsen, Bodil

    2008-01-01

    The CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif plays a central role in TCR down-regulation. However, little is understood about the role of the CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif in physiological T cell responses. In this study, we show that the expansion in numbers of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells is impaired...... in mice with a mutated CD3gamma di-leucine-based motif. The CD3gamma mutation did not impair early TCR signaling, nor did it compromise recruitment or proliferation of virus-specific T cells, but it increased the apoptosis rate of the activated T cells by increasing down-regulation of the antiapoptotic...... molecule Bcl-2. This resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the clonal expansion of virus-specific CD8(+) T cells during the acute phase of vesicular stomatitis virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. These results identify an important role of CD3gamma-mediated TCR down-regulation in virus...

  18. 46 CFR 62.35-50 - Tabulated monitoring and safety control requirements for specific systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Status Main (Propulsion steam) turbine (2) (2) (2) (4, 5) Manual trip Main propulsion, diesel (1) (1) (1... lubrication Pressure Low Main propulsion, controllable pitch propeller Hydraulic oil Pressure High, Low...) Gas turbine (8) (8) (8) (8) (5) Engines and turbines Jacking/turning gear Engaged (8) Fuel oil (9) (9...

  19. Learning an EMG Controlled Game : Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K.; van Dijk, Hylke W.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming

  20. Domain-Specific Control Mechanisms for Emotional and Nonemotional Conflict Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutschek, Alexander; Schubert, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the human brain activates dissociable cognitive control networks in response to conflicts arising within the cognitive and the affective domain. The present study tested the hypothesis that nonemotional and emotional conflict regulation can also be dissociated on a functional level. For that purpose, we…

  1. Specific micro RNA-regulated TetR-KRAB transcriptional control of transgene expression in viral vector-transduced cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Pichard

    Full Text Available Precise control of transgene expression in a tissue-specific and temporally regulated manner is desirable for many basic and applied investigations gene therapy applications. This is important to regulate dose of transgene products and minimize unwanted effects. Previously described methods have employed tissue specific promoters, miRNA-based transgene silencing or tetR-KRAB-mediated suppression of transgene promoters. To improve on versatility of transgene expression control, we have developed expression systems that use combinations of a tetR-KRAB artificial transgene-repressor, endogenous miRNA silencing machinery and tissue specific promoters. Precise control of transgene expression was demonstrated in liver-, macrophage- and muscle-derived cells. Efficiency was also demonstrated in vivo in murine muscle. This multicomponent and modular regulatory system provides a robust and easily adaptable method for achieving regulated transgene expression in different tissue types. The improved precision of regulation will be useful for many gene therapy applications requiring specific spatiotemporal transgene regulation.

  2. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary...

  3. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... care providers; (5) Projects that utilize Advanced Telecommunications or computer networks to... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280... Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.21 Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. The...

  4. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0203] Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft... (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and...

  5. Specificity of Affective Instability in Patients With Borderline Personality Disorder Compared to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Bulimia Nervosa, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip; Mussgay, Lutz; Sawitzki, Günther; Trull, Timothy J.; Reinhard, Iris; Steil, Regina; Klein, Christoph; Bohus, Martin; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2014-01-01

    Affective instability is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). The use of advanced assessment methodologies and appropriate statistical analyses has led to consistent findings that indicate a heightened instability in patients with BPD compared with healthy controls. However, few studies have investigated the specificity of affective instability among patients with BPD with regard to relevant clinical control groups. In this study, 43 patients with BPD, 28 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 20 patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), and 28 healthy controls carried e-diaries for 24 hours and were prompted to rate their momentary affective states approximately every 15 minutes while awake. To quantify instability, we used 3 state-of-the-art indices: multilevel models for squared successive differences (SSDs), multilevel models for probability of acute changes (PACs), and aggregated point-by-point changes (APPCs). Patients with BPD displayed heightened affective instability for emotional valence and distress compared with healthy controls, regardless of the specific instability indices. These results directly replicate earlier studies. However, affective instability did not seem to be specific to patients with BPD. With regard to SSDs, PACs, and APPCs, patients with PTSD or BN showed a similar heightened instability of affect (emotional valence and distress) to that of patients with BPD. Our results give raise to the discussion if affective instability is a transdiagnostic or a disorder-specific mechanism. Current evidence cannot answer this question, but investigating psychopathological mechanisms in everyday life across disorders is a promising approach to enhance validity and specificity of mental health diagnoses. PMID:24661176

  6. The effect of Kinesio Taping on postural control in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Soheila; Rojhani-Shirazi, Zahra; Shokri, Esmaeil; García-Muro San José, Francisco

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible alterations in postural control during upright standing in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain and the effect of Kinesio taping on the postural control. Twenty subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain and twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The center of pressure excursion was evaluated before the intervention for both groups, and immediately after intervention for the low back pain group. Independent sample t-test, Mann-Whitney test and repeated measure ANOVA were used for the statistical analysis of the data. There were significant differences in the center of pressure excursion between the low back pain group versus the healthy group. The results of the ANOVA demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean COP displacement and velocity before Kinesio Taping, immediately after, and 24 h after in the low back pain group. There are poor postural control mechanisms in subjects with non-specific chronic low back pain. Kinesio taping seems to change postural control immediately and have lasting effects until the day after. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The sex of specific neurons controls female body growth in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawala, Annick; Gould, Alex P

    2017-10-01

    Sexual dimorphisms in body size are widespread throughout the animal kingdom but their underlying mechanisms are not well characterized. Most models for how sex chromosome genes specify size dimorphism have emphasized the importance of gonadal hormones and cell-autonomous influences in mammals versus strictly cell-autonomous mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we use tissue-specific genetics to investigate how sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is established in Drosophila. We find that the larger body size characteristic of Drosophila females is established very early in larval development via an increase in the growth rate per unit of body mass. We demonstrate that the female sex determination gene, Sex-lethal (Sxl), functions in central nervous system (CNS) neurons as part of a relay that specifies the early sex-specific growth trajectories of larval but not imaginal tissues. Neuronal Sxl acts additively in 2 neuronal subpopulations, one of which corresponds to 7 median neurosecretory cells: the insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Surprisingly, however, male-female differences in the production of insulin-like peptides (Ilps) from the IPCs do not appear to be involved in establishing SSD in early larvae, although they may play a later role. These findings support a relay model in which Sxl in neurons and Sxl in local tissues act together to specify the female-specific growth of the larval body. They also reveal that, even though the sex determination pathways in Drosophila and mammals are different, they both modulate body growth via a combination of tissue-autonomous and nonautonomous inputs.

  8. Control of laser absorbing efficiency and proton quality by a specific double target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yu, Q.; Gu, Yanjun; Li, X.F.; Qu, J.F.; Kong, Q.; Kawata, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 8 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 083024. ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : improved proton beam quality * increased laser absorption efficiency * specific double-layer target Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.786, year: 2016

  9. Contemporary approaches to control system specification and design applied to KAON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludgate, G.A.; Osberg, E.A.; Dohan, D.A.

    1991-05-01

    Large data acquisition and control systems have evolved from early centralized computer systems to become multi-processor, distributed systems. While the complexity of these systems has increased our ability to reliably manage their construction has not kept pace. Structured analysis and real-time structured analysis have been used successfully to specify systems but, from a project management viewpoint, both lead to different classes of problems during implementation and maintenance. The KAON Factory central control system study employed a uniform approach to requirements analysis and architectural design. The methodology was based on well established object-oriented principles and was free of the problems inherent in the older methodologies. The methodology is presently being used to implement two systems at TRIUMF. (Author) 12 refs

  10. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  11. Ultimate capacity and influenced factors analysis of nuclear RC containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenning; Hou Gangling; Zhou Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Ultimate compressive bearing capacity, influenced factors and its rules of nuclear RC containment are key problems of safety assessment, accident treatment and structure design, etc. Ultimate compressive bearing capacity of nuclear RC containment is shown by concrete damaged plasticity model and steel double liner model of ABAQUS. The study shows that the concrete of nuclear RC containment cylinder wall becomes plastic when the internal pressure is up to 0.87 MPa, the maximum tensile strain of steel liner exceeds 3000 × 10 6 and nuclear RC containment reaches ultimate status when the internal pressure is up to 1.02 MPa. The result shows that nuclear RC containment is in elastic condition under the design internal pressure and the bearing capacity meets requirement. Prestress and steel liner play key parts in the ultimate internal pressure and failure mode of nuclear RC containment. The study results have value for the analysis of ultimate compressive bearing capacity, structure design and safety assessment. (authors)

  12. Specification, Synthesis, and Verification of Software-based Control Protocols for Fault-Tolerant Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-16

    rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report is the result of contracted...ASSUMPTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Despite the relatively unique and emerging complications in the control software for space systems, their design often...the satisfaction of logical proposition . Furthermore, suitable transitions must be defined between the discrete states such that they properly capture

  13. Cell-specific differences in the requirements for translation quality control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, Noah M; Ling, Jiqiang; Roy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    Protein synthesis has an overall error rate of approximately 10(-4) for each mRNA codon translated. The fidelity of translation is mainly determined by two events: synthesis of cognate amino acid:tRNA pairs by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) and accurate selection of aminoacyl-tRNAs (aa-tRNAs)...... divergent requirements for quality control in different cell compartments and suggest that the limits of translational accuracy may be largely determined by cellular physiology....

  14. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (prugby group than in the control group (prugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Wnt signaling controls the specification of definitive and primitive hematopoiesis from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Christopher M; Ditadi, Andrea; Awong, Geneve; Kennedy, Marion; Keller, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Efforts to derive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are complicated by the fact that embryonic hematopoiesis consists of two programs, primitive and definitive, that differ in developmental potential. As only definitive hematopoiesis generates HSCs, understanding how this program develops is essential for being able to produce this cell population in vitro. Here we show that both hematopoietic programs transition through hemogenic endothelial intermediates and develop from KDR(+)CD34(-)CD144(-) progenitors that are distinguished by CD235a expression. Generation of primitive progenitors (KDR(+)CD235a(+)) depends on stage-specific activin-nodal signaling and inhibition of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway, whereas specification of definitive progenitors (KDR(+)CD235a(-)) requires Wnt-β-catenin signaling during this same time frame. Together, these findings establish simple selective differentiation strategies for the generation of primitive or definitive hematopoietic progenitors by Wnt-β-catenin manipulation, and in doing so provide access to enriched populations for future studies on hPSC-derived hematopoietic development.

  16. Hazard Analysis of Software Requirements Specification for Process Module of FPGA-based Controllers in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung; Sejin; Kim, Eui-Sub; Yoo, Junbeom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Jong Yong; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Software in PLC, FPGA which are used to develop I and C system also should be analyzed to hazards and risks before used. NUREG/CR-6430 proposes the method for performing software hazard analysis. It suggests analysis technique for software affected hazards and it reveals that software hazard analysis should be performed with the aspects of software life cycle such as requirements analysis, design, detailed design, implements. It also provides the guide phrases for applying software hazard analysis. HAZOP (Hazard and operability analysis) is one of the analysis technique which is introduced in NUREG/CR-6430 and it is useful technique to use guide phrases. HAZOP is sometimes used to analyze the safety of software. Analysis method of NUREG/CR-6430 had been used in Korea nuclear power plant software for PLC development. Appropriate guide phrases and analysis process are selected to apply efficiently and NUREG/CR-6430 provides applicable methods for software hazard analysis is identified in these researches. We perform software hazard analysis of FPGA software requirements specification with two approaches which are NUREG/CR-6430 and HAZOP with using general GW. We also perform the comparative analysis with them. NUREG/CR-6430 approach has several pros and cons comparing with the HAZOP with general guide words and approach. It is enough applicable to analyze the software requirements specification of FPGA.

  17. Quality specification and status of internal quality control of cardiac biomarkers in China from 2011 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Haijian; He, Falin; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2017-09-07

    This study aimed to investigate the status of internal quality control (IQC) for cardiac biomarkers from 2011 to 2016 so that we can have overall knowledge of the precision level of measurements in China and set appropriate precision specifications. Internal quality control data of cardiac biomarkers, including creatinine kinase MB (CK-MB) (μg/L), CK-MB(U/L), myoglobin (Mb), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and homocysteines (HCY), were collected by a web-based external quality assessment (EQA) system. Percentages of laboratories meeting five precision quality specifications for current coefficient of variations (CVs) were calculated. Then, appropriate precision specifications were chosen for these six analytes. Finally, the CVs and IQC practice were further analyzed with different grouping methods. The current CVs remained nearly constant for 6 years. cTnT had the highest pass rates every year against five specifications, whereas HCY had the lowest pass rates. Overall, most analytes had a satisfactory performance (pass rates >80%), except for HCY, if one-third TEa or the minimum specification were employed. When the optimal specification was applied, the performance of most analytes was frustrating (pass rates < 60%) except for cTnT. The appropriate precision specifications of Mb, cTnI, cTnT and HCY were set as current CVs less than 9.20%, 9.90%, 7.50%, 10.54%, 7.63%, and 6.67%, respectively. The data of IQC practices indicated wide variation and substantial progress. The precision performance of cTnT was already satisfying, while the other five analytes, especially HCY, were still frustrating; thus, ongoing investigation and continuous improvement for IQC are still needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem for automated control of PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II accelerator shots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiller, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Shot Parameter Specification Subsystem (SPSS) is an integral part of the automatic control system developed for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) by the Control Monitor (C/M) Software Development Team. This system has been designed to fully utilize the accelerator by tailoring shot parameters to the needs of the experimenters. The SPSS is the key to this flexibility. Automatic systems will be required on many pulsed power machines for the fastest turnaround, the highest reliability, and most cost effective operation. These systems will require the flexibility and the ease of use that is part of the SPSS. The PBFA II control system has proved to be an effective modular system, flexible enough to meet the demands of both the fast track construction of PBFA II and the control needs of Hermes III at the Simulation Technology Laboratory. This system is expected to meet the demands of most future machine changes

  19. Controlling nuclear JAKs and STATs for specific gene activation by IFNγ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noon-Song, Ezra N.; Ahmed, Chulbul M.; Dabelic, Rea; Canton, Johnathan; Johnson, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gamma interferon (IFNγ) and its receptor subunit, IFNGR1, interact with the promoter region of IFNγ-associated genes along with transcription factor STAT1α. → We show that activated Janus kinases pJAK2 and pJAK1 also associate with IFNGR1 in the nucleus. → The activated Janus kinases are responsible for phosphorylation of tyrosine 41 on histone H3, an important epigenetic event for specific gene activation. -- Abstract: We previously showed that gamma interferon (IFNγ) and its receptor subunit, IFNGR1, interacted with the promoter region of IFNγ-activated genes along with transcription factor STAT1α. Recent studies have suggested that activated Janus kinases pJAK2 and pJAK1 also played a role in gene activation by phosphorylation of histone H3 on tyrosine 41. This study addresses the question of the role of activated JAKs in specific gene activation by IFNγ. We carried out chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by PCR in IFNγ treated WISH cells and showed association of pJAK1, pJAK2, IFNGR1, and STAT1 on the same DNA sequence of the IRF-1 gene promoter. The β-actin gene, which is not activated by IFNγ, did not show this association. The movement of activated JAK to the nucleus and the IRF-1 promoter was confirmed by the combination of nuclear fractionation, confocal microscopy and DNA precipitation analysis using the biotinylated GAS promoter. Activated JAKs in the nucleus was associated with phosphorylated tyrosine 41 on histone H3 in the region of the GAS promoter. Unphosphorylated JAK2 was found to be constitutively present in the nucleus and was capable of undergoing activation in IFNγ treated cells, most likely via nuclear IFNGR1. Association of pJAK2 and IFNGR1 with histone H3 in IFNγ treated cells was demonstrated by histone H3 immunoprecipitation. Unphosphorylated STAT1 protein was associated with histone H3 of untreated cells. IFNγ treatment resulted in its disassociation and then re-association as pSTAT1. The

  20. A mathematical model of coronary blood flow control: simulation of patient-specific three-dimensional hemodynamics during exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kevin D.; Asrress, Kaleab N.; Redwood, Simon R.; Figueroa, C. Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model of the metabolic feedback and adrenergic feedforward control of coronary blood flow that occur during variations in the cardiac workload. It is based on the physiological observations that coronary blood flow closely follows myocardial oxygen demand, that myocardial oxygen debts are repaid, and that control oscillations occur when the system is perturbed and so are phenomenological in nature. Using clinical data, we demonstrate that the model can provide patient-specific estimates of coronary blood flow changes between rest and exercise, requiring only the patient's heart rate and peak aortic pressure as input. The model can be used in zero-dimensional lumped parameter network studies or as a boundary condition for three-dimensional multidomain Navier-Stokes blood flow simulations. For the first time, this model provides feedback control of the coronary vascular resistance, which can be used to enhance the physiological accuracy of any hemodynamic simulation, which includes both a heart model and coronary arteries. This has particular relevance to patient-specific simulation for which heart rate and aortic pressure recordings are available. In addition to providing a simulation tool, under our assumptions, the derivation of our model shows that β-feedforward control of the coronary microvascular resistance is a mathematical necessity and that the metabolic feedback control must be dependent on two error signals: the historical myocardial oxygen debt, and the instantaneous myocardial oxygen deficit. PMID:26945076

  1. A mathematical model of coronary blood flow control: simulation of patient-specific three-dimensional hemodynamics during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Christopher J; Lau, Kevin D; Asrress, Kaleab N; Redwood, Simon R; Figueroa, C Alberto

