WorldWideScience

Sample records for ultimate recoverable oil

  1. An Estimate of Recoverable Heavy Oil Resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.

    2009-01-01

    The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the La Luna-Quercual Total Petroleum System encompasses approximately 50,000 km2 of the East Venezuela Basin Province that is underlain by more than 1 trillion barrels of heavy oil-in-place. As part of a program directed at estimating the technically recoverable oil and gas resources of priority petroleum basins worldwide, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated the recoverable oil resources of the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit. This estimate relied mainly on published geologic and engineering data for reservoirs (net oil-saturated sandstone thickness and extent), petrophysical properties (porosity, water saturation, and formation volume factors), recovery factors determined by pilot projects, and estimates of volumes of oil-in-place. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean volume of 513 billion barrels of technically recoverable heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit of the East Venezuela Basin Province; the range is 380 to 652 billion barrels. The Orinoco Oil Belt Assessment Unit thus contains one of the largest recoverable oil accumulations in the world.

  2. Heavy oil reservoirs recoverable by thermal technology. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawa, P.

    1981-02-01

    This volume contains reservoir, production, and project data for target reservoirs thermally recoverable by steam drive which are equal to or greater than 2500 feet deep and contain heavy oil in the 8 to 25/sup 0/ API gravity range. Data were collected from three source types: hands-on (A), once-removed (B), and twice-removed (C). In all cases, data were sought depicting and characterizing individual reservoirs as opposed to data covering an entire field with more than one producing interval or reservoir. The data sources are listed at the end of each case. This volume also contains a complete listing of operators and projects, as well as a bibliography of source material.

  3. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  4. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  5. proximate and ultimate analysis of fuel pellets from oil palm residues

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    Keywords: Oil Palm Residues, Fuel Pellets, Proximate Analysis, Ultimate Analysis. 1. INTRODUCTION ... Pelletizing of this biomass resources into pellets is a way of ensuring a ... demand for pellets [3], and alternative feed-stocks such as palm kernel ... agro-residues, selection of the best pellets has to be made based on ...

  6. Overview of a compre­hensive resource database for the assessment of recoverable hydrocarbons produced by carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolus, Marshall; Biglarbigi, Khosrow; Warwick, Peter D.; Attanasi, Emil D.; Freeman, Philip A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2017-10-24

    A database called the “Comprehensive Resource Database” (CRD) was prepared to support U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessments of technically recoverable hydrocarbons that might result from the injection of miscible or immiscible carbon dioxide (CO2) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The CRD was designed by INTEK Inc., a consulting company under contract to the USGS. The CRD contains data on the location, key petrophysical properties, production, and well counts (number of wells) for the major oil and gas reservoirs in onshore areas and State waters of the conterminous United States and Alaska. The CRD includes proprietary data on petrophysical properties of fields and reservoirs from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database,” prepared by Nehring Associates in 2012, and proprietary production and drilling data from the “Petroleum Information Data Model Relational U.S. Well Data,” prepared by IHS Inc. in 2012. This report describes the CRD and the computer algorithms used to (1) estimate missing reservoir property values in the Nehring Associates (2012) database, and to (2) generate values of additional properties used to characterize reservoirs suitable for miscible or immiscible CO2 flooding for EOR. Because of the proprietary nature of the data and contractual obligations, the CRD and actual data from Nehring Associates (2012) and IHS Inc. (2012) cannot be presented in this report.

  7. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  8. Magnetically recoverable nanocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek

    2011-05-11

    A broad overview on magnetically recoverable nanocatalysts is presented and the use of magnetic nanomaterials as catalysts is discussed. Magnetic materials are used as organocatalysts and their applications range to challenging reactions, such as hydroformylation and olefin metathesis. Magnetic nanomaterials are also being used in environmental applications, such as for photo- and biocatalysis and for the adsorption and removal of pollutants from air and water. These materials show great promise as enantioselective catalysts, which are used extensively for the synthesis of medicines, drugs, and other bioactive molecules. By functionalizing these materials using chiral ligands, a series of chiral nanocatalysts can be designed, offering great potential to reuse these otherwise expensive catalyst systems. Characterization of magnetic catalysts is often a challenging task, and NMR characterization of these catalysts is difficult because the magnetic nature of the materials interferes with the magnetic field of the spectrometer.

  9. Magnetically recoverable nanocatalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Luque, Rafael L.; Fihri, Aziz; Zhu, Haibo; Bouhrara, Mohamed; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    A broad overview on magnetically recoverable nanocatalysts is presented and the use of magnetic nanomaterials as catalysts is discussed. Magnetic materials are used as organocatalysts and their applications range to challenging reactions, such as hydroformylation and olefin metathesis. Magnetic nanomaterials are also being used in environmental applications, such as for photo- and biocatalysis and for the adsorption and removal of pollutants from air and water. These materials show great promise as enantioselective catalysts, which are used extensively for the synthesis of medicines, drugs, and other bioactive molecules. By functionalizing these materials using chiral ligands, a series of chiral nanocatalysts can be designed, offering great potential to reuse these otherwise expensive catalyst systems. Characterization of magnetic catalysts is often a challenging task, and NMR characterization of these catalysts is difficult because the magnetic nature of the materials interferes with the magnetic field of the spectrometer.

  10. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung

    2008-01-01

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the service

  11. Evaluation of the Safety Issue Concerning the Potential for Loss of Decay Heat Removal Function due to Crude Oil Spill in the Ultimate Heat Sink of Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Roh, Kyung Wan; Yune, Young Gill; Kang, Dong Gu; Kim, Hho Jhung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    A barge crashed into a moored oil tanker at about 7:15 a.m., Dec. 12, 2007, dumping around 10,500 tons of crude oil into the sea in Korea. The incident took place about 15 kilometers northwest of Manripo beach in South Chungcheong where is Korea's west coast in the Yellow Sea. In a few days, the oil slicks spread to the northern and southern tips of the Taean Peninsula by strong winds and tides. As time went the spilled oil floating on the surface of sea water was volatilized to become tar-balls and lumps and drifted far away in the southern direction. 13 days after the incident, some of oil slicks and tar lumps were observed to flow in the service water intake at the Younggwang nuclear power plants (NPPs) operating 6 reactors, which are over 150 km away from the incident spot in the southeastern direction. According to the report by the Younggwang NPPs, a total weight 83 kg of tar lumps was removed for about 3 days. Oil spills in the sea can happen in any country or anytime due to human errors or mistakes, wars, terrors, intentional dumping of waste oils, and natural disasters like typhoon and tsunami. In fact, there have been 7 major oil spills over 10,000 tons that have occurred around the world since 1983. As such serious oil spill incidents may happen near the operating power plants using the sea water as ultimate heat sink. To ensure the safe operation of nuclear reactors it is required to evaluate the potential for loss of decay heat removal function of nuclear reactors due to the spilled oils flowing in the service water intake, from which the service water is pumped. Thus, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety identified this problem as one of the important safety. When an incident of crude oil spill from an oil carrier occurs in the sea near the nuclear power plants, the spilled oil can be transported to the intake pit, where all service water pumps locate, by sea current and wind drift (induced) current. The essential service water pumps take the

  12. Fault Recoverability Analysis via Cross-Gramian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Engineering systems are vulnerable to different kinds of faults. Faults may compromise safety, cause sub-optimal operation and decline in performance if not preventing the whole system from functioning. Fault tolerant control (FTC) methods ensure that the system performance maintains within...... with feedback control. Fault recoverability provides important and useful information which could be used in analysis and design. However, computing fault recoverability is numerically expensive. In this paper, a new approach for computation of fault recoverability for bilinear systems is proposed...... approach for computation of fault recoverability is proposed which reduces the computational burden significantly. The proposed results are used for an electro-hydraulic drive to reveal the redundant actuating capabilities in the system....

  13. Giant Oil Fields - The Highway to Oil: Giant Oil Fields and their Importance for Future Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robelius, Fredrik

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1950s, oil has been the dominant source of energy in the world. The cheap supply of oil has been the engine for economic growth in the western world. Since future oil demand is expected to increase, the question to what extent future production will be available is important. The belief in a soon peak production of oil is fueled by increasing oil prices. However, the reliability of the oil price as a single parameter can be questioned, as earlier times of high prices have occurred without having anything to do with a lack of oil. Instead, giant oil fields, the largest oil fields in the world, can be used as a parameter. A giant oil field contains at least 500 million barrels of recoverable oil. Only 507, or 1 % of the total number of fields, are giants. Their contribution is striking: over 60 % of the 2005 production and about 65 % of the global ultimate recoverable reserve (URR). However, giant fields are something of the past since a majority of the largest giant fields are over 50 years old and the discovery trend of less giant fields with smaller volumes is clear. A large number of the largest giant fields are found in the countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. The domination of giant fields in global oil production confirms a concept where they govern future production. A model, based on past annual production and URR, has been developed to forecast future production from giant fields. The results, in combination with forecasts on new field developments, heavy oil and oil sand, are used to predict future oil production. In all scenarios, peak oil occurs at about the same time as the giant fields peak. The worst-case scenario sees a peak in 2008 and the best-case scenario, following a 1.4 % demand growth, peaks in 2018

  14. An oil production forecast for China considering economic limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ke; Feng, Lianyong; Wang, Jianliang; Xiong, Yi; Tverberg, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, it has become apparent that oil prices may not rise endlessly. Unconventional oil is likely to be especially affected by low prices because it tends to be high-priced to extract. To estimate the impact prices might have on future Chinese oil production, we develop a model in which only future unconventional oil production is affected by price. We analyze three price scenarios: Stays Low, Best Estimate, and Ever-Rising Prices. In these scenarios, remaining Ultimate Recoverable Resources (URR) are estimated to be 10%, 50%, and 90% of remaining Technically Recoverable Resources, respectively. Since oil price can be expected to affect the shape of the extraction curve, we spread estimated URR to year using models that do not assume that future production will ultimately produce a symmetric Hubbert-type curve (Multi-Cycle Generalized Weng Model and Stochastic Resource-Constrained Growth Model). In the Best Estimate Scenario, China's oil production is expected to reach a maximum of 226.79 million tons in 2020. In the Ever-Rising Prices Scenario, China's maximum oil production occurs in 2023. In the Stays Low Scenario, maximum production has already been reached. - Highlights: • China's conventional oil reached a peak in 2010 and has begun to decline. • Unconventional oil production will be especially adversely affected by low prices. • Rising selling price of oil may lead to recession, bringing prices back down. • China's total oil supply appears likely to peak about 2020. • Likely oil production is less than Technically Recoverable Resources.

  15. Outlook for Saskatchewan heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youzwa, P.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the opportunities and challenges currently facing the heavy oil industry in Saskatchewan are discussed from a government perspective. By the end of September 1993, 220 heavy oil wells were drilled in the province, and 26% of the land sales in 1993 were in heavy oil areas. About 41% of the wells drilled in heavy oil areas were horizontal oil wells. Of the total horizontal wells drilled in Saskatchewan, 48% are for heavy oil, and horizontal well production averages 85 bbl/d. Initial trends suggest that horizontal wells both accelerate production and contribute to ultimate recovery. Total heavy oil production in 1992 reached 28.9 million bbl and recoverable reserves in 1991 were 262.3 million bbl, or 1.5% of total oil in place. The low recovery is not only due to technical factors such as high viscosity but also to low investment in the heavy oil sector due to poor economics. It is hoped that lower interest and exchange rates, the success of horizontal wells and the provincial royalty structure will maintain the recent increase in heavy oil activity. The provincial government recently launched a comprehensive energy strategy in which development of a heavy oil strategy is an important component. Total heavy oil reserves exceed those of light and medium oil and have significant development potential. The Saskatchewan government wishes to adopt a cooperative and partnership approach in its dealings with the heavy oil industry to help realize this potential. 9 figs

  16. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  17. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of wells in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of north-central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-11-28

    In 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey published an assessment of technically recoverable continuous oil and gas resources of the Mississippian Barnett Shale in the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of north-central Texas. Of the two assessment units involved in the overall assessment, one included a roughly equal number of oil wells and gas wells as classified by the U.S. Geological Survey’s standard of gas wells having production greater than or equal to 20,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil and oil wells having production less than 20,000 cubic feet of gas per barrel of oil. As a result, estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) were calculated for both oil wells and gas wells in one of the assessment units. Generally, only gas EURs or only oil EURs are calculated for an assessment unit. These EURs were calculated with data from IHS MarkitTM using DeclinePlus software in the Harmony interface and were a major component of the quantitative resource assessment. The calculated mean EURs ranged from 235 to 2,078 million cubic feet of gas and 21 to 39 thousand barrels of oil for various subsets of wells.

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Red Sea Basin Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 5 billion barrels of undiscovered technically recoverable oil and 112 trillion cubic feet of recoverable gas in the Red Sea Basin Province using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  19. Forecast of oil reserves and production in Daqing oilfield of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xu; Zhang, Baosheng; Feng, Lianyong [The School of Business Administration, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, 18 Fuxue Road, Changping, Beijing (China); Hoeoek, Mikael [Global Energy Systems, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 535, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    As China' largest oilfield, Daqing is of great importance to China, this paper analyzes the status of the Daqing oilfield and forecasts its ultimate recoverable reserves by use of the URR model. The forecast results are presented for three scenarios which show that the ultimate recoverable reserves in Daqing oilfield are 3574.0 million tons in the optimistic scenario, 3169.3 million in the base case scenario and 3033.3 million in the pessimistic scenario, respectively. A system dynamics model is established and the quantitative relationships between variables in the model are determined. Total oil production, remaining recoverable reserves, annual newly discovered reserves, and the degree of reserves recovery before 2060 are simulated under the three scenarios by use of the system dynamics model. The forecast results show that the future oil production in Daqing oilfield will continue declining, under the base case scenario, from 41.6 million tons in 2007 to 8.0 million tons in 2060. For Chinese policy-makers, it is worth paying attention to the problem of whether oil production in new oilfields can effectively make up for the decline in production of the large, old oilfields. (author)

  20. Stalking the ultimate particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you missed the ARTE programme entitled "L'Ultime Particule" broadcast in February, you have another chance to catch it in CERN's Main Auditorium on 13 March. "L'Ultime Particule" is a documentary by the French director Michel Andrieu that seeks to explain particle physics through a contemplative quest for the research physicists of matter of today and yesteryear. Invariably kitted out in a red parka and a soft hat, the programme's investigator scours the planet and the archives in search of the research physicists who are stalking the ultimate particle, the Higgs boson, in their quest to understand the structure of matter. Naturally enough, CERN is an important stage of his journey where Michel Andrieu and his team spent several days last year. Both from the physics and metaphysical points of view, "L'Ultime Particule" is worth seeing. The film's director, Michel Andrieu, will introduce his documentary and answer questions from the audience after the documentary has been shown. L'Ultime Particule by Mic...

  1. The ultimate quotable Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein's Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein's life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson's authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice.

  2. A variant of the Hubbert curve for world oil production forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggio, G.; Cacciola, G.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the economic and political aspects of energy problems have prompted many researchers and analysts to focus their attention on the Hubbert Peak Theory with the aim of forecasting future trends in world oil production. In this paper, a model that attempts to contribute in this regard is presented; it is based on a variant of the well-known Hubbert curve. In addition, the sum of multiple-Hubbert curves (two cycles) is used to provide a better fit for the historical data on oil production (crude and natural gas liquid (NGL)). Taking into consideration three possible scenarios for oil reserves, this approach allowed us to forecast when peak oil production, referring to crude oil and NGL, should occur. In particular, by assuming a range of 2250-3000 gigabarrels (Gb) for ultimately recoverable conventional oil, our predictions foresee a peak between 2009 and 2021 at 29.3-32.1 Gb/year.

  3. Renewable and recoverable energies. ADEME's views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-12-01

    This report presents the opinion (December 2017) of ADEME, the French office for energy management and sustainable development, on the future prospects of renewable and recoverable energies in France for 2050. It is assessed that, if associated to a firm energy conservation policy, the renewable and recoverable energies will have the ability to cover more than two thirds of the French energy needs in 2050, while ensuring energy supply security and price stability, a high level of energy independence, the preservation of the environment and a re-localization of the production value and of the employment. The report then presents the various renewable and recoverable energies, the assessment of the potential resources, the applications in the residential (individual and collective), industrial and commercial sectors, the comparison with other European countries, the public financial incentives and support, cost estimations of each energy source, assessments of the markets and of the potential economic impacts, etc. Some recommendations are given, notably concerning the necessary public support for the renewable and recoverable energy sectors, and the synergy between power distribution systems and the energy systems. An annex gives details on the environmental impacts of renewable and recoverable energy sources

  4. World oil and gas resources: status and outlook - A rational attempt at an emotional issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burri, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the status of world oil and gas resources and attempts to provide a rational view of the situation and the prospects available. The author states that only about a quarter of the world's estimated ultimately recoverable oil resources and one eighth of the ultimate gas resources have been produced until today. Further, the author is of the opinion that very significant reserve additions are to be expected not only from the still existing exploration frontiers (e.g. deep water and Arctic fields) but even more so from new hydrocarbon detection tools, advanced recovery technology and from unconventional oil and gas resources. The price situation is discussed as are various developments that not only have a negative but also a positive impact on supplies. Reserves and unconventional resources are discussed, particularly from the pricing point of view. The effect of pricing on consumption is examined, as are new technologies for recovery and the potential available for future exploration

  5. The Ultimate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterp......One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However......, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming...... living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound...

  6. Geology and assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable petroleum resources of Armenia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.

    2016-02-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of Armenia in 2013. A Paleozoic and a Cenozoic total petroleum system (TPS) were identified within the country of Armenia. The postulated petroleum system elements are uncertain, resulting in low geologic probabilities for significant oil an gas resources. Two assessment units (AU) were delineated in each TPS—a Paleozoic-Sourced Conventional Reservoirs AU and a Permian Shale Gas AU in the Paleozoic Composite TPS and a Paleogene-Sourced Conventional Reservoirs AU and a Cenozoic Coalbed Gas AU in the Cenozoic Composite TPS. The TPS elements are largely uncertain and risked, and so only the Paleogene-Sourced Conventional Reservoirs AU was quantitatively assessed because the geologic probability is more than the threshold of 10 percent (that is, the probability of at least one conventional oil or gas accumulation of 5 million barrels of oil equivalent or greater based on postulated petroleum-system elements). The USGS estimated fully risked mean volumes of about 1 million barrels of oil (MMBO), about 6 billion cubic feet of natural gas (BCFG), and less than 1 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL).

  7. Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.; Hopson, Janet L.; Li Jia

    2006-01-01

    This study addresses several questions concerning the peaking of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range of uncertainty? What are the key determining factors? Will a transition to unconventional oil undermine or strengthen OPEC's influence over world oil markets? These issues are explored using a model combining alternative world energy scenarios with an accounting of resource depletion and a market-based simulation of transition to unconventional oil resources. No political or environmental constraints are allowed to hinder oil production, geological constraints on the rates at which oil can be produced are not represented, and when USGS resource estimates are used, more than the mean estimate of ultimately recoverable resources is assumed to exist. The issue is framed not as a question of 'running out' of conventional oil, but in terms of the timing and rate of transition from conventional to unconventional oil resources. Unconventional oil is chosen because production from Venezuela's heavy-oil fields and Canada's Athabascan oil sands is already underway on a significant scale and unconventional oil is most consistent with the existing infrastructure for producing, refining, distributing and consuming petroleum. However, natural gas or even coal might also prove to be economical sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels. These results indicate a high probability that production of conventional oil from outside of the Middle East region will peak, or that the rate of increase of production will become highly constrained before 2025. If world consumption of hydrocarbon fuels is to continue growing, massive development of unconventional resources will be required. While there are grounds for pessimism and optimism, it is certainly not too soon for extensive, detailed analysis of transitions to alternative energy sources

  8. Fundamentals of carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR): a supporting document of the assessment methodology for hydrocarbon recovery using CO2-EOR associated with carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide basic technical information regarding the CO2-EOR process, which is at the core of the assessment methodology, to estimate the technically recoverable oil within the fields of the identified sedimentary basins of the United States. Emphasis is on CO2-EOR because this is currently one technology being considered as an ultimate long-term geologic storage solution for CO2 owing to its economic profitability from incremental oil production offsetting the cost of carbon sequestration.

  9. World resources of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaterre, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    In a first part, the author outlines that the issue of density of an oil product raises the question of the validity of a counting approach based on volumes. As oil industries produce always less heavy products and always more light products, this means that always less oil is needed to produce a gallon or a litre of fuel out of a refinery. The author comments the evolution of crude oil extraction. In a second part, he outlines that hydrocarbon productions become always more complex with respect to their origin. Thus, during gas extraction, humid gases are recovered which contain an important part of hydrocarbons similar to light oil. These aspects and the development of shale gas exploitation will make the USA the first oil producer in the world whereas they still have to import heavy oil to feed their refineries. He discusses the level of reserves and production costs with respect to the product type or its extraction location. He discusses the evolution of the estimates of world ultimately recoverable resources (synthesis processes excluded). He comments the level of condensate extraction ratio of the main shale gas fields in the USA and outlines the cost of natural gas imports for France. He outlines the importance of GTL (gas to liquid) processes, the increasing importance of bio-fuels (notably isobutanol biosynthesis and terpene biosynthesis). In the third part, the author states that the barrel price should keep on increasing and, in the fourth part, proposes a list of issues which will impact the future of the oil market

  10. Recoverable and Programmable Collapse from Folding Pressurized Origami Cellular Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Fang, H; Wang, K W

    2016-09-09

    We report a unique collapse mechanism by exploiting the negative stiffness observed in the folding of an origami solid, which consists of pressurized cells made by stacking origami sheets. Such a collapse mechanism is recoverable, since it only involves rigid folding of the origami sheets and it is programmable by pressure control and the custom design of the crease pattern. The collapse mechanism features many attractive characteristics for applications such as energy absorption. The reported results also suggest a new branch of origami study focused on its nonlinear mechanics associated with folding.

  11. ROPE: Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding of Natural Language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widemann, David P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Eric X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-11

    We present a novel Recoverable Order-Preserving Embedding (ROPE) of natural language. ROPE maps natural language passages from sparse concatenated one-hot representations to distributed vector representations of predetermined fixed length. We use Euclidean distance to return search results that are both grammatically and semantically similar. ROPE is based on a series of random projections of distributed word embeddings. We show that our technique typically forms a dictionary with sufficient incoherence such that sparse recovery of the original text is possible. We then show how our embedding allows for efficient and meaningful natural search and retrieval on Microsoft’s COCO dataset and the IMDB Movie Review dataset.

  12. Model improves oil field operating cost estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed operating cost model that forecasts operating cost profiles toward the end of a field's life should be constructed for testing depletion strategies and plans for major oil fields. Developing a good understanding of future operating cost trends is important. Incorrectly forecasting the trend can result in bad decision making regarding investments and reservoir operating strategies. Recent projects show that significant operating expense reductions can be made in the latter stages o field depletion without significantly reducing the expected ultimate recoverable reserves. Predicting future operating cost trends is especially important for operators who are currently producing a field and must forecast the economic limit of the property. For reasons presented in this article, it is usually not correct to either assume that operating expense stays fixed in dollar terms throughout the lifetime of a field, nor is it correct to assume that operating costs stay fixed on a dollar per barrel basis

  13. Flood offers new hope for marginal oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-14

    The economics of producing a marginal Cardium sand oil field in west-central Alberta have been greatly improved by introduction of an inexpensive waterflood pressure maintenance and secondary recovery project. Canadian Gridoil Ltd. is now in full operation at its Willesden Green Cardium Unit No. 5. Of the 8.1 million bbl estimated original oil in place, only 9% would have been recoverable by primary depletion. The waterflood is calculated to add 13%, for ultimate recovery of 22% or 1.8 million bbl. This waterflood installation is considered a prototype of economical and profitable pressure maintenance systems which can be built to advantage in marginal oil fields in Alberta. Ultimate returns in the form of increased oil production and more than doubled oil recovery will be immensely greater than the capital investment of $195,000 in the facilities. Assuming GOR control and full well allowables, the entire capital cost should be paid out within 3 years. Life of the field is estimated at not less than 25 years.

  14. Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies, Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    City of Long Beach; Tidelands Oil Production Company; University of Southern California; David K. Davies and Associates

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. It was hoped that the successful application of these technologies would result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs.

  15. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  16. Maximum Recoverable Gas from Hydrate Bearing Sediments by Depressurization

    KAUST Repository

    Terzariol, Marco

    2017-11-13

    The estimation of gas production rates from hydrate bearing sediments requires complex numerical simulations. This manuscript presents a set of simple and robust analytical solutions to estimate the maximum depressurization-driven recoverable gas. These limiting-equilibrium solutions are established when the dissociation front reaches steady state conditions and ceases to expand further. Analytical solutions show the relevance of (1) relative permeabilities between the hydrate free sediment, the hydrate bearing sediment, and the aquitard layers, and (2) the extent of depressurization in terms of the fluid pressures at the well, at the phase boundary, and in the far field. Close form solutions for the size of the produced zone allow for expeditious financial analyses; results highlight the need for innovative production strategies in order to make hydrate accumulations an economically-viable energy resource. Horizontal directional drilling and multi-wellpoint seafloor dewatering installations may lead to advantageous production strategies in shallow seafloor reservoirs.

  17. Distribution and quantitative assessment of world crude oil reserves and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Root, David H.; Dietzman, William D.

    1983-01-01

    World Demonstrated Reserves of crude oil are approximately 723 billion barrels of oil (BBO). Cumulative production is 445 BBO and annual production is 20 BBO. Demonstrated Reserves of crude-oil have declined over the past 10 years consistent with discoveries lagging production over the same period. The assessment of Undiscovered Resources shows a 90 percent probability that the amount discoverable lies between 321 and 1,417 BBO, 550 BBO being the most likely value. The most likely value for Ultimate recoverable resources is 1,718 BBO. The distribution of Ultimate Resources of crude oil will remain highly skewed toward the Middle East; no frontier areas that have potentials large enough to significantly affect present distribution are recognized. Rates of discovery have continued to decline over the past 20 years even though exploration activity has increased in recent years. Prudence dictates, therefore, that the low side of the assessment of Undiscovered Resources be responsibly considered and that alternate energy sources be a part of future planning. Extra-heavy oil and bitumen are assessed separately, with Reserves being figured as the annual productive capacity of installed facilities times 25 years. The annual production of extra-heavy oil is about 8 million barrels and of bitumen about 60 million barrels.

  18. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  19. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Redner, S

    2004-01-01

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed

  20. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, F [Department of Physics, Center for BioDynamics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Redner, S [Department of Physics, Center for Polymer Studies, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2004-09-03

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed.

  1. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S M; Larsen, G C; Antoniou, I; Lind, S O; Courtney, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  2. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Arabian-Iranian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas; Coury, Anny B.

