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Sample records for ultimately cohort survival

  1. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π 0 ,η,η ′ ) decay channels for the ψ ′ looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc ¯ intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  2. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-03-07

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π{sup 0},η,η{sup ′}) decay channels for the ψ{sup ′} looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc{sup ¯} intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  3. HIV-associated lung cancer: survival in an unselected cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Kohrs, Fabienne; Sabranski, Michael; Wolf, Eva; Jaeger, Hans; Wyen, Christoph; Siehl, Jan; Baumgarten, Axel; Hensel, Manfred; Jessen, Arne; Schaaf, Bernhard; Vogel, Martin; Bogner, Johannes; Horst, Heinz-August; Stephan, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected patients. However, data on clinical outcome and prognostic factors are scarce. This was a national German multicentre, retrospective cohort analysis of all cases of lung cancer seen in HIV-infected individuals from 2000 through 2010. Survival was analyzed with respect to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), specific lung cancer therapies, and other potential prognostic factors. A total of 72 patients (mean age 55.5 y, CD4 T-cells 383/μl) were evaluated in this analysis. At time of lung cancer diagnosis, 86% were on ART. Of these, 79% had undetectable HIV-1 RNA (cancer stage of I-IIIA was associated with better overall survival when compared with the advanced stages IIIb/IV (p = 0.0003). Other factors predictive of improved overall survival were better performance status, CD4 T-cells > 200/μl, and a non-intravenous drug use transmission risk for HIV. Currently, most cases of lung cancer occur in the setting of limited immune deficiency and a long-lasting viral suppression. As in HIV-negative cases, the clinical stage of lung cancer is highly predictive of survival, and long-term overall survival can only be achieved at the limited stages. The still high mortality underscores the importance of smoking cessation strategies in HIV-infected patients.

  4. Knee disarticulation : Survival, wound healing and ambulation. A historic cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Duis, K.; Bosmans, J. C.; Voesten, H. G. J.; Geertzen, J. H. B.; Dijkstra, P. U.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze survival, wound healing and ambulation after knee disarticulation (KD). A historic cohort study using medical records and nursing home records was performed. Data included demographics, reason for amputation, concomitant diseases, survival, wound healing,

  5. Improved survival for rectal cancer compared to colon cancer: the four cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Pamela; Hall, Claire; Davidson, Callum; Dixon, Liane; Dobbs, Bruce; Robinson, Bridget; Frizelle, Frank

    2018-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. This study was undertaken to evaluate survival outcomes and changes of disease outcomes of CRC patients over the last decades. A retrospective analysis of CRC patients in Christchurch was performed in four patient cohorts at 5 yearly intervals; 1993-94, 1998-99, 2004-05 and 2009. Data on cancer location, stage, surgical and oncological treatment and survival were collected. Univariate, multivariate and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed. There were 1391 patients (355, 317, 419 and 300 per cohort), 1037 colon and 354 rectal cancers, respectively. For colon cancer, right-sided cancers appeared more common in later cohorts (P = 0.01). There was a significant decrease in the number of permanent stomas for colon cancer patients (P = 0.001). There was an analogous trend for rectal cancers (P = 0.075). More CRC patients with stage IV disease were treated surgically (P = 0.001) and colon cancer stages I and II tended to have increased survival if operated by a colorectal surgeon (P = 0.06). Oncology referrals have increased remarkably (P = 0.001). Overall 56% of patients were alive at 5 years however rectal cancer patients had significantly better 5-year survival than those with colon cancer (P rectal cancer patients have a better 5-year survival than colon cancer patients. The improved survival with early stage colon cancers operated on by specialist colorectal surgeons needs further exploration. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  6. Stress and survival after cancer: A prospective study of a Finnish population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito-Nakaya, K.; Bidstrup, P. E.; Nakaya, N.

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been suggested to reduce survival after cancer, but the results of previous studies have been contradictory. We investigated the hypothesis in a national cohort of adults in Finland. Of those who completed the Stressful Life Events scale and the Stress of Daily Activities scale, 1470 a...

  7. The difference in blood pressure readings between arms and survival: primary care cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Christopher E; Taylor, Rod S; Shore, Angela C; Campbell, John L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a difference in systolic blood pressure readings between arms can predict a reduced event free survival after 10 years. Design Cohort study. Setting Rural general practice in Devon, United Kingdom. Participants 230 people receiving treatment for hypertension in primary care. Intervention Bilateral blood pressure measurements recorded at three successive surgery attendances. Main outcome measures Cardiovascular events and deaths from all causes during a median fo...

  8. Survival Rate of Dental Implants in Patients with History of Periodontal Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Francisco; Gouveia, Sónia; Felino, António Campos; Costa, Ana Lemos; Almeida, Ricardo Faria

    To evaluate the differences between the survival rates of implants placed in patients with no history of periodontal disease (NP) and in patients with a history of chronic periodontal disease (CP). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in which all consenting patients treated with dental implants in a private clinic in Oporto, Portugal, from November 2, 2002 through February 11, 2011 were included. All patients were treated consecutively by the same experimental operator. This study aimed to analyze how the primary outcomes (presence of disease, time of placement, and time of loading) and the secondary outcomes (severity-generalized periodontitis, brand, implant length, prosthesis type, prosthesis metal-ceramic extension) influence the survival rate of dental implants. The survival analysis was performed through the Kaplan-Meier method, and the equality of survival distributions for all groups was tested with the log-rank test with a significance level of .05 for all comparisons. The sample consisted of 202 patients (47% NP and 53% CP) and 689 implants (31% NP and 69% CP). The survival rate in the NP and CP groups showed no statistically significant differences (95.8% versus 93.1%; P ≥ .05). Implants were lost before loading in 54.9% of the cases. The majority of the implants were lost in the first year and stabilized after the second year. Survival rates in the NP and CP patients showed no statistically significant differences when comparing the following factors: subclassification of the disease, implant brands, implant length (short/standard), type of prosthesis, extension of the prosthesis metal-ceramic, and time of placement and loading (P ≥ .05). This work disclosed no statistically significant differences in terms of survival rates when compared with the control group. Placing implants in patients with a history of periodontal disease appears to be viable and safe.

  9. Analyzing age-specific genetic effects on human extreme age survival in cohort-based longitudinal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; Jacobsen, Rune; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of age-specific genetic effects on human survival over extreme ages is confronted with a deceleration pattern in mortality that deviates from traditional survival models and sparse genetic data available. As human late life is a distinct phase of life history, exploring the genetic...... effects on extreme age survival can be of special interest to evolutionary biology and health science. We introduce a non-parametric survival analysis approach that combines population survival information with individual genotype data in assessing the genetic effects in cohort-based longitudinal studies...

  10. Breast density and mode of detection in relation to breast cancer specific survival: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Åsa; Sartor, Hanna; Borgquist, Signe; Zackrisson, Sophia; Manjer, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine breast density in relation to breast cancer specific survival and to assess if this potential association was modified by mode of detection. An additional aim was to study whether the established association between mode of detection and survival is modified by breast density. The study included 619 cases from a prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Breast density estimated qualitatively, was analyzed in relation to breast cancer death, in non-symptomatic and symptomatic women, using Cox regression calculating hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Adjustments were made in several steps for; diagnostic age, tumour size, axillary lymph node involvement, grade, hormone receptor status, body mass index (baseline), diagnostic period, use of hormone replacement therapy at diagnosis and mode of detection. Detection mode in relation to survival was analyzed stratified for breast density. Differences in HR following different adjustments were analyzed by Freedmans%. After adjustment for age and other prognostic factors, women with dense, as compared to fatty breasts, had an increased risk of breast cancer death, HR 2.56:1.07-6.11, with a statistically significant trend over density categories, p = 0.04. In the stratified analysis, the effect was less pronounced in non-symptomatic women, HR 2.04:0.49-8.49 as compared to symptomatic, HR 3.40:1.06-10.90. In the unadjusted model, symptomatic women had a higher risk of breast cancer death, regardless of breast density. Analyzed by Freedmans%, age, tumour size, lymph nodes, grade, diagnostic period, ER and PgR explained 55.5% of the observed differences in mortality between non-symptomatic and symptomatic cases. Additional adjustment for breast density caused only a minor change. High breast density at diagnosis may be associated with decreased breast cancer survival. This association appears to be stronger in women with symptomatic cancers but breast density could

  11. Chemoradiotherapy of Anal Carcinoma: Survival and Recurrence in an Unselected National Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Anne Gry; Guren, Marianne G.; Wanderås, Eva H.; Frykholm, Gunilla; Tveit, Kjell M.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Dahl, Olav; Balteskard, Lise

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results, elucidate whether national guidelines were followed, and identify areas demanding further treatment optimization. Methods and Material: Between July 2000 and June 2007, 328 patients were treated with curatively intended chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal region, according to national treatment guidelines based on tumor stage. Results: Complete response after CRT was obtained in 87% of patients, rising to 93% after salvage surgery. Chemotherapy, elective irradiation of the groin and salvage surgery were performed to a lesser extent in elderly patients, mainly because of frailty and comorbidity. Recurrence occurred in 24% of the patients, resulting in a 3- and 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 79% and 74%, respectively. Locoregional recurrences dominated, most commonly in the primary tumor site. Recurrence was treated with curative intent in 45% of the cases. The 3- and 5-year overall survival were 79% and 66%, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were 84% and 75%, respectively. The risk of adverse outcome increased significantly with more locally advanced tumors and for male gender in multivariable analyses for RFS and CSS. Conclusions: The treatment results are in accordance with similar cohorts. The primary treatment control rate was high, but there was a significant risk of locoregional recurrence in advanced tumors. The loyalty to national guidelines was broad, although individual adjustments occurred. However, caution to avoid toxicity must not lead to inadequate treatment. Male gender seems to have inferior outcome.

  12. Chemoradiotherapy of Anal Carcinoma: Survival and Recurrence in an Unselected National Cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentzen, Anne Gry, E-mail: anne.gry.bentzen@unn.no [Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromso (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso (Norway); Guren, Marianne G.; Wanderas, Eva H. [Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Frykholm, Gunilla [Department of Oncology, St. Olav' s University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway and The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), Osteras (Norway); Tveit, Kjell M. [Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Wilsgaard, Tom [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso (Norway); Dahl, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen and Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Balteskard, Lise [Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromso (Norway); Centre for Clinical Documentation and Evaluation, Northern Norway Regional Health Authority, Tromso (Norway)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate treatment results, elucidate whether national guidelines were followed, and identify areas demanding further treatment optimization. Methods and Material: Between July 2000 and June 2007, 328 patients were treated with curatively intended chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for nonmetastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the anal region, according to national treatment guidelines based on tumor stage. Results: Complete response after CRT was obtained in 87% of patients, rising to 93% after salvage surgery. Chemotherapy, elective irradiation of the groin and salvage surgery were performed to a lesser extent in elderly patients, mainly because of frailty and comorbidity. Recurrence occurred in 24% of the patients, resulting in a 3- and 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) of 79% and 74%, respectively. Locoregional recurrences dominated, most commonly in the primary tumor site. Recurrence was treated with curative intent in 45% of the cases. The 3- and 5-year overall survival were 79% and 66%, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were 84% and 75%, respectively. The risk of adverse outcome increased significantly with more locally advanced tumors and for male gender in multivariable analyses for RFS and CSS. Conclusions: The treatment results are in accordance with similar cohorts. The primary treatment control rate was high, but there was a significant risk of locoregional recurrence in advanced tumors. The loyalty to national guidelines was broad, although individual adjustments occurred. However, caution to avoid toxicity must not lead to inadequate treatment. Male gender seems to have inferior outcome.

  13. Life course evolution of body size and breast cancer survival in the E3N cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    His, Mathilde; Le Guélennec, Marine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dossus, Laure

    2018-04-15

    Although adult obesity has been associated with poor breast cancer survival, data on adiposity at different periods in life and its lifelong evolution are scarce. Our aims were to assess the associations between breast cancer survival and body size during childhood, puberty and early adulthood and body size trajectories from childhood to adulthood. Self-assessed body size at age 8, at puberty, at age 20-25 and at age 35-40 and trajectories of body size of 4,662 breast cancer survivors from the prospective E3N cohort were studied in relation to risk of death from any cause, death from breast cancer and second invasive cancer event using multivariate Cox regression models. Four trajectories of body size were identified (T1 "moderate increase," T2 "stable/low increase," T3 "increase at puberty" and T4 "constantly high"). Compared with stable body size, an increase in body size during adult life was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause (HR T1 vs. T2 = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.01-1.60) and an increased risk of second invasive cancer event (HR T1 vs. T2 = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.06-1.47). Silhouettes at various ages were not associated with survival. Our results suggest that the evolution of body size from childhood to adulthood has a long-term influence on breast cancer survival. Although these results need to be confirmed, this work sheds light on the need to combine lifelong approaches to current BMI to better identify breast cancer survivors who are at higher risk of recurrence or second primary cancer, or of death. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Exposure to magnetic fields and survival after diagnosis of childhood leukemia: a German cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Weihkopf, Thomas; Kaatsch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by a recent U.S. study showing poorer survival among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exposed to magnetic fields above 0.3 microT, we examine this relationship in a German cohort of childhood leukemia cases derived from previous population-based case-control studies...... for prognostic risk group, the hazard for exposures above 0.2 microT increases to HR, 3.0 (95% CI, 0.9-9.8). In conclusion, this study is generally consistent with the previous finding; however, we report the excess risk at field levels lower than those in the U.S. study. In all, the evidence is still based...

  15. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  16. Nitrosourea efficacy in high-grade glioma: a survival gain analysis summarizing 504 cohorts with 24193 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Johannes E A; Berrak, Su; Koontz Webb, Susannah E; Zhang, Ming

    2008-05-01

    Even though past studies have suggested efficacy of nitrosourea drugs in patients with high-grade glioma and temozolomide has recently been shown significantly to be beneficial, no conclusive comparisons between these agents have been published. We performed a survival gain analysis of 364 studies describing 24,193 patients with high-grade glioma treated in 504 cohorts, and compared the effects of drugs. The most frequent diagnoses were glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) (72%) and anaplastic astrocytoma (22%). The mean overall survival (mOS) was 14.1 months. The outcome was influenced by several of the known prognostic factors including the histological grade, if the tumors were newly diagnosed or recurrent, the completeness of resection, patients' age, and gender. This information allowed the calculation of a predicted mOS for each cohort based on their prognostic factors independent of treatment. Survival gain to characterize the influence of treatment was subsequently defined and validated as the difference between the observed and the predicted mOS. In 62 CCNU-treated cohorts and 15 ACNU-treated cohorts the survival gain was 5.3 months and 8.9 months (P < 0.0005), respectively. No detectable survival gain for patients treated with various BCNU-containing regimens was found. Conclusion CCNU- and ACNU-containing regimens were superior to BCNU containing regiments.

  17. Effects of experience and commercialisation on survival in Himalayan mountaineering: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, John L; Koepsell, Thomas D; Littell, Christopher T

    2012-06-13

    To determine whether previous Himalayan experience is associated with a decreased risk of climbing death, and whether mountaineers participating in commercial expeditions differ in their risk of death relative to those participating in traditional climbs. Retrospective cohort study. Expeditions in the Nepalese Himalayan peaks, from 1 January 1970 to the spring climbing season in 2010. 23,995 non-porters venturing above base camp on 39,038 climbs, 23,295 on 8000 m peaks. Death. After controlling for use of standard route, peak, age, season, sex, summit success, and year of expedition, increased Himalayan experience was not associated with a change in the odds of death (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.05, P = 0.904). Participation in a commercial climb was associated with a 37% lower odds of death relative to a traditional venture, although not significantly (0.63, 0.37 to 1.09, P = 0.100). Choice of peak was clearly associated with altered odds of death (omnibus P<0.001); year of expedition was associated with a significant trend toward reduced odds of death (0.98, 0.96 to 0.99, P = 0.011). No net survival benefit is associated with increased Himalayan experience or participation in a traditional (versus commercial) venture. The incremental decrease in risk associated with calendar year suggests that cumulative, collective knowledge and general innovation are more important than individual experience in improving the odds of survival.

  18. Dietary patterns and colorectal cancer recurrence and survival: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Wu, Hao; Wang, Peizhong Peter; Savas, Sevtap; Woodrow, Jennifer; Wish, Tyler; Jin, Rong; Green, Roger; Woods, Michael; Roebothan, Barbara; Buehler, Sharon; Dicks, Elizabeth; McLaughlin, John R; Campbell, Peter T; Parfrey, Patrick S

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Cohort study. A familial CRC registry in Newfoundland. 529 newly diagnosed CRC patients from Newfoundland. They were recruited from 1999 to 2003 and followed up until April 2010. Participants reported their dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified with factor analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were employed to estimate HR and 95% CI for association of dietary patterns with CRC recurrence and death from all causes, after controlling for covariates. Disease-free survival (DFS) among CRC patients was significantly worsened among patients with a high processed meat dietary pattern (the highest vs the lowest quartile HR 1.82, 95% CI 1.07 to 3.09). No associations were observed with the prudent vegetable or the high-sugar patterns and DFS. The association between the processed meat pattern and DFS was restricted to patients diagnosed with colon cancer (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.40) whereas the relationship between overall survival (OS) and this pattern was observed among patients with colon cancer only (the highest vs the lowest quartile: HR 2.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.43). Potential effect modification was noted for sex (p value for interaction 0.04, HR 3.85 for women and 1.22 for men). The processed meat dietary pattern prior to diagnosis is associated with higher risk of tumour recurrence, metastasis and death among patients with CRC.

  19. Survival and its predictors from age 75 to 85 in men and women belonging to cohorts with marked survival differences to age 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkinen, E; Kauppinen, M; Schroll, M

    2016-01-01

    focusing on different domains of health, functional capacity, and physical and social activities. RESULTS: The proportion of survivors to age 75 was markedly smaller among the Finnish men and women than Danish or Swedish subjects. In the local population no marked differences in survival from age 75 to 85...... among three local Nordic populations using survival data on national cohorts as background information. METHODS: The data were derived from national registers and from samples of 75-year old living in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. The subjects were invited to take part in interviews and examinations...... were observed between the groups of men, while women survived longer than men and longer in Göteborg than in Glostrup or Jyväskylä. Univariate models revealed 12 predictors of survival. In the multivariate models, the significant predictors among men related to physical fitness, whereas among women...

  20. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in 10 European regions : the MOSAIC birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draper, E. S.; Zeitlin, J.; Fenton, A. C.; Weber, T.; Gerrits, J.; Martens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Breart, G.

    Objective: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. Design: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for 10 geographically defined European regions during 2003, followed to discharge home from hospital. Participants:

  1. Effects of experience and commercialisation on survival in Himalayan mountaineering: retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepsell, Thomas D; Littell, Christopher T

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether previous Himalayan experience is associated with a decreased risk of climbing death, and whether mountaineers participating in commercial expeditions differ in their risk of death relative to those participating in traditional climbs. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Expeditions in the Nepalese Himalayan peaks, from 1 January 1970 to the spring climbing season in 2010. Participants 23 995 non-porters venturing above base camp on 39 038 climbs, 23 295 on 8000 m peaks. Outcome Death. Results After controlling for use of standard route, peak, age, season, sex, summit success, and year of expedition, increased Himalayan experience was not associated with a change in the odds of death (odds ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.05, P=0.904). Participation in a commercial climb was associated with a 37% lower odds of death relative to a traditional venture, although not significantly (0.63, 0.37 to 1.09, P=0.100). Choice of peak was clearly associated with altered odds of death (omnibus P<0.001); year of expedition was associated with a significant trend toward reduced odds of death (0.98, 0.96 to 0.99, P=0.011). Conclusions No net survival benefit is associated with increased Himalayan experience or participation in a traditional (versus commercial) venture. The incremental decrease in risk associated with calendar year suggests that cumulative, collective knowledge and general innovation are more important than individual experience in improving the odds of survival. PMID:22695902

  2. Stalking the ultimate particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you missed the ARTE programme entitled "L'Ultime Particule" broadcast in February, you have another chance to catch it in CERN's Main Auditorium on 13 March. "L'Ultime Particule" is a documentary by the French director Michel Andrieu that seeks to explain particle physics through a contemplative quest for the research physicists of matter of today and yesteryear. Invariably kitted out in a red parka and a soft hat, the programme's investigator scours the planet and the archives in search of the research physicists who are stalking the ultimate particle, the Higgs boson, in their quest to understand the structure of matter. Naturally enough, CERN is an important stage of his journey where Michel Andrieu and his team spent several days last year. Both from the physics and metaphysical points of view, "L'Ultime Particule" is worth seeing. The film's director, Michel Andrieu, will introduce his documentary and answer questions from the audience after the documentary has been shown. L'Ultime Particule by Mic...

  3. Myocardial infarction incidence and survival by ethnic group: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narinder; Fischbacher, Colin M; Bhopal, Raj S; Brown, Helen; Steiner, Markus Fc; Capewell, Simon

    2013-09-13

    Inequalities in coronary heart disease mortality by country of birth are large and poorly understood. However, these data misclassify UK-born minority ethnic groups and provide little detail on whether excess risk is due to increased incidence, poorer survival or both. Retrospective cohort study. General resident population of Scotland. All those residing in Scotland during the 2001 Census were eligible for inclusion: 2 972 120 people were included in the analysis. The number still residing in Scotland at the end of the study in 2008 is not known. As specified in the analysis plan, the primary outcome measures were first occurrence of admission or death due to myocardial infarction and time to event. There were no secondary outcome measures. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence risk ratios (95% CIs) relative to white Scottish populations (100) were highest among Pakistani men (164.1 (142.2 to 189.2)) and women (153.7 (120.5, 196.1)) and lowest for men and women of Chinese (39.5 (27.1 to 57.6) and 59.1 (38.6 to 90.7)), other white British (77 (74.2 to 79.8) and 72.2 (69.0 to 75.5)) and other white (83.1 (75.9 to 91.0) and 79.9 (71.5 to 89.3)) ethnic groups. Adjustment for educational qualification did not eliminate these differences. Cardiac intervention uptake was similar across most ethnic groups. Compared to white Scottish, 28-day survival did not differ by ethnicity, except in Pakistanis where it was better, particularly in women (0.44 (0.25 to 0.78)), a difference not removed by adjustment for education, travel time to hospital or cardiac intervention uptake. Pakistanis have the highest incidence of AMI in Scotland, a country renowned for internationally high cardiovascular disease rates. In contrast, survival is similar or better in minority ethnic groups. Clinical care and policy should focus on reducing incidence among Pakistanis through more aggressive prevention.

  4. The ultimate quotable Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein's Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein's life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson's authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice.

  5. Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Francesca; Tramacere, Irene; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; DiMeco, Francesco; Fariselli, Laura; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Pollo, Bianca; Salmaggi, Andrea; Silvani, Antonio; Farinotti, Mariangela; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-01-01

    Background Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010. Methods Survival data were obtained from 764 patients (aged>16 years) with histologically confirmed primary GBM who were diagnosed and treated over a 7-year period (2004–2010) with follow-up to April 2012 (cohort II). Equivalent data from 490 GBM patients diagnosed and treated over the preceding 7 years (1997–2003) with follow-up to April 2005 (cohort I) were available for comparison. Progression-free survival (PFS) was available from 361 and 219 patients actively followed up at INCB in cohorts II and I, respectively. Results Survival probabilities were 54% at 1 year, 21% at 2 years, and 11% at 3 years, respectively, in cohort II compared with 47%, 11%, and 5%, respectively, in cohort I. PFS was 22% and 12% at 1 year in cohorts II and I. Better survival and PFS in cohort II was significantly associated with introduction of the Stupp protocol into clinical practice, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.78 for survival and 0.73 for PFS, or a 22% relative decrease in the risk of death and a 27% relative decrease in the risk of recurrence. After recurrence, reoperation was performed in one-fifth of cohort I and in one-third of cohort II but was not effective (HR, 1.05 in cohort I and 1.02 in cohort II). Second-line chemotherapy, mainly consisting of nitrosourea-based chemotherapy, temozolomide, mitoxantrone, fotemustine, and bevacizumab, improved survival in both cohorts (HR, 0.57 in cohort I and 0.74 in cohort II). Radiosurgery was also effective (HR, 0.52 in cohort II). Conclusions We found a significant increase in overall survival, PFS, and survival after

  6. Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Francesca; Tramacere, Irene; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Bruzzone, Maria Grazia; Dimeco, Francesco; Fariselli, Laura; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Pollo, Bianca; Salmaggi, Andrea; Silvani, Antonio; Farinotti, Mariangela; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-05-01

    Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010. Survival data were obtained from 764 patients (aged>16 years) with histologically confirmed primary GBM who were diagnosed and treated over a 7-year period (2004-2010) with follow-up to April 2012 (cohort II). Equivalent data from 490 GBM patients diagnosed and treated over the preceding 7 years (1997-2003) with follow-up to April 2005 (cohort I) were available for comparison. Progression-free survival (PFS) was available from 361 and 219 patients actively followed up at INCB in cohorts II and I, respectively. Survival probabilities were 54% at 1 year, 21% at 2 years, and 11% at 3 years, respectively, in cohort II compared with 47%, 11%, and 5%, respectively, in cohort I. PFS was 22% and 12% at 1 year in cohorts II and I. Better survival and PFS in cohort II was significantly associated with introduction of the Stupp protocol into clinical practice, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.78 for survival and 0.73 for PFS, or a 22% relative decrease in the risk of death and a 27% relative decrease in the risk of recurrence. After recurrence, reoperation was performed in one-fifth of cohort I and in one-third of cohort II but was not effective (HR, 1.05 in cohort I and 1.02 in cohort II). Second-line chemotherapy, mainly consisting of nitrosourea-based chemotherapy, temozolomide, mitoxantrone, fotemustine, and bevacizumab, improved survival in both cohorts (HR, 0.57 in cohort I and 0.74 in cohort II). Radiosurgery was also effective (HR, 0.52 in cohort II). We found a significant increase in overall survival, PFS, and survival after recurrence after 2004, likely due to

  7. The effect of comorbidity on the use of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival from colon cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purdie Gordon

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbidity has a well documented detrimental effect on cancer survival. However it is difficult to disentangle the direct effects of comorbidity on survival from indirect effects via the influence of comorbidity on treatment choice. This study aimed to assess the impact of comorbidity on colon cancer patient survival, the effect of comorbidity on treatment choices for these patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Methods This retrospective cohort study reviewed 589 New Zealanders diagnosed with colon cancer in 1996–2003, followed until the end of 2005. Clinical and outcome data were obtained from clinical records and the national mortality database. Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of comorbidity on cancer specific and all-cause survival, the effect of comorbidity on chemotherapy recommendations for stage III patients, and the impact of this on survival among those with comorbidity. Results After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, area deprivation, smoking, stage, grade and site of disease, higher Charlson comorbidity score was associated with poorer all-cause survival (HR = 2.63 95%CI:1.82–3.81 for Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0. Comorbidity count and several individual conditions were significantly related to poorer all-cause survival. A similar, but less marked effect was seen for cancer specific survival. Among patients with stage III colon cancer, those with a Charlson score ≥ 3 compared with 0 were less likely to be offered chemotherapy (19% compared with 84% despite such therapy being associated with around a 60% reduction in excess mortality for both all-cause and cancer specific survival in these patients. Conclusion Comorbidity impacts on colon cancer survival thorough both physiological burden of disease and its impact on treatment choices. Some patients with comorbidity may forego chemotherapy unnecessarily

  8. The difference in blood pressure readings between arms and survival: primary care cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher E; Taylor, Rod S; Shore, Angela C; Campbell, John L

    2012-03-20

    To determine whether a difference in systolic blood pressure readings between arms can predict a reduced event free survival after 10 years. Cohort study. Rural general practice in Devon, United Kingdom. 230 people receiving treatment for hypertension in primary care. Bilateral blood pressure measurements recorded at three successive surgery attendances. Cardiovascular events and deaths from all causes during a median follow-up of 9.8 years. At recruitment 24% (55/230) of participants had a mean interarm difference in systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more and 9% (21/230) of 15 mm Hg or more; these differences were associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 2.0 to 6.5 and 3.1, 1.6 to 6.0, respectively). The risk of death was also increased in 183 participants without pre-existing cardiovascular disease with an interarm difference in systolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more or 15 mm Hg or more (2.6, 1.4 to 4.8 and 2.7, 1.3 to 5.4). An interarm difference in diastolic blood pressure of 10 mm Hg or more was weakly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events or death. Differences in systolic blood pressure between arms can predict an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all cause mortality over 10 years in people with hypertension. This difference could be a valuable indicator of increased cardiovascular risk. Bilateral blood pressure measurements should become a routine part of cardiovascular assessment in primary care.

  9. Trends in incidence and in short term survival following a subarachnoid haemorrhage in Scotland, 1986 - 2005: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Walters Matthew; Briggs Andrew; Redpath Adam; Chalmers Jim WT; Gillies Michelle; Jhund Pardeep S; Lewsey James D; Macpherson Karen J; Langhorne Peter; Capewell Simon; McMurray John JV; MacIntyre Kate

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background To examine age and sex specific incidence and 30 day case fatality for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Scotland over a 20 year period. Methods A retrospective cohort study using routine hospital discharge data linked to death records. Results Between 1986 and 2005, 12,056 individuals experienced an incident SAH. Of these 10,113 (84%) survived to reach hospital. Overall age-standardised incidence rates were greater in women than men and remained relatively stable over the...

  10. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate survival in patients with colorectal cancer: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study.\\ud \\ud Setting: General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry.\\ud \\ud Participants: 44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer ...

  11. Survival of civilian and prisoner drug-sensitive, multi- and extensive drug- resistant tuberculosis cohorts prospectively followed in Russia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanina Balabanova

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: A long-term observational study was conducted in Samara, Russia to assess the survival and risk factors for death of a cohort of non-multidrug resistant tuberculosis (non-MDRTB and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB civilian and prison patients and a civilian extensive drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDRTB cohort. RESULTS: MDRTB and XDRTB rates of 54.8% and 11.1% were identified in the region. Half (50% of MDRTB patients and the majority of non-MDRTB patients (71% were still alive at 5 years. Over half (58% of the patients died within two years of establishing a diagnosis of XDRTB. In the multivariate analysis, retreatment (HR = 1.61, 95%CI 1.04, 2.49 and MDRTB (HR = 1.67, 95%CI 1.17, 2.39 were significantly associated with death within the non-MDR/MDRTB cohort. The effect of age on survival was relatively small (HR = 1.01, 95%CI 1.00, 1.02. No specific factor affected survival of XDRTB patients although median survival time for HIV-infected versus HIV-negative patients from this group was shorter (185 versus 496 days. The majority of MDRTB and XDRTB strains (84% and 92% respectively strains belonged to the Beijing family. Mutations in the rpoB (codon 531 in 81/92; 88.8%, katG (mutation S315T in 91/92, 98.9% and inhA genes accounted for most rifampin and isoniazid resistance respectively, mutations in the QRDR region of gyrA for most fluroquinolone resistance (68/92; 73.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Alarmingly high rates of XDRTB exist. Previous TB treatment cycles and MDR were significant risk factors for mortality. XDRTB patients' survival is short especially for HIV-infected patients. Beijing family strains comprise the majority of drug-resistant strains.

  12. Survival of flexible, braided, bonded stainless steel lingual retainers : a historic cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, D. J. Lie Sam; Ozcan, M.; Verkerke, G. J.; Sandham, John; Dijkstra, P. U.

    The objectives of this study were to retrospectively evaluate the clinical survival rate of flexible, braided, rectangular bonded stainless steel lingual retainers, and to investigate the influence of gender, age of the patient, and operator experience on survival after orthodontic treatment at the

  13. Reproductive factors and epithelial ovarian cancer survival in the EPIC cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Be͉ević, Jelena; Gunter, Marc J.; Fortner, Renee T.; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Dossus, Laure; TjØnneland, Anne; Hansen, Louise; Overvad, Kim; Mesrine, Sylvie; Baglietto, Laura; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Kaaks, Rudolf; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Masala, Giovanna; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Ricceri, Fulvio; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Jareid, Mie; Quirós, J. Ramon; Duell, Eric J.; Sánchez, Maria Jose; Larrañaga, Nerea; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dias, Joana A.; Sonestedt, Emily; Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Travis, Ruth C.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Merritt, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Background:Reproductive factors influence the risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but little is known about their association with survival. We tested whether prediagnostic reproductive factors influenced EOC-specific survival among 1025 invasive EOC cases identified in the European

  14. Health-Related Quality of Life, Cachexia and Overall Survival After Major Upper Abdominal Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aahlin, E K; Tranø, G; Johns, N; Horn, A; Søreide, J A; Fearon, K C; Revhaug, A; Lassen, K

    2017-03-01

    Major upper abdominal surgery is often associated with reduced health-related quality of life and reduced survival. Patients with upper abdominal malignancies often suffer from cachexia, represented by preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia (low skeletal muscle mass) and this might affect both health-related quality of life and survival. We aimed to investigate how health-related quality of life is affected by cachexia and how health-related quality of life relates to long-term survival after major upper abdominal surgery. From 2001 to 2006, 447 patients were included in a Norwegian multicenter randomized controlled trial in major upper abdominal surgery. In this study, six years later, these patients were analyzed as a single prospective cohort and survival data were retrieved from the National Population Registry. Cachexia was derived from patient-reported preoperative weight loss and sarcopenia as assessed from computed tomography images taken within three months preoperatively. In the original trial, self-reported health-related quality of life was assessed preoperatively at trial enrollment and eight weeks postoperatively with the health-related quality of life questionnaire Short Form 36. A majority of the patients experienced improved mental health-related quality of life and, to a lesser extent, deteriorated physical health-related quality of life following surgery. There was a significant association between preoperative weight loss and reduced physical health-related quality of life. No association between sarcopenia and health-related quality of life was observed. Overall survival was significantly associated with physical health-related quality of life both pre- and postoperatively, and with postoperative mental health-related quality of life. The association between health-related quality of life and survival was particularly strong for postoperative physical health-related quality of life. Postoperative physical health-related quality of life

  15. The Ultimate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterp......One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However......, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming...... living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound...

  16. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS......: All deliveries from 22+0 to 31+6 weeks gestation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All outcomes of pregnancy by gestational age group, including termination of pregnancy for congenital anomalies and other reasons, ante-partum stillbirth, intra-partum stillbirth, labour ward death, death after admission...

  17. Marital status and survival in patients with rectal cancer: A population-based STROBE cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhuyue; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Xuemei; Wen, Jin

    2018-05-01

    To examine the impact of marital status on overall survival (OS) and rectal cancer-specific survival (RCSS) for aged patients.We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to identify aged patients (>65 years) with early stage rectal cancer (RC) (T1-T4, N0, M0) in the United States from 2004 to 2010. Propensity score matching was conducted to avoid potential confounding factors with ratio at 1:1. We used Kaplan-Meier to compare OS and RCSS between the married patients and the unmarried, respectively. We used cox proportion hazard regressions to obtain hazard rates for OS, and proportional subdistribution hazard model was performed to calculate hazard rates for RCSS.Totally, 5196 patients were included. The married (2598 [50%]) aged patients had better crude 5-year overall survival rate (64.2% vs 57.3%, P vs 75.9%, P unmarried (2598 (50%)), respectively. In multivariate analyses, married patients had significantly lower overall death than unmarried patients (HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.71-0.83, P married patients had no cancer-specific survival benefit versus the unmarried aged patients (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.81-1.04, P = .17).Among old population, married patients with early stage RC had better OS than the unmarried, while current evidence showed that marital status might have no protective effect on cancer-specific survival.

  18. Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid predicts survival in a North American cohort of primary biliary cirrhosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Craig; Juran, Brian D; Schlicht, Erik; Chan, Landon L; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; de Andrade, Mariza; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N

    2014-10-01

    Biochemical response to ursodeoxycholic acid among patients with primary biliary cirrhosis remains variable, and there is no agreement of an ideal model. Novel assessment of response coupled to histologic progression was recently defined by the Toronto criteria. We retrospectively assessed transplant-free survival and clinical outcomes associated with ursodeoxycholic acid response to evaluate the Toronto criteria using a large North American cohort of PBC patients. Three hundred and ninety-eight PBC patients from the Mayo Clinic PBC Genetic Epidemiology Registry were assessed for ursodeoxycholic acid treatment and biochemical response per the Toronto criteria. Responders were defined by reduction in alkaline phosphatase to less than or equal to 1.67 times the upper normal limit by 2 years of treatment, whereas non-responders had alkaline phosphatase values greater than 1.67 times the upper normal limit. Probability of survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Three hundred and two (76 %) patients were responders and 96 (24 %) were non-responders. Significantly more non-responders developed adverse events related to chronic liver disease compared to responders (hazard ratio (HR) 2.77, P = 0.001). Biochemical responders and early-stage disease at treatment start was associated with improved overall transplant-free survival compared to non-responders (HR 1.9) and patients with late-stage disease (HR 2.7) after age and sex adjustment. The Toronto criteria are capable of identifying ursodeoxycholic acid-treated primary biliary cirrhosis patients at risk of poor transplant-free survival and adverse clinical outcomes. Our data reveal that despite advanced disease at diagnosis, biochemical response per the Toronto criteria associates with improved overall transplant-free survival.

  19. Survival of a cohort of women with cervical cancer diagnosed in a Brazilian cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Calazan do Carmo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess overall survival of women with cervical cancer and describe prognostic factors associated. METHODS: A total of 3,341 cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed at the Brazilian Cancer Institute, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1999 and 2004 were selected. Clinical and pathological characteristics and follow-up data were collected. There were performed a survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and a multivariate analysis through Cox model. RESULTS: Of all cases analyzed, 68.3% had locally advanced disease at the time of diagnosis. The 5-year overall survival was 48%. After multivariate analysis, tumor staging at diagnosis was the single variable significantly associated with prognosis (p<0.001. There was seen a dose-response relationship between mortality and clinical staging, ranging from 27.8 to 749.6 per 1,000 cases-year in women stage I and IV, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that early detection through prevention programs is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival.

  20. Determinants of malignant pleural mesothelioma survival and burden of disease in France: a national cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouaid, Christos; Assié, Jean Baptiste; Andujar, Pascal; Blein, Cecile; Tournier, Charlène; Vainchtock, Alexandre; Scherpereel, Arnaud; Monnet, Isabelle; Pairon, Jean Claude

    2018-04-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the healthcare burden of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) in France and to analyze its associations with socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and management outcomes. A national hospital database was used to extract incident MPM patients in years 2011 and 2012. Cox models were used to analyze 1- and 2-year survival according to sex, age, co-morbidities, management, population-density index, and social deprivation index. The analysis included 1,890 patients (76% men; age: 73.6 ± 10.0 years; 84% with significant co-morbidities; 57% living in urban zones; 53% in highly underprivileged areas). Only 1% underwent curative surgical procedure; 65% received at least one chemotherapy cycle, 72% of them with at least one pemetrexed and/or bevacizumab administration. One- and 2-year survival rates were 64% and 48%, respectively. Median survival was 14.9 (95% CI: 13.7-15.7) months. The mean cost per patient was 27,624 ± 17,263 euros (31% representing pemetrexed and bevacizumab costs). Multivariate analyses retained men, age >70 years, chronic renal failure, chronic respiratory failure, and never receiving pemetrexed as factors of poor prognosis. After adjusting the analysis to age, sex, and co-morbidities, living in rural/semi-rural area was associated with better 2-year survival (HR: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.73-0.94]; P < 0.01); social deprivation index was not significantly associated with survival. With approximately 1,000 new cases per year in France, MPMs represents a significant national health care burden. Co-morbidities, sex, age, and living place appear to be significant factors of prognosis. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Lung protective mechanical ventilation and two year survival in patients with acute lung injury: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Dale M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Dinglas, Victor D; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Desai, Sanjay V; Shanholtz, Carl; Brower, Roy G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-05

    To evaluate the association of volume limited and pressure limited (lung protective) mechanical ventilation with two year survival in patients with acute lung injury. Prospective cohort study. 13 intensive care units at four hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 485 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Two year survival after onset of acute lung injury. 485 patients contributed data for 6240 eligible ventilator settings, as measured twice daily (median of eight eligible ventilator settings per patient; 41% of which adhered to lung protective ventilation). Of these patients, 311 (64%) died within two years. After adjusting for the total duration of ventilation and other relevant covariates, each additional ventilator setting adherent to lung protective ventilation was associated with a 3% decrease in the risk of mortality over two years (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99, P=0.002). Compared with no adherence, the estimated absolute risk reduction in two year mortality for a prototypical patient with 50% adherence to lung protective ventilation was 4.0% (0.8% to 7.2%, P=0.012) and with 100% adherence was 7.8% (1.6% to 14.0%, P=0.011). Lung protective mechanical ventilation was associated with a substantial long term survival benefit for patients with acute lung injury. Greater use of lung protective ventilation in routine clinical practice could reduce long term mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00300248.

  2. Survival of palatal miniscrews used for orthodontic appliance anchorage: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagkiolidou, Angeliki; Ludwig, Björn; Pazera, Pawel; Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overall success of miniscrews inserted in the paramedian palatal region for support of various appliances during orthodontic treatment. The patients received 1 or 2 miniscrews in the paramedian anterior palate of 8.0-mm length and 1.6-mm diameter placed during orthodontic treatment by the same experienced orthodontist. In total, 196 patients (121 girls, 75 boys; median age, 11.7; interquartile range, 3.7) who received 384 miniscrews were evaluated. Two hundred four miniscrews were used with rapid palatal expansion appliances, 136 with appliances for distalization of posterior teeth, and 44 with other appliances, such as transpalatal arches for tooth stabilization. The overall survival of the miniscrews was excellent (97.9%) in the cases examined. Cox regression analysis showed no difference in the overall survival rates of miniscrews loaded with different appliances for sex (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.27; P = 0.73) after adjusting for appliance and age. This study shows that miniscrews placed in the paramedian anterior palate for supporting various orthodontic appliances have excellent survival. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex Differences in Stroke Survival: 10-Year Follow-up of the Copenhagen Stroke Study Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using the Scandi......BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using......-up period. Predictors of death were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Of 999 patients, 559 (56%) were women and 440 (44%) were men. Women were older (77.0 v 70.9 years; P ... factors showed no difference between sexes for ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke. Men more often were smokers and alcohol consumers. Unadjusted survival in men and women did not differ: 70.3% versus 66.7% (1-year), 40.0% versus 38.9% (5-year...

  4. Sex differences in stroke survival: 10-year follow-up of the Copenhagen stroke study cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Nonboe; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using the Scandi......BACKGROUND: Although diverging, most studies show that sex has no significant influence on stroke survival. METHODS: In a Copenhagen, Denmark, community all patients with stroke during March 1992 to November 1993 were registered on hospital admission. Stroke severity was measured using......-up period. Predictors of death were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Of 999 patients, 559 (56%) were women and 440 (44%) were men. Women were older (77.0 v 70.9 years; P ... factors showed no difference between sexes for ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke. Men more often were smokers and alcohol consumers. Unadjusted survival in men and women did not differ: 70.3% versus 66.7% (1-year), 40.0% versus 38.9% (5-year...

  5. Pulmonic stenosis in dogs: survival and risk factors in a retrospective cohort of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, C; Spalla, I; Domenech, O; Sala, E; Brambilla, P G; Bussadori, C

    2013-09-01

    To assess survival and risk factors in dogs with pulmonic stenosis. A retrospective review of medical case records of all cases of pulmonic stenosis >50 mmHg, undergoing pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty or not. Survival curves and multivariate analysis were calculated in the overall population and in subgroups. One hundred and seventy-two cases were included. Factors negatively affecting survival were clinical signs [hazard ratio (HR) 3 · 44, P Dogs with severe pulmonic stenosis undergoing pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty (HR 0 · 47, P = 0 · 047) and asymptomatic dogs with moderate pulmonic stenosis (HR 0 · 10, P = 0 · 042) had a better outcome. Younger age at diagnosis was correlated with poorer outcome in right-sided congestive heart failure dogs (HR 14 · 02, P = 0 · 01). Clinical signs, valve morphology type B and age at diagnosis are risk factors in pulmonic stenosis patients. Pulmonary balloon valvuloplasty is a reasonable treatment choice in dogs with severe pulmonic stenosis. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. The relationship between nutritional status, inflammatory markers and survival in patients with advanced cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cindy S Y; Read, Jane A; Phan, Viet H; Beale, Philip J; Peat, Jennifer K; Clarke, Stephen J

    2015-02-01

    Malnutrition and elevated inflammatory markers have a negative impact on clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Few studies have investigated the associations between inflammatory makers, nutritional status and survival. This study investigates the association between nutritional status, inflammatory markers and overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced cancer. This prospective cohort study recruited 114 adult patients from January 2007 to January 2010. It included patients diagnosed with advanced cancer, good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-2, a prognosis of more than 3 months and had not received chemotherapy for advanced cancer prior to enrollment. Baseline data were collected prior to commencement of chemotherapy. Patients were followed up from the date of baseline nutritional assessment until the date of death or the date that data were last updated, whichever came first. Malnourished cancer patients had statistically significant higher concentrations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) prior to starting chemotherapy. In univariate analyses to predict survival, mGPS 1 or 2 had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.81 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.13-2.89) and NLR ≥ 5 had a HR of 1.13 (95 % CI 1.08-4.60) and malnutrition (HR of 1.66 for Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) B (95 % CI 1.02-2.71), and HR for severely malnourished patients (PG-SGA C) was 2.73 (95 % CI 1.50-4.96). Inflammatory markers were statistically associated with malnutrition. Malnutrition and mGPS were significant independent predictors of overall survival in patients with advanced cancer.

  7. Poor survival in rheumatoid arthritis associated with bronchiectasis: a family-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Puéchal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diffuse bronchiectasis (DB may occur in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutations predispose RA patients to DB, but the prognosis of RA-associated DB (RA-DB is unclear. METHODS: We report long-term mortality data from a nationwide family-based association study of patients with RA only, DB only or RA-DB. We assessed mortality as a function of clinical characteristics and CF/CFTR-RD (CFTR-related disorders mutations in 137 subjects from 24 kindreds. Potential risk factors were investigated by Cox proportional-hazard analysis with shared Gaussian random effects to account for within-family correlations. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11 years after inclusion, 18 patients died, mostly from cardiorespiratory causes. Survival was significantly lower for RA-DB patients than for unaffected relatives and for patients with RA or DB only. RA patients with DB had also a poorer prognosis in terms of survival after RA diagnosis (HR, 8.6; 95% CI, 1.5-48.2; P = 0.014 and from birth (HR, 9.6; 95% CI, 1.1-81.7; P = 0.039. Early onset of DB (HR, 15.4; 95% CI, 2.1-113.2; P = 0.007 and CF/CFTR-RD mutation (HR, 7.2; 95% CI, 1.4-37.1; P = 0.018 were associated with poorer survival in patients with RA-DB. Thus, CF/CFTR-RD mutations in RA patients with early-onset DB defined a subgroup of high-risk patients with higher mortality rates (log-rank test P = 1.28×10(-5. CONCLUSION: DB is associated with poorer survival in patients with RA. Early-onset DB and CFTR mutations are two markers that identify RA patients at a high risk of death, for whom future therapeutic interventions should be designed and evaluated.

  8. Investigating the variations in survival rates for very preterm infants in ten European regions: the MOSAIC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draper, Elizabeth S; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Fenton, Alan C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the variation in the survival rate and the mortality rates for very preterm infants across Europe. DESIGN: A prospective birth cohort of very preterm infants for ten geographically defined European regions during 2003 followed to discharge home from hospital. PARTICIPANTS...... to directly compare international statistics for mortality in very preterm infants, data collection needs to be standardised. We believe that the standard point of comparison should be using all those infants alive at the onset of labour as the denominator for comparisons of mortality rates for very preterm...... for NIC. For babies rates to discharge from NIC for very preterm deliveries and in the timing of death across the MOSAIC regions. In order...

  9. Body Composition and Survival in Dialysis Patients: Results from an International Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usvyat, Len A.; Kotanko, Peter; Bayh, Inga; Canaud, Bernard; Etter, Michael; Gatti, Emanuele; Grassmann, Aileen; Wang, Yuedong; Marelli, Cristina; Scatizzi, Laura; Stopper, Andrea; van der Sande, Frank M.; Kooman, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives High body mass index appears protective in hemodialysis patients, but uncertainty prevails regarding which components of body composition, fat or lean body mass, are primarily associated with survival. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data between April 2006 and December 2012 were extracted from the Fresenius Medical Care Europe subset of the international MONitoring Dialysis Outcomes initiative. Fresenius Medical Care Europe archives a unique repository of predialysis body composition measurements determined by multifrequency bioimpedance (BCM Body Composition Monitor). The BCM Body Composition Monitor reports lean tissue indices (LTIs) and fat tissue indices (FTIs), which are the respective tissue masses normalized to height squared, relative to an age- and sex-matched healthy population. The relationship between LTI and FTI and all-cause mortality was studied by Kaplan–Meier analysis, multivariate Cox regression, and smoothing spline ANOVA logistic regression. Results In 37,345 hemodialysis patients, median (25th–75th percentile) LTI and FTI were 12.2 (10.3–14.5) and 9.8 (6.6–12.4) kg/m2, respectively. Median (25th–75th percentile) follow-up time was 266 (132–379) days; 3458 (9.2%) patients died during follow-up. Mortality was lowest with both LTI and FTI in the 10th–90th percentile (reference group) and significantly higher at the lower LTI and FTI extreme (hazard ratio [HR], 3.37; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.94 to 3.87; P<0.001). Survival was best with LTI between 15 and 20 kg/m2 and FTI between 4 and 15 kg/m2 (probability of death during follow-up: <5%). When taking the relation between both compartments into account, the interaction was significant (P=0.01). Higher FTI appeared protective in patients with low LTI (HR, 3.37; 95% CI, 2.94 to 3.87; P<0.001 at low LTI–low FTI, decreasing to HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.47 to 2.17; P<0.001 at low LTI–high FTI). Conclusions This large international study

  10. Assessment of a five-year survival on hemodialysis in Brazil: a cohort of 3,082 incident patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Paulo Strogoff de Matos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the third largest contingent of patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD worldwide. However, little is known regarding survival rate and predictors of mortality risk in that population, which are the purposes of this study. A total of 3,082 patients incident on HD, from 2000 to 2004, at 25 dialysis facilities distributed among 7 out of 26 states of Brazil were followed-up until 2009. Patients were 52 ± 16 years-old, 57.8% men, and 20.4%, diabetics. The primary outcome was all causes of mortality. Data were censored at five years of follow-up. The global five-year survival rate was 58.2%. In the Cox proportional model, variables associated with risk of death were: age (hazard ratio - HR = 1.44 per decade, p < 0.0001, diabetes (HR = 1.51, p < 0.0001, serum albumin (HR = 0.76 per g/dL, p = 0.001, creatinine (HR = 0.92 per mg/dL, p < 0.0001, and phosphorus (HR = 1.06 per mg/dL, p = 0.04. The present results show that the mortality rate on HD in this Brazilian cohort was relatively low, but the population is younger and with a lower prevalence of diabetes than the ones reported for developed countries.

  11. Differences in survival on chronic dialysis treatment between ethnic groups in Denmark: a population-wide, national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beukel, Tessa O; Hommel, Kristine; Kamper, Anne-Lise; Heaf, James G; Siegert, Carl E H; Honig, Adriaan; Jager, Kitty J; Dekker, Friedo W; Norredam, Marie

    2016-07-01

    In Western countries, black and Asian dialysis patients experience better survival compared with white patients. The aim of this study is to compare the survival of native Danish dialysis patients with that of dialysis patients originating from other countries and to explore the association between the duration of residence in Denmark before the start of dialysis and the mortality on dialysis. We performed a population-wide national cohort study of incident chronic dialysis patients in Denmark (≥18 years old) who started dialysis between 1995 and 2010. In total, 8459 patients were native Danes, 344 originated from other Western countries, 79 from North Africa or West Asia, 173 from South or South-East Asia and 54 from sub-Saharan Africa. Native Danes were more likely to die on dialysis compared with the other groups (crude incidence rates for mortality: 234, 166, 96, 110 and 53 per 1000 person-years, respectively). Native Danes had greater hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality compared with the other groups {HRs for mortality adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical characteristics: 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.54]; 2.22 [95% CI 1.51-3.23]; 1.79 [95% CI 1.41-2.27]; 2.00 [95% CI 1.10-3.57], respectively}. Compared with native Danes, adjusted HRs for mortality for Western immigrants living in Denmark for ≤10 years, >10 to ≤20 years and >20 years were 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.71), 0.56 (95% CI 0.39-0.82) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.70-1.04), respectively. For non-Western immigrants, these HRs were 0.42 (95% CI 0.27-0.67), 0.52 (95% CI 0.33-0.80) and 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.66), respectively. Incident chronic dialysis patients in Denmark originating from countries other than Denmark have a better survival compared with native Danes. For Western immigrants, this survival benefit declines among those who have lived in Denmark longer. For non-Western immigrants, the survival benefit largely remains over time. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  12. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Holtermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. METHODS: In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. CONCLUSION: Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  13. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Suadicani, Poul; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work. In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, a prospective cohort of 7,411 males and 8,916 females aged 25-66 years without known cardiovascular disease at entry in 1976-78, 1981-83, 1991-94, or 2001-03, the authors analyzed with sex-stratified multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression the association between leisure time physical activity and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among individuals with different levels of occupational physical activity. During a median follow-up of 22.4 years, 4,003 individuals died from cardiovascular disease and 8,935 from all-causes. Irrespective of level of occupational physical activity, a consistently lower risk with increasing leisure time physical activity was found for both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among both men and women. Compared to low leisure time physical activity, the survival benefit ranged from 1.5-3.6 years for moderate and 2.6-4.7 years for high leisure time physical activity among the different levels of occupational physical activity. Public campaigns and initiatives for increasing physical activity in the working population should target everybody, irrespective of physical activity at work.