    2016-05-01

    This work presents a mathematical model of the metabolic feedback and adrenergic feedforward control of coronary blood flow that occur during variations in the cardiac workload. It is based on the physiological observations that coronary blood flow closely follows myocardial oxygen demand, that myocardial oxygen debts are repaid, and that control oscillations occur when the system is perturbed and so are phenomenological in nature. Using clinical data, we demonstrate that the model can provide patient-specific estimates of coronary blood flow changes between rest and exercise, requiring only the patient's heart rate and peak aortic pressure as input. The model can be used in zero-dimensional lumped parameter network studies or as a boundary condition for three-dimensional multidomain Navier-Stokes blood flow simulations. For the first time, this model provides feedback control of the coronary vascular resistance, which can be used to enhance the physiological accuracy of any hemodynamic simulation, which includes both a heart model and coronary arteries. This has particular relevance to patient-specific simulation for which heart rate and aortic pressure recordings are available. In addition to providing a simulation tool, under our assumptions, the derivation of our model shows that β-feedforward control of the coronary microvascular resistance is a mathematical necessity and that the metabolic feedback control must be dependent on two error signals: the historical myocardial oxygen debt, and the instantaneous myocardial oxygen deficit. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Computer system requirements specification for 101-SY hydrogen mitigation test project data acquisition and control system (DACS-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeece, S.G.; Truitt, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The system requirements specification for SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test project (HMTP) data acquisition and control system (DACS-1) documents the system requirements for the DACS-1 project. The purpose of the DACS is to provide data acquisition and control capabilities for the hydrogen mitigation testing of Tank SY-101. Mitigation testing uses a pump immersed in the waste, directed at varying angles and operated at different speeds and time durations. Tank and supporting instrumentation is brought into the DACS to monitor the status of the tank and to provide information on the effectiveness of the mitigation test. Instrumentation is also provided for closed loop control of the pump operation. DACS is also capable for being expanded to control and monitor other mitigation testing. The intended audience for the computer system requirements specification includes the SY-101 hydrogen mitigation test data acquisition and control system designers: analysts, programmers, instrument engineers, operators, maintainers. It is intended for the data users: tank farm operations, mitigation test engineers, the Test Review Group (TRG), data management support staff, data analysis, Hanford data stewards, and external reviewers

  3. Evaluation of Serum Specific Antibody against Recombinant ESAT-6 Antigen in Patients with Tuberculosis and Comparing to Normal Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homeira Izadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Tuberculosis (TB is a zoonotic disease which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Because of common structural and secretory antigens between pathogen and nonpathogenic mycobacterium, the specific diagnosis of TB is difficult. Therefore, it is very important to find a new method with high specificity and sensitivity for accurate and rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis. In this study, the serodiagnostic potential of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant ESAT-6 in TB infected patients was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Materials & Methods: 55 TB patients with active disease and 28 healthy controls have been collected and evaluated in different dilutions in ELISA methods for the presence of specific anti-ESAT-6 antibody. The specificity and the sensitivity of this method was compared with the culture test. Results: TB patients have high levels of specific antibody against ESAT-6 antigens. The specificity and the sensitivity of this method was calculated as 80.90% and 85.45%, respectively. Conclusion: These findings provide useful information on the importance of ESAT-6 protein and suggested this serologic test as a good alternative method for rapid and prefect diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  4. HPMA copolymer-drug conjugates with controlled tumor-specific drug release

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytil, Petr; Koziolová, Eva; Etrych, Tomáš; Ulbrich, Karel

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-15, č. článku 1700209. ISSN 1616-5187 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-13283S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08084S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : biodegradable spacer * controlled drug release * drug delivery systems Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.238, year: 2016

  5. Specific and cross over effects of massage for muscle soreness: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-02-01

    Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera-band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non-massaged limb. 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/- 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/- 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/- 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/- 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0-10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff-legged dead-lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p < 0.0001) and PPT (p = 0.0007), with the massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non-massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30 minutes post massage. Massage with a roller device reduces

  6. Native intra- and inter-specific reactions may cause the paradox of pest control with harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seno, Hiromi

    2010-05-01

    We analyse a general time-discrete mathematical model of host-parasite population dynamics with harvesting, in which the host can be regarded as a pest. We harvest a portion of the host population at a moment in each year. Our model involves the density effect on the host population. We investigate the condition in which the harvesting of the host results in a paradoxical increase of its equilibrium population size. Our results imply that for a family of pest-enemy systems, the paradox of pest control could be caused essentially by the interspecific relationship and the intraspecific density effect.

  7. Specificity of Correlation Pattern Recognition Methods Application in Security Holograms Identity Control Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlokazov, E. Yu.; Starikov, R. S.; Odinokov, S. B.; Tsyganov, I. K.; Talalaev, V. E.; Koluchkin, V. V.

    Automatic inspection of security hologram (SH) identity is highly demanded issue due high distribution of SH worldwide to protect documents such as passports, driving licenses, banknotes etc. While most of the known approaches use inspection of SH design features none of these approaches inspect the features of its surface relief that is a direct contribution to original master matrix used for these holograms production. In our previous works we represented the device that was developed to provide SH identification by processing of coherent responses of its surface elements. Most of the algorithms used in this device are based on application of correlation pattern recognition methods. The main issue of the present article is a description of these methods application specificities.

  8. Control of mucosal virus infection by influenza nucleoprotein-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couch Robert B

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MHC class I-restricted CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL are thought to play a major role in clearing virus and promoting recovery from influenza infection and disease. This has been demonstrated for clearance of influenza virus from the lungs of infected mice. However, human influenza infection is primarily a respiratory mucosal infection involving the nasopharynx and tracheobronchial tree. The role of CD8+ CTL directed toward the influenza nucleoprotein (NP in defense against influenza virus infection at the respiratory mucosa was evaluated in two separate adoptive transfer experiments. Methods Influenza nucleoprotein (NP-specific CD8+ CTL were generated from splenocytes obtained from Balb/c mice previously primed with influenza A/Taiwan/1/86 (H1N1 infection or with influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1-derived NP plasmid DNA vaccine followed by infection with A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2 virus. After in vitro expansion by exposure to an influenza NP-vaccinia recombinant, highly purified CD8+ T cells exhibited significant lysis in vitro of P815 target cells infected with A/Hong Kong/68 (H3N2 virus while the CD8- fraction (CD4+ T cells, B cells and macrophages had no CTL activity. Purified CD8+ and CD8- T cells (1 × 107 were injected intravenously or interperitoneally into naive mice four hours prior to intranasal challenge with A/HK/68 (H3N2 virus. Results The adoptively transferred NP-vaccinia-induced CD8+ T cells caused significant reduction of virus titers in both the lungs and nasal passages when compared to CD8- cells. Neither CD8+ nor CD8- T cells from cultures stimulated with HIV gp120-vaccinia recombinant reduced virus titers. Conclusion The present data demonstrate that influenza NP-specific CD8+ CTL can play a direct role in clearance of influenza virus from the upper respiratory mucosal surfaces.

  9. Cattle Sex-Specific Recombination and Genetic Control from a Large Pedigree Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Shen, Botong; Padhi, Abinash; Sun, Chuanyu; Bickhart, Derek M; Cole, John B; Null, Daniel J; Liu, George E; Da, Yang; Wiggans, George R

    2015-11-01

    Meiotic recombination is an essential biological process that generates genetic diversity and ensures proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis. From a large USDA dairy cattle pedigree with over half a million genotyped animals, we extracted 186,927 three-generation families, identified over 8.5 million maternal and paternal recombination events, and constructed sex-specific recombination maps for 59,309 autosomal SNPs. The recombination map spans for 25.5 Morgans in males and 23.2 Morgans in females, for a total studied region of 2,516 Mb (986 kb/cM in males and 1,085 kb/cM in females). The male map is 10% longer than the female map and the sex difference is most pronounced in the subtelomeric regions. We identified 1,792 male and 1,885 female putative recombination hotspots, with 720 hotspots shared between sexes. These hotspots encompass 3% of the genome but account for 25% of the genome-wide recombination events in both sexes. During the past forty years, males showed a decreasing trend in recombination rate that coincided with the artificial selection for milk production. Sex-specific GWAS analyses identified PRDM9 and CPLX1 to have significant effects on genome-wide recombination rate in both sexes. Two novel loci, NEK9 and REC114, were associated with recombination rate in both sexes, whereas three loci, MSH4, SMC3 and CEP55, affected recombination rate in females only. Among the multiple PRDM9 paralogues on the bovine genome, our GWAS of recombination hotspot usage together with linkage analysis identified the PRDM9 paralogue on chromosome 1 to be associated in the U.S. Holstein data. Given the largest sample size ever reported for such studies, our results reveal new insights into the understanding of cattle and mammalian recombination.

  10. A glutamate/aspartate switch controls product specificity in a protein arginine methyltransferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debler, Erik W.; Jain, Kanishk; Warmack, Rebeccah A.; Feng, You; Clarke, Steven G.; Blobel, Günter; Stavropoulos, Pete

    2016-02-08

    Trypanosoma brucei PRMT7 (TbPRMT7) is a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) that strictly monomethylates various substrates, thus classifying it as a type III PRMT. However, the molecular basis of its unique product specificity has remained elusive. Here, we present the structure of TbPRMT7 in complex with its cofactor product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy) at 2.8 Å resolution and identify a glutamate residue critical for its monomethylation behavior. TbPRMT7 comprises the conserved methyltransferase and β-barrel domains, an N-terminal extension, and a dimerization arm. The active site at the interface of the N-terminal extension, methyltransferase, and β-barrel domains is stabilized by the dimerization arm of the neighboring protomer, providing a structural basis for dimerization as a prerequisite for catalytic activity. Mutagenesis of active-site residues highlights the importance of Glu181, the second of the two invariant glutamate residues of the double E loop that coordinate the target arginine in substrate peptides/proteins and that increase its nucleophilicity. Strikingly, mutation of Glu181 to aspartate converts TbPRMT7 into a type I PRMT, producing asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a histone H4 peptide showed that the Glu181Asp mutant has markedly increased affinity for monomethylated peptide with respect to the WT, suggesting that the enlarged active site can favorably accommodate monomethylated peptide and provide sufficient space for ADMA formation. In conclusion, these findings yield valuable insights into the product specificity and the catalytic mechanism of protein arginine methyltransferases and have important implications for the rational (re)design of PRMTs.

  11. Intensity modulated radiation therapy: Analysis of patient specific quality control results, experience of Rene-Gauducheau Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiavassa, S.; Brunet, G.; Gaudaire, S.; Munos-Llagostera, C.; Delpon, G.; Lisbona, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. - Systematic verifications of patient's specific intensity-modulated radiation treatments are usually performed with absolute and relative measurements. The results constitute a database which allows the identification of potential systematic errors. Material and methods. - We analyzed 1270 beams distributed in 232 treatment plans. Step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation treatments were performed with a Clinac (6 and 23 MV) and sliding window intensity-modulated radiation treatments with a Novalis (6 MV). Results. - The distributions obtained do not show systematic error and all the control meet specified tolerances. Conclusion. - These results allow us to reduce controls specific patients for treatments performed under identical conditions (location, optimization and segmentation parameters of treatment planning system, etc.). (authors)

  12. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-04: Statistical Process Control for Patient-Specific QA in Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAH, J [Myongji Hospital, Goyangsi, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); SHIN, D [National Cancer Center, Goyangsi, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, G [UCSD Medical Center, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate and improve the reliability of proton QA process, to provide an optimal customized level using the statistical process control (SPC) methodology. The aim is then to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA process. Methods: We investigated the constancy of the dose output and range to see whether it was within the tolerance level of daily QA process. This study analyzed the difference between the measured and calculated ranges along the central axis to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA in proton beam by using process capability indices. In this study, patient QA plans were classified into 6 treatment sites: head and neck (41 cases), spinal cord (29 cases), lung (28 cases), liver (30 cases), pancreas (26 cases), and prostate (24 cases). Results: The deviations for the dose output and range of daily QA process were ±0.84% and ±019%, respectively. Our results show that the patient-specific range measurements are capable at a specification limit of ±2% in all treatment sites except spinal cord cases. In spinal cord cases, comparison of process capability indices (Cp, Cpm, Cpk ≥1, but Cpmk ≤1) indicated that the process is capable, but not centered, the process mean deviates from its target value. The UCL (upper control limit), CL (center line) and LCL (lower control limit) for spinal cord cases were 1.37%, −0.27% and −1.89%, respectively. On the other hands, the range differences in prostate cases were good agreement between calculated and measured values. The UCL, CL and LCL for prostate cases were 0.57%, −0.11% and −0.78%, respectively. Conclusion: SPC methodology has potential as a useful tool to customize an optimal tolerance levels and to suggest the suitable guidelines for patient-specific QA in clinical proton beam.

  13. The control network of air quality in the Lorraine steel industry country: an example of a specific steel industry network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncin, G.

    1991-01-01

    This specific (for steel industry region) network for the air quality control mainly measures the concentrations in sulfur dioxide, airborne dust and fall out particles. The recent automation of this network implied a preliminary optimization study which consisted of a statistical analysis of the numerous data collected by many hand operated sensors. The implementation and working conditions of the new equipment have required the use of air-conditioned monoblock metallic cabins

  14. Memory for general and specific value information in younger and older adults: measuring the limits of strategic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; Farb, Norman A S; Craik, Fergus I M

    2007-06-01

    The ability to selectively remember important information is a critical function of memory. Although previous research has suggested that older adults are impaired in a variety of episodic memory tasks, recent work has demonstrated that older adults can selectively remember high-value information. In the present research, we examined how younger and older adults selectively remembered words with various assigned numeric point values, to see whether younger adults could remember more specific value information than could older adults. Both groups were equally good at recalling point values when recalling the range of high-value words, but younger adults outperformed older adults when recalling specific values. Although older adults were more likely to recognize negative value words, both groups exhibited control by not recalling negative value information. The findings suggest that although both groups retain high-value information, older adults rely more on gist-based encoding and retrieval operations, whereas younger adults are able to remember specific numeric value information.

  15. Results of a Pilates exercise program in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, M C; Rodríguez-Torres, J; Cabrera-Martos, I; Díaz-Pelegrina, A; Aguilar-Ferrándiz, M E; Castellote-Caballero, Y

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of a Pilates exercise program on disability, pain, lumbar mobility, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Randomized controlled trial. University laboratory. A total of 54 patients with chronic non-specific low back pain. Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group ( n=27) included in a Pilates exercise program or to a control group ( n=27) receiving information in a form of a leaflet. Disability (Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire and Oswestry Disability Index), current, average and pain at it least and at its worst (Visual Analogue Scales), lumbar mobility (modified Shober test), flexibility (finger-to-floor test) and balance (single limb stance test) were measured at baseline and after the intervention. A between-group analysis showed significant differences in the intervention group compared to the control group for both disability scores, the Rolland-Morris questionnaire (mean change±standard deviation of 5.31±3.37 and 2.40±6.78 respectively and between-groups mean difference of 3.2 ± 4.12, p=0.003) and the Oswestry Disability Index ( ppain ( p=0.002) and pain at it least ( p=0.033), flexibility (0.032) and balance (0.043). An 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in improving disability, pain, flexibility and balance in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

  16. Design of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plants. Specific Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This publication is a revision and combination of two Safety Guides, IAEA Safety Standards Series No. NS-G-1.1 and No. NS-G-1.3. The revision takes into account developments in instrumentation and control (I&C) systems since the publication of the earlier Safety Guides. The main changes relate to the continuing development of computer applications and the evolution of the methods necessary for their safe, secure and practical use. In addition, account is taken of developments in human factors engineering and the need for computer security. This Safety Guide references and takes into account other IAEA Safety Standards and Nuclear Security Series publications that provide guidance relating to I&C design

  17. Genetic analysis of gamma-ray mutagenesis in yeast. II. Allele-specific control of mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.H.; Lawrence, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    We find that partially different sets of gene functions are required for the production of different kinds of mutations induced by 60 Co γ rays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This observation is very similar to others made previously with respect to uv mutagenesis and confirms the conclusion that such distinctive patterns of genetic control reflect properties of the test alleles and their genetic locations, rather than the kinds of lesions required to revert them. The data also support the model of mutagenic repair outlined in the first paper of this series in which partially different sets of gene functions are required for the production of different kinds of mutations, the formation of mutations at different genetic sites and the induction of mutations by different mutagens

  18. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon [Youngdong Univ., Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study.

  19. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon

    2003-03-01

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study

  20. Site-specific selfish genes as tools for the control and genetic engineering of natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Austin

    2003-05-07

    Site-specific selfish genes exploit host functions to copy themselves into a defined target DNA sequence, and include homing endonuclease genes, group II introns and some LINE-like transposable elements. If such genes can be engineered to target new host sequences, then they can be used to manipulate natural populations, even if the number of individuals released is a small fraction of the entire population. For example, a genetic load sufficient to eradicate a population can be imposed in fewer than 20 generations, if the target is an essential host gene, the knockout is recessive and the selfish gene has an appropriate promoter. There will be selection for resistance, but several strategies are available for reducing the likelihood of it evolving. These genes may also be used to genetically engineer natural populations, by means of population-wide gene knockouts, gene replacements and genetic transformations. By targeting sex-linked loci just prior to meiosis one may skew the population sex ratio, and by changing the promoter one may limit the spread of the gene to neighbouring populations. The proposed constructs are evolutionarily stable in the face of the mutations most likely to arise during their spread, and strategies are also available for reversing the manipulations.