    1982-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the Arabian-Iranian basin at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 72, 337, and 174; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 299, 1792, and 849. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in five definitive geological settings or plays. The assessment of undiscovered resource potential assumes that the new discoveries will expand the occurrence of petroleum in these basic plays; no additional plays with significant petroleum potential were recognized. The five plays listed by geologic age are: (I) Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary, (II) Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone, (III) Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone, (IV) Jurassic, and (V) Permian. The Permian play, located in the south-central Arabian Gulf region and extending northeast-southwest from southern Iran to the Ar Rub' al Khali in Saudi Arabia, accounts for over four-fifths of the mean estimate of undiscovered gas. The remainder of the gas is divided about equally among the other four plays. The Jurassic play, located on the south side of the Arabian Gulf, accounts for slightly less than one-third of the estimated undiscovered oil, which is split equally between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous limestone play is located in the southern Gulf region and accounts for about one-fifth of the undiscovered oil, most of which is located in Saudi Arabia and the remainder in the United Arab Emirates. The Lower and Middle Cretaceous sandstone play is centralized in Kuwait at the head of the Arabian Gulf with significant potential extending to the northwest in Iraq; the play accounts for about one-third of the undiscovered oil, the great majority of which is estimated to be in Iraq with the remainder divided between Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. The upper Cretaceous-Tertiary play is located in the Zagros fold belt of Iran and Iraq and accounts for

  3. ANP's strategic regarding the government take considering the volumes of recoverable oil and the Brazilian attractiveness for upstream international investments; Estrategia da ANP quanto ao 'government take', considerando o volume recuperavel e a atratividade do Brasil para investimentos internacionais em 'upstream'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Regis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Industrial; Margueron, Claudio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Geologia; Aquino, Thereza C.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Geociencias

    2004-07-01

    This article discusses the Brazilian Petroleum Agency (ANP) strategy to boost the competitiveness of Brazil in attracting investments to the energy sector, analyzing it both technically and economically. The Campos basin, with its opportunities in heavy oil and deep water exploration, is used as a case study. Previous literature evaluated the economic potential of oil fields under different hypotheses for cost and price structures, reaching the conclusion that the fiscal regime of Brazil in 2000 was internationally competitive and the oil fields under investigation were attractive. This situation no longer applies. Some of the previous hypotheses are reviewed, using the creaming effect, which models both the diminishing success probabilities of drilling and volume levels as a given sedimentary basin approaches its mature stage of exploration. The main conclusion is that a reduction in the government take, lowering the fraction under ANP's control, would foster exploration and production in mature basins. Therefore, a large number of reserves with relatively small VOR's will become feasible, which are currently unattractive, given the hurdle rates observed by the international oil industry. (author)

  4. Geometallurgical Study of a Gravity Recoverable Gold Orebody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon C. Dominy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheeted vein gold deposits are often characterised by multiple sub-parallel veins and free-milling coarse gold. Inherent mineralisation heterogeneity results in grade and process parameter variability, which increases project risk if not quantified. Measured grade variability is often exacerbated by poorly designed sampling and testwork protocols. Protocols that are optimised within the framework of the Theory of Sampling (TOS to suit the ore type, together with quality assurance/quality control systems, will reduce variability and provide fit-for-purpose results. Geometallurgy can be broadly split into two key approaches: strategic and tactical (or operational. The strategic approach focuses on the whole orebody and long-term life-of-mine view, whereas tactical geometallurgy relates to a more short- to medium-term view during mining. The geometallurgical approach requires spatially distributed samples within a deposit to support variability modelling. Diverse attributes from core logging, mineralogical/textural determination and small-scale tests are used to measure variability. This contribution presents a case study that emphasises an early-stage strategic geometallurgical programme applied to a gravity recoverable gold (GRG dominated deposit. It exemplifies how data can be acquired from a well-designed and planned programme to support resource estimation, a pre-feasibility study, trial mining and fast-track to production. A tactical geometallurgical programme is embedded into the mine operation.

  5. Ultimate Explanations of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We humans are collectively driven by a powerful - yet not fully explained - instinct to understand. We would like to see everything established, proven, laid bare. The more important an issue, the more we desire to see it clarified, stripped of all secrets, all shades of gray. What could be more important than to understand the Universe and ourselves as a part of it? To find a window onto our origin and our destiny? This book examines how far our modern cosmological theories - with their sometimes audacious models, such as inflation, cyclic histories, quantum creation, parallel universes - can take us towards answering these questions. Can such theories lead us to ultimate truths, leaving nothing unexplained? Last, but not least, Heller addresses the thorny problem of why and whether we should expect to find theories with all-encompassing explicative power.

  6. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  7. Ultimate explanations and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Machado, Armando; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2018-07-01

    Researchers have unraveled multiple cases in which behavior deviates from rationality principles. We propose that such deviations are valuable tools to understand the adaptive significance of the underpinning mechanisms. To illustrate, we discuss in detail an experimental protocol in which animals systematically incur substantial foraging losses by preferring a lean but informative option over a rich but non-informative one. To understand how adaptive mechanisms may fail to maximize food intake, we review a model inspired by optimal foraging principles that reconciles sub-optimal choice with the view that current behavioral mechanisms were pruned by the optimizing action of natural selection. To move beyond retrospective speculation, we then review critical tests of the model, regarding both its assumptions and its (sometimes counterintuitive) predictions, all of which have been upheld. The overall contention is that (a) known mechanisms can be used to develop better ultimate accounts and that (b) to understand why mechanisms that generate suboptimal behavior evolved, we need to consider their adaptive value in the animal's characteristic ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The oil supply mountain - is the summit in sight?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Philip.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review of the current status of global oil reserves and the prospects of recovering this oil at prices less than $30 a barrel is presented. In addition to the uncertainties over the volumes of recoverable oil at various costs, there are many uncertainties not least geopolitical ones. (UK)

  9. Determination of the viability of chicken feather as oil spill clean-up ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study a comparative assessment was conducted between chicken feather and a conventional synthetic sorbent mat used in the oil industry to clean-up oil spill. The result of the study shows that chicken feather has higher oil sorption capacity and sorbed oil recoverability than the standard (synthetic sorbent mat), and ...

  10. Attribute Synthetic Evaluation Model for the CBM Recoverability and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-gang Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal-bed methane (CBM recoverability is the basic premise of CBM development practice; in order to effectively evaluate the CBM recoverability, the attribute synthetic evaluation model is established based on the theory and method of attribute mathematics. Firstly, five indexes are chosen to evaluate the recoverability through analyzing the influence factors of CBM, including seam thickness, gas saturation, permeability, reservoir pressure gradient, and hydrogeological conditions. Secondly, the attribute measurement functions of each index are constructed based on the attribute mathematics theory, and the calculation methods of the single index attribute measurement and the synthetic attribute measurement also are provided. Meanwhile, the weight of each index is given with the method of similar number and similar weight; the evaluation results also are determined by the confidence criterion reliability code. At last, according to the application results of the model in some coal target area of Fuxin and Hancheng mine, the evaluation results are basically consistent with the actual situation, which proves that the evaluation model can be used in the CBM recoverability prediction, and an effective method of the CBM recoverability evaluation is also provided.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 236 million barrels of oil and 112 billion cubic feet of associated gas in the Cuyo Basin Province, Argentina.

  12. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  13. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Perth Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 223 million barrels of oil and 14.5 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Perth Basin Province, Australia.

  14. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Klett, Timothy R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-09-19

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 164 million barrels of oil and 24.6 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan.

  15. The dream of an ultimate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1997-10-01

    Steven Weinberg describes how the dream of an ultimate theory began when one tried to unify the fundamental laws governing the stars constellations as elementary particles: electromagnetism, weak-electro theory then standard model which gives only one quantity out of its fields, the gravitation. He tries to explain to what an ultimate theory could look like. but the dream of an ultimate theory is not yet realized, there are some elementary particles to find before and then to build superconducting super colliders. The europe made it. the dream of an ultimate theory became an european dream. (N.C.)

  16. World oil and gas resources: status and outlook - A rational attempt at an emotional issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burri, P.

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the status of world oil and gas resources and attempts to provide a rational view of the situation and the prospects available. The author states that only about a quarter of the world's estimated ultimately recoverable oil resources and one eighth of the ultimate gas resources have been produced until today. Further, the author is of the opinion that very significant reserve additions are to be expected not only from the still existing exploration frontiers (e.g. deep water and Arctic fields) but even more so from new hydrocarbon detection tools, advanced recovery technology and from unconventional oil and gas resources. The price situation is discussed as are various developments that not only have a negative but also a positive impact on supplies. Reserves and unconventional resources are discussed, particularly from the pricing point of view. The effect of pricing on consumption is examined, as are new technologies for recovery and the potential available for future exploration

  17. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabbri, S

    1909-11-29

    Mineral, shale, and like oils are treated successively with sulfuric acid, milk of lime, and a mixture of calcium oxide, sodium chloride, and water, and finally a solution of naphthalene in toluene is added. The product is suitable for lighting, and for use as a motor fuel; for the latter purpose, it is mixed with a light spirit.

  18. A Facile and General Approach to Recoverable High-Strain Multishape Shape Memory Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingjian; Pan, Yi; Zheng, Zhaohui; Ding, Xiaobin

    2018-03-01

    Fabricating a single polymer network with no need to design complex structures to achieve an ideal combination of tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects and highly recoverable shape memory property is a great challenge for the real applications of advanced shape memory devices. Here, a facile and general approach to recoverable high-strain multishape shape memory polymers is presented via a random copolymerization of acrylate monomers and a chain-extended multiblock copolymer crosslinker. As-prepared shape memory networks show a large width at the half-peak height of the glass transition, far wider than current classical multishape shape memory polymers. A combination of tunable high-strain multishape memory effect and as high as 1000% recoverable strain in a single chemical-crosslinking network can be obtained. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first thermosetting material with a combination of highly recoverable strain and tunable high-strain multiple-shape memory effects. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Genome-Wide Association Study for Susceptibility to and Recoverability From Mastitis in Danish Holstein Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welderufael, B. G.; Løvendahl, Peter; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Janss, Lucas L. G.; Fikse, W. F.

    2018-01-01

    Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2) and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3) were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis. PMID:29755506

  20. Large recoverable electrostrain in Mn-doped (Ba,Sr) TiO3 ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.X.; Chen, W.; Ren, X.

    2004-01-01

    In this letter we demonstrate that with a different principle, BaTiO 3 ceramics, so far considered as inferior piezoelectrics compared with Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZT), can show a large recoverable electrostrain. This principle utilizes a point-defect-mediated reversible domain switching mechanism, which can in theory generate 0.368% strain for BaTiO 3 ceramics at the best condition. Experimental results showed that, after aging at room temperature, 1.0 mol % Mn-doped (Ba 0.95 Sr 0.05 )TiO 3 ceramics generate a large recoverable nonlinear strain of about 0.12%-0.15% at a field of 3 kV/mm. This value exceeds that of conventional hard PZT piezoelectric ceramics. A microscopic model for the domain-related electrostrain effect in ceramics is proposed. It is also found that the large electrostrain effect is quite stable with respect to both changing frequency and fatigue cycles. Large electrostrain remains recoverable down to 0.05 Hz and after 10 000 cycles. These results demonstrate the potential of our approach in achieving large recoverable electrostrain in environmental-friendly (Pb-free) ceramics

  1. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of the Northwest European region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Charles D.; Klemme, H. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources in the northwest European region at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, statistical mean, and mode are for oil (in billions of barrels): 9, 34, 20, and 15; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 92, 258, 167, and 162. The occurrence of petroleum can be accounted for in two distinct geological plays located in the various subbasins of the region. Play I is associated with the distribution of mature source rocks of Late Jurassic age relative to four distinct trapping conditions. The play has been demonstrated productive mostly in the Viking and Central Grabens of the North Sea, where the shale has been buried to optimum depths for the generation of both oil and gas. To the north of 62 ? N. latitude up to the Barents Sea, source rocks become increasingly deeply buried and are interpreted to be dominantly gas prone; a narrow band of potentially oil-prone shales tracks most of the coast of Norway, but water depths in favorable localities commonly range from 600 to 1,200 feet. To the south of the Central Graben, the Jurassic source rocks are either immature or minimally productive because of a change in facies. Undrilled traps remain within the favorable source-rock area, and exploration will continue to challenge the boundaries of conventional wisdom, especially on the Norwegian side where little has .been reported on the geology of the adjoining Bergen High or Horda Basin, though, reportedly, the Jurassic source rocks are missing on the high and are immature in the southern part of the basin. Play II is associated with the distribution of a coal facies of Carboniferous age that is mature for the generation of gas and locally underlies favorable reservoir and sealing rocks. The play is limited largely by facies development to the present area of discovery and production but is limited as well to the southeast into onshore Netherlands and Germany by the unfavorable economics of an

  2. Concussion Prevalence in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Damien J.; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D.; Tybor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultimate Frisbee (ultimate) is a fast-growing, popular sport played nationally by over 4 million athletes. While several studies have examined injury rates in ultimate, no work has investigated the prevalence of concussions specifically or players’ knowledge and management of those injuries. Purpose: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of concussions in ultimate and to assess players’ knowledge of concussions as well as their concussion management behaviors. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: From June to November 2015, we collected ultimate-related concussion data via an anonymous web-based survey, the Concussion in Ultimate Frisbee Survey, from a convenience sample of 787 male and female ultimate players across the United States. Results: There were 553 male and 234 female respondents included in the analysis; 26.58% of men and 24.79% of women reported that they had sustained at least 1 concussion while playing ultimate, with 45.58% and 43.10% of those men and women, respectively, reporting multiple concussions. A total of 67.81% of men and 78.21% of women stated that they would remove themselves from play after sustaining a given concussion, although 45.99% of men and 37.62% of women indicated that they had returned to play in the same game or practice. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that concussions do commonly occur in competitive ultimate and that better education and management of concussions in ultimate athletes are needed. This study is an important first step in deepening our understanding of these issues. PMID:29552572

  3. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  4. Genome-Wide Association Study for Susceptibility to and Recoverability From Mastitis in Danish Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Welderufael

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value < 10-4 was used to declare significant SNP-trait association. A number of significant SNP variants were identified for both traits. Many of the SNP variants associated either with susceptibility to – or recoverability from mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2 and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3 were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis.

  5. Physical demands in competitive ultimate frisbee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate...... = 0.74, p ≤ 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance....

  6. Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobbett, G T.B.

    1907-07-08

    Crude petroleum having a density of 850 to 900 is purified with sulfuric acid, decanted, mixed with benzine or petrol, and again treated with sulfuric acid and decanted. The remaining acid and coloring-matter are removed by washing with water, or treating with oxalic acid, zinc carbonate, lead carbonate, calcium carbonate, or oxide of zinc. The product is used as a fuel for internal-combustion engines. Specifications No. 28,104, A.D. 1906, and No. 12,606, A.D. 1907, are referred to. According to the Provisional Specification, the process is applicable to shale or schist oil.

  7. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  8. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  9. ANCCLI White Paper IV. Cigeo: the challenges of reversibility and recoverability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delalonde, Jean-Claude; Sene, Monique

    2017-01-01

    This white paper aims at providing useful elements for a better understanding, debate and implication of everyone in the preparation of a governance regarding very long life radioactive wastes. The authors first make a set of recommendations for a pluralist governance in decisions, for the creation of permanent pluralist bodies at the local and national levels, for the guarantee of the sustainability of governance structures, for the building up of a citizen vigilance, and for the taking of specific needs of location territories into account. Then, the report describes the different stages of development of a reversible storage, discusses the different definitions of reversibility and the benefits and drawbacks of reversibility and recoverability. It addresses technical and related aspects of parcel recoverability, outlines how to achieve sustainable vigilance and governance. It indicates the role of the different institutional actors (ANDRA, ASN, IRSN) as they themselves define it regarding the issue of reversibility and recoverability. It states the point of view of the ANCCLI's GPMDR (Permanent group for radioactive materials and wastes) about the Cigeo project, about the issue of reversibility, and about the involvement of civil society on the long term. An appendix discusses the issue of waste inventory and classification. Some current research works on these issues are briefly mentioned

  10. Oil Prophets: Looking at World Oil Studies Over Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Steve [Denver, CO (United States); Udall, Randy [Carbondale, CO (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Early reports of world oil assessments date back to the 1940s. In the intervening 60 years, the number of studies projecting Estimated Ultimately Recoverable (EUR) oil reached well over 50. A detailed search would undoubtedly lengthen the list that will be provided with this paper. How have their estimates fared? Given general agreement that we haven't yet reached the halfway point in eventual production, it's too early to offer definitive assessments. However, several factors stand out: The learning curve. It took over a decade of effort for projections to emerge that are in line with lower-end projections of more recent studies. The learning curve has flattened. For those individuals and groups who conducted multiple studies, their subsequent EUR numbers generally trend higher. The analyses lack a common definitional framework. Beyond crude oil, what liquids are included? Heavy oil and tar sands? Some or all gas liquids? Polar and deepwater oil? While the ability to locate, evaluate and extract oil in the field has drastically improved over time, analysts continue to be hampered by a lack of access to definitive data plus disagreements about assessment methodologies. Striving to determine how many petroleum liquids we have left is a useful exercise, but primarily as a means to help determine when daily worldwide production is likely to peak. To that end, a key point is that 'not all liquids resources are created equal'; many of the larger new fields are located in harsh and remote regions, in politically unstable environments, or require large energy inputs during extraction. Production rates and costs will vary dramatically. Since demand is somewhat fickle, identifying a year or range of years when liquids production will peak qualifies as part art, part science. That said, the paper will list estimates by 'oil prophets' as to when they project that petroleum liquids production will peak. The estimates range from 1995 to 2025. How have their estimates fared

  11. Oil Prophets: Looking at World Oil Studies Over Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, Steve [Denver, CO (United States); Udall, Randy [Carbondale, CO (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Early reports of world oil assessments date back to the 1940s. In the intervening 60 years, the number of studies projecting Estimated Ultimately Recoverable (EUR) oil reached well over 50. A detailed search would undoubtedly lengthen the list that will be provided with this paper. How have their estimates fared? Given general agreement that we haven't yet reached the halfway point in eventual production, it's too early to offer definitive assessments. However, several factors stand out: The learning curve. It took over a decade of effort for projections to emerge that are in line with lower-end projections of more recent studies. The learning curve has flattened. For those individuals and groups who conducted multiple studies, their subsequent EUR numbers generally trend higher. The analyses lack a common definitional framework. Beyond crude oil, what liquids are included? Heavy oil and tar sands? Some or all gas liquids? Polar and deepwater oil? While the ability to locate, evaluate and extract oil in the field has drastically improved over time, analysts continue to be hampered by a lack of access to definitive data plus disagreements about assessment methodologies. Striving to determine how many petroleum liquids we have left is a useful exercise, but primarily as a means to help determine when daily worldwide production is likely to peak. To that end, a key point is that 'not all liquids resources are created equal'; many of the larger new fields are located in harsh and remote regions, in politically unstable environments, or require large energy inputs during extraction. Production rates and costs will vary dramatically. Since demand is somewhat fickle, identifying a year or range of years when liquids production will peak qualifies as part art, part science. That said, the paper will list estimates by 'oil prophets' as to when they project that petroleum liquids production will peak. The estimates range from 1995 to 2025. How

  12. Feasibility study of a pressure fed engine for a water recoverable space shuttle booster Volume 2: Technical, phase A effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Design and systems considerations are presented on an engine concept selection for further preliminary design and program evaluation. These data have been prepared from a feasibility study of a pressure-fed engine for the water recoverable space shuttle booster.

  13. Librarians Are the Ultimate Knowledge Managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koina, Cathie

    2003-01-01

    Librarians are the ultimate knowledge managers. Everyone knows that. After all, haven't they been the custodians of documented knowledge for centuries? Who could possibly do it better than them? Well, then why aren't people knocking down their doors, begging them to be the knowledge managers of the organisation? Are they just ignorant of how…

  14. Concept for an ultimate storage facility for heat-generating radioactive waste in clay stone in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollingerfehr, Wilhelm; Poehler, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    According to the German reference ultimate storage concept heat-generating radioactive waste from the operation of nuclear power stations should be stored permanently maintenance-free and in a non-recoverable manner in a salt formation. Within the framework of investigations into the utilisation of alternative host rocks a concept for an ultimate storage facility in clay stone was developed in an R and D project. For this purpose all important aspects of the design, development, operation and shutdown were taken into account for a model region in northern Germany. It was established that storage in 50 m deep vertical boreholes in a mine at a depth of about 350 m appears to be the most practical solution for an ultimate storage facility in clay stone. Compared to the reference concept in salt an ultimate storage facility in clay stone requires solid support of all mine openings with steel arches or shotcrete. Because of the lower maximum permissible temperature in the backfilling material (bentonite) the area required for the ultimate storage facility is about five times larger. A period of more than 100 years is estimated from survey to shutdown. (orig.)

  15. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  16. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  17. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  18. Reserve growth of the world's giant oil fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schmoker, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of estimated total recoverable oil volume (field size) of 186 well-known giant oil fields of the world (>0.5 billion bbl of oil, discovered prior to 1981), exclusive of the United States and Canada, demonstrates general increases in field sizes through time. Field sizes were analyzed as a group and within subgroups of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and non-OPEC countries. From 1981 through 1996, the estimated volume of oil in the 186 fields for which adequate data were available increased from 617 billion to 777 billion bbl of oil (26%). Processes other than new field discoveries added an estimated 160 billion bbl of oil to known reserves in this subset of the world's oil fields. Although methods for estimating field sizes vary among countries, estimated sizes of the giant oil fields of the world increased, probably for many of the same reasons that estimated sizes of oil fields in the United States increased over the same time period. Estimated volumes in OPEC fields increased from a total of 550 billion to 668 billion bbl of oil and volumes in non-OPEC fields increased from 67 billion to 109 billion bbl of oil. In terms of percent change, non-OPEC field sizes increased more than OPEC field sizes (63% versus 22%). The changes in estimated total recoverable oil volumes that occurred within three 5-year increments between 1981 and 1996 were all positive. Between 1981 and 1986, the increase in estimated total recoverable oil volume within the 186 giant oil fields was 11 billion bbl of oil; between 1986 and 1991, the increase was 120 billion bbl of oil; and between 1991 and 1996, the increase was 29 billion bbl of oil. Fields in both OPEC and non-OPEC countries followed trends of substantial reserve growth.

  19. Fully automated laboratory for the assay of plutonium in wastes and recoverable scraps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiberteau, P.; Michaut, F.; Bergey, C.; Debruyne, T.

    1990-01-01

    To determine the plutonium content of wastes and recoverable scraps in intermediate size containers (ten liters) an automated laboratory has been carried out. Two passive methods of measurement are used. Gamma ray spectrometry allows plutonium isotopic analysis, americium determination and plutonium assay in wastes and poor scraps. Calorimetry is used for accurate (± 3%) plutonium determination in rich scraps. A full automation was realized with a barcode management and a supply robot to feed the eight assay set-ups. The laboratory works on a 24 hours per day and 365 days per year basis and has a capacity of 8,000 assays per year

  20. The capability and constraint model of recoverability: An integrated theory of continuity planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstedt, David

    2017-01-01

    While there are best practices, good practices, regulations and standards for continuity planning, there is no single model to collate and sort their various recommended activities. To address this deficit, this paper presents the capability and constraint model of recoverability - a new model to provide an integrated foundation for business continuity planning. The model is non-linear in both construct and practice, thus allowing practitioners to remain adaptive in its application. The paper presents each facet of the model, outlines the model's use in both theory and practice, suggests a subsequent approach that arises from the model, and discusses some possible ramifications to the industry.

  1. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  2. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Susitna Basin, southern Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Potter, Christopher J.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Lillis, Paul G.; Shah, Anjana K.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Valin, Zenon C.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Haines, Seth S.; Higley, Debra K.; Houseknecht, David W.; Le, Phuong A.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Paxton, Stanley T.; Pearson, Ofori N.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.

    2018-05-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in the Susitna Basin of southern Alaska. Using a geology-based methodology, the USGS estimates that mean undiscovered volumes of about 2 million barrels of oil and nearly 1.7 trillion cubic feet of gas may be found in this area.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered conventional and continuous oil and gas resources of the Baltic Depression Province, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 282 million barrels of conventional oil, 576 billion cubic feet of conventional gas, 1.3 billion barrels of continuous oil, and 4.6 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Baltic Depression Province.

  4. Recoverable Wire-Shaped Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Volumetric Energy Density for Multifunctional Portable and Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Minjie; Yang, Cheng; Song, Xuefeng; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Peng; Gao, Lian

    2017-05-24

    Wire-shaped supercapacitors (SCs) based on shape memory materials are of considerable interest for next-generation portable and wearable electronics. However, the bottleneck in this field is how to develop the devices with excellent electrochemical performance while well-maintaining recoverability and flexibility. Herein, a unique asymmetric electrode concept is put forward to fabricate smart wire-shaped SCs with ultrahigh energy density, which is realized by using porous carbon dodecahedra coated on NiTi alloy wire and flexible graphene fiber as yarn electrodes. Notably, the wire-shaped SCs not only exhibit high flexibility that can be readily woven into real clothing but also represent the available recoverable ability. When irreversible plastic deformations happen, the deformed shape of the devices can automatically resume the initial predesigned shape in a warm environment (about 35 °C). More importantly, the wire-shaped SCs act as efficient energy storage devices, which display high volumetric energy density (8.9 mWh/cm 3 ), volumetric power density (1080 mW/cm 3 ), strong durability in multiple mechanical states, and steady electrochemical behavior after repeated shape recovery processes. Considering their relative facile fabrication technology and excellent electrochemical performance, this asymmetric electrode strategy produced smart wire-shaped supercapacitors desirable for multifunctional portable and wearable electronics.

  5. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  6. Ultimate-gradient accelerators physics and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich

    1995-01-01

    As introduction, the needs and ways for ultimate acceleration gradients are discussed briefly. The Plasma Wake Field Acceleration is analized in the most important details. The structure of specific plasma oscillations and "high energy driver beam SP-plasma" interaction is presented, including computer simulation of the process. Some pratical ways to introduce the necessary mm-scale bunching in driver beam and to arrange sequential energy multiplication are dicussed. The influence of accelerating beam particle - plasma binary collisions is considered, also. As applications of PWFA, the use of proton super-colliders beams (LHC and Future SC) to drive the "multi particle types" accelerator, and the arrangements for the electron-positron TeV range collider are discussed.

  7. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, R.M.; Manrique, M.A.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented

  8. Focused ion beam technology and ultimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierak, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    In this topical review, the potential of the focused ion beam (FIB) technology and ultimate applications are reviewed. After an introduction to the technology and to the operating principles of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), of ion optics and instrument architectures, several applications are described and discussed. First, the application of FIB for microcircuit inspection, metrology and failure analysis is presented. Then, we introduce and illustrate some advanced patterning schemes we propose as next generation FIB processing examples. These patterning schemes are (i) local defect injection or smoothing in magnetic thin film direct patterning, (ii) functionalization of graphite substrates to guide organization of clusters, (iii) local and selective epitaxy of III–V semiconductor quantum dots and (iv) FIB patterned solid-state nanopores for biological molecules manipulation and analysis. We conclude this work by giving our vision of the future developments for FIB technology. (topical review)

  9. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. UHS, Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.; Nuttle, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function of wind speed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. 2 - Method of solution: The transfer of heat and water vapor is modeled using an equilibrium temperature procedure for an UHS cooling pond. The UHS spray pond model considers heat, mass, and momentum transfer from a single water drop with the surrounding air, and modification of the surrounding air resulting from the heat, mass, and momentum transfer from many drops in different parts of a spray field. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program SPRCO uses RANF, a uniform random number generator which is an intrinsic function on the CDC. All programs except COMET use the NAMELIST statement, which is non standard. Otherwise these programs conform to the ANSI Fortran 77 standard. The meteorological data scanning procedure requires tens of years of recorded data to be effective. The models and methods, provided as useful tool for UHS analyses of cooling ponds and spray ponds, are intended as guidelines only. Use of these methods does not automatically assure NRC approval, nor are they required procedures for nuclear-power-plant licensing

  11. Unconventional Liquids, Peak Oil and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Oil is the largest source of primary energy in the world, at 32% of 2014 consumption. Forecasts by the International Energy Agency suggest oil will continue to provide the largest share of global energy through 2040, even with new policies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The IPCC's Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios indicate that between 1.5 and 3.8 trillion barrels of oil will be burnt between 2015 and 2100. Various sources suggest that the world has 5 to 6 trillion barrels of remaining recoverable oil, more than half of which are in low grade deposits. Although oil sands and extra heavy oil are claimed to hold 1.5 trillion barrels, assessments of major deposits in the Canadian oil sands and the Venezuela Orinoco Belt, which hold the bulk of these resources, total less than 500 billion barrels of recoverable oil. Kerogen oil (oil shale), which has never been produced in anything but miniscule volumes, comprises an additional trillion barrels of these estimates. These unconventional deposits are very different from the conventional oil of the past as: - they are rate constrained, as they require massive upfront capital investments and lengthy construction periods, and therefore cannot be scaled up quickly in response to declines in conventional production. - they are expensive, both in terms of cost per barrel and the large energy inputs required for production. The best in situ oil sands deposits may yield an energy return of 3:1 and kerogen oil even less if it ever becomes commercially viable. This compares to 10:1 or more for conventional oil. Shale oil (light tight oil), may yield another 300 billion barrels worldwide, but suffers from high decline rates, expensive wells and limited availability of high quality deposits. The most productive and economically viable portions of these unconventional deposits tend to be exploited first, leaving the less productive, higher cost oil for later. As a result, increasing global oil consumption

  12. Ultimate Choice for Energy: The Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Yıldırım*

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases in the prices of oil, hard coal and natural gas, emergence of Russia as a not reliable resource for the natural and the developments in the security of the energy supply again have been started the nuclear energy as a hotly debated issue in the world. This is also a sensitive topic among the opponents and proponents of the nuclear energy in Turkey. Nuclear energy is very important since it provides about 17 % of the electric energy in the world and is used in industry and medical area. However, Turkey has not declared any policy about this yet, because of the worries about the environmental reasons and has not gained any progress about nuclear energy. First of all, Turkey must use her geothermal, hydropower, hard coal, solar and wind energies. Otherwise, Turkey may find herself in a competition with her neighboring countries

  13. Synthesis and characterization of new magnetically recoverable molybdenum nanocatalyst for epoxidation of olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masteri-Farahani, M., E-mail: mfarahany@yahoo.com [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kashef, Z. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tarbiat Moallem, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    New heterogeneous molybdenum catalyst was prepared through covalent attachment of a Schiff base ligand on the surface of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles via aminopropyl spacer and subsequent complexation with MoO{sub 2}(acac){sub 2}. The prepared nanocatalyst was characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and vibrating sample magnetometry. Catalytic epoxidation of some olefins and allylic alcohols by prepared nanocatalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide and cumene hydroperoxide as oxidants was achieved with good activities and selectivities. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silica coated magnetite nanoparticles were modified with a Schiff base ligand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Next reaction with MoO{sub 2}(acac){sub 2} afforded magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared nanocatalyst catalyzed the epoxidation of olefins with TBHP.