  14. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  15. Breast Cancer Laterality Does Not Influence Survival in a Large Modern Cohort: Implications for Radiation-Related Cardiac Mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutter, Charles E., E-mail: charles.rutter@yale.edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Chagpar, Anees B. [Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Evans, Suzanne B. [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy and Effectiveness Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Objectives: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer has been associated with an elevated risk of cardiac mortality, based on studies predating treatment planning based on computed tomography. This study assessed the impact of tumor laterality on overall survival (OS) in a large cohort treated with modern techniques, to indirectly determine whether left-sided treatment remains associated with increased cardiac mortality. Methods and Materials: Patients treated for breast cancer with breast conserving surgery and adjuvant external beam radiation therapy were identified in the National Cancer Database, and OS was compared based on tumor laterality using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Separate analyses were performed for noninvasive and invasive carcinoma and for breast-only and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy. Multivariate regression analysis of OS was performed with demographic, pathologic, and treatment variables as covariates to adjust for factors associated with breast cancer–specific survival. Results: We identified 344,831 patients whose cancer was diagnosed from 1998 to 2006 with a median follow-up time of 6.04 years (range, 0-14.17 years). Clinical, tumor, and treatment characteristics were similar between laterality groups. Regional nodal radiation was used in 14.2% of invasive cancers. No OS difference was noted based on tumor laterality for patients treated with breast-only (hazard ratio [HR] 0.984, P=.132) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 1.001, P=.957). In multivariate analysis including potential confounders, OS was identical between left and right sided cancers (HR 1.002, P=.874). No significant OS difference by laterality was observed when analyses were restricted to patients with at least 10 years of follow-up (n=27,725), both in patients treated with breast-only (HR 0.955, P=.368) and breast plus regional nodal radiation therapy (HR 0.859, P=.155). Conclusions: Radiation therapy for left-sided breast cancer does

  16. Trends in incidence and in short term survival following a subarachnoid haemorrhage in Scotland, 1986 - 2005: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine age and sex specific incidence and 30 day case fatality for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH in Scotland over a 20 year period. Methods A retrospective cohort study using routine hospital discharge data linked to death records. Results Between 1986 and 2005, 12,056 individuals experienced an incident SAH. Of these 10,113 (84% survived to reach hospital. Overall age-standardised incidence rates were greater in women than men and remained relatively stable over the study period. In 2005, incidence in women was 12.8 (95% CI 11.5 to 14.2 and in men 7.9 (95% CI 6.9 to 9.1. 30 day case fatality in individuals hospitalised with SAH declined substantially, falling from 30.0% in men and 33.9% in women in 1986-1990 to 24.5% in men and 29.1% in women in 2001-2005. For both men and women, the largest reductions were observed in those aged between 40 to 59 years. After adjustment for age, socio-economic status and co-morbidity, the odds of death at 30 days in 2005 compared to odds of death in 1986 was 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76, p Conclusions Incidence rates for SAH remained stable between 1986 and 2005 suggesting that a better understanding of SAH risk factors and their reduction is needed. 30 day case fatality rates have declined substantially, particularly in middle-age. However, they remain high and it is important to ensure that this is not due to under-diagnosis or under-treatment.

  17. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  18. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Redner, S

    2004-01-01

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed

  19. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, F [Department of Physics, Center for BioDynamics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Redner, S [Department of Physics, Center for Polymer Studies, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2004-09-03

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed.

  20. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S M; Larsen, G C; Antoniou, I; Lind, S O; Courtney, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  1. The cumulative burden of surviving childhood cancer: an initial report from the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhakta, Nickhill; Liu, Qi; Ness, Kirsten K; Baassiri, Malek; Eissa, Hesham; Yeo, Frederick; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Bass, Johnnie; Bishop, Michael W; Shelton, Kyla; Lu, Lu; Huang, Sujuan; Li, Zhenghong; Caron, Eric; Lanctot, Jennifer; Howell, Carrie; Folse, Timothy; Joshi, Vijaya; Green, Daniel M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Armstrong, Gregory T; Krull, Kevin R; Brinkman, Tara M; Khan, Raja B; Srivastava, Deo K; Hudson, Melissa M; Yasui, Yutaka; Robison, Leslie L

    2017-12-09

    Survivors of childhood cancer develop early and severe chronic health conditions (CHCs). A quantitative landscape of morbidity of survivors, however, has not been described. We aimed to describe the cumulative burden of curative cancer therapy in a clinically assessed ageing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study (SJLIFE) retrospectively collected data on CHCs in all patients treated for childhood cancer at the St Jude Children's Research Hospital who survived 10 years or longer from initial diagnosis and were 18 years or older as of June 30, 2015. Age-matched and sex-frequency-matched community controls were used for comparison. 21 treatment exposure variables were included in the analysis, with data abstracted from medical records. 168 CHCs for all participants were graded for severity using a modified Common Terminology Criteria of Adverse Events. Multiple imputation with predictive mean matching was used for missing occurrences and grades of CHCs in the survivors who were not clinically evaluable. Mean cumulative count was used for descriptive cumulative burden analysis and marked-point-process regression was used for inferential cumulative burden analysis. Of 5522 patients treated for childhood cancer at St Jude Children's Research Hospital who had complete records, survived 10 years or longer, and were 18 years or older at time of study, 3010 (54·5%) were alive, had enrolled, and had had prospective clinical assessment. 2512 (45·5%) of the 5522 patients were not clinically evaluable. The cumulative incidence of CHCs at age 50 years was 99·9% (95% CI 99·9-99·9) for grade 1-5 CHCs and 96·0% (95% CI 95·3-96·8%) for grade 3-5 CHCs. By age 50 years, a survivor had experienced, on average, 17·1 (95% CI 16·2-18·1) CHCs of any grade, of which 4·7 (4·6-4·9) were CHCs of grade 3-5. The cumulative burden in matched community controls of grade 1-5 CHCs was 9·2 (95% CI 7·9-10·6; pgrade 3-5 CHCs was 2·3 (1

  2. Weight and body mass index in relation to irradiated volume and to overall survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Sandra; Söderström, Karin; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Per; Zackrisson, Björn; Laurell, Göran

    2014-01-01

    Weight loss is a common problem in patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN) treated with radiotherapy (RT). The aims of the present study were to determine if treated volume (TV), as a measure of the radiation dose burden, can predict weight loss in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and to analyze weight loss and body mass index (BMI) in the same patient group in relation to 5-year overall survival. The ARTSCAN trial is a prospective, randomized, multicenter trial in patients with SCCHN. Nutritional data from the ARTSCAN trial were analyzed retrospectively using univariate and multivariate statistical methods based on information on percentage weight loss from the start of RT up to five months after the termination of RT (study cohort 1, n = 232) and information on patients’ BMI at the start of RT (study cohort 2, n = 203). TV was defined as the volume of the patient receiving at least 95% of the prescribed dose. TV 64.6Gy encompasses macroscopic tumor and TV 43.7Gy elective lymph nodes of the neck. TV 64.6Gy and TV 43.7Gy were both significantly correlated with higher weight loss up to five months after the termination of RT in study cohort 1 (p < 0.001 for both). BMI at the start of RT was shown to be a prognostic factor for 5-year overall survival in study cohort 2 but weight loss was not. The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 3.78 (1.46–9.75) and 2.57 (1.43–4.62) in patients with underweight and normal weight, respectively. TV can predict weight loss during RT in patients with oropharyngeal cancer regardless of clinical stage. A high BMI (>25 kg/m 2 ) at the start of RT is positively associated with survival in patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  3. The outcome and survival of palliative surgery in thoraco-lumbar spinal metastases: contemporary retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemelc, R M; Stadhouder, A; van Royen, B J; Jiya, T U

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate outcome and survival and to identify prognostic variables for patients surgically treated for spinal metastases. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 86 patients, surgically treated for spinal metastases. Preoperative analyses of the ASIA and spinal instability neoplastic scores (SINS) were performed. Survival curves of different prognostic variables were made by Kaplan–Meier analysis and the variables entered in a Cox proportional hazards model to determine their significance on survival. The correlation between preoperative radiotherapy and postoperative wound infections was also evaluated. Results: Survival analysis was performed on 81 patients,37 women and 44 men. Five patients were excluded due to missing data. Median overall survival was 38 weeks [95 % confidence interval (CI) 27.5–48.5 weeks], with a 3-month survival rate of 81.5 %. Breast tumor had the best median survival of 127 weeks and lung tumor the worst survival of 18 weeks. Univariate analysis showed tumor type, preoperative ASIA score (p = 0.01) and visceral metastases(p = 0.18) were significant prognostic variables for survival.Colon tumors had 5.53 times hazard ratio compared to patients with breast tumor. ASIA-C score had more than 13.03 times the hazard ratio compared to patients with an ASIA-E score. Retrospective analysis of the SINS scores showed 34 patients with a score of 13–18 points, 44 patients with a score of 7–12 points, and 1 patient with a score of 6 points. Preoperative radiotherapy had no influence on the postoperative incidence of deep surgical wound infections (p = 0.37). Patients with spinal metastases had a median survival of 38 weeks postoperative. The primary tumor type and ASIA score were significant prognostic factors for survival. Preoperative radiotherapy neither had influence on survival nor did it constitute a risk for postoperative surgical wound infections.

  4. Ultimate Explanations of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We humans are collectively driven by a powerful - yet not fully explained - instinct to understand. We would like to see everything established, proven, laid bare. The more important an issue, the more we desire to see it clarified, stripped of all secrets, all shades of gray. What could be more important than to understand the Universe and ourselves as a part of it? To find a window onto our origin and our destiny? This book examines how far our modern cosmological theories - with their sometimes audacious models, such as inflation, cyclic histories, quantum creation, parallel universes - can take us towards answering these questions. Can such theories lead us to ultimate truths, leaving nothing unexplained? Last, but not least, Heller addresses the thorny problem of why and whether we should expect to find theories with all-encompassing explicative power.

  5. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  6. Long-Term Survival after Stroke: 30 Years of Follow-Up in a Cohort, the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, G.; Marott, J.L.; Gronbaek, M.

    2009-01-01

    in the Copenhagen City Heart Study who experienced a first-ever stroke from 1978 to the end of 2001 were followed to the end of 2007. Stroke events were validated using the World Health Organization's definition of stroke. Linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System enabled identification of participants who...... died before the end of 2007. The National Register of Causes of Death provided cause of death. Survival in stroke patients was compared with survival in participants in the Copenhagen City Heart Study who did not suffer a stroke, and with survival in the general Danish population. Cox regression......-stroke controls. Long-term survival improved steadily over time. Life expectancy after stroke increased up to 4 years from 1978 to the end of 2001, exceeding the increase of life expectancy in the general population. Slightly longer survival was found in women than in men when adjusted for age at stroke onset...

  7. High BRAF Mutation Frequency and Marked Survival Differences in Subgroups According to KRAS/BRAF Mutation Status and Tumor Tissue Availability in a Prospective Population-Based Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Dragomir, Anca; Sundström, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    were analyzed in a prospectively collected unselected population-based cohort of 798 non-resectable mCRC patients. The cohort contained many patients with poor performance status (39% PS 2-4) and elderly (37% age>75), groups usually not included in clinical trials. Patients without available tissue...... patients. Median survival in this cohort varied from 1 month in BRAF mutated patients not given chemotherapy to 26 months in wildtype KRAS/BRAF patients availability, BRAF mutation and KRAS mutation were all independent prognostic factors for survival. The observed 21% BRAF......CRC patients. Survival in unselected metastatic colorectal cancer patients is extremely variable and subgroups have an extremely short survival compared to trial patients. Patients without available TMA had worse prognostic factors and shorter survival, which questions the total generalizability of present TMA...

  8. Survival comparison of the Ross procedure and mechanical valve replacement with optimal self-management anticoagulation therapy: propensity-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhles, M Mostafa; Körtke, Heinrich; Stierle, Ulrich; Wagner, Otto; Charitos, Efstratios I; Bogers, Ad J J C; Gummert, Jan; Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Takkenberg, Johanna J M

    2011-01-04

    It is suggested that in young adults the Ross procedure results in better late patient survival compared with mechanical prosthesis implantation. We performed a propensity score-matched study that assessed late survival in young adult patients after a Ross procedure versus that after mechanical aortic valve replacement with optimal self-management anticoagulation therapy. We selected 918 Ross patients and 406 mechanical valve patients 18 to 60 years of age without dissection, aneurysm, or mitral valve replacement who survived an elective procedure (1994 to 2008). With the use of propensity score matching, late survival was compared between the 2 groups. Two hundred fifty-three patients with a mechanical valve (mean follow-up, 6.3 years) could be propensity matched to a Ross patient (mean follow-up, 5.1 years). Mean age of the matched cohort was 47.3 years in the Ross procedure group and 48.0 years in the mechanical valve group (P=0.17); the ratio of male to female patients was 3.2 in the Ross procedure group and 2.7 in the mechanical valve group (P=0.46). Linearized all-cause mortality rate was 0.53% per patient-year in the Ross procedure group compared with 0.30% per patient-year in the mechanical valve group (matched hazard ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 5.91; P=0.32). Late survival was comparable to that of the general German population. In comparable patients, there is no late survival difference in the first postoperative decade between the Ross procedure and mechanical aortic valve implantation with optimal anticoagulation self-management. Survival in these selected young adult patients closely resembles that of the general population, possibly as a result of highly specialized anticoagulation self-management, better timing of surgery, and improved patient selection in recent years.

  9. Gender Differences in Survival among Adult Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: A Multicentre Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Morna; Schomaker, Michael; Garone, Daniela Belen; Giddy, Janet; Hoffmann, Christopher J.; Lessells, Richard; Maskew, Mhairi; Prozesky, Hans; Wood, Robin; Johnson, Leigh F.; Egger, Matthias; Boulle, Andrew; Myer, Landon

    2012-01-01

    Background Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART. Methods and Findings Analyses included 46,201 ART-naïve adults starting ART between January 2002 and December 2009 in eight ART programmes across South Africa (SA). Patients were followed from initiation of ART to outcome or analysis closure. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were loss to follow-up (LTF), virologic suppression, and CD4+ cell count responses. Survival analyses were used to examine the hazard of death on ART by gender. Sensitivity analyses were limited to patients who were virologically suppressed and patients whose CD4+ cell count reached >200 cells/µl. We compared gender differences in mortality among HIV+ patients on ART with mortality in an age-standardised HIV-negative population. Among 46,201 adults (65% female, median age 35 years), during 77,578 person-years of follow-up, men had lower median CD4+ cell counts than women (85 versus 110 cells/µl, p<0.001), were more likely to be classified WHO stage III/IV (86 versus 77%, p<0.001), and had higher mortality in crude (8.5 versus 5.7 deaths/100 person-years, p<0.001) and adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.22–1.41). After 36 months on ART, men were more likely than women to be truly LTF (AHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.28) but not to die after LTF (AHR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86–1.25). Findings were consistent across all eight programmes. Virologic suppression was similar by gender; women had slightly better immunologic responses than men. Notably, the observed gender differences in mortality on ART were smaller than gender differences in age-standardised death rates in the HIV-negative South African population. Over time, non-HIV mortality appeared to account for an increasing proportion of observed mortality. The analysis was limited by missing

  10. Gender differences in survival among adult patients starting antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a multicentre cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morna Cornell

    Full Text Available Increased mortality among men on antiretroviral therapy (ART has been documented but remains poorly understood. We examined the magnitude of and risk factors for gender differences in mortality on ART.Analyses included 46,201 ART-naïve adults starting ART between January 2002 and December 2009 in eight ART programmes across South Africa (SA. Patients were followed from initiation of ART to outcome or analysis closure. The primary outcome was mortality; secondary outcomes were loss to follow-up (LTF, virologic suppression, and CD4+ cell count responses. Survival analyses were used to examine the hazard of death on ART by gender. Sensitivity analyses were limited to patients who were virologically suppressed and patients whose CD4+ cell count reached >200 cells/µl. We compared gender differences in mortality among HIV+ patients on ART with mortality in an age-standardised HIV-negative population. Among 46,201 adults (65% female, median age 35 years, during 77,578 person-years of follow-up, men had lower median CD4+ cell counts than women (85 versus 110 cells/µl, p<0.001, were more likely to be classified WHO stage III/IV (86 versus 77%, p<0.001, and had higher mortality in crude (8.5 versus 5.7 deaths/100 person-years, p<0.001 and adjusted analyses (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.31, 95% CI 1.22-1.41. After 36 months on ART, men were more likely than women to be truly LTF (AHR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28 but not to die after LTF (AHR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25. Findings were consistent across all eight programmes. Virologic suppression was similar by gender; women had slightly better immunologic responses than men. Notably, the observed gender differences in mortality on ART were smaller than gender differences in age-standardised death rates in the HIV-negative South African population. Over time, non-HIV mortality appeared to account for an increasing proportion of observed mortality. The analysis was limited by missing data on baseline HIV disease

  11. Ambulatory Medical Follow-Up in the Year After Surgery and Subsequent Survival in a National Cohort of Veterans Health Administration Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Dai, Feng; Brandt, Cynthia; Burg, Matthew M

    2016-06-01

    Among a national cohort of surgical patients, the authors analyzed the association between medical follow-up during the first postsurgical year and survival during the second postsurgical year. Retrospective cohort study. US Veterans Hospitals. The study included adults who received surgical care in any Veterans Health Administration facility from 2006 to 2011 who were discharged within 10 days of surgery and who survived for at least 1 year postoperatively. None. The association between the receipt of nonsurgical ambulatory medical care during the first postoperative year and the hazard of death during postsurgical year 2 was measured. Among 236,200 veterans, 93.2% received a nonsurgical medical follow-up visit in postsurgical year 1; of those, 5.1% died during postsurgical year 2. This compares with 9.4% year-2 mortality among patients lacking year-1 medical follow-up (p<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, medical follow-up in postoperative year 1 again was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death in postoperative year 2 (hazard ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.78). Sensitivity analyses examining patient subgroups stratified by procedural specialty demonstrated comparable findings. The results were robust under a variety of simulated scenarios of unmeasured confounding. Within a national cohort of US veterans who presented for surgery, those who received nonsurgical ambulatory follow-up during the first postoperative year demonstrated lower all-cause mortality in the subsequent postoperative year than those who did not receive the same type of follow-up care. Interventions focused on postoperative care coordination of outpatient medical follow-up may have the potential to improve long-term postoperative survival. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Ultimate explanations and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Machado, Armando; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2018-07-01

    Researchers have unraveled multiple cases in which behavior deviates from rationality principles. We propose that such deviations are valuable tools to understand the adaptive significance of the underpinning mechanisms. To illustrate, we discuss in detail an experimental protocol in which animals systematically incur substantial foraging losses by preferring a lean but informative option over a rich but non-informative one. To understand how adaptive mechanisms may fail to maximize food intake, we review a model inspired by optimal foraging principles that reconciles sub-optimal choice with the view that current behavioral mechanisms were pruned by the optimizing action of natural selection. To move beyond retrospective speculation, we then review critical tests of the model, regarding both its assumptions and its (sometimes counterintuitive) predictions, all of which have been upheld. The overall contention is that (a) known mechanisms can be used to develop better ultimate accounts and that (b) to understand why mechanisms that generate suboptimal behavior evolved, we need to consider their adaptive value in the animal's characteristic ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-Dose Aspirin Use Does Not Increase Survival in 2 Independent Population-Based Cohorts of Patients With Esophageal or Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Andrew D; Busby, John; Johnston, Brian T; Baron, John A; Hughes, Carmel M; Coleman, Helen G; Cardwell, Chris R

    2018-03-01

    Preclinical studies have shown aspirin to have anticancer properties and epidemiologic studies have associated aspirin use with longer survival times of patients with cancer. We studied 2 large cohorts to determine the association between aspirin use and cancer-specific mortality in patients with esophageal or gastric cancer. We performed a population-based study using cohorts of patients newly diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancer, identified from cancer registries in England from 1998 through 2012 and the Scottish Cancer Registry from 2009 through 2012. Low-dose aspirin prescriptions were identified from linkages to the United Kingdom Clinical Research Practice Datalink in England and the Prescribing Information System in Scotland. Deaths were identified from linkage to national mortality records, with follow-up until September 2015 in England and January 2015 in Scotland. Time-dependent Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific mortality by low-dose aspirin use after adjusting for potential confounders. Meta-analysis was used to pool results across the 2 cohorts. The combined English and Scottish cohorts contained 4654 patients with esophageal cancer and 3833 patients with gastric cancer, including 3240 and 2392 cancer-specific deaths, respectively. The proportions surviving 1 year, based on cancer-specific mortality, were similar in aspirin users vs non-users after diagnosis with esophageal cancer (48% vs 50% in England and 49% vs 46% in Scotland, respectively) or gastric cancer (58% vs 57% in England and 59% vs 55% in Scotland, respectively). There was no association between postdiagnosis use of low-dose aspirin and cancer-specific mortality among patients with esophageal cancer (pooled adjusted HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09) or gastric cancer (pooled adjusted HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.85-1.08). Long-term aspirin use was not associated with cancer-specific mortality after diagnosis of

  14. The outcome and survival of palliative surgery in thoraco-lumbar spinal metastases: contemporary retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemelc, R.M.; Stadhouder, A.; van Royen, B.J.; Jiya, T.U.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate outcome and survival and to identify prognostic variables for patients surgically treated for spinal metastases. Methods A retrospective study was performed on 86 patients, surgically treated for spinal metastases. Preoperative analyses of the ASIA and spinal instability

  15. Post-listing survival for highly sensitised patients on the UK kidney transplant waiting list:A matched cohort analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Manook, Miriam Helen; Koeser, Leonardo Alberto; Ahmed, Zubir; Robb, Matthew; Johnson, Rachel; Shaw, Olivia Jane; Kessaris, Nicos; Dorling, Anthony; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-01-01

    Background: More than 40% of patients awaiting a kidney transplant in the UK are sensitised with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies. Median time to transplantation for such patients is double that of unsensitised patients at about 74 months. Removing antibody to perform an HLA-incompatible (HLAi) living donor transplantation is perceived to be high risk, although patient survival data are limited. We compared survival of patients opting for an HLAi kidney transplant with that of similar...

  16. Association Between Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine Herbal Therapy and Survival Outcomes in Patients With Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer: A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yun; Mao, Jun J; Sun, Lingyun; Yang, Lin; Li, Jie; Hao, Yingxu; Li, Huashan; Hou, Wei; Chu, Yuping; Bai, Yu; Jia, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jinwan; Shen, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Jianbin; Liu, Jianping; Yang, Yufei

    2017-11-01

    Chinese cancer patients often use Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) herbal medicine during or after active cancer treatments. However, little is known about how TCM herbal medicine impacts cancer outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the association between TCM herbal therapy and survival outcomes in patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer. We conducted an eight-center prospective cohort study in China among patients who had undergone radical resection for stage II and III colorectal cancer. All patients received comprehensive conventional treatments according to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, and follow-up visits were conducted over five years. We defined high exposure as a patient's use of TCM individualized herbs for more than one year, ascertained via clinical interviews. The primary outcome was disease-free survival (DFS), with overall survival (OS) as a secondary outcome. Between April 2007 and February 2009, we enrolled 312 patients into the cohort; 166 (53.2%) met the definition of high exposure to TCM herbs. Adjusting for covariates, high exposure to TCM was associated with both better DFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39 to 0.98) and OS (HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.68). In subgroup exploratory analysis, the effects demonstrated that the differences in outcomes were statistically significant in patients who had received chemotherapy. Longer duration of TCM herbal use is associated with improved survival outcomes in stage II and III colorectal cancer patients in China. More research is needed to evaluate the effects and underlying mechanisms of herbal medicine on colorectal cancer outcomes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effect of hydroxychloroquine on the survival of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: data from LUMINA, a multiethnic US cohort (LUMINA L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, Graciela S; McGwin, Gerald; Bertoli, Ana M; Fessler, Barri J; Calvo-Alén, Jaime; Bastian, Holly M; Vilá, Luis M; Reveille, John D

    2007-09-01

    In patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), hydroxychloroquine prevents disease flares and damage accrual and facilitates the response to mycophenolate mofetil in those with renal involvement. A study was undertaken to determine whether hydroxychloroquine also exerts a protective effect on survival. Patients with SLE from the multiethnic LUMINA (LUpus in MInorities: NAture vs nurture) cohort were studied. A case-control study was performed within the context of this cohort in which deceased patients (cases) were matched for disease duration (within 6 months) with alive patients (controls) in a proportion of 3:1. Survival was the outcome of interest. Propensity scores were derived by logistic regression to adjust for confounding by indication as patients with SLE with milder disease manifestations are more likely to be prescribed hydroxychloroquine. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate the risk of death and hydroxychloroquine use with and without the propensity score as the adjustment variable. There were 608 patients, of whom 61 had died (cases). Hydroxychloroquine had a protective effect on survival (OR 0.128 (95% CI 0.054 to 0.301 for hydroxychloroquine alone and OR 0.319 (95% CI 0.118 to 0.864) after adding the propensity score). As expected, the propensity score itself was also protective. Hydroxychloroquine, which overall is well tolerated by patients with SLE, has a protective effect on survival which is evident even after taking into consideration the factors associated with treatment decisions. This information is of importance to all clinicians involved in the care of patients with SLE.

  18. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Garrett Morgan

    Full Text Available ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan.To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival.Preliminary cohort study.We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses.We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001 with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94. Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR ≥ 3.40, while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74. SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07.These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer.

  19. Survival benefit of chemoembolization plus Iodine125 seed implantation in unresectable hepatitis B-related hepatocellular carcinoma with PVTT: a retrospective matched cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Mingsheng; Wang, Haofan; Chen, Junwei; Bai, Mingjun; Wang, Long; Zhu, Kangshun; Jiang, Zaibo; Guan, Shouhai; Li, Zhengran; Qian, Jiesheng; Li, Mingan; Pang, Pengfei; Shan, Hong [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Radiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Ling-nan Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University, Interventional Radiology Institute, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Qu [Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Oncology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    To investigate the survival benefit of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) plus Iodine125 seed implantation (TACE-Iodine125) in hepatitis B-related HCC patients with portal vein tumour thrombus (PVTT) and the underlying prognostic factors. A retrospective matched cohort study was performed on consecutive HCC patients with PVTT from January 2011 to June 2014. Seventy patients (TACE-Iodine125 group) who underwent TACE-Iodine125 were compared with a historical case-matched control group of 140 patients (TACE group) who received TACE alone. The survival of patients and the underlying prognostic factors were analysed. The median survival times of the TACE-Iodine125 and TACE groups were 11.0 and 7.5 months, respectively (p < 0.001). The survival probability at 12, 24, and 36 months was 50 %, 14.5 %, and 14.5 % vs. 25 %, 9 %, and 5 % in the TACE-Iodine125 and TACE groups, respectively (p < 0.001). The PVTT responders had better survival than the PVTT non-responders (p < 0.001). For the PVTT non-responders, there were no differences in the survival curves between the groups (p = 0.353). Multivariate analysis showed that type III PVTT (p < 0.001) and APS (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of poor prognosis. In contrast, the treatment modality of TACE-Iodine125 (p < 0.001) and PVTT response (p = 0.001) were favourable prognostic features. TACE combined with Iodine125 seed implantation may be a good choice for selected HB-HCC patients with PVTT. (orig.)

  20. Predictors of long-term survival among first-ever ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in a Brazilian stroke cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Alessandra C; Fernandes, Tiotrefis G; Santos, Itamar S; Alencar, Airlane P; Bensenor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-05-24

    Few studies have examined both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke to identify prognostic factors associated to long-term stroke survival. We investigated long-term survival and predictors that could adversely influence ischemic and hemorrhagic first-ever stroke prognosis. We prospectively ascertained 665 consecutive first-ever ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke cases from "The Study of Stroke Mortality and Morbidity" (The EMMA Study) in a community hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated cardiovascular risk factors and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, race and educational level). We found a lower survival rate among hemorrhagic cases compared to ischemic stroke cases at the end of 4 years of follow-up (52% vs. 44%, p = 0.04). The risk of death was two times higher among people with ischemic stroke without formal education. Also, we found consistently higher risk of death for diabetics with ischemic stroke (HR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.07-1.97) compared to no diabetics. As expected, age equally influenced on the high risk of poor survival, regardless of stroke subtype. For ischemic stroke, the lack of formal education and diabetes were significant independent predictors of poor long-term survival.

  1. Comparative Effectiveness of Chemotherapy Regimens in Prolonging Survival for Two Large Population-Based Cohorts of Elderly Adults with Breast and Colon Cancer in 1992-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianglin L; Zhang, Yefei; Parikh, Rohan C; Lairson, David R; Cai, Yi

    2015-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of chemotherapy in prolonging survival according to age in breast and colon cancer. Retrospective cohort study with a matched cohort analysis based on the conditional probability of receiving chemotherapy. The 16 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) areas from the SEER-Medicare linked database. Women diagnosed with Stage I to IIIa hormone receptor-negative breast cancer (n = 14,440) and 26,893 men and women with Stage III colon cancer (n = 26,893) aged 65 and older in 1992 to 2009. The main exposure was the receipt of chemotherapy, and the main outcome was mortality. In women with breast cancer aged 65 to 69, the risk of all-cause mortality was statistically significantly lower in those who received chemotherapy than in those who did not in the entire cohort (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57-0.88) and in a propensity-matched cohort (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70-0.96) after adjusting for measured confounders. These patterns were similar in participants aged 70 to 74 and 75 to 79, but in women aged 80 to 84 and 85 to 89, risk of all-cause mortality was no longer significantly lower in those receiving chemotherapy in the entire and matched cohorts, except that, in a small number of women who received doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), risk of mortality was significantly lower for those aged 80 to 84. Chemotherapy appeared to be effective in all ages from 65 through 84 in participants with Stage III colon cancer. For example, in those aged 85 to 89, chemotherapy was significantly associated with lower risk of mortality in the entire cohort (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.67-0.92) and the matched cohort (HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.66-0.95). The effectiveness of chemotherapy decreased with age in participants with breast cancer, in whom chemotherapy appears to be effective until age 79 except for the doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide combination, which was effective in participants aged 80 to 84. In

  2. Modelling survival and mortality risk to 15 years of age for a national cohort of children with serious congenital heart defects diagnosed in infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Knowles

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects (CHDs are a significant cause of death in infancy. Although contemporary management ensures that 80% of affected children reach adulthood, post-infant mortality and factors associated with death during childhood are not well-characterised. Using data from a UK-wide multicentre birth cohort of children with serious CHDs, we observed survival and investigated independent predictors of mortality up to age 15 years.Data were extracted retrospectively from hospital records and death certificates of 3,897 children (57% boys in a prospectively identified cohort, born 1992-1995 with CHDs requiring intervention or resulting in death before age one year. A discrete-time survival model accounted for time-varying predictors; hazards ratios were estimated for mortality. Incomplete data were addressed through multilevel multiple imputation.By age 15 years, 932 children had died; 144 died without any procedure. Survival to one year was 79.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 78.5, 81.1% and to 15 years was 71.7% (63.9, 73.4%, with variation by cardiac diagnosis. Importantly, 20% of cohort deaths occurred after age one year. Models using imputed data (including all children from birth demonstrated higher mortality risk as independently associated with cardiac diagnosis, female sex, preterm birth, having additional cardiac defects or non-cardiac malformations. In models excluding children who had no procedure, additional predictors of higher mortality were younger age at first procedure, lower weight or height, longer cardiopulmonary bypass or circulatory arrest duration, and peri-procedural complications; non-cardiac malformations were no longer significant.We confirm the high mortality risk associated with CHDs in the first year of life and demonstrate an important persisting risk of death throughout childhood. Late mortality may be underestimated by procedure-based audit focusing on shorter-term surgical outcomes. National monitoring

  3. Modelling survival and mortality risk to 15 years of age for a national cohort of children with serious congenital heart defects diagnosed in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel L; Bull, Catherine; Wren, Christopher; Wade, Angela; Goldstein, Harvey; Dezateux, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a significant cause of death in infancy. Although contemporary management ensures that 80% of affected children reach adulthood, post-infant mortality and factors associated with death during childhood are not well-characterised. Using data from a UK-wide multicentre birth cohort of children with serious CHDs, we observed survival and investigated independent predictors of mortality up to age 15 years. Data were extracted retrospectively from hospital records and death certificates of 3,897 children (57% boys) in a prospectively identified cohort, born 1992-1995 with CHDs requiring intervention or resulting in death before age one year. A discrete-time survival model accounted for time-varying predictors; hazards ratios were estimated for mortality. Incomplete data were addressed through multilevel multiple imputation. By age 15 years, 932 children had died; 144 died without any procedure. Survival to one year was 79.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 78.5, 81.1%) and to 15 years was 71.7% (63.9, 73.4%), with variation by cardiac diagnosis. Importantly, 20% of cohort deaths occurred after age one year. Models using imputed data (including all children from birth) demonstrated higher mortality risk as independently associated with cardiac diagnosis, female sex, preterm birth, having additional cardiac defects or non-cardiac malformations. In models excluding children who had no procedure, additional predictors of higher mortality were younger age at first procedure, lower weight or height, longer cardiopulmonary bypass or circulatory arrest duration, and peri-procedural complications; non-cardiac malformations were no longer significant. We confirm the high mortality risk associated with CHDs in the first year of life and demonstrate an important persisting risk of death throughout childhood. Late mortality may be underestimated by procedure-based audit focusing on shorter-term surgical outcomes. National monitoring systems should

  4. Statin use and survival in colorectal cancer: Results from a population-based cohort study and an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Ronan T; Coleman, Helen G; Hughes, Carmel; Murray, Liam J; Cardwell, Chris R

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between statin use and survival in a population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) cohort and perform an updated meta-analysis to quantify the magnitude of any association. A cohort of 8391 patients with newly diagnosed Dukes' A-C CRC (2009-2012) was identified from the Scottish Cancer Registry. This cohort was linked to the Prescribing Information System and the National Records of Scotland Death Records (until January 2015) to identify 1064 colorectal cancer-specific deaths. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cancer-specific mortality by statin use were calculated using time dependent Cox regression models. The systematic review included relevant studies published before January 2016. Meta-analysis techniques were used to derive combined HRs for associations between statin use and cancer-specific and overall mortality. In the Scottish cohort, statin use before diagnosis (HR=0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.94), but not after (HR=0.90, 95% CI 0.77-1.05), was associated with significantly improved cancer-specific mortality. The systematic review identified 15 relevant studies. In the meta-analysis, there was consistent (I 2 =0%,heterogeneity P=0.57) evidence of a reduction in cancer-specific mortality with statin use before diagnosis in 6 studies (n=86,622, pooled HR=0.82, 95% CI 0.79-0.86) but this association was less apparent and more heterogeneous (I 2 =67%,heterogeneity P=0.03) with statin use after diagnosis in 4 studies (n=19,152, pooled HR=0.84, 95% CI 0.68-1.04). In a Scottish CRC cohort and updated meta-analysis there was some evidence that statin use was associated with improved survival. However, these associations were weak in magnitude and, particularly for post-diagnosis use, varied markedly between studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Racial disparities and socioeconomic status in association with survival in a large population-based cohort of elderly patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianglin L; Fang, Shenying; Vernon, Sally W; El-Serag, Hashem; Shih, Y Tina; Davila, Jessica; Rasmus, Monica L

    2007-08-01

    To the authors' knowledge, few studies have addressed racial disparities in the survival of patients with colon cancer by adequately incorporating treatment and socioeconomic factors in addition to patient and tumor characteristics. The authors studied a nationwide and population-based, retrospective cohort of 18,492 men and women who were diagnosed with stage II or III colon cancer at age >or=65 years between 1992 and 1999. This cohort was identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries-Medicare linked databases and included up to 11 years of follow-up. A larger proportion (70%) of African-American patients with colon cancer fell into the poorest quartiles of socioeconomic status compared with Caucasians (21%). Patients who lived in communities with the lowest socioeconomic level had 19% higher all-cause mortality compared with patients who lived in communities with the highest socioeconomic status (hazards ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13-1.26; P colon cancer, African-American patients were 21% more likely to die after controlling for age, sex, comorbidity scores, tumor stage, and grade (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.30). After also adjusting for definitive therapy and socioeconomic status, the HR of mortality was only marginally significantly higher in African Americans compared with Caucasians for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19) and colon cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33). Lower socioeconomic status and lack of definitive treatment were associated strongly with decreased survival in both men and women with colon cancer. Racial disparities in survival were explained substantially by differences in socioeconomic status. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  6. Visiting the cinema, concerts, museums or art exhibitions as determinant of survival: a Swedish fourteen-year cohort follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konlaan, B B; Bygren, L O; Johansson, S E

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the possible influence of attending various kinds of cultural events or visiting cultural institutions as a determinant of survival. A cohort of individuals aged 25-74 years from a random sample were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers in 1982 and 1983. The interviews covered standard-of-living variables. Our independent variables covered visiting cultural institutions and attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and music making. The non-response rate was about 25%. The cohort was followed with respect to survival for 14 years up to 31st December 1996. The background covariates that were used for control purposes were age, sex, cash buffer, educational standard, long-term disease, smoking, and physical exercise. Our setting was the Swedish survey of living conditions among the adult Swedish population aged 25-74 years. About 10,609 individuals were interviewed in 1982 and 1983. The outcome measure was survival until 31st December 1996. In all, 916 men and 600 women died during this period. We found a higher mortality risk for those people who rarely visited the cinema, concerts, museums, or art exhibitions compared with those visiting them most often. The significant relative risks ranging between RR 1.14 (95% CI. 1.01-1.31) of attending art exhibitions, and RR 1.42 (CI. 1.25-1.60) of attending museums, when adjusting for the nine other variables. Visits to the cinema and concerts gave significant RR in between. We could not discern any beneficial effect of attending the theatre, church service or sports event as a spectator or any effect of reading or music making. Our conclusion is that attendance at certain kinds of cultural events may have a beneficial effect on longevity.

  7. Survival benefit associated with metformin use in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer patients with diabetes: A population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chun Chuang

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of metformin use on the survival of inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients with diabetes using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database.In total, 7,620 patients were eligible in this study, among them, 3,578 patients were metformin users and 4,042 were non-users. Propensity score matching was used to reduce possible confounding factors. In total, 4,182 patients (2,091 matched pairs were included in the matched cohort. Cox proportional hazard model with time-dependent covariate were also applied to evaluate the association between metformin use and overall survival (OS.A total of 3,578 patients were metformin users at the time of diagnosis of NSCLC. Cox proportional hazard model with time-dependent covariate revealed that metformin use was associated with a significantly longer OS (HR: 0.85, 95.0% CI: 0.80-0.90. The survival benefit of metformin use was maintained after propensity score matching at a ratio of 1:1 (HR: 0.90, 95.0% CI: 0.84-0.97.Metformin use is associated with longer OS in inoperable NSCLC patients with diabetes, suggesting a potential anti-tumorigenic effect for metformin. Further research is needed to investigate the actual role of metformin in the treatment of NSCLC patients with diabetes.

  8. A cohort study of metformin exposure and survival in patients with stage I-III colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    BENNETT, KATHLEEN

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Background: Preclinical evidence suggests a beneficial effect of metformin in colorectal cancer. This study aimed to investigate associations between metformin exposure and colorectal cancer–specific survival using population-level data. Methods: Adult patients with stage I–III colorectal cancer diagnosed from 2001 to 2006 were identified from the National Cancer Registry Ireland. Use of metformin and other antidiabetic medications was determined from a linked national prescr...

  9. Novel biomarker-based model for the prediction of sorafenib response and overall survival in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwi Young; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Cho, Young Youn; Cho, Eun Ju; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2018-03-20

    Prediction of the outcome of sorafenib therapy using biomarkers is an unmet clinical need in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim was to develop and validate a biomarker-based model for predicting sorafenib response and overall survival (OS). This prospective cohort study included 124 consecutive HCC patients (44 with disease control, 80 with progression) with Child-Pugh class A liver function, who received sorafenib. Potential serum biomarkers (namely, hepatocyte growth factor [HGF], fibroblast growth factor [FGF], vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1, CD117, and angiopoietin-2) were tested. After identifying independent predictors of tumor response, a risk scoring system for predicting OS was developed and 3-fold internal validation was conducted. A risk scoring system was developed with six covariates: etiology, platelet count, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage, protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, HGF, and FGF. When patients were stratified into low-risk (score ≤ 5), intermediate-risk (score 6), and high-risk (score ≥ 7) groups, the model provided good discriminant functions on tumor response (concordance [c]-index, 0.884) and 12-month survival (area under the curve [AUC], 0.825). The median OS was 19.0, 11.2, and 6.1 months in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk group, respectively (P functions on tumor response (c-index, 0.825) and 12-month survival (AUC, 0.803), and good calibration functions (all P > 0.05 between expected and observed values). This new model including serum FGF and HGF showed good performance in predicting the response to sorafenib and survival in patients with advanced HCC.

  10. The ultimate challenge of pregnancy-associated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R.; Tahira, A.

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy associated breast carcinoma requires making judicious use of all diagnostic modalities and the therapeutic options of surgery, irradiation, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy to enhance survival rates. Individualization of treatment for each patient is the key to success. The effects on future fertility, the time interval before next conception, and whether to breast feed or not are all well-documented. A multidisciplinary coordinated team approach to this ultimate challenge of patient care will prove fruitful. (author)

  11. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion: A Binational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K; Wikman, Agneta; Norda, Rut; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Pedersen, Ole B; Holmqvist, Jacob; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf

    2017-02-21

    Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. To study the association between the length of RBC storage and mortality in a large population-based cohort of patients who received transfusions, allowing detection of small yet clinically significant effects. Binational cohort study. All transfusion recipients in Sweden and Denmark. 854 862 adult patients who received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox proportional hazards regression. Regardless of the analytic approach, no association was found between the length of RBC storage and mortality. The difference in 30-day cumulative mortality between patients receiving blood stored for 30 to 42 days and those receiving blood stored for 10 to 19 days was -0.2% (95% CI, -0.5% to 0.1%). Even among patients who received more than 6 units of RBCs stored for 30 days or longer, the hazard ratio of death was 1.00 (CI, 0.96 to 1.05) compared with those who received no such units. Observational study; risk of confounding by indication. Consistent with previous randomized trials, this study found no association between the length of storage of transfused RBCs and patient mortality. Results were homogeneous, with differences in absolute mortality consistently less than 1% among the most extreme exposure categories. These findings suggest that the current practice of storing RBCs for up to 42 days does not need to be changed. The Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Society for Medical Research, Strategic Research Program in Epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet, and Danish

  12. Predictors of Survival among Adult Ethiopian Patients in the National ART Program at Seven University Teaching Hospitals: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekade, Daniel; Weldegebreal, Teklu; Teklu, Alula M; Damen, Melake; Abdella, Saro; Baraki, Nega; Belayhun, Bekele; Berhan, Eyoel; Kebede, Amha; Assefa, Yibeltal

    2017-02-01

    In Ethiopia, the publicly funded antiretroviral treatment (ART) program was started in 2005. Two hundred seventy-five thousand patients were enrolled in the national ART program by 2012. However, there is limited data on mortality and predictors of death among adult patients in the ART program. The study aimed to estimate mortality and risk factors for death among adult, ART-naïve patients, started in the national ART program from January 2009 to July 2013. Multi-site, prospective, observational cohort study of adult, age > 18 years, ART-naïve patients, started in the national ART program at seven university-affiliated hospitals from January 2009 - July 2013. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate survival and determine risk factors for death. A total of 976 patients, 594 females (60.9 %), were enrolled into the study. Median age of the cohort was 33years. The median CD4 count at start of ART was 144 cells/µl (interquartile range (IQR) 78-205), and 34.2% (330/965) had CD4 ART. Cox regression analyses showed that the following measures independently predicted mortality: age >51 years, (Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) 4.01, P=0.003), WHO stages III&IV, (AHR 1.76, p = 0.025), CD4 count, 5 log copies /ml (CHR 1.71, p = 0.037). There is high early on- ART mortality in patients presenting with advanced immunodeficiency. Detecting cases and initiating ART before onset of advanced immunodeficiency might improve survival.

  13. Palliative systemic therapy and overall survival of 1,395 patients with advanced breast cancer - Results from the prospective German TMK cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Thomas; Tesch, Hans; Rauh, Jacqueline; Boller, Emil; Kruggel, Lisa; Jänicke, Martina; Marschner, Norbert

    2017-08-01

    Data on treatment and outcome of advanced breast cancer in routine practice are rare, especially concerning recurrent disease, but important to complement the results from clinical trials and to improve the standard of care. We present data on choice of systemic first-line treatment, number of treatment lines, and survival of patients treated by medical oncologists in Germany. 1395 patients recruited by 124 sites at start of first-line therapy into the ongoing, prospective German clinical cohort study TMK (Tumour Registry Breast Cancer) between February 2007 and October 2015 were analysed. The median OS was 33.8 months (95% CI 30.2-40.2) for HR-positive/HER2-negative, 38.2 months (95% CI 31.3-43.0) for HER2-positive and 16.8 months (95% CI 11.5-22.0) for triple negative breast cancer. Patients with triple negative tumours more often died before start of a third-line therapy than patients with HR-positive or HER2-positive tumours (44% vs. 25%). Use of taxane-based chemotherapies has increased since 2007, with 65% of all first-line chemotherapy-treatments containing taxanes in 2013-15 (60% HR-positive/HER2-negative, 75% HER2-positive, 56% triple negative). 52% of the patients with HR-positive/HER2-negative tumours received first-line endocrine therapy in 2013-15; when restricted to patients with only non-visceral metastases this percentage increased to 63%. To our knowledge, this is the first cohort study showing systemic first-line therapy for all subtypes of advanced breast cancer. Overall survival in the TMK is comparable to that reported by clinical trials despite the inclusion of older and comorbid patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Organochlorine exposures influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to estrogen receptor status: a Danish cohort-nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Høyer, Annette P; Jørgensen, Torben; Rank, Fritz; Grandjean, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between breast cancer and organochlorine exposure is controversial and complex. As estrogen receptor positive and negative breast cancer may represent different entities of the disease, this study was undertaken to evaluate organochlorines influence on breast cancer risk and survival according to receptor status. The background material stems from the Copenhagen City Heart Study (Denmark 1976-78). The breast cancer risk was investigated in a cohort nested case-control design including 161 cases and twice as many breast cancer free controls. The cases served as a cohort in the survival analysis. Serum organochlorine concentrations were determined by gaschromotography. The observed increased breast cancer risk associated with exposure to dieldrin derived from women who developed an estrogen receptor negative (ERN) tumor (Odds ratio [OR] I vs. IV quartile, 7.6, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-46.1, p-value for linear trend 0.01). Tumors in women with the highest dieldrin serum level were larger and more often spread at the time of diagnosis than ERP tumors. The risk of dying was for the remaining evaluated compounds higher among patients with ERP breast cancer when compared to those with ERN. In the highest quartile of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) it was more than 2-fold increased (Relative risk [RR] I vs. IV quartile, 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.7), but no dose-response relation was apparent. The results do not suggest that exposure to potential estrogenic organochlorines leads to development of an ERP breast cancer. A possible adverse effect on prognosis of hormone-responsive breast cancers needs to be clarified

  15. The dream of an ultimate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1997-10-01

    Steven Weinberg describes how the dream of an ultimate theory began when one tried to unify the fundamental laws governing the stars constellations as elementary particles: electromagnetism, weak-electro theory then standard model which gives only one quantity out of its fields, the gravitation. He tries to explain to what an ultimate theory could look like. but the dream of an ultimate theory is not yet realized, there are some elementary particles to find before and then to build superconducting super colliders. The europe made it. the dream of an ultimate theory became an european dream. (N.C.)

  16. The ultimate challenge of cloacal exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Carmichael, Polly A; Hines, Melissa; Ransley, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Our review addresses the various system abnormalities associated with cloacal exstrophy and revisits the question of gender assignment. Gender assignment decisions and psychological aspects of gender issues have become the "ultimate challenge." Exploration of gender identity, gender role behavior and sexual orientation has just begun. A comprehensive literature review was performed with all world literature regarding the current management of cloacal exstrophy. Research focused on management principles, outcomes and documentation of concurrent anomalies. We also describe original research evaluating gender identity in our own series of patients raised as girls to illustrate the challenge of treatment and augment the available literature, which is scant. Abnormalities of the vertebral column ranged from hemivertebra to myelomeningocele. With magnetic resonance imaging, the incidence of spinal dysraphism approached 100% and cord tethering was also more frequently recognized. For children with the short bowel syndrome, advances in antibiotic usage, and parenteral and enteral nutrition have increased the survival rate and reduced morbidity. A neurological component has been recognized for bladder function, bladder neck continence, lower extremity function and erectile capacity. Mitrofanoff-type reconstruction with bladder neck closure and continent catheterizable stoma dramatically increased continence. Diminutive or absent penis has been documented in 30% of males, and no documentation of paternity exists. The majority of females have bicornuate uterus. However, ovaries and tubes were generally normal. No reports of proven fertility exist. The strategy and timing of surgery relating to gender assignment remain controversial. A desperate need exists for research focusing on gender development and quality of life. Until that time, a cautious watchful approach may be most appropriate as our patients with cloacal exstrophy mature into adulthood.

  17. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero Angel

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40% reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7. Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges.

  18. The effect of social relationships on survival in elderly residents of a Southern European community: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Laso, Angel; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Otero, Angel

    2007-01-01

    Background Comparative evidence regarding the effects of social relationships on mortality in Mediterranean communities will increase our knowledge of their strengths and the ways in which they influence longevity across cultures. Men and women may benefit differently from social relationships because of cultural differences in gender roles. Psychosocial mechanisms such as social support, which may explain the effects of social networks, may also vary by culture. Methods Detailed information on the social relationships of a representative sample of 1,174 community-dwelling older adults was collected in Leganés, a city in central Spain. Mortality over a 6-year follow-up period was ascertained. Information on socio-demographic, health and disability variables was also collected. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted separately for men and women and for the combined sample. Results Having a confidant was associated with a 25% (95% CI 5–40%) reduction in the mortality risk. The hazard ratio for lack of social participation was 1.5 (95% CI 1.3–1.7). Being engaged in meaningful roles protected against mortality, while receipt of emotional support did not affect survival. These results were comparable for men and women. Having contact with all family ties was associated with reduced mortality only in men. Structural aspects of social networks make a unique contribution to survival, independently of emotional support and the role played in the lives of significant others. Conclusion In this elderly Southern European population, the beneficial effects of social networks, social participation, engagement in the life of significant others and having a confidant call for public policies that foster intergenerational and community exchanges. PMID:17678536

  19. Association between spironolactone added to beta-blockers and ACE inhibition and survival in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction: a propensity score-matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, L; Katus, H A; Grundtvig, M; Hole, T; de Blois, J; Schellberg, D; Atar, D; Zugck, C; Agewall, S

    2013-10-01

    Heart failure (CHF) guidelines recommend mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for all symptomatic patients treated with a combination of ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and beta-blockers. As opposed to both eplerenone trials, patients in RALES (spironolactone) received almost no beta-blockers. Since pharmacological properties differ between eplerenone and spironolactone, the prognostic benefit of spironolactone added to this baseline combination therapy needs clarification. We included 4,832 CHF patients with chronic systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry and the heart failure outpatients' clinic of the University of Heidelberg. Propensity scores for spironolactone receipt were calculated for each patient and used for matching to patients without spironolactone. During a total follow-up of 17,869 patient-years, 881 patients (27.0 %) died in the non-spironolactone group and 445 (28.4 %) in the spironolactone group. Spironolactone was not associated with improved survival, neither in the complete sample (HR 0.82; 95 % CI 0.64-1.07; HR 1.03; 95 % CI 0.88-1.20; multivariate and propensity score adjusted respectively), nor in the propensity-matched cohort (HR 0.98; 95 % CI 0.82-1.18). In CHF outpatients we were unable to observe an association between the use of spironolactone and improved survival when administered in addition to a combination of ACE/ARB and beta-blockers.