  1. The control of male fertility by spermatid-specific factors: searching for contraceptive targets from spermatozoon's head to tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Ren; Batool, Aalia; Wang, Yu-Qian; Hao, Xiao-Xia; Chang, Chawn-Shang; Cheng, C Yan; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility due to abnormal spermatozoa has been reported in both animals and humans, but its pathogenic causes, including genetic abnormalities, remain largely unknown. On the other hand, contraceptive options for men are limited, and a specific, reversible and safe method of male contraception has been a long-standing quest in medicine. Some progress has recently been made in exploring the effects of spermatid-specifical genetic factors in controlling male fertility. A comprehensive search of PubMed for articles and reviews published in English before July 2016 was carried out using the search terms ‘spermiogenesis failure', ‘globozoospermia', ‘spermatid-specific', ‘acrosome', ‘infertile', ‘manchette', ‘sperm connecting piece', ‘sperm annulus', ‘sperm ADAMs', ‘flagellar abnormalities', ‘sperm motility loss', ‘sperm ion exchanger' and ‘contraceptive targets'. Importantly, we have opted to focus on articles regarding spermatid-specific factors. Genetic studies to define the structure and physiology of sperm have shown that spermatozoa appear to be one of the most promising contraceptive targets. Here we summarize how these spermatid-specific factors regulate spermiogenesis and categorize them according to their localization and function from spermatid head to tail (e.g., acrosome, manchette, head-tail conjunction, annulus, principal piece of tail). In addition, we emphatically introduce small-molecule contraceptives, such as BRDT and PPP3CC/PPP3R2, which are currently being developed to target spermatogenic-specific proteins. We suggest that blocking the differentiation of haploid germ cells, which rarely affects early spermatogenic cell types and the testicular microenvironment, is a better choice than spermatogenic-specific proteins. The studies described here provide valuable information regarding the genetic and molecular defects causing male mouse infertility to improve our understanding of the importance of spermatid-specific

  2. Control of oxygen tension recapitulates zone-specific functions in human liver microphysiology systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Montiel, Felipe T; George, Subin M; Gough, Albert H; Sharma, Anup D; Wu, Juanfang; DeBiasio, Richard; Vernetti, Lawrence A; Taylor, D Lansing

    2017-10-01

    This article describes our next generation human Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System (LAMPS). The key demonstration of this study was that Zone 1 and Zone 3 microenvironments can be established by controlling the oxygen tension in individual devices over the range of ca. 3 to 13%. The oxygen tension was computationally modeled using input on the microfluidic device dimensions, numbers of cells, oxygen consumption rates of hepatocytes, the diffusion coefficients of oxygen in different materials and the flow rate of media in the MicroPhysiology System (MPS). In addition, the oxygen tension was measured using a ratiometric imaging method with the oxygen sensitive dye, Tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate (RTDP) and the oxygen insensitive dye, Alexa 488. The Zone 1 biased functions of oxidative phosphorylation, albumin and urea secretion and Zone 3 biased functions of glycolysis, α1AT secretion, Cyp2E1 expression and acetaminophen toxicity were demonstrated in the respective Zone 1 and Zone 3 MicroPhysiology System. Further improvements in the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System included improved performance of selected nonparenchymal cells, the inclusion of a porcine liver extracellular matrix to model the Space of Disse, as well as an improved media to support both hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. In its current form, the Liver Acinus MicroPhysiology System is most amenable to low to medium throughput, acute through chronic studies, including liver disease models, prioritizing compounds for preclinical studies, optimizing chemistry in structure activity relationship (SAR) projects, as well as in rising dose studies for initial dose ranging. Impact statement Oxygen zonation is a critical aspect of liver functions. A human microphysiology system is needed to investigate the impact of zonation on a wide range of liver functions that can be experimentally manipulated. Because oxygen zonation has such diverse physiological effects in the liver, we

  3. Work stress, asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life: Initial evidence from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Bettina; Leucht, Verena; Loerbroks, Adrian

    2017-03-01

    Research has suggested that psychological stress is positively associated with asthma morbidity. One major source of stress in adulthood is one's occupation. However, to date, potential links of work stress with asthma control or asthma-specific quality of life have not been examined. We aimed to address this knowledge gap. In 2014/2015, we conducted a cross-sectional study among adults with asthma in Germany (n = 362). For the current analyses that sample was restricted to participants in employment and reporting to have never been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 94). Work stress was operationalized by the 16-item effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) questionnaire, which measures the subcomponents "effort", "reward" and "overcommitment." Participants further completed the Asthma Control Test and the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire-Sydney. Multivariable associations were quantified by linear regression and logistic regression. Effort, reward and their ratio (i.e. ERI ratio) did not show meaningful associations with asthma morbidity. By contrast, increasing levels of overcommitment were associated with poorer asthma control and worse quality of life in both linear regression (ß = -0.26, p = 0.01 and ß = 0.44, p work-related overcommitment with asthma control and asthma-specific quality of life. Longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed to confirm our findings and to disentangle the potential causality of associations.

  4. Eating and weight/shape criticism as a specific life-event related to bulimia nervosa: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sonia Ferreira; Machado, Bárbara César; Martins, Carla

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence of life events preceding the onset of eating problems in bulimia nervosa patients. A case-control design was used involving the comparison of 60 female subjects who meet DSM-IV criteria for bulimia nervosa with 60 healthy control subjects and 60 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. The RFI (Fairburn et al., 1998) subset of factors that represent exposure to life events in the 12 months immediately before the development of eating problems was used. Women with bulimia nervosa reported higher rates of major stress, criticism about eating, weight and shape and also a great number of antecedent life events during the year preceding the development of eating problems than the healthy control group. However, when compared with the general psychiatric control group only the exposure to critical comments about weight, shape, or eating emerged as a specific trigger for bulimia nervosa. Our findings support the fact that eating and shape/weight criticism in the year preceding the development of eating disturbance seems to be specifically related to bulimia nervosa.

  5. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  6. Feasibility of replacing patient specific cutouts with a computer-controlled electron multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldib, Ahmed; Jin Lihui; Li Jinsheng; Ma, C-M Charlie

    2013-01-01

    A motorized electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) was developed as an add-on device to the Varian linac for delivery of advanced electron beam therapy. It has previously been shown that electron beams collimated by an eMLC have very similar penumbra to those collimated by applicators and cutouts. Thus, manufacturing patient specific cutouts would no longer be necessary, resulting in the reduction of time taken in the cutout fabrication process. Moreover, cutout construction involves handling of toxic materials and exposure to toxic fumes that are usually generated during the process, while the eMLC will be a pollution-free device. However, undulation of the isodose lines is expected due to the finite size of the eMLC. Hence, the provided planned target volume (PTV) shape will not exactly follow the beam's-eye-view of the PTV, but instead will make a stepped approximation to the PTV shape. This may be a problem when the field edge is close to a critical structure. Therefore, in this study the capability of the eMLC to achieve the same clinical outcome as an applicator/cutout combination was investigated based on real patient computed tomographies (CTs). An in-house Monte Carlo based treatment planning system was used for dose calculation using ten patient CTs. For each patient, two plans were generated; one with electron beams collimated using the applicator/cutout combination; and the other plan with beams collimated by the eMLC. Treatment plan quality was compared for each patient based on dose distribution and dose–volume histogram. In order to determine the optimal position of the leaves, the impact of the different leaf positioning strategies was investigated. All plans with both eMLC and cutouts were generated such that 100% of the target volume receives at least 90% of the prescribed dose. Then the percentage difference in dose between both delivery techniques was calculated for all the cases. The difference in the dose received by 10% of the volume of the

  7. Feasibility of replacing patient specific cutouts with a computer-controlled electron multileaf collimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldib, Ahmed; Jin, Lihui; Li, Jinsheng; Ma, C.-M. Charlie

    2013-08-01

    A motorized electron multileaf collimator (eMLC) was developed as an add-on device to the Varian linac for delivery of advanced electron beam therapy. It has previously been shown that electron beams collimated by an eMLC have very similar penumbra to those collimated by applicators and cutouts. Thus, manufacturing patient specific cutouts would no longer be necessary, resulting in the reduction of time taken in the cutout fabrication process. Moreover, cutout construction involves handling of toxic materials and exposure to toxic fumes that are usually generated during the process, while the eMLC will be a pollution-free device. However, undulation of the isodose lines is expected due to the finite size of the eMLC. Hence, the provided planned target volume (PTV) shape will not exactly follow the beam's-eye-view of the PTV, but instead will make a stepped approximation to the PTV shape. This may be a problem when the field edge is close to a critical structure. Therefore, in this study the capability of the eMLC to achieve the same clinical outcome as an applicator/cutout combination was investigated based on real patient computed tomographies (CTs). An in-house Monte Carlo based treatment planning system was used for dose calculation using ten patient CTs. For each patient, two plans were generated; one with electron beams collimated using the applicator/cutout combination; and the other plan with beams collimated by the eMLC. Treatment plan quality was compared for each patient based on dose distribution and dose-volume histogram. In order to determine the optimal position of the leaves, the impact of the different leaf positioning strategies was investigated. All plans with both eMLC and cutouts were generated such that 100% of the target volume receives at least 90% of the prescribed dose. Then the percentage difference in dose between both delivery techniques was calculated for all the cases. The difference in the dose received by 10% of the volume of the

  8. Seismic shear wall ISP NUPEC's seismic ultimate dynamic response test. Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In the seismic design of a nuclear power plant, evaluation of the ultimate strength of the nuclear reactor building is an important subject for assessment of seismic reliability of the plant. In order to carry out the evaluation, the response characteristics of reinforced concrete seismic shear walls up to their ultimate state have to be understood. For this purpose, there is a need to develop reliable non-linear response analysis methods which enables the reliable ultimate strength evaluation of nuclear reactor buildings. Along with this need, many computer codes have been developed. These computer codes are compared. (K.A.)

  9. Adoptive transfer of EBV specific CD8+ T cell clones can transiently control EBV infection in humanized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsiferova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection expands CD8+ T cells specific for lytic antigens to high frequencies during symptomatic primary infection, and maintains these at significant numbers during persistence. Despite this, the protective function of these lytic EBV antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that lytic EBV replication does not significantly contribute to virus-induced B cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model with reconstituted human immune system components (huNSG mice. However, we report a trend to reduction of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation outside of lymphoid organs upon diminished lytic replication. Moreover, we could demonstrate that CD8+ T cells against the lytic EBV antigen BMLF1 can eliminate lytically replicating EBV-transformed B cells from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs and in vivo, thereby transiently controlling high viremia after adoptive transfer into EBV infected huNSG mice. These findings suggest a protective function for lytic EBV antigen-specific CD8+ T cells against EBV infection and against virus-associated tumors in extra-lymphoid organs. These specificities should be explored for EBV-specific vaccine development.

  10. Maternal Germline-Specific Genes in the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi: Characterization and Application for Disease Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedler, James K.; Qi, Yumin; Pledger, David; Macias, Vanessa M.; James, Anthony A.; Tu, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles stephensi is a principal vector of urban malaria on the Indian subcontinent and an emerging model for molecular and genetic studies of mosquito biology. To enhance our understanding of female mosquito reproduction, and to develop new tools for basic research and for genetic strategies to control mosquito-borne infectious diseases, we identified 79 genes that displayed previtellogenic germline-specific expression based on RNA-Seq data generated from 11 life stage–specific and sex-specific samples. Analysis of this gene set provided insights into the biology and evolution of female reproduction. Promoters from two of these candidates, vitellogenin receptor and nanos, were used in independent transgenic cassettes for the expression of artificial microRNAs against suspected mosquito maternal-effect genes, discontinuous actin hexagon and myd88. We show these promoters have early germline-specific expression and demonstrate 73% and 42% knockdown of myd88 and discontinuous actin hexagon mRNA in ovaries 48 hr after blood meal, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate maternal-specific delivery of mRNA and protein to progeny embryos. We discuss the application of this system of maternal delivery of mRNA/miRNA/protein in research on mosquito reproduction and embryonic development, and for the development of a gene drive system based on maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest. PMID:25480960

  11. Endothelin receptor-specific control of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Carmen; Hamrick, William C; Hobbs, Janet L; Pollock, David M; Carmines, Pamela K; Pollock, Jennifer S

    2017-02-23

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) promotes renal damage during cardiovascular disease; yet, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, triggered by unfolded protein accumulation in the ER, contributes to apoptosis and organ injury. These studies aimed to determine whether the ET-1 system promotes renal ER stress development in response to tunicamycin. ET B deficient (ET B def) or transgenic control (TG-con) rats were used in the presence or absence of ET A receptor antagonism. Tunicamycin treatment similarly increased cortical ER stress markers in both rat genotypes; however, only ET B def rats showed a 14-24 fold increase from baseline for medullary GRP78, sXBP-1, and CHOP. Pre-treatment of TG-con rats with the ET A blocker ABT-627 for 1 week prior to tunicamycin injection significantly reduced the ER stress response in cortex and medulla, and also inhibited renal apoptosis. Pre-treatment with ABT-627 failed to decrease renal ER stress and apoptosis in ET B def rats. In conclusion, the ET-1 system is important for the development of tunicamycin-induced renal ER stress and apoptosis. ET A receptor activation induces renal ER stress genes and apoptosis, while functional activation of the ET B receptor has protective effects. These results highlight targeting the ET A receptor as a therapeutic approach against ER stress-induced kidney injury.

  12. Controlled, Site-Specific Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes with Diazonium Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.

    2013-01-01

    capacities and uses. Site-specific functionalization may enable the use of nanotubes in molecular electronic applications because device functionality is critical at the cross points.

  13. Amino acid sequence preferences to control cell-specific organization of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanie, Kei; Kato, Ryuji; Zhao, Yingzi; Narita, Yuji; Okochi, Mina; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2011-06-01

    Effective surface modification with biocompatible molecules is known to be effective in reducing the life-threatening risks related to artificial cardiovascular implants. In recent strategies in regenerative medicine, the enhancement and support of natural repair systems at the site of injury by designed biocompatible molecules have succeeded in rapid and effective injury repair. Therefore, such a strategy could also be effective for rapid endothelialization of cardiovascular implants to lower the risk of thrombosis and stenosis. To achieve this enhancement of the natural repair system, a biomimetic molecule that mimics proper cellular organization at the implant location is required. In spite of the fact that many reported peptides have cell-attracting properties on material surfaces, there have been few peptides that could control cell-specific adhesion. For the advanced cardiovascular implants, peptides that can mimic the natural mechanism that controls cell-specific organization have been strongly anticipated. To obtain such peptides, we hypothesized the cellular bias toward certain varieties of amino acids and examined the cell preference (in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and protein attraction) of varieties and of repeat length on SPOT peptide arrays. To investigate the role of specific peptides in controlling the organization of various cardiovascular-related cells, we compared endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and fibroblasts (FBs). A clear, cell-specific preference was found for amino acids (longer than 5-mer) using three types of cells, and the combinational effect of the physicochemical properties of the residues was analyzed to interpret the mechanism. Copyright © 2011 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Phycoerythrin-specific bilin lyase-isomerase controls blue-green chromatic acclimation in marine Synechococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Animesh; Biswas, Avijit; Blot, Nicolas; Partensky, Frédéric; Karty, Jonathan A; Hammad, Loubna A; Garczarek, Laurence; Gutu, Andrian; Schluchter, Wendy M; Kehoe, David M

    2012-12-04

    The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is the second most abundant phytoplanktonic organism in the world's oceans. The ubiquity of this genus is in large part due to its use of a diverse set of photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments called phycobiliproteins, which allow it to efficiently exploit a wide range of light colors. Here we uncover a pivotal molecular mechanism underpinning a widespread response among marine Synechococcus cells known as "type IV chromatic acclimation" (CA4). During this process, the pigmentation of the two main phycobiliproteins of this organism, phycoerythrins I and II, is reversibly modified to match changes in the ambient light color so as to maximize photon capture for photosynthesis. CA4 involves the replacement of three molecules of the green light-absorbing chromophore phycoerythrobilin with an equivalent number of the blue light-absorbing chromophore phycourobilin when cells are shifted from green to blue light, and the reverse after a shift from blue to green light. We have identified and characterized MpeZ, an enzyme critical for CA4 in marine Synechococcus. MpeZ attaches phycoerythrobilin to cysteine-83 of the α-subunit of phycoerythrin II and isomerizes it to phycourobilin. mpeZ RNA is six times more abundant in blue light, suggesting that its proper regulation is critical for CA4. Furthermore, mpeZ mutants fail to normally acclimate in blue light. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling an ecologically important photosynthetic process and identify a unique class of phycoerythrin lyase/isomerases, which will further expand the already widespread use of phycoerythrin in biotechnology and cell biology applications.

  15. Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.scalise@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Rinaldi, Daniele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Perugia (Italy); Davi, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Architettura Costruzioni e Strutture, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Paone, Nicola [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2011-10-21

    Scintillating crystals are employed in high energy physics, in medical imaging, diagnostic and security. Two mechanical properties of lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate cerium-doped Lu{sub 2(1-x)}Y{sub 2x}SiO{sub 5}:Ce with x=0.1 (LYSO) crystals have been measured: the ultimate tensile stress ({sigma}{sub UTS}) and the Young elastic modulus (E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results account for an elastic-brittle stress-strain relation, which depends heavily on the specimen preparation and the material defects. {sigma}{sub UTS} along the [0 1 0] tensile direction ranges within 68.14 and 115.61 MPa, which, in the lowest case, is more than twice with respect to those measured for PbWO{sub 4} (PWO), exhibiting a marked difference between the annealed and the not-annealed samples. The mean elastic modulus (E), along the same direction, is E=1.80x10{sup 11} ({+-}2.15x10{sup 10}) N/m{sup 2}, with lower dispersion respect to UTS data. This type of analysis and study can be included into quality control procedures of crystals, based on samples taken out of production; such procedures can be established for industrial processing of crystals aimed to the high energy physics (calorimeters) and medical imaging (PET, etc.) applications.

  16. NEOCE: a new external occulting coronagraph experiment for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Fineschi, Silvano; Kuzin, Sergey; Von Fay-Siebenburgen, Erdélyi Robert

    Several ground facilities and space missions are currently dedicated to the study of the Sun at high resolution and of the solar corona in particular. However, and despite significant progress with the advent of space missions and UV, EUV and XUV direct observations of the hot chromosphere and million-degrees coronal plasma, much is yet to be achieved in the understanding of these high temperatures, fine dynamic dissipative structures and of the coronal heating in general. Recent missions have shown the definite role of a wide range of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic and physically fundamental changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled and governed by the emerging magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. The solar corona consists of many localised loop-like structures or threads with the plasmas brightening and fading independently. The plasma evolution in each thread is believed to be related to the formation of filaments, each one being dynamic, in a non-equilibrium state. The mechanism sustaining this dynamics, oscillations or waves (Alfvén or other magneto-plasma waves), requires both very high-cadence, multi-spectral observations, and high resolution and coronal magnetometry. This is foreseen in the future Space Mission NEOCE (New External Occulting Coronagraph Experiment), the ultimate new generation high-resolution coronagraphic heliospheric mission, to be proposed for ESA M4. NEOCE, an evolution of the HiRISE mission, is ideally placed at the L5 Lagrangian point (for a better follow-up of CMEs), and provides FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and

  17. Sex-specific effects of social networks on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jiwon; Hur, Nam Wook; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Youm, Yoosik

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease among older adults, and is associated with medical complications and mortality. This study aimed to examine the effects of social network characteristics on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among older adults. The Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) interviewed 814 ≥ 60-year-old residents and their spouses from a rural township between December 2011 and March 2012 (response rate: 95%). We evaluated the data from 595 participants. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess the effects of network characteristics on hypertension. We observed strong sex-specific network effects on the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. Among older women, network density was associated with hypertension awareness [odds ratio (OR): 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-5.37] and control (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 0.94-3.13). Among older men, large networks were associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension (OR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58-0.96). Compared to older women, older men with coarse networks exhibited better hypertension awareness (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14-0.95) and control (OR: 0.42; 95% CI: 0.19-0.91). Network size interacted with density for hypertension control (P = 0.051), with controlled hypertension being associated with large and course networks. A large network was associated with a lower risk for hypertension, and a coarse network was associated with hypertension awareness and control among older men. Older women with dense networks were most likely to exhibit hypertension awareness and control.