  14. A recoverable gas-cell diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratkiewicz, A., E-mail: ratkiewicz1@llnl.gov; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Cassata, W. S.; Velsko, C. A.; Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 95440 (United States); Bernstein, L. A.; Bibber, K. van; Goldblum, B. L. [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Siem, S. [University of Oslo, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Wiedeking, M. [iThemba LABS, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2016-11-15

    The high-fluence neutron spectrum produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) provides an opportunity to measure the activation of materials by fast-spectrum neutrons. A new large-volume gas-cell diagnostic has been designed and qualified to measure the activation of gaseous substances at the NIF. This in-chamber diagnostic is recoverable, reusable and has been successfully fielded. Data from the qualification of the diagnostic have been used to benchmark an Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code simulation describing the downscattered neutron spectrum seen by the gas cell. We present early results from the use of this diagnostic to measure the activation of {sup nat}Xe and discuss future work to study the strength of interactions between plasma and nuclei.

  15. Changes of chloroplast pigments of maize leaves after space flight in recoverable satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Sherong; Zhu Baoge; Liu Genqi

    2001-01-01

    Dried seeds of maize inbred lines were carried by recoverable satellite flying at an altitude of 175-253 km from sea level. The changes of absorption spectra of acetone extracts and chloroplast pigment contents of maize leaves were studied. It showed that the light-absorption characteristics of space-flight treatment (SP) were quite similar to those of the corresponding ground controls (CK) at the same time of sampling. However, the absorbance of the SP were less than CK at absorption peaks of chlorophyll a and b, respectively. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b of SP were significantly reduced, and the reduction of chlorophyll b far exceeded chlorophyll a. The contents of chlorophyll a + b were reduced so much that the total amount of their chloroplast pigments was lowered, but Ca/Cb ratio tended to be higher in comparison with CK

  16. Monitoring system and methods for a distributed and recoverable digital control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Kent (Inventor); Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelley, Gerald B (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A monitoring system and methods are provided for a distributed and recoverable digital control system. The monitoring system generally comprises two independent monitoring planes within the control system. The first monitoring plane is internal to the computing units in the control system, and the second monitoring plane is external to the computing units. The internal first monitoring plane includes two in-line monitors. The first internal monitor is a self-checking, lock-step-processing monitor with integrated rapid recovery capability. The second internal monitor includes one or more reasonableness monitors, which compare actual effector position with commanded effector position. The external second monitor plane includes two monitors. The first external monitor includes a pre-recovery computing monitor, and the second external monitor includes a post recovery computing monitor. Various methods for implementing the monitoring functions are also disclosed.

  17. Method and system for redundancy management of distributed and recoverable digital control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Kent (Inventor); Hess, Richard (Inventor); Kelley, Gerald B (Inventor); Rogers, Randy (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method and system for redundancy management is provided for a distributed and recoverable digital control system. The method uses unique redundancy management techniques to achieve recovery and restoration of redundant elements to full operation in an asynchronous environment. The system includes a first computing unit comprising a pair of redundant computational lanes for generating redundant control commands. One or more internal monitors detect data errors in the control commands, and provide a recovery trigger to the first computing unit. A second redundant computing unit provides the same features as the first computing unit. A first actuator control unit is configured to provide blending and monitoring of the control commands from the first and second computing units, and to provide a recovery trigger to each of the first and second computing units. A second actuator control unit provides the same features as the first actuator control unit.

  18. A recoverable gas-cell diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkiewicz, A; Berzak Hopkins, L; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A; van Bibber, K; Cassata, W S; Goldblum, B L; Siem, S; Velsko, C A; Wiedeking, M; Yeamans, C B

    2016-11-01

    The high-fluence neutron spectrum produced by the National Ignition Facility (NIF) provides an opportunity to measure the activation of materials by fast-spectrum neutrons. A new large-volume gas-cell diagnostic has been designed and qualified to measure the activation of gaseous substances at the NIF. This in-chamber diagnostic is recoverable, reusable and has been successfully fielded. Data from the qualification of the diagnostic have been used to benchmark an Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code simulation describing the downscattered neutron spectrum seen by the gas cell. We present early results from the use of this diagnostic to measure the activation of nat Xe and discuss future work to study the strength of interactions between plasma and nuclei.

  19. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  20. The ultimate challenge of cloacal exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Carmichael, Polly A; Hines, Melissa; Ransley, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Our review addresses the various system abnormalities associated with cloacal exstrophy and revisits the question of gender assignment. Gender assignment decisions and psychological aspects of gender issues have become the "ultimate challenge." Exploration of gender identity, gender role behavior and sexual orientation has just begun. A comprehensive literature review was performed with all world literature regarding the current management of cloacal exstrophy. Research focused on management principles, outcomes and documentation of concurrent anomalies. We also describe original research evaluating gender identity in our own series of patients raised as girls to illustrate the challenge of treatment and augment the available literature, which is scant. Abnormalities of the vertebral column ranged from hemivertebra to myelomeningocele. With magnetic resonance imaging, the incidence of spinal dysraphism approached 100% and cord tethering was also more frequently recognized. For children with the short bowel syndrome, advances in antibiotic usage, and parenteral and enteral nutrition have increased the survival rate and reduced morbidity. A neurological component has been recognized for bladder function, bladder neck continence, lower extremity function and erectile capacity. Mitrofanoff-type reconstruction with bladder neck closure and continent catheterizable stoma dramatically increased continence. Diminutive or absent penis has been documented in 30% of males, and no documentation of paternity exists. The majority of females have bicornuate uterus. However, ovaries and tubes were generally normal. No reports of proven fertility exist. The strategy and timing of surgery relating to gender assignment remain controversial. A desperate need exists for research focusing on gender development and quality of life. Until that time, a cautious watchful approach may be most appropriate as our patients with cloacal exstrophy mature into adulthood.

  1. Magnetically recoverable magnetite/gold catalyst stabilized by poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) for aerobic oxidation of alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao Wei; Murugadoss, Arumugam; Hor, T S Andy; Sakurai, Hidehiro

    2010-12-29

    Fe(3)O(4):PVP/Au nanocomposite synthesized via a two-step procedure was tested as a quasi-homogenous alcohol oxidation catalyst. It was found that the nanocomposite was able to carry out aerobic oxidation of alcohols in water at room temperature. Studies show rapid magnetic recoverability and reusability characteristics.

  2. End-of-Life in the railway sector: Analysis of recyclability and recoverability for different vehicle case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Massimo; Del Pero, Francesco; Berzi, Lorenzo; Pierini, Marco; Bonaffini, Davide

    2017-02-01

    The railway system represents one of the most resource-efficient answer to our ever-growing demand for transport service and the development trends for the following years forecast a substantial increase in this sector. Considering the European Union, rolling stock realizes a significant share of both goods and passengers carriage while it is responsible for a derisory quota of environmental impact and energy consumption involved by transportation. Contrary to the low environmental impact, the amount of End-of-Life (EoL) waste generated by rolling stocks in relation to the number of vehicles is notable, much greater than in the case of road vehicles. As railway vehicles are constituted by many heterogeneous components, the EoL rolling stock is a precious source of materials, whose recycling brings measurable economic benefits and needs to be appropriately debated. The paper presents calculation of recoverability/recyclability rate for different typologies of vehicles representative of railway transport; calculation is performed on the basis of primary data and according to the recyclability and recoverability calculation method issued by UNIFE in the context of Product Category Rules (PCR). The typologies of railway vehicles taken into account are electric metro, diesel commuter train and high-speed electric train. The analysis envisages also to replicate the calculation in case innovative materials and manufacturing technologies are adopted in the construction of car-body structure. Results show that recyclability/recoverability rates are abundantly over the quota of 90% for each one of the three trains, these latter being made in major part of metals that benefit from very efficient recovery processes. The adoption of innovative materials and manufacturing technologies for car-body structure involves a scarce reduction of recyclability and recoverability rates (about 2% and 0.2% respectively) due to the introduction of components and materials characterized by

  3. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  4. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    line with the specific projects and regions, which increases the productive life of wells and increases the ultimate recoverable reserves in the ground. A case study was conducted in Wyoming to validate the applicability of the GIS analysis tool for watershed evaluations under real world conditions. Results of the partnered research will continue to be shared utilizing proven methods, such as on the IGOCC Web site, preparing hard copies of the results, distribution of documented case studies, and development of reference and handbook components to accompany the interactive internet-based GIS watershed analysis tool. Additionally, there have been several technology transfer seminars and presentations. The goal is to maximize the recovery of our nation's energy reserves and to promote water conservation.

  5. SiO2@FeSO4 nano composite: A recoverable nano-catalyst for eco-friendly synthesis oximes of carbonyl compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Karimkoshteh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aldoximes and ketoximes synthesis of corresponding aldehydes and ketones in the presence of SiO2@FeSO4 nano composite as recoverable nano catalyst and NH2OH·HCl. The SiO2@FeSO4 nano composite system was carried out between 10 to 15 min in oil bath (70-80 °C under solvent-free condition in excellent yields in addition this protocol can be used for industrial scales. This method offers some advantages in term of clean reaction conditions, easy work-up procedure, short reaction time, applied to convert α-diketones to α-diketoximes (as longer than other carbonyl compounds, α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones to corresponding oximes and suppression of any side product. So we think that NH2OH•HCl/SiO2@FeSO4 nano composite system could be considered a new and useful addition to the present methodologies in this area. Structure of products and nano composite elucidation was carried out by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM.

  6. Radioactive waste and recoverable material in France. Summary of the National Inventory 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Thorough knowledge is needed if the various types of radioactive waste are to be managed openly, consistently and in a safe manner. All French radioactive material users have subscribed to this process for many years. Under the terms of the French Act of Parliament of 30 December 1991, the Government commissioned the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (or ANDRA) to carry out a survey of all the radioactive waste present on French Territory. Through its efforts to collect and confirm information from many sources over the years, that is mainly from statements made by waste producers and handlers, ANDRA has built up a database on existing waste and its geographical location. This constantly updated resource has been regularly circulated. At the beginning of the century the Government decided to extend the areas covered by this database, in response to the recommendations made by the National Review Board (CNE) and the Parliamentary Office for Evaluating Scientific and Technology Options (OPECST). This is how the first edition of the National Inventory, published in 2004, came about. The National Inventory of Radioactive Waste and Recoverable Material, presents a full panorama of radioactive waste that it groups into waste families that present homogenous characteristics. It describes the state of the waste that may be conditioned (that is, in its final form) or may not be conditioned (that is, has not been put through sufficient treatments to arrive at its final form) at the end of 2004. Furthermore it presents not only a statistical and geographical summary, but a predictive summary, as it provides waste quantity forecasts for 2010, 2020 and beyond. The Inventory also includes recoverable materials that contain radioactivity. They are always accounted for separately because of their special nature. The data is presented in a synthesis report. This summary is the general public version of the report. The synthesis report offers more in

  7. Radioactive waste and recoverable material in France. Summary of the National Inventory 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Thorough knowledge is needed if the various types of radioactive waste are to be managed openly, consistently and in a safe manner. All French radioactive material users have subscribed to this process for many years. Under the terms of the French Act of Parliament of 30 December 1991, the Government commissioned the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (or ANDRA) to carry out a survey of all the radioactive waste present on French Territory. Through its efforts to collect and confirm information from many sources over the years, that is mainly from statements made by waste producers and handlers, ANDRA has built up a database on existing waste and its geographical location. This constantly updated resource has been regularly circulated. At the beginning of the century the Government decided to extend the areas covered by this database, in response to the recommendations made by the National Review Board (CNE) and the Parliamentary Office for Evaluating Scientific and Technology Options (OPECST). This is how the first edition of the National Inventory, published in 2004, came about. The National Inventory of Radioactive Waste and Recoverable Material, presents a full panorama of radioactive waste that it groups into waste families that present homogenous characteristics. It describes the state of the waste that may be conditioned (that is, in its final form) or may not be conditioned (that is, has not been put through sufficient treatments to arrive at its final form) at the end of 2004. Furthermore it presents not only a statistical and geographical summary, but a predictive summary, as it provides waste quantity forecasts for 2010, 2020 and beyond. The Inventory also includes recoverable materials that contain radioactivity. They are always accounted for separately because of their special nature. The data is presented in a synthesis report. This summary is the general public version of the report. The synthesis report offers more in

  8. 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: shale oil recovery application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The US has large shale oil energy resources, and many companies have undertaken considerable effort to develop economical means to extract this oil within environmental constraints. The recoverable shale oil reserves in the US amount to 160 x 10 9 m 3 (1000 x 10 9 bbl) and are second in quantity only to coal. This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to a shale oil recovery process. Since the highest potential shale oil reserves lie in th Piceance Basin of Western Colorado, the study centers on exploiting shale oil in this region

  9. Evaluation of segmented gamma scanner measurements on cans of recoverable scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, A.H.; Weber, J.H.; MacMurdo, K.W.; Baker, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) has had a long-standing concern about the inability to measure recoverable scrap. A segmented gamma scanner (SGS) was evaluated for use in measuring cans of scrap materials. Four scrap cans were selected and re-packaged into containers that could be measured using calorimetry and gamma spectrometry. These scrap cans were later used as working standards for the SGS. In addition, replicate measurements were made on all cans of scrap currently stored with estimated values. Before accepting the SGS measurements on the cans, data from the replicate measurements of the standards and a limited number of process cans were analyzed to determine if there was a significant bias between the SGS and the calorimeter-gamma spectrometer measurements, if the random replication error would be acceptable for accountability, to set control limits for the workings standards, and to determine acceptable differences between replicate measurements. After completing the measurement of all process scrap cans in the inventory, the the final data were analyzed and estimates based on the two sets of data compared. The methodology used to determine the appropriate measurement error model, to estimate the measurement errors, to set control limits, and to determine the significance of the bias will be described as well as a comparison of the error estimates based on the preliminary versus final data

  10. Solar-assisted photodegradation of isoproturon over easily recoverable titania catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosana-Moranchel, A; Carbajo, J; Faraldos, M; Bahamonde, A

    2017-03-01

    An easily recoverable homemade TiO 2 catalyst (GICA-1) has been evaluated during the overall photodegradation process, understood as photocatalytic efficiency and catalyst recovery step, in the solar light-assisted photodegradation of isoproturon and its reuse in two consecutive cycles. The global feasibility has been compared to the commercial TiO 2 P25. The homemade GICA-1 catalyst presented better sedimentation efficiency than TiO 2 P25 at all studied pHs, which could be explained by its higher average hydrodynamic particle size (3 μm) and other physicochemical surface properties. The evaluation of the overall process (isoproturon photo-oxidation + catalyst recovery) revealed GICA-1 homemade titania catalyst strengths: total removal of isoproturon in less than 60 min, easy recovery by sedimentation, and reusability in two consecutive cycles, without any loss of photocatalytic efficiency. Therefore, considering the whole photocatalytic cycle (good performance in photodegradation plus catalyst recovery step), the homemade GICA-1 photocatalyst resulted in more affordability than commercial TiO 2 P25. Graphical abstract.

  11. A comparison of the recoverable proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from two different types of papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmaz, Birgul; Gul, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Paper is used for various purposes in hospitals. Generally, there are two different types of paper, which are commonly used in our facility: wood-free paper, and paper containing wood. We compared the recoverable proportion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 43300) from the surface of such papers. The papers were divided into two groups: Group 1: wood-free paper; Group 2: paper containing wood. The papers were contaminated in a standardized procedure with 0.1 mL of a 5×10(7) CFU MRSA/mL stock solution. The recoverable proportion of MRSA was higher in the wood-containing papers than in the papers without wood (P=0.043). This study indicates that if paper is purchased for healthcare facilities it should not contain wood, but rather wood-free paper types should be considered.

  12. Recent Advances in Recoverable Systems for the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction (CuAAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Mandoli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The explosively-growing applications of the Cu-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between organic azides and alkynes (CuAAC have stimulated an impressive number of reports, in the last years, focusing on recoverable variants of the homogeneous or quasi-homogeneous catalysts. Recent advances in the field are reviewed, with particular emphasis on systems immobilized onto polymeric organic or inorganic supports.

  13. Water-level and recoverable water in storage changes, High Plains aquifer, predevelopment to 2015 and 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Virginia L.

    2017-06-01

    The High Plains aquifer underlies 111.8 million acres (about 175,000 square miles) in parts of eight States—Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, and Wyoming. Water-level declines began in parts of the High Plains aquifer soon after the beginning of substantial irrigation with groundwater in the aquifer area (about 1950). This report presents water-level changes and change in recoverable water in storage in the High Plains aquifer from predevelopment (about 1950) to 2015 and from 2013 to 2015.The methods to calculate area-weighted, average water-level changes; change in recoverable water in storage; and total recoverable water in storage used geospatial data layers organized as rasters with a cell size of 500 meters by 500 meters, which is an area of about 62 acres. Raster datasets of water-level changes are provided for other uses.Water-level changes from predevelopment to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 84 feet to a decline of 234 feet. Water-level changes from 2013 to 2015, by well, ranged from a rise of 24 feet to a decline of 33 feet. The area-weighted, average water-level changes in the aquifer were an overall decline of 15.8 feet from predevelopment to 2015 and a decline of 0.6 feet from 2013 to 2015. Total recoverable water in storage in the aquifer in 2015 was about 2.91 billion acre-feet, which was a decline of about 273.2 million acre-feet since predevelopment and a decline of 10.7 million acre-feet from 2013 to 2015.

  14. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel DEAB. Systems analysis. Ultimate disposal concepts. Final report. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.

    1995-10-01

    The results elaborated under the project, systems analysis of mixed radwaste disposal concepts and systems analysis of ultimate disposal concepts, provide a comprehensive description and assessment of a radwaste repository, for heat generating wastes and for wastes with negligible heat generation, and thus represent the knowledge basis for forthcoming planning work for a repository in an abandoned salt mine. A fact to be considered is that temperature field calculations have shown that there is room for further optimization with regard to the mine layout. The following aspects have been analysed: (1) safety of operation; (2) technical feasibility and realisation and licensability of the concepts; (3) operational aspects; (4) varieties of utilization of the salt dome for the intended purpose (boreholes for waste emplacement, emplacement in galleries, multi-horizon systems); (5) long-term structural stability of the mine; (6) economic efficiency; (7) nuclear materials safeguards. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green chemistry principles. PMID:22713480

  16. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chien-Chen; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-06-19

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green chemistry principles.

  17. The future of oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard G; Sorrell, Steven R

    2014-01-13

    Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. Some commentators forecast a peak in the near future and a subsequent terminal decline in global oil production, while others highlight the recent growth in 'tight oil' production and the scope for developing unconventional resources. There are disagreements over the size, cost and recoverability of different resources, the technical and economic potential of different technologies, the contribution of different factors to market trends and the economic implications of reduced supply. Few debates are more important, more contentious, more wide-ranging or more confused. This paper summarizes the main concepts, terms, issues and evidence that are necessary to understand the 'peak oil' debate. These include: the origin, nature and classification of oil resources; the trends in oil production and discoveries; the typical production profiles of oil fields, basins and producing regions; the mechanisms underlying those profiles; the extent of depletion of conventional oil; the risk of an approaching peak in global production; and the potential of various mitigation options. The aim is to introduce the subject to non-specialist readers and provide a basis for the subsequent papers in this Theme Issue.

  18. Profiles of Reservoir Properties of Oil-Bearing Plays for Selected Petroleum Provinces in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, P.A.; Attanasi, E.D.

    2015-11-05

    Profiles of reservoir properties of oil-bearing plays for selected petroleum provinces in the United States were developed to characterize the database to be used for a potential assessment by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of oil that would be technically recoverable by the application of enhanced oil recovery methods using injection of carbon dioxide (CO2-EOR). The USGS assessment methodology may require reservoir-level data for the purposes of screening conventional oil reservoirs and projecting CO2-EOR performance in terms of the incremental recoverable oil. The information used in this report is based on reservoir properties from the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012). As described by Nehring Associates, Inc., the database “covers all producing provinces (basins) in the United States except the Appalachian Basin and the Cincinnati Arch.”

  19. Dominant Middle East oil reserves critically important to world supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the location production, and transportation of the 60 million bbl of oil consumed in the world each day is of vital importance to relations between nations, as well as to their economic wellbeing. Oil has frequently been a decisive factor in the determination of foreign policy. The war in the Persian Gulf, while a dramatic example of the critical importance of oil, is just the latest of a long line of oil-influenced diplomatic/military incidents, which may be expected to continue. Assuming that the world's remaining oil was evenly distributed and demand did not grow, if exploration and development proceeded as efficiently as they have in the U.S., world oil production could be sustained at around current levels to about the middle of the next century. It then would begin a long decline in response to a depleting resource base. However, the world's remaining oil is very unevenly distributed. It is located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, mostly in the Persian Gulf, and much is controlled by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Scientific resource assessments indicate that about half of the world's remaining conventionally recoverable crude oil resource occurs in the Persian Gulf area. In terms of proved reserves (known recoverable oil), the Persian Gulf portion increase to almost two-thirds

  20. The tracking performance of distributed recoverable flight control systems subject to high intensity radiated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    It is known that high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) can produce upsets in digital electronics, and thereby degrade the performance of digital flight control systems. Such upsets, either from natural or man-made sources, can change data values on digital buses and memory and affect CPU instruction execution. HIRF environments are also known to trigger common-mode faults, affecting nearly-simultaneously multiple fault containment regions, and hence reducing the benefits of n-modular redundancy and other fault-tolerant computing techniques. Thus, it is important to develop models which describe the integration of the embedded digital system, where the control law is implemented, as well as the dynamics of the closed-loop system. In this dissertation, theoretical tools are presented to analyze the relationship between the design choices for a class of distributed recoverable computing platforms and the tracking performance degradation of a digital flight control system implemented on such a platform while operating in a HIRF environment. Specifically, a tractable hybrid performance model is developed for a digital flight control system implemented on a computing platform inspired largely by the NASA family of fault-tolerant, reconfigurable computer architectures known as SPIDER (scalable processor-independent design for enhanced reliability). The focus will be on the SPIDER implementation, which uses the computer communication system known as ROBUS-2 (reliable optical bus). A physical HIRF experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in order to validate the theoretical tracking performance degradation predictions for a distributed Boeing 747 flight control system subject to a HIRF environment. An extrapolation of these results for scenarios that could not be physically tested is also presented.

  1. Continuous reduction of tellurite to recoverable tellurium nanoparticles using an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Ruiz, Adriana; Sesma-Martin, Juan; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2017-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy and the European Union, tellurium is a critical element needed for energy and defense technology. Thus methods are needed to recover tellurium from waste streams. The objectives of this study was to determine the feasibility of utilizing upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors to convert toxic tellurite (Te IV ) oxyanions to non-toxic insoluble elemental tellurium (Te 0 ) nanoparticles (NP) that are amendable to separation from aqueous effluents. The reactors were supplied with ethanol as the electron donating substrate to promote the biological reduction of Te IV . One reactor was additionally amended with the redox mediating flavonoid compound, riboflavin (RF), with the goal of enhancing the bioreduction of Te IV . Its performance was compared to a control reactor lacking RF. The continuous formation of Te 0 NPs using the UASB reactors was found to be feasible and remarkably improved by the addition of RF. The presence of this flavonoid was previously shown to enhance the conversion rate of Te IV by approximately 11-fold. In this study, we demonstrated that this was associated with the added benefit of reducing the toxic impact of Te IV towards the methanogenic consortium in the UASB and thus enabled a 4.7-fold higher conversion rate of the chemical oxygen demand. Taken as a whole, this work demonstrates the potential of a methanogenic granular sludge to be applied as a bioreactor technology producing recoverable Te 0 NPs in a continuous fashion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-09-22

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 0.45 billion barrels of oil and 1.0 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Middle and Upper Magdalena Basins, Colombia.

  3. Assessment of continuous oil and gas resources in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Marra, Kristen R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-18

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 78 million barrels of oil and 8.9 trillion cubic feet of gas in the San Jorge Basin Province, Argentina.

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2018-02-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.0 billion barrels of oil and 20.3 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Bohaiwan Basin Province, China.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Canning Basin Province, Australia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Finn, Thomas M.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-05-31

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 1.3 billion barrels of oil and 34.4 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Canning Basin Province of Australia.

  6. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  7. Sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigo, P.; Sarghiuta, R.; Estefen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive sensitivity analysis carried out by the Committee III.1 "Ultimate Strength" of ISSC?2003 in the framework of a benchmark on the ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels. Previously, different benchmarks were presented by ISSC committees on ul...

  8. Oil sands and heavy oil development issues and prospects under a Liberal government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiry, J.

    1993-01-01

    A short review is presented of some of the factors affecting development of the western Canadian oil sands and heavy oil deposits to the year 2000. The Alberta oil sands resource has at least 1 trillion bbl of recoverable oil. At current prices, technology is the key to reducing costs to a more economic level. Cash operating costs have halved to $15/bbl over the past decade and the oil sands companies have programs to halve that figure again. A problem is the rising cost of natural gas as a fuel, which could jeopardize further development of both oil sand and heavy oil resources. In Saskatchewan, over 25 billion bbl of heavy oil are estimated to be in place. The biggest question is what percentage can be recovered; again, technology such as horizontal wells, 3-dimensional seismic, and steam assisted recovery is playing an important role. Concerns are expressed about the intentions of the new Liberal government concerning oil sand/heavy oil development, especially on the issues of foreign investment, exports, and environmental policy. A Liberal energy policy is not likely to allow U.S. direct investment in an oil sands plant to be tied to export of production, and the energy- and emissions-intensive nature of the oil sand/heavy oil industry will tend to make environmental approvals difficult

  9. Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The article analyzes the methods of trenchless renovation for applying protective coatings: routing in the old pipeline of new pipes made of polymeric materials or polymeric sleeves, centrifugal spraying on the inner surface of pipelines’ inorganic and organic protective coatings. Special attention was paid to bag technology, providing the required strength properties at specific values of the modulus of elasticity and a number of external factors such as the depth of the existing pipe, the existence and magnitude of the horizon groundwater over it. Also attention is paid to the application technology of tape coatings ribbed profile on the inner surface of pipelines. This technology has a unique feature, which is the ability of recoverable pipeline functioning during its renovation by winding an endless belt and the formation of a new pipe. The tape coating winding is carried out by different types of spiral winding machines. The thickness of the protective coating layer forming the tube remains minimal. Inorganic cement-sand and organic coatings were considered as alternative options for repair of pipelines, which allow to localize the defects in the form of a fistula, minor cracks and other damages. However it is noted that a cement-sandy covering is inferior to organic, because it does not provide the strength characteristics of the pipeline system. The main advantage of the organic coating is mudding fistula of a large diameter, making a high wear

  10. Ultimate Lateral Capacity of Rigid Pile in c- φ Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-min

    2018-03-01

    To date no analytical solution of the pile ultimate lateral capacity for the general c- φ soil has been obtained. In the present study, a new dimensionless embedded ratio was proposed and the analytical solutions of ultimate lateral capacity and rotation center of rigid pile in c- φ soils were obtained. The results showed that both the dimensionless ultimate lateral capacity and dimensionless rotation center were the univariate functions of the embedded ratio. Also, the ultimate lateral capacity in the c- φ soil was the combination of the ultimate lateral capacity ( f c ) in the clay, and the ultimate lateral capacity ( f φ ) in the sand. Therefore, the Broms chart for clay, solution for clay ( φ=0) put forward by Poulos and Davis, solution for sand ( c=0) obtained by Petrasovits and Awad, and Kondner's ultimate bending moment were all proven to be the special cases of the general solution in the present study. A comparison of the field and laboratory tests in 93 cases showed that the average ratios of the theoretical values to the experimental value ranged from 0.85 to 1.15. Also, the theoretical values displayed a good agreement with the test values.