  20. The association between osteopontin and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer patients: a meta-analysis of 13 cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ying Wang,1,* Jin Yang,1,* Hui Liu,1 Ji-Rui Bi,1 Ying Liu,2 Yan-Yan Chen,2 Ji-Yu Cao,2 You-Jin Lu1 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, 2Department of Occupational Health and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: In the last decade, osteopontin (OPN was identified as one of the important proteins that promote the metastasis of tumor. However, the association between OPN overexpression and clinical outcome of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC was unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of OPN in NSCLC patients. A total of 13 studies are included to explore the relationship between the OPN elevation and the overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS in NSCLC patients. We searched for related articles in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library databases, which were published before January 31, 2015. Hazard ratio (HR, odds ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval (CI in the high OPN expression group compared with the low OPN expression group were calculated and analyzed. Primary results were summarized by using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model. The stratified analyses in subgroups were also performed. Thirteen cohort studies, which involved 1,630 patients, were included. Subgroup analyses were performed by area and test method of OPN. We found that OPN was significantly associated with poor OS (HR =2.20, 95% CI 1.71–2.83, P<0.001 and DFS (HR =2.11, 95% CI 1.62–2.74, P<0.001 in NSCLC patients. OPN overexpression tended to be associated with the presence of advanced tumor TNM stage (III and IV (OR =2.57, 95% CI 1.61–4.11, P<0.001. The Egger’s test suggested that there was no publication bias in OS studies (P=0.062 and DFS studies (P=0.740. These data indicate that OPN seems to have a

  1. Patterns of care and survival after a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) diagnosis: A population-based nested cohort study in Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Andrea L; Pearson, Sallie-Anne; Dobbins, Timothy A; Er, Chuang C; Ward, Robyn L; Vajdic, Claire M

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about patterns of care after a cancer of unknown primary (CUP) diagnosis. We performed a retrospective cohort study to describe and compare the treatment, health service use and survival of patients with CUP and metastatic cancer of known primary among 143,956 Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs clients, 2004-2007. We randomly matched clients with CUP (C809; n=252) with clients with a first diagnosis of metastatic solid cancer of known primary (n=980). We ascertained health services from the month of diagnosis up to 2 months post-diagnosis for consultations, hospitalizations and emergency department visits, and up to 1 year for treatment. We compared cancer treatments using conditional logistic regression; consultation rates using negative binomial regression; and survival using stratified Cox regression. 30% of CUP patients and 70% of patients with known primary received cancer treatment and the median survival was 37 days and 310 days respectively. CUP patients received fewer cancer medicines (odds ratio (OR)=0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.89) and less cancer-related surgery (OR=0.25, 95% CI 0.15-0.41); males with CUP received more radiation therapy (OR=2.88, 95% CI 1.69-4.91). CUP patients had more primary care consultations (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.41), emergency department visits (IRR=1.86, 95% CI 1.50-2.31) and hospitalizations (IRR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03-1.35), and a higher risk of death within 30 days (hazard ratio=3.30, 95% CI 1.69-6.44). Patients with CUP receive less treatment but use more health services, which may reflect underlying patient and disease characteristics. Copyright © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Complementary Chinese herbal medicine therapy improves survival of patients with gastric cancer in Taiwan: A nationwide retrospective matched-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Kuo-Feng; Hsu, Ching-Ping; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Lin, Hung-Jen; Kuo, Yi-Ting; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong

    2017-03-06

    Many patients with gastric cancer seek traditional medicine consultations in Asian countries. This study aimed to investigate the prescription of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and its benefits for the patients with gastric cancer in Taiwan. From the Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients Database, we included all patients with gastric cancer whose age at diagnosis was ≥18 from 1997 to 2010 in Taiwan. We used 1:1 frequency matching by age, sex, Charlson comorbidity score, treatment and index year to compare the CHM users and non-CHM users. We used the Cox regression model to compare the hazard ratios (HR) for the risk of mortality and the Kaplan-Meier curve for the survival time. There was a total of 1333 patients in the CHM-cohort and 44786 patients in the non-CHM cohort. After matching, we compared 962 newly diagnosed CHM users and 962 non-CHM users. Adjusted HRs (aHR) were higher among patients of above 60-year-old group, with a Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥2 before the index date, and those who need surgery combined with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. CHM users had a lower HR of mortality risk (adjusted HR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48-0.62). Compared to the non-CHM users, the aHR among CHM-users is 0.37 (95% CI:0.2-0.67) for those who used CHM more than 180 days annually. The Kaplan-Meier curve revealed that the survival probability was higher for complementary CHM-users. Bai-Hua-She-She-Cao (Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae) was the most commonly used single herb and Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang was the most commonly used herbal formula among CHM prescriptions. Complementary CHM improves the overall survival among patients with gastric cancer in Taiwan. Further ethnopharmacological investigations and clinical trials are required to validate the efficacy and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Survival, disabilities in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among the oldest-old in China: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Feng, Qiushi; Hesketh, Therese; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W

    2017-04-22

    The oldest-old (those aged ≥80 years) are the most rapidly growing age group globally, and are most in need of health care and assistance. We aimed to assess changes in mortality, disability in activities of daily living, and physical and cognitive functioning among oldest-old individuals between 1998 and 2008. We used data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Study. Three pairs of cohorts aged 80-89 years, 90-99 years, and 100-105 years (in total, 19 528 oldest-old participants) were examined; the two cohorts in each pair were born 10 years apart, with the same age at the time of the assessment in the 1998 and 2008 surveys. Four health outcomes were investigated: annual death rate, Activities of Daily Living (ADL), physical performance in three tests and cognitive function measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used different tests and multivariate regression analyses to examine the cohort differences. Controlling for various confounding factors, we noted that annual mortality among oldest-old individuals was substantially reduced between 0·2% and 1·3% in 1998-2008 compared with individuals of the same age born 10 years previously, and that disability according to activities of daily living had significantly reduced annually between 0·8% and 2·8%. However, cognitive impairment in the later cohorts increased annually between 0·7% and 2·2% and objective physical performance capacity (standing up from a chair, picking up a book from the floor, and turning around 360°) decreased anually between 0·4% and 3·8%. We also noted that female mortality was substantially lower than male mortality among the oldest-old, but that women's functional capacities in activities of daily living, cognition, and physical performance were worse than their male counterparts. Advances in medications, lifestyle, and socioeconomics might compress activities of daily living disability, that is, benefits of success, but lifespan extension might expand

  4. The impact of renal insufficiency and anaemia on survival in patients with cardiovascular disease: a cohort study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anderson, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The simultaneous occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), kidney disease, and anaemia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In the community setting, little data exists about the risk associated with milder levels of anaemia when it is present concurrently with CVD and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of CKD and anaemia in patients with CVD in the community and to examine whether the presence of anaemia was associated with increased morbidity and mortality. METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective cohort study and involved a random sample of 35 general practices in the West of Ireland. A practice-based sample of 1,609 patients with established cardiovascular disease was generated in 2000\\/2001 and followed for five years. The primary endpoint was death from any cause. Statistical analysis involved using one-way ANOVA and Chi-squared tests for baseline data and Cox proportional-hazards models for mortality data. RESULTS: Of the study sample of 617 patients with blood results, 33% (n = 203) had CKD while 6% (n = 37) had CKD and anaemia. The estimated risk of death from any cause, when compared to patients with cardiovascular disease only, was almost double (HR = 1.98, 95% CI 0.99 to 3.98) for patients with both CVD and CKD and was over 4 times greater (HR = 4.33, 95% CI 1.76 to 10.68) for patients with CVD, CKD and anaemia. CONCLUSION: In patients with cardiovascular disease in the community, chronic kidney disease and anaemia occur commonly. The presence of chronic kidney disease carries an increased mortality risk which increases in an additive way with the addition of anaemia. These results suggest that early primary care diagnosis and management of this high risk group may be worthwhile.

  5. Concussion Prevalence in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Damien J.; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D.; Tybor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultimate Frisbee (ultimate) is a fast-growing, popular sport played nationally by over 4 million athletes. While several studies have examined injury rates in ultimate, no work has investigated the prevalence of concussions specifically or players’ knowledge and management of those injuries. Purpose: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of concussions in ultimate and to assess players’ knowledge of concussions as well as their concussion management behaviors. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: From June to November 2015, we collected ultimate-related concussion data via an anonymous web-based survey, the Concussion in Ultimate Frisbee Survey, from a convenience sample of 787 male and female ultimate players across the United States. Results: There were 553 male and 234 female respondents included in the analysis; 26.58% of men and 24.79% of women reported that they had sustained at least 1 concussion while playing ultimate, with 45.58% and 43.10% of those men and women, respectively, reporting multiple concussions. A total of 67.81% of men and 78.21% of women stated that they would remove themselves from play after sustaining a given concussion, although 45.99% of men and 37.62% of women indicated that they had returned to play in the same game or practice. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that concussions do commonly occur in competitive ultimate and that better education and management of concussions in ultimate athletes are needed. This study is an important first step in deepening our understanding of these issues. PMID:29552572

  6. Age adjusted hematopoietic stem cell transplant comorbidity index predicts survival in a T-cell depleted cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hayder; Yalamanchi, Swati; Liu, Meng; Van Meter, Emily; Gul, Zartash; Monohan, Gregory; Howard, Dianna; Hildebrandt, Gerhard C; Herzig, Roger

    2018-02-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) continues to evolve with the treatment in higher risk patient population. This practice mandates stringent update and validation of risk stratification prior to undergoing such a complex and potentially fatal procedure. We examined the adoption of the new comorbidity index (HCT-CI/Age) proposed by the Seattle group after the addition of age variable and compared it to the pre-transplant assessment of mortality (PAM) that already incorporates age as part of its evaluation criteria. A retrospective analysis of adult patients who underwent HCT at our institution from January 2010 through August 2014 was performed. Kaplan-Meier's curve, log-rank tests, Cox model and Pearson correlation was used in the analysis. Of the 114 patients that underwent allogeneic transplant in our institution, 75.4% were ≥40 years old. More than 58% had a DLCO ≤80%. Although scores were positively correlated (correlation coefficient 0.43, p < 0.001), HCT-CI/Age more accurately predicted 2-year overall survival (OS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) in patients with lower (0-4) and higher (5-7) scores (52% and 36% versus 24% and 76%, p = 0.004, 0.003 respectively). PAM score did not reach statistical significance for difference in OS nor NRM between the low (<24) and high-risk (≥24) groups (p = 0.19 for both). Despite our small sample population, HCT-CI/Age was more discriminative to identify patients with poor outcome that might benefit from intensified management strategies or other therapeutic approaches rather than allogeneic HCT. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Socioeconomic position and ten-year survival and virologic outcomes in a Ugandan HIV cohort receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Flynn

    Full Text Available Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years. We documented baseline employment status, regular household income, education level, housing description, physical ability, and CD4 count. Viral load was measured every six months. Proportional hazard regression tested for associations between baseline characteristics and 1 mortality, 2 virologic failure, and 3 mortality or virologic failure as a composite outcome. Over ten years 23% (n = 127 of participants died, 6% (n = 31 were lost-to-follow-up and 23% (107/472 experienced virologic treatment failure. In Kaplan-Meier analysis we observed an association between employment and mortality, with the highest cumulative probability of death occurring in unemployed individuals. In univariate analysis unemployment and disease severity were associated with mortality, but in multivariable analysis the only association with mortality was disease severity. We observed an association between higher household income and an increased incidence of both virologic failure and the combined outcome, and an association between self-employment and lower incidence of virologic failure and the combined outcome when compared to unemployment. Formal education level and housing status were unrelated to outcomes. It is feasible to achieve good ten-year survival, retention-in-care, and viral suppression in a socioeconomically diverse population in a resource-limited setting. Unemployment appears to be related to adverse 10

  8. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameni, Gobena

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0%) were censored and 35 (10.0%) died. Twenty-two (62.9%) of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21%) at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72), a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51), and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86) or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27) functional status, World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45), and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97). CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives. PMID:27820957

  9. Survival and predictors of mortality among human immunodeficiency virus patients on anti-retroviral treatment at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia: a six years retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdaw Tachbele

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES The survival rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients receiving treatment in Ethiopia is poorly understood. This study aimed to determine the survival rate and predictors of mortality among HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy (ART at Jinka Hospital, South Omo, Ethiopia. METHODS A 6-year retrospective cohort study was conducted using 350 patient records drawn from 1,899 patients on ART at Jinka Hospital from September 2010 to August 2015. The data were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and Cox regression models. RESULTS Of the 350 study participants, 315 (90.0% were censored and 35 (10.0% died. Twenty-two (62.9% of the deaths occurred during the first year of treatment. The total follow-up encompassed 1,995 person-years, with an incidence rate of 1.75 deaths per 100 person-years. The mean survival time of patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was 30.84±19.57 months. The overall survival of patients on HAART was 64.00% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.85 to 66.21% at 72 months of follow-up. The significant predictors of mortality included non-disclosure of HIV status (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.82; 95% CI, 1.91 to 17.72, a history of tuberculosis (aHR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.51, and ambulatory (aHR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.20 to 8.86 or bedridden (aHR, 4.67; 95% CI, 1.30 to 17.27 functional status, World Health Organization (WHO clinical stage IV illness (aHR, 24.97; 95% CI, 2.75 to 26.45, and substance abusers (aHR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.39 to 9.97. CONCLUSIONS Patients with a history of tuberculosis treatment, ambulatory or bedridden functional status, or advanced WHO clinical stage disease, as well substance abusers, should be carefully monitored, particularly in the first few months after initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients should also be encouraged to disclose their status to their relatives.

  10. 10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, F.J.J.; Ofec, R.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; ten Bruggenkate, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This prospective cohort study evaluates the 10-year survival and incidence of peri-implant disease at implant and patient level of sandblasted, large grid, and acid-etched titanium dental implants (Straumann, soft tissue level, SLA surface) in fully and partially edentulous patients.

  11. Clinical and pathological factors influencing survival in a large cohort of triple-negative breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urru, Silvana Anna Maria; Gallus, Silvano; Bosetti, Cristina; Moi, Tiziana; Medda, Ricardo; Sollai, Elisabetta; Murgia, Alma; Sanges, Francesca; Pira, Giovanna; Manca, Alessandra; Palmas, Dolores; Floris, Matteo; Asunis, Anna Maria; Atzori, Francesco; Carru, Ciriaco; D'Incalci, Maurizio; Ghiani, Massimo; Marras, Vincenzo; Onnis, Daniela; Santona, Maria Cristina; Sarobba, Giuseppina; Valle, Enrichetta; Canu, Luisa; Cossu, Sergio; Bulfone, Alessandro; Rocca, Paolo Cossu; De Miglio, Maria Rosaria; Orrù, Sandra

    2018-01-08

    To provide further information on the clinical and pathological prognostic factors in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), for which limited and inconsistent data are available. Pathological characteristics and clinical records of 841 TNBCs diagnosed between 1994 and 2015 in four major oncologic centers from Sardinia, Italy, were reviewed. Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality and recurrence according to various clinicopathological factors were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. After a mean follow-up of 4.3 years, 275 (33.3%) TNBC patients had a progression of the disease and 170 (20.2%) died. After allowance for study center, age at diagnosis, and various clinicopathological factors, all components of the TNM staging system were identified as significant independent prognostic factors for TNBC mortality. The HRs were 3.13, 9.65, and 29.0, for stage II, III and IV, respectively, vs stage I. Necrosis and Ki-67 > 16% were also associated with increased mortality (HR: 1.61 and 1.99, respectively). Patients with tumor histotypes other than ductal invasive/lobular carcinomas had a more favorable prognosis (HR: 0.40 vs ductal invasive carcinoma). No significant associations with mortality were found for histologic grade, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, and lymphovascular invasion. Among lymph node positive TNBCs, lymph node ratio appeared to be a stronger predictor of mortality than pathological lymph nodes stage (HR: 0.80 for pN3 vs pN1, and 3.05 for >0.65 vs <0.21 lymph node ratio), respectively. Consistent results were observed for cancer recurrence, except for Ki-67 and necrosis that were not found to be significant predictors for recurrence. This uniquely large study of TNBC patients provides further evidence that, besides tumor stage at diagnosis, lymph node ratio among lymph node positive tumors is an additional relevant predictor of survival and tumor recurrence, while Ki-67 seems to be predictive of mortality, but not of recurrence.

  12. Survival of HIV-infected adolescents on antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: findings from a nationally representative cohort in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestin Bakanda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents have been identified as a high-risk group for poor adherence to and defaulting from combination antiretroviral therapy (cART care. However, data on outcomes for adolescents on cART in resource-limited settings remain scarce.We developed an observational study of patients who started cART at The AIDS Service Organization (TASO in Uganda between 2004 and 2009. Age was stratified into three groups: children (≤10 years, adolescents (11-19 years, and adults (≥20 years. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated to describe time to mortality and loss to follow-up, and Cox regression used to model associations between age and mortality and loss to follow-up. To address loss to follow up, we applied a weighted analysis that assumes 50% of lost patients had died.A total of 23,367 patients were included in this analysis, including 810 (3.5% children, 575 (2.5% adolescents, and 21 982 (94.0% adults. A lower percentage of children (5.4% died during their cART treatment compared to adolescents (8.5% and adults (10%. After adjusting for confounding, other features predicted mortality than age alone. Mortality was higher among males (p<0.001, patients with a low initial CD4 cell count (p<0.001, patients with advanced WHO clinical disease stage (p<0.001, and shorter duration of time receiving cART (p<0.001. The crude mortality rate was lower for children (22.8 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI: 16.1, 29.5, than adolescents (36.5 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI: 26.3, 46.8 and adults (37.5 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI: 35.9, 39.1.This study is the largest assessment of adolescents receiving cART in Africa. Adolescents did not have cART mortality outcomes different from adults or children.

  13. Physical demands in competitive ultimate frisbee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate...... = 0.74, p ≤ 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance....

  14. The Impact of Comorbid Depression on Educational Inequality in Survival after Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Cohort of 83 062 Patients and a Matched Reference Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Osler

    Full Text Available Patients with low socioeconomic position have higher rates of mortality after diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS, but little is known about the mechanisms behind this social inequality. The aim of the present study was to examine whether any educational inequality in survival after ACS was influenced by comorbid conditions including depression.From 2001 to 2009 all first-time ACS patients were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry. This cohort of 83 062 ACS patients and a matched reference population were followed for incident depression and mortality until December 2012 by linkage to person, patients and prescription registries. Educational status was defined at study entry and the impact of potential confounders and mediators (age, gender, cohabitation status, somatic comorbidity and depression on the relation between education and mortality were identified by drawing a directed acyclic graph and analysed using multiple Cox regression analyses.During follow-up, 29 583(35.6% of ACS patients and 19 105(22.9% of the reference population died. Cox regression analyses showed an increased mortality in the lowest educated compared to those with high education in both ACS patients and the reference population. Adjustment for previous and incident depression or other covariables only attenuated the relations slightly. This pattern of associations was seen for mortality after 30 days, 1 year and during total follow-up.In this study the relative excess mortality rate in lower educated ACS patients was comparable with the excess risk associated with low education in the background population. This educational inequality in survival remained after adjustment for somatic comorbidity and depression.

  15. Population based absolute and relative survival to 1 year of people with diabetes following a myocardial infarction: A cohort study using hospital admissions data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macey Steven M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with diabetes who experience an acute myocardial infarction (AMI have a higher risk of death and recurrence of AMI. This study was commissioned by the Department for Transport to develop survival tables for people with diabetes following an AMI in order to inform vehicle licensing. Methods A cohort study using data obtained from national hospital admission datasets for England and Wales was carried out selecting all patients attending hospital with an MI for 2003-2006 (inclusion criteria: aged 30+ years, hospital admission for MI (defined using ICD 10 code I21-I22. STATA was used to create survival tables and factors associated with survival were examined using Cox regression. Results Of 157,142 people with an MI in England and Wales between 2003-2006, the relative risk of death or recurrence of MI for those with diabetes (n = 30,407 in the first 90 days was 1.3 (95%CI: 1.26-1.33 crude rates and 1.16 (95%CI: 1.1-1.2 when controlling for age, gender, heart failure and surgery for MI compared with those without diabetes (n = 129,960. At 91-365 days post AMI the risk was 1.7 (95% CI 1.6-1.8 crude and 1.50 (95%CI: 1.4-1.6 adjusted. The relative risk of death or re-infarction was higher at younger ages for those with diabetes and directly after the AMI (Relative risk; RR: 62.1 for those with diabetes and 28.2 for those without diabetes aged 40-49 [compared with population risk]. Conclusions This is the first study to provide population based tables of age stratified risk of re-infarction or death for people with diabetes compared with those without diabetes. These tables can be used for giving advice to patients, developing a baseline to compare intervention studies or developing license or health insurance guidelines.

  16. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  17. The New Zealand PIPER Project: colorectal cancer survival according to rurality, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation-results from a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharples, Katrina J; Firth, Melissa J; Hinder, Victoria A; Hill, Andrew G; Jeffery, Mark; Sarfati, Diana; Brown, Charis; Atmore, Carol; Lawrenson, Ross A; Reid, Papaarangi Mj; Derrett, Sarah L; Macapagal, Jerome; Keating, John P; Secker, Adrian H; De Groot, Charles; Jackson, Christopher Gca; Findlay, Michael Pn

    2018-06-08

    To investigate differences in survival after diagnosis with colorectal cancer (CRC) by rurality, ethnicity and deprivation. In this retrospective cohort study, clinical records and National Collections data were merged for all patients diagnosed with CRC in New Zealand in 2007-2008. Prioritised ethnicity was classified using New Zealand Cancer Registry data; meshblock of residence at diagnosis was used to determine rurality and socioeconomic deprivation. Of the 4,950 patients included, 1,938 had died of CRC by May 2014. The five-year risks of death from CRC were: Māori 47%; Pacific 59%; non-Māori-non-Pacific (nMnP) 38%. After adjustment for demographic characteristics, comorbidity and disease stage at diagnosis, compared to nMnP the relative risk (RR) for Māori was 1.1 (95%CI: 0.8-1.3) and for Pacific 1.8 (95% CI: 1.4-2.5). We found no differences in risk of death from CRC by rurality, but some differences by deprivation. Disparity in outcome following diagnosis with CRC exists in New Zealand. Much of this disparity can be explained by stage of disease at diagnosis for Māori, but for Pacific peoples and those in deprived areas other factors may influence outcome. Further analyses of the PIPER data will explore the impact of any differences in management.

  18. Findings of multiple HPV genotypes in cervical carcinoma are associated with poor cancer-specific survival in a Swedish cohort of cervical cancer primarily treated with radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliff, Malin; Sorbe, Bengt; Mordhorst, Louise Bohr; Helenius, Gisela; Karlsson, Mats G; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella

    2018-04-10

    Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most common cancers in women and virtually all cases of CC are a result of a persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). For disease detected in early stages there is curing treatment but when diagnosed late with recurring disease and metastasis there are limited possibilities. Here we evaluate HPV impact on treatment resistance and metastatic disease progression. Prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in a Swedish CC patient cohort (n=209) was evaluated, as well as HPV influence on patient prognosis. Tumor samples suitable for analysis (n=204) were genotyped using two different real-time PCR methods. HPV16 variant analysis was made using pyrosequencing. Results showed that HPV prevalence in the total series was 93%. Of the HPV-positive samples, 13% contained multiple infections, typically with two high-risk HPV together. Primary cure rate for the complete series was 95%. Recurrence rate of the complete series was 28% and distant recurrences were most frequent (20%). Patients with tumors containing multiple HPV-strains and particularly HPV genotypes belonging to the alpha 7 and 9 species together had a significantly higher rate of distant tumor recurrences and worse cancer-specific survival rate.

  19. Feasibility of modified surviving sepsis campaign guidelines in a resource-restricted setting based on a cohort study of severe S. aureus sepsis [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weera Mahavanakul

    Full Text Available The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC guidelines describe best practice for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock in developed countries, but most deaths from sepsis occur where healthcare is not sufficiently resourced to implement them. Our objective was to define the feasibility and basis for modified guidelines in a resource-restricted setting.We undertook a detailed assessment of sepsis management in a prospective cohort of patients with severe sepsis caused by a single pathogen in a 1,100-bed hospital in lower-middle income Thailand. We compared their management with the SSC guidelines to identify care bundles based on existing capabilities or additional activities that could be undertaken at zero or low cost. We identified 72 patients with severe sepsis or septic shock associated with S. aureus bacteraemia, 38 (53% of who died within 28 days. One third of patients were treated in intensive care units (ICUs. Numerous interventions described by the SSC guidelines fell within existing capabilities, but their implementation was highly variable. Care available to patients on general wards covered the fundamental principles of sepsis management, including non-invasive patient monitoring, antimicrobial administration and intravenous fluid resuscitation. We described two additive care bundles, one for general wards and the second for ICUs, that if consistently performed would be predicted to improve outcome from severe sepsis.It is feasible to implement modified sepsis guidelines that are scaled to resource availability, and that could save lives prior to the publication of international guidelines for developing countries.

  20. Survival analysis, long-term outcomes, and percentage of recovery up to 8 years post-infection among the Houston West Nile virus cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristy O Murray

    Full Text Available In 2012, we witnessed a resurgence of West Nile virus (WNV in the United States, with the largest outbreak of human cases reported since 2003. WNV is now endemic and will continue to produce epidemics over time, therefore defining the long-term consequences of WNV infection is critical. Over a period of eight years, we prospectively followed a cohort of 157 WNV-infected subjects in the Houston metropolitan area to observe recovery over time and define the long-term clinical outcomes. We used survival analysis techniques to determine percentage of recovery over time and the effects of demographic and co-morbid conditions on recovery. We found that 40% of study participants continued to experience symptoms related to their WNV infection up to 8 years later. Having a clinical presentation of encephalitis and being over age 50 were significantly associated with prolonged or poor recovery over time. Since the health and economic impact as a result of prolonged recovery, continued morbidity, and related disability is likely substantial in those infected with WNV, future research should be aimed at developing effective vaccines to prevent illness and novel therapeutics to minimize morbidity, mortality, and long-term complications from infection.

  1. A meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies of survival to age 90 years or older: the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anne B; Walter, Stefan; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Garcia, Melissa E; Slagboom, P Eline; Christensen, Kaare; Arnold, Alice M; Aspelund, Thor; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Benjamin, Emelia J; Christiansen, Lene; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Franceschini, Nora; Glazer, Nicole L; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hofman, Albert; Kaplan, Robert; Karasik, David; Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Kiel, Douglas P; Launer, Lenore J; Marciante, Kristin D; Massaro, Joseph M; Miljkovic, Iva; Nalls, Michael A; Hernandez, Dena; Psaty, Bruce M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotter, Jerome; Seshadri, Sudha; Smith, Albert V; Taylor, Kent D; Tiemeier, Henning; Uh, Hae-Won; Uitterlinden, André G; Vaupel, James W; Walston, Jeremy; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Harris, Tamara B; Lumley, Thomas; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Murabito, Joanne M

    2010-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may yield insights into longevity. We performed a meta-analysis of GWAS in Caucasians from four prospective cohort studies: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the Rotterdam Study participating in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium. Longevity was defined as survival to age 90 years or older (n = 1,836); the comparison group comprised cohort members who died between the ages of 55 and 80 years (n = 1,955). In a second discovery stage, additional genotyping was conducted in the Leiden Longevity Study cohort and the Danish 1905 cohort. There were 273 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with p < .0001, but none reached the prespecified significance level of 5 x 10(-8). Of the most significant SNPs, 24 were independent signals, and 16 of these SNPs were successfully genotyped in the second discovery stage, with one association for rs9664222, reaching 6.77 x 10(-7) for the combined meta-analysis of CHARGE and the stage 2 cohorts. The SNP lies in a region near MINPP1 (chromosome 10), a well-conserved gene involved in regulation of cellular proliferation. The minor allele was associated with lower odds of survival past age 90 (odds ratio = 0.82). Associations of interest in a homologue of the longevity assurance gene (LASS3) and PAPPA2 were not strengthened in the second stage. Survival studies of larger size or more extreme or specific phenotypes may support or refine these initial findings.

  2. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  3. Among 4 Diet Quality Indexes, Only the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score Is Associated with Better Colorectal Cancer Survival and Only in African American Women in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Simone; Harmon, Brook E; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Boushey, Carol J; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with a 5-y survival rate of ∼65%. Therefore, the identification of modifiable health factors to improve CRC survival is crucial. We investigated the association of 4 prediagnostic a priori diet quality indexes with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). The MEC included >215,000 African-American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese-American, Latino, and white adults living in Hawaii and California who completed a validated quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1993-1996. CRC cases and deaths were identified through linkages to cancer registries and to state and national vital registries. Sex-specific HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternative HEI (AHEI) 2010, the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index with CRC-specific and overall mortality as the primary outcomes. Ethnicity-specific analyses were the secondary outcomes. Among 4204 MEC participants diagnosed with invasive CRC through 2010, 1976 all-cause and 1095 CRC-specific deaths were identified. A higher aMED score was associated with lower CRC-specific mortality in women [HR continuous pattern score divided by its respective SD (HR1SD): 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96] but not in men (HR1SD: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11). A higher aMED score was also associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR1SD: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96) but not in men (HR1SD: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). The HEI-2010, AHEI-2010, and DASH index were not significantly associated with CRC-specific or with all-cause mortality. The inverse relation for the aMED score was limited to African Americans and to colon (compared with rectal) cancer. The aMED score was related to lower mortality only in African-American women (1 of 5 ethnic groups studied). The results should be interpreted with caution due to the small

  4. Survival on antiretroviral treatment among adult HIV-infected patients in Nepal: a retrospective cohort study in far-western Region, 2006–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Though financial and policy level efforts are made to expand antiretroviral treatment (ART) service free of cost, survival outcome of ART program has not been systematically evaluated in Nepal. This study assesses the mortality rates and determinants among adult HIV-infected patients on ART in Far-western region of Nepal. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 1024 (51.2% men) HIV-infected patients aged ≥15 years, who started ART between May 15th 2006 and May 15th 2011 in five ART sites in the Far-western region, Nepal. Follow-up time was calculated from the date of ART initiation to date of death or censoring (loss to follow-up, transferred out, or 15 November 2011). Mortality rates (per 100 person-years) were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore determinants of mortality. Results The median follow-up time was 19.1 months. The crude mortality rate was 6.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-7.6) but more than three-times higher in first 3 months after ART initiation (21.9 (95% CI 16.6- 28.8)). About 12% (83% men) of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. The independent determinants of mortality were male sex (hazard ratio (HR) 4.55, 95% CI 2.43-8.51), poor baseline performance scale (bedridden bedridden >50% of the day during the past month, HR 3.41, 95% CI 1.67-6.98 compared to normal activity), one standard deviation decrease in baseline bodyweight (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07), and poor WHO clinical stage (stage III, HR 2.96, 95% CI 1.31-6.69; stage IV, HR 3.28, 95% CI 1.30-8.29 compared to WHO clinical stage I or II). Conclusions High mortality was observed within the first 3 months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had higher mortality, especially men. Earlier initiation of ART through expanded testing and counselling should be encouraged in HIV-infected patients. PMID:24369908

  5. Librarians Are the Ultimate Knowledge Managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koina, Cathie

    2003-01-01

    Librarians are the ultimate knowledge managers. Everyone knows that. After all, haven't they been the custodians of documented knowledge for centuries? Who could possibly do it better than them? Well, then why aren't people knocking down their doors, begging them to be the knowledge managers of the organisation? Are they just ignorant of how…

  6. Long-term survival of women with basal-like ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wenjing; Jirström, Karin; Johansson, Christine; Amini, Rose-Marie; Blomqvist, Carl; Agbaje, Olorunsola; Wärnberg, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Microarray gene-profiling of invasive breast cancer has identified different subtypes including luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing and basal-like groups. Basal-like invasive breast cancer is associated with a worse prognosis. However, the prognosis of basal-like ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is still unknown. Our aim was to study the prognosis of basal-like DCIS in a large population-based cohort. All 458 women with a primary DCIS diagnosed between 1986 and 2004, in Uppland and Västmanland, Sweden were included. TMA blocks were constructed. To classify the DCIS tumors, we used immunohistochemical (IHC) markers (estrogen-, progesterone-, HER2, cytokeratin 5/6 and epidermal growth factor receptor) as a surrogate for the gene expression profiling. The association with prognosis was examined for basal-like DCIS and other subtypes using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression models. IHC data were complete for 392 women. Thirty-two were basal-like (8.2%), 351 were luminal or HER2-positive (89.5%) and 9 unclassified (2.3%). Seventy-six women had a local recurrence of which 34 were invasive. Another 3 women had general metastases as first event. Basal-like DCIS showed a higher risk of local recurrence and invasive recurrence 1.8 (Confidence interval (CI) 95%, 0.8-4.2) and 1.9 (0.7-5.1), respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Also, no statistically significant increased risk was seen for triple-negative or high grade DCIS. Basal-like DCIS showed about a doubled, however not statistically significant risk for local recurrence and developing invasive cancer compared with the other molecular subtypes. Molecular subtyping was a better prognostic parameter than histopathological grade

  7. Predictors of nutritional recovery time and survival status among children with severe acute malnutrition who have been managed in therapeutic feeding centers, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma

    2015-12-21

    Malnutrition remains to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. The prevalence of wasting in Ethiopia remained about 10 % for the past ten years. Mortality rate of children with severe acute malnutrition treated in inpatient set ups has remained unacceptably high. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia. The study population were children with severe acute malnutrition aged from 6 to 59 months who have been managed at Karat and Fasha stabilization centers between September 30, 2013, and Sep. 29, 2014. The total sample size was 420 and pretested questionnaire was used. Kaplan Meier analysis was used to estimate time to nutritional recovery and Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine independent predictors. Nutritional recovery rate was 3.61 per 100 person day observations. Median nutritional recovery time was 22 and 29 days for edematous malnourished and severely wasted children respectively. The independent predictors of nutritional recovery rate were: stabilization center (AHR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.1-1.7), malnutrition status (AHR = 1.8, 95 % CI: 1.3-2.4), weight (AHR = 1.5, 95 % CI: 1.2-1.9), mid- upper arm circumference (AHR = 1.4, 95 % CI: 1.1-1.9), inpatient complications (AHR = 2.2, 95 % CI: 1.4-3.5) and did not lose edema within four days of inpatient treatment (AHR = 2.3, 95 % CI: 1.1-4.8). The findings of this study confirm the probability of surviving gets slimmer with inpatient complications and staying longer in stabilization centers. So, to prevent complications and enhance recovery rate due emphasis should be given in improving early detection and treatment of severely malnourished children in Ethiopia.

  8. Trends in incidence and in short term survival following a subarachnoid haemorrhage in Scotland, 1986-2005: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Karen J; Lewsey, James D; Jhund, Pardeep S; Gillies, Michelle; Chalmers, Jim W T; Redpath, Adam; Briggs, Andrew; Walters, Matthew; Langhorne, Peter; Capewell, Simon; McMurray, John J V; MacIntyre, Kate

    2011-03-29

    To examine age and sex specific incidence and 30 day case fatality for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in Scotland over a 20 year period. A retrospective cohort study using routine hospital discharge data linked to death records. Between 1986 and 2005, 12,056 individuals experienced an incident SAH. Of these 10,113 (84%) survived to reach hospital. Overall age-standardised incidence rates were greater in women than men and remained relatively stable over the study period. In 2005, incidence in women was 12.8 (95% CI 11.5 to 14.2) and in men 7.9 (95% CI 6.9 to 9.1). 30 day case fatality in individuals hospitalised with SAH declined substantially, falling from 30.0% in men and 33.9% in women in 1986-1990 to 24.5% in men and 29.1% in women in 2001-2005. For both men and women, the largest reductions were observed in those aged between 40 to 59 years. After adjustment for age, socio-economic status and co-morbidity, the odds of death at 30 days in 2005 compared to odds of death in 1986 was 0.64 (0.54 to 0.76), p p = 0.4 in those 70 years and above. Incidence rates for SAH remained stable between 1986 and 2005 suggesting that a better understanding of SAH risk factors and their reduction is needed. 30 day case fatality rates have declined substantially, particularly in middle-age. However, they remain high and it is important to ensure that this is not due to under-diagnosis or under-treatment.

  9. Trends and timing of cigarette smoking uptake among US young adults: survival analysis using annual national cohorts from 1976 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M

    2015-07-01

    To measure changes over time in cigarette smoking uptake prevalence and timing during young adulthood (ages 19-26 years), and associations between time-invariant/-varying characteristics and uptake prevalence/timing. Discrete-time survival modeling of data collected from United States high school seniors (modal age 17/18) enrolled in successive graduating classes from 1976 to 2005 and participating in four follow-up surveys (to modal age 25/26). The longitudinal component of the Monitoring the Future study. A total of 10 758 individuals reporting no life-time smoking when first surveyed as high school seniors. Smoking uptake (any, experimental, occasional and regular); socio-demographic variables; marital, college and work status; time spent socializing. The percentage of young adults moving from non-smoker to experimental smoking [slope estimate 0.11, standard error (SE) = 0.04, P = 0.005] or occasional smoking (slope estimate 0.17, SE = 0.03, P age 19/20, but uptake prevalence at older ages increased over time [e.g. cohort year predicting occasional uptake at modal age 25/26 adjusted hazard odds ratio (AHOR) = 1.05, P = 0.002]. Time-invariant/-varying characteristics had unique associations with the timing of various forms of smoking uptake (e.g. at modal age 21/22, currently attending college increased occasional uptake risk (AHOR = 2.11, P age 19/20, but prevalence of uptake at older ages increased. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  11. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  12. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  13. Socioeconomic disparities in first stroke incidence, quality of care, and survival: a nationwide registry-based cohort study of 44 million adults in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Bray, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: We aimed to estimate socioeconomic disparities in the incidence of hospitalisation for first-ever stroke, quality of care, and post-stroke survival for the adult population of England. Methods: In this cohort study, we obtained data collected by a nationwide register on patients aged 18 years or older hospitalised for first-ever acute ischaemic stroke or primary intracerebral haemorrhage in England from July 1, 2013, to March 31, 2016. We classified socioeconomic status at the level of Lower Super Output Areas using the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a neighbourhood measure of deprivation. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate the incidence of hospitalisation for first stroke (negative binomial, quality of care using 12 quality metrics (multilevel logistic, and all-cause 1 year case fatality (Cox proportional hazards. Findings: Of the 43·8 million adults in England, 145 324 were admitted to hospital with their first-ever stroke: 126 640 (87% with ischaemic stroke, 17 233 (12% with intracerebral haemorrhage, and 1451 (1% with undetermined stroke type. We observed a socioeconomic gradient in the incidence of hospitalisation for ischaemic stroke (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·0, 95% CI 1·7–2·3 for the most vs least deprived deciles and intracerebral haemorrhage (1·6, 1·3–1·9. Patients from the lowest socioeconomic groups had first stroke a median of 7 years earlier than those from the highest (p<0·0001, and had a higher prevalence of pre-stroke disability and diabetes. Patients from lower socioeconomic groups were less likely to receive five of 12 care processes but were more likely to receive early supported discharge (adjusted odds ratio 1·14, 95% CI 1·07–1·22. Low socioeconomic status was associated with a 26% higher adjusted risk of 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·26, 95% CI 1·20–1·33, for highest vs lowest deprivation decile, but this gradient was largely attenuated after

  14. Nested Cohort - R software package

    Science.gov (United States)

    NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

  15. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  16. The male-female health-survival paradox and sex differences in cohort life expectancy in Utah, Denmark, and Sweden 1850-1910

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Utah, the prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviors are lower than in most other male populations, whereas women experience higher mortality risk because of higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than...... in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately 2 years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at the age of 50 years were...

  17. Decline in CA19-9 during chemotherapy predicts survival in four independent cohorts of patients with inoperable bile duct cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Mie; Christensen, Ib J; Lassen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    validation cohorts were established including patients 1) participating in phase I/II trials at a Danish Hospital (n = 71), 2) identified retrospectively in a Canadian cohort (n = 196) and 3) randomized in the ABC-02 trial (n = 410). Patients with a baseline CA19-9 and at least one CA19-9 value measured 10......-12 weeks after the start of chemotherapy were included. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Patients meeting the criteria to be included were 54 in the investigational cohort and 34, 68 and 148 in the three validation sets, respectively. Multivariate analysis included radiological...

  18. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary causes and proximate (mechanistic correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life, whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our

  19. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  20. Major clinical events, signs and severity assessment scores related to actual survival in patients who died from primary biliary cirrhosis. A long-term historical cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, GM; Gips, CH; Reisman, Y; Maas, KW; Purmer, IM; Huizenga, [No Value; Verbaan, BW

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: One of the prognostic methods for survival in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the Mayo model, with a time-scale limited to 7 years. The aim of our study was to assess how major clinical events, signs, several severity assessment methods and Mayo survival probabilities fit in with

  1. The male-female health-survival paradox and sex differences in cohort life expectancy in Utah, Denmark, and Sweden 1850-1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Hanson, Heidi A; Oksuzyan, Anna; Mineau, Geraldine P; Christensen, Kaare; Smith, Ken R

    2013-04-01

    In Utah, the prevalence of unhealthy male risk behaviors are lower than in most other male populations, whereas women experience higher mortality risk because of higher fertility rates. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Utah sex differential in mortality would be small and less than in Sweden and Denmark. Life tables from Utah, Denmark, and Sweden were used to calculate cohort life expectancies for men and women born in 1850-1910. The sex difference in cohort life expectancy was similar or larger in Utah when compared with Denmark and Sweden. The change over time in the sex differences in cohort life expectancy was approximately 2 years smaller for active Mormons in Utah than for other groups suggesting lifestyle as an important component for the overall change seen in cohort life expectancy. Sex differences in cohort life expectancy at the age of 50 years were similar for individuals actively affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and for Denmark and Sweden. The hypothesis that a smaller sex difference in cohort life expectancies in Utah would be detected in relation to Denmark and Sweden was not supported. In Utah, the male-female differences in life expectancy remain substantial pointing toward biological mechanisms or other unmeasured risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy prolongs the survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared with conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy: A 10-year experience with a large cohort and long follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Xia; Li, Jing; Shen, Guo-Ping; Zou, Xiong; Xu, Jun-Jie; Jiang, Rou; You, Rui; Hua, Yi-Jun; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun; Hong, Ming-Huang; Chen, Ming-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the survival benefit of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with conventional two-dimensional radiotherapy (2D-CRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using a large cohort with long follow-up. We retrospectively analysed 7081 non-metastatic NPC patients who received curative IMRT or 2D-CRT from February 2002 to December 2011. Of the 7081 patients, 2245 (31.7%) were administered IMRT, while 4836 (68.3%) were administered 2D-CRT. At 5 years, the patients administered IMRT had significantly higher local relapse-free survival (LRFS), loco-regional relapse-free survival (LRRFS), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (95.6%, 92.5%, 82.1% and 87.4%, respectively) than those administered 2D-CRT (90.8%, 88.5%, 76.7% and 84.5%, respectively; p<0.001). The distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) was higher for IMRT than 2D-CRT, with borderline significance (87.6% and 85.7%, respectively; p=0.056). However, no difference was observed between IMRT and 2D-CRT in nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS; 96.3% and 97.4%, respectively; p=0.217). Multivariate analyses showed that IMRT was an independent protective prognostic factor for LRFS, LRRFS and PFS, but not NRFS, DMFS or OS. IMRT provided an improved LRFS, LRRFS and PFS in both the early and advanced T classifications and overall stage for non-disseminated NPC compared with 2D-CRT. However, no significant advantage was observed in NRFS, DMFS or OS when IMRT was used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  4. Ultimate-gradient accelerators physics and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich

    1995-01-01

    As introduction, the needs and ways for ultimate acceleration gradients are discussed briefly. The Plasma Wake Field Acceleration is analized in the most important details. The structure of specific plasma oscillations and "high energy driver beam SP-plasma" interaction is presented, including computer simulation of the process. Some pratical ways to introduce the necessary mm-scale bunching in driver beam and to arrange sequential energy multiplication are dicussed. The influence of accelerating beam particle - plasma binary collisions is considered, also. As applications of PWFA, the use of proton super-colliders beams (LHC and Future SC) to drive the "multi particle types" accelerator, and the arrangements for the electron-positron TeV range collider are discussed.

  5. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, R.M.; Manrique, M.A.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented

  6. Focused ion beam technology and ultimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierak, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    In this topical review, the potential of the focused ion beam (FIB) technology and ultimate applications are reviewed. After an introduction to the technology and to the operating principles of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), of ion optics and instrument architectures, several applications are described and discussed. First, the application of FIB for microcircuit inspection, metrology and failure analysis is presented. Then, we introduce and illustrate some advanced patterning schemes we propose as next generation FIB processing examples. These patterning schemes are (i) local defect injection or smoothing in magnetic thin film direct patterning, (ii) functionalization of graphite substrates to guide organization of clusters, (iii) local and selective epitaxy of III–V semiconductor quantum dots and (iv) FIB patterned solid-state nanopores for biological molecules manipulation and analysis. We conclude this work by giving our vision of the future developments for FIB technology. (topical review)

  7. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. UHS, Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.; Nuttle, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function of wind speed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. 2 - Method of solution: The transfer of heat and water vapor is modeled using an equilibrium temperature procedure for an UHS cooling pond. The UHS spray pond model considers heat, mass, and momentum transfer from a single water drop with the surrounding air, and modification of the surrounding air resulting from the heat, mass, and momentum transfer from many drops in different parts of a spray field. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program SPRCO uses RANF, a uniform random number generator which is an intrinsic function on the CDC. All programs except COMET use the NAMELIST statement, which is non standard. Otherwise these programs conform to the ANSI Fortran 77 standard. The meteorological data scanning procedure requires tens of years of recorded data to be effective. The models and methods, provided as useful tool for UHS analyses of cooling ponds and spray ponds, are intended as guidelines only. Use of these methods does not automatically assure NRC approval, nor are they required procedures for nuclear-power-plant licensing

  9. Long-term effects of glucocorticoids on function, quality of life, and survival in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, Richard T; Duong, Tina; Joyce, Nanette C; Hu, Fengming; Clemens, Paula R; Hoffman, Eric P; Cnaan, Avital; Gordish-Dressman, Heather

    2018-02-03

    Glucocorticoid treatment is recommended as a standard of care in Duchenne muscular dystrophy; however, few studies have assessed the long-term benefits of this treatment. We examined the long-term effects of glucocorticoids on milestone-related disease progression across the lifespan and survival in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. For this prospective cohort study, we enrolled male patients aged 2-28 years with Duchenne muscular dystrophy at 20 centres in nine countries. Patients were followed up for 10 years. We compared no glucocorticoid treatment or cumulative treatment duration of less than 1 month versus treatment of 1 year or longer with regard to progression of nine disease-related and clinically meaningful mobility and upper limb milestones. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses to compare glucocorticoid treatment groups for time to stand from supine of 5 s or longer and 10 s or longer, and loss of stand from supine, four-stair climb, ambulation, full overhead reach, hand-to-mouth function, and hand function. Risk of death was also assessed. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00468832. 440 patients were enrolled during two recruitment periods (2006-09 and 2012-16). Time to all disease progression milestone events was significantly longer in patients treated with glucocorticoids for 1 year or longer than in patients treated for less than 1 month or never treated (log-rank p<0·0001). Glucocorticoid treatment for 1 year or longer was associated with increased median age at loss of mobility milestones by 2·1-4·4 years and upper limb milestones by 2·8-8·0 years compared with treatment for less than 1 month. Deflazacort was associated with increased median age at loss of three milestones by 2·1-2·7 years in comparison with prednisone or prednisolone (log-rank p<0·012). 45 patients died during the 10-year follow-up. 39 (87%) of these deaths were attributable to Duchenne-related causes in patients with known duration of

  10. Influence of socioeconomic factors on survival after breast cancer-A nationwide cohort study of women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 1983-1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Ross, Lone; During, M.

    2007-01-01

    The reasons for social inequality in breast cancer survival are far from established. Our study aims to study the importance of a range of socioeconomic factors and comorbid disorders on survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark where the health care system is tax-funded and uniform. All 25...... for the social inequality in survival after breast cancer surgery in Denmark lies in the access to and/or compliance with management of comorbid conditions in poorer women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  11. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  12. Image guided brachytherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: Improved pelvic control and survival in RetroEMBRACE, a multicenter cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdza, Alina; Pötter, Richard; Fokdal, Lars Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Image guided brachytherapy (IGBT) for locally advanced cervical cancer allows dose escalation to the high-risk clinical target volume (HRCTV) while sparing organs at risk (OAR). This is the first comprehensive report on clinical outcome in a large multi-institutional cohort. Patients and ...