  18. LRFD software for design and actual ultimate capacity of confined rectangular columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of concrete columns using unconfined concrete models is a well established practice. On the : other hand, prediction of the actual ultimate capacity of confined concrete columns requires specialized nonlinear : analysis. Modern codes and...

  19. [Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice. The culture of authoritarianism in Latvia, 1934-1940. (Central and Eastern Europe. Reginal perspectives in global context, Bd. 2.) Brill. Leiden-Boston 2013

  20. Reduced design load basis for ultimate blade loads estimation in multidisciplinary design optimization frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost...... function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed...... for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar...

  1. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J Dawson

    Full Text Available Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women's gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men's attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men's initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women's were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems.

  2. Gender-Specificity of Initial and Controlled Visual Attention to Sexual Stimuli in Androphilic Women and Gynephilic Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Samantha J.; Chivers, Meredith L.

    2016-01-01

    Research across groups and methods consistently finds a gender difference in patterns of specificity of genital response; however, empirically supported mechanisms to explain this difference are lacking. The information-processing model of sexual arousal posits that automatic and controlled cognitive processes are requisite for the generation of sexual responses. Androphilic women’s gender-nonspecific response patterns may be the result of sexually-relevant cues that are common to both preferred and nonpreferred genders capturing attention and initiating an automatic sexual response, whereas men’s attentional system may be biased towards the detection and response to sexually-preferred cues only. In the present study, we used eye tracking to assess visual attention to sexually-preferred and nonpreferred cues in a sample of androphilic women and gynephilic men. Results support predictions from the information-processing model regarding gendered processing of sexual stimuli in men and women. Men’s initial attention patterns were gender-specific, whereas women’s were nonspecific. In contrast, both men and women exhibited gender-specific patterns of controlled attention, although this effect was stronger among men. Finally, measures of attention and self-reported attraction were positively related in both men and women. These findings are discussed in the context of the information-processing model and evolutionary mechanisms that may have evolved to promote gendered attentional systems. PMID:27088358

  3. Recommendation for basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report is the result of the preparation process, and it describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for the site selection, storage construction, and safety analyses. (LN)

  4. A Technique for Temperature and Ultimate Load Calculations of Thin Targets in a Pulsed Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Lundsager, Per

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of transient temperature distributions and ultimate load of rotationally symmetric thin membranes with uniform lateral load and exposed to a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator. Heat transfer by conduction is considered the only transfer...... mechanism. The ultimate load is calculated on the basis of large plastic strain analysis. Analysis of one aluminum and one titanium membrane is shown....

  5. Specific properties of the SI and SII somatosensory areas and their effects on motor control: a system neurophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Julia; Mückschel, Moritz; Beste, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Sensorimotor integration is essential for successful motor control and the somatosensory modality has been shown to have strong effects on the execution of motor plans. The primary (SI) and the secondary somatosensory (SII) cortices are known to differ in their neuroanatomical connections to prefrontal areas, as well as in their involvement to encode cognitive aspects of tactile processing. Here, we ask whether the area-specific processing architecture or the structural neuroanatomical connections with prefrontal areas determine the efficacy of sensorimotor integration processes for motor control. In a system neurophysiological study including EEG signal decomposition (i.e., residue iteration decomposition, RIDE) and source localization, we investigated this question using vibrotactile stimuli optimized for SI or SII processing. The behavioral data show that when being triggered via the SI area, inhibitory control of motor processes is stronger as when being triggered via the SII area. On a neurophysiological level, these effects were reflected in the C-cluster as a result of a temporal decomposition of EEG data, indicating that the sensory processes affecting motor inhibition modulate the response selection level. These modulations were associated with a stronger activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus extending to the right middle frontal gyrus as parts of a network known to be involved in inhibitory motor control when response inhibition is triggered over SI. In addition, areas important for sensorimotor integration like the postcentral gyrus and superior parietal cortex showed activation differences. The data suggest that connection patterns are more important for sensorimotor integration and control than the more restricted area-specific processing architecture.

  6. Development of carbon/carbon composite control rod for HTTR. 2. Concept, specifications and mechanical test of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Motokuni; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Saito, Tamotsu; Ishihara, Masahiro; Hanawa, Satoshi.

    1998-01-01

    A concept and specifications of carbon/carbon composite (C/C) control rod were proposed, aiming at the application of the material to the HTTR. The outer diameter and length of the control rod were kept as the same as those of the present control rod, i.e., 113 mm and 3094 mm, respectively. According to the concept, the rod consists of ten units which are connected in series using bolts. Then, the stresses generated by dead loads in the control rod elements were estimated and compared with the design strengths which were derived from the results of measurements of tensile, compressive, bending and shear strengths of two candidate materials, AC250 (Across Co.) and CX-270 (Toyo Tanso Co.). Design strength was preliminarily determined as one-third or one-fifth of the mean strength. Ratio of the design strength to generated stress for the AC250 (2D) was : Tensile stress in the outer sleeve tube, 66, tensile and shear stresses in the M16 bolt, 8.8 and 8.5, shear stress in the plug support bolt M8, 2.43. These results are believed to indicate the mechanical integrity of the control rod structure. Data available on the candidate materials were also compiled in the Appendix. (author)

  7. Antigen specific T-cell responses against tumor antigens are controlled by regulatory T cells in patients with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaschik, Boris; Su, Yun; Huter, Eva; Ge, Yingzi; Hohenfellner, Markus; Beckhove, Philipp

    2012-04-01

    Immunotherapy is a promising approach in an effort to control castration resistant prostate cancer. We characterized tumor antigen reactive T cells in patients with prostate cancer and analyzed the suppression of antitumor responses by regulatory T cells. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 57 patients with histologically confirmed prostate cancer, 8 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 16 healthy donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and antigen specific interferon-γ secretion of isolated T cells was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay. T cells were functionally characterized and T-cell responses before and after regulatory T-cell depletion were compared. As test tumor antigens, a panel of 11 long synthetic peptides derived from a total of 8 tumor antigens was used, including prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. In patients with prostate cancer we noted a 74.5% effector T-cell response rate compared with only 25% in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and 31% in healthy donors. In most patients 2 or 3 tumor antigens were recognized. Comparing various disease stages there was a clear increase in the immune response against prostate specific antigens from intermediate to high risk tumors and castration resistant disease. Regulatory T-cell depletion led to a significant boost in effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase. Tumor specific effector T cells were detected in most patients with prostate cancer, especially those with castration resistant prostate cancer. Since effector T-cell responses against prostate specific antigens strongly increased after regulatory T-cell depletion, our results indicate that immunotherapy efficacy could be enhanced by decreasing regulatory T cells. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Neyer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  9. Assessment on Ultimate Load of Cold-formed Steel Channel (CFSC Stub Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel is used as the non-structural and structural material in civil engineering work and building. Cold-formed steel channel is selected and cut into 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm and 500 mm. The slenderness ratio is calculated and noted as a stub or short column because below 40. The column is tested by using Universal Testing Machine to determine the ultimate load of the stub column. Besides, the CFSC is determined the material properties of CFSC for checking it’s the originality of steel based material. The experimental data are tested and compared with the Direct Strength Method (DSM. It showed that the CFSC1 with a height of 100 mm is reported to have a higher value of ultimate load when compared with other samples. When the height of the stub column increased, the ultimate load of the sample is decreased. Then, the CFSC1 also showed a higher in initial stiffness when compared with other samples. All samples are shown having a higher data in ultimate load when compared with the Direct Strength Method prediction. The ultimate load of experimental and DSM all gave a ratio below 1.03. Finally, all samples can further recommend determining the relation between the ultimate loads with variations of height of the column.

  10. Effect of Incorporation of Antifungal Agents on the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Temporary Soft Denture Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana; Lima, Jozely Francisca Mello; Hotta, Juliana; Galitesi, Lucas Lulo; Almeida, Ana Lucia Pompéia Fraga; Urban, Vanessa Migliorini

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ultimate tensile strength of temporary soft denture liners modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm (SC5314) determined in previous microbiological research. Dumbbell-shaped specimens (n = 7) with a central cross-sectional area of 6 × 3 × 33 mm were produced by Softone and Trusoft, without (control) or with incorporation of drugs in powder form at MICs for C. albicans biofilm (per g of material powder): nystatin (0.032 g), chlorhexidine diacetate (0.064 g), ketoconazole (0.128 g), miconazole (0.256 g), and itraconazole (0.256 g). After plasticization, specimens were immersed in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, 7 or 14 days, and then tested in tension in a universal testing machine at 40 mm/min. Data of tensile strength (MPa) and elongation percentage (%) were submitted to 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). At the end of 14 days, the tensile strength for both materials was significantly lower in the groups modified by miconazole and itraconazole compared to the other groups (p 0.05). After 7 and 14 days in water, miconazole and itraconazole added into both materials resulted in significantly lower elongation percentages compared to the other antifungal agents and control (p 0.05). The addition of the nystatin, chlorhexidine, and ketoconazole at MICs for C. albicans biofilm resulted in no harmful effects on the tensile strength and elongation percentage of the temporary soft denture liner materials up to 14 days. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  11. [Nutrient use efficiency and yield-increasing effect of single basal application of rice specific controlled release fertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Xu, Peizhi; Tang, Shuanhu; Zhang, Fabao; Xie, Chunsheng

    2005-10-01

    A series of pot and field experiments and field demonstrations showed that in comparing with the commonly used specific-fertilizers containing same amounts of nutrients, single basal application of rice-specific controlled release fertilizer could increase the use efficiency of N and P by 12.2% - 22.7% and 7.0% - 35.0%, respectively in pot experiment, and the use efficiency of N by 17.1% in field experiment. In 167 field demonstrations successively conducted for 3 years in various rice production areas of Guangdong Province, single basal application of the fertilizer saved the application rate of N and P by 22.1% and 21.8%, respectively, and increased the yield by 8.2%, compared with normal split fertilization.

  12. Nuclear electronic equipment for control and monitoring boards. Specifications and test methods of direct current period meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquefort, Henri; Chapelot; Ramard; Tardif; Tournier; Vaux

    1973-11-01

    After a few words of introduction, mention of the main notations used and the definition of certain terms, the field of application of the document is outlined and a list of references given. The main specifications of electronic 'direct current period meter' subassemblies for the monitoring, control and safety of nuclear reactors are then defined and the corresponding test methods described. The apparatus measures on a logarithmic scale the neutron fluence rate of a reactor by means of an ionisation chamber and supplies 'period' data relative to the fluence rate variation in time. The specifications and test methods are given for the different components: logarithmic amplifier, time derivative unit, threshold releases, high tension supply for ionisation chamber, auxiliary circuits and finally the complete period meter. (author) [fr

  13. Stage-specific control of neural crest stem cell proliferation by the small rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Sebastian; Herzog, Dominik; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2009-01-01

    -renewal and proliferation of later stage, but not early migratory NCSCs. This stage-specific requirement for small Rho GTPases is due to changes in NCSCs that, during development, acquire responsiveness to mitogenic EGF acting upstream of both Cdc42 and Rac1. Thus, our data reveal distinct mechanisms for growth control......The neural crest (NC) generates a variety of neural and non-neural tissues during vertebrate development. Both migratory NC cells and their target structures contain cells with stem cell features. Here we show that these populations of neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs) are differentially...

  14. Development of one control and one tumor-specific induced pluripotent stem cell line from laryngeal carcinoma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skin fibroblasts and tumor fibroblasts were extracted from a 64-year old male patient clinically diagnosed with laryngeal carcinoma. Control and tumor specific induced pluripotent stem cells were reprogrammed with 5 reprogramming factors, Klf-4, c-Myc, Oct-4, Sox-2, and Lin-28, using the messenger RNA reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC lines showed pluripotency, confirmed by immunofluorescence staining. The iPSC lines also showed normal karyotype, and could form embryoid bodies in vitro and differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. This in vitro cellular model can be used to study the oncogenesis and pathogenesis of laryngeal carcinoma.

  15. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM 2.5 ) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM 2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Impact of poor glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus on serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Hasan Anıl; Akarsu, Murat; Canat, Lutfi; Ülker, Volkan; Alkan, İlter; Ozkuvancı, Unsal

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of poor glycemic control of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in men. We performed a prospective analysis of 215 consecutive patients affected by erectile dysfunction (ED). ED was evaluated using the IIEF-5 questionnaire and the poor glycemic control (PGC) of T2DM was assessed according to the HbA1c criteria (International Diabetes Federation). Patients were divided into PGC group (HbA1c ≥ 7%) and control group (CG) (HbA1c men ranging from 44 to 81 years of age, lower PSA concentrations were observed in men with PGC (PGC mean PSA: 0.9 ng/dl, CG mean PSA: 2.1 ng/dl, p men with PGC compared with men with CG (PGC mean prostate volume: 26 ml, CG prostate volume: 43 ml, p strong negative correlation was found between serum HbA1c levels and serum PSA (p men with PGC. We also found at the multivariate logistic regression model that PSA, prostate volume and peak systolic velocity were independent predictors of PGC. Our results suggest that there is significant impact of PGC on serum PSA levels in T2DM. Poor glycemic control of type 2 diabetes was associated with lower serum PSA levels and smaller prostate volumes.

  17. Tissue-Specific Control of the Endocycle by the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Inhibitors UVI4 and DEL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Jefri; Polyn, Stefanie; Eekhout, Thomas; De Veylder, Lieven

    2017-09-01

    The endocycle represents a modified mitotic cell cycle that in plants is often coupled to cell enlargement and differentiation. Endocycle onset is controlled by activity of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting cell-cycle factors for destruction. CELL CYCLE SWITCH52 (CCS52) proteins represent rate-limiting activator subunits of the APC/C. In Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), mutations in either CCS52A1 or CCS52A2 activators result in a delayed endocycle onset, whereas their overexpression triggers increased DNA ploidy levels. Here, the relative contribution of the APC/C CCS52A1 and APC/C CCS52A2 complexes to different developmental processes was studied through analysis of their negative regulators, being the ULTRAVIOLET-B-INSENSITIVE4 protein and the DP-E2F-Like1 transcriptional repressor, respectively. Our data illustrate cooperative activity of the APC/C CCS52A1 and APC/C CCS52A2 complexes during root and trichome development, but functional interdependency during leaf development. Furthermore, we found APC/C CCS52A1 activity to control CCS52A2 expression. We conclude that interdependency of CCS52A-controlled APC/C activity is controlled in a tissue-specific manner. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Specific oral tolerance induction with raw hen's egg in children with very severe egg allergy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dello Iacono, Iride; Tripodi, Salvatore; Calvani, Mauro; Panetta, Valentina; Verga, Maria Carmela; Miceli Sopo, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of severe egg allergy is avoidance of hen's egg (HE) and carrying self-injectable epinephrine. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI) seems a promising alternative treatment. However, some aspects of SOTI are still considered experimental. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of an original 6-month SOTI protocol in children with very severe HE allergy using raw HE emulsion. Twenty children (age range: 5-11 yr) were randomized equally into a SOTI treatment group and a control group. The treatment group started SOTI and underwent a second challenge 6 months later. Control children were kept on an egg-free diet for 6 months and then underwent a second challenge. After 6 months, 9/10 children of the SOTI group (90%) achieved partial tolerance (at least 10 ml, but <40 ml of raw HE emulsion, in a single dose) and 1 (10%) was able to tolerate only 5 ml (no tolerance). After 6 months, nine control children tested positive to the second challenge at a dose ≤0.9 ml of raw HE emulsion, and one reacted to 1.8 ml (SOTI vs. control group p<0.0001). All children in the SOTI group had side effects, but no child had a grade 5 reaction according to the Sampson grading. Six months of SOTI with raw HE emulsion resulted in partial tolerance, with regular intake, in a significant percentage of children with severe egg allergy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Lifestyle Factors and Gender-Specific Risk of Stroke in Adults with Diabetes Mellitus: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Guan, Tianjia; Shen, Ying; Chao, Baohua; Li, Mei; Wang, Longde; Liu, Yuanli

    2018-07-01

    The lifestyle interventions are effective preventive measures for stroke in general population, and the stroke risk with lifestyle factors may be modified by gender, health conditions, etc. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the gender-specific association between stroke risk and lifestyle factors in adults with diabetes based on the China National Stroke Screening Survey. Structured questionnaires were used to collect demographic data and information regarding lifestyle factors, history of chronic medical conditions, and family history of stroke and the status of treatment. The case group comprised individuals diagnosed with first-ever stroke in 2013-2014 screening period. Their corresponding controls (frequency-matched for age group and urban/rural ratio) were randomly selected from individuals with diabetes without stroke. There were 170 total stroke cases (500 controls) and 152 ischemic stroke cases (456 controls) among men with diabetes, and 183 total stroke cases (549 controls) and 168 ischemic stroke cases (504 controls) among women with diabetes. We found that physical inactivity was significantly associated with increased risk of total stroke (odds ratio [OR] = 1.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.21) and of ischemic stroke (OR = 1.57, 95% CI 1.04-2.36) in women with diabetes. We found no significant association of smoking, overweight/obesity, or physical inactivity with risk of total or ischemic stroke in men with diabetes. Among the lifestyle factors of smoking, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity, physical inactivity might increase the risk of total and ischemic stroke in women with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The in vitro digestibility of beef varies with its inherent ultimate pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Wu, Guojie; Frost, Deborah A; Clerens, Stefan; Knowles, Scott O

    2014-11-01

    Animal carcasses and cuts of meat are usually differentiated and valued according to size and compositional attributes. An underappreciated variable of red meat is its inherent ultimate pH (pHu) value, which affects organoleptic and processing characteristics. This study tests the hypothesis that high pHu aged meat would be more digestible than low pHu unaged (fresh) meat. Longissimus dorsi muscles collected from 59 bull carcasses had pHu values of 5.6-6.9. These were aged for 21 days at -1.5 °C, then raw and cooked (72 °C) samples were enzymatically digested at 37 °C with pepsin (pH 1.9 for 90 min) followed by pancreatin (pH 8.0 for an additional 120 min) to simulate conditions in the stomach and small intestine, respectively. Meat proteins and peptides in the digests were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. Regardless of pHu, ageing or cooking, most sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin, with concomitant release of products identified by LC-MS/MS as mainly myosin-1, -2 and -7, α-actinin-2 or -3 and tropomyosin beta and alpha chains. These products were resistant to further digestion for the entire 210 min duration of the incubation. In terms of rate and extent of digestibility of these resistant products, high pHu > low pHu (P unaged (P meat samples increased with increasing pHu (P meat was highly digestible but could be further differentiated on the basis of its pHu and the ease of digestibility of proteins. Specific carcasses or cuts could be targeted to consumer groups in order to provide benefits and add value.