  11. Oil resource panel finds more oil in United States by adding dollars and advancing recovery technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Three years ago, the experts figures the US had only 49.4 Bbo in undiscovered, recoverable reserves. Now, there's more undiscovered resources and more reserve growth. Those figures include present proved reserves of 25 Bbo. They also include undiscovered recoverable resources ranging from 43 Bbo to 90 Bbo and reserve growth in existing fields ranging from 31 Bbo to 89 Bbo. Those are the estimates from a panel of oil resource analysts assembled August 31 and September 1 by the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology and the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research. At current US production of 2.7 Bbo/year, the estimate gives the US a supply lasting from 35 to 75 years

  12. Oil sands market and transportation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation outlined the immense potential of the western Canadian oil sands reserves. Recoverable reserves have been estimated at 180 billion barrels, with production forecasts estimated at 5 million barrels per day by 2030. Resource development is occurring at a time when the world's largest oil importer is increasing supplies through concern for security of supply. The second and third largest oil importers in the world are experiencing economic and energy demand growth. These factors underscore the motivation for rapid growth of the Western Canadian Oil Sands reserves. One of the challenges that must be addressed is to ensure that incremental markets for the increased production are accessed. Another challenge is to ensure adequate infrastructure in terms of pipeline capacity to ensure deliverability of the product. tabs., figs

  13. Influence of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive consideration regarding influence mechanisms of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells is taken to satisfy requirement of deep-sea structural design. The feasibility of innovative numerical procedure that combines welding simulation and non-linear buckling analysis is verified by a good agreement to experimental and theoretical results. Spherical shells with a series of wall thicknesses to radius ratios are studied. Residual stress and deformations from welding process are investigated separately. Variant influence mechanisms are discovered. Residual stress is demonstrated to be influential to stress field and buckling behavior but not to the ultimate strength. Deformations are proved to have a significant impact on ultimate strength. When central angles are less than critical value, concave magnitudes reduce ultimate strengths linearly. However, deformations with central angles above critical value are of much greater harm. Less imperfection susceptibility is found in spherical shells with larger wall thicknesses to radius ratios.

  14. Ultimate guide to YouTube for business

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate Guide to YouTube for Business helps small business owners create marketing videos to help promote their products, share their story, build a community around their brand without spending a fortune-all the while making money.

  15. Ultimate Opening Combined with Area Stability Applied to Urban Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotegui , Beatriz; Serna , Andrés; Hernández , Jorge

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the use of ultimate opening in urban analysis context. It demonstrates the efficiency of this approach for street level elevation images, derived from 3D point clouds acquired by terrestrial mobile mapping systems. An area-stability term is introduced in the residual definition, reducing the over-segmentation of the vegetation while preserving small significant regions. We compare two possible combinations of the Ultimate Opening and the Area Stabil...

  16. Direct ultimate disposal - state of investigations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a decision adopted by the Prime Ministers on 25/10/90, the principles governing preventive waste management of nuclear power plants are reviewed. Increasing importance is attached to the direct ultimate disposal alternative. The legal and political framework, the technology involved, the state of developments, future activities under the R and D programme as well as a cost estimate of direct ultimate disposal are presented. (orig.) [de

  17. Assessment and characterization of radioactive waste for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Warnecke, E.

    1986-01-01

    The waste specifications determined from site safety analyses define the requirements to be met by waste forms for ultimate storage. Product quality control is the process step ensuring compliance with the conditions to be met for ultimate storage. For this purpose, radionuclide inventory, fixation method, container type, waste form and quantity, and type of waste are the most significant items on the checking list. (DG) [de

  18. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-16

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 26 million barrels of oil and 700 billion cubic feet of gas in the Wyoming Thrust Belt Province, Wyoming, Idaho, and Utah.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources of Upper Cretaceous Shales in the Songliao Basin of China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-05-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 3.3 billion barrels of oil and 887 billion cubic feet of gas in shale reservoirs of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou and Nenjiang Formations in the Songliao Basin of northeastern China.

  20. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia and Kazakhstan, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 1.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 2.4 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Volga-Ural Region Province, using a geology-based assessment methodology.

  1. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  2. The Alberta oil sands story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This report serves as a detailed introduction to the Alberta oil sands and their development. It includes a description of the oil sands deposits, an outline of crude bitumen recovery and upgrading processes, the role of Alberta Energy Company in oil sands development, environmental aspects, manpower requirements for oil sands development, research needs, and further oil sands projects. Presently proven recoverable reserves in the oil sands amount to 26.5 billion bbl of synthetic crude. Production from the Syncrude plant (125,000 bbl/d capacity) is expected to begin in 1977, followed by a Shell Canada operation around 1980. The provincial government will participate in the oil sand industry through its joint venture participation in Syncrude and its 50% share in Alberta Energy Company; the latter company participates in related aspects of the Syncrude project, such as pipelines. The result of Alberta's participation in the industry will mean that, directly or indirectly, the province will realize 60% of the total profits. The job creation potential of oil sands projects is estimated to be extensive, with a direct and indirect work force supported by oil sands activities possibly reaching 180,000 persons by the year 2000. Research needs have been identified, particularly in the area of in-situ thermal recovery technology, and the creation of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority has been authorized in order to meet these needs. Although current reserves are sufficient to support 20-30 synthetic crude plants, a number of factors will limit expansion of the industry. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. The U.S. Gas Flooding Experience: CO2 Injection Strategies and Impact on Ultimate Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Vanessa [The University of Texas at Austin; Hosseini, Seyyed; Gil-Egui, Ramon

    2017-09-29

    The Permian Basin in West Texas and southwestern New Mexico has seen 45 years of oil reserve growth through CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). More than 60 CO2 EOR projects are currently active in the region’s limestone, sandstone and dolomite reservoirs. Water alternating gas (WAG) has been the development strategy of choice in the Permian for several technical and economic reasons. More recently, the technology started to get implemented in the much more porous and permeable clastic depositional systems of the onshore U.S. Gulf Coast. Continued CO2 injection (CGI), as opposed to WAG, was selected as the injection strategy to develop Gulf Coast oil fields, where CO2 injection volumes are significantly larger (up to 6 times larger) than those of the Permian. We conducted a compositional simulation based study with the objective of comparing the CO2 utilization ratios (volume of CO2 injected to produce a barrel of oil) of 4 conventional and novel CO2 injection strategies: (1) continuous gas injection (CGI), (2) water alternating gas (WAG), (3) water curtain injection (WCI), and (4) WAG and WCI combination. These injection scenarios were simulated using the GEM module from the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). GEM is an advanced general equation-of-state compositional simulator, which includes equation of state, CO2 miscible flood, CO2/brine interactions, and complex phase behavior. The simulator is set up to model three fluid phases including water, oil, and gas. Our study demonstrates how the selected field development strategy has a significant impact on the ultimate recovery of CO2-EOR projects, with GCI injection providing maximum oil recovery in absolute volume terms, but with WAG offering a more balanced technical-economical approach.

  4. A novel process for heavy residue hydroconversion using a recoverable pseudo-homogenous catalyst PHC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romocki, S.M.; Rhodey, W.G. [Mobis Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This paper described a pseudo-homogenous catalyst (PHC) designed to refine heavy hydrocarbon residues containing sulfur, nitrogen, metals, and asphaltene impurities known to clog pores and deactivate traditional hydrocrackers. The heavy residue hydroconversion (HRH) process incorporated a single particle, chemically generated PHC uniformly distributed in the feed. Thermal decomposition within the reaction system of a water-in-oil emulsion containing ammonium paramolybdate was used to form molybdenum oxide, which was then sulfided within the feed in order to create an ultra-dispersed suspension of catalytically active molybdenum disulfide particles measuring between 2 and 9 nm. A proprietary online catalyst recovery and regeneration step was used to maintain high catalyst activity. The molybdenum was then recovered from a purge stream and then reintroduced to the catalyst preparation area as a catalyst precursor. After being conditioned, the feed was combined with hydrogen and a water-oil catalyst emulsion and introduced into a furnace. Heavy components were cracked, hydrogenated and converted to lighter products. The high performance catalyst system was able to convert 95 per cent of residues at pressures below 7.3 Mpa and at reaction temperatures ranging between 400 and 460 degrees C. The catalyst was tested at a pilot plant using Athabasca vacuum bottoms. It was concluded that the HRH process is now being successfully used to produce 200 barrels of heavy oil per day. Designs for commercial installations are now being prepared. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Central Burma Basin and the Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    The Irrawaddy-Andaman and Indo-Burman Geologic Provinces were recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.3 billion barrels of oil, 79.6 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 2.1 billion barrels of natrual gas liquids.

  7. Ultimate - a new generation of gasoline and diesel fuels; Ultimate - eine neue Generation von Otto- und Dieselkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strempel, G. [Aral Forschung/Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany); Beckwith, P. [BP Fuels Management Group, Pangbourne (United Kingdom); Froehling, J. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Labor/Analytik; Baron, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Motor- und Fahrzeuglaboratorium; Sauermann, P.; Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktentwicklung; Doermer, W. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktqualitaet

    2005-06-01

    With the launch of Ultimate 100 gasoline and Ultimate Diesel, motorists in Germany now have the opportunity to choose new advanced performance fuels designed to get the very best from their engines. This article gives details of the technical development behind these fuels, their wide range of benefits, and how it is possible to manufacture fuels which meet the considerable technical challenge of achieving both more performance and less pollution. (orig.)

  8. THE ULTIMATE STATE CONCEPT APPLIED TO TUNNEL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Hudec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The most questionable are the values of pressures between rock and support resulting from common deformations on the contact area between rock and support. Therefore the modelling and design of the tunnel support is not reliable, if it is based on active rock pressure resulting from this common deformations. The inversion of the design procedure is proposed. Instead of the active extreme pressure of the rock on support, the influence of ultimate reaction of the support on the rock has to be analysed. This procedure can be performed using the ultimate load principle, as proposed by Eurocodc 7 (Geotechnies. Normally, the rock has the tendency to increase the common conver¬gence until the support reaches its ultimate state. So, loading of profile boundary with the ultimate possible reaction of the support is very plausible. The reactive support pressures have to be probable and itself in equilibrium. The ultimate reactive load has to be reduced by Euro-code safety factor for structural elements and applied on the rock with given properties, or alternatively (as proposed by Eurocode 7 the soil or rock properties have to be diminished and calculated with full ultimate support pressures. If the rock with given (or proposed pro¬perties and loaded with ultimate reactive pressures resulting from supposed support, satisfy its failure criterion, then is the compound system support-rock verificatcd. By this procedure, the number of relevant material properties is reduce to the primary stress ratio and the constants defining the failure criterion. The verification can be performed by any of numerical methods, but we prefer here used boundary elements method (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Do Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  10. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures.

  11. Increasing oil recovery from heavy oil waterfloods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brice, B.W. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[BP Exploration, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    In an effort to optimize waterflood strategies in Alaska, the authors examined the results of up to 50 years of waterflooding on 166 western Canadian waterfloods recovering oil of less than 30 degrees API. The study determined the best operating practices for heavy oil waterflooding by investigating the difference between waterflooding of heavy oil and lighter oil counterparts. Operators of light oil waterflooding are advised to begin waterflooding early and maintain the voidage replacement ratio (VRR) at 1. However, this study showed that it is beneficial to delay the start of waterflooding until a certain fraction of the original oil in place was recovered. Varying the VRR was also shown to correlate with increased ultimate recovery. This statistical study of 166 western Canadian waterfloods also examined the effect of injection strategy and the effect of primary production before waterflooding. Some pre-waterflood production and under injection time is advantageous for ultimate recovery by waterfloods. Specific recommendations were presented for waterfloods in reservoirs with both high and low API gravity ranges. Each range showed a narrow sweet spot window where improved recovery occurred. 27 refs., 13 figs.

  12. Ultimate load capacity assessment of reinforced concrete shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop capability for prediction of ultimate load capacity of reinforced concrete shell structures. The present finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) adopts a degenerate concept of formulating general isoparametric shell element with a layered approach in the thickness direction. Different failure modes such as crushing, tensile cracking and reinforcement yielding are recognised for various problems. The structure fails by crushing of concrete when the concrete strain/stress reaches the ultimate stress or strain of concrete. Material nonlinearities as a result of tension cracking, tension stiffening between reinforcement and concrete in cracked region and yielding of reinforcement are considered along with geometric nonlinearity. Thus with this code it is possible to predict the pressure at which the first cracking, first through thickness cracking, first yielding of reinforcement occurs. After validating the code with few bench mark problems for different failure modes a reinforced concrete nuclear containment is analysed for its ultimate capacity and the results are matched with the published results. Further the ultimate load capacity of outer containment wall of Narora Atomic Power Station is predicted. It is observed that containment fails in membrane region and has a sufficient margin against design pressure. (author). 9 refs., 56 figs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix with 4 tabs

  13. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2006-09-30

    rock from depths below 12,000 feet in this basin is 4,800 TCF. Assuming an expulsion, migration and trapping efficiency of 1 to 5%, 48 to 240 TCF of gas is potentially available. The final recoverable gas is some percent of this estimated thermogenic gas resource based on the recovery factor for the specific reservoir. To date, some 29 TCF of gas have been produced from this basin. Also, the thermogenic gas, whether generated from late secondary cracking of oil to gas in the source rock or from oil to gas conversion in deeply buried reservoirs, migrated updip into shallower reservoirs, including the Monroe gas rock at depths of some 2,000 feet.

  14. Ductility and Ultimate Capacity of Prestressed Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear numerical analysis of the structural behaviour of prestressed steel reinforced concrete (PSRC beams was carried out by using finite element analysis software ABAQUS. By comparing the load-deformation curves, the rationality and reliability of the finite element model have been confirmed; moreover, the changes of the beam stiffness and stress in the forcing process and the ultimate bearing capacity of the beam were analyzed. Based on the model, the effect of prestressed force, and H-steel to the stiffness, the ultimate bearing capacity and ductility of beam were also analyzed.

  15. Ultimate load model test for Sizewell 'B' primary containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the factors influencing the adoption of an ultimate load factor for the Sizewell 'B' PWR primary containment structure. As part of the validation process for the ultimate load analysis method, a proposal has been made by Nuclear Design Associates to build and test a 1/10th scale model of the containment structure, which would proceed following the granting of section 2 consent for Sizewell 'B'. The modelling principles, construction method and test proposals are examined in some detail. The proposal is currently being considered by the CEGB's Project Management Team. (author)

  16. Ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU 6 containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, J.P.; Pradolin, L.; Mamet, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical work carried out and the results obtained when determining the ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the containment structures of CANDU 6 nuclear power plants. The purpose of the analysis work was to demonstrate that such containment structures are capable of meeting design requirements under the most severe accident conditions. For this concrete vessel subjected to internal pressure, the UPC was defined as the pressure causing through cracking in the concrete. The present paper deals with the overall behaviour of the containment. The presence of openings, penetrations and the ultimate pressure of the airlocks were considered separately. (author)

  17. ''Project Crystal'' for ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    NAGRA (The National Association for storage of radioactive waste) in Baden has launched in North Switzerland an extensive geological research program. The current research program, under the title of ''Project Crystal'', aims at providing the scientific knowledge which is required for the assessment of the suitability of the crystalline sub-soil of North Switzerland for the ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste. Safety and feasibility of such ultimate storage are in the forefront of preoccupations. Scientific institutes of France, Germany, USA and Canada are cooperating more particularly on boring research and laboratory analyses. Technical data are given on the USA and German installations used. (P.F.K.)

  18. Trump er gældsøkonomiens ultimative illusionist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne.......Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne....

  19. Alberta's conventional oil supply: How much? How long?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the future conventional crude oil supply potential in Alberta, a modelling system was designed with the capacity to determine the fraction of existing and potential reserves which could prove technically, economically and/or commercially viable over time. The reference case analysis described assumed constant real oil prices and fiscal burdens, capital and operating costs. Reserve additions from new pool discoveries were summed with reserves from existing pools to arrive at an estimate of the potential supply of established reserves in each play area. The established reserves from all plays were then totalled to provide the provincial conventional oil resource potential. Alberta's recoverable conventional crude oil reserves were shown to be declining at about 2 percent per year. However, even with declining recoverable reserves and relatively low prices, the results of the study indicated that the conventional oil industry remained a major revenue generator for the province and would continue to be so over the next 15 to 20 years. Improved operating efficiencies, cost reductions, reasonable prices and cooperation between industry and government were shown to be necessary to assure the continued viability of Alberta's conventional oil industry. figs., tabs., 11 refs

  20. Naphtha evaporation from oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperski, K.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    The environmental impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil sands tailings ponds must be considered when evaluating new oil sands mining and extraction operations. Studies have suggested that only 40 percent of the solvent sent to tailings ponds is available to the environment, while the rest is irreversibly trapped. The recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands froth process water is low. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of distinguishing between water and hydrocarbons at low temperatures. Samples were heated to 246 degrees C at 15 degrees C and held for 10 minutes. Heating was then resumed at 750 degrees C and held for 10 minutes in a pyrolysis phase, then cooled and reheated with an oxygen addition. The method demonstrated that the diluent distribution between the solids and water phases is misinterpreted as diluent that will evaporate, and diluent that will not evaporate. The study concluded by suggesting that the definition of recoverable and unrecoverable hydrocarbon should be re-termed as easily recoverable, and difficult to recover. tabs., figs.

  1. The Pentagon’s New Map...to Oblivion: Why the United States Should Declare War on Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-17

    U.S. Geological Survey reports that the economically recoverable oil from the reserve would account for only 0.3 percent of the global oil inventory .28...policy is the same...we need to fill in the knowledge and the scientific gaps.,,35 Climate change, it seems, is an acceptable risk. Meanwhile, America...for western skiers ), "extended uncontrolled emissions" could lead to major problems, including releasing significant volumes of sea-level impacting

  2. Ultimate deformation capacity of reinforced concrete slabs underblast load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Weerheijm, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a test method to determine the deformation capacity and the resistance-deformation curve of blast-loaded slabs is described. This method was developed at TNO-PML. The method has been used to determine the ultimate deformation capacity of some simply supported reinforced concrete slabs

  3. 49 Stories That Make an Ultimate STEM Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Swati; Mehta, Rohit; Berzina-Pitcher, Inese; Seals, Christopher; Mishra, Punya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed what 49 large urban public school district STEM teachers enrolled in a year-long graduate certificate and fellowship program at a large Midwestern university considered as their amazing teaching moments. They were asked to share their amazing teaching moments that would make an Ultimate Lesson Plan in STEM. In smaller…

  4. Ultimate capabilities of soft x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A.V.; Zorev, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    Nonimaging soft X-ray optics is examined. The ultimate capabilities of a number of X-ray optical components designed for concentration and collimation of radiation from point sources are determined. The applications of X-ray optics are discussed together with the properties of materials in the X-ray range

  5. Safety related aspects of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Solutions and questions related to nuclear waste management are presented. In particular, long-term safety of repositories in Germany and Sweden is considered, with special attention being paid to methods of detection, geotechnical barriers and post-operational phase of salt dome repositories, and conditioning of wastes to make them fit for ultimate disposal. (DG) [de

  6. Analysis of ultimate-heat-sink spray ponds. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1981-08-01

    This report develops models which can be utilized in the design of certain types of spray ponds used in ultimate heat sinks at nuclear power plants, and ways in which the models may be employed to determine the design basis required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.27

  7. The effect of COD loading on the granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal system and the recoverability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shenjing; Sun, Peide; Zheng, Wei; Chen, Lujun; Zheng, Xiongliu; Han, Jingyi; Yan, Tao

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the effect of varied COD loading (200, 400, 500, 600 and 800 mg L(-1)) on stability and recoverability of granule-based enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) system was investigated during continuously 53-d operation. Results showed that COD loading higher than 500 mg L(-1) could obviously deteriorate the granular EBPR system and result in sludge bulking with filamentous bacteria. High COD loading also changed the transformation patterns of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and inhibited the EPS secretion, which completely destroyed the stability and integrality of granules. Results of FISH indicated that glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other microorganisms had a competitive advantage over PAOs with higher COD loading. The community composition and EBPR performance were recovered irreversibly in long time operation when COD loading was higher than 500 mg L(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy Efficiency of Technological Equipment at the Economic Agent by Identifying the Points with Recoverable Heat Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Negoiţescu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For an energy-efficient future, the EU needs to step up its efforts to maximize energy savings. In this context, the paper addresses the steps needed to establish energy efficiency measures and proposes effective measures to reduce consumption by recovering large amounts of energy lost to industrial consumers. The points with the highest recoverable energy potential have been identified and it is proposed to install the heat recovery systems on the flue gas exhaust circuits and polluted air from Industrial Technological Equipment (ITE such as dyeing/drying cabins (DDC. Therefore, whenever possible and as small as energy saving, energy recovery solutions at any level, but especially at local level, need to be applied. In conclusion, by concentrating all the energy-saving efforts that are still being wasted, Europe can contribute, by saving energy, to ensuring a sustainable energy future

  9. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Boosting the Recoverable Energy Density of Lead-Free Ferroelectric Ceramic Thick Films through Artificially Induced Quasi-Relaxor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddigari, Mahesh; Palneedi, Haribabu; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Lim, Kyung Won; Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Ryu, Jungho

    2018-06-08

    Dielectric ceramic film capacitors, which store energy in the form of electric polarization, are promising for miniature pulsed power electronic device applications. For a superior energy storage performance of the capacitors, large recoverable energy density, along with high efficiency, high power density, fast charge/discharge rate, and good thermal/fatigue stability, is desired. Herein, we present highly dense lead-free 0.942[Na 0.535 K 0.480 NbO 3 ]-0.058LiNbO 3 (KNNLN) ferroelectric ceramic thick films (∼5 μm) demonstrating remarkable energy storage performance. The nanocrystalline KNNLN thick film fabricated by aerosol deposition (AD) process and annealed at 600 °C displayed a quasi-relaxor ferroelectric behavior, which is in contrast to the typical ferroelectric nature of the KNNLN ceramic in its bulk form. The AD film exhibited a large recoverable energy density of 23.4 J/cm 3 , with an efficiency of over 70% under the electric field of 1400 kV/cm. Besides, an ultrahigh power density of 38.8 MW/cm 3 together with a fast discharge speed of 0.45 μs, good fatigue endurance (up to 10 6 cycles), and thermal stability in a wide temperature range of 20-160 °C was also observed. Using the AD process, we could make a highly dense microstructure of the film containing nano-sized grains, which gave rise to the quasi-relaxor ferroelectric characteristics and the remarkable energy storage properties.

  11. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions

  12. Oil Production, Refining and Transportation in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbal A. Guliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with fuel and energy complex of Canada as one of the largest manufacturers of primary energy in the world, which provides up to 6 percent of the world energy supply. Only the Russian Federation, PRC, the United States of America and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have larger production volumes. However, oil plays the most significant role in Canada's energy exports. It is estimated that its proven reserves are sufficient to meet the demand for 140 years at current production rate. The relevance of the study, including the analysis of fuel and energy complex of Canada, is due to the fact that such comparison and synthesis of data on the amount of recoverable oil reserves, the volume of its production, imports, exports and transit of oil and oil products, the distribution of oil for transportation (via pipelines, rail, sea, road, strategic oil field, refining and transportation of oil and oil products development projects, as well as implementation of Canada's best practices in the Russian Federation, is being developed for the first time. In addition, the data given in previously published articles on the subject, due to the dynamic development of the industry, are obsolete and do not reflect the real situation.

  13. Highly recoverable pyridinium-tagged Hoveyda-Grubbs pre-catalyst for olefin metathesis. Design of the boomerang ligand toward the optimal compromise between activity and reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Diane; Caïjo, Fréderic; Laurent, Isabelle; Gulajski, Lukasz; Grela, Karol; Mauduit, Marc

    2007-09-28

    Whereas the boomerang ligand of Hoveyda-Grubbs pre-catalysts can be modified by attachment of a pyridinium tag to its benzylidene moiety, a precise adjustment of the length of the spacer allows the optimum balance to be reached between the activity of the catalyst and its recoverability, exceeding 98% after 6 catalytic runs in the best case.

  14. Catalytic asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins using a recoverable and reusable OsO(4)2- in ionic liquid [bmim][PF6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luís C; Afonso, Carlos A M

    2002-12-21

    The use of the solvent systems water/ionic liquid or water/ionic liquid/tert-butanol provides a recoverable, reusable, robust and simple system for the asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins, based on the immobilization of the osmium-ligand catalyst in the ionic liquid phase.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-02-27

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 2.8 billion barrels of oil and 34 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Domanik-type formations of the Volga-Ural Region Province, Russia.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  17. Cable tray ultimate strength test employing a large shaker table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, K.; Myojin, K.; Imai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Fuyama, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Takasago (Japan); Kokubo, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industdries Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Ultimate behaviors of cable trays, used in nuclear plants, have not been well studied since cable trays are designed based on conservative design criteria. In this study, by employing a large shaker table, an ultimate strength test was conducted for cable trays used in nuclear power plants. This report describes the results of shaker table test. The following results were obtained. First, in an S{sub 2} earthquake, the damping ratio was so large - more than 30% due to the rubbing of cables - that a large response was not present and the strains in the support were within the elastic limits. Secondly, the support was strong enough to sustain the cable trays even when the strain in the support was 20 times larger than the elastic limit. (authors)

  18. Landau damping: the mechanics model and its ultimate entropy gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Kluge, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Classical mechanics has only been invoked to account for Landau damping in a rather half-hearted way, alongside plasma perturbation theory. In particular this invocation is essential for the study of the saturation, or post-linear (or 'nonlinear') regime of the damping initiated by Dawson and O'Neill. By embracing mechanics wholeheartedly here, with its attendant phase space, one can access results, old and new, cleanly and directly, and with one fewer numerical integration for the post-linear regime. By using a summation technique familiar in semiclassical quantum mechanics (Poisson summation), the one remaining numerical integration can be much improved in accuracy. Also accessible from mechanics is the ultimate entropy gain. Though zero for any finite time (in the absence of coarse graining), the entropy gain is ultimately non-zero (at infinite time the required coarse graining is zero). It is calculated analytically by using the appropriate asymptotics, hitherto not fully exploited.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations, Alaska North Slope, and summary of resource potential of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Lease, Richard O.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Rouse, William A.; Jarboe, Palma B.; Whidden, Katherine J.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Lewis, Kristen A.; Heller, Samuel; Craddock, William H.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Smith, Rebecca; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2017-12-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 8.7 billion barrels of oil and 25 trillion cubic feet of natural gas (associated and nonassociated) in conventional accumulations in the Cretaceous Nanushuk and Torok Formations in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska, adjacent State and Native lands, and State waters. The estimated undiscovered oil resources in the Nanushuk and Torok Formations are significantly higher than previous estimates, owing primarily to recent, larger than anticipated oil discoveries.

  20. Management and ultimate storage of wastes from nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The annotation on R and D prorgam 86 parts I-II have been brought together in the present report part I, together with some general viewpoints, and been classified according to subject. Part II of the present report comprises viewpoints of 'Research Program 1987-1992' and part III of 'Alternative methods of ultimate storage'. Swedish and French viewpoints are presented in Swedish, the remaining foreign material in English. The comments are grouped in subject catergories. (O.S.)