  13. Non-AIDS defining cancers in the D:A:D Study - time trends and predictors of survival : A cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, Signe W.; Bower, Mark; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Law, Matthew; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Abrams, Donald I.; Grulich, Andrew; Fontas, Eric; Kirk, Ole; Furrer, Hansjakob; Wit, Stephane D.; Phillips, Andrew; Lundgren, Jens D.; Sabin, Caroline A.; Butcher, D.; Delforge, M.; Fanti, I.; Fontas, E.; Franquet, X.; Geffard, S.; Gras, L.; Helweg-Larsen, J.; Hillebregt, M.; Kamara, D.; Kjær, J.; Krum, E.; Lundgren, J.D.; McManus, H.; Meidahl, P.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Phillips, A.; Powderl, W.; Rickenbach, M.; Rode, R.; Ryom, L.; Sabin, C.A.; Salbøl Brandt, R.; Schmidt Iversen, J.; Shortman, N.; Sjøl, A.; Smith, C.; Torres, F.; Tverland, J.; Wright, S.; Zaheri, S.; de Wolf, F.; Smidt, J.; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Viard, J-P.; Girard, P.-M.; Livrozet, J.M.; Vanhems, P.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Degen, O.; van Lunzen, J.; Stellbrink, H.J.; Staszewski, S.; Bogner, J.; Fätkenheuer, G.; Gargalianos, P.; Kosmidis, J.; Perdios, J.; Xylomenos, G.; Filandras, A.; Karabatsaki, E.; Panos, G.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Mulcahy, F.; Burke, M.; Turner, D.; Yust, I.; Hassoun, G.; Pollack, S.; Maayan, S.; Vella, S.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Arici, C.; Pristera, R.; Gabbuti, A.; Mazzotta, F.; Lichtner, M.; Vullo, V.; Boer, K.; Geerlings, S.E.; Godfried, M.H.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Lange, J.M.A.; Nellen, F.J.B.; Pajkrt, D.; Prins, J.M.; Reiss, P.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Vrouenraets, S.M.E.; Wit, F.W.M.N.; van Vugt, M.; van der Meer, J.T.M.; van der Poll, T.; van der Valk, M.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Montesarchio, E.; Antonucci, G.; Narciso, P.; Testa, A.; Vlassi, C.; Zaccarelli, M.; Castagna, A.; Gianotti, N.; Lazzarin, A.; Galli, M.; Ridolfo, A.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Rozentale, B.; Zeltina, I.; Chaplinskas, S.; Hemmer, R.; Staub, T.; Reiss, P.; Bruun, J.; Maeland, A.; Ormaasen, V.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Schreij, G.; Gasiorowski, J.; Knysz, B.; Bakowska, E.; Horban, A.; Flisiak, R.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Boron-Kaczmarska, A.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Trocha, H.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Antunes, F.; Caldeira, L.; Doroana, M.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Bravenboer, B.; Pronk, M.J.H.; Duiculescu, D.; Rakhmanova, A.; Zakharova, N.; Buzunova, S.; Jevtovic, D.; Mokráš, M.; Staneková, D.; Tomazic, J.; González-Lahoz, J.; Labarga, P.; Medrano, J.; Soriano, V.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Bravo, I.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Puig, J.; Tural, C.; Gelinck, L.B.S.; Nouwen, J.L.; Rijnders, B.J.A.; Schurink, C.A.M.; Slobbe, L.; Verbon, A.; de Vries-Sluijs, T.E.M.S.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; van der Feltz, M.; Gatell, J.M.; Miró, J.M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M.A.; Karlsson, A.; Flamholc, L.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Francioli, P.; Boffi, E.; Hirschel, B.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Chentsova, N.; Kravchenko, E.; Driessen, G.J.A.; Hartwig, N.G.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Servitskiy, S.; Krasnov, M.; Barton, S.; Johnson, A.M.; Mercey, D.; Johnson, M.A.; Mocroft, A.; Phillips, A.; Murphy, M.; Scullard, G.; Weber, J.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Branger, J.; Åkerlund, B.; Morfeldt, L.; Sundström., A.; Thulin, G.; Karlsson, A.; Koppel, K.; Flamholc, L.; Ho̊kangård, C.; Angarano, G.; Antinori, A.; Armignacco, O.; Castelli, F.; Cauda, R.; Di Perri, G.; Galli, M.; Iardino, R.; Ippolito, G.; Lazzarin, A.; Moroni, M.; Perno, C.F.; Viale, P.L.; Von Schlosser, F.; Ammassari, A.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Balotta, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Bonora, S.; Borderi, M.; Capobianchi, M.R.; Castagna, A.; Ceccherini-Silberstein, F.; Cinque, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; De Luca, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Gervasoni, C.; Girardi, E.; Gori, A.; Guaraldi, G.; Lichtner, M.; Lo Caputo, S.; Madeddu, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Marchetti, G.; Marcotullio, S.; Monno, L.; Murri, R.; Mussini, C.; Puoti, M.; Torti, C.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Cicconi, P.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fanti, I.; Formenti, T.; Galli, L.; Lorenzini, P.; Costantini, A.; Giacometti, A.; Riva, A.; Angarano, G.; Carrisa, C.; Monno, L.; Lazzari, G.; Maggiolo, F.; Borderi, M.; Verucchi, G.; Viale, P.L.; Kauffmann, R.H.; Schippers, E.F.; Castelli, F.; Minardi, C.; Torti, C.; Abeli, C.; Quirino, T.; Manconi, P.E.; Piano, P.; Falasca, K.; Vecchiet, J.; Segala, D.; Sighinolfi, L.; Lo Caputo, S.; Mazzotta, F.; Alessandrini, A.; Cassola, G.; Mazzarello, G.; Piscopo, R.; Viscoli, G.; Belvisi, V.; Mastroianni, C.; Bonfanti, P.; Caramma, I.; Castelli, P.; Chiodera, A.; Alleman, M.A.; Bouwhuis, J.W.; Groeneveld, P.H.P.; Bigoloni, A.; Carenzi, L.; Castagna, A.; Cicconi, P.; Formenti, T.; Galli, A.; Galli, M.; Lazzarin, A.; Moioli, M.C.; Piolini, R.; Puoti, M.; Ridolfo, A.L.; Rizzardini, G.; Rossotti, R.; Salpietro, S.; Spagnuolo, V.; Zucchi, P.; d'Arminio Monforte, A.; Bisio, L.; Mussini, C.; Gori, A.; Lapadula, G.; Abrescia, N.; Chirianni, A.; Gargiulo, M.; Guida, M.G.; Baldelli, F.; Belfiori, B.; Parruti, G.; Ursini, T.; Magnani, G.; Ursitti, M.A.; Acinapura, R.; Andreoni, M.; Antinori, A.; Capozzi, M.; Cauda, R.; De Luca, A.; Gallo, L.; Libertone, R.; Lichtner, M.; Nicastro, E.; Tebano, G.; Tozzi, V.; Vullo, V.; Zaccarelli, M.; d'Avino, A.; Madeddu, G.; Mura, M.S.; Caramello, P.; Di Perri, G.; Orofino, G.C.; Sciandra, M.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R.W.; Manfrin, V.; Pellizzer, G.; Bernard, E.; Caissotti, C.; Cua, E.; De Salvador-Guillouet, F.; Dellamonica, P.; Dollet, K.; Durant, J.; Ferrando, S.; Fontas, E.; Mondain-Miton, V.; Naqvi, A.; Perbost, I.; Pillet, S.; Pradier, C.; Prouvost-Keller, B.; Pugliese, P.; Rahelinirina, V.; Roger, P.M.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Bucher, H.C.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Cellerai, C.; Dubs, R.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Flepp, M.; Francioli, P.; Furrer, H.; Fux, C.A.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hirsch, H.H.; Hirschel, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Kind, C.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Martinez de Tejada, B.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Schultze, D.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; von Wyl, V.; Arend, S.M.; Jolink, H.; Kroon, F.P.; de Boer, M.G.J.; van Dissel, J.T.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van den Broek, P.J.; Pogany, K.; den Hollander, J.G.; Kortmann, W.; van Twillert, G.; Leyten, E.M.S.; Vriesendorp, R.; Kootstra, G.J.; ten Napel, C.H.H.; Blok, W.L.; Brinkman, K.; Frissen, P.H.J.; Schouten, W.E.M.; van den Berk, G.E.L.; Brouwer, A.E.; Juttmann, J.R.; van Kasteren, M.E.E.; Lettinga, K.D.; Veenstra, J.; Mulder, J.W.; Smit, P.M.; Weijer, S.; van Gorp, E.C.M.; Verhagen, D.W.M.; van Eeden, A.; Doedens, R.; Scholvinck, E.H.; Sprenger, H.G.; Stek, C.J.; van Assen, S.; Brouwer, A.M.; Dofferhoff, A.S.M.; Keuter, M.; Koopmans, P.P.; de Groot, R.; ter Hofstede, H.J.M.; van der Flier, M.; van der Ven, A.J.A.M.; Arends, J.E.; Ellerbroek, P.M.; Hoepelman, A.I.M.; Jaspers, C.A.J.J.; Maarschalk-Ellerbroek, L.J.; Mudrikova, T.; Oosterheert, J.J.; Peters, E.J.G.; Schneider, M.M.E.; Wassenberg, M.W.M.; van der Hilst, J.C.H.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Claessen, F.A.P.; Danner, S.A.; Perenboom, R.M.; bij de Vaate, E.A.; de Jong, E.V.; de Vocht, J.; van Agtmael, M.A.; Geelen, S.P.M.; Wolfs, T.F.W.; Gisolf, E.H.; Richter, J.P.; van der Berg, C.; Stegeman, A.; van den Berge, M.; Polée, M.B.; van Houte, D.P.F.; van Vonderen, M.G.A.; Duits, A.J.; Winkel, C.; Dabis, F.; Bonnet, F.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Dupon, M.; Fleury, H.; Lacoste, D.; Malvy, D.; Mercié, P.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Pellegrin, I.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Thiébaut, R.; Titier, K.; Bruyand, M.; Chêne, G.; Dabis, F.; Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Thiébaut, R.; Wittkop, L.; Bernard, N.; Bonnal, F.; Bonnet, F.; Caunègre, L.; Cazanave, C.; Ceccaldi, J.; Chambon, D.; Chossat, I.; Courtaud, K.; Dauchy, F.A.; De Witte, S.; Duffau, P.; Dupon, M.; Dupont, A.; Dutronc, H.; Farbos, S.; Gaboriau, V.; Gemain, M.C.; Gerard, Y.; Greib, C.; Hessamfar, M.; Lacoste, D.; Lafarie-Castet, S.; Lataste, P.; Lazaro, E.; Longy-Boursier, M.; Malvy, D.; Meraud, J.P.; Mercié, P.; Monlun, E.; Morlat, P.; Neau, D.; Ochoa, A.; Pellegrin, J.L.; Pistone, T.; Ragnaud, J.M.; Receveur, M.C.; Roger-Schmeltz, J.; Tchamgoué, S.; Thibaut, P.; Vandenhende, M.A.; Viallard, J.F.; Moreau, J.F.; Pellegrin., I.; Fleury, H.; Lafon, M.E.; Masquelier, B.; Trimoulet, P.; Breilh, D.; Titier, K.; Haramburu, F.; Miremont-Salamé, G.; Blaizeau, M.J.; D'Ivernois, C.; Decoin, M.; Delaune, J.; Delveaux, S.; Hanappier, C.; Leleux, O.; Sicard, X.; Uwamaliya-Nziyumvira, B.; Geffard, S.; Leray, J.; Palmer, G.; Touchard, D.; Baker, D.; Bendall, C.; Bloch, M.; Carr, A.; Cooper, D.; Franic, T.; Law, M.; McManus, H.; Petoumenos, K.; Vale, R.; Wright, S.; Edwards, S.; Hoy, J.; Moore, R.; Nicholson, J.; Roth, N.; Watson, K.; Chuah, J.; Ngieng, M.; Nolan, D.; Skett, J.; Cadafalch, J.; Calvo, G.; Codina, C.; Del Cacho, E.; Domingo, P.; Fuster, M.; Gatell, J.; Mateu, S.; Sambeat, M.A.; Sirera, G.; Torres, F.; Vaqué, A.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Gennotte, A.F.; Gerard, M.; Kabeya, K.; Konopnicki, D.; Libois, A.; Martin, C.; Necsoi, C.; Payen, M.C.; Semaille, P.; Van Laethem, Y.; Bartsch, G.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Krum, E.; Neaton, J.; Thompson, G.; Wentworth, D.; Luskin-Hawk, R.; Telzak, E.; El-Sadr, W.M.; Abrams, D.I.; Cohn, D.; Markowitz, N.; Arduino, R.; Mushatt, D.; Friedland, G.; Perez, G.; Tedaldi, E.; Fisher, E.; Gordin, F.; Crane, L.R.; Sampson, J.; Baxter, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Fischer, A.H.; Grint, D.; Kirk, O.; Kjaer, J.; Kowalska, J.; Lundgren, J.; Mocroft, A.; Nielsen, J.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Reekie, J.; Tverland, J.; Elias, C.; Losso, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V.M.; Suetnov, O.; Clumeck, N.; De Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Colebunders, R.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Jilich, D.; Machala, L.; Sedlacek, D.; Benfield, T.; Kronborg, G.; Larsen, M.; Nielsen, J.; Gerstoft, J.; Hansen, A.-B.E.; Katzenstein, T.; Skinhøj, P.; Pedersen, C.; Ostergaard, L.; Zilmer, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-positive individuals. Using data from a large international cohort of HIV-positive individuals, we described the incidence of NADC from 2004-2010, and described subsequent mortality and predictors

  14. Mars One the ultimate reality TV show?

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book dissects the hype and hubris of the Mars One venture. Every aspect of the mission design is scrutinized, from the haphazard selection process to the unproven mission architecture. A controversial project, many professional astronauts consider Mars One a reckless attempt, yet it gained popular attention. This go-to reference guide provides the reader with insights into the myriad issues arising from the project's loss of funding, loss of sponsorship, loss of TV rights. It explains what contributed to an overly optimistic assessment of Mars One's mission-specific technology, and what captivated the public and the many willing candidates despite these flaws. From the author of Survival and Sacrifice in Mars Exploration (2015) among many more books on spacefaring, this is yet another up-to-the-minute account of an emerging player in the private space market from an expert on the subject.

  15. Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Survival of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive Adult Patients in Andhra Pradesh, India: A Retrospective Cohort Study, 2007-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Bajpai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The survival outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART programs have not been systematically evaluated at the state level in India. This retrospective study assessed the survival rates and factors associated with survival among adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods The present study used data from 139 679 HIV patients aged ≥15 years on ART who were registered from 2007 to 2011 and were followed up through December 2013. The primary end point was death of the patient. Mortality densities (per 1000 person-years were calculated. Kaplan-Meier and Cox-regression models were used to estimate survival and explore the factors associated with survival. Results The overall median follow-up time was 16.0 months (2.0 months for the deceased and 14.0 months for those lost to follow-up. Approximately 13.2% of those newly initiated on ART died during follow-up. Of those deaths, 56% occurred in the first three months. The crude mortality rate was 80.9 per 1000 person-years at risk. The CD4 count (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR],4.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.36 to 5.46 for 350 cells/mm3, functional status (aHR, 3.05; 95% CI, 2.82 to 3.30 for bedridden vs. normal, and body weight (aHR, 3.69; 95% CI, 3.42 to 3.97 for 60 kg were strongly associated with the survival of HIV patients. Conclusions The study findings revealed that high mortality was observed within the first three months of ART initiation. Patients with poor baseline clinical characteristics had a higher risk of mortality. Expanded testing and counseling should be encouraged, with the goal of ensuring early enrollment into the program followed by the initiation of ART in HIV-infected patients.

  16. A comparison of survival outcomes and side effects of toremifene or tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast cancer patients: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Ran; Long, Meijun; Chen, Kai; Chen, Lili; Xiao, Qiaozhen; Wu, Mei; Song, Erwei; Su, Fengxi; Jia, Weijuan; Zeng, Yunjie; Rao, Nanyan; Hu, Yue; Li, Shunrong; Wu, Jiannan; Jin, Liang; Chen, Lijuan

    2012-01-01

    In premenopausal women, endocrine adjuvant therapy for breast cancer primarily consists of tamoxifen alone or with ovarian suppressive strategies. Toremifene is a chlorinated derivative of tamoxifen, but with a superior risk-benefit profile. In this retrospective study, we sought to establish the role of toremifene as an endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients with estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer besides tamoxifen. Patients with early invasive breast cancer were selected from the breast tumor registries at the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital (China). Premenopausal patients with endocrine responsive breast cancer who underwent standard therapy and adjuvant therapy with toremifene or tamoxifen were considered eligible. Patients with breast sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, concurrent contralateral primary breast cancer, or with distant metastases at diagnosis, or those who had not undergone surgery and endocrine therapy were ineligible. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were the primary outcomes measured. Toxicity data was also collected and compared between the two groups. Of the 810 patients reviewed, 452 patients were analyzed in the study: 240 received tamoxifen and 212 received toremifene. The median and mean follow up times were 50.8 and 57.3 months, respectively. Toremifene and tamoxifen yielded similar overall survival values, with 5-year overall survival rates of 100% and 98.4%, respectively (p = 0.087). However, recurrence-free survival was significantly better in the toremifene group than in the tamoxifen group (p = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that recurrence-free survival improved independently with toremifene (HR = 0.385, 95% CI = 0.154-0.961; p = 0.041). Toxicity was similar in the two treatment groups with no women experiencing severe complications, other than hot flashes, which was more frequent in the toremifene patients (p = 0.049). No patients developed endometrial cancer. Toremifene may be a valid and

  17. Long-term survival of subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor biological drugs administered between 2008 and 2012 in a cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rivas, Noelia; Vazquez Rodriguez, Tomas R; Miranda Filloy, Jose A; Garcia-Porrua, Carlos; Sanchez-Andrade Fernández, Amalia

    2017-05-25

    To compare the survival of subcutaneous anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs used between 2008 and 2012 prescribed in accordance with clinical practice. Retrospective, observational study of the patients in our center diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We included patients who had received a subcutaneous anti-TNF agent for at least 6 months. The data were analyzed using the SPSS V17.0 statistical package. Forty-nine RA patients started subcutaneous biological treatment with an anti-TNF agent (32 with etanercept and 17 with adalimumab). The mean age was 45.94 years (75.5% female). The mean disease duration prior to starting anti-TNF administration was 2.67 years. The mean age at the start of treatment was 51.84 years, and the average Disease Activity Score 28 was 4.93. The median survival of the anti-TNF treatment was 8.40 years; the survival of etanercept was the longer of the two. The main reason for discontinuation was secondary failure (90.9%). In routine clinical practice, the survival of subcutaneous anti-TNF treatment was extensive and was independent of whether or not the patients received concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  18. Improved survival after an educational project on colon cancer management in the county of Stockholm--a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhoff, R; Martling, A; Sjövall, A; Granath, F; Hohenberger, W; Holm, T

    2015-11-01

    Outcomes in rectal cancer have improved dramatically after the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME). Recently, the TME concept has been transformed into that of complete mesocolic excision (CME) in an attempt to improve prognosis for patients with colon cancer. Multidisciplinary team (MDT) workshops including the CME concept were held annually between 2004 and 2008 at the Karolinska University Hospital. The workshops focused on preoperative staging, surgery and histopathology and included lectures and live surgery sessions. To compare survival before and after the "Stockholm Colon Cancer Project" all patients diagnosed with a right sided colon cancer between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2003 (Group 1) and from January 1, 2006 until December 31, 2008 (Group 2) in Stockholm were identified from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry (SCRCR). The proportion of patients having a tumour resection and the proportion having emergency surgery was higher in Group 1. There were more early tumours and more R0 resections in Group 2. Overall survival in all diagnosed patients and disease free survival after tumour resection was improved in the second time period. Surgical teaching programmes may have an impact on the management and outcome in colon cancer. The exact impact from the "Stockholm Colon Cancer Project" cannot be established, however it is likely that it contributed to the improved survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comorbidity and cervical cancer survival of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women: A semi-national registry-based cohort study (2003-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Abbey; Baade, Peter D; Valery, Patricia C; Whop, Lisa J; Moore, Suzanne P; Cunningham, Joan; Garvey, Gail; Brotherton, Julia M L; O'Connell, Dianne L; Canfell, Karen; Sarfati, Diana; Roder, David; Buckley, Elizabeth; Condon, John R

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women. Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+), for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women. Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4%) compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0%) and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%). Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality) when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4), indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality. Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted. The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and multidisciplinary

  20. Comorbidity and cervical cancer survival of Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australian women: A semi-national registry-based cohort study (2003-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbey Diaz

    Full Text Available Little is known about the impact of comorbidity on cervical cancer survival in Australian women, including whether Indigenous women's higher prevalence of comorbidity contributes to their lower survival compared to non-Indigenous women.Data for cervical cancers diagnosed in 2003-2012 were extracted from six Australian state-based cancer registries and linked to hospital inpatient records to identify comorbidity diagnoses. Five-year cause-specific and all-cause survival probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Flexible parametric models were used to estimate excess cause-specific mortality by Charlson comorbidity index score (0,1,2+, for Indigenous women compared to non-Indigenous women.Of 4,467 women, Indigenous women (4.4% compared to non-Indigenous women had more comorbidity at diagnosis (score ≥1: 24.2% vs. 10.0% and lower five-year cause-specific survival (60.2% vs. 76.6%. Comorbidity was associated with increased cervical cancer mortality for non-Indigenous women, but there was no evidence of such a relationship for Indigenous women. There was an 18% reduction in the Indigenous: non-Indigenous hazard ratio (excess mortality when comorbidity was included in the model, yet this reduction was not statistically significant. The excess mortality for Indigenous women was only evident among those without comorbidity (Indigenous: non-Indigenous HR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9-3.4, indicating that factors other than those measured in this study are contributing to the differential. In a subgroup of New South Wales women, comorbidity was associated with advanced-stage cancer, which in turn was associated with elevated cervical cancer mortality.Survival was lowest for women with comorbidity. However, there wasn't a clear comorbidity-survival gradient for Indigenous women. Further investigation of potential drivers of the cervical cancer survival differentials is warranted.The results highlight the need for cancer care guidelines and

  1. Impact of mammographic screening on ethnic and socioeconomic inequities in breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival in New Zealand: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seneviratne, Sanjeewa; Campbell, Ian; Scott, Nina; Shirley, Rachel; Lawrenson, Ross

    2015-01-31

    Indigenous Māori women experience a 60% higher breast cancer mortality rate compared with European women in New Zealand. We explored the impact of differences in rates of screen detected breast cancer on inequities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival between Māori and NZ European women. All primary breast cancers diagnosed in screening age women (as defined by the New Zealand National Breast Cancer Screening Programme) during 1999-2012 in the Waikato area (n = 1846) were identified from the Waikato Breast Cancer Register and the National Screening Database. Stage at diagnosis and survival were compared for screen detected (n = 1106) and non-screen detected (n = 740) breast cancer by ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Indigenous Māori women were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with more advanced cancer compared with NZ European women (OR = 1.51), and approximately a half of this difference was explained by lower rate of screen detected cancer for Māori women. For non-screen detected cancer, Māori had significantly lower 10-year breast cancer survival compared with NZ European (46.5% vs. 73.2%) as did most deprived compared with most affluent socioeconomic quintiles (64.8% vs. 81.1%). No significant survival differences were observed for screen detected cancer by ethnicity or socioeconomic deprivation. The lower rate of screen detected breast cancer appears to be a key contributor towards the higher rate of advanced cancer at diagnosis and lower breast cancer survival for Māori compared with NZ European women. Among women with screen-detected breast cancer, Māori women do just as well as NZ European women, demonstrating the success of breast screening for Māori women who are able to access screening. Increasing breast cancer screening rates has the potential to improve survival for Māori women and reduce breast cancer survival inequity between Māori and NZ European women.

  2. Does stage of cancer, comorbidity or lifestyle factors explain educational differences in survival after endometrial cancer? A cohort study among Danish women diagnosed 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelin, Ulla Holten; Ibfelt, Else; Andersen, Ingelise; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Høgdall, Claus; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have documented an association between socioeconomic position and survival from gynaecological cancer, but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between level of education and survival after endometrial cancer among Danish women; and whether differences in stage at diagnosis and comorbidity contribute to the educational differences in survival. Women with endometrial cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database, with information on clinical characteristics, surgery, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status. Information on highest attained education, cohabitation and comorbidity was obtained from nationwide administrative registries. Logistic regression models were used to determine the association between level of education and cancer stage and Cox proportional hazards model for analyses of overall survival. Of the 3638 patients identified during the study period, 787 had died by the end of 2011. The group of patients with short education had a higher odds ratio (OR) for advanced stage at diagnosis, but this was not statistically significant (adjusted OR 1.20; 95% CI 0.97-1.49). The age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for dying of patients with short education was 1.47 (CI 95% 1.17-1.80). Adjustment for cohabitation status, BMI, smoking and comorbidity did not change HRs, but further adjustment for cancer stage yielded a HR of 1.36 (1.11-1.67). Early detection in all educational groups might reduce social inequalities in survival, however, the unexplained increased risk for death after adjustment for prognostic factors, warrants increased attention to patients with short education in all age groups throughout treatment and rehabilitation.

  3. The Impact of Comorbid Depression on Educational Inequality in Survival after Acute Coronary Syndrome in a Cohort of 83 062 Patients and a Matched Reference Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with low socioeconomic position have higher rates of mortality after diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), but little is known about the mechanisms behind this social inequality. The aim of the present study was to examine whether any educational inequality in survival...... until December 2012 by linkage to person, patients and prescription registries. Educational status was defined at study entry and the impact of potential confounders and mediators (age, gender, cohabitation status, somatic comorbidity and depression) on the relation between education and mortality were...... the relative excess mortality rate in lower educated ACS patients was comparable with the excess risk associated with low education in the background population. This educational inequality in survival remained after adjustment for somatic comorbidity and depression....

  4. Effects of multidisciplinary team care on the survival of patients with different stages of non-small cell lung cancer: a national cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Pan

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, cancer is the top cause of death, and the mortality rate of lung cancer is the highest of all cancers. Some studies have demonstrated that multidisciplinary team (MDT care can improve survival rates of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. However, no study has discussed the effect of MDT care on different stages of NSCLC. The target population for this study consisted of patients with NSCLC newly diagnosed in the 2005-2010 Cancer Registry. The data was linked with the 2002-2011 National Health Insurance Research Database and the 2005-2011 Cause of Death Statistics Database. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to explore whether the involvement of MDT care had an effect on survival. This study applied the propensity score as a control variable to reduce selection bias between patients with and without involvement of MDT care. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR of death of MDT participants with stage III & IV NSCLC was significantly lower than that of MDT non-participants (adjusted HR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval = 0.84-0.90. This study revealed that MDT care are significantly associated with higher survival rate of patients with stage III and IV NSCLC, and thus MDT care should be used in the treatment of these patients.

  5. Failure pattern and survival after breast conserving therapy. Long-term results of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 89 TM cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngholm, C D; Laurberg, T; Alsner, J

    2016-01-01

    -year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival were 63.7% and 43.1%, respectively. Subdivided by age groups cumulative incidences at 20 years were LR: 18.9%, 10.5% and 12.4%, and DSM: 28.9%, 18.9% and 28.4% in young (≤45 years), middle-aged (46–55 years) and older (≥56 years) women, respectively....... Data from the DBCG database were completed via search through the Danish Pathology Data Bank and medical records. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 years. At 20 years the cumulative incidences of local recurrence (LR) and disease-specific mortality (DSM) were 15.3% and 25.8%, respectively. Twenty....... In an adjusted analysis age maintained a significant and independent effect on both LR and DSM. Conclusion: The DBCG 82 TM program was successfully implemented. The women treated with BCT in the DBCG 89 program displayed equal failure pattern and improved survival in comparison with women from the DBCG 82 TM...

  6. Risk-adjusted survival for adults following in-hospital cardiac arrest by day of week and time of day: observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily J; Power, Geraldine S; Nolan, Jerry; Soar, Jasmeet; Spearpoint, Ken; Gwinnutt, Carl; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2016-01-01

    Background Internationally, hospital survival is lower for patients admitted at weekends and at night. Data from the UK National Cardiac Arrest Audit (NCAA) indicate that crude hospital survival was worse after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at night versus day, and at weekends versus weekdays, despite similar frequency of events. Objective To describe IHCA demographics during three day/time periods—weekday daytime (Monday to Friday, 08:00 to 19:59), weekend daytime (Saturday and Sunday, 08:00 to 19:59) and night-time (Monday to Sunday, 20:00 to 07:59)—and to compare the associated rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for >20 min (ROSC>20 min) and survival to hospital discharge, adjusted for risk using previously developed NCAA risk models. To consider whether any observed difference could be attributed to differences in the case mix of patients resident in hospital and/or the administered care. Methods We performed a prospectively defined analysis of NCAA data from 27 700 patients aged ≥16 years receiving chest compressions and/or defibrillation and attended by a hospital-based resuscitation team in response to a resuscitation (2222) call in 146 UK acute hospitals. Results Risk-adjusted outcomes (OR (95% CI)) were worse (p20 min 0.88 (0.81 to 0.95); hospital survival 0.72 (0.64 to 0.80)), and night-time (ROSC>20 min 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76); hospital survival 0.58 (0.54 to 0.63)) compared with weekday daytime. The effects were stronger for non-shockable than shockable rhythms, but there was no significant interaction between day/time of arrest and age, or day/time of arrest and arrest location. While many daytime IHCAs involved procedures, restricting the analyses to IHCAs in medical admissions with an arrest location of ward produced results that are broadly in line with the primary analyses. Conclusions IHCAs attended by the hospital-based resuscitation team during nights and weekends have substantially worse outcomes than during

  7. Risk-adjusted survival for adults following in-hospital cardiac arrest by day of week and time of day: observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily J; Smith, Gary B; Power, Geraldine S; Harrison, David A; Nolan, Jerry; Soar, Jasmeet; Spearpoint, Ken; Gwinnutt, Carl; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2016-11-01

    Internationally, hospital survival is lower for patients admitted at weekends and at night. Data from the UK National Cardiac Arrest Audit (NCAA) indicate that crude hospital survival was worse after in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) at night versus day, and at weekends versus weekdays, despite similar frequency of events. To describe IHCA demographics during three day/time periods-weekday daytime (Monday to Friday, 08:00 to 19:59), weekend daytime (Saturday and Sunday, 08:00 to 19:59) and night-time (Monday to Sunday, 20:00 to 07:59)-and to compare the associated rates of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) for >20 min (ROSC>20 min) and survival to hospital discharge, adjusted for risk using previously developed NCAA risk models. To consider whether any observed difference could be attributed to differences in the case mix of patients resident in hospital and/or the administered care. We performed a prospectively defined analysis of NCAA data from 27 700 patients aged ≥16 years receiving chest compressions and/or defibrillation and attended by a hospital-based resuscitation team in response to a resuscitation (2222) call in 146 UK acute hospitals. Risk-adjusted outcomes (OR (95% CI)) were worse (p20 min 0.88 (0.81 to 0.95); hospital survival 0.72 (0.64 to 0.80)), and night-time (ROSC>20 min 0.72 (0.68 to 0.76); hospital survival 0.58 (0.54 to 0.63)) compared with weekday daytime. The effects were stronger for non-shockable than shockable rhythms, but there was no significant interaction between day/time of arrest and age, or day/time of arrest and arrest location. While many daytime IHCAs involved procedures, restricting the analyses to IHCAs in medical admissions with an arrest location of ward produced results that are broadly in line with the primary analyses. IHCAs attended by the hospital-based resuscitation team during nights and weekends have substantially worse outcomes than during weekday daytimes. Organisational or care differences at

  8. ePCR: an R-package for survival and time-to-event prediction in advanced prostate cancer, applied to real-world patient cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laajala, Teemu D; Murtojärvi, Mika; Virkki, Arho; Aittokallio, Tero

    2018-06-15

    Prognostic models are widely used in clinical decision-making, such as risk stratification and tailoring treatment strategies, with the aim to improve patient outcomes while reducing overall healthcare costs. While prognostic models have been adopted into clinical use, benchmarking their performance has been difficult due to lack of open clinical datasets. The recent DREAM 9.5 Prostate Cancer Challenge carried out an extensive benchmarking of prognostic models for metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (mCRPC), based on multiple cohorts of open clinical trial data. We make available an open-source implementation of the top-performing model, ePCR, along with an extended toolbox for its further re-use and development, and demonstrate how to best apply the implemented model to real-world data cohorts of advanced prostate cancer patients. The open-source R-package ePCR and its reference documentation are available at the Central R Archive Network (CRAN): https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=ePCR. R-vignette provides step-by-step examples for the ePCR usage. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Outcomes by area of residence deprivation in a cohort of oral cancer patients: Survival, health-related quality of life, and place of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, Joseph; Lowe, Derek; Rogers, Simon N

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer patients from lower socio-economic backgrounds have worse outcomes of survival and health related quality of life. The mechanism of cause is not fully understood. The purpose of the paper is to report treatment selection, survival, health related quality of life, cause and place of death in relation to deprivation status. 553 patients treated for oral cancer between 2008 and 2012 were identified from records at University hospital. Mortality was tracked via the Office of National Statistics (ONS) and health-related quality of life was measured using the University Washington quality of life questionnaire (UW-QoLv4). Postcodes of residence at diagnosis were used to obtain index of multiple deprivation (IMD) 2010 scores. Nearly half of the sample (47%) lived in the 'most deprived' IMD 2010 quartile of residential areas in England and such patients when treated with curative intent using surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy had worse survival than patients living elsewhere, p=0.01 after adjusting for pathological staging and age group. There were no notable differences by IMD group in cancer being mentioned anywhere in part 1 or part 2 of the death certificate or in place of death. After adjustment for patient and clinical factors patients residing in more deprived areas had worse quality of life outcomes in regard to social-emotional functioning and overall quality of life but not in regard to physical oral function. Addressing inequalities in health care related to deprivation is a priority for patients with oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Adjuvant Chemotherapy After Radical Cystectomy for Urothelial Bladder Cancer: Outcome and Prognostic Factors for Survival in a French Multicenter, Contemporary Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouessel, Damien; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Houédé, Nadine; Vordos, Dimitri; Loriot, Yohann; Chevreau, Christine; Sevin, Emmanuel; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Taille, Alexandre de la; Le Thuaut, Aurélie; Allory, Yves; Culine, Stéphane

    2017-02-01

    In the past decade, adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after radical cystectomy (RC) was preferred worldwide for patients with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer. In this study we aimed to determine the outcome of patients who received AC and evaluated prognostic factors associated with survival. We retrospectively analyzed 226 consecutive patients treated in 6 academic hospitals between 2000 and 2009. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for center to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals were used. The median age was 62.4 (range, 35-82) years. Patients had pT3/pT4 and/or pN+ in 180 (79.6%) and 168 patients (74.3%), respectively. Median lymph node (LN) density was 25% (range, 3.1-100). Median time between RC and AC was 61.5 (range, 18-162) days. Gemcitabine with cisplatin, gemcitabine with carboplatin, and MVAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) regimens were delivered in 161 (71.2%), 49 (21.7%), and 12 patients (5.3%) of patients, respectively. The median number of cycles was 4 (range, 1-6). Thirteen patients (5.7%) with LN metastases also received adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy (ART). After a median follow-up of 4.2 years, 5-year overall survival (OS) was 40.7%. In multivariate analysis, pT ≥3 stage (HR, 1.73; P = .05), LN density >50% (HR, 1.94; P = .03), and number of AC cycles Classical prognostic features associated with survival are not modified by the use of AC. Patients who derived benefit from AC had a low LN density and received at least 4 cycles of treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CpG island methylator phenotype is an independent predictor of survival after curative resection for colorectal cancer: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Huh, Jung Wook; Kim, Hyeong Rok; Kim, Young Jin

    2017-08-01

    The CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) is found in approximately 30% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases. However, the role of CIMP status in predicting oncologic outcomes in curatively resected CRC is still unclear. Between January 2006 and December 2006, we retrospectively reviewed 157 consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery for CRC. Prognostic significance of CIMP status was evaluated using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. CIMP-high (H) and CIMP-none/low (N/L) tumors were found in 50 cases (31.8%) and 107 cases (68.2%), respectively. CIMP-H tumors were significantly associated with female sex, colonic location, poorly/mucinous histologic type, higher T category, perineural invasion, and MSI-high status (P = 0.001). During a median of 64.5 months, tumor recurrence developed in 47 (29.9%) patients. The 5-year disease-free survival for CIMP-H and CIMP-N/L was 61.4% and 76.3% (P = 0.018). In addition, multivariate analysis showed that CIMP-H was also a significant prognostic factor (P = 0.042). When analysis was performed according to anatomical location, more marked survival differences were observed in patients with colon cancer (P = 0.026) than in patients with rectal cancer (P = 0.210). Similarly, the role of CIMP status as a prognostic indicator was more prominent in patients with stage I/II (P = 0.006) than in patients with stage III/IV CRC (P = 0.65). DNA methylation status can be considered as a useful predictor of survival after CRC surgery, particularly for patients with stage I/II disease or colon cancer. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Effects of being uninsured or underinsured and living in extremely poor neighborhoods on colon cancer care and survival in California: historical cohort analysis, 1996—2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorey Kevin M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the mediating effects of health insurance on poverty-colon cancer care and survival relationships and the moderating effects of poverty on health insurance-colon cancer care and survival relationships among women and men in California. Methods We analyzed registry data for 3,291 women and 3,009 men diagnosed with colon cancer between 1996 and 2000 and followed until 2011 on lymph node investigation, stage at diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, wait times and survival. We obtained socioeconomic data for individual residences from the 2000 census to categorize the following neighborhoods: high poverty (30% or more poor, middle poverty (5-29% poor and low poverty (less than 5% poor. Primary health insurers were Medicaid, Medicare, private or none. Results Evidence of mediation was observed for women, but not for men. For women, the apparent effect of poverty disappeared in the presence of payer, and the effects of all forms of health insurance seemed strengthened. All were advantaged on 6-year survival compared to the uninsured: Medicaid (RR = 1.83, Medicare (RR = 1.92 and private (RR = 1.83. Evidence of moderation was also only observed for women. The effects of all forms of health insurance were stronger for women in low poverty neighborhoods: Medicaid (RR = 2.90, Medicare (RR = 2.91 and private (RR = 2.60. For men, only main effects of poverty and payers were observed, the advantaging effect of private insurance being largest. Across colon cancer care processes, Medicare seemed most instrumental for women, private payers for men. Conclusions Health insurance substantially mediates the quality of colon cancer care and poverty seems to make the effects of being uninsured or underinsured even worse, especially among women in the United States. These findings are consistent with the theory that more facilitative social and economic capital is available in more affluent neighborhoods, where women

  13. [Revival after Ebola: multidisciplinary assessment at 1 year, prospect and follow-up study of surviving patients from Ebola in Guinea (PostEboGui cohort)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellati, P; Touré, A; Sow, M S; Cécé, K; Taverne, B; Desclaux, A; Barry, M; Etard, J-F; Delaporte, E

    2016-10-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that spread in West Africa from the end of 2013 to early 2016 has reached more people than all past epidemics. Beyond care management of acute phase ill patients and measures for the control of the epidemic, the outcome of Ebola survivors became an important question as their number increased and raised new issues. A multidisciplinary prospective cohort of survivors in Guinea has been launched by IRD UMI 233 and Donka National Hospital, Conakry, Guinea, to assess the long-term clinical, psychological, sociological, immunological, and viral outcomes potentially related to EVD. This paper describes PostEboGui Programme, constraints and changes to the initial proposal, participants, first results, and new issues, 1 year after its start, in a descriptive and critical view. We started also to work on ethical aspects in the context of epidemics and of mass interventions with a risk of overinvestigation of patients.

  14. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel DEAB. Systems analysis. Ultimate disposal concepts. Final report. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.

    1995-10-01

    The results elaborated under the project, systems analysis of mixed radwaste disposal concepts and systems analysis of ultimate disposal concepts, provide a comprehensive description and assessment of a radwaste repository, for heat generating wastes and for wastes with negligible heat generation, and thus represent the knowledge basis for forthcoming planning work for a repository in an abandoned salt mine. A fact to be considered is that temperature field calculations have shown that there is room for further optimization with regard to the mine layout. The following aspects have been analysed: (1) safety of operation; (2) technical feasibility and realisation and licensability of the concepts; (3) operational aspects; (4) varieties of utilization of the salt dome for the intended purpose (boreholes for waste emplacement, emplacement in galleries, multi-horizon systems); (5) long-term structural stability of the mine; (6) economic efficiency; (7) nuclear materials safeguards. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Changes in health-related quality of life and quality of care among terminally ill cancer patients and survival prediction: Multicenter prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung; Lee, Woo Jin; Do, Young Rok; Lee, Keun Seok; Jung, Kyung Hae; Heo, Dae Seog; Kim, Sam Yong; Park, Sang Yoon; Jeong, Hyun Sik; Kang, Jung Hun; Kim, Si-Young; Park, Sook Ryun; Yun, Young Ho

    2015-08-01

    This study examined changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and quality of care (QoC) as perceived by terminally ill cancer patients and a stratified set of HRQoL or QoC factors that are most likely to influence survival at the end of life (EoL). We administered questionnaires to 619 consecutive patients immediately after they were diagnosed with terminal cancer by physicians at 11 university hospitals and at the National Cancer Center in Korea. Subjects were followed up over 161.2 person-years until their deaths. We measured HRQoL using the core 30-item European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, and QoC using the Quality Care Questionnaire-End of Life (QCQ-EoL). We evaluated changes in HRQoL and QoC issues during the first three months after enrollment, performing sensitivity analysis by using data generated via four methods (complete case analysis, available case analysis, the last observation carried forward, and multiple imputation). Emotional and cognitive functioning decreased significantly over time, while dyspnea, constipation, and pain increased significantly. Dignity-conserving care, care by healthcare professionals, family relationships, and QCQ-EoL total score decreased significantly. Global QoL, appetite loss, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG-PS) scores were significantly associated with survival. Future standardization of palliative care should be focused on assessment of these deteriorated types of quality. Accurate estimates of the length of life remaining for terminally ill cancer patients by such EoL-enhancing factors as global QoL, appetite loss, and ECOG-PS are needed to help patients experience a dignified and comfortable death.

  16. Identification of histological correlates of overall survival in lower grade gliomas using a bag-of-words paradigm: A preliminary analysis based on hematoxylin & eosin stained slides from the lower grade glioma cohort of the cancer genome Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid Trenton Powell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glioma, the most common primary brain neoplasm, describes a heterogeneous tumor of multiple histologic subtypes and cellular origins. At clinical presentation, gliomas are graded according to the World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, which reflect the malignant characteristics of the tumor based on histopathological and molecular features. Lower grade diffuse gliomas (LGGs (WHO Grade II–III have fewer malignant characteristics than high-grade gliomas (WHO Grade IV, and a better clinical prognosis, however, accurate discrimination of overall survival (OS remains a challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify tissue-derived image features using a machine learning approach to predict OS in a mixed histology and grade cohort of lower grade glioma patients. To achieve this aim, we used H and E stained slides from the public LGG cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA to create a machine learned dictionary of “image-derived visual words” associated with OS. We then evaluated the combined efficacy of using these visual words in predicting short versus long OS by training a generalized machine learning model. Finally, we mapped these predictive visual words back to molecular signaling cascades to infer potential drivers of the machine learned survival-associated phenotypes. Methods: We analyzed digitized histological sections downloaded from the LGG cohort of TCGA using a bag-of-words approach. This method identified a diverse set of histological patterns that were further correlated with OS, histology, and molecular signaling activity using Cox regression, analysis of variance, and Spearman correlation, respectively. A support vector machine (SVM model was constructed to discriminate patients into short and long OS groups dichotomized at 24-month. Results: This method identified disease-relevant phenotypes associated with OS, some of which are correlated with disease-associated molecular pathways. From these image

  17. Identification of Histological Correlates of Overall Survival in Lower Grade Gliomas Using a Bag-of-words Paradigm: A Preliminary Analysis Based on Hematoxylin & Eosin Stained Slides from the Lower Grade Glioma Cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Reid Trenton; Olar, Adriana; Narang, Shivali; Rao, Ganesh; Sulman, Erik; Fuller, Gregory N; Rao, Arvind

    2017-01-01

    Glioma, the most common primary brain neoplasm, describes a heterogeneous tumor of multiple histologic subtypes and cellular origins. At clinical presentation, gliomas are graded according to the World Health Organization guidelines (WHO), which reflect the malignant characteristics of the tumor based on histopathological and molecular features. Lower grade diffuse gliomas (LGGs) (WHO Grade II-III) have fewer malignant characteristics than high-grade gliomas (WHO Grade IV), and a better clinical prognosis, however, accurate discrimination of overall survival (OS) remains a challenge. In this study, we aimed to identify tissue-derived image features using a machine learning approach to predict OS in a mixed histology and grade cohort of lower grade glioma patients. To achieve this aim, we used H and E stained slides from the public LGG cohort of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to create a machine learned dictionary of "image-derived visual words" associated with OS. We then evaluated the combined efficacy of using these visual words in predicting short versus long OS by training a generalized machine learning model. Finally, we mapped these predictive visual words back to molecular signaling cascades to infer potential drivers of the machine learned survival-associated phenotypes. We analyzed digitized histological sections downloaded from the LGG cohort of TCGA using a bag-of-words approach. This method identified a diverse set of histological patterns that were further correlated with OS, histology, and molecular signaling activity using Cox regression, analysis of variance, and Spearman correlation, respectively. A support vector machine (SVM) model was constructed to discriminate patients into short and long OS groups dichotomized at 24-month. This method identified disease-relevant phenotypes associated with OS, some of which are correlated with disease-associated molecular pathways. From these image-derived phenotypes, a generalized SVM model which could

  18. Post-treatment surveillance testing of patients with colorectal cancer and the association with survival: protocol for a retrospective cohort study of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Robert B; Jiban, Md Jibanul Haque; Choudhury, Kanak; Loerzel, Victoria; Specogna, Adrian V; Troy, Steven P; Zhang, Shunpu

    2018-04-28

    Although the colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rate has significantly improved over the past several decades, many patients will have a recurrence following curative treatment. Despite this high risk of recurrence, adherence to CRC surveillance testing guidelines is poor which increases cancer-related morbidity and potentially, mortality. Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with varying surveillance strategies have yielded conflicting evidence regarding the survival benefit associated with surveillance testing. However, due to differences in study protocols and limitations of sample size and length of follow-up, the RCT may not be the best study design to evaluate this relationship. An observational comparative effectiveness research study can overcome the sample size/follow-up limitations of RCT designs while assessing real-world variability in receipt of surveillance testing to provide much needed evidence on this important clinical issue. The gap in knowledge that this study will address concerns whether adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network CRC surveillance guidelines improves survival. Patients with colon and rectal cancer aged 66-84 years, who have been diagnosed between 2002 and 2008 and have been included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database, are eligible for this retrospective cohort study. To minimise bias, patients had to survive at least 12 months following the completion of treatment. Adherence to surveillance testing up to 5 years post-treatment will be assessed in each year of follow-up and overall. Binomial regression will be used to assess the association between patients' characteristics and adherence. Survival analysis will be conducted to assess the association between adherence and 5-year survival. This study was approved by the National Cancer Institute and the Institutional Review Board of the University of Central Florida. The results of this study will be disseminated by publishing in

  19. Dose survival of G0 lymphocytes irradiated in vitro: A test for a possible population bias in the cohort of atomic-bomb survivors exposed to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori; Sposto, R.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1993-04-01

    An in-vitro colony assay was employed for X-ray dose-survival studies of peripheral-blood lymphocytes from 117 Adult Health Study participants with Dosimetry System 1986 doses 10 values (the X-ray dose required to kill 90% of cells) for these two groups were 3.40 Gy (7.5%) and 3.34 Gy (7.8%), respectively. No statistically significant differences in their distributions were detected. In addition, neither sex nor age affected the in-vitro radiosensitivity of lymphocytes for either group or for all subjects combined. Therefore it was concluded that, as far as the G 0 -lymphocyte colony assay is concerned, there is no evidence for preferential loss of individuals with higher cellular radiosensitivity among the high-dose atomic bomb survivors. However, it should be noted that the interindividual variations in cellular radiosensitivity were not large compared with the experimental variations. Consequently, the above-mentioned results should be considered due to the small heterogeneity of lymphocyte radiosensitivity among the survivors. (J.P.N.)

  20. Addition and Subtraction Theory of TCM Using Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction and Naturopathy in Predicting Survival Outcomes of Primary Liver Cancer Patients: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the therapeutic effect of combined Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction and naturopathic medicine therapy on survival outcomes of patients’ PLC. In XCHD group (n=76, patients were treated with Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction in accordance with the addition and subtraction theory of TCM; in NM group (n=89, patients were managed by naturopathic medicine; in combined group (n=70, the same volume of Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction combined with naturopathic medicine procedures was applied. There were no evident statistical differences of age, gender, KPS score, body weight, smoking status, AFP levels, HbsAg status, TBIL levels, tumor diameters, and numbers among different groups, showing comparability among groups. No significant difference was found regarding the total remission rate and stability rate of tumors in patients treated by Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction and naturopathic medicine, except the combined therapy. KPS scores were significantly improved after treatment among groups. After treatment, 52.8% cases maintained a stable or slight increase in weight, of which 42.1%, 48.3%, and 70.0% cases maintained weight stably in the XCHD group, NM group, and combined treatment group, respectively. Xiao-Chaihu-Decoction associated with naturopathy may predict improved prognostic outcomes in PLC patients, along with improved remission and stability rates, increased KPS scores, and stable weight maintenance.

  1. Elevated prostate specific antigen and reduced 10-year survival among a cohort of Danish men consecutively referred from primary care to an urological department during 2005-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillig, Thore; Nielsen, Torben Kjær; Hansen, Steen Ingemann

    2017-01-01

    It remains unclear whether total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) or complex PSA (cPSA) has the best diagnostic performance. Additionally, the utility of percentage free PSA (%fPSA) is still debated. Our objectives were to compare the diagnostic performances of tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA among patients...... diagnosed with PCa and 962 patients were found without PCa. Among the PCa patients, the median age, tPSA, cPSA, and %fPSA levels were 70.8 years, 13.4 μg/L, 10.8 μg/L, and 12.6%. For patients without PCa the results were 67.5 years, 2.5 μg/L, 1.9 μg/L, and 24.9%. The sensitivity, specificity, PVpos, PVneg......, and efficiency of tPSA and cPSA were overlapping (p > .05). In the tPSA interval >4 μg/L - ≤20 μg/L, %fPSA excluded PCa with a PVneg of 72.4%; 38.5% of PCa patients had a tPSA concentration >20 μg/L at the time of referral and these patients had a reduced 10-year survival as compared to patients with tPSA...

  2. Vitamin D levels and their associations with survival and major disease outcomes in a large cohort of patients with chronic graft-vs-host disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katić, Mašenjka; Pirsl, Filip; Steinberg, Seth M.; Dobbin, Marnie; Curtis, Lauren M.; Pulanić, Dražen; Desnica, Lana; Titarenko, Irina; Pavletic, Steven Z.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To identify the factors associated with vitamin D status in patients with chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD) and evaluate the association between serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and cGVHD characteristics and clinical outcomes defined by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria. Methods 310 cGVHD patients enrolled in the NIH cGVHD natural history study (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00092235) were analyzed. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were used to determine the associations between various parameters and 25(OH)D levels, dichotomized into categorical variables: ≤20 and >20 ng/mL, and as a continuous parameter. Multiple logistic regression was used to develop a predictive model for low vitamin D. Survival analysis and association between cGVHD outcomes and 25(OH)D as a continuous as well as categorical variable: ≤20 and >20 ng/mL; <50 and ≥50 ng/mL, and among three ordered categories: ≤20, 20-50, and ≥50 ng/mL, was performed. PMID:27374829

  3. Effect of tricuspid regurgitation and the right heart on survival after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: insights from the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves II inoperable cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindman, Brian R; Maniar, Hersh S; Jaber, Wael A; Lerakis, Stamatios; Mack, Michael J; Suri, Rakesh M; Thourani, Vinod H; Babaliaros, Vasilis; Kereiakes, Dean J; Whisenant, Brian; Miller, D Craig; Tuzcu, E Murat; Svensson, Lars G; Xu, Ke; Doshi, Darshan; Leon, Martin B; Zajarias, Alan

    2015-04-01

    Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction adversely affect outcomes in patients with heart failure or mitral valve disease, but their impact on outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement has not been well characterized. Among 542 patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis treated in the Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) II trial (inoperable cohort) with a Sapien or Sapien XT valve via a transfemoral approach, baseline TR severity, right atrial and RV size and RV function were evaluated by echocardiography according to established guidelines. One-year mortality was 16.9%, 17.2%, 32.6%, and 61.1% for patients with no/trace (n=167), mild (n=205), moderate (n=117), and severe (n=18) TR, respectively (Pright atrial and RV enlargement were also associated with increased mortality (Pright atrial and RV enlargement, but not RV dysfunction. There was an interaction between TR and mitral regurgitation severity (P=0.04); the increased hazard of death associated with moderate/severe TR only occurred in those with no/trace/mild mitral regurgitation. In inoperable patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement, moderate or severe TR and right heart enlargement are independently associated with increased 1-year mortality; however, the association between moderate or severe TR and an increased hazard of death was only found in those with minimal mitral regurgitation at baseline. These findings may improve our assessment of anticipated benefit from transcatheter aortic valve replacement and support the need for future studies on TR and the right heart, including whether concomitant treatment of TR in operable but high-risk patients with aortic stenosis is warranted. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01314313. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Multimorbidity and survival for patients with acute myocardial infarction in England and Wales: Latent class analysis of a nationwide population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Marlous; Dondo, Tatendashe B; Yan, Andrew T; Mamas, Mamas A; Timmis, Adam D; Deanfield, John E; Jernberg, Tomas; Hemingway, Harry; Fox, Keith A A; Gale, Chris P

    2018-03-01

    There is limited knowledge of the scale and impact of multimorbidity for patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the extent to which multimorbidity is associated with long-term survival following AMI. This national observational study included 693,388 patients (median age 70.7 years, 452,896 [65.5%] male) from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (England and Wales) who were admitted with AMI between 1 January 2003 and 30 June 2013. There were 412,809 (59.5%) patients with multimorbidity at the time of admission with AMI, i.e., having at least 1 of the following long-term health conditions: diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, heart failure, renal failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, or hypertension. Those with heart failure, renal failure, or cerebrovascular disease had the worst outcomes (39.5 [95% CI 39.0-40.0], 38.2 [27.7-26.8], and 26.6 [25.2-26.4] deaths per 100 person-years, respectively). Latent class analysis revealed 3 multimorbidity phenotype clusters: (1) a high multimorbidity class, with concomitant heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension, (2) a medium multimorbidity class, with peripheral vascular disease and hypertension, and (3) a low multimorbidity class. Patients in class 1 were less likely to receive pharmacological therapies compared with class 2 and 3 patients (including aspirin, 83.8% versus 87.3% and 87.2%, respectively; β-blockers, 74.0% versus 80.9% and 81.4%; and statins, 80.6% versus 85.9% and 85.2%). Flexible parametric survival modelling indicated that patients in class 1 and class 2 had a 2.4-fold (95% CI 2.3-2.5) and 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.4-1.5) increased risk of death and a loss in life expectancy of 2.89 and 1.52 years, respectively, compared with those in class 3 over the 8.4-year follow-up period. The study was limited to all-cause mortality due to the lack of available cause-specific mortality

  5. Multimorbidity and survival for patients with acute myocardial infarction in England and Wales: Latent class analysis of a nationwide population-based cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous Hall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is limited knowledge of the scale and impact of multimorbidity for patients who have had an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the extent to which multimorbidity is associated with long-term survival following AMI.This national observational study included 693,388 patients (median age 70.7 years, 452,896 [65.5%] male from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (England and Wales who were admitted with AMI between 1 January 2003 and 30 June 2013. There were 412,809 (59.5% patients with multimorbidity at the time of admission with AMI, i.e., having at least 1 of the following long-term health conditions: diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma, heart failure, renal failure, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, or hypertension. Those with heart failure, renal failure, or cerebrovascular disease had the worst outcomes (39.5 [95% CI 39.0-40.0], 38.2 [27.7-26.8], and 26.6 [25.2-26.4] deaths per 100 person-years, respectively. Latent class analysis revealed 3 multimorbidity phenotype clusters: (1 a high multimorbidity class, with concomitant heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension, (2 a medium multimorbidity class, with peripheral vascular disease and hypertension, and (3 a low multimorbidity class. Patients in class 1 were less likely to receive pharmacological therapies compared with class 2 and 3 patients (including aspirin, 83.8% versus 87.3% and 87.2%, respectively; β-blockers, 74.0% versus 80.9% and 81.4%; and statins, 80.6% versus 85.9% and 85.2%. Flexible parametric survival modelling indicated that patients in class 1 and class 2 had a 2.4-fold (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.4-1.5 increased risk of death and a loss in life expectancy of 2.89 and 1.52 years, respectively, compared with those in class 3 over the 8.4-year follow-up period. The study was limited to all-cause mortality due to the lack of available cause

  6. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  7. Sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigo, P.; Sarghiuta, R.; Estefen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive sensitivity analysis carried out by the Committee III.1 "Ultimate Strength" of ISSC?2003 in the framework of a benchmark on the ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels. Previously, different benchmarks were presented by ISSC committees on ul...

  8. After accounting for competing causes of death and more advanced stage, do Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples with cancer still have worse survival? A population-based cohort study in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Walton, Richard; You, Hui; Baker, Deborah; Roder, David; Currow, David; Aranda, Sanchia

    2017-06-02

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia have been found to have poorer cancer survival than non-Aboriginal people. However, use of conventional relative survival analyses is limited due to a lack of life tables. This cohort study examined whether poorer survival persist after accounting for competing risks of death from other causes and disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis, for all cancers collectively and by cancer site. People diagnosed in 2000-2008 were extracted from the population-based New South Wales Cancer Registry. Aboriginal status was multiply imputed for people with missing information (12.9%). Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 'advanced stage' at diagnosis (separately for distant and distant/regional stage). Survival was examined using competing risk regression to compute subhazard ratios (SHRs) with 95%CIs. Of the 301,356 cases, 2517 (0.84%) identified as Aboriginal (0.94% after imputation). After adjusting for age, sex, year of diagnosis, socio-economic status, remoteness, and cancer site Aboriginal peoples were more likely to be diagnosed with distant (OR 1.30, 95%CI 1.17-1.44) or distant/regional stage (OR 1.29, 95%CI 1.18-1.40) for all cancers collectively. This applied to cancers of the female breast, uterus, prostate, kidney, others (those not included in other categories) and cervix (when analyses were restricted to cases with known stages/known Aboriginal status). Aboriginal peoples had a higher hazard of death than non-Aboriginal people after accounting for competing risks from other causes of death, socio-demographic factors, stage and cancer site (SHR 1.40, 95%CI 1.31-1.50 for all cancers collectively). Consistent results applied to colorectal, lung, breast, prostate and other cancers. Aboriginal peoples with cancer have an elevated hazard of cancer death compared with non-Aboriginal people, after accounting for more advanced stage and competing

  9. Ultimate Lateral Capacity of Rigid Pile in c- φ Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-min

    2018-03-01

    To date no analytical solution of the pile ultimate lateral capacity for the general c- φ soil has been obtained. In the present study, a new dimensionless embedded ratio was proposed and the analytical solutions of ultimate lateral capacity and rotation center of rigid pile in c- φ soils were obtained. The results showed that both the dimensionless ultimate lateral capacity and dimensionless rotation center were the univariate functions of the embedded ratio. Also, the ultimate lateral capacity in the c- φ soil was the combination of the ultimate lateral capacity ( f c ) in the clay, and the ultimate lateral capacity ( f φ ) in the sand. Therefore, the Broms chart for clay, solution for clay ( φ=0) put forward by Poulos and Davis, solution for sand ( c=0) obtained by Petrasovits and Awad, and Kondner's ultimate bending moment were all proven to be the special cases of the general solution in the present study. A comparison of the field and laboratory tests in 93 cases showed that the average ratios of the theoretical values to the experimental value ranged from 0.85 to 1.15. Also, the theoretical values displayed a good agreement with the test values.