  1. Human performance evaluation: The procedures of ultimate response guideline for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang-Hung, E-mail: alvinks@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Engery Council, No. 1000, Whenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Sheue-Ling, E-mail: slhwang@ie.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • This study adopts SPAR-H to evaluate HEPs in the URG procedures. • The involvement of URG procedures could reduce CDF significantly. • Upgrading the training level of staff will enhance the reliability effectively. • Aiding the plant manager in making URG decision will enhance the reliability. - Abstract: In the nuclear accident which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, several units of Fukushima conventional BWR experienced a total loss of power and water supply triggered by a heavy earthquake and subsequent Tsunami which were outside design models. In the past, when an accident occurred, operators in nuclear power plants (NPP) followed emergency operating procedures (EOPs) or severe accident management guidance (SAMG). However, EOP and SAMG are symptom-based procedures to cope with severe transients and accidents, depending on real-time operational parameters. Ultimate response guidelines (URG), a plant specific interim remedy action plan, was developed to manage accidents caused by compound disasters which exceed design models. The URG guides the plant operators’ conduct of reactor depressurization, core cooling water injection, and containment venting. This study adopts NUREG/CR-6883 (Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Human Reliability Analysis, SPAR-H) to evaluate human error probabilities (HEPs) of action and diagnosis in the current URG procedures. We found the human reliability of URG procedures analyzed by SPAR-H is about 85% (depending on different decision makers). Upgrading the training level of staff or enhancing plant managers ability to decide whether to execute URG will enhance the human reliability of URG procedures.

  2. Immediate effects of Pilates based therapeutic exercise on postural control of young individuals with non-specific low back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Susana; Correia, Christophe; Félix, Gonçalo; Lopes, Mário; Cruz, Ana; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    Low back pain affects the person's ability to keep balance, especially in challenging conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the immediate effects of Pilates exercises on postural sway and dynamic balance of young individuals with non-specific low back pain. Controlled laboratory design. Forty-six participants with non-specific low back pain were randomized to a Pilates (n=23, 10 males; age: 21.8±3.2years) and a control group (n=23, 9 males; age: 22.8±3.6years). Postural sway was assessed with a force platform and dynamic balance with the Star Excursion Balance Test, before and after the intervention or rest period. To assess postural sway, participants stood still on an unstable surface set on the force plate for 90s, with eyes closed. The intervention lasted 20min and consisted on four Pilates exercises: single leg stretch (level 1), pelvic press (level 1), swimming (level 1) and kneeling opposite arm and leg reach. At baseline, no differences were found between groups. The Pilates group improved in all the postural sway values (area of CoP: 11.5±3.4 to 9.7±2.7cm 2 , p=0.002 and CoP velocity: 2.8±0.6 to 2.3±0.5cm/s, pControl group only improved in CoP velocity, however, this improvement was significantly inferior compared to the Pilates group. Pilates exercises immediately improved postural sway and dynamic balance in young adults with non-specific low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Results of a non-specific immunomodulation therapy on chronic heart failure (ACCLAIM trial): a placebo-controlled randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torre-Amione, G.; Anker, S.D.; Bourge, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure. We therefore tested the hypothesis that immunomodulation might counteract this pathophysiological mechanism in patients. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo-controlled s......Background Evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators contribute to development and progression of chronic heart failure. We therefore tested the hypothesis that immunomodulation might counteract this pathophysiological mechanism in patients. Methods We did a double-blind, placebo......-controlled study of a device-based non-specific immunomodulation therapy (IMT) in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class II-IV chronic heart failure, left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, and hospitalisation for heart failure or intravenous drug therapy in an outpatient setting......-0 . 95; p=0.02) and a 39% (0.61; 95% CI 0 . 46-0.80; p=0 . 0003) reduction in the risk of primary endpoint events, respectively. Interpretation Non-specific immunomodulation may have a role as a potential treatment for a large segment of the heart failure population, which includes patients without...

  4. Controlling the Regional Identity of hPSC-Derived Neurons to Uncover Neuronal Subtype Specificity of Neurological Disease Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Imaizumi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The CNS contains many diverse neuronal subtypes, and most neurological diseases target specific subtypes. However, the mechanism of neuronal subtype specificity of disease phenotypes remains elusive. Although in vitro disease models employing human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs have great potential to clarify the association of neuronal subtypes with disease, it is currently difficult to compare various PSC-derived subtypes. This is due to the limited number of subtypes whose induction is established, and different cultivation protocols for each subtype. Here, we report a culture system to control the regional identity of PSC-derived neurons along the anteroposterior (A-P and dorsoventral (D-V axes. This system was successfully used to obtain various neuronal subtypes based on the same protocol. Furthermore, we reproduced subtype-specific phenotypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and Alzheimer’s disease (AD by comparing the obtained subtypes. Therefore, our culture system provides new opportunities for modeling neurological diseases with PSCs.

  5. Relations of Anxiety Sensitivity, Control Beliefs, and Maternal Over-Control to Fears in Clinic-Referred Children with Specific Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Elisabeth J; Braunstein, Kara; Ollendick, Thomas H; Muris, Peter

    2015-07-01

    The relations of fear to anxiety sensitivity, control beliefs, and maternal overprotection were examined in 126 7- to 13-year-old clinically referred children with specific phobias. Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity and control beliefs were significant predictors of children's fear levels, accounting for approximately 48% of the total variance. Unexpectedly, age, gender, and maternal overprotection did not emerge as significant predictors of fear in the overall sample. In subsequent analyses, anxiety sensitivity was found to be a consistent, significant predictor for both girls and boys, for both younger and older children, and for children with and without an additional anxiety disorder diagnosis. Control beliefs were only a significant predictor for girls, younger children, and children with an additional anxiety diagnosis. Maternal overprotection was not a significant predictor for any group. Children with an additional anxiety disorder diagnosis had higher levels of fear, anxiety sensitivity, and maternal overprotection, as well as lower levels of control beliefs than the non-additional anxiety disorder subgroup. Future directions and clinical implications are explored.

  6. Controlled cell morphology and liver-specific function of engineered primary hepatocytes by fibroblast layer cell densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Koike, Makiko; Kawahara, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Hideko; Murai, Tomomi; Yamanouchi, Kosho; Soyama, Akihiko; Hidaka, Masaaki; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Fujita, Fumihiko; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-03-05

    Engineered primary hepatocytes, including co-cultured hepatocyte sheets, are an attractive to basic scientific and clinical researchers because they maintain liver-specific functions, have reconstructed cell polarity, and have high transplantation efficiency. However, co-culture conditions regarding engineered primary hepatocytes were suboptimal in promoting these advantages. Here we report that the hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by the normal human diploid fibroblast (TIG-118 cell) layer cell density. Primary rat hepatocytes were plated onto TIG-118 cells, previously plated 3 days before at 1.04, 5.21, and 26.1×10 3  cells/cm 2 . Hepatocytes plated onto lower TIG-118 cell densities expanded better during the early culture period. The hepatocytes gathered as colonies and only exhibited small adhesion areas because of the pushing force from proliferating TIG-118 cells. The smaller areas of each hepatocyte result in the development of bile canaliculi. The highest density of TIG-118 cells downregulated albumin synthesis activity of hepatocytes. The hepatocytes may have undergone apoptosis associated with high TGF-β1 concentration and necrosis due to a lack of oxygen. These occurrences were supported by apoptotic chromatin condensation and high expression of both proteins HIF-1a and HIF-1b. Three types of engineered hepatocyte/fibroblast sheets comprising different TIG-118 cell densities were harvested after 4 days of hepatocyte culture and showed a complete cell sheet format without any holes. Hepatocyte morphology and liver-specific function levels are controlled by TIG-118 cell density, which helps to design better engineered hepatocytes for future applications such as in vitro cell-based assays and transplantable hepatocyte tissues. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The ultimate response guideline simulation and analysis by using (TRACE) for Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao-Tzu [Atomic Energy Council, Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Shao-Wen; Wang, Jong-Rong; Shih, Chunkuan [National Tsing Hua Univ., Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, HsinChu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this research, the TRACE/SNAP model of Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) has been established for the simulation and analysis of ultimate response guideline (URG). The main actions of URG are depressurization and low pressure water injection of reactor and containment venting. This research focuses to assess the URG utility of Lungmen NPP under Fukushima-like conditions. This study consists of three steps. The first step is the establishment of Lungmen NPP TRACE/SNAP model. In order to evaluate the system response of TRACE/SNAP model, FSAR data (MSIV closure and loss of feedwater flow transient) were used to compare with the results of TRACE. The second step is the URG simulation and analysis under Fukushima-like conditions by using Lungmen NPP TRACE/SNAP model. In this step, the no URG case was also performed in order to evaluate the URG effectiveness of Lungmen NPP. In order to confirm the mechanical property and integrity of fuel rods, the final step is FRAPTRAN analysis. According to TRACE analysis results, the URG can keep the peak cladding temperature (PCT) below the criteria 1088.7 K under Fukushima-like conditions which indicates that Lungmen NPP can be controlled in a safe situation. Nevertheless, if Lungmen NPP does not perform the URG under Fukushima-like conditions, the water level may drop lower than TAF after 1100 s which means a safety issue about the fuel rods may be generated. The analysis results of FRAPTRAN also indicate the integrity of fuel rods cannot be kept under the above conditions.

  8. Assessment of cooling tower (ultimate heat sink) performance in the Byron individual plant examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.D.; Hawley, J.T.; Klopp, G.T.; Thelen, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    A time-dependent model of the Byron Nuclear Generation Station safety-related cooling towers has been developed for use with the Byron PRA (IPE). The model can either be run in a stand-alone program with externally supplied heat loads, or can be directly coupled into MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program). The primary feature of the model is a careful tracking of the basin temperature through the progression of different severe accidents. Heat removal rates from containment, both from containment fan-coolers and the residual heat removal system, are determined by the feed-back of this time-varying return temperature. Also, the inventory of the basin is tracked in time, and this is controlled by make-up, evaporative losses due to the heat load supplied to the towers, and the possibility of unsecured blowdown. The model has been used to determine the overall capabilities and vulnerabilities of the Byron Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). It was determined that the UHS is very reliable with respect to maintaining acceptably low basin temperatures, requiring only at most two of eight operating cooling tower fans. Further, when the two units have their Essential Service Water (ESW) systems cross-tied, one of four ESW operating pumps is sufficient to handle the loads from the accident unit with the other unit proceeding to an orderly shutdown. The major vulnerability of the Byron UHS is shown to be the ability to maintain inventory, although the time-scales for basin dry-out are relatively long, being eight to twenty-one hours, depending upon when blowdown is secured. (author)

  9. The establishment of MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan nuclear power plant for Ultimate Response Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Sheng, E-mail: wshsu@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Yu, E-mail: s101013702@m101.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jong-Rong, E-mail: jongrongwang@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Ting-Yi, E-mail: minired1119@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Te-Chuan, E-mail: tcwang@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C., 1000, Wenhua Road Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jyh-Tong, E-mail: jyhtong@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shao-Wen, E-mail: chensw@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The establishment of a MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan (BWR/4). • MELCOR/SNAP model was used to estimate the effectiveness of URG for Chinshan. • The MELCOR results were compared to MAAP, TRACE and PCTRAN. • URG is a new method to prevent a Fukushima-like accident. • The low raw water (150 GPM) can make the cladding temperature below 1088.7 K. - Abstract: After Fukushima Daiichi disaster, the safety analysis of severe accidents became one of the safety concerns in Taiwan. The Emergency Operating Procedure (EOP) cannot cope with a multiple system failure situation under a severe accident since it is a “Symptom-basis” procedure. To deal with that, Taiwan Power Company built up a new strategy for Fukushima-like accident called Ultimate Response Guideline (URG). It is a simple strategy with three main conditions: loss of regular motor driven injection system, loss of all AC power and tsunami/earthquake warning. If two of three happen, the operating procedure will change from EOP to URG and start the main works by following the strategy. There are three main works in URG: controlled-depressurization, line up low pressure injection water and prepare containment venting. In this study, MELCOR2.1 was used to calculate the cases of URG and checked the goal of the strategy that prevents the accident or not. There were three steps in this research. First, a model of Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP) was built. Second, one was the case with URG and the other was not by using the above MELCOR model. The results were compared to MAAP5.0, TRACE and PCTRAN. Finally, some sensitivity studies of depressurization and water injection rate were done.

  10. Specific collaborative group intervention for patients with medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefert, R; Kaufmann, C; Wild, B; Schellberg, D; Boelter, R; Faber, R; Szecsenyi, J; Sauer, N; Guthrie, E; Herzog, W

    2013-01-01

    Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are frequent in primary care and substantially impaired in their quality of life (QoL). Specific training of general practitioners (GPs) alone did not demonstrate sustained improvement at later follow-up in current reviews. We evaluated a collaborative group intervention. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial. Thirty-five GPs recruited 304 MUS patients (intervention group: 170; control group: 134). All GPs were trained in diagnosis and management of MUS (control condition). Eighteen randomly selected intervention GPs participated in training for a specific collaborative group intervention. They conducted 10 weekly group sessions and 2 booster meetings in their practices, together with a psychosomatic specialist. Six and 12 months after baseline, QoL was assessed with the Short-Form 36. The primary outcome was the physical composite score (PCS), and the secondary outcome was the mental composite score (MCS). At 12 months, intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant between-group effect for the MCS (p = 0.023) but not for the PCS (p = 0.674). This effect was preceded by a significant reduction of somatic symptom severity (15-item somatic symptom severity scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-15) at 6 months (p = 0.008) that lacked significance at 12 months (p = 0.078). As additional between-group effects at 12 months, per-protocol analyses showed less health anxiety (Whiteley-7; p = 0.038) and less psychosocial distress (PHQ; p = 0.024); GP visits were significantly (p = 0.042) reduced in the intervention group. Compared to pure GP training, collaborative group intervention achieved a progressive, clinically meaningful improvement in mental but not physical QoL. It could bridge gaps between general practice and mental health care. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Characterization of Factors Affecting Attainment of Glycemic Control in Asian Americans With Diabetes in a Culturally Specific Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hung; Wong, Sophia; Iftikar, Tracy; Keenan, Hillary; King, George L.; Hsu, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a culturally specific pilot clinic for Asian Americans (AA) in reaching glycemic target and to characterize factors affecting the attainment of glycemic control in comparison with white counterparts. Methods This electronic health record review included all new AA patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 109) in a culturally specific program and a randomly selected sample of new white patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 218) in the adult clinic within the same time period and diabetes center. Results AA and whites had a comparable proportion of patients with A1C ≤7% (32.1%, 34.9%; P = .621) at baseline and after 12 months of care (48.6%, 56.0%; P = .210), with a similar A1C decline (−0.9% ± 1.6%, −0.8% ± 1.7%, P = .710) by 12 months. Factors associated with the lack of success in reaching target in AA but not in whites included older age, lower educational attainment, less likelihood of having health insurance, and a need for more educational visits. The percentage of AA reaching A1C ≤7%, as compared to whites, worsened among those with highest initial A1C when stratified by ascending quartiles (96.7% vs 85.2%, P = .101; 61.9% vs 58.9%, P = .813; 24.0% vs 37.7%, P = .230; 15.2% vs 35.4%, P = .044). Conclusion While a culturally specific diabetes program in a specialty setting achieved a similar glycemic outcome for AA compared with whites, reasons for not reaching glycemic target differed. The findings suggest that the elimination of diabetes disparities requires not only culturally and linguistically specific programs, but must also identify and address the socio-environmental differences unique to each population. PMID:23771841

  12. cGAS-mediated control of blood-stage malaria promotes Plasmodium-specific germinal center responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, William O; Butler, Noah S; Lindner, Scott E; Akilesh, Holly M; Sather, D Noah; Kappe, Stefan Hi; Hamerman, Jessica A; Gale, Michael; Liles, W Conrad; Pepper, Marion

    2018-01-25

    Sensing of pathogens by host pattern recognition receptors is essential for activating the immune response during infection. We used a nonlethal murine model of malaria (Plasmodium yoelii 17XNL) to assess the contribution of the pattern recognition receptor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) to the development of humoral immunity. Despite previous reports suggesting a critical, intrinsic role for cGAS in early B cell responses, cGAS-deficient (cGAS-/-) mice had no defect in the early expansion or differentiation of Plasmodium-specific B cells. As the infection proceeded, however, cGAS-/- mice exhibited higher parasite burdens and aberrant germinal center and memory B cell formation when compared with littermate controls. Antimalarial drugs were used to further demonstrate that the disrupted humoral response was not B cell intrinsic but instead was a secondary effect of a loss of parasite control. These findings therefore demonstrate that cGAS-mediated innate-sensing contributes to parasite control but is not intrinsically required for the development of humoral immunity. Our findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of pathogen burden in investigations examining how the innate immune system affects the adaptive immune response.