  1. The ultimate challenge of pregnancy-associated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R.; Tahira, A.

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy associated breast carcinoma requires making judicious use of all diagnostic modalities and the therapeutic options of surgery, irradiation, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy to enhance survival rates. Individualization of treatment for each patient is the key to success. The effects on future fertility, the time interval before next conception, and whether to breast feed or not are all well-documented. A multidisciplinary coordinated team approach to this ultimate challenge of patient care will prove fruitful. (author)

  2. Ultimate Gradient Limitation in Niobium Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchin, Mattia [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, Anna [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Posen, Sam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Romanenko, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zasadzinski, John [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The present study is addressed to the theoretical description of the ultimate gradient limitation in SRF cavities. Our intent is to exploit experimental data to confirm models which provide feed-backs on how to improve the current state-of-art. New theoretical insight on the cavities limiting factor can be suitable to improve the quench field of N-doped cavities, and therefore to take advantage of high Q0 at high gradients.

  3. Ultimate capacity of piles penetrating in weak soil layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pile foundation is one of the most popular forms of deep foundations. They are routinely employed to transfer axial structure loads through the soft soil to stronger bearing strata. Piles generally used to increase the load carrying capacity of the foundation and reduce the settlement of the foundation. On the other hand, many cases in practice where piles pass through different layers of soil that contain weak layers located at different depths and extension, also some time cavities with a different shape, size, and depth are found. In this study, a total of 96 cases is considered and simulated in PLAXIS 2D program aiming to understand the influence of weak soil on the ultimate pile capacity. The piles embedded in the dense sand with a layer of weak soil at different extension and location. The cross section of the geometry used in this study was designed as an axisymmetric model with the 15-node element; the boundary condition recommended at least 5D in the horizontal direction, and (L+5D in the vertical direction where D and L are the diameter and length of pile, respectively. The soil is modeled as Mohr-Coulomb, with five input parameters and the behavior of pile material represented by the linear elastic model. The results of the above cases are compared with the results found in a pile embedded in dense soil without weak layers or cavities. The results indicated that the existence of weak soil layer within the surrounding soil around the pile decreases the ultimate capacity. Furthermore, it has been found that increase in the weak soil width (extension leads to reduction in the ultimate capacity of the pile. This phenomenon is applicable to all depth of weak soil. The influence of weak layer extension on the ultimate capacity is less when it is presentin the upper soil layers.

  4. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π 0 ,η,η ′ ) decay channels for the ψ ′ looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc ¯ intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  5. Hydrogeological problems in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uerpmann, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The following work shows how one can achieve the safe closure of ultimate-stored radioactive wastes by connecting a series of various barriers to the biosphere. The propagation of radionuclides by ground water is considered to be the most important long-term transport mechanism. Salt occurences in the Federal Republic of Germany are considered to be the best form suitable for end storage formations for known reasons. When not observing mining and hydrogeological knowledge, the danger of uncontrollable water flow in the end storage can arise from the water solubility of the salt rocks. Therefore the filling of salt mines and the subsequent procedures are dealt with in detail. The leading of radioactive nuclides is influenced by the properties of the ultimately stored wastes and by the quality of the remaining filling of the caves. These problems are dealt with in detail. A series of barriers to the closure of the underground caves are suggested and discussed. The most important barriers consist of the stability of the corresponding selected end storage structure. Possible arrangements of the storage cave are given which even after storage must maintain a high stability. Proposals are made on how the ultimately stored wastes can protect themselves against contact with free water or salt solutions. (orig.) [de

  6. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  7. Chinese refining capacity for Canadian heavy oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed China's refining capacity in relation to exports of Canadian heavy oil. Demand for oil is increasing throughout the world, and China is expected to consume 25 per cent of the projected yearly oil supplies. Alberta currently has an estimated 174 billion barrels of recoverable bitumen, and produces 1.06 million barrels per day. Production is expected to increase to 4.5 million barrels per day by the year 2020. Currently bitumen blends are refined and diluted with naphtha and sweet synthetic crude oil. Bitumen is a challenging feedstock for refineries, and requires thermal production methods or gasification processes. Primary conversion into sour synthetic crude is typically followed by hydrocracking and further refining into finished petroleum products. There are currently 50 refineries in China with a 7.4 million barrel per day capacity. Coastal refineries using imported crude oil have a 4 million barrel per day capacity. New facilities are being constructed and existing plants are being upgraded in order to process heavier and more sour crude oils. However, current refining capabilities in Chinese refineries have a limited ability for resid conversion. It was concluded that while China has a refining infrastructure, only refineries on the coast will use oil sands-derived feedstocks. However, there are currently opportunities to design refineries to match future feedstocks. tabs., figs

  8. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  9. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers The Ultimate Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2010-01-01

    If you already have a good knowledge of Adobe Photoshop and are looking to advance your skills, Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers: The Ultimate Workshop is the book you've been waiting for.  Renowned photographers Martin Evening and Jeff Schewe impart their Photoshop tips and workflow, showing you how to use a vast array of rarely seen advanced Photoshop techniques.  Whether the subject is serious retouching work, weird and wonderful compositions, or planning a shoot before you've even picked up a camera, you can be sure that the advice is based on years of practical experience.

  10. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-03-07

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π{sup 0},η,η{sup ′}) decay channels for the ψ{sup ′} looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc{sup ¯} intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  11. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  12. Play-level distributions of estimates of recovery factors for a miscible carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery method used in oil reservoirs in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2016-03-02

    In a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study, recovery-factor estimates were calculated by using a publicly available reservoir simulator (CO2 Prophet) to estimate how much oil might be recovered with the application of a miscible carbon dioxide (CO2) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method to technically screened oil reservoirs located in onshore and State offshore areas in the conterminous United States. A recovery factor represents the percentage of an oil reservoir’s original oil in place estimated to be recoverable by the application of a miscible CO2-EOR method. The USGS estimates were calculated for 2,018 clastic and 1,681 carbonate candidate reservoirs in the “Significant Oil and Gas Fields of the United States Database” prepared by Nehring Associates, Inc. (2012).

  13. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  14. The prospects of transition metal dichalcogenides for ultimately scaled CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, S.; Kinberger, W.; Granzner, R.; Fiori, G.; Schwierz, F.

    2018-05-01

    MOSFET gate length scaling has been a main source of progress in digital electronics for decades. Today, researchers still spend considerable efforts on reducing the gate length and on developing ultimately scaled MOSFETs, thereby exploring both new device architectures and alternative channel materials beyond Silicon such as two-dimensional TMDs (transition metal dichalcogenide). On the other hand, the envisaged scaling scenario for the next 15 years has undergone a significant change recently. While the 2013 ITRS edition required a continuation of aggressive gate length scaling for at least another 15 years, the 2015 edition of the ITRS suggests a deceleration and eventually a levelling off of gate length scaling and puts more emphasis on alternative options such as pitch scaling to keep Moore's Law alive. In the present paper, future CMOS scaling is discussed in the light of emerging two-dimensional MOSFET channel, in particular two-dimensional TMDs. To this end, the scaling scenarios of the 2013 and 2015 ITRS editions are considered and the scaling potential of TMD MOSFETs is investigated by means of quantum-mechanical device simulations. It is shown that for ultimately scaled MOSFETs as required in the 2013 ITRS, the heavy carrier effective masses of the Mo- and W-based TMDs are beneficial for the suppression of direct source-drain tunneling, while to meet the significantly relaxed scaling targets of the 2016 ITRS heavy-effective-mass channels are not needed.

  15. The ultimate security bounds of quantum key distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, G.M.; Alber, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols exploit quantum correlations in order to establish a secure key between two legitimate users. Recent work on QKD has revealed a remarkable link between quantum and secret correlations. In this talk we report on recent results concerning the ultimate upper security bounds of various QKD schemes (i.e., the maximal disturbance up to which the two legitimate users share quantum correlations) under the assumption of general coherent attacks. In particular, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of QKD schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases. As long as the two legitimate users focus on the sifted key and treat each pair of data independently during the post processing, our results are valid for arbitrary dimensions of the information carriers. The bound we have derived is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is also discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions, however, such equivalence is generally no longer valid. (author)

  16. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  17. A new era of opportunity for Canada's oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The enormous potential for wealth that is offered by Canada's oil sands deposits was discussed. Alberta's oil sands contain more recoverable oil than all the reserves of Saudi Arabia - but they have barely been developed. They are a natural resource of sufficient size, scale and competitive advantage to be of great benefit to the economy. The National Oil Sands Task Force has invested billions of dollars in the project and believes that the industry can triple production over the next 25 years. Benefits to Canadians will include an estimated 44,000 new jobs across the country, $97 billion increase in revenue for all levels of government, and $100 billion increase in consumer disposable incomes. In order to realize these socio-economic benefits, some important improvements were recommended to insure industry efficiency and growth. Some of the recommendations included increased investment in science and technology, as a key component of development. 1 tab., 4 figs

  18. Graphene Derivative in Magnetically Recoverable Catalyst Determines Catalytic Properties in Transfer Hydrogenation of Nitroarenes to Anilines with 2-Propanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Vijay Kumar; Mazhar, Sumaira; Gregor, Lennon; Stein, Barry D; Morgan, David Gene; Maciulis, Nicholas A; Pink, Maren; Losovyj, Yaroslav; Bronstein, Lyudmila M

    2018-06-14

    Here, we report transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes to aminoarenes using 2-propanol as a hydrogen source and Ag-containing magnetically recoverable catalysts based on partially reduced graphene oxide (pRGO) sheets. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data demonstrated that, during the one-pot catalyst synthesis, formation of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) is accompanied by the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) to pRGO. The formation of Ag 0 NPs on top of magnetite nanoparticles does not change the pRGO structure. At the same time, the catalyst structure is further modified during the transfer hydrogenation, leading to a noticeable increase of sp 2 carbons. These carbons are responsible for the adsorption of substrate and intermediates, facilitating a hydrogen transfer from Ag NPs and creating synergy between the components of the catalyst. The nitroarenes with electron withdrawing and electron donating substituents allow for excellent yields of aniline derivatives with high regio and chemoselectivity, indicating that the reaction is not disfavored by these functionalities. The versatility of the catalyst synthetic protocol was demonstrated by a synthesis of an Ru-containing graphene derivative based catalyst, also allowing for efficient transfer hydrogenation. Easy magnetic separation and stable catalyst performance in the transfer hydrogenation make this catalyst promising for future applications.

  19. Fe_3O_4@B-MCM-41: A new magnetically recoverable nanostructured catalyst for the synthesis of polyhydroquinolines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdollahi-Alibeik, Mohammad; Rezaeipoor-Anari, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Boron modified MCM-41 with magnetite core (Fe_3O_4@B-MCM-41) as a new magnetically recoverable heterogeneous catalyst was prepared and characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, XRD, VSM and FT-IR techniques. The catalytic activity of Fe_3O_4@B-MCM-41 was investigated in the four-component reaction of aldehyde, dimedone, active methylene compounds and ammonium acetate for the synthesis of polyhydroquinolines. According to optimization and characterization results the catalyst with Si:B:Fe_3O_4 mole composition of 40:4:1 has the best activity. The catalyst could be recovered easily by external magnet and has excellent reusability many times without significant decrease of activity. - Highlights: • Core–shell Fe_3O_4@MCM-41 nanoparticles modified by boron (Fe_3O_4@B-MCM-41). • Fe_3O_4@B-MCM-41 as reusable catalyst for the synthesis of polyhydroquinolines. • Characterization of Fe_3O_4@B-MCM-41 using SEM, TEM, BET, XRD and FT-IR techniques.

  20. Regional Economic Resilience: Resistance and Recoverability of Resource-Based Cities during Economic Crises in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Tan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper quantitatively analyzes the economic resilience of resource-based cities (RBCs in Northeast China in terms of resistance and recoverability during two economic crises: the Asian financial crisis and the global financial crisis. Moreover, it analyzes the main factors that affected regional resilience. There are three main findings. First, the RBCs in general demonstrated poor resistance during both recessions, but there were variations among the different types of RBCs. Petroleum and metal cities demonstrated the most resistance, whereas coal cities performed the worst. Second, the influential factors affecting economic resilience varied across the two economic cycles, but location advantage, research and development (R and D intensity, foreign trade dependence ratio, and supporting policies had positive effects on resilience during both economic cycles, while the proportion of employed persons in resource industries had a negative effect. Industrial diversity had a weak and ambiguous effect on resilience. Third, the secondary industry was more resilient during the Asian financial crisis, but the tertiary industry was more resilient during the global financial crisis. This shift may be attributed to both the nature of the crises and the strength of the sectors at the time of the crises.

  1. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  2. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  3. The end of cheap oil: Bottom-up economic and geologic modeling of aggregate oil production curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsson, Kristofer; Bentley, Roger; Söderbergh, Bengt; Aleklett, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    There is a lively debate between ‘concerned’ and ‘unconcerned’ analysts regarding the future availability and affordability of oil. We critically examine two interrelated and seemingly plausible arguments for an unconcerned view: (1) there is a growing amount of remaining reserves; (2) there is a large amount of oil with a relatively low average production cost. These statements are unconvincing on both theoretical and empirical grounds. Oil availability is about flows rather than stocks, and average cost is not relevant in the determination of price and output. We subsequently implement a bottom-up model of regional oil production with micro-foundations in both natural science and economics. An oil producer optimizes net present value under the constraints of reservoir dynamics, technological capacity and economic circumstances. Optimal production profiles for different reservoir drives and economic scenarios are derived. The field model is then combined with a discovery model of random sampling from a lognormal field size-frequency distribution. Regional discovery and production scenarios are generated. Our approach does not rely on the simple assumptions of top-down models such as the Hubbert curve – however it leads to the same qualitative result that production peaks when a substantial fraction of the recoverable resource remains in-ground. - Highlights: ► Remaining oil reserves and average costs are of limited use in forecasting. ► We present a bottom-up approach to the modeling of regional oil production. ► Producers maximize net present value under technological and physical constraints. ► Exploration is modeled as random sampling from a lognormal field size distribution. ► Regional production starts declining before half of the recoverable oil is produced.

  4. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  5. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  6. ONE FINANCIAL REPORTING GLOBAL LANGUAGE: THE ULTIMATE GOAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Limijaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the extent to which international accounting standards is applied and whether it is the ultimate goal. Up until the end of 2016, approximately there are 84% of the 149 jurisdictions analysed which require IFRS for all or most domestic publicly accountable entities. This may indicate that we are not that much further from having a single set of globally-accepted accounting standards. However, there is more to financial reporting than just accounting standards alone, such as the political aspect of accounting standard-setting, translation issues surrounding IFRS adoption, the US position and the complexity of financial reporting. Improving financial reporting quality needs more than just having global accounting standards, rather, it is also essential to consider the preparers’ incentives and other institutions surrounding the firm. Stakeholders need to broaden the perspective when viewing financial reporting, so that it will not be focused merely on accounting standards alone.

  7. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  8. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  9. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary causes and proximate (mechanistic correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life, whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our

  10. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  11. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  13. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  14. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  15. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Siu Hua

    2014-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  16. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  17. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  18. Explaining the price of oil 1971–2014 : The need to use reliable data on oil discovery and to account for ‘mid-point’ peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, Roger; Bentley, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains, in broad terms, the price of oil from 1971 to 2014 and focuses on the large price increases after 1973 and 2004. The explanation for these increases includes the quantity of conventional oil (i.e. oil in fields) discovered, combined with the decline in production of this oil that occurs typically once ‘mid-point’ is passed. Many past explanations of oil price have overlooked these two constraints, and hence provided insufficient explanations of oil price. Reliable data on conventional oil discovery cannot come from public-domain proved (‘1P’) oil reserves, as such data are very misleading. Instead oil industry backdated proved-plus-probable (‘2P’) data must be used. It is recognised that accessing 2P data can be expensive, or difficult. The ‘mid-point’ peak of conventional oil production results from a region's field-size distribution, its fall-off in oil discovery, and the physics of field decline. In terms of the future price of oil, estimates of the global recoverable resource of conventional oil show that the oil price will remain high on average, unless dramatic changes occur in the volume of production and cost of non-conventional oils, or if the overall demand for oil were to decline. The paper concludes with policy recommendations. - Highlights: • We show that understanding the oil price is assisted by reliable data on oil discovery. • These data need to be combined with the ‘peak at mid-point’ concept. • Results show that the world has probably entered an era of constrained oil supply. • Oil price stays high unless non-conventional supply, or demand, change significantly.

  19. Efficiency Of Different Teaching Models In Teaching Of Frisbee Ultimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuffová Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of two frisbee ultimate teaching models at 8-year grammar schools relative to age. In the experimental group was used a game based model (Teaching Games for Understanding and in the control group the traditional model based on teaching techniques. 6 groups of female students took part in experiment: experimental group 1 (n=10, age=11.6, experimental group 2 (n=12, age=13.8, experimental group 3 (n=14, age =15.8, control group 1 (n=11, age =11.7, control group 2 (n=10, age =13.8 and control group 3 (n=9, age =15.8. Efficiency of the teaching models was evaluated based of game performance and special knowledge results. Game performance was evaluated by the method of game performance assessment based on GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument through video record. To verify level of knowledge, we used a knowledge test, which consisted of questions related to the rules and tactics knowledge of frisbee ultimate. To perform statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Game performance assessment and knowledge level indicated higher efficiency of TGfU in general, but mostly statistically insignificant. Experimental groups 1 and 2 were significantly better in the indicator that evaluates tactical aspect of game performance - decision making (p<0.05. Experimental group 3 was better in the indicator that evaluates skill execution - disc catching. The results showed that the students of the classes taught by game based model reached partially better game performance in general. Experimental groups achieved from 79.17 % to 80 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 75 % to 87.5 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test. Control groups achieved from 57.69 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 51.92 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test.

  20. A database and probabilistic assessment methodology for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery and associated carbon dioxide retention in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Attanasi, Emil; Olea, Ricardo A.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Philip; Brennan, Sean T.; Merrill, Matthew; Jahediesfanjani, Hossein; Roueche, Jacqueline; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed an assessment methodology for estimating the potential incremental technically recoverable oil resources resulting from carbon dioxide-enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) in reservoirs with appropriate depth, pressure, and oil composition. The methodology also includes a procedure for estimating the CO2 that remains in the reservoir after the CO2-EOR process is complete. The methodology relies on a reservoir-level database that incorporates commercially available geologic and engineering data. The mathematical calculations of this assessment methodology were tested and produced realistic results for the Permian Basin Horseshoe Atoll, Upper Pennsylvanian-Wolfcampian Play (Texas, USA). The USGS plans to use the new methodology to conduct an assessment of technically recoverable hydrocarbons and associated CO2 sequestration resulting from CO2-EOR in the United States.

  1. Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable

  2. ZIO: The Ultimate Linux I/O Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Cobas, J D; Rubini, A; Nellaga, S; Vaga, F

    2014-01-01

    ZIO (with Z standing for “The Ultimate I/O” Framework) was developed for CERN with the specific needs of physics labs in mind, which are poorly addressed in the mainstream Linux kernel. ZIO provides a framework for industrial, high-bandwith, high-channel count I/O device drivers (digitizers, function generators, timing devices like TDCs) with performance, generality and scalability as design goals. Among its features, it offers abstractions for • both input and output channels, and channel sets • run-time selection of trigger types • run-time selection of buffer types • sysfs-based configuration • char devices for data and metadata • a socket interface (PF ZIO) as alternative to char devices In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of ZIO, and describe representative cases of driver development for typical and exotic applications: drivers for the FMC (FPGAMezzanine Card, see [1]) boards developed at CERN like the FMC ADC 100Msps digitizer, FMC TDC timestamp counter, and FMC DEL ...

  3. Episodic foresight and anxiety: Proximate and ultimate perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloyan, Beyon; Bulley, Adam; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between episodic foresight and anxiety from an evolutionary perspective, proposing that together they confer an advantage for modifying present moment decision-making and behaviour in the light of potential future threats to fitness. We review the body of literature on the role of episodic foresight in anxiety, from both proximate and ultimate perspectives. We propose that anxious feelings associated with episodic simulation of possible threat-related future events serve to imbue these simulations with motivational currency. Episodic and semantic details of a future threat may be insufficient for motivating its avoidance, but anxiety associated with a simulation can provoke adaptive threat management. As such, we detail how anxiety triggered by a self-generated, threat-related future simulation prepares the individual to manage that threat (in terms of its likelihood and/or consequences) over greater temporal distances than observed in other animals. We then outline how anxiety subtypes may represent specific mechanisms for predicting and managing particular classes of fitness threats. This approach offers an inroad for understanding the nature of characteristic future thinking patterns in anxiety disorders and serves to illustrate the adaptive function of the mechanism from which clinical anxiety deviates. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  5. Accounting conservatism,ultimate ownership and investment efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Xu; Xia Wang; Nina Han

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze and examine the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behavior in China.Design/methodology/approach-By combining a developed theoretical framework and empirical study,this paper examines the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment.The sample and data are all collected from Wind and CAMAR databases.Findings-The paper finds that the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly positive when inside capital is not enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can expend the level of investment by decreasing information asymmetry and cost of capital;however,the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly negative when inside capital is enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can curtail the level of investment by mitigating the interest conflicts between management and outside shareholders and decreasing agency costs.Additionally,the paper finds that the severity of information asymmetry and agency problem affects the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behaviour,and the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is weaker for firms with ultimate ownership controller as local government or individuals.Originality/value-This is the first paper to analyze and examine the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment in China directly.The findings are also useful to explain the awkward predicament found by prior literature.

  6. Ultimate storage of radioactive wastes annual report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is a cooperative effort by the Company for Radiation and Environmental Research, Munich, and the Company for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe, and provides a survey of work carried out during 1973 in the area of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes. Mining and construction works which were carried out in the Asse Salt Mine near Remlingen both underground as well as above the ground and which were used for repair, maintenance and expansion of the operation consistent with its future tasks are reported. The storage of low-level wastes at the 750 m level and also the test-oriented storage of medium-level waste materials at the 490 m level were carried out within the reporting period. Shielded storage casks S7V developed by the GfK were used for the first time in September for transporting 200 l iron-hooped drums filled with medium-level radioactive wastes to Asse, each shipment always containing seven drums. With two round-trips a week taking place between the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe and the Asse II shaft installation, 14 drums were brought each week so that, by the end of the year, the quantity in storage amounted to a total of 233 drums. Further information is provided concerning the present status of research work in the fields of oromechanics, geology and hydrology as well as other findings. Further, storage techniques are discussed which are presently in the planning stage

  7. Thermal performance measurements on ultimate heat sinks--cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.; Abbey, O.B.

    1977-12-01

    The primary objective of the studies described is to obtain the requisite data, with respect to modeling requirements, to characterize thermal performance of heat sinks for nuclear facilities existing at elevated water temperatures in result of experiencing a genuinely large heat load and responding to meteorological influence. The data should reflect thermal performance for combinations leading to worst-case meteorological influence. A geothermal water retention basin has been chosen as the site for the first measurement program and data have been obtained in the first of several experiments scheduled to be performed there. These data illustrate the thermal and water budgets during episodes of cooling from an initially high pond water bulk temperature. Monitoring proceeded while the pond experienced only meteorological and seepage influence. The data are discussed and are presented as a data volume which may be used for calculation purposes. Suggestions for future measurement programs are stated with the intent to maintain and improve relevance to nuclear ultimate heat sinks while continuing to examine the performance of the analog geothermal pond. It is further suggested that the geothermal pond, with some modification, may be a suitable site for spray pond measurements

  8. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm 2 . The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  9. The Peak of the Oil Age - Analyzing the world oil production Reference Scenario in World Energy Outlook 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, Kjell; Hoeoek, Mikael; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Lardelli, Michael; Snowden, Simon; Soederbergh, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of future global oil production presented in the IEA's World Energy Outlook 2008 (WEO 2008) is divided into 6 fractions; four relate to crude oil, one to non-conventional oil, and the final fraction is natural-gas-liquids (NGL). Using the production parameter, depletion-rate-of-recoverable-resources, we have analyzed the four crude oil fractions and found that the 75 Mb/d of crude oil production forecast for year 2030 appears significantly overstated, and is more likely to be in the region of 55 Mb/d. Moreover, analysis of the other fractions strongly suggests lower than expected production levels. In total, our analysis points to a world oil supply in 2030 of 75 Mb/d, some 26 Mb/d lower than the IEA predicts. The connection between economic growth and energy use is fundamental in the IEA's present modelling approach. Since our forecast sees little chance of a significant increase in global oil production, our findings suggest that the 'policy makers, investors and end users' to whom WEO 2008 is addressed should rethink their future plans for economic growth. The fact that global oil production has very probably passed its maximum implies that we have reached the Peak of the Oil Age.