  10. 10-year survival rate and the incidence of peri-implant disease of 374 titanium dental implants with a SLA surface: a prospective cohort study in 177 fully and partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, Frank J J; Ofec, Ronen; Schulten, Engelbert A J M; Ten Bruggenkate, Christiaan M

    2015-10-01

    This prospective cohort study evaluates the 10-year survival and incidence of peri-implant disease at implant and patient level of sandblasted, large grid, and acid-etched titanium dental implants (Straumann, soft tissue level, SLA surface) in fully and partially edentulous patients. Patients who had dental implant surgery in the period between November 1997 and June 2001, with a follow-up of at least 10 years, were investigated for clinical and radiological examination. Among the 506 inserted dental implants in 250 patients, 10-year data regarding the outcome of implants were available for 374 dental implants in 177 patients. In the current study, peri-implantitis was defined as advanced bone loss (≧1.5 mm. postloading) in combination with bleeding on probing. At 10-year follow-up, only one implant was lost (0.3%) 2 months after implant surgery due to insufficient osseointegration. The average bone loss at 10 year postloading was 0.52 mm. Advanced bone loss at 10-year follow-up was present in 35 dental implants (9.8%). Seven percent of the observed dental implants showed bleeding on probing in combination with advanced bone loss and 4.2% when setting the threshold for advanced bone loss at 2.0 mm. Advanced bone loss without bleeding on probing was present in 2.8% of all implants. In this prospective study, the 10-year survival rate at implant and patient level was 99.7% and 99.4%, respectively. Peri-implantitis was present in 7% of the observed dental implants according to the above-mentioned definition of peri-implantitis. This study shows that SLA implants offer predictable long-term results as support in the treatment of fully and partially edentulous patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Influence of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive consideration regarding influence mechanisms of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells is taken to satisfy requirement of deep-sea structural design. The feasibility of innovative numerical procedure that combines welding simulation and non-linear buckling analysis is verified by a good agreement to experimental and theoretical results. Spherical shells with a series of wall thicknesses to radius ratios are studied. Residual stress and deformations from welding process are investigated separately. Variant influence mechanisms are discovered. Residual stress is demonstrated to be influential to stress field and buckling behavior but not to the ultimate strength. Deformations are proved to have a significant impact on ultimate strength. When central angles are less than critical value, concave magnitudes reduce ultimate strengths linearly. However, deformations with central angles above critical value are of much greater harm. Less imperfection susceptibility is found in spherical shells with larger wall thicknesses to radius ratios.

  12. Ultimate guide to YouTube for business

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate Guide to YouTube for Business helps small business owners create marketing videos to help promote their products, share their story, build a community around their brand without spending a fortune-all the while making money.

  13. A comparison of the recording of comorbidity in primary and secondary care by using the Charlson Index to predict short-term and long-term survival in a routine linked data cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, C J; West, J; Card, T R

    2015-06-05

    Hospital admission records provide snapshots of clinical histories for a subset of the population admitted to hospital. In contrast, primary care records provide continuous clinical histories for complete populations, but might lack detail about inpatient stays. Therefore, combining primary and secondary care records should improve the ability of comorbidity scores to predict survival in population-based studies, and provide better adjustment for case-mix differences when assessing mortality outcomes. Cohort study. English primary and secondary care 1 January 2005 to 1 January 2010. All patients 20 years and older registered to a primary care practice contributing to the linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink from England. The performance of the Charlson index with mortality was compared when derived from either primary or secondary care data or both. This was assessed in relation to short-term and long-term survival, age, consultation rate, and specific acute and chronic diseases. 657,264 people were followed up from 1 January 2005. Although primary care recorded more comorbidity than secondary care, the resulting C statistics for the Charlson index remained similar: 0.86 and 0.87, respectively. Higher consultation rates and restricted age bands reduced the performance of the Charlson index, but the index's excellent performance persisted over longer follow-up; the C statistic was 0.87 over 1 year, and 0.85 over all 5 years of follow-up. The Charlson index derived from secondary care comorbidity had a greater effect than primary care comorbidity in reducing the association of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with mortality. However, they had a similar effect in reducing the association of diabetes with mortality. These findings support the use of the Charlson index from linked data and show that secondary care comorbidity coding performed at least as well as that derived from primary care in predicting survival. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  14. A retrospective matched cohort study evaluating the effects of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tubes on nutritional status and survival in patients with advanced gastroesophageal malignancies undergoing systemic anti-cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Scott; Williams, John P; Bhatti, Harsimrandeep; Kachaamy, Toufic; Weber, Jeffrey; Weiss, Glen J

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with cancer or other systemic illnesses can experience malnutrition. One way to mitigate malnutrition is by insertion of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube (PEG tube). The goal of this retrospective matched cohort study is to evaluate if PEG tube placement improved nutritional status and overall survival (OS) in advanced gastroesophageal (GE) cancer patients who are undergoing anti-neoplastic therapy. GE cancer patients who were treated and evaluated by a nutritionist and had at least 2 nutritionist follow-up visits were identified. Patients with PEG tube were matched to patients that did not undergo PEG placement (non-PEG). Clinical characteristics, GE symptoms reported at nutrition follow-up visits, and OS were recorded. 20 PEG and 18 non-PEG cases met criteria for further analyses. After correction for multiple testing, there were no OS differences between PEG and non-PEG, treatment naive and previously treated. However, PEG esophageal carcinoma has statistically significant inferior OS compared with non-PEG esophageal carcinoma. PEG placement did not significantly reduce the proportion of patients with weight loss between the initial nutrition assessment and 12-week follow-up. In this small study, PEG placement had inferior OS outcome for GE esophageal carcinoma, no improvement in OS for other evaluated groups, and did not reduce weight loss between baseline and 12-week follow-up. Unless there is prospective randomized trial that can show superiority of PEG placement in this population, PEG placement in this group cannot be endorsed.

  15. Ultimate Opening Combined with Area Stability Applied to Urban Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotegui , Beatriz; Serna , Andrés; Hernández , Jorge

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the use of ultimate opening in urban analysis context. It demonstrates the efficiency of this approach for street level elevation images, derived from 3D point clouds acquired by terrestrial mobile mapping systems. An area-stability term is introduced in the residual definition, reducing the over-segmentation of the vegetation while preserving small significant regions. We compare two possible combinations of the Ultimate Opening and the Area Stabil...

  16. Direct ultimate disposal - state of investigations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a decision adopted by the Prime Ministers on 25/10/90, the principles governing preventive waste management of nuclear power plants are reviewed. Increasing importance is attached to the direct ultimate disposal alternative. The legal and political framework, the technology involved, the state of developments, future activities under the R and D programme as well as a cost estimate of direct ultimate disposal are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Assessment and characterization of radioactive waste for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Warnecke, E.

    1986-01-01

    The waste specifications determined from site safety analyses define the requirements to be met by waste forms for ultimate storage. Product quality control is the process step ensuring compliance with the conditions to be met for ultimate storage. For this purpose, radionuclide inventory, fixation method, container type, waste form and quantity, and type of waste are the most significant items on the checking list. (DG) [de

  18. Ultimate - a new generation of gasoline and diesel fuels; Ultimate - eine neue Generation von Otto- und Dieselkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strempel, G. [Aral Forschung/Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany); Beckwith, P. [BP Fuels Management Group, Pangbourne (United Kingdom); Froehling, J. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Labor/Analytik; Baron, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Motor- und Fahrzeuglaboratorium; Sauermann, P.; Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktentwicklung; Doermer, W. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktqualitaet

    2005-06-01

    With the launch of Ultimate 100 gasoline and Ultimate Diesel, motorists in Germany now have the opportunity to choose new advanced performance fuels designed to get the very best from their engines. This article gives details of the technical development behind these fuels, their wide range of benefits, and how it is possible to manufacture fuels which meet the considerable technical challenge of achieving both more performance and less pollution. (orig.)

  19. THE ULTIMATE STATE CONCEPT APPLIED TO TUNNEL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Hudec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The most questionable are the values of pressures between rock and support resulting from common deformations on the contact area between rock and support. Therefore the modelling and design of the tunnel support is not reliable, if it is based on active rock pressure resulting from this common deformations. The inversion of the design procedure is proposed. Instead of the active extreme pressure of the rock on support, the influence of ultimate reaction of the support on the rock has to be analysed. This procedure can be performed using the ultimate load principle, as proposed by Eurocodc 7 (Geotechnies. Normally, the rock has the tendency to increase the common conver¬gence until the support reaches its ultimate state. So, loading of profile boundary with the ultimate possible reaction of the support is very plausible. The reactive support pressures have to be probable and itself in equilibrium. The ultimate reactive load has to be reduced by Euro-code safety factor for structural elements and applied on the rock with given properties, or alternatively (as proposed by Eurocode 7 the soil or rock properties have to be diminished and calculated with full ultimate support pressures. If the rock with given (or proposed pro¬perties and loaded with ultimate reactive pressures resulting from supposed support, satisfy its failure criterion, then is the compound system support-rock verificatcd. By this procedure, the number of relevant material properties is reduce to the primary stress ratio and the constants defining the failure criterion. The verification can be performed by any of numerical methods, but we prefer here used boundary elements method (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Ultimate load capacity assessment of reinforced concrete shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop capability for prediction of ultimate load capacity of reinforced concrete shell structures. The present finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) adopts a degenerate concept of formulating general isoparametric shell element with a layered approach in the thickness direction. Different failure modes such as crushing, tensile cracking and reinforcement yielding are recognised for various problems. The structure fails by crushing of concrete when the concrete strain/stress reaches the ultimate stress or strain of concrete. Material nonlinearities as a result of tension cracking, tension stiffening between reinforcement and concrete in cracked region and yielding of reinforcement are considered along with geometric nonlinearity. Thus with this code it is possible to predict the pressure at which the first cracking, first through thickness cracking, first yielding of reinforcement occurs. After validating the code with few bench mark problems for different failure modes a reinforced concrete nuclear containment is analysed for its ultimate capacity and the results are matched with the published results. Further the ultimate load capacity of outer containment wall of Narora Atomic Power Station is predicted. It is observed that containment fails in membrane region and has a sufficient margin against design pressure. (author). 9 refs., 56 figs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix with 4 tabs

  1. Modelling survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashauer, Roman; Albert, Carlo; Augustine, Starrlight

    2016-01-01

    The General Unified Threshold model for Survival (GUTS) integrates previously published toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic models and estimates survival with explicitly defined assumptions. Importantly, GUTS accounts for time-variable exposure to the stressor. We performed three studies to test...

  2. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  3. Cohort Coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    Cohorts are the aggregate of individuals who experience the same event within the same time interval. Cohorts can be based on people born in a given year, for example in 1940 or within a span of years, e.g. born in 1940-1944. The year of birth is here the defining event for cohorts. The health di...... differs between cohorts. This article focuses on the protective and detrimental cohort effect in relation to the risk of death from apoplexy. A dummy variable method is recommended to describe the changing cohort effect over a century....

  4. Among 4 Diet Quality Indexes, Only the Alternate Mediterranean Diet Score Is Associated with Better Colorectal Cancer Survival and Only in African American Women in the Multiethnic Cohort123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Simone; Harmon, Brook E; Ollberding, Nicholas J; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Boushey, Carol J; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, with a 5-y survival rate of ∼65%. Therefore, the identification of modifiable health factors to improve CRC survival is crucial. Objective: We investigated the association of 4 prediagnostic a priori diet quality indexes with CRC-specific and all-cause mortality in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC). Methods: The MEC included >215,000 African-American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese-American, Latino, and white adults living in Hawaii and California who completed a validated quantitative food-frequency questionnaire in 1993–1996. CRC cases and deaths were identified through linkages to cancer registries and to state and national vital registries. Sex-specific HRs and 95% CIs were estimated for the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010, the Alternative HEI (AHEI) 2010, the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED) score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) index with CRC-specific and overall mortality as the primary outcomes. Ethnicity-specific analyses were the secondary outcomes. Results: Among 4204 MEC participants diagnosed with invasive CRC through 2010, 1976 all-cause and 1095 CRC-specific deaths were identified. A higher aMED score was associated with lower CRC-specific mortality in women [HR continuous pattern score divided by its respective SD (HR1SD): 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96] but not in men (HR1SD: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.11). A higher aMED score was also associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR1SD: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96) but not in men (HR1SD: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.07). The HEI-2010, AHEI-2010, and DASH index were not significantly associated with CRC-specific or with all-cause mortality. The inverse relation for the aMED score was limited to African Americans and to colon (compared with rectal) cancer. Conclusions: The aMED score was related to lower mortality only in African-American women (1 of 5 ethnic groups studied). The

  5. Ductility and Ultimate Capacity of Prestressed Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear numerical analysis of the structural behaviour of prestressed steel reinforced concrete (PSRC beams was carried out by using finite element analysis software ABAQUS. By comparing the load-deformation curves, the rationality and reliability of the finite element model have been confirmed; moreover, the changes of the beam stiffness and stress in the forcing process and the ultimate bearing capacity of the beam were analyzed. Based on the model, the effect of prestressed force, and H-steel to the stiffness, the ultimate bearing capacity and ductility of beam were also analyzed.

  6. Ultimate load model test for Sizewell 'B' primary containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the factors influencing the adoption of an ultimate load factor for the Sizewell 'B' PWR primary containment structure. As part of the validation process for the ultimate load analysis method, a proposal has been made by Nuclear Design Associates to build and test a 1/10th scale model of the containment structure, which would proceed following the granting of section 2 consent for Sizewell 'B'. The modelling principles, construction method and test proposals are examined in some detail. The proposal is currently being considered by the CEGB's Project Management Team. (author)

  7. Ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU 6 containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, J.P.; Pradolin, L.; Mamet, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical work carried out and the results obtained when determining the ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the containment structures of CANDU 6 nuclear power plants. The purpose of the analysis work was to demonstrate that such containment structures are capable of meeting design requirements under the most severe accident conditions. For this concrete vessel subjected to internal pressure, the UPC was defined as the pressure causing through cracking in the concrete. The present paper deals with the overall behaviour of the containment. The presence of openings, penetrations and the ultimate pressure of the airlocks were considered separately. (author)

  8. ''Project Crystal'' for ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    NAGRA (The National Association for storage of radioactive waste) in Baden has launched in North Switzerland an extensive geological research program. The current research program, under the title of ''Project Crystal'', aims at providing the scientific knowledge which is required for the assessment of the suitability of the crystalline sub-soil of North Switzerland for the ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste. Safety and feasibility of such ultimate storage are in the forefront of preoccupations. Scientific institutes of France, Germany, USA and Canada are cooperating more particularly on boring research and laboratory analyses. Technical data are given on the USA and German installations used. (P.F.K.)

  9. Trump er gældsøkonomiens ultimative illusionist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne.......Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne....

  10. Ultimate deformation capacity of reinforced concrete slabs underblast load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Weerheijm, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a test method to determine the deformation capacity and the resistance-deformation curve of blast-loaded slabs is described. This method was developed at TNO-PML. The method has been used to determine the ultimate deformation capacity of some simply supported reinforced concrete slabs

  11. 49 Stories That Make an Ultimate STEM Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Swati; Mehta, Rohit; Berzina-Pitcher, Inese; Seals, Christopher; Mishra, Punya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed what 49 large urban public school district STEM teachers enrolled in a year-long graduate certificate and fellowship program at a large Midwestern university considered as their amazing teaching moments. They were asked to share their amazing teaching moments that would make an Ultimate Lesson Plan in STEM. In smaller…

  12. Ultimate capabilities of soft x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A.V.; Zorev, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    Nonimaging soft X-ray optics is examined. The ultimate capabilities of a number of X-ray optical components designed for concentration and collimation of radiation from point sources are determined. The applications of X-ray optics are discussed together with the properties of materials in the X-ray range

  13. Safety related aspects of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Solutions and questions related to nuclear waste management are presented. In particular, long-term safety of repositories in Germany and Sweden is considered, with special attention being paid to methods of detection, geotechnical barriers and post-operational phase of salt dome repositories, and conditioning of wastes to make them fit for ultimate disposal. (DG) [de

  14. Analysis of ultimate-heat-sink spray ponds. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1981-08-01

    This report develops models which can be utilized in the design of certain types of spray ponds used in ultimate heat sinks at nuclear power plants, and ways in which the models may be employed to determine the design basis required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.27

  15. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Cable tray ultimate strength test employing a large shaker table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, K.; Myojin, K.; Imai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Fuyama, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Takasago (Japan); Kokubo, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industdries Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Ultimate behaviors of cable trays, used in nuclear plants, have not been well studied since cable trays are designed based on conservative design criteria. In this study, by employing a large shaker table, an ultimate strength test was conducted for cable trays used in nuclear power plants. This report describes the results of shaker table test. The following results were obtained. First, in an S{sub 2} earthquake, the damping ratio was so large - more than 30% due to the rubbing of cables - that a large response was not present and the strains in the support were within the elastic limits. Secondly, the support was strong enough to sustain the cable trays even when the strain in the support was 20 times larger than the elastic limit. (authors)

  17. Landau damping: the mechanics model and its ultimate entropy gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Kluge, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Classical mechanics has only been invoked to account for Landau damping in a rather half-hearted way, alongside plasma perturbation theory. In particular this invocation is essential for the study of the saturation, or post-linear (or 'nonlinear') regime of the damping initiated by Dawson and O'Neill. By embracing mechanics wholeheartedly here, with its attendant phase space, one can access results, old and new, cleanly and directly, and with one fewer numerical integration for the post-linear regime. By using a summation technique familiar in semiclassical quantum mechanics (Poisson summation), the one remaining numerical integration can be much improved in accuracy. Also accessible from mechanics is the ultimate entropy gain. Though zero for any finite time (in the absence of coarse graining), the entropy gain is ultimately non-zero (at infinite time the required coarse graining is zero). It is calculated analytically by using the appropriate asymptotics, hitherto not fully exploited.

  18. Management and ultimate storage of wastes from nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The annotation on R and D prorgam 86 parts I-II have been brought together in the present report part I, together with some general viewpoints, and been classified according to subject. Part II of the present report comprises viewpoints of 'Research Program 1987-1992' and part III of 'Alternative methods of ultimate storage'. Swedish and French viewpoints are presented in Swedish, the remaining foreign material in English. The comments are grouped in subject catergories. (O.S.)

  19. Ultimate Gradient Limitation in Niobium Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchin, Mattia [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, Anna [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Posen, Sam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Romanenko, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zasadzinski, John [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The present study is addressed to the theoretical description of the ultimate gradient limitation in SRF cavities. Our intent is to exploit experimental data to confirm models which provide feed-backs on how to improve the current state-of-art. New theoretical insight on the cavities limiting factor can be suitable to improve the quench field of N-doped cavities, and therefore to take advantage of high Q0 at high gradients.

  20. Ultimate capacity of piles penetrating in weak soil layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pile foundation is one of the most popular forms of deep foundations. They are routinely employed to transfer axial structure loads through the soft soil to stronger bearing strata. Piles generally used to increase the load carrying capacity of the foundation and reduce the settlement of the foundation. On the other hand, many cases in practice where piles pass through different layers of soil that contain weak layers located at different depths and extension, also some time cavities with a different shape, size, and depth are found. In this study, a total of 96 cases is considered and simulated in PLAXIS 2D program aiming to understand the influence of weak soil on the ultimate pile capacity. The piles embedded in the dense sand with a layer of weak soil at different extension and location. The cross section of the geometry used in this study was designed as an axisymmetric model with the 15-node element; the boundary condition recommended at least 5D in the horizontal direction, and (L+5D in the vertical direction where D and L are the diameter and length of pile, respectively. The soil is modeled as Mohr-Coulomb, with five input parameters and the behavior of pile material represented by the linear elastic model. The results of the above cases are compared with the results found in a pile embedded in dense soil without weak layers or cavities. The results indicated that the existence of weak soil layer within the surrounding soil around the pile decreases the ultimate capacity. Furthermore, it has been found that increase in the weak soil width (extension leads to reduction in the ultimate capacity of the pile. This phenomenon is applicable to all depth of weak soil. The influence of weak layer extension on the ultimate capacity is less when it is presentin the upper soil layers.

  1. Hydrogeological problems in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uerpmann, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The following work shows how one can achieve the safe closure of ultimate-stored radioactive wastes by connecting a series of various barriers to the biosphere. The propagation of radionuclides by ground water is considered to be the most important long-term transport mechanism. Salt occurences in the Federal Republic of Germany are considered to be the best form suitable for end storage formations for known reasons. When not observing mining and hydrogeological knowledge, the danger of uncontrollable water flow in the end storage can arise from the water solubility of the salt rocks. Therefore the filling of salt mines and the subsequent procedures are dealt with in detail. The leading of radioactive nuclides is influenced by the properties of the ultimately stored wastes and by the quality of the remaining filling of the caves. These problems are dealt with in detail. A series of barriers to the closure of the underground caves are suggested and discussed. The most important barriers consist of the stability of the corresponding selected end storage structure. Possible arrangements of the storage cave are given which even after storage must maintain a high stability. Proposals are made on how the ultimately stored wastes can protect themselves against contact with free water or salt solutions. (orig.) [de

  2. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  3. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  4. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers The Ultimate Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2010-01-01

    If you already have a good knowledge of Adobe Photoshop and are looking to advance your skills, Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers: The Ultimate Workshop is the book you've been waiting for.  Renowned photographers Martin Evening and Jeff Schewe impart their Photoshop tips and workflow, showing you how to use a vast array of rarely seen advanced Photoshop techniques.  Whether the subject is serious retouching work, weird and wonderful compositions, or planning a shoot before you've even picked up a camera, you can be sure that the advice is based on years of practical experience.

  5. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  6. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollånes, Mette C; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Forthun, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts-the Norweg......PURPOSE: The purpose of MOthers and BAbies in Norway and Denmark cerebral palsy (MOBAND-CP) was to study CP aetiology in a prospective design. PARTICIPANTS: MOBAND-CP is a cohort of more than 210 000 children, created as a collaboration between the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts......-the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort. MOBAND-CP includes maternal interview/questionnaire data collected during pregnancy and follow-up, plus linked information from national health registries. FINDINGS TO DATE: Initial harmonisation of data from the 2 cohorts...... has created 140 variables for children and their mothers. In the MOBAND-CP cohort, 438 children with CP have been identified through record linkage with validated national registries, providing by far the largest such sample with prospectively collected detailed pregnancy data. Several studies...

  7. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  8. The prospects of transition metal dichalcogenides for ultimately scaled CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, S.; Kinberger, W.; Granzner, R.; Fiori, G.; Schwierz, F.

    2018-05-01

    MOSFET gate length scaling has been a main source of progress in digital electronics for decades. Today, researchers still spend considerable efforts on reducing the gate length and on developing ultimately scaled MOSFETs, thereby exploring both new device architectures and alternative channel materials beyond Silicon such as two-dimensional TMDs (transition metal dichalcogenide). On the other hand, the envisaged scaling scenario for the next 15 years has undergone a significant change recently. While the 2013 ITRS edition required a continuation of aggressive gate length scaling for at least another 15 years, the 2015 edition of the ITRS suggests a deceleration and eventually a levelling off of gate length scaling and puts more emphasis on alternative options such as pitch scaling to keep Moore's Law alive. In the present paper, future CMOS scaling is discussed in the light of emerging two-dimensional MOSFET channel, in particular two-dimensional TMDs. To this end, the scaling scenarios of the 2013 and 2015 ITRS editions are considered and the scaling potential of TMD MOSFETs is investigated by means of quantum-mechanical device simulations. It is shown that for ultimately scaled MOSFETs as required in the 2013 ITRS, the heavy carrier effective masses of the Mo- and W-based TMDs are beneficial for the suppression of direct source-drain tunneling, while to meet the significantly relaxed scaling targets of the 2016 ITRS heavy-effective-mass channels are not needed.

  9. The ultimate security bounds of quantum key distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, G.M.; Alber, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols exploit quantum correlations in order to establish a secure key between two legitimate users. Recent work on QKD has revealed a remarkable link between quantum and secret correlations. In this talk we report on recent results concerning the ultimate upper security bounds of various QKD schemes (i.e., the maximal disturbance up to which the two legitimate users share quantum correlations) under the assumption of general coherent attacks. In particular, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of QKD schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases. As long as the two legitimate users focus on the sifted key and treat each pair of data independently during the post processing, our results are valid for arbitrary dimensions of the information carriers. The bound we have derived is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is also discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions, however, such equivalence is generally no longer valid. (author)

  10. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  11. Survival of Sami cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Soininen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The incidence of cancer among the indigenous Sami people of Northern Finland is lower than among the Finnish general population. The survival of Sami cancer patients is not known, and therefore it is the object of this study. Study design. The cohort consisted of 2,091 Sami and 4,161 non-Sami who lived on 31 December 1978 in the two Sami municipalities of Inari and Utsjoki, which are located in Northern Finland and are 300–500 km away from the nearest central hospital. The survival experience of Sami and non-Sami cancer patients diagnosed in this cohort during 1979–2009 was compared with that of the Finnish patients outside the cohort. Methods. The Sami and non-Sami cancer patients were matched to other Finnish cancer patients for gender, age and year of diagnosis and for the site of cancer. An additional matching was done for the stage at diagnosis. Cancer-specific survival analyses were made using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression modelling. Results. There were 204 Sami and 391 non-Sami cancer cases in the cohort, 20,181 matched controls without matching with stage, and 7,874 stage-matched controls. In the cancer-specific analysis without stage variable, the hazard ratio for Sami was 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85–1.30 and for non-Sami 1.02 (0.86–1.20, indicating no difference between the survival of those groups and other patients in Finland. Likewise, when the same was done by also matching the stage, there was no difference in cancer survival. Conclusion. Long distances to medical care or Sami ethnicity have no influence on the cancer patient survival in Northern Finland.

  12. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  13. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  14. ONE FINANCIAL REPORTING GLOBAL LANGUAGE: THE ULTIMATE GOAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Limijaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the extent to which international accounting standards is applied and whether it is the ultimate goal. Up until the end of 2016, approximately there are 84% of the 149 jurisdictions analysed which require IFRS for all or most domestic publicly accountable entities. This may indicate that we are not that much further from having a single set of globally-accepted accounting standards. However, there is more to financial reporting than just accounting standards alone, such as the political aspect of accounting standard-setting, translation issues surrounding IFRS adoption, the US position and the complexity of financial reporting. Improving financial reporting quality needs more than just having global accounting standards, rather, it is also essential to consider the preparers’ incentives and other institutions surrounding the firm. Stakeholders need to broaden the perspective when viewing financial reporting, so that it will not be focused merely on accounting standards alone.

  15. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  16. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  17. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  18. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  19. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  20. Clinical variables serve as prognostic factors in a model for survival from glioblastoma multiforme: an observational study of a cohort of consecutive non-selected patients from a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Grunnet, Kirsten; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Broholm, Helle; Kosteljanetz, Michael; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2013-01-01

    Although implementation of temozolomide (TMZ) as a part of primary therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has resulted in improved patient survival, the disease is still incurable. Previous studies have correlated various parameters to survival, although no single parameter has yet been identified. More studies and new approaches to identify the best and worst performing patients are therefore in great demand. This study examined 225 consecutive, non-selected GBM patients with performance status (PS) 0–2 receiving postoperative radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant TMZ as primary therapy. At relapse, patients with PS 0–2 were mostly treated by reoperation and/or combination with bevacizumab/irinotecan (BEV/IRI), while a few received TMZ therapy if the recurrence-free period was >6 months. Median overall survival and time to progression were 14.3 and 8.0 months, respectively. Second-line therapy indicated that reoperation and/or BEV/IRI increased patient survival compared with untreated patients and that BEV/IRI was more effective than reoperation alone. Patient age, ECOG PS, and use of corticosteroid therapy were significantly correlated with patient survival and disease progression on univariate analysis, whereas p53, epidermal growth factor receptor, and O 6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression (all detected by immunohistochemistry), tumor size or multifocality, and extent of primary operation were not. A model based on age, ECOG PS, and corticosteroids use was able to predict survival probability for an individual patient. The survival of RT/TMZ-treated GBM patients can be predicted based on patient age, ECOG PS, and corticosteroid therapy status

  1. Efficiency Of Different Teaching Models In Teaching Of Frisbee Ultimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuffová Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of two frisbee ultimate teaching models at 8-year grammar schools relative to age. In the experimental group was used a game based model (Teaching Games for Understanding and in the control group the traditional model based on teaching techniques. 6 groups of female students took part in experiment: experimental group 1 (n=10, age=11.6, experimental group 2 (n=12, age=13.8, experimental group 3 (n=14, age =15.8, control group 1 (n=11, age =11.7, control group 2 (n=10, age =13.8 and control group 3 (n=9, age =15.8. Efficiency of the teaching models was evaluated based of game performance and special knowledge results. Game performance was evaluated by the method of game performance assessment based on GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument through video record. To verify level of knowledge, we used a knowledge test, which consisted of questions related to the rules and tactics knowledge of frisbee ultimate. To perform statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Game performance assessment and knowledge level indicated higher efficiency of TGfU in general, but mostly statistically insignificant. Experimental groups 1 and 2 were significantly better in the indicator that evaluates tactical aspect of game performance - decision making (p<0.05. Experimental group 3 was better in the indicator that evaluates skill execution - disc catching. The results showed that the students of the classes taught by game based model reached partially better game performance in general. Experimental groups achieved from 79.17 % to 80 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 75 % to 87.5 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test. Control groups achieved from 57.69 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 51.92 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test.

  2. Impact on Medical Cost, Cumulative Survival, and Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Rituximab to First-Line Chemotherapy for Follicular Lymphoma in Elderly Patients: An Observational Cohort Study Based on SEER-Medicare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, R. I.; Gleeson, M. L.; Danese, M. D.; Griffiths, R. I.; Mikhael, J.

    2012-01-01

    Rituximab improves survival in follicular lymphoma (FL), but is considerably more expensive than conventional chemotherapy. We estimated the total direct medical costs, cumulative survival, and cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for FL, based on a single source of data representing routine practice in the elderly. Using surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) registry data plus Medicare claims, we identified 1,117 FL patients who received first-line CHOP (cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin, vincristine (V), and prednisone (P)) or CVP +/− rituximab. Multivariate regression was used to estimate adjusted cumulative cost and survival differences between the two groups over four years after beginning treatment. The median age was 73 years (minimum 66 years), 56% had stage III-IV disease, and 67% received rituximab. Adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy was associated with higher adjusted incremental total cost ($18,695; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) $9,302-$28,643) and longer adjusted cumulative survival (0.18 years; 95% CI 0.10-0.27) over four years of followup. The expected cost-effectiveness was $102,142 (95% CI $34,531-296,337) per life-year gained. In routine clinical practice, adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for elderly patients with FL results in higher direct medical costs to Medicare and longer cumulative survival after four years.

  3. Impact on Medical Cost, Cumulative Survival, and Cost-Effectiveness of Adding Rituximab to First-Line Chemotherapy for Follicular Lymphoma in Elderly Patients: An Observational Cohort Study Based on SEER-Medicare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I. Griffiths

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rituximab improves survival in follicular lymphoma (FL, but is considerably more expensive than conventional chemotherapy. We estimated the total direct medical costs, cumulative survival, and cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for FL, based on a single source of data representing routine practice in the elderly. Using surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER registry data plus Medicare claims, we identified 1,117 FL patients who received first-line CHOP (cyclophosphamide (C, doxorubicin, vincristine (V, and prednisone (P or CVP +/− rituximab. Multivariate regression was used to estimate adjusted cumulative cost and survival differences between the two groups over four years after beginning treatment. The median age was 73 years (minimum 66 years, 56% had stage III-IV disease, and 67% received rituximab. Adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy was associated with higher adjusted incremental total cost ($18,695; 95% Confidence Interval (CI $9,302–$28,643 and longer adjusted cumulative survival (0.18 years; 95% CI 0.10–0.27 over four years of followup. The expected cost-effectiveness was $102,142 (95% CI $34,531–296,337 per life-year gained. In routine clinical practice, adding rituximab to first-line chemotherapy for elderly patients with FL results in higher direct medical costs to Medicare and longer cumulative survival after four years.

  4. Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable

  5. ZIO: The Ultimate Linux I/O Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Cobas, J D; Rubini, A; Nellaga, S; Vaga, F

    2014-01-01

    ZIO (with Z standing for “The Ultimate I/O” Framework) was developed for CERN with the specific needs of physics labs in mind, which are poorly addressed in the mainstream Linux kernel. ZIO provides a framework for industrial, high-bandwith, high-channel count I/O device drivers (digitizers, function generators, timing devices like TDCs) with performance, generality and scalability as design goals. Among its features, it offers abstractions for • both input and output channels, and channel sets • run-time selection of trigger types • run-time selection of buffer types • sysfs-based configuration • char devices for data and metadata • a socket interface (PF ZIO) as alternative to char devices In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of ZIO, and describe representative cases of driver development for typical and exotic applications: drivers for the FMC (FPGAMezzanine Card, see [1]) boards developed at CERN like the FMC ADC 100Msps digitizer, FMC TDC timestamp counter, and FMC DEL ...

  6. Episodic foresight and anxiety: Proximate and ultimate perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloyan, Beyon; Bulley, Adam; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between episodic foresight and anxiety from an evolutionary perspective, proposing that together they confer an advantage for modifying present moment decision-making and behaviour in the light of potential future threats to fitness. We review the body of literature on the role of episodic foresight in anxiety, from both proximate and ultimate perspectives. We propose that anxious feelings associated with episodic simulation of possible threat-related future events serve to imbue these simulations with motivational currency. Episodic and semantic details of a future threat may be insufficient for motivating its avoidance, but anxiety associated with a simulation can provoke adaptive threat management. As such, we detail how anxiety triggered by a self-generated, threat-related future simulation prepares the individual to manage that threat (in terms of its likelihood and/or consequences) over greater temporal distances than observed in other animals. We then outline how anxiety subtypes may represent specific mechanisms for predicting and managing particular classes of fitness threats. This approach offers an inroad for understanding the nature of characteristic future thinking patterns in anxiety disorders and serves to illustrate the adaptive function of the mechanism from which clinical anxiety deviates. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  8. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  9. Accounting conservatism,ultimate ownership and investment efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Xu; Xia Wang; Nina Han

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze and examine the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behavior in China.Design/methodology/approach-By combining a developed theoretical framework and empirical study,this paper examines the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment.The sample and data are all collected from Wind and CAMAR databases.Findings-The paper finds that the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly positive when inside capital is not enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can expend the level of investment by decreasing information asymmetry and cost of capital;however,the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly negative when inside capital is enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can curtail the level of investment by mitigating the interest conflicts between management and outside shareholders and decreasing agency costs.Additionally,the paper finds that the severity of information asymmetry and agency problem affects the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behaviour,and the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is weaker for firms with ultimate ownership controller as local government or individuals.Originality/value-This is the first paper to analyze and examine the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment in China directly.The findings are also useful to explain the awkward predicament found by prior literature.

  10. Ultimate storage of radioactive wastes annual report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is a cooperative effort by the Company for Radiation and Environmental Research, Munich, and the Company for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe, and provides a survey of work carried out during 1973 in the area of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes. Mining and construction works which were carried out in the Asse Salt Mine near Remlingen both underground as well as above the ground and which were used for repair, maintenance and expansion of the operation consistent with its future tasks are reported. The storage of low-level wastes at the 750 m level and also the test-oriented storage of medium-level waste materials at the 490 m level were carried out within the reporting period. Shielded storage casks S7V developed by the GfK were used for the first time in September for transporting 200 l iron-hooped drums filled with medium-level radioactive wastes to Asse, each shipment always containing seven drums. With two round-trips a week taking place between the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe and the Asse II shaft installation, 14 drums were brought each week so that, by the end of the year, the quantity in storage amounted to a total of 233 drums. Further information is provided concerning the present status of research work in the fields of oromechanics, geology and hydrology as well as other findings. Further, storage techniques are discussed which are presently in the planning stage

  11. Thermal performance measurements on ultimate heat sinks--cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.; Abbey, O.B.

    1977-12-01

    The primary objective of the studies described is to obtain the requisite data, with respect to modeling requirements, to characterize thermal performance of heat sinks for nuclear facilities existing at elevated water temperatures in result of experiencing a genuinely large heat load and responding to meteorological influence. The data should reflect thermal performance for combinations leading to worst-case meteorological influence. A geothermal water retention basin has been chosen as the site for the first measurement program and data have been obtained in the first of several experiments scheduled to be performed there. These data illustrate the thermal and water budgets during episodes of cooling from an initially high pond water bulk temperature. Monitoring proceeded while the pond experienced only meteorological and seepage influence. The data are discussed and are presented as a data volume which may be used for calculation purposes. Suggestions for future measurement programs are stated with the intent to maintain and improve relevance to nuclear ultimate heat sinks while continuing to examine the performance of the analog geothermal pond. It is further suggested that the geothermal pond, with some modification, may be a suitable site for spray pond measurements

  12. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm 2 . The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  13. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maret-Ouda, John; Wahlin, Karl; Artama, Miia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a newly created all-Nordic cohort of patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), entitled the Nordic Antireflux Surgery Cohort (NordASCo), which will be used to compare participants having undergone antireflux surgery with those who have not regarding risk...... age at primary antireflux surgery ranged from 47 to 52 years in the different countries. The coding practices of GORD seem to have differed between the Nordic countries. Future plans: The NordASCo will initially be used to analyse the risk of developing known or potential GORD-related cancers, that is......, tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, larynx, pharynx and lung, and to evaluate the mortality in the short-term and long-term perspectives. Additionally, the cohort will be used to evaluate the risk of non-malignant respiratory conditions that might be caused by aspiration of gastric contents....

  14. Application of accelerated failure time models for breast cancer patients' survival in Kurdistan Province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Asrin; Delpisheh, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second common cause of cancer-induced mortalities in Iranian women. There has been a rapid development in hazard models and survival analysis in the last decade. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) in breast cancer patients using accelerated failure time models (AFT). This was a retrospective-analytic cohort study. About 313 women with a pathologically proven diagnosis of breast cancer who had been treated during a 7-year period (since January 2006 until March 2014) in Sanandaj City, Kurdistan Province of Iran were recruited. Performance among AFT was assessed using the goodness of fit methods. Discrimination among the exponential, Weibull, generalized gamma, log-logistic, and log-normal distributions was done using Akaik information criteria and maximum likelihood. The 5 years OS was 75% (95% CI = 74.57-75.43). The main results in terms of survival were found for the different categories of the clinical stage covariate, tumor metastasis, and relapse of cancer. Survival time in breast cancer patients without tumor metastasis and relapse were 4, 2-fold longer than other patients with metastasis and relapse, respectively. One of the most important undermining prognostic factors in breast cancer is metastasis; hence, knowledge of the mechanisms of metastasis is necessary to prevent it so occurrence and treatment of metastatic breast cancer and ultimately extend the lifetime of patients.

  15. Cohort Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés

    2014-01-01

    The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world’s highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain...... new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-naı ̈ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ̃ o Mendes, the main...

  16. The Jicarilla Apaches. A Study in Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnerson, Dolores A.

    Focusing on the ultimate fate of the Cuartelejo and/or Paloma Apaches known in archaeological terms as the Dismal River people of the Central Plains, this book is divided into 2 parts. The early Apache (1525-1700) and the Jicarilla Apache (1700-1800) tribes are studied in terms of their: persistent cultural survival, social/political adaptability,…

  17. Increased circulating resistin levels in early-onset breast cancer patients of normalbody mass index correlate with lymphnode negative involvement and longerdisease free survival: a multi-center POSH cohort serum proteomics study

    OpenAIRE

    Zeidan, Bashar; Manousopoulou, Antigoni; Garay Baquero, Diana J.; White, Cory H.; Larkin, Samantha E.T.; Potter, Kathleen N.; Roumeliotis, Theodoros I.; Papachristou, Evangelia K.; Copson, Ellen; Cutress, Ramsey I.; Beers, Stephen A.; Eccles, Diana; Townsend, Paul A.; Garbis, Spiros D.

    2018-01-01

    BackgroundEarly-onset breast cancer (EOBC) affects about one in 300 women aged 40 years or younger and is associated with worse outcomes than later onset breast cancer. This study explored novel serum proteins as surrogate markers of prognosis in patients with EOBC.MethodsSerum samples from EOBC patients (stages 1–3) were analysed using agnostic high-precision quantitative proteomics. Patients received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. The discovery cohort (n = 399) either had more than 5-yea...

  18. Cohort profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiberg, Michael; Bandak, Mikkel; Lauritsen, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    The cohort was set up in order to analyze late effects in long-term testicular cancer survivors (TCS) and to contribute to the design of future follow-up programs addressing and potentially preventing late effects. Data for this cross-sectional study were collected between January 1, 2014, and De...

  19. Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moelholt Jensen, Find

    2008-05-15

    of the profile, also called 'local deformations', to verify a more complex response than that of a Bernoulli-Euler Beam. A large number of mechanical displacement sensors and strain gauges were mounted inside and outside the structure. These measurements further proved highly useful when validating Finite Element based analysis and failure mechanisms should be decided. Finally, comparisons of the ultimate failure loads observed in the full-scale tests are presented and conclusions are drawn based on the mechanisms found. (au)

  20. Ultimate resistance of a reinforced concrete foundation under impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Forasassi, G.; Marconi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of a spent nuclear fuel cask against a reinforced concrete slab of a temporary repository for spent nuclear fuel is numerically analysed. The analysis considers accidental events in which a spent nuclear fuel cask would drop against the floor of a repository during lifting operations. Two types of solutions have been taken into account: a simple reinforced concrete structure and a structure provided with a 40 mm thick steel liner on the impacted surface, connected to a 1600 mm thick concrete bed. The model is assumed to be axisymmetric and positioned on an elastic ground (Winkler model). The concrete has been simulated as: elastic perfectly plastic under compressive stresses limited by a crushing strain; elastic linear under tensile stresses until a cracking stress value and a following decrease of stress characterized by a constant or variable softening modulus; limited ability to resist at shear stresses after cracking characterized by a shear retention factor. The steel of the reinforcement bars and of the cask has been simulated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. Several numerical simulations have been performed in order to determine the influence, on the ultimate resistance of the structure under examination, of the steel liner, of some characteristic parameters of concrete (as the softening module and the shear retention factor) and of the Winkler coefficient values, simulating the elastic behaviour of the ground. The obtained results demonstrate that a steel liner produces a lower stress in the concrete as well as in the reinforcement but the bed is still subjected to the cracking phenomenon throughout its entire width although the crushing is localized to only a few elements near the impact zone. The use of a more complex constitutive equation for the concrete considering the shear retention factor and the softening module has given results which do not differ greatly from those related to a more simplified model. A different degree of

  1. 18F-FDG PET/CT following chemoradiation of uterine cervix cancer provides powerful prognostic stratification independent of HPV status: a prospective cohort of 105 women with mature survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva, Shankar; Hicks, Rodney J.; Callahan, Jason; Deb, Siddhartha; Young, Richard J.; Bressel, Mathias; Mileshkin, Linda; Rischin, Danny; Bernshaw, David; Narayan, Kailash

    2015-01-01

    To report 5-year outcomes of a prospective registry study investigating posttherapy FDG PET/CT in women with locally advanced cervical cancer. A secondary analysis assessing the prognostic significance of HPV infection was performed. Patients underwent definitive chemoradiation followed by a single FDG PET/CT scan for response assessment. A complete metabolic response (CMR) was defined as no evidence of FDG-avid disease. Patients were dichotomized according to HPV infection status into a 'higher-risk' group and a 'lower-risk' group, with the higher-risk group comprising those with alpha-7 strain HPV (subtypes 18, 39 and 45) and those who were HPV-negative and the lower-risk group comprising those with alpha-9 strain HPV (subtypes 16, 31, 33, 52 and 58) and those with mixed strains. Survival outcomes, patterns of failure and salvage therapy outcomes were investigated for their association with metabolic response and HPV status. In 105 patients the median prospective follow-up was 5.2 years. The 5-year cancer-specific, overall and progression-free survival rates in patients with a CMR were 97 %, 93 % and 86 %, respectively. In patients without a CMR, the corresponding 5-year survival rates were 36 %, 22 % and 0 % respectively (p < 0.01). PET response was associated with patterns of failure (p < 0.01), with the 5-year freedom from local, nodal and distant failure in patients with a CMR being 94 %, 90 % and 94 %, respectively. Of 16 patients who underwent salvage therapy, 12 had disease detected on the surveillance PET scan, and 8 achieved a post-salvage CMR of whom all were alive at a median of 4.9 years. DNA adequate for HPV analysis was extracted in 68 patients. The likelihood of a PET metabolic response was not influenced by HPV infection status, with 71 % and 75 % of higher-risk and lower-risk patients, respectively, achieving CMR (p = 0.83). Higher-risk patients had a poorer OS (HR 2.6, range 1.0 - 6.6, p = 0.05) in univariable analysis but

  2. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT following chemoradiation of uterine cervix cancer provides powerful prognostic stratification independent of HPV status: a prospective cohort of 105 women with mature survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva, Shankar; Hicks, Rodney J.; Callahan, Jason [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Parkville (Australia); Deb, Siddhartha [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Pathology, East Melbourne (Australia); Young, Richard J. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Molecular Therapeutics and Biomarkers Laboratory, East Melbourne (Australia); Bressel, Mathias [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, East Melbourne (Australia); Mileshkin, Linda [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Cancer Medicine, East Melbourne (Australia); Rischin, Danny [University of Melbourne, Sir Peter MacCallum Department of Oncology, Parkville (Australia); Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Cancer Medicine, East Melbourne (Australia); Bernshaw, David; Narayan, Kailash [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)

    2015-11-15

    To report 5-year outcomes of a prospective registry study investigating posttherapy FDG PET/CT in women with locally advanced cervical cancer. A secondary analysis assessing the prognostic significance of HPV infection was performed. Patients underwent definitive chemoradiation followed by a single FDG PET/CT scan for response assessment. A complete metabolic response (CMR) was defined as no evidence of FDG-avid disease. Patients were dichotomized according to HPV infection status into a 'higher-risk' group and a 'lower-risk' group, with the higher-risk group comprising those with alpha-7 strain HPV (subtypes 18, 39 and 45) and those who were HPV-negative and the lower-risk group comprising those with alpha-9 strain HPV (subtypes 16, 31, 33, 52 and 58) and those with mixed strains. Survival outcomes, patterns of failure and salvage therapy outcomes were investigated for their association with metabolic response and HPV status. In 105 patients the median prospective follow-up was 5.2 years. The 5-year cancer-specific, overall and progression-free survival rates in patients with a CMR were 97 %, 93 % and 86 %, respectively. In patients without a CMR, the corresponding 5-year survival rates were 36 %, 22 % and 0 % respectively (p < 0.01). PET response was associated with patterns of failure (p < 0.01), with the 5-year freedom from local, nodal and distant failure in patients with a CMR being 94 %, 90 % and 94 %, respectively. Of 16 patients who underwent salvage therapy, 12 had disease detected on the surveillance PET scan, and 8 achieved a post-salvage CMR of whom all were alive at a median of 4.9 years. DNA adequate for HPV analysis was extracted in 68 patients. The likelihood of a PET metabolic response was not influenced by HPV infection status, with 71 % and 75 % of higher-risk and lower-risk patients, respectively, achieving CMR (p = 0.83). Higher-risk patients had a poorer OS (HR 2.6, range 1.0 - 6.6, p = 0.05) in univariable analysis but

  3. A patient cohort on long-term sequelae of sepsis survivors: study protocol of the Mid-German Sepsis Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, André; Hartog, Christiane S; Fleischmann, Carolin; Ouart, Dominique; Hoffmann, Franziska; König, Christian; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Fiedler, Sandra; Philipp, Monique; Braune, Anke; Eichhorn, Cornelia; Gampe, Christin; Romeike, Heike; Reinhart, Konrad

    2017-08-23

    An increasing number of patients survive sepsis; however, we lack valid data on the long-term impact on morbidity from prospective observational studies. Therefore, we designed an observational cohort to quantify mid-term and long-term functional disabilities after intensive care unit (ICU)-treated sepsis. Ultimately, findings for the Mid-German Sepsis Cohort (MSC) will serve as basis for the implementation of follow-up structures for patients with sepsis and help to increase quality of care for sepsis survivors. All patients surviving ICU-treated sepsis are eligible and are recruited from five study centres in Germany (acute care hospital setting in Jena, Halle/Saale, Leipzig, Bad Berka, Erfurt; large long-term acute care hospital and rehabilitation setting in Klinik Bavaria Kreischa). Screening is performed by trained study nurses. Data are collected on ICU management of sepsis. On written informed consent provided by patients or proxies, follow-up is carried out by trained research staff at 3, 6 and 12 months and yearly thereafter. The primary outcome is functional disability as assessed by (instrumental) activities of daily living. Other outcomes cover domains like mortality, cognitive, emotional and physical impairment, and resource use. The estimated sample size of 3000 ICU survivors is calculated to allow detection of relevant changes in the primary outcome in sepsis survivors longitudinally. The study is conducted according to the current version of the Declaration of Helsinki and has been approved by four local/federal responsible institutional ethics committees and by the respective federal data protection commissioners. Results of MSC will be fed back to the patients and published in peer-reviewed journals. German Clinical Trials Registry DRKS00010050. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  5. Ghrelin as a Survival Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Bharath K; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2017-12-01

    Ghrelin administration induces food intake and body weight gain. Based on these actions, the ghrelin system was initially proposed as an antiobesity target. Subsequent studies using genetic mouse models have raised doubts about the role of the endogenous ghrelin system in mediating body weight homeostasis or obesity. However, this is not to say that the endogenous ghrelin system is not important metabolically or otherwise. Here we review an emerging concept in which the endogenous ghrelin system serves an essential function during extreme nutritional and psychological challenges to defend blood glucose, protect body weight, avoid exaggerated depression, and ultimately allow survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  7. Surviving Sengstaken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, S; Odulaja, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N

    2015-07-01

    To report the outcomes of children who underwent Sengstaken-Blakemore tube (SBT) insertion for life-threatening haemetemesis. Single institution retrospective review (1997-2012) of children managed with SBT insertion. Patient demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were noted. Data are expressed as median (range). 19 children [10 male, age 1 (0.4-16) yr] were identified; 18 had gastro-oesophageal varices and 1 aorto-oesophageal fistula. Varices were secondary to: biliary atresia (n=8), portal vein thrombosis (n=5), alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency (n=1), cystic fibrosis (n=1), intrahepatic cholestasis (n=1), sclerosing cholangitis (n=1) and nodular hyperplasia with arterio-portal shunt (n=1). Three children deteriorated rapidly and did not survive to have post-SBT endoscopy. The child with an aortooesophageal fistula underwent aortic stent insertion and subsequently oesophageal replacement. Complications included gastric mucosal ulceration (n=3, 16%), pressure necrosis at lips and cheeks (n=6, 31%) and SBT dislodgment (n=1, 6%). Six (31%) children died. The remaining 13 have been followed up for 62 (2-165) months; five required liver transplantation, two underwent a mesocaval shunt procedure and 6 have completed endoscopic variceal obliteration and are under surveillance. SBT can be an effective, albeit temporary, life-saving manoeuvre in children with catastrophic haematemesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cohort description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz; Ebstrup, Jeanette Frost; Linneberg, Allan

    2017-01-01

    -76 years from the general population examined from 2011 to 2015. The survey comprises screening questionnaires for five types of FSS, ie, fibromyalgia, whiplash-associated disorder, multiple chemical sensitivity, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome, and for the unifying diagnostic......The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD) cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS) and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes...... category of bodily distress syndrome. Additional data included a telephone-based diagnostic interview assessment for FSS, questionnaires on physical and mental health, personality traits, lifestyle, use of health care services and social factors, and a physical examination with measures...

  9. Survival From Childhood Hematological Malignancies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Friederike; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to diverse findings as to the role of family factors for childhood cancer survival even within Europe, we explored a nationwide, register-based cohort of Danish children with hematological malignancies. METHODS: All children born between 1973 and 2006 and diagnosed with a hematolo...

  10. Ultimate architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Jencks, Charles

    2007-01-01

    "European physics hothouse CERN recently unveiled Atlas, the world's most powerful particle detector, which it will use to search for the fundamental building blocks of nature from May next year. Charles Jencks describes the experience of getting up clsoe to the engineering marvel that could en up creating a mini-black hole."(5 pages with photos).