  13. Ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model: Tumor eradication and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.; Krishchenko, Alexander P.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we consider the ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model which was created for studying the immune response to tumors under special types of immunotherapy. New ultimate upper bounds for compact invariant sets of this model are given, as well as sufficient conditions for the existence of a positively invariant polytope. We establish three types of conditions for the nonexistence of compact invariant sets in the domain of the tumor-cell population. Our main results are two types of conditions for global tumor elimination depending on the ratio between the proliferation rate of the immune cells and their mortality rate. These conditions are described in terms of simple algebraic inequalities imposed on model parameters and treatment parameters. Our theoretical studies of ultimate dynamics are complemented by numerical simulation results.

  14. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Ultimate Owner and Firm Performance - Evidence from Romanian Mining and Quarrying Listed Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin MIHAI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to describe the necessary steps to identify the ultimate owner and to investigate the relation between the ultimate ownership and the financial performance of Romanian mining and quarrying listed firms. The study was conducted for the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, in both regulated and non-regulated segments. The final sample included 17 companies of mining and quarrying. Return on Equity was used for measuring the financial performance of the firms. The ultimate ownership was measured by the percentage of voting rights held by a shareholder. Econometric tools like multiple linear regression analysis were used for analysis. The results of the study suggest that there is a significant negative link between financial performance and divergence between voting rights and cash-flow rights.

  16. The importance of mines for ultimate storage at Deilmann-Haniel Shaft Sinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, Jochen; Oellers, Thomas; Ahlbrecht, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Deilmann-Haniel Shaft Sinking GmbH and its predecessor and associate companies have been involved in projects for underground ultimate storage in Germany, Europe and America for over 45 years. The field of activities previously comprised surveying, planning and sinking of shafts, repair and conversion work, design of underground sealing structures, planning of conveyors and support of the BfS in planning approval procedures. Following discontinuation of activities in the German coal mining industry the use of mines for ultimate storage is an important support for German specialist mining companies. The use of mines for ultimate storage ensures that the existing mining know how in Germany is maintained, because training of the younger generation on the commercial and engineering side of the companies is made possible by the imminent major projects.

  17. Dynamic multi-segmental postural control in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain compared to pain-free controls: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaskey, Michael A; Wirth, Brigitte; Schuster-Amft, Corina; de Bruin, Eling D

    2018-01-01

    Reduced postural control is thought to contribute to the development and persistence of chronic non-specific low back pain (CNLBP). It is therefore frequently assessed in affected patients and commonly reported as the average amount of postural sway while standing upright under a variety of sensory conditions. These averaged linear outcomes, such as mean centre of pressure (CP) displacement or mean CP surface areas, may not reflect the true postural status. Adding nonlinear outcomes and multi-segmental kinematic analysis has been reported to better reflect the complexity of postural control and may detect subtler postural differences. In this cross-sectional study, a combination of linear and nonlinear postural parameters were assessed in patients with CNLBP (n = 24, 24-75 years, 9 females) and compared to symptom-free controls (CG, n = 34, 22-67 years, 11 females). Primary outcome was postural control measured by variance of joint configurations (uncontrolled manifold index, UI), confidence ellipse surface areas (CEA) and approximate entropy (ApEn) of CP dispersion during the response phase of a perturbed postural control task on a swaying platform. Secondary outcomes were segment excursions and clinical outcome correlates for pain and function. Non-parametric tests for group comparison with P-adjustment for multiple comparisons were conducted. Principal component analysis was applied to identify patterns of segmental contribution in both groups. CNLBP and CG performed similarly with respect to the primary outcomes. Comparison of joint kinematics revealed significant differences of hip (P postural differences in CNLBP patients with low to moderate pain status.

  18. On the decrease of ultimate elongation of gum elastomer by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki

    1986-01-01

    The reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation was studied. The sample used is tetrafluoroethylenepropylene copolymer vulcanized which is a heat resistant elastomer. The sample was irradiated by a electron beam at room temperature. Cross-linking predominate in the operation. (Case 1) Scission predominant condition (Case 2) was given by irradiation of Co-60 γ ray at 100 deg C. Alternative irradiation of γ ray and electron beam under above condition can keep the original cross-linking density by the appropriate choice of each of the doses. (Case 3) The three cases mentioned above involve all of the cases of radiation induced aging of elastomers. Therefor, the following explanation for three cases shows the reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation. Case 1. Cross-linking predominant condition. Ultimate elongation is proportional to -0.5 power of the dose. This fact can be explicable by the model of Buche, i.e. the breaking of a short chain causes another to break and that so on throughout the whole sample. Case 2. Chain scission predominant condition. Ultimate elongation increases by irradiation for a certain dose. This fact can understand by the model of Buche. But from a certain dose ultimate elongation does not increase. In the period the structure of the sample turned to be the same structure as the low molecular weight amorphose polymer vulcanized. Case 3. Rate of cross-linking and scission is the same. The average chain length does not chainge in the condition. But the distribution of chain length became wider and wider by irradiation. The increase of short chain result the decrease in ultimate elongation. (author)

  19. Ultimate strength and ductility of steel reinforced concrete beam-columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate strength and ductility of SRC beam-columns are investigated using the data gathered in Architectural Institute of Japan. Though the simple superposed strength formula in AIJ standard underestimates the strength of SRC beam-column failed in flexure, the generalized superposed strength formula estimates it satisfactory. The strength formula in AIJ standard does not good agreement with test data. The SRC beam-column failed in shear has almost equalductility with that failed in flexure owing to the encased steel. Author presents the formulas which estimate the ultimate deformation angle for SRC beam-columns. (author)

  20. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plates......, webs and flanges, respectively. The effects of inspections and repair are taken into account. A minimum net thickness rule is used to determine repair policies. A procedure is proposed to determine the maximum allowable corrosion thickness of different parts of the hull cross section. The procedure...

  1. Behaviour of concrete nuclear containment structures upto ultimate failure with special reference to MAPP-1 containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appa Rao, T.V.S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental methods for investigating the behaviour of concrete secondary containment structures subjected to loads upto their ultimate failure have been discussed in the paper. Need for inelastic nonlinear analysis of containments has been emphasized. Different contitutive models of concrete that can be employed in the nonlinear analysis of concrete structures were briefly reviewed. Based on the experimental results obtained in a 1:12 scale model test conducted at the Structural Engineering Research (Regional) Centre, Madras, behaviour of the MAPP-1 containment to internal pressure loading upto its ultimate failure has been discussed. (author)

  2. Decision basis for a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report was prepared by a working group and it presents the final proposal for such a decision basis. The report describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for site selection, storage construction, and safety analysis. In an appendix, the amount, types, and activity level of the Danish radioactive wastes are presented. (ln)

  3. Conception of electron beam-driven subcritical molten salt ultimate safety reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalin, S.S.; Alekseev, P.N.; Ignat`ev, V.V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary sketch of a conception to develop the {open_quotes}ultimate safety reactor{close_quotes} using modern reactor and accelerator technologies. This approach would not require a long-range R&D program. The ultimate safety reactor could produce heat and electric energy, expand the production of fuel, or be used for the transmutation of long-lived wastes. The use of the combined double molten salt reactor system allows adequate neutron multiplication to permit using an electron accelerator for the initial neutron flux. The general parameters of such a system are discussed in this paper.

  4. GA/particle swarm intelligence based optimization of two specific varieties of controller devices applied to two-area multi-units automatic generation control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Praghnesh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Charotar Institute of Technology, Changa 388 421, Gujarat (India); Roy, Ranjit [Department of Electrical Engineering, S.V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Ghoshal, S.P. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713 209, West Bengal (India)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents the comparative performance analysis of the two specific varieties of controller devices for optimal transient performance of automatic generation control (AGC) of an interconnected two-area power system, having multiple thermal-hydro-diesels mixed generating units. The significant improvement of optimal transient performance is observed with the addition of a thyristor-controlled phase shifter (TCPS) in the tie-line or capacitive energy storage (CES) units fitted in both the areas. Three different optimization algorithms are adopted for the sake of comparison of optimal performances and obtaining the optimal values of the gain settings of the devices independently. Craziness based particle swarm optimization (CRPSO) proves to be moderately fast algorithm and yields true optimal gains and minimum overshoot, minimum undershoot and minimum settling time of the transient response for any system. Comparative studies of TCPS and CES by any algorithm reveals that the CES units fitted in both the areas improve the transient performance to a greater extent following small load disturbance(s) in both the areas. (author)

  5. Pancreatic α-Amylase Controls Glucose Assimilation by Duodenal Retrieval through N-Glycan-specific Binding, Endocytosis, and Degradation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kimie; Satoh, Ayano; Iida, Kaoruko; Ogawa, Haruko

    2015-01-01

    α-Amylase, a major pancreatic protein and starch hydrolase, is essential for energy acquisition. Mammalian pancreatic α-amylase binds specifically to glycoprotein N-glycans in the brush-border membrane to activate starch digestion, whereas it significantly inhibits glucose uptake by Na+/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) at high concentrations (Asanuma-Date, K., Hirano, Y., Le, N., Sano, K., Kawasaki, N., Hashii, N., Hiruta, Y., Nakayama, K., Umemura, M., Ishikawa, K., Sakagami, H., and Ogawa, H. (2012) Functional regulation of sugar assimilation by N-glycan-specific interaction of pancreatic α-amylase with glycoproteins of duodenal brush border membrane. J. Biol. Chem. 287, 23104–23118). However, how the inhibition is stopped was unknown. Here, we show a new mechanism for the regulation of intestinal glucose absorption. Immunohistochemistry revealed that α-amylase in the duodena of non-fasted, but not fasted, pigs was internalized from the pancreatic fluid and immunostained. We demonstrated that after N-glycan binding, pancreatic α-amylase underwent internalization into lysosomes in a process that was inhibited by α-mannoside. The internalized α-amylase was degraded, showing low enzymatic activity and molecular weight at the basolateral membrane. In a human intestinal Caco-2 cell line, Alexa Fluor 488-labeled pancreatic α-amylase bound to the cytomembrane was transported to lysosomes through the endocytic pathway and then disappeared, suggesting degradation. Our findings indicate that N-glycan recognition by α-amylase protects enterocytes against a sudden increase in glucose concentration and restores glucose uptake by gradual internalization, which homeostatically controls the postprandial blood glucose level. The internalization of α-amylase may also enhance the supply of amino acids required for the high turnover of small intestine epithelial cells. This study provides novel and significant insights into the control of blood sugar during the absorption

  6. Short-Term Changes in General and Memory-Specific Control Beliefs and Their Relationship to Cognition in Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielak, Allison A. M.; Hultsch, David F.; Levy-Ajzenkopf, Judi; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Hunter, Michael A.; Strauss, Esther

    2007-01-01

    We examined short-term changes in younger and older adults' control beliefs. Participants completed measures of general and memory-specific competence and locus of control on 10 bi-monthly occasions. At each occasion, participants rated their control beliefs prior to and following completion of a battery of cognitive tasks. Exposure to the set of…

  7. Enhancement of exposure therapy in participants with specific phobia: A randomized controlled trial comparing yohimbine, propranolol and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerbröker, K; Morina, N; Emmelkamp, P M G

    2018-05-04

    Recent research indicates that pharmacological agents may enhance psychotherapeutic outcome. Yet, empirical results have not been conclusive with respect to two pharmacological agents, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH) and propranolol. YOH is suggested to enhance emotional memory by elevating norepinephrine, whereas the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol might help better cope with feared situations by reducing accompanying bodily sensations. In this controlled trial, fifty-six participants with specific phobia were randomly assigned to either 1) virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) plus YOH, 2) VRET plus Propranolol, or 3) VRET plus placebo. Participants in all conditions received three sessions of VRET over a period of two weeks. We conducted 2 × 3 repeated measures MANOVA's. Results showed a significant effect for time, with partial eta squared ranging from ηp2 = 0.647 to ηp2 = 0.692, for specific phobia, yet no significant interaction effects were found. No significant differences were found when VRET with YOH or a beta-blocker was compared to VRET with a non-active placebo. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal xNorrin, a canonical Wnt signaling agonist and TGF-β antagonist, controls early neuroectoderm specification in Xenopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhong Xu

    Full Text Available Dorsal-ventral specification in the amphibian embryo is controlled by β-catenin, whose activation in all dorsal cells is dependent on maternal Wnt11. However, it remains unknown whether other maternally secreted factors contribute to β-catenin activation in the dorsal ectoderm. Here, we show that maternal Xenopus Norrin (xNorrin promotes anterior neural tissue formation in ventralized embryos. Conversely, when xNorrin function is inhibited, early canonical Wnt signaling in the dorsal ectoderm and the early expression of the zygotic neural inducers Chordin, Noggin, and Xnr3 are severely suppressed, causing the loss of anterior structures. In addition, xNorrin potently inhibits BMP- and Nodal/Activin-related functions through direct binding to the ligands. Moreover, a subset of Norrin mutants identified in humans with Norrie disease retain Wnt activation but show defective inhibition of Nodal/Activin-related signaling in mesoderm induction, suggesting that this disinhibition causes Norrie disease. Thus, xNorrin is an unusual molecule that acts on two major signaling pathways, Wnt and TGF-β, in opposite ways and is essential for early neuroectoderm specification.

  9. Behavior and ultimate strength of an inner concrete structure of a nuclear reactor building subjected to thermal and seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omatsuzawa, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Sato, M.; Takeda, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshioka, K.; Nakayama, T.; Furuya, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Koike, K.; Naganuma, K.

    1987-01-01

    Heating tests and heating-plus-seismic-loading tests at high temperature (T max = 175 0 C) were conducted using various concrete structural members such as beams, cylindrical walls, H-section walls, and 1/10-scale models of the inner concrete (I/C) structure in a fast breeder reactor (FBR) building. Concrete subjected to high temperature exceeding 100 0 C has a tendency to have lower Young's modulus and to shrink. As these material constants are temperature-dependent, the thermal stress occurring within the concrete structure is smaller than the values usually obtained by normal crack analysis methods. Although thermal stresses and cracks exert marked influences on the behaviors of the structures during the earlier stages of loading, they hardly affect the ultimate bending and shear strengths. Specifically, as a result of I/C model tests, it was made clear that the ultimate strength of the structure is considerably greater than the design loads under combined thermal and seismic loading conditions. (orig./HP)

  10. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate

  11. Can contingency learning alone account for item-specific control? Evidence from within- and between-language ISPC effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Nart Bedin; Misirlisoy, Mine

    2012-11-01

    The item-specific proportion congruence (ISPC) manipulation (Jacoby, Lindsay, & Hessels, 2003) produces larger Stroop interference for mostly congruent items than mostly incongruent items. This effect has been attributed to dynamic control over word-reading processes. However, proportion congruence of an item in the ISPC manipulation is completely confounded with response contingency, suggesting the alternative hypothesis, that the ISPC effect is a result of learning response contingencies (Schmidt & Besner, 2008). The current study asks whether the ISPC effect can be explained by a pure stimulus-response contingency-learning account, or whether other control processes play a role as well, by comparing within- and between-language conditions in a bilingual task. Experiment 1 showed that contingency learning for noncolor words was larger for the within-language than the between-language condition. Experiment 2 revealed significant ISPC effects for both within- and between-language conditions; importantly, the effect was larger in the former. The results of the contingency analyses for Experiment 2 were parallel to that of Experiment 1 and did not show an interaction between contingency and congruency. Put together, these sets of results support the view that contingency-learning processes dominate color-word ISPC effects.

  12. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r=0.65–0.94. Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters.

  13. Molar mass of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during ultimate uniaxial drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  14. Molar-Mass of Poly(Ethylene-Terephthalate) (PET) During Ultimate Uniaxial Drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, A.G.P.U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  15. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  16. Reliability analysis of production ships with emphasis on load combination and ultimate strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaozhi

    1995-05-01

    This thesis deals with ultimate strength and reliability analysis of offshore production ships, accounting for stochastic load combinations, using a typical North Sea production ship for reference. A review of methods for structural reliability analysis is presented. Probabilistic methods are established for the still water and vertical wave bending moments. Linear stress analysis of a midships transverse frame is carried out, four different finite element models are assessed. Upon verification of the general finite element code ABAQUS with a typical ship transverse girder example, for which test results are available, ultimate strength analysis of the reference transverse frame is made to obtain the ultimate load factors associated with the specified pressure loads in Det norske Veritas Classification rules for ships and rules for production vessels. Reliability analysis is performed to develop appropriate design criteria for the transverse structure. It is found that the transverse frame failure mode does not seem to contribute to the system collapse. Ultimate strength analysis of the longitudinally stiffened panels is performed, accounting for the combined biaxial and lateral loading. Reliability based design of the longitudinally stiffened bottom and deck panels is accomplished regarding the collapse mode under combined biaxial and lateral loads. 107 refs., 76 refs., 37 tabs.

  17. Magnetic surfaces, particle orbits and neutral injection in conventional and ultimate torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.T.; Derr, J.A.; Kruckewitt, T.; Shohet, J.L.; Rehker, S.; Tataronis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Capabilities in fully non-axisymmetric numerical methods have resulted in a parametric study of various conventional and ultimate torsatron configurations. No superbananas are found in torsatrons without local magnetic wells. Neutral injection calculations show that, if the vacuum magnetic surfaces are well defined, tangential injection is very efficient

  18. Study of ultimate heat sink to Angra-1,2 and 3 Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.M.; Pinto, A.M.F.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the premises, results and conclusion of study done to ultimate heat sink of Angra 1,2 and 3 units, with base in postulated accidents that generate transient heat discharges to environment. It's explicitily presumed the eventuality of discharging heat water recirculation. (C.M.) [pt

  19. Method for ultimate disposition of borate containing radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bege, D.; Faust, H.J.; Puthawala, A.; Stunkel, H.

    1984-01-01

    Method for the ultimate disposition of radioactive wastes by vitrification, in which weak to medium radioactive waste concentrates from borate-containing radioactive liquids are mixed with added glass-forming materials, maximally in a ratio of 1:3, and the mixture heated to obtain a glass-forming melt

  20. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims...

  1. Discussion of the Method to Determine the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soil Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yangfu

    2017-12-01

    Combining literature examples, this paper has carried out Contrastive analysis of the theoretical formula method and finite element method about the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation, To verify rationality and superiority of the incremental load method in finite element ABAQUS in solving the bearing capacity of foundation soil. The study can provide certain reference for practical engineering calculation and analysis of foundation bearing capacity.