  10. INCREASING HEAVY OIL RESERVES IN THE WILMINGTON OIL FIELD THROUGH ADVANCED RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2001-08-08

    The objective of this project is to increase the recoverable heavy oil reserves within sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, through the testing and application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The hope is that successful application of these technologies will result in their implementation throughout the Wilmington Field and, through technology transfer, will be extended to increase the recoverable oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The existing steamflood in the Tar zone of Fault Block II-A (Tar II-A) has been relatively inefficient because of several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs: inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil and non-uniform distribution of the remaining oil. This has resulted in poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery and reduce operating costs, including: (1) Development of three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic and stochastic reservoir simulation models--thermal or otherwise--to aid in reservoir management of the steamflood and post-steamflood phases and subsequent development work. (2) Development of computerized 3-D visualizations of the geologic and reservoir simulation models to aid reservoir surveillance and operations. (3) Perform detailed studies of the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rock and fluids. (4) Testing and proposed application of a

  11. The experience of western oil companies in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moerland, A.

    1994-01-01

    The oil and gas industry is the most important industry to Russia providing 52% of all hard currency earnings for the country. The oil production is declining by more than 30% during recent years from 10.3 billion barrels per day in 1990 to 7.1 billion barrels today. The paper discusses the Amoco engagement in the Priobskoye Field in western Siberia containing up to 5 billion barrels of recoverable oil requiring capital investments of more than 25 billion dollars over the first 20 years. Over the last five years, foreign companies have worked with their Russian counterparts to complete numerous feasibility studies on many projects. In the next few months, important developments may take place such as the offshore Sakhalin in the East and the Timan Pechora region in the North. The experienced barriers connected to the activities, burden of taxes, policy issues etc., are dealt with

  12. IOGCC/DOE oil and gas environmental workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) in cooperation with US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a workshop format to allow state regulatory officials and industry representatives the opportunity to participate in frank and open discussions on issues of environmental regulatory compliance. The purpose in providing this forum is to assist both groups in identifying the key barriers to the economic recoverability of domestic oil and gas resources while adequately protecting human health and the environment. The following topics were discussed, groundwater protection; temporarily abandoned and idle wells; effluent discharges; storm water runoff; monitoring and compliance; wetlands; naturally occurring radioactive materials; RCRA reauthorization and oil pollution prevention regulation. At the conclusion, all of the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire which critiqued the day activities. A discussion of each of the issues is made a part of this report as is a summary of the critique questionnaire which were received

  13. The experience of western oil companies in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moerland, A. [Amoco Erusia Petroleum Co., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The oil and gas industry is the most important industry to Russia providing 52% of all hard currency earnings for the country. The oil production is declining by more than 30% during recent years from 10.3 billion barrels per day in 1990 to 7.1 billion barrels today. The paper discusses the Amoco engagement in the Priobskoye Field in western Siberia containing up to 5 billion barrels of recoverable oil requiring capital investments of more than 25 billion dollars over the first 20 years. Over the last five years, foreign companies have worked with their Russian counterparts to complete numerous feasibility studies on many projects. In the next few months, important developments may take place such as the offshore Sakhalin in the East and the Timan Pechora region in the North. The experienced barriers connected to the activities, burden of taxes, policy issues etc., are dealt with

  14. Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moelholt Jensen, Find

    2008-05-15

    of the profile, also called 'local deformations', to verify a more complex response than that of a Bernoulli-Euler Beam. A large number of mechanical displacement sensors and strain gauges were mounted inside and outside the structure. These measurements further proved highly useful when validating Finite Element based analysis and failure mechanisms should be decided. Finally, comparisons of the ultimate failure loads observed in the full-scale tests are presented and conclusions are drawn based on the mechanisms found. (au)

  15. Ultimate resistance of a reinforced concrete foundation under impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Forasassi, G.; Marconi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of a spent nuclear fuel cask against a reinforced concrete slab of a temporary repository for spent nuclear fuel is numerically analysed. The analysis considers accidental events in which a spent nuclear fuel cask would drop against the floor of a repository during lifting operations. Two types of solutions have been taken into account: a simple reinforced concrete structure and a structure provided with a 40 mm thick steel liner on the impacted surface, connected to a 1600 mm thick concrete bed. The model is assumed to be axisymmetric and positioned on an elastic ground (Winkler model). The concrete has been simulated as: elastic perfectly plastic under compressive stresses limited by a crushing strain; elastic linear under tensile stresses until a cracking stress value and a following decrease of stress characterized by a constant or variable softening modulus; limited ability to resist at shear stresses after cracking characterized by a shear retention factor. The steel of the reinforcement bars and of the cask has been simulated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. Several numerical simulations have been performed in order to determine the influence, on the ultimate resistance of the structure under examination, of the steel liner, of some characteristic parameters of concrete (as the softening module and the shear retention factor) and of the Winkler coefficient values, simulating the elastic behaviour of the ground. The obtained results demonstrate that a steel liner produces a lower stress in the concrete as well as in the reinforcement but the bed is still subjected to the cracking phenomenon throughout its entire width although the crushing is localized to only a few elements near the impact zone. The use of a more complex constitutive equation for the concrete considering the shear retention factor and the softening module has given results which do not differ greatly from those related to a more simplified model. A different degree of

  16. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  17. Reserve growth in oil pools of Alberta : model and forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, M.; Cook, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Central Region

    2010-09-15

    This paper presented a reserve growth study that was conducted on oil pools in Alberta, Canada. Historical oil reserve data were evaluated to assess the potential for future reserve growth in both pools and fields, and reserve growth models and functions were developed to better forecast hydrocarbon volumes. The study also considered the sensitivity of reserve growth to such factors as pool size, porosity, and oil gravity. From 1960 to 2005, the reported known recoverable oil in Alberta, excluding the Athabasca oil sands and including only pools with adequate data, increased from 4.2 to 13.9 billion barrels of oil (BBO). New discoveries contributed 3.7 BBO and reserve growth added 6 BBO. Most reserve growth occurred in pools with more than 125,000 barrels of oil. Light-oil pools account for most of the total known oil volume and consequently showed the lowest growth. Pools with greater than 30 percent porosity grew more than pools with lower porosity reservoirs. Oil field growth was found to be almost twice that of pool growth, possibly because the analysis evaluated fields with two or more pools discovered in different years. The growth in oil volumes in Alberta pools is projected to be about 454 million barrels of oil in the period from 2006 to 2010. Over a 25-year period, the cumulative reserve growth in Alberta oil pools was substantially lower than other major petroleum-producing regions, but the growth at the field level compares well. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Resources and future supply of oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjaerstad, Jan; Johnsson, Filip

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines global oil resources and the future global oil supply/demand balance. The paper builds upon several comprehensive databases designed during the work and considerable efforts have been made to review what must be considered the most reliable data. Global oil resources have been investigated on three levels; country, company and field levels. Although no decisive conclusions or quantitative assessments can be made with respect to the global oil resource base, remaining resources appear to be sufficient to meet demand up to 2030 as projected in the 2006 (and 2007) world energy outlook by the IEA. Significant resources have already been discovered beyond proven reserves, many prospective regions remain to be fully explored and there are vast volumes of recoverable unconventional oil. However, it is also concluded that global supply of oil probably will continue to be tight, both in the medium term as well as in the long term mainly as a consequence of above-ground factors such as investment constraints, geopolitical tensions, limited access to reserves and mature super-giant fields. Production of unconventional oil and synthetic fuels is not believed to significantly alter this situation. Although an increasing number of recent reports have indicated an imminent or 'soon to come' peak in global oil supply, it has not been found that any of these reports have contributed with any new information on oil resources or oil supply ability. Nevertheless, there is a distinct possibility that global oil production may peak or plateau in a relatively near future, not caused by limited resources but because too many factors over long time constrain investments into exploration and production. The lack of transparency within the oil industry obviously prevents any accurate analysis of future production and supply ability. Moreover, our ability to analyse the sector will become more difficult in the future as oil increasingly will have to be sourced from

  19. Canadian oil sands : supply and potential for market growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    Canadian oil sands recoverable reserves rank second only to Saudi Arabia and present enormous potential, particularly through technological gains. This paper discussed the market potential for oil sands both globally and in North America. It was estimated that oil sands production would eventually surpass declining conventional production, increasing from 42 per cent of Western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. Recoverable reserves were an estimated 174 billion barrels, with cumulative production at 4 billion barrels between 1967 to 2003. Statistics of U.S. and Canadian markets for crude oil were presented to the year 2020. A flow chart of oil sands products and market outlets was presented, as well as details of existing and potential markets for Canadian crude oil. Oil sands product dispositions were outlined, with the prediction that Asia may emerge as an incremental market. World crude oil production statistics were presented by type. World residual supply and demand estimates were presented, including details of conversion capacity and requirements for residual processing capacity in refineries and field upgraders. American refinery feedstocks were presented by type, with the identification of an increase in heavy crude runs. It was noted that recent pricing provided a strong incentive to add refining conversion capacity to process heavy oil. An outline of a study completed for the Alberta government and industry was presented, in which upgrading to light synthetic crude was determined as a base case. The value added to process bitumen beyond upgrading was discussed in relation to the upgrading of American refineries to process bitumen blends and synthetic crude. Potential cases for upgrading bitumen were presented, along with a comparison of capital costs. An overall economic comparison of projects was provided. Various measures to maximize markets for oil sands products in Alberta were presented. It was suggested that U.S. markets should absorb more new

  20. Preliminary study on peroxidase isoenzyme detection and RAPD molecular verification for sweet pepper 87-2 carried by a recoverable satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Li Jinguo; Wang Yalin; Zhang Zan; Xue Huai; Zhang Chunhua; Li Sherong

    1999-01-01

    The detection technology of peroxidase isoenzyme pattern and RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis were used to space-flown sweet pepper variety of 87-2 carried by a recoverable satellite, and its correspondent ground control Longjiao-2. Determination of peroxidase isoenzyme revealed that the physiological activities of space-flown sweet pepper were significantly higher than those of its ground control. To detect the polymorphism of gene sequence and the difference in molecular level. 42 primers were used, among them, 38 primers amplified polymorphic products, and the amplified products from 5 primers of sweet pepper 87-2 differed from those of ground control

  1. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rafiqul Islam

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L. are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1% free FA, 84.43% triglycerides, 4.88% sterol and 1.59% others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14% free FA, approximately 5% higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85% unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80% unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97% conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  2. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  3. Modeling of development and projection of the accumulated recoverable oil volume: methodology and application; Modelagem da evolucao e projecao de volume de oleo recuperavel acumulado: metodologia e aplicacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Luciana Cavalcanti de; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio Jose Martins; Rocha, Vinicius Brito [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2004-07-01

    A relevant problem that petroleum companies deal is the estimate of the future levels of reserves The objective of the reserve forecasting is pursued through the construction of mathematical models. Considering that the exploration process is an informed and controlled process, in order to reach the exploration targets, the exploration process is lead inside of a sequence of decisions based on the reached results. Such decisions are taken surrounded by an uncertain environment added to the random nature of the process. Another important assumption that must be taken into consideration is the dependency of the exploration on the conditions, or structure, of the discovered resources and the final potential. The modeling starts with the establishment of a general problem, when the models are being constructed, based on suppositions associated to the main concepts, and ends with the attainment of specific solutions, when the best description, or model, is selected through the estimate of the respective parameters and of the measurement adjustments. The result of this approach reflects the essence of the exploration process and how it is reflected in the incorporation of reserves and history of field discoveries. A case study is used for validation of the models and the estimates. (author)

  4. Oil Slick Characterization Using Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Breivik, O.; Brekke, C.; Skrunes, S.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oil spills are a hazard worldwide with potential of causing high impact disasters, and require an active oil spill response capability to protect personnel, the ecosystem, and the energy supply. As the amount of oil in traditionally accessible reserves decline, there will be increasing oil extraction from the Arctic and deep-water wells, both new sources with high risk and high cost for monitoring and response. Although radar has long been used for mapping the spatial extent of oil slicks, it is only since the Deepwater Horizon spill that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has been shown capable of characterizing oil properties within a slick, and therefore useful for directing response to the recoverable thicker slicks or emulsions. Here we discuss a 2015 Norwegian oil-on-water spill experiment in which emulsions of known quantity and water-to-oil ratio along with a look-alike slick of plant oil were released in the North Sea and imaged with polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) by NASA's UAVSAR instrument for several hours following release. During the experiment, extensive in situ measurements were made from ship or aircraft with meteorological instruments, released drift buoys, and optical/IR imagers. The experiment was designed to provide validation data for development of a physical model relating polarization-dependent electromagnetic scattering to the dielectric properties of oil mixed with ocean water, which is the basis for oil characterization with SAR. Data were acquired with X-, C-, and L-band satellite-based SARs to enable multi-frequency comparison of characterization capabilities. In addition, the data are used to develop methods to differentiate mineral slicks from biogenic look-alikes, and to better understand slick weathering and dispersion. The results will provide a basis for modeling oil-in-ice spills, currently a high priority for nations involved in Arctic oil exploration. Here we discuss the Norwegian experiment, the validation data, and the results of

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  6. A healthy reduction in oil consumption and carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, P.A.T.; Higgins, Millicent

    2005-01-01

    Reliance on oil as an energy source for private transportation produces increasingly unfavorable social, political and environmental conditions including climate change, dependence on foreign oil, and the need for difficult choices between oil production and protection of biological systems. At the same time, the population is increasingly sedentary due largely to our reliance on the automobile for transportation. Adoption and maintenance of healthy weights and healthier lifestyles by substituting walking or biking for short trips currently taken by car could simultaneously improve health and reduce oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. We calculate the reduction in oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions possible in the United States if (1) obese and overweight conditions were eliminated from the adult population through the use of walking or biking for transportation, and (2) individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 adopted previously recommended levels of daily exercise by walking or biking instead of driving. Substantial co-benefits accompany widespread adoption of physical activity. Assuming substitution of cycling for driving, the reduction in gasoline demand is equivalent to 34.9% of current domestic oil consumption. This constitutes considerably more oil than is recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The concomitant reduction in US carbon dioxide emissions would constitute approximately 10.9% relative to 1990 net US emissions and would be a substantial step toward satisfying the Kyoto Protocol

  7. A healthy reduction in oil consumption and carbon emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Higgins, M. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Public Health

    2005-01-01

    Reliance on oil as an energy source for private transportation produces increasingly unfavorable social, political and environmental conditions including climate change, dependence on foreign oil, and the need for difficult choices between oil production and protection of biological systems. At the same time, the population is increasingly sedentary due largely to our reliance on the automobile for transportation. Adoption and maintenance of healthy weights and healthier lifestyles by substituting walking or biking for short trips currently taken by car could simultaneously improve health and reduce oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. We calculate the reduction in oil consumption and carbon dioxide emissions possible in the United States if (1) obese and overweight conditions were eliminated from the adult population through the use of walking or biking for transportation, and (2) individuals between the ages of 10 and 64 adopted previously recommended levels of daily exercise by walking or biking instead of driving. Substantial co-benefits accompany widespread adoption of physical activity. Assuming substitution of cycling for driving, the reduction in gasoline demand is equivalent to 34.9% of current domestic oil consumption. This constitutes considerably more oil than is recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The concomitant reduction in US carbon dioxide emissions would constitute approximately 10.9% relative to 1990 net US emissions and would be a substantial step toward satisfying the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  8. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Application of Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khusainova, Alsu

    Enzymes have recently been reported as effective enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents. Both laboratory and field tests demonstrated significant increase in the ultimate oil production. Up to16% of additional oil was produced in the laboratory conditions and up to 269 barrels of additional oil per day...... were recovered in the field applications. The following mechanisms were claimed to be responsible for the enhancement of the oil production due to enzymes: wettability improvement of the rock surface; formation of the emulsions; reduction of oil viscosity; and removal of high molecular weight paraffins....... However, the positive effect of enzymes on oil recovery is not that obvious. In most of the studies commercial enzyme products composed of enzymes, surfactants and stabilisers were used. Application of such samples makes it difficult to assign a positive EOR effect to a certain compound, as several...

  9. Analysis of the kerogen of oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quass, F W; Down, A L

    1939-01-01

    Comments are given on the method developed by F. W. Quass for reducing the amount of mineral matter present in certain coals and oil shales (torbanites). The method consisted of grinding oil shale with water in a porcelain ball mill in the presence of oil. The oil formed a paste with the carbonaceous material, and a greater portion of the mineral matter remained suspended in the water and was separated. Ultimate analyses of the enriched samples indicated that the percent of carbon was higher, the percent of hydrogen and oxygen was lower, and the ratio of carbon to hydrogen and carbon to oxygen increased in the enriched samples.

  10. Effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources and nature of solid extraction sorbent on recoverable DOM composition: Implication into potential lability of different compound groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Kim, Sunghwan; Park, Jae-Eun; Kim, Hyun Sik; Hur, Jin

    2016-07-01

    Noting the source-dependent properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), this study explored the recoverable compounds by solid phase extraction (SPE) of two common sorbents (C18 and PPL) eluted with methanol solvent for contrasting DOM sources via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Fresh algae and leaf litter extracts DOM, one riverine DOM, and one upstream lacustrine DOM were selected for the comparison. C18 sorbent was generally found to extract more diverse molecular formula, relatively higher molecular weight, and more heteroatomic DOM compounds within the studied mass range than PPL sorbent except for the leaf litter extract. Even with the same sorbent, the main molecular features of the two end member DOM were distributed on different sides of the axes of a multivariate ordination, indicating the source-dependent characteristics of the recoverable compounds by the sorbents. In addition, further examination of the molecular formula uniquely present in the two end members and the upstream lake DOM suggested that proteinaceous, tannin-like, and heteroatomic DOM constituents might be potential compound groups which are labile and easily degraded during their mobilization into downstream watershed. This study provides new insights into the sorbent selectivity of DOM from diverse sources and potential lability of various compound groups.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey 2011 assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cook Inlet region, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Richard G.; Pierce, Brenda S.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has completed an assessment of the volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources in conventional and continuous accumulations in Cook Inlet. The assessment used a geology-based methodology and results from new scientific research by the USGS and the State of Alaska, Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas (DOG). In the Cook Inlet region, the USGS estimates mean undiscovered volumes of nearly 600 million barrels of oil, about 19 trillion cubic feet of gas, and about 46 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  12. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  13. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  14. The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the need for scientific support for policy decisions and in light of the decade-old perspective of a previous assessment, the USGS has completed a reassessment of the petroleum potential of the ANWR 1002 area. This was a comprehensive study by a team of USGS scientists in collaboration on technical issues (but not the assessment) with colleagues in other agencies and universities. The study incorporated all available public data and included new field and analytic work as well as the reevaluation of all previous work.Using a methodology similar to that used in previous USGS assessments in the ANWR and the NPRA, this study estimates that the total quantity of technically recoverable oil in the 1002 area is 7.7 BBO (mean value), which is distributed among 10 plays. Using a conservative estimate of 512 million barrels as a minimum commercially developable field size, then about 2.6 BBO of oil distributed in about three fields is expected to be economically recoverable in the undeformed part of the 1002 area. Using a similar estimated minimum field size, which may not be conservative considering the increased distance from infrastructure, the deformed area would be expected to have about 600 MMBO in one field.The amounts of in-place oil estimated for the 1002 area are larger than previous USGS estimates. The increase results in large part from improved resolution of reprocessed seismic data and geologic analogs provided by recent nearby oil discoveries.

  15. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  16. Screening Criteria and Considerations of Offshore Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Sang Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of enhanced oil recovery (EOR in offshore oil fields has received significant attention due to the potentially enormous amount of recoverable oil. However, EOR application offshore is in its very early stage due to conditions that are more complex than onshore oil fields, owing to the unique parameters present offshore. Therefore, successful EOR applications in offshore oil fields require different screening criteria than those for conventional onshore applications. A comprehensive database for onshore applications of EOR processes together with a limited offshore EOR application database are analyzed in this paper, and the important parameters for successful offshore application are incorporated into the new EOR screening criteria. In this paper, screening criteria to determine acceptable EOR processes for offshore fields, including hydrocarbon gas miscible, CO2 miscible, and polymer processes, are presented. Suggested screening criteria for these EOR processes comprise quantitative boundaries and qualitative considerations. Quantitative screening criteria are predominantly based on quantifiable data, such as oil and reservoir properties. Qualitative screening considerations mainly focus on the operational issues present offshore, including platform space constraints, limited disposal options, injectant availability, and flow assurance matters (including hydrate formation and difficulties in emulsion separation.

  17. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  18. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  19. Logistic curves, extraction costs and effective peak oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the use of logistic curves for cumulative production are supplemented with data on projected extraction costs and historical rates of capacity increase. While not denying the presence of large quantities of oil in the ground, even with foresight, rates of production of new nonconventional resources are unlikely to be sufficient to make up for declines in availability of conventional oil. Furthermore we show how the logistic-curve approach helps to naturally explain high oil prices even when there are significant quantities of low-cost oil yet to be extracted. - Highlights: ► Extraction cost information together with logistic curves to model oil extraction. ► Two models of extraction sequence for different oil resources. ► Importance of time-delay and extraction rate limits for new resources. ► Model results qualitatively reproduce observed extraction cost dynamics. ► Confirmation of “effective” peak oil, even though resources are in ground.

  20. A facile one-pot solvothermal method for synthesis of magnetically recoverable Pd-Fe3O4 hybrid nanocatalysts for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Fangchen; Ran, Maofei; Chu, Wei; Jiang, Chengfa; Sun, Wenjing

    2018-03-01

    Pd-Fe3O4 hybrid nanostructures were prepared using a simple one-pot hydrothermal method. The prepared materials were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma, N2 adsorption-desorption, and vibrating sample magnetometry. This self-assembled nanosystem acted as an efficient magnetically recyclable noble metal-based multi-functional nanocatalyst. It showed excellent catalytic activity and stability for the Heck reaction of iodobenzene and styrene under mild conditions. The methods used to prepare the Pd-Fe3O4 catalysts were simple and low-cost, which will be useful for the large-scale development and application of a magnetically recoverable Pd catalyst.

  1. Immobilized Palladium Nanoparticles on Zirconium Carboxy-Aminophosphonates Nanosheets as an Efficient Recoverable Heterogeneous Catalyst for Suzuki–Miyaura and Heck Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Kozell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Zirconium phosphate glycine diphosphonate nanosheets (ZPGly have been used as support for the preparation of solid palladium nanoparticles, namely Pd@ZPGly. Thanks to the presence of carboxy-aminophosponate groups on the layer surface, ZPGly-based materials were able to stabilize a high amount of palladium (up to 22 wt % also minimizing the amount of metal leached in the final products of representative important cross-coupling processes selected for proving the catalysts’ efficiency. The catalytic systems have been fully characterized and used in low amounts (0.1 mol % in the Suzuki–Miyaura and Heck cross-couplings. Moreover, the protocols were optimized for the use of recoverable azeotropic mixtures (aq. EtOH 96% or aq. CH3CN 84%, respectively and in the flow procedure allowing one to isolate the final pure products, without any purification step, with very low residual palladium content and with a very low waste production.

  2. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  3. Design of governmental policies for oil production rates and oil income spending. A long-term perspective. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxnes, E

    1982-09-01

    In 1980, oil production in Norway amounted to 1 million barrels per day. Taxes and royalties to the government from this production provides 9 per cent of the GNP. With current estimates of recoverable reserves, the 1980 production rate would last for 100 years. Decisions about oil production rates and oil income spending have tremendous impact on society. Attemps to design an appropriate oil policy are complicated by uncertainty about total reserves, future oil prices and complex economic responses to production and income. This report provides and integrating framework to aid government officials in their evaluation of policy options. A system dynamics model of the Norwegian national economy is developed for the analysis. The model determines endogenously the spending of oil income, GNP, consumption and investments, imports and exports, unemployment and labor migration from exporting industries to service industries; all variables result from exogenous decisions about oil production. Though the model is based on behavioral theory of economic decision making at the microeconomic level, it reproduces well major behavior modes of macroeconomic indicators from the 1970s. The most attractive oil policy has been found to be a dynamic and firm ceiling on spending. Dynamic means that growth in spending should be limited, spending should not increase unless the economy is appropriately buffered against oil price drops by foreign savings and spending should never exceed a maximum ceiling set to ensure a desirabel distribution of benefits and problems over time. Firm means that the ceiling cannot be changed by Parliament within an election period. If a firm ceiling on spending is politically infeasible, oil production should be kept lower than otherwise.

  4. Ultimate architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Jencks, Charles

    2007-01-01

    "European physics hothouse CERN recently unveiled Atlas, the world's most powerful particle detector, which it will use to search for the fundamental building blocks of nature from May next year. Charles Jencks describes the experience of getting up clsoe to the engineering marvel that could en up creating a mini-black hole."(5 pages with photos).

  5. Ultimate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An explanation is given of the complexity faced by the scientific researcher in an effort to achieve fusion power. Outlines the theory and current experiments being pursued in this complex project, including visits to five major fusion research laboratories, and interviews with physicists

  6. Procedure for calculating estimated ultimate recoveries of Bakken and Three Forks Formations horizontal wells in the Williston Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Troy A.

    2013-01-01

    Estimated ultimate recoveries (EURs) are a key component in determining productivity of wells in continuous-type oil and gas reservoirs. EURs form the foundation of a well-performance-based assessment methodology initially developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS; Schmoker, 1999). This methodology was formally reviewed by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Committee on Resource Evaluation (Curtis and others, 2001). The EUR estimation methodology described in this paper was used in the 2013 USGS assessment of continuous oil resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations and incorporates uncertainties that would not normally be included in a basic decline-curve calculation. These uncertainties relate to (1) the mean time before failure of the entire well-production system (excluding economics), (2) the uncertainty of when (and if) a stable hyperbolic-decline profile is revealed in the production data, (3) the particular formation involved, (4) relations between initial production rates and a stable hyperbolic-decline profile, and (5) the final behavior of the decline extrapolation as production becomes more dependent on matrix storage.

  7. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary...

  8. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... care providers; (5) Projects that utilize Advanced Telecommunications or computer networks to... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280... Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.21 Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. The...

  9. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0203] Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft... (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and...

  10. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  11. Ultimate capacity and influenced factors analysis of nuclear RC containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenning; Hou Gangling; Zhou Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Ultimate compressive bearing capacity, influenced factors and its rules of nuclear RC containment are key problems of safety assessment, accident treatment and structure design, etc. Ultimate compressive bearing capacity of nuclear RC containment is shown by concrete damaged plasticity model and steel double liner model of ABAQUS. The study shows that the concrete of nuclear RC containment cylinder wall becomes plastic when the internal pressure is up to 0.87 MPa, the maximum tensile strain of steel liner exceeds 3000 × 10 6 and nuclear RC containment reaches ultimate status when the internal pressure is up to 1.02 MPa. The result shows that nuclear RC containment is in elastic condition under the design internal pressure and the bearing capacity meets requirement. Prestress and steel liner play key parts in the ultimate internal pressure and failure mode of nuclear RC containment. The study results have value for the analysis of ultimate compressive bearing capacity, structure design and safety assessment. (authors)

  12. Increasing heavy oil reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field through advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Annual report, March 30, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this project is to increase heavy oil reserves in a portion of the Wilmington Oil Field, near Long Beach, California, by implementing advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. Based on the knowledge and experience gained with this project, these technologies are intended to be extended to other sections of the Wilmington Oil Field, and, through technology transfer, will be available to increase heavy oil reserves in other slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs. The project involves implementing thermal recovery in the southern half of the Fault Block II-A Tar zone. The existing steamflood in Fault Block II-A has been relatively inefficient due to several producibility problems which are common in SBC reservoirs. Inadequate characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, high permeability thief zones, low gravity oil, and nonuniform distribution of remaining oil have all contributed to poor sweep efficiency, high steam-oil ratios, and early steam breakthrough. Operational problems related to steam breakthrough, high reservoir pressure, and unconsolidated formation sands have caused premature well and downhole equipment failures. In aggregate, these reservoir and operational constraints have resulted in increased operating costs and decreased recoverable reserves. A suite of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies are being applied during the project to improve oil recovery efficiency and reduce operating costs.

  13. Coal and Oil: The Dark Monarchs of Global Energy: Understanding Supply and Extraction Patterns and their Importance for Future Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeoek, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    The formation of modern society has been dominated by coal and oil, and together these two fossil fuels account for nearly two thirds of all primary energy used by mankind. This makes future production a key question for future social development and this thesis attempts to answer whether it is possible to rely on an assumption of ever increasing production of coal and oil. Both coal and oil are finite resources, created over long time scales by geological processes. It is thus impossible to extract more fossil fuels than geologically available. In other words, there are limits to growth imposed by nature. The concept of depletion and exhaustion of recoverable resources is a fundamental question for the future extraction of coal and oil. Historical experience shows that peaking is a well established phenomenon in production of various natural resources. Coal and oil are no exceptions, and historical data shows that easily exploitable resources are exhausted while more challenging deposits are left for the future. For oil, depletion can also be tied directly to the physical laws governing fluid flows in reservoirs. Understanding and predicting behaviour of individual fields, in particularly giant fields, are essential for understanding future production. Based on comprehensive databases with reserve and production data for hundreds of oilfields, typical patterns were found. Alternatively, depletion can manifest itself indirectly through various mechanisms. This has been studied for coal. Over 60% of the global crude oil production is derived from only around 330 giant oilfields, where many of them are becoming increasingly mature. The annual decline in existing oil production has been determined to be around 6% and it is unrealistic that this will be offset by new field developments, additional discoveries or unconventional oil. This implies that the peak of the oil age is here. For coal a similar picture emerges, where 90% of the global coal production originates

  14. Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

  15. Three approaches for estimating recovery factors in carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mahendra K.

    2017-07-17

    PrefaceThe Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 authorized the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2) and requested the USGS to estimate the “potential volumes of oil and gas recoverable by injection and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide in potential sequestration formations” (42 U.S.C. 17271(b)(4)). Geologic CO2 sequestration associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) using CO2 in existing hydrocarbon reservoirs has the potential to increase the U.S. hydrocarbon recoverable resource. The objective of this report is to provide detailed information on three approaches that can be used to calculate the incremental recovery factors for CO2-EOR. Therefore, the contents of this report could form an integral part of an assessment methodology that can be used to assess the sedimentary basins of the United States for the hydrocarbon recovery potential using CO2-EOR methods in conventional oil reservoirs.

  16. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon [Youngdong Univ., Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study.

  17. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon

    2003-03-01

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study

  18. Seismic shear wall ISP NUPEC's seismic ultimate dynamic response test. Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In the seismic design of a nuclear power plant, evaluation of the ultimate strength of the nuclear reactor building is an important subject for assessment of seismic reliability of the plant. In order to carry out the evaluation, the response characteristics of reinforced concrete seismic shear walls up to their ultimate state have to be understood. For this purpose, there is a need to develop reliable non-linear response analysis methods which enables the reliable ultimate strength evaluation of nuclear reactor buildings. Along with this need, many computer codes have been developed. These computer codes are compared. (K.A.)

  19. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) program. The province is situated in the Russian Federation and is located between the Taimyr Peninsula and the Novosibirsk (New Siberian) Islands. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined for this study: the West Laptev Grabens AU, the East Laptev Horsts AU, and the Anisin-Novosibirsk AU, two of which were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The East Laptev Horsts AU was not quantitatively assessed. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered oil and gas for the Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 3 billion barrels of crude oil, 32 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and <1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  20. Hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foorwood, G F; Taplay, J G

    1916-12-12

    Hydrocarbon oils are hydrogenated, cracked, or treated for the removal of sulfur by bringing their vapors mixed with steam at temperatures between 450 and 600/sup 0/C into contact with a form of carbon that is capable of decomposing steam with the production of nascent hydrogen at those temperatures. The forms of carbon used include lamp-black, soot, charcoals derived from wood, cellulose, and lignite, and carbons obtained by carbonizing oil residues and other organic bodies at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C. The process is applied to the treatment of coal oil, shale oil, petroleum, and lignite oil. In examples, kerosene is cracked at 570/sup 0/C, cracked spirit is hydrogenated at 500/sup 0/C, and shale spirit is desulfurized at 530/sup 0/C. The products are led to a condenser and thence to a scrubber, where they are washed with creosote oil. After desulfurization, the products are washed with dilute caustic soda to remove sulfurretted hydrogen.