  11. Ultimate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An explanation is given of the complexity faced by the scientific researcher in an effort to achieve fusion power. Outlines the theory and current experiments being pursued in this complex project, including visits to five major fusion research laboratories, and interviews with physicists

  12. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary...

  13. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... care providers; (5) Projects that utilize Advanced Telecommunications or computer networks to... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280... Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.21 Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. The...

  14. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0203] Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft... (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and...

  15. Excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes sobreviventes de leucemia linfoide aguda: estudo de coorte Excessive weight in children and adolescents surviving acute lymphoid leukemia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme B. Alves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A leucemia linfoide aguda (LLA é a neoplasia maligna mais comum na infância. A taxa de cura é hoje em torno de 80% e entre os sobreviventes tem sido descrito um aumento de risco de obesidade. Entretanto, não há estudos sobre esse risco em países em desenvolvimento, especialmente naqueles que atravessam um momento de transição nutricional, como o Brasil. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a frequência de excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes sobreviventes de leucemia linfoide aguda. Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectivo com 101 crianças e 19 adolescentes sobreviventes de leucemia linfoide aguda. Todos esses pacientes foram tratados no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP, entre os anos de 1998 e 2002. O seguimento foi de quatro anos e meio, sendo o índice de massa corpórea (IMC calculado no momento do diagnóstico, ao final de tratamento e dois anos após o término da terapia. A idade média do diagnóstico foi de 4,6 (2,1 anos nas crianças e de 12,2 (1,9 anos nos adolescentes. O tempo de tratamento foi de 2,6 (1,0 anos. O IMC aumentou de 16,1 (2,3 para 19,1 (3,5 após o tratamento; pAcute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most common malignancy of childhood. The cure rate is now about 80% but an increased risk for obesity has been described among survivors. Even so there are no studies reporting this risk in developing countries especially in countries in which the problem of dietary deficiency is rapidly shifting to one of dietary excess. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of excessive weight in child and teenage survivors of ALL. A retrospective cohort study was carried out of 101 children and 19 adolescents diagnosed and treated for ALL between 1998 and 2002 in the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP. The body mass index (BMI was calculated at the time of diagnosis, at the end of therapy and two years later. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.6 (

  16. Dose-dependent effects of an immune challenge at both ultimate and proximate levels in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-05-01

    Immune responses are highly dynamic. The magnitude and efficiency of an immune response to a pathogen can change markedly across individuals, and such changes may be influenced by variance in a range of intrinsic (e.g. age, genotype, sex) and external (e.g. abiotic stress, pathogen identity, strain) factors. Life history theory predicts that up-regulation of the immune system will come at a physiological cost, and studies have confirmed that increased investment in immunity can reduce reproductive output and survival. Furthermore, males and females often have divergent reproductive strategies, and this might drive the evolution of sex-specific life history trade-offs involving immunity, and sexual dimorphism in immune responses per se. Here, we employ an experiment design to elucidate dose-dependent and sex-specific responses to exposure to a nonpathogenic immune elicitor at two scales--the 'ultimate' life history and the underlying 'proximate' immune level in Drosophila melanogaster. We found dose-dependent effects of immune challenges on both male and female components of reproductive success, but not on survival, as well as a response in antimicrobial activity. These results indicate that even in the absence of the direct pathogenic effects that are associated with actual disease, individual life histories respond to a perceived immune challenge--but with the magnitude of this response being contingent on the initial dose of exposure. Furthermore, the results indicate that immune responses at the ultimate life history level may indeed reflect underlying processes that occur at the proximate level. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  17. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  18. Ultimate capacity and influenced factors analysis of nuclear RC containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenning; Hou Gangling; Zhou Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Ultimate compressive bearing capacity, influenced factors and its rules of nuclear RC containment are key problems of safety assessment, accident treatment and structure design, etc. Ultimate compressive bearing capacity of nuclear RC containment is shown by concrete damaged plasticity model and steel double liner model of ABAQUS. The study shows that the concrete of nuclear RC containment cylinder wall becomes plastic when the internal pressure is up to 0.87 MPa, the maximum tensile strain of steel liner exceeds 3000 × 10 6 and nuclear RC containment reaches ultimate status when the internal pressure is up to 1.02 MPa. The result shows that nuclear RC containment is in elastic condition under the design internal pressure and the bearing capacity meets requirement. Prestress and steel liner play key parts in the ultimate internal pressure and failure mode of nuclear RC containment. The study results have value for the analysis of ultimate compressive bearing capacity, structure design and safety assessment. (authors)

  19. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winther, Jeanette F.; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C.; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S.; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K.; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Hawkins, Mike M.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning

  20. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon [Youngdong Univ., Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study.

  1. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon

    2003-03-01

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study

  2. Seismic shear wall ISP NUPEC's seismic ultimate dynamic response test. Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In the seismic design of a nuclear power plant, evaluation of the ultimate strength of the nuclear reactor building is an important subject for assessment of seismic reliability of the plant. In order to carry out the evaluation, the response characteristics of reinforced concrete seismic shear walls up to their ultimate state have to be understood. For this purpose, there is a need to develop reliable non-linear response analysis methods which enables the reliable ultimate strength evaluation of nuclear reactor buildings. Along with this need, many computer codes have been developed. These computer codes are compared. (K.A.)

  3. Body mass index and breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival...... from breast cancer. Methods: We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between...... the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. Results: BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER...

  4. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe...

  5. Ultimate Bound of a 3D Chaotic System and Its Application in Chaos Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiezhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ellipsoidal ultimate boundary regions of a special three-dimensional (3D chaotic system are proposed. To this chaotic system, the linear coefficient of the ith state variable in the ith state equation has the same sign; it also has two one-order terms and one quadratic cross-product term in each equation. A numerical solution and an analytical expression of the ultimate bounds are received. To get the analytical expression of the ultimate boundary region, a new result of one maximum optimization question is proved. The corresponding ultimate boundary regions are demonstrated through numerical simulations. Utilizing the bounds obtained, a linear controller is proposed to achieve the complete chaos synchronization. Numerical simulation exhibits the feasibility of the designed scheme.

  6. LRFD software for design and actual ultimate capacity of confined rectangular columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of concrete columns using unconfined concrete models is a well established practice. On the : other hand, prediction of the actual ultimate capacity of confined concrete columns requires specialized nonlinear : analysis. Modern codes and...

  7. [Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice. The culture of authoritarianism in Latvia, 1934-1940. (Central and Eastern Europe. Reginal perspectives in global context, Bd. 2.) Brill. Leiden-Boston 2013

  8. Reduced design load basis for ultimate blade loads estimation in multidisciplinary design optimization frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost...... function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed...... for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar...

  9. Recommendation for basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report is the result of the preparation process, and it describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for the site selection, storage construction, and safety analyses. (LN)

  10. A Technique for Temperature and Ultimate Load Calculations of Thin Targets in a Pulsed Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Lundsager, Per

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of transient temperature distributions and ultimate load of rotationally symmetric thin membranes with uniform lateral load and exposed to a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator. Heat transfer by conduction is considered the only transfer...... mechanism. The ultimate load is calculated on the basis of large plastic strain analysis. Analysis of one aluminum and one titanium membrane is shown....

  11. Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Neyer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  12. Excess glycogen does not resolve high ultimate pH of oxidative muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Oliver, Emily M; Apaoblaza, Ariel; Scheffler, Tracy L; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen content can impact the extent of postmortem pH decline. Compared to glycolytic muscles, oxidative muscles contain lower glycogen levels antemortem which may contribute to the higher ultimate pH. In an effort to explore further the participation of glycogen in postmortem metabolism, we postulated that increasing the availability of glycogen would drive additional pH decline in oxidative muscles to equivalent pH values similar to the ultimate pH of glycolytic muscles. Glycolysis and pH declines were compared in porcine longissimus lumborum (glycolytic) and masseter (oxidative) muscles using an in vitro system in the presence of excess glycogen. The ultimate pH of the system containing longissimus lumborum reached a value similar to that observed in intact muscle. The pH decline of the system containing masseter samples stopped prematurely resulting in a higher ultimate pH which was similar to that of intact masseter muscle. To investigate further, we titrated powdered longissimus lumborum and masseter samples in the reaction buffer. As the percentage of glycolytic sample increased, the ultimate pH decreased. These data show that oxidative muscle produces meat with a high ultimate pH regardless of glycogen content and suggest that inherent muscle factors associated with glycolytic muscle control the extent of pH decline in pig muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment on Ultimate Load of Cold-formed Steel Channel (CFSC Stub Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel is used as the non-structural and structural material in civil engineering work and building. Cold-formed steel channel is selected and cut into 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm and 500 mm. The slenderness ratio is calculated and noted as a stub or short column because below 40. The column is tested by using Universal Testing Machine to determine the ultimate load of the stub column. Besides, the CFSC is determined the material properties of CFSC for checking it’s the originality of steel based material. The experimental data are tested and compared with the Direct Strength Method (DSM. It showed that the CFSC1 with a height of 100 mm is reported to have a higher value of ultimate load when compared with other samples. When the height of the stub column increased, the ultimate load of the sample is decreased. Then, the CFSC1 also showed a higher in initial stiffness when compared with other samples. All samples are shown having a higher data in ultimate load when compared with the Direct Strength Method prediction. The ultimate load of experimental and DSM all gave a ratio below 1.03. Finally, all samples can further recommend determining the relation between the ultimate loads with variations of height of the column.

  14. Survival after parathyroidectomy in chronic hemodialysis patients with severe secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Diana; Racasan, Simona; Kacso, Ina Maria; Rusu, Crina; Potra, Alina; Bondor, Cosmina; Patiu, Ioan Mihai; Gherman-Căprioară, Mirela

    2015-11-01

    The life for end-stage renal disease patients has remarkably improved in the last years. Although mineral and bone disorders remain as unsolved complication, in severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), the ultimate treatment is parathyroidectomy (PTX). It is an old treatment, but there are still insufficient data regarding survival after PTX. The study goals were to compare 2-year mortality and morbidity after PTX in surgically versus medically treated sHPT and to compare the efficacy and safety in subtotal versus total PTX in a cohort of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). This prospective, longitudinal study was carried out on a cohort of chronic HD patients with severe sHPT (iPTH over 700 pg/ml). Among the overall HD population, 26 patients underwent PTX. This group was compared to a control group treated with specific drugs. Laboratory parameters, specific symptoms and mortality were registered after 24 months of follow-up for each group. The subgroups of subtotal and total PTX patients were also compared. All average values of mineral markers were significantly reduced after PTX, as a proof that surgical treatment was effective. The reduction in mineral markers and the improvement in symptoms and mortality rates were similar after total and subtotal PTX. Bone pain was significantly lower in patients after PTX than in those drug treated (p = 0.0005), but not muscle weakness and itching. Survival at 2 years was better in patients surgically treated (PTX) despite significantly higher mean baseline values of iPTH, Ca and ALP compared to patients medically treated (p = 0.03). We compared clinical and laboratory outcomes in HD patients with severe sHPT. Mortality, bone pain and mineral markers were improved by PTX. Total and subtotal PTX had similar clinical outcomes.

  15. Mortality, stroke, and heart failure in atrial fibrillation cohorts after ablation versus propensity-matched cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Julian We; Hunter, Tina D; Hussain, Wajid; March, Jamie L; Wong, Tom; Markides, Vias

    2017-01-01

    We sought to determine from key clinical outcomes whether catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with increased survival. Using routinely collected hospital data, ablation patients were matched to two control cohorts using direct and propensity score methodology. Four thousand nine hundred ninety-one ablation patients were matched 1:1 with general AF controls without ablation. Five thousand four hundred seven ablation patients were similarly matched to controls who underwent cardioversion. We examined the rates of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (stroke/TIA), heart failure hospitalization, and death. Matched populations had very similar comorbidity profiles, including nearly identical CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc risk distribution ( p =0.6948 and p =0.8152 vs general AF and cardioversion cohorts). Kaplan-Meier models showed increased survival after ablation for all outcomes compared with both control cohorts ( p vs general AF, p =0.0087 for stroke/TIA, p vs cardioversion). Cox regression models also showed improved survival after ablation for all outcomes compared with the general AF cohort (hazard ratio [HR]=0.4, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.3-0.6, p stroke/TIA; HR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.6, p stroke/TIA; HR=0.4, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6, p stroke/TIA, and heart failure compared with a matched general AF population and a matched population who underwent cardioversion. Potential confounding of outcomes was minimized by very tight cohort matching.

  16. Survival pathways under stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Survival pathways under stress. Bacteria survive by changing gene expression. pattern. Three important pathways will be discussed: Stringent response. Quorum sensing. Proteins performing function to control oxidative damage.

  17. A taylor series approach to survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, J.B.; Groer, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    A method of survival analysis using hazard functions is developed. The method uses the well known mathematical theory for Taylor Series. Hypothesis tests of the adequacy of many statistical models, including proportional hazards and linear and/or quadratic dose responses, are obtained. A partial analysis of leukemia mortality in the Life Span Study cohort is used as an example. Furthermore, a relatively robust estimation procedure for the proportional hazards model is proposed. (author)

  18. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS AND LENGTH-BIASED SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Asgharian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When survival data are colleted as part of a prevalent cohort study, the recruited cases have already experienced their initiating event. These prevalent cases are then followed for a fixed period of time at the end of which the subjects will either have failed or have been censored. When interests lies in estimating the survival distribution, from onset, of subjects with the disease, one must take into account that the survival times of the cases in a prevalent cohort study are left truncated. When it is possible to assume that there has not been any epidemic of the disease over the past period of time that covers the onset times of the subjects, one may assume that the underlying incidence process that generates the initiating event times is a stationary Poisson process. Under such assumption, the survival times of the recruited subjects are called “lengthbiased”. I discuss the challenges one is faced with in analyzing these type of data. To address the theoretical aspects of the work, I present asymptotic results for the NPMLE of the length-biased as well as the unbiased survival distribution. I also discuss estimating the unbiased survival function using only the follow-up time. This addresses the case that the onset times are either unknown or known with uncertainty. Some of our most recent work and open questions will be presented. These include some aspects of analysis of covariates, strong approximation, functional LIL and density estimation under length-biased sampling with right censoring. The results will be illustrated with survival data from patients with dementia, collected as part of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA.

  19. Breast cancer data analysis for survivability studies and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Nagesh; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Win, Khin Than; Yang, Jack

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting females worldwide. Breast cancer survivability prediction is challenging and a complex research task. Existing approaches engage statistical methods or supervised machine learning to assess/predict the survival prospects of patients. The main objectives of this paper is to develop a robust data analytical model which can assist in (i) a better understanding of breast cancer survivability in presence of missing data, (ii) providing better insights into factors associated with patient survivability, and (iii) establishing cohorts of patients that share similar properties. Unsupervised data mining methods viz. the self-organising map (SOM) and density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN) is used to create patient cohort clusters. These clusters, with associated patterns, were used to train multilayer perceptron (MLP) model for improved patient survivability analysis. A large dataset available from SEER program is used in this study to identify patterns associated with the survivability of breast cancer patients. Information gain was computed for the purpose of variable selection. All of these methods are data-driven and require little (if any) input from users or experts. SOM consolidated patients into cohorts of patients with similar properties. From this, DBSCAN identified and extracted nine cohorts (clusters). It is found that patients in each of the nine clusters have different survivability time. The separation of patients into clusters improved the overall survival prediction accuracy based on MLP and revealed intricate conditions that affect the accuracy of a prediction. A new, entirely data driven approach based on unsupervised learning methods improves understanding and helps identify patterns associated with the survivability of patient. The results of the analysis can be used to segment the historical patient data into clusters or subsets, which share common variable values and

  20. Ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model: Tumor eradication and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.; Krishchenko, Alexander P.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we consider the ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model which was created for studying the immune response to tumors under special types of immunotherapy. New ultimate upper bounds for compact invariant sets of this model are given, as well as sufficient conditions for the existence of a positively invariant polytope. We establish three types of conditions for the nonexistence of compact invariant sets in the domain of the tumor-cell population. Our main results are two types of conditions for global tumor elimination depending on the ratio between the proliferation rate of the immune cells and their mortality rate. These conditions are described in terms of simple algebraic inequalities imposed on model parameters and treatment parameters. Our theoretical studies of ultimate dynamics are complemented by numerical simulation results.

  1. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. Ultimate Owner and Firm Performance - Evidence from Romanian Mining and Quarrying Listed Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin MIHAI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to describe the necessary steps to identify the ultimate owner and to investigate the relation between the ultimate ownership and the financial performance of Romanian mining and quarrying listed firms. The study was conducted for the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, in both regulated and non-regulated segments. The final sample included 17 companies of mining and quarrying. Return on Equity was used for measuring the financial performance of the firms. The ultimate ownership was measured by the percentage of voting rights held by a shareholder. Econometric tools like multiple linear regression analysis were used for analysis. The results of the study suggest that there is a significant negative link between financial performance and divergence between voting rights and cash-flow rights.

  3. The importance of mines for ultimate storage at Deilmann-Haniel Shaft Sinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, Jochen; Oellers, Thomas; Ahlbrecht, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Deilmann-Haniel Shaft Sinking GmbH and its predecessor and associate companies have been involved in projects for underground ultimate storage in Germany, Europe and America for over 45 years. The field of activities previously comprised surveying, planning and sinking of shafts, repair and conversion work, design of underground sealing structures, planning of conveyors and support of the BfS in planning approval procedures. Following discontinuation of activities in the German coal mining industry the use of mines for ultimate storage is an important support for German specialist mining companies. The use of mines for ultimate storage ensures that the existing mining know how in Germany is maintained, because training of the younger generation on the commercial and engineering side of the companies is made possible by the imminent major projects.

  4. On the decrease of ultimate elongation of gum elastomer by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki

    1986-01-01

    The reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation was studied. The sample used is tetrafluoroethylenepropylene copolymer vulcanized which is a heat resistant elastomer. The sample was irradiated by a electron beam at room temperature. Cross-linking predominate in the operation. (Case 1) Scission predominant condition (Case 2) was given by irradiation of Co-60 γ ray at 100 deg C. Alternative irradiation of γ ray and electron beam under above condition can keep the original cross-linking density by the appropriate choice of each of the doses. (Case 3) The three cases mentioned above involve all of the cases of radiation induced aging of elastomers. Therefor, the following explanation for three cases shows the reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation. Case 1. Cross-linking predominant condition. Ultimate elongation is proportional to -0.5 power of the dose. This fact can be explicable by the model of Buche, i.e. the breaking of a short chain causes another to break and that so on throughout the whole sample. Case 2. Chain scission predominant condition. Ultimate elongation increases by irradiation for a certain dose. This fact can understand by the model of Buche. But from a certain dose ultimate elongation does not increase. In the period the structure of the sample turned to be the same structure as the low molecular weight amorphose polymer vulcanized. Case 3. Rate of cross-linking and scission is the same. The average chain length does not chainge in the condition. But the distribution of chain length became wider and wider by irradiation. The increase of short chain result the decrease in ultimate elongation. (author)

  5. Surviving Hypopharynx-Larynx Carcinoma in the Era of IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studer, Gabriela; Peponi, Evangelia; Kloeck, Stephan; Dossenbach, Thomas; Huber, Gerhard; Glanzmann, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Outcome in locoregionally advanced laryngeal carcinoma and hypopharyngeal carcinoma after conventional radiation techniques is known for modest disease control and considerable late toxicity. Considering the lack of standardization in prescription dose for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), we aimed to compare the results after our methods of simultaneously integrated boost IMRT with published results. Methods and Materials: Between March 2002 and December 2008, 65 hypopharyngeal, 31 supraglottic, and 27 locoregionally advanced glottic tumor patients underwent definitive IMRT (with simultaneous chemotherapy in 86%). Of these, 64% presented with locoregionally advanced disease. Mean follow-up was 26 months (range, 3-83 months), with a median of 21 months. Treatment (2.0-2.2Gy per fraction, 66-72.6Gy) followed a prospectively defined protocol. If the boost volume included more than half of the larynx or a substantial part of the pharynx, dose was limited to 2.0Gy per fraction. Results: The 2-year local, nodal, and locoregional control (LRC) rates for the entire cohort were 82%, 90%, and 77%, respectively; the disease-free and overall survival rates were 75% and 83%, respectively. The ultimate 2-year LRC rate, including salvage surgery, was 86%. Laryngectomy was required in 2 LRC patients needing tracheostoma already before; 2 further LRC patients needed tracheostomy before IMRT and remained tracheostoma dependent, and 3 patients remained feeding tube dependent after IMRT. Salvage laryngectomy was successful in 8 of 11. Of all 123 patients, 91 patients (74%) are locoregionally controlled and live with a functional laryngopharynx. Conclusions: Simultaneously integrated boost IMRT with limited acceptance of dose inhomogeneity resulted in very satisfactory disease control despite a slight left shift of planning target volume curves on the dose-volume histogram. Considering the treatment tolerance, a careful increase in dose in our patients seems possible

  6. Ultimate strength and ductility of steel reinforced concrete beam-columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate strength and ductility of SRC beam-columns are investigated using the data gathered in Architectural Institute of Japan. Though the simple superposed strength formula in AIJ standard underestimates the strength of SRC beam-column failed in flexure, the generalized superposed strength formula estimates it satisfactory. The strength formula in AIJ standard does not good agreement with test data. The SRC beam-column failed in shear has almost equalductility with that failed in flexure owing to the encased steel. Author presents the formulas which estimate the ultimate deformation angle for SRC beam-columns. (author)

  7. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plates......, webs and flanges, respectively. The effects of inspections and repair are taken into account. A minimum net thickness rule is used to determine repair policies. A procedure is proposed to determine the maximum allowable corrosion thickness of different parts of the hull cross section. The procedure...

  8. Behaviour of concrete nuclear containment structures upto ultimate failure with special reference to MAPP-1 containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appa Rao, T.V.S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental methods for investigating the behaviour of concrete secondary containment structures subjected to loads upto their ultimate failure have been discussed in the paper. Need for inelastic nonlinear analysis of containments has been emphasized. Different contitutive models of concrete that can be employed in the nonlinear analysis of concrete structures were briefly reviewed. Based on the experimental results obtained in a 1:12 scale model test conducted at the Structural Engineering Research (Regional) Centre, Madras, behaviour of the MAPP-1 containment to internal pressure loading upto its ultimate failure has been discussed. (author)

  9. Decision basis for a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report was prepared by a working group and it presents the final proposal for such a decision basis. The report describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for site selection, storage construction, and safety analysis. In an appendix, the amount, types, and activity level of the Danish radioactive wastes are presented. (ln)

  10. Conception of electron beam-driven subcritical molten salt ultimate safety reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalin, S.S.; Alekseev, P.N.; Ignat`ev, V.V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary sketch of a conception to develop the {open_quotes}ultimate safety reactor{close_quotes} using modern reactor and accelerator technologies. This approach would not require a long-range R&D program. The ultimate safety reactor could produce heat and electric energy, expand the production of fuel, or be used for the transmutation of long-lived wastes. The use of the combined double molten salt reactor system allows adequate neutron multiplication to permit using an electron accelerator for the initial neutron flux. The general parameters of such a system are discussed in this paper.

  11. Network survivability performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This technical report has been developed to address the survivability of telecommunications networks including services. It responds to the need for a common understanding of, and assessment techniques for network survivability, availability, integrity, and reliability. It provides a basis for designing and operating telecommunications networks to user expectations for network survivability and a foundation for continuing industry activities in the subject area. This report focuses on the survivability of both public and private networks and covers a wide range of users. Two frameworks are established for quantifying and categorizing service outages, and for classifying network survivability techniques and measures. The performance of the network survivability techniques is considered; however, recommended objectives are not established for network survivability performance.

  12. In-hospital resuscitation: opioids and other factors influencing survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karamarie Fecho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Karamarie Fecho1, Freeman Jackson1, Frances Smith1, Frank J Overdyk21Department of Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 2Department of Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USAPurpose: “Code Blue” is a standard term used to alertt hospital staff that a patient requires resuscitation. This study determined rates of survival from Code Blue events and the role of opioids and other factors on survival.Methods: Data derived from medical records and the Code Blue and Pharmacy databases were analyzed for factors affecting survival.Results: During 2006, rates of survival from the code only and to discharge were 25.9% and 26.4%, respectively, for Code Blue events involving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; N = 216. Survival rates for events not ultimately requiring CPR (N = 77 were higher, with 32.5% surviving the code only and 62.3% surviving to discharge. For CPR events, rates of survival to discharge correlated inversely with time to chest compressions and defibrillation, precipitating event, need for airway management, location and age. Time of week, witnessing, postoperative status, gender and opioid use did not influence survival rates. For non-CPR events, opioid use was associated with decreased survival. Survival rates were lowest for patients receiving continuous infusions (P < 0.01 or iv boluses of opioids (P < 0.05.Conclusions: One-quarter of patients survive to discharge after a CPR Code Blue event and two-thirds survive to discharge after a non-CPR event. Opioids may influence survival from non-CPR events.Keywords: code blue, survival, opioids, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, cardiac arrest, patient safety

  13. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  14. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r=0.65–0.94. Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters.

  15. Molar mass of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during ultimate uniaxial drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  16. Molar-Mass of Poly(Ethylene-Terephthalate) (PET) During Ultimate Uniaxial Drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, A.G.P.U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  17. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  18. Reliability analysis of production ships with emphasis on load combination and ultimate strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaozhi

    1995-05-01

    This thesis deals with ultimate strength and reliability analysis of offshore production ships, accounting for stochastic load combinations, using a typical North Sea production ship for reference. A review of methods for structural reliability analysis is presented. Probabilistic methods are established for the still water and vertical wave bending moments. Linear stress analysis of a midships transverse frame is carried out, four different finite element models are assessed. Upon verification of the general finite element code ABAQUS with a typical ship transverse girder example, for which test results are available, ultimate strength analysis of the reference transverse frame is made to obtain the ultimate load factors associated with the specified pressure loads in Det norske Veritas Classification rules for ships and rules for production vessels. Reliability analysis is performed to develop appropriate design criteria for the transverse structure. It is found that the transverse frame failure mode does not seem to contribute to the system collapse. Ultimate strength analysis of the longitudinally stiffened panels is performed, accounting for the combined biaxial and lateral loading. Reliability based design of the longitudinally stiffened bottom and deck panels is accomplished regarding the collapse mode under combined biaxial and lateral loads. 107 refs., 76 refs., 37 tabs.

  19. Magnetic surfaces, particle orbits and neutral injection in conventional and ultimate torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.T.; Derr, J.A.; Kruckewitt, T.; Shohet, J.L.; Rehker, S.; Tataronis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Capabilities in fully non-axisymmetric numerical methods have resulted in a parametric study of various conventional and ultimate torsatron configurations. No superbananas are found in torsatrons without local magnetic wells. Neutral injection calculations show that, if the vacuum magnetic surfaces are well defined, tangential injection is very efficient

  20. Study of ultimate heat sink to Angra-1,2 and 3 Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.M.; Pinto, A.M.F.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the premises, results and conclusion of study done to ultimate heat sink of Angra 1,2 and 3 units, with base in postulated accidents that generate transient heat discharges to environment. It's explicitily presumed the eventuality of discharging heat water recirculation. (C.M.) [pt

  1. Method for ultimate disposition of borate containing radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bege, D.; Faust, H.J.; Puthawala, A.; Stunkel, H.

    1984-01-01

    Method for the ultimate disposition of radioactive wastes by vitrification, in which weak to medium radioactive waste concentrates from borate-containing radioactive liquids are mixed with added glass-forming materials, maximally in a ratio of 1:3, and the mixture heated to obtain a glass-forming melt

  2. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims...

  3. Discussion of the Method to Determine the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soil Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yangfu

    2017-12-01

    Combining literature examples, this paper has carried out Contrastive analysis of the theoretical formula method and finite element method about the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation, To verify rationality and superiority of the incremental load method in finite element ABAQUS in solving the bearing capacity of foundation soil. The study can provide certain reference for practical engineering calculation and analysis of foundation bearing capacity.

  4. Too many journals? Towards a theory of repeated rejections and ultimate acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, Jan

    Under a set of reasonable assumptions, it is shown that all manuscripts submitted to any journal will ultimately be published, either by the first journal or by one of the following journals to which a manuscript is resubmitted. This suggests that low quality manuscripts may also be published, which

  5. A comparison of international criteria for the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.

    1985-01-01

    In countries other than the Federal Republic of Germany and internationally there are no comprehensive codes referring to criteria and safety requirements except those of the IAEA and USA. In other countries there exist safety goals for the ultimate storage or for purely geological criteria. The degree of detailing regulations differs widely abroad and internationally. Safety goals abroad and internationally as well as measures for their realisation in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations are in line with the German safety goals. The IAEA refers to general aspects of geological, waste technology and ultimate storage technology criteria. In the USA, ultimate storage technology criteria have been quantified in part. The quantitative geological criteria existing in Great Britain and in the Netherlands are only relevant in as much as safety analyses must be performed for a specific site to provide evidence for the safety of this site. The comparison shows that most requirements pronounced abroad are also made for the Federal Republic of Germany. Some requirements are more specified in the Federal Republic of Germany, some are more detailed abroad. (orig./HP) [de

  6. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  7. 7 CFR 4280.29 - Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project. 4280.29 Section 4280.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.29 Supplemental financing...

  8. Multinationals and plant survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate how different ownership structures affect plant survival, and second, to analyze how the presence of foreign multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects domestic plants’ survival. Using a unique and detailed data set on the Swedish manufacturing...... sector, I am able to separate plants into those owned by foreign MNEs, domestic MNEs, exporting non-MNEs, and purely domestic firms. In line with previous findings, the result, when conditioned on other factors affecting survival, shows that foreign MNE plants have lower survival rates than non......-MNE plants. However, separating the non-MNEs into exporters and non-exporters, the result shows that foreign MNE plants have higher survival rates than non-exporting non-MNEs, while the survival rates of foreign MNE plants and exporting non-MNE plants do not seem to differ. Moreover, the simple non...

  9. No influence of GB virus C on disease progression in a Danish cohort of HIV-infected men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryt-Hansen, Rosa; Katzenstein, Terese L; Gerstoft, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Presumed apathogenic viruses have been suggested to play a role in HIV infection. In some cohorts of HIVpositive patients, GB virus C (GBVC) has been associated with prolonged survival and time to AIDS. We set out to address whether GBVC infection had any influence on survival in a cohort of 112...

  10. Survival and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes among Periviable Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younge, Noelle; Goldstein, Ricki F; Bann, Carla M; Hintz, Susan R; Patel, Ravi M; Smith, P Brian; Bell, Edward F; Rysavy, Matthew A; Duncan, Andrea F; Vohr, Betty R; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N; Higgins, Rosemary D; Cotten, C Michael

    2017-02-16

    .59 [95% CI, 1.28 to 1.99], respectively). The rate of survival without neurodevelopmental impairment increased between 2000 and 2011 in this large cohort of periviable infants. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00063063 and NCT00009633 .).

  11. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  12. The Assessment of the Ultimate Hull Girder Strength of RO-RO Ship after Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair Muis Alie, Muhammad; Sitepu, Ganding; Izaak Latumahin, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    Many accidents of Ro-Ro ships happen in Indonesia such as collision and grounding. When the collision or grounding takes place on the Ro-Ro ship, the ultimate strength of hull structure after damage becomes decrease. Car and passenger decks are critical location since collision and/or grounding occur. In the present study, the assessment of the ultimate hull girder strength is conducted. The cross section of Ro-Ro ship is taken to be analyzed. The collision and grounding damages are assumed to be palced on the side and bottom area, respectively. The damages are created by removing the element from the side shell and bottom part. Finally, the result obtained is compared with one another.

  13. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  14. Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    then in combina-tion with the ultimate limit state requirements leads to the specific constitutive relations. As a result finite element models based on shell elements incorporating a structural and a loading model are introduced and described in detail. Applying these models the ultimate capacity of the support...... on the basis of literature review and measurement data from a prototype Multibrid M5000 support structure. In combination with the developed structural and loading models, sensitivity analyses in regard to the responses are peiformed to enhance the understanding and to refine the developed models. To this end...... variables on the responses including nonlinearity the refinement of the model is performed on a quantitative basis....

  15. Evaluation of time-accelerated irradiation method of elastomer by modulus-ultimate elongation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki; Oka, Toshitaka; Hama, Yosimasa

    2009-01-01

    'Generalized modulus-ultimate elongation profile' was induced from the relationship between the modulus and the ultimate elongation of an elastomer that was quantitatively added crosslinking and scission. This profile can be used to evaluate the time-accelerated irradiation methods of ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer. The irradiation under low dose rate (0.33 kGy/h) at room temperature was the reference condition. The short-time irradiation condition was 4.2 kGy/h in 0.5 MPa oxygen at room temperature and 5.0 kGy/h in air at 70 o C. The former tended to bring about the higher ratio of scission than the reference condition; the latter tended to bring about the higher ratio of crosslinking.

  16. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  17. Ultimate analysis of PWR prestressed concrete containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.-T.; Lin, Y.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical analyses are carried out by using the ABAQUS finite element program to predict the ultimate pressure capacity and the failure mode of the PWR prestressed concrete containment at Maanshan nuclear power plant. Material nonlinearity such as concrete cracking, tension stiffening, shear retention, concrete plasticity, yielding of prestressing tendon, yielding of steel reinforcing bar and degradation of material properties due to high temperature are all simulated with proper constitutive models. Geometric nonlinearity due to finite deformation has also been considered. The results of the analysis show that when the prestressed concrete containment fails, extensive cracks take place at the apex of the dome, the junction of the dome and cylinder, and the bottom of the cylinder connecting to the base slab. In addition, the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment is higher than the design pressure by 86%

  18. Nonlinear finite element analysis of nuclear reinforced prestressed concrete containments up to ultimate load capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    For safety evaluation of nuclear structures a finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) has been developed. Eight/nine noded isoparametric quadrilateral plate/shell element with reinforcement as a through thickness discrete but integral smeared layer of the element is presented to analyze reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Various constitutive models such as crushing, cracking in tension, tension stiffening and rebar yielding are studied and effect of these parameters on the reserve strength of structures is brought out through a number of benchmark tests. A global model is used to analyze the prestressed concrete containment wall of a typical 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) up to its ultimate capacity. This demonstrates the adequacy of Indian PHWR containment design to withstand severe accident loads

  19. ASURV: Astronomical SURVival Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.; Nelson, P. I.; Isobe, T.; LaValley, M.

    2014-06-01

    ASURV (Astronomical SURVival Statistics) provides astronomy survival analysis for right- and left-censored data including the maximum-likelihood Kaplan-Meier estimator and several univariate two-sample tests, bivariate correlation measures, and linear regressions. ASURV is written in FORTRAN 77, and is stand-alone and does not call any specialized libraries.

  20. Qualtum cosmics-and-chaotics--the ultimate tortoise in physics and modern medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualtum cosmics is the qualitative opposite of quantum mechanics. The flip-side of qualtum cosmics is qualtum chaotics, the two governing much of what is seen as inscrutable in medicine. The Ultimate (Last Tortoise is close to Einsteinean idea of a Unified Theory, a single concept that can explain whatsoever there is in physics, (and in medicine, or what have you.

  1. Utilization of metal scrap for the production of waste drums for ultimate disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janberg, K.; Rittscher, D.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution reviews the history of development of the techniques for treatment of decommissioning scrap from the beginning of the 1980's onwards (decommissioning of the Niederaichbach and Gundremmingen nuclear power stations), together with the radiological measuring methods required for regulatory purposes. The advantages of the recycling of the metal scrap by means of melting, and of materials utilization for production of waste containers for ultimate storage are discussed together with product quality assurance criteria. (RB) [de

  2. The Influence of Wagon Structure Part Shape Optimization on Ultimate Fatigue Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović, Vladimir; Živković, Miroslav; Jovičić, Gordana; Živković, Jelena; Kozak, Dražan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how shape optimisation affects the ultimate fatigue strength of a mechanical part. The mechanical part chosen for this investigation is an axle guard of running gear elements of the Hccrrs 2x2 axle car-carrying wagon. The static and fatigue strength analysis procedure according to the UIC 517 standard and numerical methods have been applied. Material properties were determined experimentally and the necessary numerical calculations were performed by using the finite el...

  3. The ultimate safe (US) Reactor: A concept for the third millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor is based on a novel safety concept. Fission products in the reactor are allowed to accumulate only to a level at which they would constitute a harmless source term. Removal of fission products also removes the decay heat - the driving force for the source term. The reactor has no excess criticality and is controlled by the reactivity temperature coefficient. Safety is inherent and passive. Waste is removed from the site promptly

  4. Modeling and simulation of loss of the ultimate heat sink in a typical material testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, Hisham; El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din; Higazy, Maher G.; El-Shazly, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A thermal–hydraulic model has been developed to simulate loss of the ultimate heat sink in MTR. ► The model involves three coupled sub-models for core, heat exchanger and cooling tower. ► The model is validated against PARET for steady-state and verified by operation data for transients. ► The model is used to simulate the behavior of the reactor under a loss of the ultimate heat sink. ► The model results are analyzed and discussed. -- Abstract: A thermal–hydraulic model has been developed to simulate loss of the ultimate heat sink in a typical material testing reactor (MTR). The model involves three interactively coupled sub-models for reactor core, heat exchanger and cooling tower. The model is validated against PARET code for steady-state operation and verified by the reactor operation records for transients. Then, the model is used to simulate the thermal–hydraulic behavior of the reactor under a loss of the ultimate heat sink event. The simulation is performed for two operation regimes: regime I representing 11 MW power and three cooling tower cells operated, and regime II representing 22 MW power and six cooling tower cells operated. In regime I, the simulation is performed for 1, 2 and 3 cooling tower cells failed while in regime II, it is performed for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cooling tower cells failed. The simulation is performed under protected conditions where the safety action called power reduction is triggered by reactor protection system to decrease the reactor power by 20% when the coolant inlet temperature to the core reaches 43 °C and scram is triggered if the core inlet temperature reaches 44 °C. The model results are analyzed and discussed.

  5. Tasks of radiation protection in the centralized collection and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerst, F.M.; Fasten, C.; Koerner, W.; Oppermann, U.; Werner, H.J.; Zappe, D.

    1988-01-01

    In the GDR, the ERAM (Endlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle, Morsleben), an operating unit of Volkseigenes Kombinat Kernkraftwerke 'Bruno Leuschner' in Greifswald, is responsible for the central collection and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste. From the licensing body's point of view an assessment is given of the legislation for radioactive wastes, especially as to their collection, transport to and handling in the final repository. As a result, some conclusions are drawn concerning future work in this field. 9 tabs., 34 refs. (author)

  6. Effects of urbanization on animal behaviour : patterns, underlying mechanisms and ultimate causes

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Ana Catarina Sequeira Nunes Coutinho de

    2014-01-01

    Human-altered environmental conditions affect many species at the global scale. An extreme form of anthropogenic alteration is the existence and rapid increase of urban areas. A key question is how animals cope with urbanization. In order to live in cities, animals have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to the urban novel environment.The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate (i) the existence of behavioural changes related to the urbanization process, (ii) the ultimate...

  7. Dual characteristics of yield and ultimate strength as applied to two grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, T.G.; Benzley, S.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1977-02-01

    Published yield and ultimate biaxial strength data for two grades of beryllium are correlated with the use of a macroscopic failure model. Cross sections of the resulting surfaces in three-dimensional stress space are drawn to illustrate the expected transition from ductile to brittle fracture for triaxial tension states of stress. The usefulness of these models to the prediction of fracture in ductile materials is discussed. 5 tables, 8 figures, 11 references

  8. Numerical Study on Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted End-Plate Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.S. Ismail

    Full Text Available Abstract Bolted end-plate steel connections have become more popular due to ease of fabrication. This paper presents a three dimension Finite Element Model (FEM, using the multi-purpose software ABAQUS, to study the effect of different geometrical parameters on the ultimate behavior of the connection. The proposed model takes into account material and geometrical non-linearities, initial imperfection, contact between adjacent surfaces and the pretension force in the bolts. The Finite Element results are calibrated with published experimental results ''briefly reviewed in this paper'' and verified that the numerical model can simulate and analyze the overall and detailed behavior of different types of bolted end-plate steel connections. Using verified FEM, parametric study is then carried out to study the ultimate behavior with variations in: bolt diameter, end-plate thickness, length of column stiffener, angle of rib stiffener. The results are examined with respect to the failure modes, the evolution of the resistance, the initial stiffness, and the rotation capacity. Finally, the ultimate behavior of the bolted end-plate steel connection is discussed in detail, and recommendations for the design purpose are made.

  9. Methodology for predicting ultimate pressure capacity of the ACR-1000 containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudy, A.M.; Awad, A.; Elgohary, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor or the ACR-1000 is developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to be the next step in the evolution of the CANDU product line. It is based on the proven CANDU technology and incorporates advanced design technologies. The ACR containment structure is an essential element of the overall defense in depth approach to reactor safety, and is a physical barrier against the release of radioactive material to the environment. Therefore, it is important to provide a robust design with an adequate margin of safety. One of the key design requirements of the ACR containment structure is to have an ultimate pressure capacity that is at least twice the design pressure Using standard design codes, the containment structure is expected to behave elastically at least up to 1.5 times the design pressure. Beyond this pressure level, the concrete containment structure with reinforcements and post-tension tendons behaves in a highly non-linear manner and exhibits a complex response when cracks initiate and propagate. To predict the structural non-linear responses, at least two critical features are involved. These are: the structural idealization by the geometry and material property models, and the adopted solution algorithm. Therefore, detailed idealization of the concrete structure is needed in order to accurately predict its ultimate pressure capacity. This paper summarizes the analysis methodology to be carried out to establish the ultimate pressure capacity of the ACR containment structure and to confirm that the structure meets the specified design requirements. (author)

  10. Transition to the Ultimate Regime in Two-Dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Mathai, Varghese; Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    The possible transition to the so-called ultimate regime, wherein both the bulk and the boundary layers are turbulent, has been an outstanding issue in thermal convection, since the seminal work by Kraichnan [Phys. Fluids 5, 1374 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706533]. Yet, when this transition takes place and how the local flow induces it is not fully understood. Here, by performing two-dimensional simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence covering six decades in Rayleigh number Ra up to 1 014 for Prandtl number Pr =1 , for the first time in numerical simulations we find the transition to the ultimate regime, namely, at Ra*=1013 . We reveal how the emission of thermal plumes enhances the global heat transport, leading to a steeper increase of the Nusselt number than the classical Malkus scaling Nu ˜Ra1 /3 [Proc. R. Soc. A 225, 196 (1954), 10.1098/rspa.1954.0197]. Beyond the transition, the mean velocity profiles are logarithmic throughout, indicating turbulent boundary layers. In contrast, the temperature profiles are only locally logarithmic, namely, within the regions where plumes are emitted, and where the local Nusselt number has an effective scaling Nu ˜Ra0.38 , corresponding to the effective scaling in the ultimate regime.

  11. Ultimate strength analysis of ring-stiffened cylinders subjected to hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chi Mo

    1990-01-01

    In this study, ultimate strength analysis of ring-stiffened cylinders have been performed, considering the elasto-plastic large deflection. In the elasto-plastic analysis, von Mises yield criteria, the plastic flow theory and the layered approach have been adopted. In order to take into account the follower force effect of the hydrostatic pressure, the incremental load components have been updated at every loading step. As collapse modes, axisymmetric yielding, interframe shell buckling and general buckling are considered, while local buckling of ring-stiffener is not considered. Initial shape imperfection is assumed to be the elastic buckling mode to obtain the lower bound of the ultimate strength. Results of numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results to show the validity of the present approach. It has been drawn that the present numerical results are closely correlated with the experimental results. On the other hand, the effects of initial shape imperfection and condition on the ultimate strength have been investigated. (Author)

  12. Ultimate load design and testing of a cylindrical prestressed concrete vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The object of this research was to design, construct and test to failure a prestressed concrete pressure vessel model that could be used to investigate the behavior of a full scale structure underworking and ultimate load. The properties and the design of the model was based generally on full scale vessels already constructed to house the nuclear reactors used in atomic power stations. To design the model the ultimate load approach was adopted throughout. All load factors associated with the prestressing have been defined and kept to a minimum in order that the vessel's behavior may be predicted. The tests on the vessel were carried out first on the elastic range to observe its behavior at working load and then at the ultimate range to observe the modes of failure and compare the actual results in both cases with the predicted values. Although full agreement between observed results and predicted values was not obtained, the conclusions drawn from the study were useful for the design of full scale vessels. (author)

  13. Breast and stomach cancer incidence and survival in migrants in the Netherlands, 1996-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, Melina; Aarts, Mieke Josepha; Siesling, Sabine; van der Aa, Maaike; Visser, Otto; Coebergh, Jan Willem

    2011-01-01

    Migrant populations experience a health transition that influences their cancer risk, determined by environmental changes and acculturation processes. In this retrospective cohort study, we investigated differences in breast and stomach cancer risk and survival in migrants to the Netherlands.

  14. Copenhagen Airport Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Brauer, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Copenhagen Airport Cohort 1990-2012 presents a unique data source for studies of health effects of occupational exposure to air pollution (ultrafine particles) and manual baggage handling among airport employees. We describe the extent of information in the cohort and in the follow...... covers 69 175 men in unskilled positions. The exposed cohort includes men in unskilled jobs employed at Copenhagen Airport in the period 1990-2012 either as baggage handlers or in other outdoor work. The reference cohort includes men in unskilled jobs working in the greater Copenhagen area. FINDINGS...... TO DATE: The cohort includes environmental Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in Copenhagen Airport, information on job function/task for each calendar year of employment between 1990 and 2012, exposure to air pollution at residence, average weight of baggage lifted per day and lifestyle...

  15. Parental crime and the safety and survival of small children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study the association between having a criminal parent and the safety and survival of small children is analysed. From the System of Social Statistical Datasets (SSD) hosted by Statistics Netherlands, we retrieve information on 10 complete birth cohorts (2000-2009; 1.9 million) of children

  16. Survival of extremely low-birth-weight infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants in a resource-limited public hospital setting is still low in South. Africa. is study aimed ... Mortality as a result of prematurity is the major contributor to .... reported from a large cohort study that.

  17. Statin use and survival following glioblastoma multiforme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Hallas, Jesper; Friis, Søren

    2014-01-01

    with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). METHODS: We identified 1562 patients diagnosed with GBM during 2000-2009 from the Danish Cancer Registry and linked this cohort to Danish nationwide demographic and health registries. Within the GBM cohort, each patient recorded as using statins prior to diagnosis (defined as ≥2......-cause death associated with prediagnostic statin use. RESULTS: A total of 339 GBM patients were included in the analyses. Of these, 325 died during median follow-up of 6.9 months (interquartile range: 3.8-13.4 months). Prediagnostic statin use was associated with a reduced HR of death (0.79; 95% CI: 0......: 0.63-1.01). CONCLUSION: Long-term prediagnostic statin use may improve survival following GBM....

  18. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...” include: contractual, franchise, distributor, wholesaler, continuing and regular individual business, etc... persons, other than employees of the ultimate consignee or purchaser, who assisted in the preparation of...

  19. Network ties and survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, George; Narteh, Bedman; Rand, John

    2017-01-01

    Poultry farming has been touted as one of the major ways by which poverty can be reduced in low-income economies like Ghana. Yet, anecdotally there is a high failure rate among these poultry farms. This current study seeks to understand the relationship between network ties and survival chances...... of small commercial poultry farms (SCPFs). We utilize data from a 2-year network survey of SCPFs in rural Ghana. The survival of these poultry farms are modelled using a lagged probit model of farms that persisted from 2014 into 2015. We find that network ties are important to the survival chances...... but this probability reduces as the number of industry ties increases but moderation with dynamic capability of the firm reverses this trend. Our findings show that not all network ties aid survival and therefore small commercial poultry farmers need to be circumspect in the network ties they cultivate and develop....

  20. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-01-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  1. Survivability and Hope

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Survivability and Hope Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... cure or long-term survivorship." This message of hope is a hallmark of the latest advances in ...

  2. Survival of falling robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jonathan M.; Arkin, Ronald C.

    1992-02-01

    As mobile robots are used in more uncertain and dangerous environments, it will become important to design them so that they can survive falls. In this paper, we examine a number of mechanisms and strategies that animals use to withstand these potentially catastrophic events and extend them to the design of robots. A brief survey of several aspects of how common cats survive falls provides an understanding of the issues involved in preventing traumatic injury during a falling event. After outlining situations in which robots might fall, a number of factors affecting their survival are described. From this background, several robot design guidelines are derived. These include recommendations for the physical structure of the robot as well as requirements for the robot control architecture. A control architecture is proposed based on reactive control techniques and action-oriented perception that is geared to support this form of survival behavior.

  3. Parametric Study on Ultimate Failure Criteria of Elbow Piping Components in Seismically Isolated NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Ki, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is well known that the interface pipes between isolated and non-isolated structures will become the most critical in the seismically isolated NPPs. Therefore, seismic performance of such interface pipes should be evaluated comprehensively especially in terms of the seismic fragility capacity. To evaluate the seismic capacity of interface pipes in the isolated NPP, firstly, we should define the failure mode and failure criteria of critical pipe components. Hence, in this study, we performed the dynamic tests of elbow components which were installed in a seismically isolated NPP, and evaluated the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria by using the test results. To do this, we manufactured 25 critical elbow component specimens and performed cyclic loading tests under the internal pressure condition. The failure mode and failure criteria of a pipe component will be varied by the design parameters such as the internal pressure, pipe diameter, loading type, and loading amplitude. From the tests, we assessed the effects of the variation parameters onto the failure criteria. For the tests, we generated the seismic input protocol of relative displacement between the ends of elbow component. In this paper, elbow in piping system was defined as a fragile element and numerical model was updated by component test. Failure mode of piping component under seismic load was defined by the dynamic tests of ultimate pipe capacity. For the interface piping system, the seismic capacity should be carefully estimated since that the required displacement absorption capacity will be increased significantly by the adoption of the seismic isolation system. In this study, the dynamic tests were performed for the elbow components which were installed in an actual NPPs, and the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria were also evaluated by using the test results.

  4. Ultimate Electrical Means for Severe Accident and Multi Unit Event Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guisez, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Following the Multi Unit Severe Accident that occurred at Fukushima as a result of the tsunami on 11 March 2011, the European Council decided to submit its Nuclear Power Plants to a Stress Test. In Belgium, this Stress Test, named BEST (Belgian Stress Test), was successfully concluded at the end of 2011. Nevertheless, Electrabel decided, in agreement with the Authorities, to start a beyond design basis action plan, with the goal to mitigate the consequences of a Beyond Design Basis Accident and a Multi Unit Event. Consequently, this has led to an improvement of the robustness of its Nuclear Power Plants. Considering the importance of electrical power supply to a nuclear power plant, a significant part of this action plan consisted of setting up a mobile, 'plug and play' method for the electrical power supply to some major safety systems. In order to install this ultimate power supply, three factors were retained as essential. First, important reactor monitoring instrumentation is preserved. Second, core cooling is provided at all times. Finally, systems are easily made operational within a very short delay of time. During normal operation and Design Basis Events, core cooling is provided by High Voltage equipment. However, during high stress circumstances, it is too complex to realize connections on this equipment. Therefore, analysis was performed to realize core cooling with, easier to handle, Low Voltage equipment. These systems are powered by several GenSets, especially designed and manufactured for this application. The outcome of this project are easy to use, ultimate means, that supply electric power to important safety systems in order to drastically reduce the risk of core damage, during a beyond design basis event. Additionally, for all ultimate means, procedures and training modules were developed for the operators. (authors)

  5. Ultimate pressures achieved in TiZrV sputter-coated vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Ruzinov, V

    2001-01-01

    Two metre long, cylindrical vacuum chambers of diameter ranging from 34 to 100 mm, coated with TiZrV getter films by sputtering, have been baked for about 24 h at temperatures from 120 to 250 degrees C. The ultimate pressures achieved after bakeout were found to correspond to the ratio of the pressure gauge degassing to the effective pumping speed provided by the chamber at the location of the gauge. The results covering a pressure range from 10/sup -11/ Torr down to 10 /sup -13/ Torr are presented and discussed. (6 refs).

  6. DHC in Helsinki - The Ultimate Heating and Cooling Solution for a Large Urban Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirgentius, Niko; Riipinen, Marko

    2010-09-15

    Since the 1950s there has been successful district energy business in Helsinki. It has been the main factor for superior energy efficiency and low CO2 emissions both in heating and cooling as well as providing clean air for the metropolitan area. The system has been grown by commercial basis based on customers' own willingness to select district energy solution. It also provided a profitable energy business to local energy company, Helsinki Energy. Helsinki DHC system is a good example of ultimate urban energy solution that provides benefits for the customer, energy company, metropolitan area and for the whole society as well.

  7. Investigations on the ultimate compressive strength of composite plates with geometrical imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirlis, K.; Downes, J.; Dow, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    with initial geometric imperfections. This paper presents the validation of finite element models against a series of plate tests that were performed within this framework and parametric studies that were carried out to identify the effects of geometric imperfections on the ultimate compressive strength......A series of studies has been performed within the MARSTRUCT Network of Excellence on Marine Structures in order to investigate the buckling response of glass fibre reinforced polymer plates. These studies include the fabrication, testing and finite element analysis of a large number of plates...