  2. Too many journals? Towards a theory of repeated rejections and ultimate acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, Jan

    Under a set of reasonable assumptions, it is shown that all manuscripts submitted to any journal will ultimately be published, either by the first journal or by one of the following journals to which a manuscript is resubmitted. This suggests that low quality manuscripts may also be published, which

  3. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  4. 7 CFR 4280.29 - Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project. 4280.29 Section 4280.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.29 Supplemental financing...

  5. Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2012-07-01

    Abstract The world is currently aiming to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is considered carbon neutral because the carbon dioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle. Increasing the use of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol. Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes, including thermochemical (direct combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation), or chemical (esterification) technologies. There are lot challenges in using biomass for energy applications. To name few low bulk density, high moisture content, irregular size and shape, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value. In commercial scale operation large quantities of biomass are needed and this will create problems associated with storage and transportation. Furthermore, grinding raw biomass with high moisture content is very challenging as there are no specific equipments and can increase the costs and in some cases it becomes highly impossible. All of these drawbacks led to development of some pretreatment techniques to make biomass more suitable for fuel applications. One of the promising techniques is torrefaction. Torrefaction is heating the biomass in an inert environment or reduced environment. During torrefaction biomass losses moisture, becomes more brittle and with increased energy density values. There are different techniques used for torrefaction of biomass. Fixed bed, bubbling sand bed and moving bed are the most common ones used. The use of microwaves for torrefaction purposes has not been explored. In the present study we looked into the torrefaction of biomass using the

  6. WE-AB-202-10: Modelling Individual Tumor-Specific Control Probability for Hypoxia in Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S; Warren, DR; Wilson, JM; Muirhead, R; Hawkins, MA; Maughan, T; Partridge, M [University of Oxford, Oxford, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate hypoxia-guided dose-boosting for increased tumour control and improved normal tissue sparing using FMISO-PET images Methods: Individual tumor-specific control probability (iTSCP) was calculated using a modified linear-quadratic model with rectal-specific radiosensitivity parameters for three limiting-case assumptions of the hypoxia / FMISO uptake relationship. {sup 18}FMISO-PET images from 2 patients (T3N0M0) from the RHYTHM trial (Investigating Hypoxia in Rectal Tumours NCT02157246) were chosen to delineate a hypoxic region (GTV-MISO defined as tumor-to-muscle ratio > 1.3) within the anatomical GTV. Three VMAT treatment plans were created in Eclipse (Varian): STANDARD (45Gy / 25 fractions to PTV4500); BOOST-GTV (simultaneous integrated boost of 60Gy / 25fr to GTV +0.5cm) and BOOST-MISO (60Gy / 25fr to GTV-MISO+0.5cm). GTV mean dose (in EQD2), iTSCP and normal tissue dose-volume metrics (small bowel, bladder, anus, and femoral heads) were recorded. Results: Patient A showed small hypoxic volume (15.8% of GTV) and Patient B moderate hypoxic volume (40.2% of GTV). Dose escalation to 60Gy was achievable, and doses to femoral heads and small bowel in BOOST plans were comparable to STANDARD plans. For patient A, a reduced maximum bladder dose was observed in BOOST-MISO compared to BOOST-GTV (D0.1cc 49.2Gy vs 54.0Gy). For patient B, a smaller high dose volume was observed for the anus region in BOOST-MISO compared to BOOST-GTV (V55Gy 19.9% vs 100%), which could potentially reduce symptoms of fecal incontinence. For BOOST-MISO, the largest iTSCPs (A: 95.5% / B: 90.0%) assumed local correlation between FMISO uptake and hypoxia, and approached iTSCP values seen for BOOST-GTV (A: 96.1% / B: 90.5%). Conclusion: Hypoxia-guided dose-boosting is predicted to improve local control in rectal tumors when FMISO is spatially correlated to hypoxia, and to reduce dose to organs-at-risk compared to boosting the whole GTV. This could lead to organ

  7. Specific music therapy techniques in the treatment of primary headache disorders in adolescents: a randomized attention-placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Oelkers-Ax, Rieke; Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Lenzen, Christoph; Hillecke, Thomas Karl; Resch, Franz

    2013-10-01

    Migraine and tension-type headache have a high prevalence in children and adolescents. In addition to common pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions, music therapy has been shown to be efficient in the prophylaxis of pediatric migraine. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of specific music therapy techniques in the treatment of adolescents with primary headache (tension-type headache and migraine). A prospective, randomized, attention-placebo-controlled parallel group trial was conducted. Following an 8-week baseline, patients were randomized to either music therapy (n = 40) or a rhythm pedagogic program (n = 38) designed as an "attention placebo" over 6 sessions within 8 weeks. Reduction of both headache frequency and intensity after treatment (8-week postline) as well as 6 months after treatment were taken as the efficacy variables. Treatments were delivered in equal dose and frequency by the same group of therapists. Data analysis of subjects completing the protocol showed that neither treatment was superior to the other at any point of measurement (posttreatment and follow-up). Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no impact of drop-out on these results. Both groups showed a moderate mean reduction of headache frequency posttreatment of about 20%, but only small numbers of responders (50% frequency reduction). Follow-up data showed no significant deteriorations or improvements. This article presents a randomized placebo-controlled trial on music therapy in the treatment of adolescents with frequent primary headache. Music therapy is not superior to an attention placebo within this study. These results draw attention to the need of providing adequate controls within therapeutic trials in the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Patient-specific guides do not improve accuracy in total knee arthroplasty: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Jan; Dujardin, Jan; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Arnout, Nele; Bellemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, patient-specific guides (PSGs) have been introduced, claiming a significant improvement in accuracy and reproducibility of component positioning in TKA. Despite intensive marketing by the manufacturers, this claim has not yet been confirmed in a controlled prospective trial. We (1) compared three-planar component alignment and overall coronal mechanical alignment between PSG and conventional instrumentation and (2) logged the need for applying changes in the suggested position of the PSG. In this randomized controlled trial, we enrolled 128 patients. In the PSG cohort, surgical navigation was used as an intraoperative control. When the suggested cut deviated more than 3° from target, the use of PSG was abandoned and marked as an outlier. When cranial-caudal position or size was adapted, the PSG was marked as modified. All patients underwent long-leg standing radiography and CT scan. Deviation of more than 3° from the target in any plane was defined as an outlier. The PSG and conventional cohorts showed similar numbers of outliers in overall coronal alignment (25% versus 28%; p = 0.69), femoral coronal alignment (7% versus 14%) (p = 0.24), and femoral axial alignment (23% versus 17%; p = 0.50). There were more outliers in tibial coronal (15% versus 3%; p = 0.03) and sagittal 21% versus 3%; p = 0.002) alignment in the PSG group than in the conventional group. PSGs were abandoned in 14 patients (22%) and modified in 18 (28%). PSGs do not improve accuracy in TKA and, in our experience, were somewhat impractical in that the procedure needed to be either modified or abandoned with some frequency.

  9. Gender-specific suicide risk factors: a case-control study of individuals with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalca, Ioana Mioara; McGirr, Alexander; Renaud, Johanne; Turecki, Gustavo

    2013-12-01

    Available information on risk for suicide completion in females is limited and often extrapolated from studies conducted in males. However, the validity of extending to females risk factors identified among male suicide cases is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate clinical and behavioral risk factors for suicide among female depressed patients and compare them to similar factors among male depressed patients. We identified 201 suicide completers (160 male and 41 female) who died during an episode of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cases were compared to 127 living patients with MDD (88 male and 39 female). All subjects were characterized for Axis I and II diagnoses using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders according to the DSM-IV, as well as behavioral and temperament dimensions using proxy-based interviews. The primary outcome was measures of impulsive and impulsive-aggressive behaviors. Compared to controls, male, but not female suicide cases had higher levels of impulsive aggression (P suicide cases from controls. However, nonimpulsive aggression and impulsive aggression were correlated constructs in males (r = 0.297; P suicide, such as alcohol and substance dependence, cluster B disorders, and elevated hostility and aggression, were replicated in the pooled-sex analyses, and, though not statistically significant in discriminating between suicide cases and controls by gender, maintained strong group differences. Males and females share many risk factors for suicide in MDD, yet alcohol dependence is much more specific though less sensitive among depressed females. Nonimpulsive aggression is part of a diathesis for suicide in females, which is distinct from the well-characterized impulsive aggression that is consistently reported in a portion of male suicide cases. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. General and Food-Specific Inhibitory Control As Moderators of the Effects of the Impulsive Systems on Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemeng Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to extend the application of the reflective-impulsive model to restrained eating and explore the effect of automatic attention (impulsive system on food choices. Furthermore, we examined the moderating effects of general inhibitory control (G-IC and food-specific inhibitory control (F-IC on successful and unsuccessful restrained eaters (US-REs. Automatic attention was measured using “the EyeLink 1000,” which tracked eye movements during the process of making food choices, and G-IC and F-IC were measured using the Stop-Signal Task. The results showed that food choices were related to automatic attention and that G-IC and F-IC moderated the predictive relationship between automatic attention and food choices. Furthermore, among successful restrained eaters (S-REs, automatic attention to high caloric foods did not predict food choices, regardless of whether G-IC or F-IC was high or low. Whereas food choice was positively correlated with automatic attention among US-REs with poor F-IC, this pattern was not observed in those with poor G-IC. In conclusion, the S-REs had more effective self-management skills and their food choices were affected less by automatic attention and inhibitory control. Unsuccessful restrained eating was associated with poor F-IC (not G-IC and greater automatic attention to high caloric foods. Thus, clinical interventions should focus on enhancing F-IC, not G-IC, and on reducing automatic attention to high caloric foods.

  11. The ultimate emergency measures to secure a NPP under an accidental condition with no designed power or water supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, K.S., E-mail: ksliang@alum.mit.edu [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong-Chuan Road, Shanghai (China); Chiang, S.C. [Department of Nuclear Safety, Taiwan Power Company, 242 Sec. 3, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Y.F.; Young, H.J.; Pei, B.S. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wang, L.C. [Department of Nuclear Safety, Taiwan Power Company, 242 Sec. 3, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10016, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An ultimate measure to secure core was developed, if power or water supply cannot be restored in time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ultimate measure was simulated by RELAP5-3D to verify the concept of this emergency plan. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantification of the required raw water injection rate was performed for NPPS in Taiwan Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reactor controlled depressurization within the 1st hour is essential to reduce the required raw water injection rate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For PWR, even heat sink can be developed, RCP seal leak might eventually cause core uncover 10 h after seal leak occurs. - Abstract: In the recent nuclear catastrophe which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, several units of Fukushima conventional BWR experienced a total loss of power and water supply triggered by a heavy earthquake and a following Tsunami beyond design basis. In Fukushima accident it was observed that sea water was injected into reactors only after hydrogen explosion took place and it was considered a little too late to prevent core from damage. With regard to this fact, the Taiwan power company develops an ultimate measure to prevent reactor from encountering core damage, if either designed AC power or reactor water supply cannot be restored in time. This ultimate measure was named as DIVing plan, abbreviated from system depressurization, water injection and containment venting. Once any designed AC power or reactor water supply is made available, this DIVing plan will be activated to (1) depressurize reactor first, (2) inject any available water into reactor by any available power supply if this critical status cannot be restored in time, and (3) vent the containment if necessary to maintain containment integrity. In this paper the DIVing plan was simulated by RELAP5-3D to verify the concept of it and also to quantify the required raw water injection rate to prevent core from damage for both

  12. The ultimate emergency measures to secure a NPP under an accidental condition with no designed power or water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, K.S.; Chiang, S.C.; Hsu, Y.F.; Young, H.J.; Pei, B.S.; Wang, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An ultimate measure to secure core was developed, if power or water supply cannot be restored in time. ► This ultimate measure was simulated by RELAP5-3D to verify the concept of this emergency plan. ► Quantification of the required raw water injection rate was performed for NPPS in Taiwan ► Reactor controlled depressurization within the 1st hour is essential to reduce the required raw water injection rate. ► For PWR, even heat sink can be developed, RCP seal leak might eventually cause core uncover 10 h after seal leak occurs. - Abstract: In the recent nuclear catastrophe which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, several units of Fukushima conventional BWR experienced a total loss of power and water supply triggered by a heavy earthquake and a following Tsunami beyond design basis. In Fukushima accident it was observed that sea water was injected into reactors only after hydrogen explosion took place and it was considered a little too late to prevent core from damage. With regard to this fact, the Taiwan power company develops an ultimate measure to prevent reactor from encountering core damage, if either designed AC power or reactor water supply cannot be restored in time. This ultimate measure was named as DIVing plan, abbreviated from system depressurization, water injection and containment venting. Once any designed AC power or reactor water supply is made available, this DIVing plan will be activated to (1) depressurize reactor first, (2) inject any available water into reactor by any available power supply if this critical status cannot be restored in time, and (3) vent the containment if necessary to maintain containment integrity. In this paper the DIVing plan was simulated by RELAP5-3D to verify the concept of it and also to quantify the required raw water injection rate to prevent core from damage for both PWR and BWR plants in Taiwan, after the loss of passive cooling mechanism. Provided the passive cooling mechanism is lost

  13. Manual therapy followed by specific active exercises versus a placebo followed by specific active exercises on the improvement of functional disability in patients with chronic non specific low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balthazard Pierre

    2012-08-01

    differences was found in remaining outcomes. Conclusions This study confirmed the immediate analgesic effect of MT over ST. Followed by specific active exercises, it reduces significantly functional disability and tends to induce a larger decrease in pain intensity, compared to a control group. These results confirm the clinical relevance of MT as an appropriate treatment for CNSLBP. Its neurophysiologic mechanisms at cortical level should be investigated more thoroughly. Trial registration Trial registration number: NCT01496144

  14. Manual therapy compared with physical therapy in patients with non-specific neck pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneweg, Ruud; van Assen, Luite; Kropman, Hans; Leopold, Huco; Mulder, Jan; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Ostelo, Raymond W J G; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2017-01-01

    Manual therapy according to the School of Manual Therapy Utrecht (MTU) is a specific type of passive manual joint mobilization. MTU has not yet been systematically compared to other manual therapies and physical therapy. In this study the effectiveness of MTU is compared to physical therapy, particularly active exercise therapy (PT) in patients with non-specific neck pain. Patients neck pain, aged between 18-70 years, were included in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial with a one-year follow-up. Primary outcome measures were global perceived effect and functioning (Neck Disability Index), the secondary outcome was pain intensity (Numeric Rating Scale for Pain). Outcomes were measured at 3, 7, 13, 26 and 52 weeks. Multilevel analyses (intention-to-treat) were the primary analyses for overall between-group differences. Additional to the primary and secondary outcomes the number of treatment sessions of the MTU group and PT group was analyzed. Data were collected from September 2008 to February 2011. A total of 181 patients were included. Multilevel analyses showed no statistically significant overall differences at one year between the MTU and PT groups on any of the primary and secondary outcomes. The MTU group showed significantly lower treatment sessions compared to the PT group (respectively 3.1 vs. 5.9 after 7 weeks; 6.1 vs. 10.0 after 52 weeks). Patients with neck pain improved in both groups without statistical significantly or clinically relevant differences between the MTU and PT groups during one-year follow-up. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00713843.

  15. A functional SNP associated with atopic dermatitis controls cell type-specific methylation of the VSTM1 gene locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL databases represent a valuable resource to link disease-associated SNPs to specific candidate genes whose gene expression is significantly modulated by the SNP under investigation. We previously identified signal inhibitory receptor on leukocytes-1 (SIRL-1 as a powerful regulator of human innate immune cell function. While it is constitutively high expressed on neutrophils, on monocytes the SIRL-1 surface expression varies strongly between individuals. The underlying mechanism of regulation, its genetic control as well as potential clinical implications had not been explored yet. Methods Whole blood eQTL data of a Chinese cohort was used to identify SNPs regulating the expression of VSTM1, the gene encoding SIRL-1. The genotype effect was validated by flow cytometry (cell surface expression, correlated with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and bisulfite sequencing (C-methylation and its functional impact studied the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Results We found a significant association of a single CpG-SNP, rs612529T/C, located in the promoter of VSTM1. Through flow cytometry analysis we confirmed that primarily in the monocytes the protein level of SIRL-1 is strongly associated with genotype of this SNP. In monocytes, the T allele of this SNP facilitates binding of the transcription factors YY1 and PU.1, of which the latter has been recently shown to act as docking site for modifiers of DNA methylation. In line with this notion rs612529T associates with a complete demethylation of the VSTM1 promoter correlating with the allele-specific upregulation of SIRL-1 expression. In monocytes, this upregulation strongly impacts the IgA-induced production of ROS by these cells. Through targeted association analysis we found a significant Meta P value of 1.14 × 10–6 for rs612529 for association to atopic dermatitis (AD

  16. Involvement of TORC2, a CREB co-activator, in the in vivo-specific transcriptional control of HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furuta Rika A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 causes adult T -cell leukemia (ATL but the expression of HTLV-1 is strongly suppressed in the peripheral blood of infected people. However, such suppression, which may explain the long latency in the development of ATL, is readily reversible, and viral expression resumes quickly with ex vivo culture of infected T -cells. To investigate the mechanism of in vivo -specific transcriptional suppression, we established a mouse model in which mice were intraperitoneally administered syngeneic EL4 T -lymphoma cells transduced with a recombinant retrovirus expressing a GFP-Tax fusion protein, Gax, under the control of the HTLV-1 enhancer (EL4-Gax. Results Gax gene transcription was silenced in vivo but quickly up-regulated in ex vivo culture. Analysis of integrated Gax reporter gene demonstrated that neither CpG methylation of the promoter DNA nor histone modification was associated with the reversible suppression. ChIP-analysis of LTR under suppression revealed reduced promoter binding of TFIIB and Pol-II, but no change in the binding of CREB or CBP/p300 to the viral enhancer sequence. However, the expression of TORC2, a co-activator of CREB, decreased substantially in the EL4-Gax cells in vivo, and this returned to normal levels in ex vivo culture. The reduced expression of TORC2 was associated with translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. A knock-down experiment with siRNA confirmed that TORC2 was the major functional protein of the three TORC-family proteins (TORC1, 2, 3 in EL4-Gax cells. Conclusion These results suggest that the TORC2 may play an important role in the in vivo -specific transcriptional control of HTLV-1. This study provides a new model for the reversible mechanism that suppresses HTLV-1 expression in vivo without the DNA methylation or hypoacetylated histones that is observed in the primary cells of most HTLV-1 -infected carriers and a substantial number of ATL

  17. Polymer Concentration-Controlled Substrate Specificity in Solvolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Alkanoates Catalyzed by 4-(Dialkylamino)pyridine- Functionalized Polymer in Aqueous Methanol Solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Guang-Jia

    1996-01-01

    The substrate specificity in solvolysis reactions of p-nitrophenyl alkanoates 2 (n=2-18) catalyzed by 4-(dialkylamino)pyridine-functionalized polymer 1 can be controlled by the concentration of 1 in 1...