  1. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  2. Future role of Gulf oil in world energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1998-01-01

    The view that there will be a growing dependence on oil from the Gulf countries is shared by a great number of oil market analysts. This view is based on the fact that Gulf countries dominate the global oil reserves. Energy analyst argue that as the world demand for oil continues to grow driven largely by the growth in developing countries' consumption coupled with constrained non-OPEC supply, the end result will be that the call on Gulf oil will grow substantially. In summary, this paper has challenged the view of growing dependence on oil from the Gulf using available information in conjunction with reasonable and fairly plausible arguments. The aim was to point out to the GCC member counties the danger of relying on these views in shaping their economic policies and in setting their oil market strategies. They may run the ultimate risk of being left with huge oil reserves that no one wants. (orig.)

  3. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  4. Ultimate Bound of a 3D Chaotic System and Its Application in Chaos Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiezhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ellipsoidal ultimate boundary regions of a special three-dimensional (3D chaotic system are proposed. To this chaotic system, the linear coefficient of the ith state variable in the ith state equation has the same sign; it also has two one-order terms and one quadratic cross-product term in each equation. A numerical solution and an analytical expression of the ultimate bounds are received. To get the analytical expression of the ultimate boundary region, a new result of one maximum optimization question is proved. The corresponding ultimate boundary regions are demonstrated through numerical simulations. Utilizing the bounds obtained, a linear controller is proposed to achieve the complete chaos synchronization. Numerical simulation exhibits the feasibility of the designed scheme.

  5. LRFD software for design and actual ultimate capacity of confined rectangular columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of concrete columns using unconfined concrete models is a well established practice. On the : other hand, prediction of the actual ultimate capacity of confined concrete columns requires specialized nonlinear : analysis. Modern codes and...

  6. [Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice. The culture of authoritarianism in Latvia, 1934-1940. (Central and Eastern Europe. Reginal perspectives in global context, Bd. 2.) Brill. Leiden-Boston 2013

  7. Reduced design load basis for ultimate blade loads estimation in multidisciplinary design optimization frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost...... function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed...... for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar...

  8. Recommendation for basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report is the result of the preparation process, and it describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for the site selection, storage construction, and safety analyses. (LN)

  9. A Technique for Temperature and Ultimate Load Calculations of Thin Targets in a Pulsed Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Lundsager, Per

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of transient temperature distributions and ultimate load of rotationally symmetric thin membranes with uniform lateral load and exposed to a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator. Heat transfer by conduction is considered the only transfer...... mechanism. The ultimate load is calculated on the basis of large plastic strain analysis. Analysis of one aluminum and one titanium membrane is shown....

  10. Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Neyer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  11. Excess glycogen does not resolve high ultimate pH of oxidative muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Oliver, Emily M; Apaoblaza, Ariel; Scheffler, Tracy L; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen content can impact the extent of postmortem pH decline. Compared to glycolytic muscles, oxidative muscles contain lower glycogen levels antemortem which may contribute to the higher ultimate pH. In an effort to explore further the participation of glycogen in postmortem metabolism, we postulated that increasing the availability of glycogen would drive additional pH decline in oxidative muscles to equivalent pH values similar to the ultimate pH of glycolytic muscles. Glycolysis and pH declines were compared in porcine longissimus lumborum (glycolytic) and masseter (oxidative) muscles using an in vitro system in the presence of excess glycogen. The ultimate pH of the system containing longissimus lumborum reached a value similar to that observed in intact muscle. The pH decline of the system containing masseter samples stopped prematurely resulting in a higher ultimate pH which was similar to that of intact masseter muscle. To investigate further, we titrated powdered longissimus lumborum and masseter samples in the reaction buffer. As the percentage of glycolytic sample increased, the ultimate pH decreased. These data show that oxidative muscle produces meat with a high ultimate pH regardless of glycogen content and suggest that inherent muscle factors associated with glycolytic muscle control the extent of pH decline in pig muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment on Ultimate Load of Cold-formed Steel Channel (CFSC Stub Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel is used as the non-structural and structural material in civil engineering work and building. Cold-formed steel channel is selected and cut into 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm and 500 mm. The slenderness ratio is calculated and noted as a stub or short column because below 40. The column is tested by using Universal Testing Machine to determine the ultimate load of the stub column. Besides, the CFSC is determined the material properties of CFSC for checking it’s the originality of steel based material. The experimental data are tested and compared with the Direct Strength Method (DSM. It showed that the CFSC1 with a height of 100 mm is reported to have a higher value of ultimate load when compared with other samples. When the height of the stub column increased, the ultimate load of the sample is decreased. Then, the CFSC1 also showed a higher in initial stiffness when compared with other samples. All samples are shown having a higher data in ultimate load when compared with the Direct Strength Method prediction. The ultimate load of experimental and DSM all gave a ratio below 1.03. Finally, all samples can further recommend determining the relation between the ultimate loads with variations of height of the column.

  13. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streett, D.; Warren, C.

    2010-12-01

    Deepwater Horizon, (2) acquire a 24 x 7 oil spill response capability at least on a pre-operational basis, (3) acquire improved and expanded ancillary datasets, (4) reduce the number of false positives (analyzed oil that is not actually oil), (5) acquire the ability to reliably differentiate, at least in general qualitative terms, thick oil (“recoverable oil”) from oil sheens, and (6) join our Canadian counterparts (the Integrated Satellite Tracking of Pollution group in Environment Canada) to create a joint North American center for oil spill response.

  14. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    Neem seed oil from the neem tree (Azadiracta indica) finds wide usage one of which is its utilization for cosmetics particularly .... obtained which is higher than that of olive oil 17. mgKOH/g (Davine ... The skin tolerance of shea fat employed as ...

  15. Upper and lower bounds on the set of recoverable strains and on effective energies in cubic-to-monoclinic martensitic phase transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlömerkemper Anja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A major open problem in the mathematical analysis of martensitic phase transformations is the derivation of explicit formulae for the set of recoverable strains and for the relaxed energy of the system. These are governed by the mathematical notion of quasiconvexity. Here we focus on bounds on these quasiconvex hulls and envelopes in the setting of geometrically-linear elasticity. Firstly, we will present mathematical results on triples of transformation strains. This yields further insight into the quasiconvex hull of the twelve transformation strains in cubic-to-monoclinic phase transformations. Secondly, we consider bounds on the energy of such materials based on the so-called energy of mixing thus obtaining a lamination upper bound on the quasiconvex envelope of the energy. Here we present a new algorithm that yields improved upper bounds and allows us to relate numerical results for the lamination upper bound on the energy with theoretical inner bounds on the quasiconvex hull of triples of transformation strains.

  16. Determination of oil and gas reserves. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, R.; MacKay, V.

    2004-01-01

    This book was prepared by more than 40 contributing authors with expertise in a wide range of topics related to oil and gas reserves. It represents a collaborative effort to find definitions and guidelines for the classification of reserves that is acceptable to the oil industry, evaluators, oil and gas companies, financial agencies, securities commissions and government departments. This second edition is an update of the original work that was published in 1994 which compares estimates of reserves and their classification. The new edition includes changes that have occurred in the past 10 years and expands on the processes that are used to estimate reserves. New techniques for assessing risk were also included. The book is divided into four parts entitled: (1) definitions and guidelines for estimating and classifying oil and gas resources and reserves, (2) determination of in-place resources, (3) estimation of recovery factors and forecasting of recoverable hydrocarbons, and (4) prices, economics and markets. The second edition includes new sections dealing with geostatistics, natural gas balance calculations, reserves estimates in naturally fractured reservoirs, and new developments in estimating recovery factors through enhanced recovery methods such as horizontal drilling. The objective was to develop a reference that is of great value to geologists, engineers and technical persons involved in estimating reserves. refs., tabs., figs

  17. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  18. The instability of world oil market and its impact on economic development: Indonesia's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patmosukismo, S.

    1991-01-01

    The world oil market has been characterized by fluctuating prices which have a direct impact on the world economy. If the world oil price rises in real terms, upstream activities become more attractive to producers, and if the price declines, downstream opportunities become more attractive. The world oil market is currently determined not only by producers and consumers, but also by the futures trade. In addition, the elasticity of oil prices has increased since the 1970s through competition among producers and competition from other energy sources. The Asia Pacific countries are experiencing rapid economic growth, and are thus heavily dependent on oil, but generally have small reserves. Their reserves/production ratio is ca 20 years, with a major share coming from China and Indonesia. The current situation of tight and inadequate supply may increase the region's dependence on Middle East sources. The effects of the three recent major oil crises on the Asia Pacific countries are reviewed and the role of oil and gas in Indonesia's economic development is described. Export earnings from oil and gas represent a major share of total Indonesian export revenues, and taxes and receipts from oil companies continue to be the largest receipts in Indonesian government revenues. Slow changes in the primary fuel mix and high growth in domestic consumption may turn Indonesia into a net oil importer before the year 2000. A major effort to decrease domestic oil consumption has been implemented by using natural gas and coal in the power generation sector. On the supply side, recoverable oil and gas reserves of 50 billion bbl and 200 trillion ft 3 respectively may be present but their development depends on the investment scheme of the continuing exploration program

  19. The characteristics of palm oil plantation solid biomass wastes as raw material for bio oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, RN; Hambali, E.; Pari, G.; Suryani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil plantations estate in the world. It reached 11,30 million hectares in 2015 and increased up to 11,67 million hectares in 2016. The advancement of technology recent, the solid waste of palm oil plantation can be re-produced become bio oil through pyrolysis hydrothermal process and utilized for biofuel. The purpose of this research was to analyze the characteristics of feedstock of bio oil of solid waste of palm oil plantations estate. The feedstock used was derived from solid waste of palm oil plantations in Riau Province. Characteristic analysis of waste oil included chemical compound content (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, O, S) to know height heating value (HHV). The result of analysis of chemical content showed that solid waste of palm cellulose 31,33 – 66,36 %, hemicellulose 7,54 – 17,94 %, lignin 21,43 - 43,1. The HHV of hydrothermal pyrolysis feedstock was 15,18 kJ/gram - 19,57 kJ/gram. Generally, the solid waste of palm oil plantations estate containing lignocellulose can be utilized as bio oil through hydrothermal pyrolysis. The CG-MS analysis of bio oil indicated hydrocarbon contents such as pentadecane, octadecane, hexadecane and benzene.

  20. Contained controlled burning of spilled oil during the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    During the evening of the second day following the Exxon Valdez oil spill, an estimated 57,000-114,000 liters of North Slope crude oil were eliminated using in-situ combustion. The oil was collected with 3M's Fire Boom towed in a U-shaped configuration behind two fishing boats. Working with 152 m long tow lines, a 137 m boom was moved at ca 0.26-5.2 m/s through slightly emulsified oil patches in the downwind region of the spill. A gelled fuel ignitor was used to ignite the captured oil, and the size and intensity of the blaze was controlled by adjusting the speed of the vessels. Total burn time was ca 1.25 h, however the intense part of the burn lasted for ca 45 minutes. Using several methods to estimate the total volume of oil collected, the volume resulted in ca 1136 liters of stiff, taffy-like burn residue that could be picked up easily on completion of the burn. The controlled burn thus resulted in an estimated 98% or better elimination of crude oil. It had been planned to use a helitorch to ignite the captured oil, however darkness required the use of the gelled ignitor. Had the helitorch been used, numerous ignition points could have been spread througout the contained oil, providing a much more efficient heating and ultimate ignition of the oil. 5 figs

  1. Oil refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, S.; Winter, B.

    2001-01-01

    In refineries in particular attention is paid to the minimization of the generation of waste. Therefor catalysts in many processes are regenerated, absorbents are recycled and oily by-products are re-refined or used as fuels. This study discusses the origin and utilization of by-products from the oil industry. The processing of crude oils causes by-products and waste resulting from the crude oil itself or from cleaning measures for water pre-treatment, effluent treatment and flue gas treatment. (author)

  2. Ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model: Tumor eradication and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.; Krishchenko, Alexander P.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we consider the ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model which was created for studying the immune response to tumors under special types of immunotherapy. New ultimate upper bounds for compact invariant sets of this model are given, as well as sufficient conditions for the existence of a positively invariant polytope. We establish three types of conditions for the nonexistence of compact invariant sets in the domain of the tumor-cell population. Our main results are two types of conditions for global tumor elimination depending on the ratio between the proliferation rate of the immune cells and their mortality rate. These conditions are described in terms of simple algebraic inequalities imposed on model parameters and treatment parameters. Our theoretical studies of ultimate dynamics are complemented by numerical simulation results.

  3. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. © The Author(s) 2013.

  4. Ultimate Owner and Firm Performance - Evidence from Romanian Mining and Quarrying Listed Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin MIHAI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to describe the necessary steps to identify the ultimate owner and to investigate the relation between the ultimate ownership and the financial performance of Romanian mining and quarrying listed firms. The study was conducted for the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, in both regulated and non-regulated segments. The final sample included 17 companies of mining and quarrying. Return on Equity was used for measuring the financial performance of the firms. The ultimate ownership was measured by the percentage of voting rights held by a shareholder. Econometric tools like multiple linear regression analysis were used for analysis. The results of the study suggest that there is a significant negative link between financial performance and divergence between voting rights and cash-flow rights.

  5. The importance of mines for ultimate storage at Deilmann-Haniel Shaft Sinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, Jochen; Oellers, Thomas; Ahlbrecht, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Deilmann-Haniel Shaft Sinking GmbH and its predecessor and associate companies have been involved in projects for underground ultimate storage in Germany, Europe and America for over 45 years. The field of activities previously comprised surveying, planning and sinking of shafts, repair and conversion work, design of underground sealing structures, planning of conveyors and support of the BfS in planning approval procedures. Following discontinuation of activities in the German coal mining industry the use of mines for ultimate storage is an important support for German specialist mining companies. The use of mines for ultimate storage ensures that the existing mining know how in Germany is maintained, because training of the younger generation on the commercial and engineering side of the companies is made possible by the imminent major projects.

  6. On the decrease of ultimate elongation of gum elastomer by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki

    1986-01-01

    The reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation was studied. The sample used is tetrafluoroethylenepropylene copolymer vulcanized which is a heat resistant elastomer. The sample was irradiated by a electron beam at room temperature. Cross-linking predominate in the operation. (Case 1) Scission predominant condition (Case 2) was given by irradiation of Co-60 γ ray at 100 deg C. Alternative irradiation of γ ray and electron beam under above condition can keep the original cross-linking density by the appropriate choice of each of the doses. (Case 3) The three cases mentioned above involve all of the cases of radiation induced aging of elastomers. Therefor, the following explanation for three cases shows the reason why the ultimate elongation of gum elastomer decreases by irradiation. Case 1. Cross-linking predominant condition. Ultimate elongation is proportional to -0.5 power of the dose. This fact can be explicable by the model of Buche, i.e. the breaking of a short chain causes another to break and that so on throughout the whole sample. Case 2. Chain scission predominant condition. Ultimate elongation increases by irradiation for a certain dose. This fact can understand by the model of Buche. But from a certain dose ultimate elongation does not increase. In the period the structure of the sample turned to be the same structure as the low molecular weight amorphose polymer vulcanized. Case 3. Rate of cross-linking and scission is the same. The average chain length does not chainge in the condition. But the distribution of chain length became wider and wider by irradiation. The increase of short chain result the decrease in ultimate elongation. (author)

  7. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the

  8. Application of decline curve analysis to estimate recovery factors for carbon dioxide enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahediesfanjani, Hossein

    2017-07-17

    IntroductionIn the decline curve analysis (DCA) method of estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes, the analyst uses historical production data from a well, lease, group of wells (or pattern), or reservoir and plots production rates against time or cumu­lative production for the analysis. The DCA of an individual well is founded on the same basis as the fluid-flow principles that are used for pressure-transient analysis of a single well in a reservoir domain and therefore can provide scientifically reasonable and accurate results. However, when used for a group of wells, a lease, or a reservoir, the DCA becomes more of an empirical method. Plots from the DCA reflect the reservoir response to the oil withdrawal (or production) under the prevailing operating and reservoir conditions, and they continue to be good tools for estimating recoverable hydrocarbon volumes and future production rates. For predicting the total recov­erable hydrocarbon volume, the DCA results can help the analyst to evaluate the reservoir performance under any of the three phases of reservoir productive life—primary, secondary (waterflood), or tertiary (enhanced oil recovery) phases—so long as the historical production data are sufficient to establish decline trends at the end of the three phases.

  9. Ultimate strength and ductility of steel reinforced concrete beam-columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi

    1991-01-01

    The ultimate strength and ductility of SRC beam-columns are investigated using the data gathered in Architectural Institute of Japan. Though the simple superposed strength formula in AIJ standard underestimates the strength of SRC beam-column failed in flexure, the generalized superposed strength formula estimates it satisfactory. The strength formula in AIJ standard does not good agreement with test data. The SRC beam-column failed in shear has almost equalductility with that failed in flexure owing to the encased steel. Author presents the formulas which estimate the ultimate deformation angle for SRC beam-columns. (author)

  10. Maintained ship hull girder ultimate strength reliability considering corrosion and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yong; Cui, W.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2004-01-01

    The prupose of this paper is to propose a methodology to assess the time-variant ultimate strength of ship hull girder under the degradations of corrosion and fatigue. The effects of fatigue cracks on the tensile and compressive residual ultimate strength of stiffened panels and unstiffened plates......, webs and flanges, respectively. The effects of inspections and repair are taken into account. A minimum net thickness rule is used to determine repair policies. A procedure is proposed to determine the maximum allowable corrosion thickness of different parts of the hull cross section. The procedure...

  11. Behaviour of concrete nuclear containment structures upto ultimate failure with special reference to MAPP-1 containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appa Rao, T.V.S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental methods for investigating the behaviour of concrete secondary containment structures subjected to loads upto their ultimate failure have been discussed in the paper. Need for inelastic nonlinear analysis of containments has been emphasized. Different contitutive models of concrete that can be employed in the nonlinear analysis of concrete structures were briefly reviewed. Based on the experimental results obtained in a 1:12 scale model test conducted at the Structural Engineering Research (Regional) Centre, Madras, behaviour of the MAPP-1 containment to internal pressure loading upto its ultimate failure has been discussed. (author)

  12. Decision basis for a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report was prepared by a working group and it presents the final proposal for such a decision basis. The report describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for site selection, storage construction, and safety analysis. In an appendix, the amount, types, and activity level of the Danish radioactive wastes are presented. (ln)

  13. Conception of electron beam-driven subcritical molten salt ultimate safety reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abalin, S.S.; Alekseev, P.N.; Ignat`ev, V.V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    This paper is a preliminary sketch of a conception to develop the {open_quotes}ultimate safety reactor{close_quotes} using modern reactor and accelerator technologies. This approach would not require a long-range R&D program. The ultimate safety reactor could produce heat and electric energy, expand the production of fuel, or be used for the transmutation of long-lived wastes. The use of the combined double molten salt reactor system allows adequate neutron multiplication to permit using an electron accelerator for the initial neutron flux. The general parameters of such a system are discussed in this paper.

  14. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Peppermint Oil Share: On This Page Background How Much Do ... sheet provides basic information about peppermint and peppermint oil—common names, usefulness and safety, and resources for ...

  15. OIL BOND®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical product bulletin: this miscellaneous oil spill control agent is a solidifier used in cleanups. It absorbs and solidifies hydrocarbon spills on freshwater and saltwater or land applications. Ring spill with booms or pillows before treatment.

  16. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schult-Bornemann, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom. [de

  17. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  18. Oil on seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerresen, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The present book discusses the effects of oil spills at sea. Topics covered are as follow: Petroleum properties; oil spills at sea; harmfulness of oil spills; effects from acute oil spills; experience of oil spills; oil spill contingency planning in Norway; oil spill protecting equipment and methods; emergency of unloading equipment. 252 refs., 86 figs., 54 tabs

  19. Prediction of Local Ultimate Strain and Toughness of Trabecular Bone Tissue by Raman Material Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Carretta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies indicate that bone mineral density correlates with fracture risk at the population level but does not correlate with individual fracture risk well. Current research aims to better understand the failure mechanism of bone and to identify key determinants of bone quality, thus improving fracture risk prediction. To get a better understanding of bone strength, it is important to analyze tissue-level properties not influenced by macro- or microarchitectural factors. The aim of this pilot study was to identify whether and to what extent material properties are correlated with mechanical properties at the tissue level. The influence of macro- or microarchitectural factors was excluded by testing individual trabeculae. Previously reported data of mechanical parameters measured in single trabeculae under tension and bending and its compositional properties measured by Raman spectroscopy was evaluated. Linear and multivariate regressions show that bone matrix quality but not quantity was significantly and independently correlated with the tissue-level ultimate strain and postyield work (r=0.65–0.94. Principal component analysis extracted three independent components explaining 86% of the total variance, representing elastic, yield, and ultimate components according to the included mechanical parameters. Some matrix parameters were both included in the ultimate component, indicating that the variation in ultimate strain and postyield work could be largely explained by Raman-derived compositional parameters.

  20. Molar mass of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) during ultimate uniaxial drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  1. Molar-Mass of Poly(Ethylene-Terephthalate) (PET) During Ultimate Uniaxial Drawing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göschel, A.G.P.U.; Cools, P.J.C.H.

    2000-01-01

    The changes of the average molar mass Mw, Mn, Mz, and molar mass distributions during multistep uniaxial drawing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) to achieve ultimate mechanical properties have been studied in detail by means of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with triple detection:

  2. Prisoner Fasting as Symbolic Speech: The Ultimate Speech-Action Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Don; Stonecipher, Harry W.

    The ultimate test of the speech-action dichotomy, as it relates to symbolic speech to be considered by the courts, may be the fasting of prison inmates who use hunger strikes to protest the conditions of their confinement or to make political statements. While hunger strikes have been utilized by prisoners for years as a means of protest, it was…

  3. Reliability analysis of production ships with emphasis on load combination and ultimate strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaozhi

    1995-05-01

    This thesis deals with ultimate strength and reliability analysis of offshore production ships, accounting for stochastic load combinations, using a typical North Sea production ship for reference. A review of methods for structural reliability analysis is presented. Probabilistic methods are established for the still water and vertical wave bending moments. Linear stress analysis of a midships transverse frame is carried out, four different finite element models are assessed. Upon verification of the general finite element code ABAQUS with a typical ship transverse girder example, for which test results are available, ultimate strength analysis of the reference transverse frame is made to obtain the ultimate load factors associated with the specified pressure loads in Det norske Veritas Classification rules for ships and rules for production vessels. Reliability analysis is performed to develop appropriate design criteria for the transverse structure. It is found that the transverse frame failure mode does not seem to contribute to the system collapse. Ultimate strength analysis of the longitudinally stiffened panels is performed, accounting for the combined biaxial and lateral loading. Reliability based design of the longitudinally stiffened bottom and deck panels is accomplished regarding the collapse mode under combined biaxial and lateral loads. 107 refs., 76 refs., 37 tabs.

  4. Magnetic surfaces, particle orbits and neutral injection in conventional and ultimate torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.T.; Derr, J.A.; Kruckewitt, T.; Shohet, J.L.; Rehker, S.; Tataronis, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Capabilities in fully non-axisymmetric numerical methods have resulted in a parametric study of various conventional and ultimate torsatron configurations. No superbananas are found in torsatrons without local magnetic wells. Neutral injection calculations show that, if the vacuum magnetic surfaces are well defined, tangential injection is very efficient

  5. Study of ultimate heat sink to Angra-1,2 and 3 Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.M.; Pinto, A.M.F.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the premises, results and conclusion of study done to ultimate heat sink of Angra 1,2 and 3 units, with base in postulated accidents that generate transient heat discharges to environment. It's explicitily presumed the eventuality of discharging heat water recirculation. (C.M.) [pt

  6. Method for ultimate disposition of borate containing radioactive wastes by vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bege, D.; Faust, H.J.; Puthawala, A.; Stunkel, H.

    1984-01-01

    Method for the ultimate disposition of radioactive wastes by vitrification, in which weak to medium radioactive waste concentrates from borate-containing radioactive liquids are mixed with added glass-forming materials, maximally in a ratio of 1:3, and the mixture heated to obtain a glass-forming melt

  7. 26 CFR 48.6427-10 - Kerosene; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (blocked pumps). 48.6427-10 Section 48.6427-10 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...; claims by registered ultimate vendors (blocked pumps). (a) Overview. This section provides rules under... allowed by section 6427(l)(5)(B)(i). These claims relate to kerosene sold from a blocked pump. Claims...

  8. Discussion of the Method to Determine the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soil Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yangfu

    2017-12-01

    Combining literature examples, this paper has carried out Contrastive analysis of the theoretical formula method and finite element method about the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation, To verify rationality and superiority of the incremental load method in finite element ABAQUS in solving the bearing capacity of foundation soil. The study can provide certain reference for practical engineering calculation and analysis of foundation bearing capacity.

  9. Too many journals? Towards a theory of repeated rejections and ultimate acceptance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhaven, Jan

    Under a set of reasonable assumptions, it is shown that all manuscripts submitted to any journal will ultimately be published, either by the first journal or by one of the following journals to which a manuscript is resubmitted. This suggests that low quality manuscripts may also be published, which

  10. A comparison of international criteria for the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielke, H.

    1985-01-01

    In countries other than the Federal Republic of Germany and internationally there are no comprehensive codes referring to criteria and safety requirements except those of the IAEA and USA. In other countries there exist safety goals for the ultimate storage or for purely geological criteria. The degree of detailing regulations differs widely abroad and internationally. Safety goals abroad and internationally as well as measures for their realisation in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes in deep geological formations are in line with the German safety goals. The IAEA refers to general aspects of geological, waste technology and ultimate storage technology criteria. In the USA, ultimate storage technology criteria have been quantified in part. The quantitative geological criteria existing in Great Britain and in the Netherlands are only relevant in as much as safety analyses must be performed for a specific site to provide evidence for the safety of this site. The comparison shows that most requirements pronounced abroad are also made for the Federal Republic of Germany. Some requirements are more specified in the Federal Republic of Germany, some are more detailed abroad. (orig./HP) [de

  11. 7 CFR 4280.29 - Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental financing required for the Ultimate Recipient Project. 4280.29 Section 4280.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... AND GRANTS Rural Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.29 Supplemental financing...

  12. Effect of ultrasonic intensity and frequency on oil/heavy-oil recovery from different wettability rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naderi, K.; Babadagli, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    This study identified the mechanisms that are responsible for additional oil recovery that is often observed following an earthquake. It focused on the theory that harmonics of low frequency waves create high frequency waves as they penetrate into rock formations. A series of experiments were conducted on oil-wet rocks with high oil viscosities. The objective was to better understand how ultrasonic energy affects oil recovery at core and pore scale. Cylindrical sandstone cores were placed in imbibition cells to examine how the presence of initial water saturation can affect recovery, and how the recovery changes for different oil viscosities. An increase in oil recovery was observed with ultrasonic energy in all cases. The additional recovery with ultrasonic energy lessened as the oil viscosity increased. Ultrasonic intensity and frequency were shown to be critical to the performance, which is important since ultrasonic waves have limited penetration into porous medium. This is a key disadvantage for commercializing this promising process for well stimulation. Therefore, the authors designed a set-up to measure the ultrasonic energy penetration capacity in different media, notably air, water and slurry. The set-up could identify which types of reservoirs are most suitable for ultrasonic application. Imbibition experiments revealed that ultrasonic radiation increases recovery, and is much more significant in oil wet cases, where initial water saturation facilitate oil recovery. Higher frequency showed a higher rate of recovery compared to lower frequency, but the ultimate recovery was not changed substantially. 46 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs.

  13. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  14. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Zyryanka Basin Province as part of the 2008 USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated on the Omolon superterrane of the Kolyma block. The one assessment unit (AU) that was defined for this study, called the Zyryanka Basin AU, which coincides with the province, was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources in the Zyryanka Basin Province are ~72 million barrels of crude oil, 2,282 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 61 million barrels of natural-gas liquids. About 66 percent of the study area and undiscovered petroleum resources are north of the Arctic Circle.