  8. Lava ultimate resin nano ceramic for CAD/ CAM: customization case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, M; Arnetzl, G V; Holly, L; Arnetzl, G

    2012-01-01

    Lava Ultimate Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) blocks are innovative new CAD/CAM materials that make it possible to achieve superior esthetic results in easy steps. The blocks are made of nano ceramic particles embedded in a highly cured resin matrix. Therefore, composite materials can be used to characterize and adjust resin nano ceramic restorations after milling. The milled RNC restorations can be individualized intra-orally or extra-orally, either before or after insertion. Unlike conventional ceramic restorations, customization and glaze firing is neither necessary nor possible with RNC restorations. This opens up the opportunity for intraoral individualization and adaptation of the restorations.

  9. Reflecting on impact, changes and continuities: restructuring workplace cultures: the ultimate work-family challenge.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Suzan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the paper “Restructuring workplace cultures: the ultimate work-family challenge?” is published in Women in Management Review, Vol. 16 No. 1, 2001, pp. 21-9. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – The impact of the paper is considered within a framework that takes account of national discursive and political contexts in the UK in 2001 and in the present and uses a gendered organisation lens. \\ud \\ud Findings – The 2001 paper demonstrates that...

  10. The legal ensurance of underground ultimate storage of radioactive wastes without risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasse, R.

    1974-01-01

    1. The legal position towards the property owner: a) with a view to the freedom of property claim, b) in the light of the influence of the property owner. 2. The legal position towards the neighbouring property owners: a) resistance rights of the body corporate responsible for the ultimate storage, b) resistance rights of the neighbouring property owner. 3. The legal position towards those authorized to mine: a) mining free minerals, b) mining minerals reserved for the state. 4. The legal position towards prospectors. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I.; Suzuki, K.; Ishiwata, M.; Fujiwaka, T.; Yokota, H.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)

  12. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-01-01

    One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing...

  13. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  14. Surviving the Siege

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    The siege of La Rochelle was an iconic disaster, and the religious, political and military implications of the siege and the ultimate fall of La Rochelle have fascinated historians. It has often been described as a watershed in the governance of France and the high point of French absolutism, while...... term effect of memory demonstrate the potential of a single localised catastrophe on understandings of towns, their links to wider communities and to collective memory....

  15. Survival in Response to Multimodal Therapy in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasongsook, Naiyarat; Kumar, Aditi; Chintakuntlawar, Ashish V; Foote, Robert L; Kasperbauer, Jan; Molina, Julian; Garces, Yolanda; Ma, Daniel; Wittich, Michelle A Neben; Rubin, Joseph; Richardson, Ronald; Morris, John; Hay, Ian; Fatourechi, Vahab; McIver, Bryan; Ryder, Mabel; Thompson, Geoffrey; Grant, Clive; Richards, Melanie; Sebo, Thomas J; Rivera, Michael; Suman, Vera; Jenkins, Sarah M; Smallridge, Robert C; Bible, Keith C

    2017-12-01

    Historical outcomes in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) have been dismal. To determine whether an initial intensive multimodal therapy (MMT) is associated with improved ATC survival. MMT was offered to all patients with newly diagnosed ATC treated at the Mayo Clinic from 2003 through 2015; MMT vs care with palliative intent (PI) was individualized considering clinical status and patient preferences. Outcomes were retrospectively analyzed by American Joint Committee on Cancer stage and treatments compared with patient cohort data from 1949 through 1999. Forty-eight patients (60% male; median age, 62 years); 18 treated with PI, 30 with MMT. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival determined by Kaplan-Meier method. Median OS and 1-year survival for the later cohort were 9 months [95% confidence interval (CI), 4 to 22 months] and 42% (95% CI, 28% to 56%) vs 3 months and 10% for the earlier cohort. Median OS was 21 months compared with 3.9 months in the pooled MMT vs PI groups for the later cohort [hazard ratio (HR), 0.32; P = 0.0006]. Among only patients in the later cohort who had stage IVB disease, median OS was 22.4 vs 4 months (HR, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.44; P = 0.0001), with 68% vs 0% alive at 1 year (MMT vs PI). Among patients with stage IVC cancer, OS did not differ by therapy. MMT appears to convey longer survival in ATC among patients with stage IVA/B disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  16. Cognitive function in families with exceptional survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barral, Sandra; Cosentino, Stephanie; Costa, Rosann

    2012-01-01

    members in the offspring generation demonstrate significantly better performance on multiple tasks requiring attention, working memory, and semantic processing when compared with individuals without a family history of exceptional survival, suggesting that cognitive performance may serve as an important......The authors investigated whether cognitive function may be used as an endophenotype for longevity by assessing the cognitive performance of a family-based cohort consisting of 1380 individuals from 283 families recruited for exceptional survival in field centers in Boston, New York, Pittsburgh......, and Denmark. Cognitive performance was assessed in the combined offspring of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) probands and their LLFS siblings as compared with their spouses' cognitive performance. Our results indicate that the combined offspring of the LLFS probands and their siblings achieve significantly...

  17. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  18. Copenhagen Airport Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Brauer, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2017-01-01

    TO DATE: The cohort includes environmental Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in Copenhagen Airport, information on job function/task for each calendar year of employment between 1990 and 2012, exposure to air pollution at residence, average weight of baggage lifted per day and lifestyle...... covers 69 175 men in unskilled positions. The exposed cohort includes men in unskilled jobs employed at Copenhagen Airport in the period 1990-2012 either as baggage handlers or in other outdoor work. The reference cohort includes men in unskilled jobs working in the greater Copenhagen area. FINDINGS...

  19. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect

  20. Experimental study on ultimate strength and strain behavior of concrete under biaxial compressive stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Yukio

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the ultimate strength failure mode and deformation behavior of concrete under short-term biaxial compressive stresses, as an aid to design and analyze the concrete structures subjected to multiaxial compression such as prestressed or reinforced concrete vessel structures. The experimental work on biaxial compression was carried out on the specimens of three mix proportions and different ages with 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cubic shape in a room controlled at 20 0 C. The results are summarized as follows. (1) To minimize the surface friction between specimens and loading platens, the pads of teflon sheets coated with silicone grease were used. The coefficient of friction was measured and was 3 percent on the average. (2) The test data showed that the strength of the concrete subjected to biaxial compression increased as compared to uniaxial compressive strength, and that the biaxial strength increase was mainly dependent on the ratio of principal stresses, and it was hardly affected by mix proportions and ages. (3) The maximum increase of strength, which occurred at the stress ratio of approximately sigma 2 /sigma 1 = 0.6, was about 27 percent higher than the uniaxial strength of concrete. (4) The ultimate strength in case of biaxial compression could be approximated by the parabolic equation. (Kako, I.)

  1. Secondary Moments due to Prestressing with Different Bond at the Ultimate Limit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvoník Jaroslav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary effects of prestressing develop in statically indeterminate structures (e.g., continuous beams due to the restraint of deformations imposed by hyperstatic restraints. These effects may significantly influence internal forces and stresses in prestressed structures. Secondary effects are influenced by the redundancy of a structural system, which raises the question of whether they will remain constant after a change in the structural system, e.g., due to the development of plastic hinge(s in a critical cross-section(s or after the development of a kinematic mechanism, or if they will disappear when the structure changes into a sequence of simply supported beams. The paper deals with an investigation of the behavior of continuous post-tensioned beams subjected to an ultimate load with significant secondary effects from prestressing. A total of 6 two-span beams prestressed by tendons with different bonds were tested in a laboratory with a load that changed their structural system into a kinematic mechanism. The internal forces and secondary effects of the prestressing were controlled through measurements of the reactions in all the supports. The results revealed that the secondary effects remained as a permanent part of the action on the experimental beams, even after the development of the kinematic mechanism. The results obtained confirmed that secondary effects should be included in all combinations of actions for verifications of ultimate limit states (ULS.

  2. Secondary Moments due to Prestressing with Different Bond at the Ultimate Limit State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvoník, Jaroslav; Pažma, Peter; Vida, Radoslav

    2018-03-01

    Secondary effects of prestressing develop in statically indeterminate structures (e.g., continuous beams) due to the restraint of deformations imposed by hyperstatic restraints. These effects may significantly influence internal forces and stresses in prestressed structures. Secondary effects are influenced by the redundancy of a structural system, which raises the question of whether they will remain constant after a change in the structural system, e.g., due to the development of plastic hinge(s) in a critical cross-section(s) or after the development of a kinematic mechanism, or if they will disappear when the structure changes into a sequence of simply supported beams. The paper deals with an investigation of the behavior of continuous post-tensioned beams subjected to an ultimate load with significant secondary effects from prestressing. A total of 6 two-span beams prestressed by tendons with different bonds were tested in a laboratory with a load that changed their structural system into a kinematic mechanism. The internal forces and secondary effects of the prestressing were controlled through measurements of the reactions in all the supports. The results revealed that the secondary effects remained as a permanent part of the action on the experimental beams, even after the development of the kinematic mechanism. The results obtained confirmed that secondary effects should be included in all combinations of actions for verifications of ultimate limit states (ULS).

  3. Bootstrap calculation of ultimate strength temperature maxima for neutron irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obraztsov, S. M.; Konobeev, Yu. V.; Birzhevoy, G. A.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2006-12-01

    The dependence of mechanical properties of ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels on irradiation temperature is of interest because these steels are used as structural materials for fast, fusion reactors and accelerator driven systems. Experimental data demonstrating temperature peaks in physical and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated pure iron, nickel, vanadium, and austenitic stainless steels are available in the literature. A lack of such an information for F/M steels forces one to apply a computational mathematical-statistical modeling methods. The bootstrap procedure is one of such methods that allows us to obtain the necessary statistical characteristics using only a sample of limited size. In the present work this procedure is used for modeling the frequency distribution histograms of ultimate strength temperature peaks in pure iron and Russian F/M steels EP-450 and EP-823. Results of fitting the sums of Lorentz or Gauss functions to the calculated distributions are presented. It is concluded that there are two temperature (at 360 and 390 °C) peaks of the ultimate strength in EP-450 steel and single peak at 390 °C in EP-823.

  4. Application of risk-informed design methods to select the PSACS ultimate heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Michael A.; Apostolakis, George E.

    2009-01-01

    In the early phases of advanced system design, information is scarce. The technologies, components and processes to be used have not been specified adequately or are not well understood and uncertainties are very large. Yet, it is during these early phases that design teams and other stakeholders are required to make critical decisions to guide the development of the system. To aid in this decision making, a formal process is proposed based on the Analytic-Deliberative Decision-Making Process (ADP) that allows stakeholders to synthesize rationally their knowledge and experience and facilitate learning and sharing of best practices. The ADP identifies and prioritizes attributes relevant to a decision problem and supports the formulation of metrics to measure the performance of different design options. This paper reports on an application of the ADP to the selection of an ultimate heat sink for the Flexible Conversion Ratio (FCR) reactor's Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System (PSACS). Two ultimate heat sink options are identified and evaluated, air and water.

  5. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Chris G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2013-05-19

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa.

  6. Evaluation of the ultimate pressure capacity of rectangular HVAC ducts for nuclear pwoer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    Typical Category I HVAC ducts in a nuclear plant must be designed for loads and load combinations including positive and negative pressure loads which are generated due to the normal operation and postulated accident conditions. These pressure loads most often govern the design of the HVAC ducts. Structural design criteria are presently based on the AISI Code which limits the duct panel width-to-thickness ratio to a maximum of 500 and the maximum height-to-thickness ratio to 200, unless it can be shown by structural tests that larger ratios can be used. Test Programs performed on rectangular HVAC ducts subjected to vacumm loads have substantiated the use of ducts having panel width to thickness ratios of up to 1600. The results of the test programs were subsequently incorporated into the design through a more rational analytical design method which was developed from and correlates well with the test results. The purpose of this paper is to present the analytical design method and its correlation with the test results. Simple formulae for the design of rectangular HVAC ducts are presented. Lower bound values of duct sheet, and stiffener ultimate loads are derived, and correlated with recent test results. Analytically predicted ultimate pressures are also compared with other available duct test data

  7. ULtiMATE system for rapid assembly of customized TAL effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiao Yang

    Full Text Available Engineered TAL-effector nucleases (TALENs and TALE-based constructs have become powerful tools for eukaryotic genome editing. Although many methods have been reported, it remains a challenge for the assembly of designer-based TALE repeats in a fast, precise and cost-effective manner. We present an ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector system for speedy and accurate assembly of customized TALE constructs. This method takes advantage of uracil-specific excision reagent (USER to create multiple distinct sticky ends between any neighboring DNA fragments for specific ligation. With pre-assembled templates, multiple TALE DNA-binding domains could be efficiently assembled in order within hours with minimal manual operation. This system has been demonstrated to produce both functional TALENs for effective gene knockout and TALE-mediated gene-specific transcription activation (TALE-TA. The feature of both ease-of-operation and high efficiency of ULtiMATE system makes it not only an ideal method for biologic labs, but also an approach well suited for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions.

  8. Ultimate shearing strength of aseismatic walls with many small holes for reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizaki, Seiji; Ezaki, Tetsuro; Korenaga, Takeyoshi; Sotomura, Kentaro.

    1984-01-01

    The aseismatic walls for reactor buildings have complicated forms, and are characterized by large wall thickness and high reinforcement ratio as compared with ordinary aseismatic walls. The forms are mainly box, cylinder or irregular polygonal prism and their combination. The design of the walls with many small holes has been performed on the basis of the reinforced concrete structure calculation standard of the Architectural Institute of Japan, following the case with large opening. When there are many small holes, the arrangement of reinforcement for the openings becomes complex, and the construction is difficult. It is necessary to rationalize the design and to simplify the reinforcement work. Under the background like this, the experiment to examine the shearing property in bending of the aseismatic walls with many small holes for reactor buildings was carried out, and horizontal loading test was performed on 43 specimens. The method of calculating the ultimate shearing strength of a wall without opening was proposed, and the method of applying it to a wall with many small holes is shown. The experimental method and the results, the examination of the experimental results, and the ultimate shearing strength of the aseismatic walls are reported. (Kako, I.)

  9. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Do Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  10. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures.

  11. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing ultimate pit limits. Some of these methods, such as floating cone algorithm, are heuristic and do not guarantee to generate optimum pit limits. Other methods, like Lerchs–Grossmann algorithm, are rigorous and always generate the true optimum pit limits. In this paper, a new rigorous algorithm is introduced. The main logic in this method is that only positive blocks, which can pay costs of their overlying non-positive blocks, are able to appear in the final pit. Those costs may be paid either by positive block itself or jointly with other positive blocks, which have the same overlying negative blocks. This logic is formulated using a network model as a Linear Programming (LP problem. This algorithm can be applied to two- and three-dimension block models. Since there are many commercial programs available for solving LP problems, pit limits in large block models can be determined easily by using this method.

  12. Comparative Effectiveness of Treatment Choices for Graves' Hyperthyroidism: A Historical Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaresh, Vishnu; Brito, Juan P; Thapa, Prabin; Bahn, Rebecca S; Stan, Marius N

    2017-04-01

    The optimum therapy for Graves' disease (GD) is chosen following discussion between physician and patient regarding benefits, drawbacks, potential side effects, and logistics of the various treatment options, and it takes into account patient values and preferences. This cohort study aimed to provide useful information for this discussion regarding the usage, efficacy, and adverse-effect profile of radioactive iodine (RAI), antithyroid drugs (ATDs), and thyroidectomy in a tertiary healthcare facility. The cohort included consecutive adults diagnosed with GD from January 2002 to December 2008, who had complete follow-up after treatment at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Data on treatment modalities, disease relapses, and adverse effects were extracted manually and electronically from the electronic medical records. Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed to evaluate the association of treatments with relapse-free survival. The cohort included 720 patients with a mean age of 49.3 years followed for a mean of 3.3 years. Of these, 76.7% were women and 17.1% were smokers. The initial therapy was RAI in 75.4%, ATDs in 16.4%, and thyroidectomy in 2.6%, while 5.6% opted for observation. For the duration of follow-up, ATDs had an overall failure rate of 48.3% compared with 8% for RAI (hazard ratio = 7.6; p < 0.0001). Surgery had a 100% success rate; 80% of observed patients ultimately required therapy. Adverse effects developed in 43 (17.3%) patients treated with ATDs, most commonly dysgeusia (4.4%), rash (2.8%), nausea/gastric distress (2.4%), pruritus (1.6%), and urticaria (1.2%). Eight patients treated with RAI experienced radiation thyroiditis (1.2%). Thyroidectomy resulted in one (2.9%) hematoma and one (2.85%) superior laryngeal nerve damage, with no permanent hypocalcemia. RAI was the most commonly used modality within the cohort and demonstrated the best efficacy and safety profile. Surgery was also very effective and relatively safe in the hands of

  13. Clinicopathological Features of Ocular Adnexal Mantle-Cell Lymphoma in an International Multicenter Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Marina K H; Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E

    2017-01-01

    Importance: To our knowledge, the clinical features of ocular adnexal mantle-cell lymphoma (OA-MCL) have not previously been evaluated in a large multicenter cohort. Objective: To characterize the clinical features of OA-MCL. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective multicenter study...... included patient data collected from January 1, 1980, through December 31, 2015, at 6 eye cancer centers in 4 countries. Medical records of 55 patients with OA-MCL were reviewed; the median length of follow-up was 33 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival, disease-specific survival....... Overall survival rates for the entire cohort were 65% at 3 years (95% CI, 52%-78%) and 34% at 5 years (95% CI, 21%-47%). Disease-specific survival after 5 years was 38% for the entire cohort (95% CI, 25%-51%); the disease-specific survival adjusted by eye cancer center was better in patients who had...

  14. Changing Pattern in Malignant Mesothelioma Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Faig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Survival for mesothelioma has been shown to be poor, with marginal improvement over time. Recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of mesothelioma may impact therapy to improve survival that may not be evident from available clinical trials that are often small and not randomized. Therapies may affect survival differently based on mesothelioma location (pleural vs peritoneal. Data are conflicting regarding the effect of asbestos exposure on mesothelioma location. OBJECTIVES: We examined survival in a large cohort of mesothelioma subjects analyzed by tumor location and presence and mode of asbestos exposure. METHODS: Data were analyzed from cases (n = 380 diagnosed with mesothelioma from 1992 to 2012. Cases were either drawn from treatment referrals, independent medical evaluation for medical legal purposes, or volunteers who were diagnosed with mesothelioma. Subjects completed an occupational medical questionnaire, personal interview with the examining physician, and physician review of the medical record. RESULTS: This study reports better survival for mesothelioma than historical reports. Survival for peritoneal mesothelioma was longer than that for pleural mesothelioma (hazard ratio = 0.36, 95% confidence interval = 0.24-0.54, P < .001 after adjusting for gender and age at diagnosis. Non-occupational cases were more likely to be 1 diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, 2 female, 3 exposed, and 4 diagnosed at a younger age and to have a 5 shorter latency compared to occupational cases (P < .001. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal mesothelioma was more likely associated with non-occupational exposure, thus emphasizing the importance of exposure history in enhancing early diagnosis and treatment impact.

  15. Long-term experience in salt mining and experience in salt mine decommissioning - a chance for ultimate storage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitz, P.; Rauche, H.

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses similarities between salt mining and ultimate storage and the possibility of using abandoned salt mines as ultimate storage site. He states that with all the numeric prediction tools now available, expert knowledge of mining engineers is still indispensable [de

  16. Humanity can survive a nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the author expresses his belief that while a nuclear war would be a horrendous experience, the United States could still survive and ultimately recover. The author describes what the United States would be like two weeks after a full-scale attack against major military targets and population centers. He says about one half of the population will survive but their lifestyles will be drastically different. Although water distribution systems could be damaged and water service interrupted, analysis has shown that in most cases enough drinking water would be available. Food would also not be a serious complicating factor. With the right precautions, there is no intrinsic reason why life-support requirements for the survivors of a nuclear attack should not be met. The author also discusses how epidemics and diseases could be avoided. He also explains why the genetic effects of radiation are misunderstood and why a nuclear war would not cause sufficient mutations to threaten the survival of the society. The author concludes that the argument that a nuclear war could eliminate the human species or bring an end to civilization as we know it has not stood up to the light of objective and scientific examination

  17. Determinants of establishment survival for residential trees in Sacramento County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; John J. Battles; Joe R. McBride

    2014-01-01

    Urban forests can provide ecosystem services that motivate tree planting campaigns, and tree survival is a key element of program success and projected benefits. We studied survival in a shade tree give-away program in Sacramento, CA, monitoring a cohort of young trees for five years on single-family residential properties. We used conditional inference trees to...

  18. Shaping the ROTC Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rittenhouse, Wiley P; Kwinn, Jr, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    ...) - to meet the future needs of the Army for commissioned officers. It is designed to shape each cohort to meet the Army's specific needs in terms of component, academic disciplines, race/ethnic makeup goals, gender, and targeted missions...

  19. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  20. Characteristics, therapy and outcome in an unselected and prospectively registered cohort of pancreatic cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, J K; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Schønnemann, K R

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is associated with a dismal prognosis. Few studies have examined characteristics and outcome in an unselected population-based cohort of PC patients. Therefore, we investigated patient baseline characteristics, therapy choices and survival in a complete cohort of patients...

  1. 1970 British Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Brown

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70 is one of Britain’s world famous national longitudinal birth cohort studies, three of which are run by the Centre for Longitudinal Studies at the Institute of Education, University of London.  BCS70 follows the lives of more than 17,000 people born in England, Scotland and Wales in a single week of 1970. Over the course of cohort members lives, the BCS70 has collected information on health, physical, educational and social development, and economic circumstances among other factors. Since the birth survey in 1970, there have been nine ‘sweeps’ of all cohort members at ages 5, 10, 16, 26, 30, 34, 38 and most recently at 42. Data has been collected from a number of different sources (the midwife present at birth, parents of the cohort members, head and class teachers, school health service personnel and the cohort members themselves. The data has been collected in a variety of ways including via paper and electronic questionnaires, clinical records, medical examinations, physical measurements, tests of ability, educational assessments and diaries. The majority of BCS70 survey data can be accessed by bona fide researchers through the UK Data Service at the University of Essex.

  2. Health care quality, access, cost, workforce, and surgical education: the ultimate perfect storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marshall Z

    2012-01-01

    The discussions on health care reform over the past two years have focused on cost containment while trying to maintain quality of care. Focusing on just cost and quality unfortunately does not address other very important factors that impact on our health care delivery system. Availability of a well-trained workforce, maintaining the sophisticated medical/surgical education system, and ultimately access to quality care by the public are critical to maintaining and enhancing our health care delivery system. Unfortunately, all five of these components are under at risk. Thus, we have evolving the ultimate perfect storm affecting our health care delivery system. Although not ideal and given the uniqueness of our population and their expectations, our current delivery system is excellent compared to other countries. However, the cost of our current system is rising at an alarming rate. Currently, health care consumes 17% of our gross domestic product. If our system is not revised this will continue to rise and by 2025 it will consume 48%. The dilemma, given the current state of our overall economy and rising debt, is how to address this major problem. Unfortunately, the Affordable Care Act, which is now law, does not address most of the issues and the cost was initially grossly under estimated. Furthermore, the law does not address the issues of workforce, maintaining our medical education system or ultimately, access. A major revision of our system will be necessary to truly create a system that protects and enhances all five of the components of our health care delivery system. To effectively accomplish this will require addressing those issues that lead to wasteful spending and diversion of our health care dollars to profit instead of care. Improved and efficient delivery systems that reduce complications, reduction of duplication of tertiary and quaternary programs or services within the same markets (i.e. regionalization of care), health insurance reform, and

  3. Cohorts based on decade of death: no evidence for secular trends favoring later cohorts in cognitive aging and terminal decline in the AHEAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Infurna, Frank J; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Studies of birth-year cohorts examined over the same age range often report secular trends favoring later-born cohorts, who are cognitively fitter and show less steep cognitive declines than earlier-born cohorts. However, there is initial evidence that those advantages of later-born cohorts do not carry into the last years of life, suggesting that pervasive mortality-related processes minimize differences that were apparent earlier in life. Elaborating this work from an alternative perspective on cohort differences, we compared rates of cognitive aging and terminal decline in episodic memory between cohorts based on the year participants had died, earlier (between 1993 and 1999) or later in historical time (between 2000 and 2010). Specifically, we compared trajectories of cognitive decline in 2 death-year cohorts of participants in the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old study that were matched on age at death and education and controlled for a variety of additional covariates. Results revealed little evidence of secular trends favoring later cohorts. To the contrary, the cohort that died in the 2000s showed a less favorable trajectory of age-related memory decline than the cohort that died in the 1990s. In examinations of change in relation to time to death, the cohort dying in the 2000s experienced even steeper terminal declines than the cohort dying in the 1990s. We suggest that secular increases in "manufacturing" survival may exacerbate age- and mortality-related cognitive declines among the oldest old.

  4. Aging characteristics of containment building and sensitivity on ultimate pressure capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-03-01

    For the reliable safety assessment of the containment building, structural and material conditions can be investigated in detail and pertinent assessment technologies have to be established. Also, an understanding on the aging-related degradations for the construction materials is required to predict long-term structural safety of the containment building. For the development of reliable aging prediction models, an extensive data base system related to aging properties of the containment building has to be prepared. The objectives of this research are to develop aging models representing long-term degradation of materials and a structural performance assessment program for containment building considering aging-related degradation. According to the results of sensitivity analysis, as the mechanical properties of the constituent materials degrade, the ultimate pressure capacity of containment building may decrease and severe damage may occur around the mid-level of the containment wall. (author). 28 refs., 11 tabs., 36 figs

  5. Ultimate Limit State Design Of Sheet Pile Walls By Finite Elements And Nonlinear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Sven

    2002-01-01

    Limit analysis has been used for decades in civil and mechanical engineering practice as a means of analyzing structures of materials which with reasonable accuracy can be described as being rigid-perfectly plastic. Such materials include steel, concrete and soils. Traditionally, most attention has...... been given to the problem which consists of determining the ultimate magnitude of a given set of loads acting on a structure with a given geometry. This problem is relevant when determining e.g. the necessary extrusion pressure in metal forming problems, when evaluating the bearing capacity...... is the load intensity. In the paper we consider the latter of these problems with particular reference to the design of sheet pile walls....

  6. Patient dose rate: An ultimate limit for spatial and density resolution of scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, G.; Wagner, W.

    1979-01-01

    In X-ray scanning systems, picture quality of the reconstructed slices is limited to a maximum spatial as well as density resolution by the applied radiation dose. Density resolution can be improved in proportion to the root of the patient dose, whereas a doubled spatial resolving power requires an eight times higher patient dose, assuming a fixed slice thickness. Only a careful trade-off between the applied patient dose, density resolution and spatial resolution yields a maximal diagnostic value for the physician. Specifications of a scanning system have to take into account these ultimate restrictions, so that picture quality really is limited by the patient's dose rather than by technical constraints. In addition a method is given by which the applied dose can be reduced by focusing the main intensity onto the region of interest, in case that region is known a priori. (orig.) [de

  7. Methodological Challenges of Identifying Ultimate Land Use Changes Caused by Biofuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Kløverpris, Jesper; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2007-01-01

    that is only poorly dealt with by LCA methods. Even though the use of land, or change of land cover and its eco-systems, is acknowledged to be a very important impact of human activities, a methodology for assessing this impact category has not yet  been properly developed within LCA. Some LCA scientists have...... looked into methods for assessing the impacts of given changes of land use, i.e. the impact assessment component of the LCA, but very few have looked into how to actually do the inventory modelling, i.e. how to identify which land is ultimately affected by the decision and system under study. State...... in the systems being studied. The aims of this paper is to analyse the mechanisms influencing the long-term land use consequences of changes in crop demand and propose a methodological framework for identifying these consequences within a global scope. The outset of the paper is the principles of consequential...

  8. SoundScapes - Beyond Interaction... in search of the ultimate human-centred interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony

    2006-01-01

    that can also benefit communication. To achieve this a new generation of intuitive natural interfaces will be required and SoundScapes (see below) is a step toward this goal to discover the ultimate interface for matching the human experience to technology. Emergent hypothesis that have developed...... as a result of the SoundScapes research will be discussed. Introduction to SoundScapes SoundScapes is a contemporary art concept that has become widely known as an interdisciplinary platform for knowledge exchange, innovative product creation of creative and scientific work that uses non-invasive sensor...... Resonance. The multimedia content is adaptable so that the environment is tailored for each participant according to a user profile. This full body movement or the smallest of gesture results in human data input to SoundScapes. The same technology that enables this empowerment is used for performance art...

  9. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  10. Silicon coupled-ring resonator structures for slow light applications: potential, impairments and ultimate limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canciamilla, A; Torregiani, M; Ferrari, C; Morichetti, F; Melloni, A; De La Rue, R M; Samarelli, A; Sorel, M

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-ring resonator-based slow light structures are reported and discussed. By combining the advantages of high index contrast silicon-on-insulator technology with an efficient thermo-optical activation, they provide an on-chip solution with a bandwidth of up to 100 GHz and a slowdown factor of up to 16, as well as a continuous reconfiguration scheme and a fine tunability. The performance of these devices is investigated in detail for both static and dynamic operation, in order to evaluate their potential in optical signal processing applications at high bit rate. The main impairments imposed by fabrication imperfections are also discussed in relation to the slowdown factor. In particular, the analysis of the impact of backscatter, disorder and two-photon absorption on the device transfer function reveals the ultimate limits of these structures and provides valuable design rules for their optimization

  11. Process for extracting residual heat and device for the ultimate absorption of heat for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Lawrence Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a 'heat sink' or device for the ultimate absorption of heat for electric power stations using the most widespread thermal neutron nuclear reactors, namely 'light water' reactors such as boiling or pressurized water reactors. The residual heat given off by these reactors can be safely extracted with this method by using dry cooling. However, the invention does not concern the problems arising from the cooling of the steam used for actuating the steam turbine nor the cooling of the steam exhausted by the turbine or coming from it, but it does concern the 'safety' part of the nuclear power station in which the residual heat discharged in the reactor is controlled and dissipated [fr

  12. Design proposal for ultimate shear strength of tapered steel plate girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bedynek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental and numerical studies on prismatic plate girders subjected to shear can be found in the literature. However, the real structures are frequently designed as non-uniform structural elements. The main objective of the research is the development of a new proposal for the calculation of the ultimate shear resistance of tapered steel plate girders taking into account the specific behaviour of such members. A new mechanical model is presented in the paper and it is used to show the differences between the behaviour of uniform and tapered web panels subjected to shear. EN 1993-1-5 design specifications for the determination of the shear strength for rectangular plates are improved in order to assess the shear strength of tapered elements. Numerical studies carried out on tapered steel plate girders subjected to shear lead to confirm the suitability of the mechanical model and the proposed design expression.

  13. Determination of the ultimate load in concrete slabs by the yield line finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.E.; Feijo, B.; Martha, L.F.R.; Lopes, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for calculating the ultimate load in reinforced concrete slabs is proposed. The method follows the finite element aproach representating the continuum slab as an assembly of rigid triangular plates connected along their sides through yield line elements. This approach leads to the definition of the displacement configuration of the plate only as a function of the transversal displacement at the nodes of the mesh (1 DOF per node) reducing significantly the number of DOF's in relation to the conventional formulation by means of the finite element method (minimum of 3 DOF per node). Nonlinear behaviour of the reinforced concrete section is considered in the definition of the moment rotation curve of the yield lines. The effect of the in plane forces acting in the middle surface of the plate is also taken into account. The validity of the model is verified comparing the numerical solutions with the results of the classical yield line theory. (Author) [pt

  14. Fuzzy stochastic analysis of serviceability and ultimate limit states of two-span pedestrian steel bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Zdeněk; Sandovič, GiedrÄ--

    2012-09-01

    The paper deals with non-linear analysis of ultimate and serviceability limit states of two-span pedestrian steel bridge. The effects of random material and geometrical characteristics on limit states are analyzed. The Monte Carlo method was applied to stochastic analysis. For the serviceability limit state, also influence of fuzzy uncertainty of the limit deflection value on random characteristics of load capacity of variable action was studied. The results prove that, for the type of structure studied, the serviceability limit state is decisive from the point of view of design. The present paper opens a discussion on the use of stochastic analysis to verify the limit deflections given in the standards EUROCODES.

  15. Review of ultimate pressure capacity test of containment structure and scale model design techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This study was performed to obtain the basic knowledge of the scaled model test through the review of experimental studies conducted in foreign countries. The results of this study will be used for the wall segment test planed in next year. It was concluded from the previous studies that the larger the model, the greater the trust of the community in the obtained results. It is recommended that a scale model 1/4 - 1/6 be suitable considering the characteristics of concrete, reinforcement, liner and tendon. Such a large scale model test require large amounts of time and budget. Because of these reasons, it is concluded that the containment wall segment test with analytical studies is efficient for the verification of the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structures. 57 refs., 46 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  16. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  17. Ultimate Pressure Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Steel Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) is very important since the PCCV are final protection to prevent the massive leakage of a radioactive contaminant caused by the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The tensile behavior of a concrete is an important factor which influence to the UPC of PCCVs. Hence, nowadays, it is interested that the application of the steel fiber to the PCCVs since that the concrete with steel fiber shows an improved performance in the tensile behavior compared to reinforced concrete (RC). In this study, we performed the UPC analysis of PCCVs with steel fibers corresponding to the different volume ratio of fibers to verify the effectiveness of steel fibers on PCCVs

  18. La simplexité, ultime avatar de la complexité ?

    OpenAIRE

    Demongeot, Jacques; Amor, Hedi Ben; Hazgui, Hana; Lontos, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction La simplexité peut être considérée comme l’émergence de nouvelles fonctionnalités, issues des interactions entre sous-systèmes (ou modules) d’un système complexe : elle apparaît ainsi comme l’ultime avatar de la complexité, ce qui permet de la définir, sans rupture épistémologique avec le courant scientifique des systèmes complexes, comme la tendance qu’a la nature de sélectionner les fonctions vitales des êtres vivants, en particulier celles les plus utiles à la spécificité e...

  19. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  20. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  1. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of a reinforced concrete Mark III containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGaughy, J.P. Jr.; Lin, F.T.; Sen, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The static ultimate capacity of a Mark III BWR pressure suppression type containment has been investigated with a view to determine its capability to withstand the internal pressure associated with a postulated hydrogen burn. The reinforced concrete containment consists of a right circular cylinder covered by a hemispherical dome and supported on a flat circular foundation mat. A 1/4'' thick welded steel liner plate covers the inside surface of the containment shell. The cylinder is a 3.5 ft. thick shell with an inside radius of 62.0 feet. The thickness of the dome is 3.5 feet. Reinforcement in the shell is comprised of multi-layers of circumferential, meridional and diagonal rebars. Major containment penetrations consists of a circular equipment hatch and two personnel airlock assemblies. The containment ultimate capacity is determined by performing a non-linear analysis using the proprietary finite element computer code 'FINEL'. The code has the capability of modelling concrete cracking in tension and redistribution forces and moments to account for such phenomenon. For analysis purposes, the finite element model included the containment dome and the upper portion of the containment cylinder with appropriate boundary conditions applied at the model cut off region. This portion of the containment structure is selected because the segment of the cylinder that is included in the model has the least amount of hopp reinforcement, and when the general yield state is reached, the hoop reinforcement will be the limiting element. The containment structure has been treated as an axisymmetric shell using axisymmetric quadrilateral finite elements in the radial plane to model the liner plate and concrete. The reinforcing steel have been idealized by finite elements with unidirectional stiffness. (orig./RW)

  2. Ultimate refrigerating conditions, behavior turning and a thermodynamic analysis for absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Danxing; Meng Xuelin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two novel fundamental concepts of the absorption refrigeration cycle were proposed. ► The interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters was investigated. ► A set of optimal operating condition of hybrid refrigeration cycle was found. ► A simulation and investigation for R134a-DMF hybrid refrigeration cycle was performed. - Abstract: The absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle has been considered as an effective approach to reduce the mechanical work consumption by using low-grade heat, such as solar energy. This work aims at studying the thermodynamic mechanism of the hybrid refrigeration cycle. Two fundamental concepts have been proposed, which are the ultimate refrigerating temperature (or the ultimate temperature lift) and the behavior turning. On the basis of that, the interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters and the impact of compressor pressure increasing on the cycle performance have been investigated. The key-parameters include the concentration difference, the circulation ratio of working fluid, etc. The work points out that the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance varies with the change of compressor outlet pressure and depends on which one achieves dominance in the hybrid refrigeration cycle, the absorption sub-system or the compression sub-system. The behavior turning point during parameters changing corresponds to a maximum value of the heat powered coefficient of performance. In this case, the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance is optimal because the low-grade heat utilization is the most effective. In addition, to validate the theoretical analysis, a solar hybrid refrigeration cycle with R134a–DMF as working pair was simulated. The Peng–Robinson equation of state was adopted to calculate thermophysical properties when the reliability assessment of the prediction models on the available literature data of R134a–DMF system had been

  3. Kidney transplant survival in pediatric and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acott Phil

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a perception that kidney transplant recipients transferred from pediatric centers to adult care have an increased risk of graft loss. It is not clear whether young adults transplanted in adult centers also suffer from high graft loss rates. Methods We examined death censored graft survival in 3 cohorts of young patients transplanted at a single center. Pediatric (PED patients transplanted at the pediatric center were compared to a cohort of young adults (YAD; age 18- Results In a multivariate Cox model for death-censored graft survival, PED survival was statistically similar to the YAD (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44, 1.7, p = 0.66, however the ADL cohort (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.82, p = 0.009 demonstrated better survival. Admitted non-adherence rates were not different among cohorts. Patients were transferred within a narrow age window (18.6 ± 1.0 age in years but at a wide range of times from the date of transplantation (5.1 ± 3.5 years and with a wide range of graft function (serum creatinine 182 ± 81 μmol/L. Conclusions The perception that pediatric transfers do poorly reflects advanced graft dysfunction in some at the time of transfer. The evidence also suggests that it is not the transfer of care that is the critical issue but rather recipients, somewhere between the ages of 11-14 and 25, are a unique and vulnerable cohort. Effective strategies to improve outcomes across this age group need to be identified and applied consistently.

  4. Surviving After Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fewer tools for communicating their feelings. Surviving After Suicide Fact Sheet 3 Children are especially vulnerable to feelings of guilt and ... to take care of them. Secrecy about the suicide in the hopes of protecting children may cause further complications. Explain the situation and ...

  5. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  6. Education for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E., Jr.

    In this address, James E. Allen, Jr., Assistant Secretary for Education and U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses the relationship of education to the problem of ecological destruction. He states that the solutions to the problems of air, water, and soil pollution may be found in redirected education. This "education for survival" can serve to…

  7. Artists’ Survival Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Trine; Jensen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    The literature of cultural economics generally finds that an artistic education has no significant impact on artists’ income and careers in the arts. In our research, we have readdressed this question by looking at the artists’ survival in the arts occupations. The results show that an artistic...... education has a significant impact on artists’ careers in the arts and we find important industry differences....

  8. Prognostic Factors for Survival in Patients with Gastric Cancer using a Random Survival Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adham, Davoud; Abbasgholizadeh, Nategh; Abazari, Malek

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third top cause of cancer related death with about 1 million new cases and 700,000 deaths in 2012. The aim of this investigation was to identify important factors for outcome using a random survival forest (RSF) approach. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 128 gastric cancer patients through a historical cohort study in Hamedan-Iran from 2007 to 2013. The event under consideration was death due to gastric cancer. The random survival forest model in R software was applied to determine the key factors affecting survival. Four split criteria were used to determine importance of the variables in the model including log-rank, conversation?? of events, log-rank score, and randomization. Efficiency of the model was confirmed in terms of Harrell’s concordance index. Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 63 ±12.57 and mean and median survival times were 15.2 (95%CI: 13.3, 17.0) and 12.3 (95%CI: 11.0, 13.4) months, respectively. The one-year, two-year, and three-year rates for survival were 51%, 13%, and 5%, respectively. Each RSF approach showed a slightly different ranking order. Very important covariates in nearly all the 4 RSF approaches were metastatic status, age at diagnosis and tumor size. The performance of each RSF approach was in the range of 0.29-0.32 and the best error rate was obtained by the log-rank splitting rule; second, third, and fourth ranks were log-rank score, conservation of events, and the random splitting rule, respectively. Conclusion: Low survival rate of gastric cancer patients is an indication of absence of a screening program for early diagnosis of the disease. Timely diagnosis in early phases increases survival and decreases mortality. Creative Commons Attribution License

  9. Prehospital cardiac arrest survival and neurologic recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, M; Sinclair, D; Butler, G; Cain, E

    1993-01-01

    Many studies of prehospital defibrillation have been conducted but the effects of airway intervention are unknown and neurologic follow-up has been incomplete. A non-randomized cohort prospective study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of defibrillation in prehospital cardiac arrest. Two ambulance companies in the study area developed a defibrillation protocol and they formed the experimental group. A subgroup of these patients received airway management with an esophageal obturator airway (EOA) or endotracheal intubation (ETT). The control group was composed of patients who suffered a prehospital cardiac arrest and did not receive prehospital defibrillation. All survivors were assessed for residual deficits using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). A total of 221 patients were studied over a 32-month period. Both the experimental group (N = 161) and the control group (N = 60) were comparable with respect to age, sex distribution, and ambulance response time. Survival to hospital discharge was 2/60 (3.3%) in the control group and 12/161 (6.3%) in the experimental group. This difference is not statistically significant. Survival in the experimental group by airway management technique was basic airway support (3/76 3.9%), EOA (3/67 4.5%), and ETT (6/48 12.5%). The improved effect on survival by ETT management was statistically significant. Survivors had minor differences in memory, work, and recreation as compared to ischemic heart disease patients as measured by the SIP and DRS. No effect of defibrillation was found on survival to hospital discharge. However, endotracheal intubation improved survival in defibrillated patients. Survivors had a good functional outcome.

  10. Trends in scale and shape of survival curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Je, Jung Ho

    2012-01-01

    The ageing of the population is an issue in wealthy countries worldwide because of increasing costs for health care and welfare. Survival curves taken from demographic life tables may help shed light on the hypotheses that humans are living longer and that human populations are growing older. We describe a methodology that enables us to obtain separate measurements of scale and shape variances in survival curves. Specifically, 'living longer' is associated with the scale variance of survival curves, whereas 'growing older' is associated with the shape variance. We show how the scale and shape of survival curves have changed over time during recent decades, based on period and cohort female life tables for selected wealthy countries. Our methodology will be useful for performing better tracking of ageing statistics and it is possible that this methodology can help identify the causes of current trends in human ageing.

  11. Development of rations for the enhanced survival of salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.D.; Lagasse, J.P.

    1990-12-01

    The nutritional quality of feed plays an important role in determining the health and ''fitness'' of smolts. Commercial fish meal, the major source of protein in salmon rations, may be reduced in quality from poor drying techniques during manufacture. Dietary stress in the hatchery may result. This investigation tests the hypothesis that protein quality of fish rations can influence the survival of smolts and the ultimate return of adults. The test involves a comparison between performances of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) reared on rations containing very high quality protein derived from vacuum dried meals and those of fish reared on commercial rations, with commercial fish meal as a source of protein. Survival and return of several brood years of test and control fish are used to measure the influence of ration on survival. This report includes recovery data from these marked fish collected 1982 through September 1990

  12. Marital Status and Survival in Patients with Carcinoid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Erin K; Cooper, Amanda B; Hollenbeak, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Marital status is a known prognostic factor in overall and disease-specific survival in several types of cancer. The impact of marital status on survival in patients with carcinoid tumors remains unknown. We hypothesized that married patients have higher rates of survival than similar unmarried patients with carcinoid tumors. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database, we identified 23,126 people diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor between 2000 and 2011 and stratified them according to marital status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to compare the characteristics and outcomes between patient cohorts. Overall and cancer-related survival were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariable survival analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards models (hazards ratio [HR]), controlling for demographics and tumor-related and treatment-related variables. Propensity score analysis was performed to determine surgical intervention distributions among married and unmarried (ie, single, separated, divorced, widowed) patients. Marital status was significantly related to both overall and cancer-related survival in patients with carcinoid tumors. Divorced and widowed patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.33 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.08-1.33] and 1.34 [95% CI, 1.22-1.46], respectively) and cancer-related survival (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.00-1.31] and 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03-1.29], respectively) than married patients over five years. Single and separated patients had worse overall survival (HR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08-1.33] and 1.62 [95% CI, 1.25-2.11], respectively) than married patients over five years, but not worse cancer-related survival. Unmarried patients were more likely than matched married patients to undergo definitive surgical intervention (62.67% vs 53.11%, respectively, P married patients have a survival advantage after diagnosis of any carcinoid tumor, potentially reflecting better social support and financial means

  13. Extent and Determinants of Error in Doctors' Prognoses in Terminally Ill Patients: Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lamont, Elizabeth; Christakis, Nicholas

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To describe doctors' prognostic accuracy in terminally ill patients and to evaluate the determinants of that accuracy. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Five outpatient hospice programmes in Chicago. Participants: 343 doctors provided survival estimates for 468 terminally ill patients at the time of hospice referral. Main outcome measures: Patients' estimated and actual survival. Results: Median survival was 24 days. Only 20% (92/468) of predictions were acc...

  14. Treatment of the loss of ultimate heat sink initiating events in the IRSN level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Patricia; Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The total loss of the ultimate heat sink is an initiating event which, even it is mainly of external origin, has been considered in the frame of internal events Level 1 PSA by IRSN. The on-going actions on the development of external hazards PSA and the recent incident of loss of the heat sink induced by the ingress of vegetable matter that occurred in France in 2009 have pointed out the need to improve the modeling of the loss of the heat sink initiating event and sequences to better take into account the fact that this loss may be induced by external hazards and thus affect all the site units. The paper presents the historical steps of the modeling of the total loss of the heat sink, the safety stakes of this modeling, the main assumptions used by IRSN in the associated PSA for the 900 MWe reactors and the results obtained. The total loss of the heat sink was not initially addressed in the safety demonstration of French NPPs. On the basis of the insights of the first probabilistic assessments performed in the 80's, the risks associated to this 'multiple failure situation' turned out to be very significant and design and organisational improvements were implemented on the plants. Reviews of the characterization of external hazards and of their consequences on the installations and French operating feedback have revealed that extreme hazards may induce a total loss of the heat sink. Moreover, the accident that occurred at Fukushima in 2011 has pointed out the risk of such a loss of long duration at all site units in case of extreme hazards. In this context, it seems relevant to further improve the modelling of the total loss of the heat sink by considering the external hazards that may cause this loss. In a first step, IRSN has improved the assumptions and data used in the loss of the heat sink PSA model, in particular by considering that such a loss may affect all the site units. The next challenge will be the deeper analysis of the impact of external hazards on

  15. NEOCE: a new external occulting coronagraph experiment for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Fineschi, Silvano; Kuzin, Sergey; Von Fay-Siebenburgen, Erdélyi Robert

    Several ground facilities and space missions are currently dedicated to the study of the Sun at high resolution and of the solar corona in particular. However, and despite significant progress with the advent of space missions and UV, EUV and XUV direct observations of the hot chromosphere and million-degrees coronal plasma, much is yet to be achieved in the understanding of these high temperatures, fine dynamic dissipative structures and of the coronal heating in general. Recent missions have shown the definite role of a wide range of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic and physically fundamental changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled and governed by the emerging magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. The solar corona consists of many localised loop-like structures or threads with the plasmas brightening and fading independently. The plasma evolution in each thread is believed to be related to the formation of filaments, each one being dynamic, in a non-equilibrium state. The mechanism sustaining this dynamics, oscillations or waves (Alfvén or other magneto-plasma waves), requires both very high-cadence, multi-spectral observations, and high resolution and coronal magnetometry. This is foreseen in the future Space Mission NEOCE (New External Occulting Coronagraph Experiment), the ultimate new generation high-resolution coronagraphic heliospheric mission, to be proposed for ESA M4. NEOCE, an evolution of the HiRISE mission, is ideally placed at the L5 Lagrangian point (for a better follow-up of CMEs), and provides FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and

  16. Kansas Department of Transportation column expert : ultimate shear capacity of circular columns using the simplified modified compression field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The importance of the analysis of circular columns to accurately predict their ultimate confined : capacity under shear-flexure-axial force interaction domain is recognized in light of the extreme load event : imposed by the current American Associat...

  17. Classification of radioactive waste and determination of waste specifications as well as conditions of acceptance for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1983-04-01

    The determination of waste specification and conditions of acceptance must follow a certain scheme, the basics of which will be presented. First the types of waste and the ultimate storage facilities will be characterized. The various categories of waste will be listed in a universally valid system, and the preliminary conditioning options will be determined. Based on the results of safety analysis taking into account the whole system - geological circumstances, ultimate store mines, types and forms of waste - specifications for the various ultimate store products are to be derived following iterative methods. Suggestions though not of a binding nature and probably subject to eventual revisions in part will be presented. To ensure the safety goals, i.e. the exclusion of radioactivity from the human biosphere, appropriate quality control is required concerning the production and the acceptance at the ultimate store. The guiding principles to be heeded will be discussed in brief. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Association of High-Dose Ibuprofen Use, Lung Function Decline, and Long-Term Survival in Children with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstan, Michael W; VanDevanter, Donald R; Sawicki, Gregory S; Pasta, David J; Foreman, Aimee J; Neiman, Evgueni A; Morgan, Wayne J

    2018-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis deaths result primarily from lung function loss, so chronic respiratory therapies, intended to preserve lung function, are cornerstones of cystic fibrosis care. Although treatment-associated reduction in rate of lung function loss should ultimately improve cystic fibrosis survival, no such relationship has been described for any chronic cystic fibrosis therapy. In part, this is because the ages of most rapid lung function decline-early adolescence-precede the median age of cystic fibrosis deaths by more than a decade. To study associations of high-dose ibuprofen treatment with the rate of forced expiratory volume in 1 second decline and mortality among children followed in the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis and subsequently in the U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry. We performed a matched cohort study using data from Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis. Exposure was defined as high-dose ibuprofen use reported at ≥80% of encounters over 2 years. Unexposed children were matched to exposed children 5:1 using propensity scores on the basis of demographic, clinical, and treatment covariates. The rate of decline of percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second during the 2-year follow-up period was estimated by mixed-effects modeling with random slopes and intercepts. Survival over 16 follow-up years in the U.S. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry was compared between treatment groups by using proportional hazards modeling controlling for matching and covariates. We included 775 high-dose ibuprofen users and 3,665 nonusers who were well matched on demographic, clinical, and treatment variables. High-dose ibuprofen users declined on average 1.10 percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second/yr (95% confidence interval; 0.51, 1.69) during the 2-year treatment period, whereas nonusers declined at a rate of 1.76% percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second/yr (95% confidence interval; 1.48, 2

  19. Survival rates and predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients in a Malaysian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaji, Bello Arkilla; Moy, Foong Ming; Roslani, April Camilla; Law, Chee Wei

    2017-05-18

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death globally. It is the second most common cancer among both males and females in Malaysia. The economic burden of colorectal cancer is likely to increase over time owing to its current trend and aging population. Cancer survival analysis is an essential indicator for early detection and improvement in cancer treatment. However, there was a scarcity of studies concerning survival of colorectal cancer patients as well as its predictors. Therefore, we aimed to determine the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates, compare survival rates among ethnic groups and determine the predictors of survival among colorectal cancer patients. This was an ambidirectional cohort study conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. All Malaysian citizens or permanent residents with histologically confirmed diagnosis of colorectal cancer seen at UMMC from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2010 were included in the study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were extracted from the medical records. Patients were followed-up until death or censored at the end of the study (31st December 2010). Censored patients' vital status (whether alive or dead) were cross checked with the National Registration Department. Survival analyses at 1-, 3- and 5-year intervals were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was used to compare the survival rates, while Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out to determine the predictors of 5-year colorectal cancer survival. Among 1212 patients, the median survival for colorectal, colon and rectal cancers were 42.0, 42.0 and 41.0 months respectively; while the 1-, 3-, and 5-year relative survival rates ranged from 73.8 to 76.0%, 52.1 to 53.7% and 40.4 to 45.4% respectively. The Chinese patients had the lowest 5-year survival compared to Malay and Indian patients. Based on the 814

  20. A probabilistics safety assessment of ultimate response guidelines of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P-Y.; Lee, M. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chao, C-C. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Ultimate Response Guidelines (URGs) was proposed to mitigate the so called 'Fukushima type accident' of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As specified in URGs, if it is necessary, operators will depressurize the secondary side of steam generators (SGs) to bring in the low pressure water. The injection damages the economic value of the plant. However, the injection prevents the cladding temperature from rising above 1500 F (1089 K), which is the temperature that release of volatile fission products from gap is initiated. In the present study, the impact of URGs on the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) in a SBO (Station Blackout) accident of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designed by Westinghouse and adopts large dry containment is quantified. In the Base Case analysis of the study, the actions in the URGs are not considered. The CDF of SBO in the base case calculation is 2.49x10{sup -7} year. The actions specified in URGs can reduce CDF by 62%. The strategies in URGs are very effective in enhancing the reliability of decay heat removal via SG secondary side. Therefore, the implementation of these strategies can reduce the CDF of sequences involving late failure of AFWS. After the incorporation URGs, the dominant sequences of SBO are the sequences with seal failure. (author)

  1. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun

    2012-01-01

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar

  2. Ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the FRG - current progress of projects and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the state is responsible for providing for the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste, whereas the cost is borne by the waste producing establishments. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, (BMU), as the competent state authority has delegated its responsibilities in this matter to the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The PTB is allowed to have work done by third parties. For this purpose, the Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE) has been founded, which since 1979 is investigating the Gorleben salt dome for suitability to serve as a repository for all type of solid, radioactive waste. The final decisions on site approval can be taken after completion of the underground exploration work, which according to current schedules is expected to be achieved at the end of the 1990s. The other candidate site, the Konrad mine, has been investigated by the GSF in the years 1976 to 1982, and on August 31, 1982 the PTB has filed an application to institute the plan approval procedure for the Konrad mine to be prepared to serve as a waste repository. The plan is expected to be laid open in the first half of 1989, and hearings possibly be held in the second half. In case of plan approval, the site preparation will probably take 3 years, so that the Konrad mine will be ready to receive radioactive waste by the year 1993. (orig.) [de

  3. An Experimental Investigation on the Ultimate Strength of Partially Infilled: Braced Steel Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil Y.