  18. Dose-dependent effects of an immune challenge at both ultimate and proximate levels in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-05-01

    Immune responses are highly dynamic. The magnitude and efficiency of an immune response to a pathogen can change markedly across individuals, and such changes may be influenced by variance in a range of intrinsic (e.g. age, genotype, sex) and external (e.g. abiotic stress, pathogen identity, strain) factors. Life history theory predicts that up-regulation of the immune system will come at a physiological cost, and studies have confirmed that increased investment in immunity can reduce reproductive output and survival. Furthermore, males and females often have divergent reproductive strategies, and this might drive the evolution of sex-specific life history trade-offs involving immunity, and sexual dimorphism in immune responses per se. Here, we employ an experiment design to elucidate dose-dependent and sex-specific responses to exposure to a nonpathogenic immune elicitor at two scales--the 'ultimate' life history and the underlying 'proximate' immune level in Drosophila melanogaster. We found dose-dependent effects of immune challenges on both male and female components of reproductive success, but not on survival, as well as a response in antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that even in the absence of the direct pathogenic effects that are associated with actual disease, individual life histories respond to a perceived immune challenge--but with the magnitude of this response being contingent on the initial dose of exposure. Furthermore, the results indicate that immune responses at the ultimate life history level may indeed reflect underlying processes that occur at the proximate level. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  19. Nanozyme-based bio-barcode assay for high sensitive and logic-controlled specific detection of multiple DNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaodong; Liu, Yaqing; Tao, Zhanhui; Gao, Jinting; Deng, Jiankang; Yin, Jinjin; Wang, Shuo

    2017-08-15

    Since HCV and HIV share a common transmission path, high sensitive detection of HIV and HCV gene is of significant importance to improve diagnosis accuracy and cure rate at early stage for HIV virus-infected patients. In our investigation, a novel nanozyme-based bio-barcode fluorescence amplified assay is successfully developed for simultaneous detection of HIV and HCV DNAs with excellent sensitivity in an enzyme-free and label-free condition. Here, bimetallic nanoparticles, PtAu NPs , present outstanding peroxidase-like activity and act as barcode to catalyze oxidation of nonfluorescent substrate of amplex red (AR) into fluorescent resorufin generating stable and sensitive "Turn On" fluorescent output signal, which is for the first time to be integrated with bio-barcode strategy for fluorescence detection DNA. Furthermore, the provided strategy presents excellent specificity and can distinguish single-base mismatched mutant from target DNA. What interesting is that cascaded INHIBIT-OR logic gate is integrated with biosensors for the first time to distinguish individual target DNA from each other under logic function control, which presents great application in development of rapid and intelligent detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Specific exercises reduce brace prescription in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective controlled cohort study with worst-case analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Zaina, Fabio; Romano, Michele; Negrini, Alessandra; Parzini, Silvana

    2008-06-01

    To compare the effect of Scientific Exercises Approach to Scoliosis (SEAS) exercises with "usual care" rehabilitation programmes in terms of the avoidance of brace prescription and prevention of curve progression in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Prospective controlled cohort observational study. Seventy-four consecutive outpatients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, mean 15 degrees (standard deviation 6) Cobb angle, 12.4 (standard deviation 2.2) years old, at risk of bracing who had not been treated previously. Thirty-five patients were included in the SEAS exercises group and 39 in the usual physiotherapy group. The primary outcome included the number of braced patients, Cobb angle and the angle of trunk rotation. There were 6.1% braced patients in the SEAS exercises group vs 25.0% in the usual physiotherapy group. Failures of treatment in the worst-case analysis were 11.5% and 30.8%, respectively. In both cases the differences were statistically significant. Cobb angle improved in the SEAS exercises group, but worsened in the usual physiotherapy group. In the SEAS exercises group, 23.5% of patients improved and 11.8% worsened, while in the usual physiotherapy group 11.1% improved and 13.9% worsened. These data confirm the effectiveness of exercises in patients with scoliosis who are at high risk of progression. Compared with non-adapted exercises, a specific and personalized treatment (SEAS) appears to be more effective.

  1. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  2. The Assessment of the Ultimate Hull Girder Strength of RO-RO Ship after Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair Muis Alie, Muhammad; Sitepu, Ganding; Izaak Latumahin, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    Many accidents of Ro-Ro ships happen in Indonesia such as collision and grounding. When the collision or grounding takes place on the Ro-Ro ship, the ultimate strength of hull structure after damage becomes decrease. Car and passenger decks are critical location since collision and/or grounding occur. In the present study, the assessment of the ultimate hull girder strength is conducted. The cross section of Ro-Ro ship is taken to be analyzed. The collision and grounding damages are assumed to be palced on the side and bottom area, respectively. The damages are created by removing the element from the side shell and bottom part. Finally, the result obtained is compared with one another.

  3. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  4. Evaluation of time-accelerated irradiation method of elastomer by modulus-ultimate elongation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki; Oka, Toshitaka; Hama, Yosimasa

    2009-01-01

    'Generalized modulus-ultimate elongation profile' was induced from the relationship between the modulus and the ultimate elongation of an elastomer that was quantitatively added crosslinking and scission. This profile can be used to evaluate the time-accelerated irradiation methods of ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer. The irradiation under low dose rate (0.33 kGy/h) at room temperature was the reference condition. The short-time irradiation condition was 4.2 kGy/h in 0.5 MPa oxygen at room temperature and 5.0 kGy/h in air at 70 o C. The former tended to bring about the higher ratio of scission than the reference condition; the latter tended to bring about the higher ratio of crosslinking.

  5. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  6. Ultimate analysis of PWR prestressed concrete containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.-T.; Lin, Y.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical analyses are carried out by using the ABAQUS finite element program to predict the ultimate pressure capacity and the failure mode of the PWR prestressed concrete containment at Maanshan nuclear power plant. Material nonlinearity such as concrete cracking, tension stiffening, shear retention, concrete plasticity, yielding of prestressing tendon, yielding of steel reinforcing bar and degradation of material properties due to high temperature are all simulated with proper constitutive models. Geometric nonlinearity due to finite deformation has also been considered. The results of the analysis show that when the prestressed concrete containment fails, extensive cracks take place at the apex of the dome, the junction of the dome and cylinder, and the bottom of the cylinder connecting to the base slab. In addition, the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment is higher than the design pressure by 86%

  7. Nonlinear finite element analysis of nuclear reinforced prestressed concrete containments up to ultimate load capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    For safety evaluation of nuclear structures a finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) has been developed. Eight/nine noded isoparametric quadrilateral plate/shell element with reinforcement as a through thickness discrete but integral smeared layer of the element is presented to analyze reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Various constitutive models such as crushing, cracking in tension, tension stiffening and rebar yielding are studied and effect of these parameters on the reserve strength of structures is brought out through a number of benchmark tests. A global model is used to analyze the prestressed concrete containment wall of a typical 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) up to its ultimate capacity. This demonstrates the adequacy of Indian PHWR containment design to withstand severe accident loads

  8. Qualtum cosmics-and-chaotics--the ultimate tortoise in physics and modern medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualtum cosmics is the qualitative opposite of quantum mechanics. The flip-side of qualtum cosmics is qualtum chaotics, the two governing much of what is seen as inscrutable in medicine. The Ultimate (Last Tortoise is close to Einsteinean idea of a Unified Theory, a single concept that can explain whatsoever there is in physics, (and in medicine, or what have you.

  9. Utilization of metal scrap for the production of waste drums for ultimate disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janberg, K.; Rittscher, D.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution reviews the history of development of the techniques for treatment of decommissioning scrap from the beginning of the 1980's onwards (decommissioning of the Niederaichbach and Gundremmingen nuclear power stations), together with the radiological measuring methods required for regulatory purposes. The advantages of the recycling of the metal scrap by means of melting, and of materials utilization for production of waste containers for ultimate storage are discussed together with product quality assurance criteria. (RB) [de

  10. The Influence of Wagon Structure Part Shape Optimization on Ultimate Fatigue Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović, Vladimir; Živković, Miroslav; Jovičić, Gordana; Živković, Jelena; Kozak, Dražan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how shape optimisation affects the ultimate fatigue strength of a mechanical part. The mechanical part chosen for this investigation is an axle guard of running gear elements of the Hccrrs 2x2 axle car-carrying wagon. The static and fatigue strength analysis procedure according to the UIC 517 standard and numerical methods have been applied. Material properties were determined experimentally and the necessary numerical calculations were performed by using the finite el...

  11. Modeling and simulation of loss of the ultimate heat sink in a typical material testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, Hisham; El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din; Higazy, Maher G.; El-Shazly, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A thermal–hydraulic model has been developed to simulate loss of the ultimate heat sink in MTR. ► The model involves three coupled sub-models for core, heat exchanger and cooling tower. ► The model is validated against PARET for steady-state and verified by operation data for transients. ► The model is used to simulate the behavior of the reactor under a loss of the ultimate heat sink. ► The model results are analyzed and discussed. -- Abstract: A thermal–hydraulic model has been developed to simulate loss of the ultimate heat sink in a typical material testing reactor (MTR). The model involves three interactively coupled sub-models for reactor core, heat exchanger and cooling tower. The model is validated against PARET code for steady-state operation and verified by the reactor operation records for transients. Then, the model is used to simulate the thermal–hydraulic behavior of the reactor under a loss of the ultimate heat sink event. The simulation is performed for two operation regimes: regime I representing 11 MW power and three cooling tower cells operated, and regime II representing 22 MW power and six cooling tower cells operated. In regime I, the simulation is performed for 1, 2 and 3 cooling tower cells failed while in regime II, it is performed for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cooling tower cells failed. The simulation is performed under protected conditions where the safety action called power reduction is triggered by reactor protection system to decrease the reactor power by 20% when the coolant inlet temperature to the core reaches 43 °C and scram is triggered if the core inlet temperature reaches 44 °C. The model results are analyzed and discussed.

  12. Tasks of radiation protection in the centralized collection and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerst, F.M.; Fasten, C.; Koerner, W.; Oppermann, U.; Werner, H.J.; Zappe, D.

    1988-01-01

    In the GDR, the ERAM (Endlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle, Morsleben), an operating unit of Volkseigenes Kombinat Kernkraftwerke 'Bruno Leuschner' in Greifswald, is responsible for the central collection and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste. From the licensing body's point of view an assessment is given of the legislation for radioactive wastes, especially as to their collection, transport to and handling in the final repository. As a result, some conclusions are drawn concerning future work in this field. 9 tabs., 34 refs. (author)

  13. Effects of urbanization on animal behaviour : patterns, underlying mechanisms and ultimate causes

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Ana Catarina Sequeira Nunes Coutinho de

    2014-01-01

    Human-altered environmental conditions affect many species at the global scale. An extreme form of anthropogenic alteration is the existence and rapid increase of urban areas. A key question is how animals cope with urbanization. In order to live in cities, animals have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to the urban novel environment.The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate (i) the existence of behavioural changes related to the urbanization process, (ii) the ultimate...

  14. Dual characteristics of yield and ultimate strength as applied to two grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, T.G.; Benzley, S.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1977-02-01

    Published yield and ultimate biaxial strength data for two grades of beryllium are correlated with the use of a macroscopic failure model. Cross sections of the resulting surfaces in three-dimensional stress space are drawn to illustrate the expected transition from ductile to brittle fracture for triaxial tension states of stress. The usefulness of these models to the prediction of fracture in ductile materials is discussed. 5 tables, 8 figures, 11 references

  15. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wognum, S; Bondar, L; Zolnay, A G; Chai, X; Hulshof, M C C M; Hoogeman, M S; Bel, A

    2013-02-01

    Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight parameters were determined

  16. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A.; Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors’ unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  17. Control over structure-specific flexibility improves anatomical accuracy for point-based deformable registration in bladder cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wognum, S.; Chai, X.; Hulshof, M. C. C. M.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiotherapy, Academic Medical Center, Meiberdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bondar, L.; Zolnay, A. G.; Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Future developments in image guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) for bladder cancer require accurate deformable image registration techniques for the precise assessment of tumor and bladder motion and deformation that occur as a result of large bladder volume changes during the course of radiotherapy treatment. The aim was to employ an extended version of a point-based deformable registration algorithm that allows control over tissue-specific flexibility in combination with the authors' unique patient dataset, in order to overcome two major challenges of bladder cancer registration, i.e., the difficulty in accounting for the difference in flexibility between the bladder wall and tumor and the lack of visible anatomical landmarks for validation. Methods: The registration algorithm used in the current study is an extension of the symmetric-thin plate splines-robust point matching (S-TPS-RPM) algorithm, a symmetric feature-based registration method. The S-TPS-RPM algorithm has been previously extended to allow control over the degree of flexibility of different structures via a weight parameter. The extended weighted S-TPS-RPM algorithm was tested and validated on CT data (planning- and four to five repeat-CTs) of five urinary bladder cancer patients who received lipiodol injections before radiotherapy. The performance of the weighted S-TPS-RPM method, applied to bladder and tumor structures simultaneously, was compared with a previous version of the S-TPS-RPM algorithm applied to bladder wall structure alone and with a simultaneous nonweighted S-TPS-RPM registration of the bladder and tumor structures. Performance was assessed in terms of anatomical and geometric accuracy. The anatomical accuracy was calculated as the residual distance error (RDE) of the lipiodol markers and the geometric accuracy was determined by the surface distance, surface coverage, and inverse consistency errors. Optimal parameter values for the flexibility and bladder weight

  18. Alcohol and cause-specific mortality in Russia: a retrospective case-control study of 48,557 adult deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridze, David; Brennan, Paul; Boreham, Jillian; Boroda, Alex; Karpov, Rostislav; Lazarev, Alexander; Konobeevskaya, Irina; Igitov, Vladimir; Terechova, Tatiana; Boffetta, Paolo; Peto, Richard

    2009-06-27

    Alcohol is an important determinant of the high and fluctuating adult mortality rates in Russia, but cause-specific detail is lacking. Our case-control study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on male and female cause-specific mortality. In three Russian industrial cities with typical 1990s mortality patterns (Tomsk, Barnaul, Biysk), the addresses of 60,416 residents who had died at ages 15-74 years in 1990-2001 were visited in 2001-05. Family members were present for 50,066 decedents; for 48,557 (97%), the family gave proxy information on the decedents' past alcohol use and on potentially confounding factors. Cases (n=43,082) were those certified as dying from causes we judged beforehand might be substantially affected by alcohol or tobacco; controls were the other 5475 decedents. Case versus control relative risks (RRs; calculated as odds ratios by confounder-adjusted logistic regression) were calculated in ever-drinkers, defining the reference category by two criteria: usual weekly consumption always less than 0.5 half-litre bottles of vodka (or equivalent in total alcohol content) and maximum consumption of spirits in 1 day always less than 0.5 half-litre bottles. Other ever-drinkers were classified by usual weekly consumption into three categories: less than one, one to less than three, and three or more (mean 5.4 [SD 1.4]) bottles of vodka or equivalent. In men, the three causes accounting for the most alcohol-associated deaths were accidents and violence (RR 5.94, 95% CI 5.35-6.59, in the highest consumption category), alcohol poisoning (21.68, 17.94-26.20), and acute ischaemic heart disease other than myocardial infarction (3.04, 2.73-3.39), which includes some misclassified alcohol poisoning. There were significant excesses of upper aerodigestive tract cancer (3.48, 2.84-4.27) and liver cancer (2.11, 1.64-2.70). Another five disease groups had RRs of more than 3.00 in the highest alcohol category: tuberculosis (4.14, 3.44-4.98), pneumonia (3

  19. K-AR chronology of the ultimate activity of Piton des Neiges volcano, Reunion Island, Indian Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, P.Y.; Nativel, P.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay

    1982-01-01

    Potassium-argon measurements were made on 17 samples from the ultimate stage of activity of the Piton des Neiges volcano, which corresponds to a differentiated series with lavas varying from basalt to quartz trachyte. Samples were selected as a function of their stratographic position and their representativity of magmatic evolution. The technology used to date young volcanic rocks (Pleistocene) by K-Ar is described and discussed because of its reliability in the analysis of modern lavas and because of the agreement of the results with the available stratigraphic control. The data, together with those previously obtained by McDougall, yield ages ranging between 330.000 and 30.000 years, with two mainly effusive periods separated by a phase of instability of chiefly explosive volcanism around 190.000 to 150.000 years ago. A rough correlation between the chemical evolution of the lavas and time is established. (orig./ME)

  20. The establishment and analysis of TRACE model for ultimate response guideline of Chinshan nuclear power plant - 15448

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.J.; Wang, J.R.; Shih, C.; Chen, S.W.; Liao, L.Y.; Lin, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use TRACE code to perform a simulation that executes the procedures of URG (Ultimate Response Guidelines) to deal with Fukushima-like accidents. TRACE is an advanced thermal hydraulic code that has been developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission for NPP safety analysis. In this work TRACE has been used to analyze the thermal hydraulic model for the URG of the Chinshan nuclear power plant that is composed of 2 BWR-type reactors. URG includes 2-stage depressurization, alternative water injection and removing decay heat through the ejection from containment. The 2-stage depressurization strategy includes controlled depressurization and emergency depressurization to replace traditional one-stage depressurization. Results show that by comparing with one-stage depressurization strategy, 2-stage depressurization strategy is able to reduce peak cladding temperature (PCT) effectively and needs much less minimum flow rate of alternative water injection in the accident