    2017-12-01

    Infilled walls are usually, considered as non-structural elements. However, these walls are effective in carrying lateral loads. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the effect of braced and partially infilled steel frames with cement mortar and concrete in comparison to the bare frames. All these frames were tested up to collapse and subjected only to horizontal loads to obtain an effective and possible solution for soft storey which are generally not infilled. In comparison to bare steel frames, partially infilled frames have an increase of lateral load capacity by 45-60%. Central bracing is more effective than that of the corner bracing. For the same load partially infilled frames have significantly less deflection than that of the bare frames. A reduced load factor is suggested for the design of soft storey columns with the partial infills. A mathematical model has been proposed to calculate the theoretical ultimate load for the braced, cement mortar and concrete partial infilled frames.

  4. Hierarchical nanoporous metals as a path toward the ultimate three-dimensional functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous metals prepared via dealloying or selective leaching of solid solution alloys and compounds represent an emerging class of materials. They possess a three-dimensional (3D) structure of randomly interpenetrating ligaments/nanopores with sizes between 5 nm and several tens of micrometers, which can be tuned by varying their preparation conditions (such as dealloying time and temperature) or additional thermal coarsening. As compared to other nanostructured materials, nanoporous metals have many advantages, including their bicontinuous structure, tunable pore sizes, bulk form, good electrical conductivity, and high structural stability. Therefore, nanoporous metals represent ideal 3D materials with versatile functionality, which can be utilized in various fields. In this review, we describe the recent applications of nanoporous metals in molecular detection, catalysis, 3D graphene synthesis, hierarchical pore formation, and additive manufacturing (3D printing) together with our own achievements in these areas. Finally, we discuss possible ways of realizing the ultimate 3D functionality beyond the scope of nanoporous metals.

  5. COLLECTIVE VORTEX BEHAVIORS: DIVERSITY, PROXIMATE, AND ULTIMATE CAUSES OF CIRCULAR ANIMAL GROUP MOVEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Johann; Bode, Nikolai W F; Denoël, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These "collective vortex behaviors" occur at different group sizes from pairs to several million individuals and have been reported in a large number of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, including humans. However, to date, no comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on vortex behaviors has been conducted. Here, we review the state of the art of the proximate and ultimate causes of vortex behaviors. The ubiquity of this behavioral phenomenon could suggest common causes or fundamental underlying principles across contexts. However, we find that a variety of proximate mechanisms give rise to vortex behaviors. We highlight the potential benefits of collective vortex behaviors to individuals involved in them. For example, in some species, vortices increase feeding efficiency and could give protection against predators. It has also been argued that vortices could improve collective decision-making and information transfer. We highlight gaps in our understanding of these ubiquitous behavioral phenomena and discuss future directions for research in vortex studies.

  6. Ultimate intra-wafer critical dimension uniformity control by using lithography and etch tool corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Michael; Wise, Rich; Reijnen, Liesbeth; Viatkina, Katja; Jaenen, Patrick; Luca, Melisa; Mernier, Guillaume; Chahine, Charlotte; Hellin, David; Kam, Benjamin; Sobieski, Daniel; Vertommen, Johan; Mulkens, Jan; Dusa, Mircea; Dixit, Girish; Shamma, Nader; Leray, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    With shrinking design rules, the overall patterning requirements are getting aggressively tighter. For the 7-nm node and below, allowable CD uniformity variations are entering the Angstrom region (ref [1]). Optimizing inter- and intra-field CD uniformity of the final pattern requires a holistic tuning of all process steps. In previous work, CD control with either litho cluster or etch tool corrections has been discussed. Today, we present a holistic CD control approach, combining the correction capability of the etch tool with the correction capability of the exposure tool. The study is done on 10-nm logic node wafers, processed with a test vehicle stack patterning sequence. We include wafer-to-wafer and lot-to-lot variation and apply optical scatterometry to characterize the fingerprints. Making use of all available correction capabilities (lithography and etch), we investigated single application of exposure tool corrections and of etch tool corrections as well as combinations of both to reach the lowest CD uniformity. Results of the final pattern uniformity based on single and combined corrections are shown. We conclude on the application of this holistic lithography and etch optimization to 7nm High-Volume manufacturing, paving the way to ultimate within-wafer CD uniformity control.

  7. Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.scalise@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Rinaldi, Daniele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Perugia (Italy); Davi, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Architettura Costruzioni e Strutture, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Paone, Nicola [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2011-10-21

    Scintillating crystals are employed in high energy physics, in medical imaging, diagnostic and security. Two mechanical properties of lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate cerium-doped Lu{sub 2(1-x)}Y{sub 2x}SiO{sub 5}:Ce with x=0.1 (LYSO) crystals have been measured: the ultimate tensile stress ({sigma}{sub UTS}) and the Young elastic modulus (E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results account for an elastic-brittle stress-strain relation, which depends heavily on the specimen preparation and the material defects. {sigma}{sub UTS} along the [0 1 0] tensile direction ranges within 68.14 and 115.61 MPa, which, in the lowest case, is more than twice with respect to those measured for PbWO{sub 4} (PWO), exhibiting a marked difference between the annealed and the not-annealed samples. The mean elastic modulus (E), along the same direction, is E=1.80x10{sup 11} ({+-}2.15x10{sup 10}) N/m{sup 2}, with lower dispersion respect to UTS data. This type of analysis and study can be included into quality control procedures of crystals, based on samples taken out of production; such procedures can be established for industrial processing of crystals aimed to the high energy physics (calorimeters) and medical imaging (PET, etc.) applications.

  8. PEP-X: An Ultimate Storage Ring Based on Fourth-Order Geometric Achromats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; Bane, Karl; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    We have designed an 'ultimate' storage ring for the PEP-X light source that achieves the diffraction limited emittances (at 1.5 {angstrom}) of 12 pm-rad in both horizontal and vertical planes with a 4.5-GeV beam. These emittances include the contribution of intrabeam scattering at a nominal current of 200 mA in 3300 bunches. This quality beam in conjunction with a conventional 4-m undulator in a straight section can generate synchrotron radiation having a spectral brightness above 10{sup 22} [photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW] at a 10 keV photon energy. The high coherence at the diffraction limit makes PEP-X competitive with 4th generation light sources based on an energy recovery linac. In addition, the beam lifetime is several hours and the dynamic aperture is large enough to allow off-axis injection. The alignment and stability tolerances, though challenging, are achievable. A ring with all these properties is only possible because of several major advances in mitigating the effects of nonlinear resonances.

  9. A new approach to the modeling of ultimate heat sink cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policastro, A.J.; Wastag, M.; Paul, J.; Carhart, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ultimate heat sink (UHS) cooling pond thermal performance is analyzed by a new method in which zero, one, and three-dimensional models are used in combination. A typical UHS pond has an irregular shape covering 20 hectares at an average depth of 4 m with a heavy thermal load of 40 MWt (megawatts thermal) per hectare. The resulting flow field can be one, two or three dimensional. A three-dimensional numerical model (Paul 1983) is modified and used to determine the effective dimensionality of the pond under accident conditions. The model's surface heat transfer formulas and its predictions of thermal hydraulics are verified using laboratory and field data. The Paul model shows that, unlike normal cooling ponds, a typical UHS pond is vertically-mixed with only a longitudinal temperature variation. Buoyancy-driven circulations, strong discharge-to-intake flow, and rapid surface heat removal break down the usual vertical stratification. Predictions of the one-dimensional MITEMP model are shown to agree with Paul model predictions for a typical UHS pond at the Catawba Nuclear Power Plant

  10. Test research and analysis for ultimate capacity of Qinshan NPP PCCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zufeng, X.

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces design and research for containment of Qinshan NPP which is the first PWR in CHINA designed and constructed by ourselves. The PCCV design is basically in conformity to ASME code. To verify the structural integrity capacity of Qinshan NPP containment, we fulfilled SIT and ILRT successfully in June, 1991. The special attention of the paper is focused on the ultimate capacity of the PCCV under severe accidents and earthquake. A study comprised of five different independent parts has been performed for the development of containment model test and corresponding nonlinear analysis. There are two prestressed concrete containment models with equipment hatch. One is 1/15 scale with steel liner tested on shake table and then moved out loaded with atmospheric pressure. The other is 1/10 scale without steel liner loaded with water pressure until destruction. From different methods including model test and nonlinear analysis, all obtained unanimous conclusion. The capacity under internal pressure and earthquake is reliable. The safety margin is enough. Consequently, in the second phase of Qinshan NPP and other PWR NPP under design, PCCV should be a better selection in China since it's more economic, rational and safe. (author)

  11. Ultimate methane yield from beef cattle manure: effect of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A G; Varel, V H; Chen, Y R

    1981-10-01

    The effects of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age on the ultimate methane yield (Bo, litre CH4/g volatile solids fed (VSf)) were investigated using 4-litre batch fermenters. The average Bo for fermenters maintained at 30-60 degrees Celcius (at 5 degrees Celcius intervals) was 0.328 litre CH4/g VSf. The Bo at 65 degrees Celcius averaged 0.118 litre CH4g VSf, but this low yield was attributed to unstable fermentation rather than decreased substrate availability at that temperature. These results agreed well with Bo values estimated from daily-fed fermenters. Chlortetracycline and monensin did not affect Bo; however, monensin did delay the start of active fermentation in batch fermenters. The average Bo of manure from cattle fed 91.5, 40 and 7% corn silage were 0.173, 0.232 and 0.290 litre CH4/g VSf, respectively. The average Bo for 6-8 week old manure from a dirt feedlot was 0.210 litre CH4/g VSf. (Refs. 14).

  12. Ultimate disposition of aluminum clad spent nuclear fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, C.E.; Clark, W.D.; Clapper, M.; Mustin, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment and disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the United States has changed significantly over the last decade due to change in world climate associated with nuclear material. Chemical processing of aluminum based SNF is ending and alternate disposition paths are being developed that will allow for the ultimate disposition of the enriched uranium in this SNF. Existing inventories of aluminum based SNF are currently being stored primarily in water-filled basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) while these alternate disposition paths are being developed and implemented. Nuclear nonproliferation continues to be a worldwide concern and it is causing a significant influence on the development of management alternatives for SNF. SRS recently completed an environmental impact statement for the management of aluminum clad SNF that selects alternatives for all of the fuels in inventory. The U.S. Department of Energy and SRS are now implementing a dual strategy of processing small quantities of 'problematic' SNF while developing an alternative technology to dispose of the remaining aluminum clad SNF in the proposed monitored geologic repository. (author)

  13. Structural Phenomenon of Cement-Based Composite Elements in Ultimate Limit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iskhakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement-based composite materials have minimum of two components, one of which has higher strength compared to the other. Such materials include concrete, reinforced concrete (RC, and ferrocement, applied in single- or two-layer RC elements. This paper discusses experimental and theoretical results, obtained by the authors in the recent three decades. The authors have payed attention to a structural phenomenon that many design features (parameters, properties, etc. at ultimate limit state (ULS of a structure are twice higher (or lower than at initial loading state. This phenomenon is evident at material properties, structures (or their elements, and static and/or dynamic structural response. The phenomenon is based on two ideas that were developed by first author: quasi-isotropic state of a structure at ULS and minimax principle. This phenomenon is supported by experimental and theoretical results, obtained for various structures, like beams, frames, spatial structures, and structural joints under static or/and dynamic loadings. This study provides valuable indicators for experiments’ planning and estimation of structural state. The phenomenon provides additional equation(s for calculating parameters that are usually obtained experimentally and can lead to developing design concepts and RC theory, in which the number of empirical design coefficients will be minimal.

  14. Thermal performance experiments on ultimate heat sinks, spray ponds, and cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.

    1976-12-01

    A program of measurement on a Battelle-Northwest (BNW) spray pond has been completed to prove an integrated instrumentation system for application in future field experiments. The measurement programs in the field will produce data of relevance to the design and understanding of performance for ultimate heat sinks as components of emergency core cooling systems. In the absence of active emergency cooling systems, the data will be obtained on analog systems--prime candidates among these are the naturally-occurring hot ponds at Yellowstone National Park and man-made hot cooling ponds at Savannah River National Laboratory as well as spray ponds at various industrial facilities. The proof experiment has provided data that not only illustrate the effectiveness of the instrumentation system but also display interesting site-specific heat transfer processes. The data to be obtained in the field will also be site specific but must be of generic applicability in modeling for design and performance purposes. The integrated instrumentation system will evolve, through modest modifications and substantial supplementation, to provide the requisite data for the more demanding situation of work in and about hot water

  15. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS, an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS tool to accelerate plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng eHe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broaden NGS usages to large crop genomes such as maize and wheat, genotyping by sequencing (GBS has been developed and applied in sequencing multiplexed samples that combine molecular marker discovery and genotyping. GBS is a novel application of NGS protocols for discovering and genotyping SNPs in crop genomes and populations. The GBS approach includes the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes followed by the ligation of barcode adapter, PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplified DNA pool on a single lane of flow cells. Bioinformatic pipelines are needed to analyze and interpret GBS datasets. As an ultimate MAS tool and a cost-effective technique, GBS has been successfully used in implementing genome-wide association study (GWAS, genomic diversity study, genetic linkage analysis, molecular marker discovery and genomic selection (GS under a large scale of plant breeding programs.

  16. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar.

  17. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Design Dependent Cutoff Frequency of Nanotransistors Near the Ultimate Performance Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordrostami, Zoheir; Sheikhi, M. Hossein; Zarifkar, Abbas

    2012-12-01

    We have studied the effect of different structural designs of double gate MOSFETs (DG-MOSFETs) and carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) on the cutoff frequency (fT). The effects of metallic contacts with Schottky barriers, gate work function, dual material gate (DMG), halo doped channel and lightly doped drain and source (LDDS) architectures on the fT have been investigated for DG-MOSFETs and CNTFETs and the design dependent fT for both types of transistors has been studied for the first time. The simulations are based on the Schrödinger-Poisson solvers developed for each nanotransistor separately. The ballistic limit has been studied as the ultimate performance limit of the DG-MOSFETs and CNTFETs. The results of this paper, for the first time, show how some designations used for modification of short channel effects or current-voltage characteristics affect the fT. The results revealed that the cutoff frequencies of both types of the transistors exhibit the same behavior with changing design parameters. We have shown that the Schottky barriers, parasitic capacitances and halo doping reduce the fT and have proposed the DMG and LDDS artchitectures as ways to increase the fT for DG-MOSFETs and CNTFETs for the first time.

  19. Pareto-Optimal Evaluation of Ultimate Limit States in Offshore Wind Turbine Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Muskulus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate capacity of support structures is checked with extreme loads. This is straightforward when the limit state equations depend on a single load component, and it has become common to report maxima for each load component. However, if more than one load component is influential, e.g., both axial force and bending moments, it is not straightforward how to define an extreme load. The combination of univariate maxima can be too conservative, and many different combinations of load components can result in the worst value of the limit state equations. The use of contemporaneous load vectors is typically non-conservative. Therefore, in practice, limit state checks are done for each possible load vector, from each time step of a simulation. This is not feasible when performing reliability assessments and structural optimization, where additional, time-consuming computations are involved for each load vector. We therefore propose to use Pareto-optimal loads, which are a small set of loads that together represent all possible worst case scenarios. Simulations with two reference wind turbines show that this approach can be very useful for jacket structures, whereas the design of monopiles is often governed by the bending moment only. Even in this case, the approach might be useful when approaching the structural limits during optimization.

  20. Radiobilogical cell survival models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zackrisson, B.

    1992-01-01

    A central issue in clinical radiobiological research is the prediction of responses to different radiation qualities. The choice of cell survival and dose-response model greatly influences the results. In this context the relationship between theory and model is emphasized. Generally, the interpretations of experimental data depend on the model. Cell survival models are systematized with respect to their relations to radiobiological theories of cell kill. The growing knowlegde of biological, physical, and chemical mechanisms is reflected in the formulation of new models. The present overview shows that recent modelling has been more oriented towards the stochastic fluctuations connected to radiation energy deposition. This implies that the traditional cell surivival models ought to be complemented by models of stochastic energy deposition processes and repair processes at the intracellular level. (orig.)

  1. The Survival Advantage: Underlying Mechanisms and Extant Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Kazanas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, researchers have begun to investigate the function of memory in our evolutionary history. According to Nairne and colleagues (e.g., Nairne, Pandeirada, and Thompson, 2008; Nairne, Thompson, and Pandeirada, 2007, the best mnemonic strategy for learning lists of unrelated words may be one that addresses the same problems that our Pleistocene ancestors faced: fitness-relevant problems including securing food and water, as well as protecting themselves from predators. Survival processing has been shown to promote better recall and recognition memory than many well-known mnemonic strategies (e.g., pleasantness ratings, imagery, generation, etc.. However, the survival advantage does not extend to all types of stimuli and tasks. The current review presents research that has replicated Nairne et al.'s (2007 original findings, in addition to the research designs that fail to replicate the survival advantage. In other words, there are specific manipulations in which survival processing does not appear to benefit memory any more than other strategies. Potential mechanisms for the survival advantage are described, with an emphasis on those that are the most plausible. These proximate mechanisms outline the memory processes that may contribute to the advantage, although the ultimate mechanism may be the congruity between the survival scenario and Pleistocene problem-solving.

  2. Effect of smoking on survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolly, Philippe; Knöpfli, Marina; Dufour, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Lifestyle factors such as smoking, obesity and physical activity have gained interest in the field of hepatocellular carcinoma. These factors play a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Several studies revealed the impact of tobacco consumption on the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and its synergistic effects with viral etiologies (hepatitis B and C). The effects of smoking on survival in patients with a diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma have not yet been investigated in a Western cohort where hepatitis C infection is a major risk factor. Using data from a prospective cohort of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who were followed at the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, survival was compared by Kaplan-Meier analysis in smokers and nonsmokers, and multivariate Cox regression was applied to control for confounding variables. Of 238 eligible hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 64 were smokers at the time of inclusion and 174 were nonsmokers. Smokers had a significant worse overall survival than nonsmokers (hazard ratio 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.58, P=.003). Analysis of patients according to their underlying liver disease, revealed that smoking, and not nonsmoking, affected survival of hepatitis B virus and C virus-infected patients only. In this subgroup, smoking was an independent predictor for survival (hazard ratio 2.99, 95% confidence interval: 1.7-5.23, Phepatocellular carcinoma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Commentary: surviving terrorist cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, Rebecca M; Jain, Sarah Lochlann

    2009-01-01

    The use of violent imagery, war metaphors, and the "survivor" persona in relation to cancer research and treatment are examined, as are consumer-driven approaches to "working toward a cure." The authors ask, what are the cultural and environmental trade-offs of these types of rhetoric? The positions of good guys (survivors, researchers, consumers) versus the enemy (cancer) are critically evaluated. Of especial note is a recent print advertisement that, despite its arresting visual presence, delivers an exceedingly vague message. The authors conclude that the practice of medicine plays a pivotal role in these cultural determinations and that caricatured attributions of cellular violence ultimately divert critical attention from sustained scrutiny of the institutional, social, economic, and political processes that in fact may contribute to the forces that bear on causing cancer.

  4. Carbonaceous Survivability on Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, T. E.; Becker, Luann; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge about the potential contributions of comets and cosmic dust to the origin of life on Earth, we need to explore the survivability of their potential organic compounds on impact and the formation of secondary products that may have arisen from the chaotic events sustained by the carriers as they fell to Earth. We have performed a series of hypervelocity impact experiments using carbon-bearing impactors (diamond, graphite, kerogens, PAH crystals, and Murchison and Nogoya meteorites) into Al plate targets at velocities - 6 km/s. Estimated peak shock pressures probably did not exceed 120 GPa and peak shock temperatures were probably less than 4000 K for times of nano- to microsecs. Nominal crater dia. are less than one mm. The most significant results of these experiments are the preservation of the higher mass PAHs (e. g., pyrene relative to napthalene) and the formation of additional alkylated PAHs. We have also examined the residues of polystyrene projectiles impacted by a microparticle accelerator into targets at velocities up to 15 km/s. This talk will discuss the results of these experiments and their implications with respect to the survival of carbonaceous deliverables to early Earth. The prospects of survivability of organic molecules on "intact" capture of cosmic dust in space via soft: and hard cosmic dust collectors will also be discussed.

  5. The relation between lymph node status and survival in Stage I-III colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J.; Roikjær, Ole; Jess, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study involved a large nationwide Danish cohort to evaluate the hypothesis that a high lymph node harvest has a positive effect on survival in curative resected Stage I-III colon cancer and a low lymph node ratio has a positive effect on survival in Stage III colon cancer. Method......: Analysis of overall survival was conducted using a nationwide Danish cohort of patients treated with curative resection of Stage I-III colon cancer. All 8901 patients in Denmark diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and treated with curative resection in the period 2003-2008 were identified from...... independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: High lymph node count was associated with improved overall survival in colon cancer. Lymph node ratio was superior to N-stage in differentiating overall survival in Stage III colon cancer. Stage migration was observed....

  6. Survival analysis models and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xian

    2012-01-01

    Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws.  Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin

  7. Melanoma survival is superior in females across all tumour stages but is influenced by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Dasgupta, Paramita; Byrom, Lisa; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Green, Adele C

    2015-10-01

    Among patients with invasive melanoma, females are known to have higher survival than males globally. However, this survival advantage has not been explored in thin melanomas, the most common form of the disease. In addition, it is unclear if this advantage is true across all age groups. We aimed to compare melanoma survival between males and females by clinical stage and within age groups. Melanomas from 1995 to 2008 were extracted from the Queensland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, and melanoma-specific deaths were ascertained up to 2011. Flexible parametric survival models compared survival between groups. The Queensland cohort of 28,979 patients experienced 1712 melanoma deaths and the SEER cohort of 57,402 patients included 6929 melanoma deaths. Survival rates were in favour of females across nearly all tumour stages, including thin invasive tumours in both cohorts after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors [odds ratio (OR) death female:male for stage I melanoma = 0.64 in Queensland; and OR = 0.79 in the US, both P age categories. In particular, the survival advantage was inconsistent in females with stage I melanoma aged under 60. Females with melanoma have a survival advantage over males including in stage I melanomas. However, this advantage is dependent on age at diagnosis, suggesting an underlying biological mechanism influenced by age that exists from the very early stages of the disease.

  8. The U.S. Gas Flooding Experience: CO2 Injection Strategies and Impact on Ultimate Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Vanessa [The University of Texas at Austin; Hosseini, Seyyed; Gil-Egui, Ramon

    2017-09-29

    The Permian Basin in West Texas and southwestern New Mexico has seen 45 years of oil reserve growth through CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). More than 60 CO2 EOR projects are currently active in the region’s limestone, sandstone and dolomite reservoirs. Water alternating gas (WAG) has been the development strategy of choice in the Permian for several technical and economic reasons. More recently, the technology started to get implemented in the much more porous and permeable clastic depositional systems of the onshore U.S. Gulf Coast. Continued CO2 injection (CGI), as opposed to WAG, was selected as the injection strategy to develop Gulf Coast oil fields, where CO2 injection volumes are significantly larger (up to 6 times larger) than those of the Permian. We conducted a compositional simulation based study with the objective of comparing the CO2 utilization ratios (volume of CO2 injected to produce a barrel of oil) of 4 conventional and novel CO2 injection strategies: (1) continuous gas injection (CGI), (2) water alternating gas (WAG), (3) water curtain injection (WCI), and (4) WAG and WCI combination. These injection scenarios were simulated using the GEM module from the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). GEM is an advanced general equation-of-state compositional simulator, which includes equation of state, CO2 miscible flood, CO2/brine interactions, and complex phase behavior. The simulator is set up to model three fluid phases including water, oil, and gas. Our study demonstrates how the selected field development strategy has a significant impact on the ultimate recovery of CO2-EOR projects, with GCI injection providing maximum oil recovery in absolute volume terms, but with WAG offering a more balanced technical-economical approach.

  9. Squat Biomechanical Modeling Results from Exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data is also obtained using free weights for a comparison to the resistively loaded exercise device. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the body loads. The focus of this presentation is to summarize the results from the full squat exercises

  10. The ultimate response guideline simulation and analysis by using (TRACE) for Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao-Tzu [Atomic Energy Council, Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Shao-Wen; Wang, Jong-Rong; Shih, Chunkuan [National Tsing Hua Univ., Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, HsinChu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this research, the TRACE/SNAP model of Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) has been established for the simulation and analysis of ultimate response guideline (URG). The main actions of URG are depressurization and low pressure water injection of reactor and containment venting. This research focuses to assess the URG utility of Lungmen NPP under Fukushima-like conditions. This study consists of three steps. The first step is the establishment of Lungmen NPP TRACE/SNAP model. In order to evaluate the system response of TRACE/SNAP model, FSAR data (MSIV closure and loss of feedwater flow transient) were used to compare with the results of TRACE. The second step is the URG simulation and analysis under Fukushima-like conditions by using Lungmen NPP TRACE/SNAP model. In this step, the no URG case was also performed in order to evaluate the URG effectiveness of Lungmen NPP. In order to confirm the mechanical property and integrity of fuel rods, the final step is FRAPTRAN analysis. According to TRACE analysis results, the URG can keep the peak cladding temperature (PCT) below the criteria 1088.7 K under Fukushima-like conditions which indicates that Lungmen NPP can be controlled in a safe situation. Nevertheless, if Lungmen NPP does not perform the URG under Fukushima-like conditions, the water level may drop lower than TAF after 1100 s which means a safety issue about the fuel rods may be generated. The analysis results of FRAPTRAN also indicate the integrity of fuel rods cannot be kept under the above conditions.

  11. The in vitro digestibility of beef varies with its inherent ultimate pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Wu, Guojie; Frost, Deborah A; Clerens, Stefan; Knowles, Scott O

    2014-11-01

    Animal carcasses and cuts of meat are usually differentiated and valued according to size and compositional attributes. An underappreciated variable of red meat is its inherent ultimate pH (pHu) value, which affects organoleptic and processing characteristics. This study tests the hypothesis that high pHu aged meat would be more digestible than low pHu unaged (fresh) meat. Longissimus dorsi muscles collected from 59 bull carcasses had pHu values of 5.6-6.9. These were aged for 21 days at -1.5 °C, then raw and cooked (72 °C) samples were enzymatically digested at 37 °C with pepsin (pH 1.9 for 90 min) followed by pancreatin (pH 8.0 for an additional 120 min) to simulate conditions in the stomach and small intestine, respectively. Meat proteins and peptides in the digests were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. Regardless of pHu, ageing or cooking, most sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin, with concomitant release of products identified by LC-MS/MS as mainly myosin-1, -2 and -7, α-actinin-2 or -3 and tropomyosin beta and alpha chains. These products were resistant to further digestion for the entire 210 min duration of the incubation. In terms of rate and extent of digestibility of these resistant products, high pHu > low pHu (P unaged (P meat samples increased with increasing pHu (P meat was highly digestible but could be further differentiated on the basis of its pHu and the ease of digestibility of proteins. Specific carcasses or cuts could be targeted to consumer groups in order to provide benefits and add value.

  12. Long-time safety aspects of ultimate storage of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.

    1992-10-01

    Based on the amounts of transuranium elements generated in nuclear reactors, the inventories of these elements in the repository are described for various ultimate disposal strategies. The data are used to give an outline description of accident-induced ingress of brines into the backfilled repository shaft during the post-closure period and the resulting mechanisms of a mobilization of the transuranium elements and their escape from the repository, and to calculate amounts released. The effects of the released transuranium elements on the biosphere and the different contributions of the various isotopes to the calculated radiation exposure are given as an estimate and are described in more detail by means of data determined by parameter variation. The effects of transuranium elements during the entire migration process are restricted to the production of daughter nuclides, especially of the uranium isotopes. They give no particular contribution to environmental radiation exposure because of their low mobility. With the only exception of Np-237 which, due to its long half-time and relatively good migration capacity, can reach the biosphere. The contributions of the transuranium elements to the dose maxima, caused by the daughter products, of the uranium isotopes or the neptunium are calculated to be about 50%. All publications to date presenting a safety analysis of the site of the Gorleben repository assume the dose maxima of all uranium isotopes together to be approx. 10%, and those of the neptunium isotope approx. 20%, referring to the most significant fission products. This indicates that uranium or neptunium are of secondary significance in the process, and the other transuranium elements are only third-rate. (orig./HP) [de

  13. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEGRASSI, G.; HOFMAYER, C.; MURPHY, C.; SUZUKI, K.; NAMITA, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper

  14. The Ultimate Pile Bearing Capacity from Conventional and Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizah Bawadi, Nor; Anuar, Shamilah; Rahim, Mustaqqim A.; Mansor, A. Faizal

    2018-03-01

    A conventional and seismic method for determining the ultimate pile bearing capacity was proposed and compared. The Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) method is one of the non-destructive seismic techniques that do not require drilling and sampling of soils, was used in the determination of shear wave velocity (Vs) and damping (D) profile of soil. The soil strength was found to be directly proportional to the Vs and its value has been successfully applied to obtain shallow bearing capacity empirically. A method is proposed in this study to determine the pile bearing capacity using Vs and D measurements for the design of pile and also as an alternative method to verify the bearing capacity from the other conventional methods of evaluation. The objectives of this study are to determine Vs and D profile through frequency response data from SASW measurements and to compare pile bearing capacities obtained from the method carried out and conventional methods. All SASW test arrays were conducted near the borehole and location of conventional pile load tests. In obtaining skin and end bearing pile resistance, the Hardin and Drnevich equation has been used with reference strains obtained from the method proposed by Abbiss. Back analysis results of pile bearing capacities from SASW were found to be 18981 kN and 4947 kN compared to 18014 kN and 4633 kN of IPLT with differences of 5% and 6% for Damansara and Kuala Lumpur test sites, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the seismic method proposed in this study has the potential to be used in estimating the pile bearing capacity.

  15. Effect of Incorporation of Antifungal Agents on the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Temporary Soft Denture Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana; Lima, Jozely Francisca Mello; Hotta, Juliana; Galitesi, Lucas Lulo; Almeida, Ana Lucia Pompéia Fraga; Urban, Vanessa Migliorini

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ultimate tensile strength of temporary soft denture liners modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm (SC5314) determined in previous microbiological research. Dumbbell-shaped specimens (n = 7) with a central cross-sectional area of 6 × 3 × 33 mm were produced by Softone and Trusoft, without (control) or with incorporation of drugs in powder form at MICs for C. albicans biofilm (per g of material powder): nystatin (0.032 g), chlorhexidine diacetate (0.064 g), ketoconazole (0.128 g), miconazole (0.256 g), and itraconazole (0.256 g). After plasticization, specimens were immersed in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, 7 or 14 days, and then tested in tension in a universal testing machine at 40 mm/min. Data of tensile strength (MPa) and elongation percentage (%) were submitted to 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). At the end of 14 days, the tensile strength for both materials was significantly lower in the groups modified by miconazole and itraconazole compared to the other groups (p 0.05). After 7 and 14 days in water, miconazole and itraconazole added into both materials resulted in significantly lower elongation percentages compared to the other antifungal agents and control (p 0.05). The addition of the nystatin, chlorhexidine, and ketoconazole at MICs for C. albicans biofilm resulted in no harmful effects on the tensile strength and elongation percentage of the temporary soft denture liner materials up to 14 days. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli-Matti Pakanen

    Full Text Available Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony. Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence, in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major and the willow tit (Poecile montanus by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider

  17. Assessment of cooling tower (ultimate heat sink) performance in the Byron individual plant examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.D.; Hawley, J.T.; Klopp, G.T.; Thelen, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    A time-dependent model of the Byron Nuclear Generation Station safety-related cooling towers has been developed for use with the Byron PRA (IPE). The model can either be run in a stand-alone program with externally supplied heat loads, or can be directly coupled into MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program). The primary feature of the model is a careful tracking of the basin temperature through the progression of different severe accidents. Heat removal rates from containment, both from containment fan-coolers and the residual heat removal system, are determined by the feed-back of this time-varying return temperature. Also, the inventory of the basin is tracked in time, and this is controlled by make-up, evaporative losses due to the heat load supplied to the towers, and the possibility of unsecured blowdown. The model has been used to determine the overall capabilities and vulnerabilities of the Byron Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). It was determined that the UHS is very reliable with respect to maintaining acceptably low basin temperatures, requiring only at most two of eight operating cooling tower fans. Further, when the two units have their Essential Service Water (ESW) systems cross-tied, one of four ESW operating pumps is sufficient to handle the loads from the accident unit with the other unit proceeding to an orderly shutdown. The major vulnerability of the Byron UHS is shown to be the ability to maintain inventory, although the time-scales for basin dry-out are relatively long, being eight to twenty-one hours, depending upon when blowdown is secured. (author)

  18. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zahra; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Troccaz, Olivier; Baudry, Jacques; Pinay, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    Direct and indirect effects from human activity have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. Despite an abundance of studies investigating the impact of agricultural activity on water quality, our understanding of what determines the capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients remains limited. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments by investigating the relationship between catchment characteristics, stream discharge, and water chemistry. We analyzed a 5-year, high-frequency water chemistry data set from three catchments in western France ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2. The relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations differed between the three catchments and was associated with hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness had relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions, indicating high resilience to human disturbance. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and interannual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of phosphate (PO43-) and ammonium (NH4+) in streams during low flow conditions and strong increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land-use configuration) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on water quality was both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent

  19. The establishment of MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan nuclear power plant for Ultimate Response Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Sheng, E-mail: wshsu@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Yu, E-mail: s101013702@m101.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jong-Rong, E-mail: jongrongwang@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Ting-Yi, E-mail: minired1119@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Te-Chuan, E-mail: tcwang@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C., 1000, Wenhua Road Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jyh-Tong, E-mail: jyhtong@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shao-Wen, E-mail: chensw@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The establishment of a MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan (BWR/4). • MELCOR/SNAP model was used to estimate the effectiveness of URG for Chinshan. • The MELCOR results were compared to MAAP, TRACE and PCTRAN. • URG is a new method to prevent a Fukushima-like accident. • The low raw water (150 GPM) can make the cladding temperature below 1088.7 K. - Abstract: After Fukushima Daiichi disaster, the safety analysis of severe accidents became one of the safety concerns in Taiwan. The Emergency Operating Procedure (EOP) cannot cope with a multiple system failure situation under a severe accident since it is a “Symptom-basis” procedure. To deal with that, Taiwan Power Company built up a new strategy for Fukushima-like accident called Ultimate Response Guideline (URG). It is a simple strategy with three main conditions: loss of regular motor driven injection system, loss of all AC power and tsunami/earthquake warning. If two of three happen, the operating procedure will change from EOP to URG and start the main works by following the strategy. There are three main works in URG: controlled-depressurization, line up low pressure injection water and prepare containment venting. In this study, MELCOR2.1 was used to calculate the cases of URG and checked the goal of the strategy that prevents the accident or not. There were three steps in this research. First, a model of Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP) was built. Second, one was the case with URG and the other was not by using the above MELCOR model. The results were compared to MAAP5.0, TRACE and PCTRAN. Finally, some sensitivity studies of depressurization and water injection rate were done.

  20. Human performance evaluation: The procedures of ultimate response guideline for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang-Hung, E-mail: alvinks@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Engery Council, No. 1000, Whenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Sheue-Ling, E-mail: slhwang@ie.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • This study adopts SPAR-H to evaluate HEPs in the URG procedures. • The involvement of URG procedures could reduce CDF significantly. • Upgrading the training level of staff will enhance the reliability effectively. • Aiding the plant manager in making URG decision will enhance the reliability. - Abstract: In the nuclear accident which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, several units of Fukushima conventional BWR experienced a total loss of power and water supply triggered by a heavy earthquake and subsequent Tsunami which were outside design models. In the past, when an accident occurred, operators in nuclear power plants (NPP) followed emergency operating procedures (EOPs) or severe accident management guidance (SAMG). However, EOP and SAMG are symptom-based procedures to cope with severe transients and accidents, depending on real-time operational parameters. Ultimate response guidelines (URG), a plant specific interim remedy action plan, was developed to manage accidents caused by compound disasters which exceed design models. The URG guides the plant operators’ conduct of reactor depressurization, core cooling water injection, and containment venting. This study adopts NUREG/CR-6883 (Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Human Reliability Analysis, SPAR-H) to evaluate human error probabilities (HEPs) of action and diagnosis in the current URG procedures. We found the human reliability of URG procedures analyzed by SPAR-H is about 85% (depending on different decision makers). Upgrading the training level of staff or enhancing plant managers ability to decide whether to execute URG will enhance the human reliability of URG procedures.

  1. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  2. Applied survival analysis using R

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Dirk F

    2016-01-01

    Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. Many survival methods are extensions of techniques used in linear regression and categorical data, while other aspects of this field are unique to survival data. This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. Because explaining survival analysis requires more advanced mathematics than many other statistical topics, this book is organized with basic concepts and most frequently used procedures covered in earlier chapters, with more advanced topics...

  3. Development and external validation of a risk-prediction model to predict 5-year overall survival in advanced larynx cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, Japke F.; Stuiver, Martijn M.; Timmermans, Adriana J.; Chen, Amy; Zhang, Hongzhen; O'Neill, James P.; Deady, Sandra; Vander Poorten, Vincent; Meulemans, Jeroen; Wennerberg, Johan; Skroder, Carl; Day, Andrew T.; Koch, Wayne; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.

    2017-01-01

    TNM-classification inadequately estimates patient-specific overall survival (OS). We aimed to improve this by developing a risk-prediction model for patients with advanced larynx cancer. Cohort study. We developed a risk prediction model to estimate the 5-year OS rate based on a cohort of 3,442

  4. Metformin Use and Endometrial Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Van Arsdale, Anne; Strickler, Howard D.; Moadel, Alyson; Kaur, Gurpreet; Frimer, Marina; Conroy, Erin; Goldberg, Gary L.; Einstein, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are risk factors for the development of uterine cancer. Although greater progression free survival among diabetic patients with ovarian and breast cancer using metformin have been reported, no studies have assessed the association of metformin use with survival in women with endometrial cancer (EC). Methods We conducted a single-institution retrospective cohort study of all patients treated for uterine cancer from January 1999 through December 2009. Demographic, medical, social, and survival data were abstracted from medical records and the national death registry. Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox models were utilized for multivariate analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Of 985 patients, 114 (12%) had diabetes and were treated with metformin, 136 (14%) were diabetic but did not use metformin, and 735 (74%) had not been diagnosed with diabetes. Greater OS was observed in diabetics with non-endometrioid EC who used metformin than in diabetic cases not using metformin and non-endometrioid EC cases without diabetes (log rank test (p=0.02)). This association remained significant (hazard ratio = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.30–0.97, p<0.04) after adjusting for age, clinical stage, grade, chemotherapy treatment, radiation treatment and presence of hyperlipidemia in multivariate analysis. No association between metformin use and OS in diabetics with endometrioid histology was observed. Conclusion Diabetic EC patients with non-endometrioid tumors who used metformin had lower risk of death than women with EC who did not use metformin. These data suggest that metformin might be useful as adjuvant therapy for non-endometrioid EC. PMID:24189334

  5. Nuclear War Survival Skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2002-06-24

    The purpose of this book is to provide Americans with information and instructions that will significantly increase their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. It brings together field-tested instructions that, if followed by a large fraction of Americans during a crisis that preceded an attack, could save millions of lives. The author is convinced that the vulnerability of our country to nuclear threat or attack must be reduced and that the wide dissemination of the information contained in this book would help achieve that objective of our overall defense strategy.

  6. Survival after blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Ahlgren, Martin; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    of transfusion recipients in Denmark and Sweden followed for up to 20 years after their first blood transfusion. Main outcome measure was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: A total of 1,118,261 transfusion recipients were identified, of whom 62.0 percent were aged 65 years or older at the time of their first...... the SMR remained significantly 1.3-fold increased. CONCLUSION: The survival and relative mortality patterns among blood transfusion recipients were characterized with unprecedented detail and precision. Our results are relevant to assessments of the consequences of possible transfusion-transmitted disease...... as well as for cost-benefit estimation of new blood safety interventions....

  7. Parent–offspring resemblance in colony-specific adult survival of cliff swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles R.; Roche, Erin A.; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-01-01

    Survival is a key component of fitness. Species that occupy discrete breeding colonies with different characteristics are often exposed to varying costs and benefits associated with group size or environmental conditions, and survival is an integrative net measure of these effects. We investigated the extent to which survival probability of adult (≥1-year old) cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) occupying different colonies resembled that of their parental cohort and thus whether the natal colony had long-term effects on individuals. Individuals were cross-fostered between colonies soon after hatching and their presence as breeders monitored at colonies in the western Nebraska study area for the subsequent decade. Colony-specific adult survival probabilities of offspring born and reared in the same colony, and those cross-fostered away from their natal colony soon after birth, were positively and significantly related to subsequent adult survival of the parental cohort from the natal colony. This result held when controlling for the effect of natal colony size and the age composition of the parental cohort. In contrast, colony-specific adult survival of offspring cross-fostered to a site was unrelated to that of their foster parent cohort or to the cohort of non-fostered offspring with whom they were reared. Adult survival at a colony varied inversely with fecundity, as measured by mean brood size, providing evidence for a survival–fecundity trade-off in this species. The results suggest some heritable variation in adult survival, likely maintained by negative correlations between fitness components. The study provides additional evidence that colonies represent non-random collections of individuals.

  8. Has prenatal screening influenced the prevalence of comorbidities associated with Down syndrome and subsequent survival rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jane; Collins, Veronica; Riley, Merilyn; Youssef, Danielle; Muggli, Evelyne

    2009-01-01

    With this study we aimed to compare survival rates for children with Down syndrome in 2 time periods, 1 before prenatal screening (1988-1990) and 1 contemporaneous with screening (1998-2000), and to examine the frequency of comorbidities and their influence on survival rates. Record-linkage was performed between the population-based Victorian Birth Defects Register and records of deaths in children up to 15 years of age collected under the auspice of the Consultative Council on Obstetric and Pediatric Mortality and Morbidity. Cases of Down syndrome were coded according to the presence or absence of comorbidities by using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision classification of birth defects. Kaplan-Meier survival functions and log rank tests for equality of survival distributions were performed. Of infants liveborn with Down syndrome in 1998-2000, 90% survived to 5 years of age, compared with 86% in the earlier cohort. With fetal deaths excluded, the proportion of isolated Down syndrome cases in the earlier cohort was 48.7% compared with 46.1% in the most recent cohort. In 1988-1990 there was at least 1 cardiac defect in 41.1% of cases and in 45.4% in 1998-2000. There was significant variation in survival rates for the different comorbidity groupings in the 1988-1990 cohort, but this was not so evident in the 1998-2000 cohort. Survival of children with Down syndrome continues to improve, and there is an overall survival figure of 90% to at least 5 years of age. It is clear from this study that prenatal screening technologies are not differentially ascertaining fetuses with Down syndrome and additional defects, because there has been no proportional increase in births of isolated cases with Down syndrome.

  9. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  10. Concept for an ultimate storage facility for heat-generating radioactive waste in clay stone in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Poehler, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    According to the German reference ultimate storage concept heat-generating radioactive waste from the operation of nuclear power stations should be stored permanently maintenance-free and in a non-recoverable manner in a salt formation. Within the framework of investigations into the utilisation of alternative host rocks a concept for an ultimate storage facility in clay stone was developed in an R and D project. For this purpose all important aspects of the design, development, operation and shutdown were taken into account for a model region in northern Germany. It was established that storage in 50 m deep vertical boreholes in a mine at a depth of about 350 m appears to be the most practical solution for an ultimate storage facility in clay stone. Compared to the reference concept in salt an ultimate storage facility in clay stone requires solid support of all mine openings with steel arches or shotcrete. Because of the lower maximum permissible temperature in the backfilling material (bentonite) the area required for the ultimate storage facility is about five times larger. A period of more than 100 years is estimated from survey to shutdown. (orig.)

  11. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  12. Predictors of binge drinking in adolescents: ultimate and distal factors - a representative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donath Carolin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As epidemiological surveys have shown, binge drinking is a constant and wide-spread problem behavior in adolescents. It is not rare to find that more than half of all adolescents engage in this behavior when assessing only the last 4 weeks of time independent of the urbanity of the region they live in. There have been several reviews on predictors of substance consumption in adolescents in general, but there has been less high quality research on predictors of binge drinking, and most studies have not been theoretically based. The current study aimed to analyze the ultimate and distal factors predicting substance consumption according to Petraitis' theory of triadic influence. We assessed the predictive value of these factors with respect to binge drinking in German adolescents, including the identification of influence direction. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample. The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers or school directors had agreed to participate in the study. In this survey, prevalence of binge drinking was investigated as well as potential predictors from the social/interpersonal, the attitudinal/environmental, and the intrapersonal fields (3 factors of Petraitis. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, these variables were included after testing for multicollinearity in order to assess their ability to predict binge drinking. Results Prevalence of binge drinking in the last 30 days was 52.3% for the surveyed adolescents with a higher prevalence for boys (56.9% than for girls (47.5%. The two most influential factors found to protect against binge drinking with p p Conclusions Whereas some of the risk and protective factors for binge drinking are not surprising since they are known for substance abuse in general, there are two points that

  13. Proximate and Ultimate Compositional Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Thermogravimetric Analyzer and Microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2012-07-01

    regular and microwaves and their effect on proximate and ultimate composition. Studies indicated that microwave torrefaction is a good way to torrefy the biomass in short periods of time. A maximum calorific value of 21 MJ/kg is achievable at 6 min residence time compared to 15 min using the dry torrefaction technique. Increasing the residence time increased the carbon content where a maximum carbon content of 52.20 % was achievable at lower residence time. The loss of volatiles is comparatively lower compared to dry torrefaction technique. Moisture content of microwave torrefied samples was in between 2-2.5 % (w.b).

  14. Nuclear war survival skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearney, C.H.

    1979-09-01

    This book includes chapters on psychological preparations, warning and communications, and evacuation. It describes the building of expedient shelters, their ventilation and cooling, the purification and storage of adequate water, the processing and cooking of whole grains and legumes, fallout meters, protection against fires and carbon monoxide, and expedient furnishings for shelters. Other chapters cover sanitation and preventive medicine, medical advice for nuclear survivors lacking the help of doctors, improvised footwear and clothing, and advice on minimum preparations that can be made at low cost and should be made before a crisis arises. One appendix of the handbook gives detailed, field-tested instructions for building six types of earth-covered expedient fallout shelters, with criteria to guide the choice of which shelter to build. Others contain instructions for making an efficient shelter-ventilating pump and a homemade fallout meter that is accurate and dependable with inexpensive materials found in most households. This report is primarily a compilation and summary of civil defense measures and inventions developed at ORNL over the past 14 years and field-tested in six states, from Florida to Utah. It is the first comprehensive handbook of survival information for use by untrained citizens who want to improve their chances of surviving a possible nuclear attack. Sections may be easily excerpted and reproduced for mass distribution through news media

  15. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  16. Duties of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in connection with radioactive waste safeguarding and ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the history and duties of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is to illustrate that the new duties of the PTB in connection with radioactive substance safeguarding and ultimate storage fit in very well with the range of duties of the PTB. The organisatory and technical accomplishment of these duties in cooperation with a building and operating company and with industry is explained. The department of the PTB for the 'safeguarding and ultimate storage of radioactive wastes' has an examining, appraising and licensing function in connection with construction, operation and shutdown of safety facilities. Methods for the safeguarding and ultimate storage of all the radioactive wastes in the Federal Republic of Germany are described. (HS) [de

  17. Selection of ultimately ill cancer patients able to fulfill a questionnaire: Identification of inherent biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Emmanuelle; Fournier, Charles; Christophe, Véronique; Reich, Michel; Villet, Stéphanie; Gamblin, Vincent; Ryckewaert, Thomas; Rodrigues, Isabelle; Amela, Eric Yaovi; Lefebvre, Gautier; Clisant, Stéphanie; Antoine, Pascal; Penel, Nicolas

    2015-09-01

    Physical or psychological well-being is an essential component of quality care assessment in palliative unit. This assessment is mainly based on self-assessment (questionnaires or interviews). The aim of this study is to compare the clinical characteristics of patients able to fulfill a questionnaire and those not able to do that. The clinical characteristics of 166 cancer patients admitted in palliative care unit from December 2006 to February 2008 have been collected. Characteristics of patients able to fulfill a questionnaire (80, 48.2%) have been compared to other patients (86, 51.8%). Moreover, functional independence measure (FIM) had been evaluated by nurses. Median age (60 versus 62) and sex ratio (40/40 versus 42/44) are similar in both groups. Lung primaries are significantly less frequent in patients able to fulfill the questionnaire (4% versus 17%, P=0.005). Patients able to fulfill the questionnaire had had better performance status (Karnofsky Index≤30%: 54% versus 21%, Ppatients non able to fulfill the questionnaire. Patients able to fulfill a questionnaire represent only 48.2% of all consecutive admitted patients. These patients are not representative of all patients since they had better performance status, they are less dependent and they display significant better survival. We have to think about new methods to avoid the biases generated by the use of patient-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultimate predators: lionfish have evolved to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; McCormick, Mark I

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species cause catastrophic alterations to communities worldwide by changing the trophic balance within ecosystems. Ever since their introduction in the mid 1980's common red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are having dramatic impacts on the Caribbean ecosystem by displacing native species and disrupting food webs. Introduced lionfish capture prey at extraordinary rates, altering the composition of benthic communities. Here we demonstrate that the extraordinary success of the introduced lionfish lies in its capacity to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities as it is virtually undetectable by prey species in its native range. While experienced prey damselfish, Chromis viridis, respond with typical antipredator behaviours when exposed to a common predatory rock cod (Cephalopholis microprion) they fail to visibly react to either the scent or visual presentation of the red lionfish, and responded only to the scent (not the visual cue) of a lionfish of a different genus, Dendrochirus zebra. Experienced prey also had much higher survival when exposed to the two non-invasive predators compared to P. volitans. The cryptic nature of the red lionfish has enabled it to be destructive as a predator and a highly successful invasive species.

  19. Ultimate predators: lionfish have evolved to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oona M Lönnstedt

    Full Text Available Invasive species cause catastrophic alterations to communities worldwide by changing the trophic balance within ecosystems. Ever since their introduction in the mid 1980's common red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are having dramatic impacts on the Caribbean ecosystem by displacing native species and disrupting food webs. Introduced lionfish capture prey at extraordinary rates, altering the composition of benthic communities. Here we demonstrate that the extraordinary success of the introduced lionfish lies in its capacity to circumvent prey risk assessment abilities as it is virtually undetectable by prey species in its native range. While experienced prey damselfish, Chromis viridis, respond with typical antipredator behaviours when exposed to a common predatory rock cod (Cephalopholis microprion they fail to visibly react to either the scent or visual presentation of the red lionfish, and responded only to the scent (not the visual cue of a lionfish of a different genus, Dendrochirus zebra. Experienced prey also had much higher survival when exposed to the two non-invasive predators compared to P. volitans. The cryptic nature of the red lionfish has enabled it to be destructive as a predator and a highly successful invasive species.

  20. Experimental research on the ultimate strength of hard aluminium alloy 2017 subjected to short-time radioactive heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafang, Wu; Yuewu, Wang; Bing, Pan; Meng, Mu; Lin, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultimate strength at transient heating is critical to security design of missiles. ► We measure the ultimate strength of alloy 2017 subjected to transient heating. ► Experimental results at transient heating are lacking in strength design handbook. ► Ultimate strength of alloy 2017 experimented is much higher than handbook value. ► The results provide a new method for optimal design of high-speed flight vehicles. -- Abstract: Alloy 2017 (Al–Cu–Mg) is a hard aluminium alloy strengthened by heat treatment. Because of its higher strength, finer weldability and ductility, hard aluminium alloy 2017 has been widely used in the field of aeronautics and astronautics. However, the ultimate strength and other characteristic mechanical parameters of aluminium alloy 2017 in a transient heating environment are still unclear, as these key mechanical parameters are lacking in the existing strength design handbook. The experimental characterisation of these critical parameters of aluminium alloy 2017 is undoubtedly meaningful for reliably estimating life span of and improving safety in designing high-speed flight vehicles. In this paper, the high-temperature ultimate strength, loading time and other mechanical properties of hard aluminium alloy 2017 under different transient heating temperatures and loading conditions are investigated by combining a transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and a material testing machine. The experimental results reveal that the ultimate strength and loading capability of aluminium alloy 2017 subjected to transient thermal heating are much higher than those tested in a long-time stable high-temperature environment. The research of this work not only provides a substantial basis for the loading capability improvement and optimal design of aerospace materials and structures subject to transient heating but also presents a new research direction with a practical application value.