  15. Recoverability in quantum information theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Mark

    The fact that the quantum relative entropy is non-increasing with respect to quantum physical evolutions lies at the core of many optimality theorems in quantum information theory and has applications in other areas of physics. In this work, we establish improvements of this entropy inequality in the form of physically meaningful remainder terms. One of the main results can be summarized informally as follows: if the decrease in quantum relative entropy between two quantum states after a quantum physical evolution is relatively small, then it is possible to perform a recovery operation, such that one can perfectly recover one state while approximately recovering the other. This can be interpreted as quantifying how well one can reverse a quantum physical evolution. Our proof method is elementary, relying on the method of complex interpolation, basic linear algebra, and the recently introduced Renyi generalization of a relative entropy difference. The theorem has a number of applications in quantum information theory, which have to do with providing physically meaningful improvements to many known entropy inequalities. This is based on arXiv:1505.04661, now accepted for publication in Proceedings of the Royal Society A. I acknowledge support from startup funds from the Department of Physics and Astronomy at LSU, the NSF under Award No. CCF-1350397, and the DARPA Quiness Program through US Army Research Office award W31P4Q-12-1-0019.

  16. CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery from the Residual Zone - A Sustainable Vision for North Sea Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jamie; Haszeldine, Stuart; Wilkinson, Mark; Johnson, Gareth

    2014-05-01

    conventional oil. The application of CO2EOR to ROZ enables a significant contribution to a field's recoverable reserves [3]. This work identifies for the first time the plays of geological conditions that create naturally occurring residual oil zones in the United Kingdom Continental Shelf. We present a screening workflow to identify such zones and a methodology for assessing the resource potential and CO2 storage capacity for a number of different fields. Lastly we examine the economic consequences on CO2 storage of the incremental oil produced, and the carbon balance life-cycle. [1] Melzer, S., Koperna, G., Kuuskraa, V. 2006. The Origin and Resource Potential of Residual Oil Zones. SPE Annual and Technical Conference, San Antonio, Texas, Society. [2] Koperna, G., Melzer. S.L., Kuuskraa, V. 2006. Recovery of Oil Resources From the Residual and Transitional Oil Zones of the Permian Basin.. SPE Annual Technical Conference, San Antonia, Texas. Society of Petroleum Engineers. [3] Advanced Resources International, 2005. Assessing Technical and Economic Recovery of Residual Oil Zones. U.S Department of Energy.

  17. IOGCC/DOE oil and gas environmental workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) in cooperation with US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a workshop format to allow state regulatory officials and industry representatives the opportunity to participate in frank and open discussions on issues of environmental regulatory compliance. The purpose of providing this forum is to assist both groups in identifying the key barriers to the economic recoverability of domestic oil and gas resources while adequately protecting human health and the environment. The IOGCC and DOE staff worked with key state and industry representatives to develop a list of appropriate regulatory and industry representatives to be invited to participate. These same industry and regulatory representatives also provided a prioritized list of topics to be discussed at this workshop. After the topic leader set out the issue, views of those present were solicited. In almost every case, both the industry representatives and the regulatory personnel spoke with candor in discussing the problems. Common points of discussion for each topic were: (1) conflicting state and federal regulations; (2) conflicting regulations or permit requirements established by different state agencies; (3) increasing compliance costs; and (4) regulatory constraints that will result in ''no net growth'' in California oil and gas production and more likely a net decrease. This report contains a copy of the written presentation for each topic as well as a summary of the participants discussion

  18. New life in old reservoirs - the microbial conversion of oil to methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gründger, Friederike; Feisthauer, Stefan; Richnow, Hans Hermann; Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Since almost 20 years it is known from stable isotope studies that large amounts of biogenic methane are formed in oil reservoirs. The investigation of this degradation process and of the underlying biogeochemical controls are of economical and social importance, since even under optimal conditions, not more than 30-40 % of the oil in a reservoir is actually recovered. The conversion of parts of this non-recoverable oil via an appropriate biotechnological treatment into easily recoverable methane would provide an extensive and ecologically sound energy resource. Laboratory mesocosm as well as high pressure autoclave experiments with samples from different geosystems showed high methane production rates after the addition of oils, single hydrocarbons or coals. The variation of parameters, like temperature, pressure or salinity, showed a broad tolerance to environmental conditions. The fingerprinting of the microbial enrichments with DGGE showed a large bacterial diversity while that of Archaea was limited to three to four dominant species. The Q-PCR results showed the presence of high numbers of Archaea and Bacteria. To analyse their function, we measured the abundances of genes indicative of metal reduction (16S rRNA gene for Geobacteraceae), sulphate reduction (sulphate reductase, dsr), and methanogenesis (methyl coenzyme M-reductase, mcrA). The methanogenic consortia will be further characterised to determine enzymatic pathways and the individual role of each partner. Degradation pathways for different compounds will be studied using 13C-labelled substrates and molecular techniques. Our stable isotope data from both, methane produced in our incubations with samples from various ecosystems and field studies, implies a common methanogenic biodegradation mechanism, resulting in consistent patterns of hydrocarbon alteration.

  19. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  20. Purifying oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-15

    Gasoline, lamp oils, and lubricating or other mineral or shale oils are refined by contacting the vapor with a hot aqueous solution of salts of zinc, cadmium, or mercury, or mixtures thereof which may contain 0-5-3-0 percent of oxide or hydroxide in solution or suspension. Chlorides, bromides, iodides, sulfates, nitrates, and sulfonates of benzol, toluol, xylol, and petroleum are specified. Washing with a solution of sodium or potassium hydroxide or carbonate of calcium hydroxide may follow. The oil may first be purified by sulfuric acid or other known agent, or afterwards caustic alkali and sulfuric acid. The Specification as open to inspection under Sect. 91 (3) (a) describes also the use of salts of copper, iron, chromium, manganese, aluminum, nickel, or cobalt, with or without their oxides or hydroxides. This subject-matter does not appear in the Specification as accepted.

  1. Distilling oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leffer, L G

    1912-01-29

    In a process for converting heavy hydrocarbons, such as petroleum or shale oil, into light hydrocarbons by distilling under the pressure of an inert gas, the operation is conducted at a temperature not exceeding 410/sup 0/C and under an accurately regulated pressure, the gas being circulated through the still and the condenser by means of a pump. The oil in the still may be agitated by stirring vanes or by blowing the gas through it. Hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, or gases generated in the distillation may be used as pressure media; the gas is heated before its admission to the still. A pressure of from 11 to 12 atmospheres is used in treating gas oil. Specification 10,277/89 is referred to.

  2. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  3. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  4. The Assessment of the Ultimate Hull Girder Strength of RO-RO Ship after Damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair Muis Alie, Muhammad; Sitepu, Ganding; Izaak Latumahin, Samuel

    2018-03-01

    Many accidents of Ro-Ro ships happen in Indonesia such as collision and grounding. When the collision or grounding takes place on the Ro-Ro ship, the ultimate strength of hull structure after damage becomes decrease. Car and passenger decks are critical location since collision and/or grounding occur. In the present study, the assessment of the ultimate hull girder strength is conducted. The cross section of Ro-Ro ship is taken to be analyzed. The collision and grounding damages are assumed to be palced on the side and bottom area, respectively. The damages are created by removing the element from the side shell and bottom part. Finally, the result obtained is compared with one another.

  5. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  6. Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    then in combina-tion with the ultimate limit state requirements leads to the specific constitutive relations. As a result finite element models based on shell elements incorporating a structural and a loading model are introduced and described in detail. Applying these models the ultimate capacity of the support...... on the basis of literature review and measurement data from a prototype Multibrid M5000 support structure. In combination with the developed structural and loading models, sensitivity analyses in regard to the responses are peiformed to enhance the understanding and to refine the developed models. To this end...... variables on the responses including nonlinearity the refinement of the model is performed on a quantitative basis....

  7. Evaluation of time-accelerated irradiation method of elastomer by modulus-ultimate elongation profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki; Oka, Toshitaka; Hama, Yosimasa

    2009-01-01

    'Generalized modulus-ultimate elongation profile' was induced from the relationship between the modulus and the ultimate elongation of an elastomer that was quantitatively added crosslinking and scission. This profile can be used to evaluate the time-accelerated irradiation methods of ethylene-propylene-diene elastomer. The irradiation under low dose rate (0.33 kGy/h) at room temperature was the reference condition. The short-time irradiation condition was 4.2 kGy/h in 0.5 MPa oxygen at room temperature and 5.0 kGy/h in air at 70 o C. The former tended to bring about the higher ratio of scission than the reference condition; the latter tended to bring about the higher ratio of crosslinking.

  8. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  9. Ultimate analysis of PWR prestressed concrete containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.-T.; Lin, Y.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical analyses are carried out by using the ABAQUS finite element program to predict the ultimate pressure capacity and the failure mode of the PWR prestressed concrete containment at Maanshan nuclear power plant. Material nonlinearity such as concrete cracking, tension stiffening, shear retention, concrete plasticity, yielding of prestressing tendon, yielding of steel reinforcing bar and degradation of material properties due to high temperature are all simulated with proper constitutive models. Geometric nonlinearity due to finite deformation has also been considered. The results of the analysis show that when the prestressed concrete containment fails, extensive cracks take place at the apex of the dome, the junction of the dome and cylinder, and the bottom of the cylinder connecting to the base slab. In addition, the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment is higher than the design pressure by 86%

  10. Nonlinear finite element analysis of nuclear reinforced prestressed concrete containments up to ultimate load capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    For safety evaluation of nuclear structures a finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) has been developed. Eight/nine noded isoparametric quadrilateral plate/shell element with reinforcement as a through thickness discrete but integral smeared layer of the element is presented to analyze reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Various constitutive models such as crushing, cracking in tension, tension stiffening and rebar yielding are studied and effect of these parameters on the reserve strength of structures is brought out through a number of benchmark tests. A global model is used to analyze the prestressed concrete containment wall of a typical 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) up to its ultimate capacity. This demonstrates the adequacy of Indian PHWR containment design to withstand severe accident loads

  11. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  12. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  13. Qualtum cosmics-and-chaotics--the ultimate tortoise in physics and modern medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari M

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Qualtum cosmics is the qualitative opposite of quantum mechanics. The flip-side of qualtum cosmics is qualtum chaotics, the two governing much of what is seen as inscrutable in medicine. The Ultimate (Last Tortoise is close to Einsteinean idea of a Unified Theory, a single concept that can explain whatsoever there is in physics, (and in medicine, or what have you.

  14. Utilization of metal scrap for the production of waste drums for ultimate disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janberg, K.; Rittscher, D.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution reviews the history of development of the techniques for treatment of decommissioning scrap from the beginning of the 1980's onwards (decommissioning of the Niederaichbach and Gundremmingen nuclear power stations), together with the radiological measuring methods required for regulatory purposes. The advantages of the recycling of the metal scrap by means of melting, and of materials utilization for production of waste containers for ultimate storage are discussed together with product quality assurance criteria. (RB) [de

  15. The Influence of Wagon Structure Part Shape Optimization on Ultimate Fatigue Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović, Vladimir; Živković, Miroslav; Jovičić, Gordana; Živković, Jelena; Kozak, Dražan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how shape optimisation affects the ultimate fatigue strength of a mechanical part. The mechanical part chosen for this investigation is an axle guard of running gear elements of the Hccrrs 2x2 axle car-carrying wagon. The static and fatigue strength analysis procedure according to the UIC 517 standard and numerical methods have been applied. Material properties were determined experimentally and the necessary numerical calculations were performed by using the finite el...

  16. The ultimate safe (US) Reactor: A concept for the third millenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, U.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultimate Safe (U.S.) Reactor is based on a novel safety concept. Fission products in the reactor are allowed to accumulate only to a level at which they would constitute a harmless source term. Removal of fission products also removes the decay heat - the driving force for the source term. The reactor has no excess criticality and is controlled by the reactivity temperature coefficient. Safety is inherent and passive. Waste is removed from the site promptly

  17. Modeling and simulation of loss of the ultimate heat sink in a typical material testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khatib, Hisham; El-Morshedy, Salah El-Din; Higazy, Maher G.; El-Shazly, Karam

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A thermal–hydraulic model has been developed to simulate loss of the ultimate heat sink in MTR. ► The model involves three coupled sub-models for core, heat exchanger and cooling tower. ► The model is validated against PARET for steady-state and verified by operation data for transients. ► The model is used to simulate the behavior of the reactor under a loss of the ultimate heat sink. ► The model results are analyzed and discussed. -- Abstract: A thermal–hydraulic model has been developed to simulate loss of the ultimate heat sink in a typical material testing reactor (MTR). The model involves three interactively coupled sub-models for reactor core, heat exchanger and cooling tower. The model is validated against PARET code for steady-state operation and verified by the reactor operation records for transients. Then, the model is used to simulate the thermal–hydraulic behavior of the reactor under a loss of the ultimate heat sink event. The simulation is performed for two operation regimes: regime I representing 11 MW power and three cooling tower cells operated, and regime II representing 22 MW power and six cooling tower cells operated. In regime I, the simulation is performed for 1, 2 and 3 cooling tower cells failed while in regime II, it is performed for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 cooling tower cells failed. The simulation is performed under protected conditions where the safety action called power reduction is triggered by reactor protection system to decrease the reactor power by 20% when the coolant inlet temperature to the core reaches 43 °C and scram is triggered if the core inlet temperature reaches 44 °C. The model results are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Tasks of radiation protection in the centralized collection and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerst, F.M.; Fasten, C.; Koerner, W.; Oppermann, U.; Werner, H.J.; Zappe, D.

    1988-01-01

    In the GDR, the ERAM (Endlager fuer radioaktive Abfaelle, Morsleben), an operating unit of Volkseigenes Kombinat Kernkraftwerke 'Bruno Leuschner' in Greifswald, is responsible for the central collection and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste. From the licensing body's point of view an assessment is given of the legislation for radioactive wastes, especially as to their collection, transport to and handling in the final repository. As a result, some conclusions are drawn concerning future work in this field. 9 tabs., 34 refs. (author)

  19. Effects of urbanization on animal behaviour : patterns, underlying mechanisms and ultimate causes

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Ana Catarina Sequeira Nunes Coutinho de

    2014-01-01

    Human-altered environmental conditions affect many species at the global scale. An extreme form of anthropogenic alteration is the existence and rapid increase of urban areas. A key question is how animals cope with urbanization. In order to live in cities, animals have to adjust their behaviour and life histories to the urban novel environment.The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate (i) the existence of behavioural changes related to the urbanization process, (ii) the ultimate...

  20. Dual characteristics of yield and ultimate strength as applied to two grades of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddy, T.G.; Benzley, S.E.; Johnson, R.L.

    1977-02-01

    Published yield and ultimate biaxial strength data for two grades of beryllium are correlated with the use of a macroscopic failure model. Cross sections of the resulting surfaces in three-dimensional stress space are drawn to illustrate the expected transition from ductile to brittle fracture for triaxial tension states of stress. The usefulness of these models to the prediction of fracture in ductile materials is discussed. 5 tables, 8 figures, 11 references

  1. The FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: a study of the long term fate of CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, Pascal; Waldmann, Svenja; Pearce, Jonathan; Dimier, Alain; Le Gallo, Yann; Frykman, Peter; Maurand, Nicolas; Gherardi, Fabrizio; Yalamas, Thierry; Cremer, Holger; Spiers, Chris; Nussbaum, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project are to study specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2, mainly: the trapping mechanisms occurring in the storage reservoir, the influence of fluid-rock interactions on mechanical integrity of caprock and well vicinity, and also the modifications induced at the regional scale (brine displacement, fault reactivation, hydrogeology changes...). A comprehensive approach combining laboratory experiments, numerical modeling and natural analogue studies is developed to assess all the processes mentioned above. A collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. To address geochemical trapping at reservoir scale, an experimental approach is developed using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose. To evaluate the interactions between CO2 (and formation fluid) and the well environment (formation, cement, casing) and to assess the consequences of these interactions on the transport properties of well materials, a 1 to 1 scale experiment has been set in the Mont Terri Gallery Opalinus clay to reproduce classical well objects (cemented annulus, casing and cement plug) perforating caprock formations. An extensive program of numerical modeling is also developed to calibrate, to reproduce and to extrapolate the experimental results at longer time scales including uncertainty

  2. Numerical Study on Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted End-Plate Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.S. Ismail

    Full Text Available Abstract Bolted end-plate steel connections have become more popular due to ease of fabrication. This paper presents a three dimension Finite Element Model (FEM, using the multi-purpose software ABAQUS, to study the effect of different geometrical parameters on the ultimate behavior of the connection. The proposed model takes into account material and geometrical non-linearities, initial imperfection, contact between adjacent surfaces and the pretension force in the bolts. The Finite Element results are calibrated with published experimental results ''briefly reviewed in this paper'' and verified that the numerical model can simulate and analyze the overall and detailed behavior of different types of bolted end-plate steel connections. Using verified FEM, parametric study is then carried out to study the ultimate behavior with variations in: bolt diameter, end-plate thickness, length of column stiffener, angle of rib stiffener. The results are examined with respect to the failure modes, the evolution of the resistance, the initial stiffness, and the rotation capacity. Finally, the ultimate behavior of the bolted end-plate steel connection is discussed in detail, and recommendations for the design purpose are made.

  3. Methodology for predicting ultimate pressure capacity of the ACR-1000 containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudy, A.M.; Awad, A.; Elgohary, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor or the ACR-1000 is developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to be the next step in the evolution of the CANDU product line. It is based on the proven CANDU technology and incorporates advanced design technologies. The ACR containment structure is an essential element of the overall defense in depth approach to reactor safety, and is a physical barrier against the release of radioactive material to the environment. Therefore, it is important to provide a robust design with an adequate margin of safety. One of the key design requirements of the ACR containment structure is to have an ultimate pressure capacity that is at least twice the design pressure Using standard design codes, the containment structure is expected to behave elastically at least up to 1.5 times the design pressure. Beyond this pressure level, the concrete containment structure with reinforcements and post-tension tendons behaves in a highly non-linear manner and exhibits a complex response when cracks initiate and propagate. To predict the structural non-linear responses, at least two critical features are involved. These are: the structural idealization by the geometry and material property models, and the adopted solution algorithm. Therefore, detailed idealization of the concrete structure is needed in order to accurately predict its ultimate pressure capacity. This paper summarizes the analysis methodology to be carried out to establish the ultimate pressure capacity of the ACR containment structure and to confirm that the structure meets the specified design requirements. (author)

  4. Transition to the Ultimate Regime in Two-Dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Mathai, Varghese; Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    The possible transition to the so-called ultimate regime, wherein both the bulk and the boundary layers are turbulent, has been an outstanding issue in thermal convection, since the seminal work by Kraichnan [Phys. Fluids 5, 1374 (1962), 10.1063/1.1706533]. Yet, when this transition takes place and how the local flow induces it is not fully understood. Here, by performing two-dimensional simulations of Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence covering six decades in Rayleigh number Ra up to 1 014 for Prandtl number Pr =1 , for the first time in numerical simulations we find the transition to the ultimate regime, namely, at Ra*=1013 . We reveal how the emission of thermal plumes enhances the global heat transport, leading to a steeper increase of the Nusselt number than the classical Malkus scaling Nu ˜Ra1 /3 [Proc. R. Soc. A 225, 196 (1954), 10.1098/rspa.1954.0197]. Beyond the transition, the mean velocity profiles are logarithmic throughout, indicating turbulent boundary layers. In contrast, the temperature profiles are only locally logarithmic, namely, within the regions where plumes are emitted, and where the local Nusselt number has an effective scaling Nu ˜Ra0.38 , corresponding to the effective scaling in the ultimate regime.

  5. Ultimate strength analysis of ring-stiffened cylinders subjected to hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chi Mo

    1990-01-01

    In this study, ultimate strength analysis of ring-stiffened cylinders have been performed, considering the elasto-plastic large deflection. In the elasto-plastic analysis, von Mises yield criteria, the plastic flow theory and the layered approach have been adopted. In order to take into account the follower force effect of the hydrostatic pressure, the incremental load components have been updated at every loading step. As collapse modes, axisymmetric yielding, interframe shell buckling and general buckling are considered, while local buckling of ring-stiffener is not considered. Initial shape imperfection is assumed to be the elastic buckling mode to obtain the lower bound of the ultimate strength. Results of numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results to show the validity of the present approach. It has been drawn that the present numerical results are closely correlated with the experimental results. On the other hand, the effects of initial shape imperfection and condition on the ultimate strength have been investigated. (Author)

  6. Ultimate load design and testing of a cylindrical prestressed concrete vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The object of this research was to design, construct and test to failure a prestressed concrete pressure vessel model that could be used to investigate the behavior of a full scale structure underworking and ultimate load. The properties and the design of the model was based generally on full scale vessels already constructed to house the nuclear reactors used in atomic power stations. To design the model the ultimate load approach was adopted throughout. All load factors associated with the prestressing have been defined and kept to a minimum in order that the vessel's behavior may be predicted. The tests on the vessel were carried out first on the elastic range to observe its behavior at working load and then at the ultimate range to observe the modes of failure and compare the actual results in both cases with the predicted values. Although full agreement between observed results and predicted values was not obtained, the conclusions drawn from the study were useful for the design of full scale vessels. (author)

  7. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaulding, M.L.; Reed, M.

    1990-01-01

    Public awareness and concern for the potential short and long term impacts of oil spills on the marine environment has generally been high, particularly for regions of special ecological importance or where significant numbers of marine mammals and birds are present. This awareness was further heightened by the extraordinary number of recent large spills in coastal U.S. water: Exxon Valdez, Alaska; World Prodigy, Rhode Island; Presidente Rivera, Delaware; Rachel-B, Texas and American Trader, California. The occurrence of so many spills in a one year period is unprecedented in U.S. spill history. The legislative response to these spills has been immediate. New legislative initiative are rapidly being developed. Improved ways to organize spill response efforts are being devised and implemented. Funds are being allocated to further develop and improve spill response equipment and damage assessment methodologies. These spill events will have a significant impact in both the short and long term on oil exploration, development and transport in marine waters. They will result in major changes in management and operation of oil exploration and development. The purpose of this conference was to provide a forum for discussion of the changes which are currently taking place in oil spill legislation, management, and response strategies

  8. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known as "medium chain triglycerides." Some of these fats work differently than other types of saturated fat in the body. When applied ... in food amounts. But coconut oil contains a type of fat that can increase cholesterol levels. So people should ...

  9. LINNAEUS OIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Crude jatropha oil; Heterogeneous catalyst; Transesterification ... mmage for alternative fuel ... be designed to give higher activity and lifetimes [13]. So, the need for a cheap catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from no ... methanol (High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... ratio and were then charged into the glass reactor.

  10. The third oil price surge. What's different this time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesicki, Fabian

    2010-01-01

    The period from 2003 to 2008 was marked by an oil price increase comparable to the two oil price crises in the 1970s. This paper looks in detail at the situation of the oil price crises 30 years ago and compares them along various aspects on the demand and supply side with the recent price increase to identify similarities and differences. While both oil price crises in 1973 and 1979/1980 were ultimately caused by supply actions of members of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), all three oil price crises were preceded by high demand growth. Other aspects that favoured a high oil price in all three cases were low investments in new oil fields, as a consequence low spare capacity, and a weak US dollar. In addition, the recent oil price surge has been characterised by a high global refinery utilisation and refineries that did not adapt fast enough to the rising demand for lighter oil products. Moreover, broader geopolitical uncertainties, combined with risks associated with the oil trade helped push the oil price into a triple-digit zone. Speculation played only a limited and temporary role in accelerating price movements during the recent price increase. (author)

  11. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  12. Proceedings of the Infonex oil sands 2005 conference : an industry summit on emerging trends in exploration, production and resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the opportunities and challenges facing the oil sands industry with particular reference to resource characterization and supply and market outlooks to 2015. The driving forces behind oil sands development were also identified. The conference featured 12 presentations that dealt with a range of issues including resource management; operations management; price and cost sharing; emerging transmission pipeline challenges and opportunities; the fiscal regime for oil sands; minimizing the environmental impact of oil sands development; cumulative effects management and the regulatory approval process. An overview of a joint venture by Alberta Environment Northern Region and the Alberta Geological Survey to update existing maps of buried bedrock and drift channels in the oil sands mining and in-situ recoverable areas was included along with an overview of economic and environmental benefits of gasification. A new technology known as multiphase superfine atomized residue (MSAR) as an alternate fuel in oil sands production was discussed along with the issue of bridging the gap between the oil sand industry and First Nations partners. Three of the 12 presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  13. FORECASTING THE PERFORMANCE OF AN OIL FIELD, COMPARISON OF VARIOUS USED METHODS: THE CASE OF SHUANGHE OILFIELD, CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theoneste Nzayisenga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While being the dominant source of energy, oil has also brought affluence and power to different societies. Energy produced from oil is fundamental to all parts of society. In the foreseeable future, the majority of energy will still come from oil production. Consequently, reliable methods for forecasting that production are crucial. Petroleum engineers have searched for simple but reliable way to predict oil production for a long time. Many methods have been developed in the latest decades and one common practice is decline curve analysis. Prediction of future production of petroleum wells is important for cost-effective operations of the petroleum industry. This work presents a comparative analysis of methods used to predict the performance of Shuanghe oilfield, China. Using decline curve analysis including three different methods: Arps empirical methods, LL-model and simplified model and the new simplified model, LL-Model, to crosscheck Arps exponential decline model prediction results. The results showed by the comparative analysis of predictions calculated proved LL-model to be the best predictor for Shuanghe oilfield since it takes into account more parameters than the old models used in this work. However, the subsurface information or parameters of the reservoir used in LL-model may not be available every time, therefore Arps models may apply as defined. In Shuanghe oilfield calculated average geological reserves N was estimated at 9449.41 ×104 tons, the average recoverable reserves NR were estimated to 4274.61×104 tons while the water cut was 97% and the water cut predicted by LL-model was 96.7%; not far from water flooding curves value. The exponential decline model showed recoverable reserves NR estimated around 4685.88×104 tons of oil while the decline phase of total development was estimated around 34 years which means that if the actual production conditions remain unchanged, Shuanghe oilfield would continue producing for

  14. 15 CFR Supplement No. 3 to Part 748 - BIS-711, Statement by Ultimate Consignee and Purchaser Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...” include: contractual, franchise, distributor, wholesaler, continuing and regular individual business, etc... persons, other than employees of the ultimate consignee or purchaser, who assisted in the preparation of...

  15. Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery : Modeling and Analytical Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashoori, E.

    2012-01-01

    Foam increases sweep in miscible- and immiscible-gas enhanced oil recovery by decreasing the mobility of gas enormously. This thesis is concerned with the simulations and analytical solutions for foam flow for the purpose of modeling foam EOR in a reservoir. For the ultimate goal of upscaling our

  16. Economics of Undiscovered Oil and Gas in the North Slope of Alaska: Economic Update and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has published assessments by geologists of undiscovered conventional oil and gas accumulations in the North Slope of Alaska; these assessments contain a set of scientifically based estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable quantities of oil and gas in discrete oil and gas accumulations that can be produced with conventional recovery technology. The assessments do not incorporate economic factors such as recovery costs and product prices. The assessors considered undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in four areas of the North Slope: (1) the central North Slope, (2) the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA), (3) the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), and (4) the area west of the NPRA, called in this report the 'western North Slope'. These analyses were prepared at different times with various minimum assessed oil and gas accumulation sizes and with slightly different assumptions. Results of these past studies were recently supplemented with information by the assessment geologists that allowed adjustments for uniform minimum assessed accumulation sizes and a consistent set of assumptions. The effort permitted the statistical aggregation of the assessments of the four areas composing the study area. This economic analysis is based on undiscovered assessed accumulation distributions represented by the four-area aggregation and incorporates updates of costs and technological and fiscal assumptions used in the initial economic analysis that accompanied the geologic assessment of each study area.

  17. The role of technical progress in the process of recalculating oil reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulard, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Contrary to the concept of resources (which is essentially a geological one), the notion of reserves designates the quantities that are technically and economically recoverable. Beyond the production-related effect, the reserves therefore evolve over time in accordance with numerous technical and economic parameters. Among these parameters, it can be seen that technical progress plays a considerable role throughout the process of converting resources into reserves, including progress in the identification, accessibility and processing of the resources, and improvements in economic viability. After having tackled the problem of measuring the 'technical progress effects' and citing examples, we demonstrate that the evolution in oil reserves is subject to three types of impact. These are a quantitative impact by significantly improving the recovery rates or making it possible to identify hitherto undetectable oil fields, a qualitative impact by widening the resource base thanks to the adoption of new categories of oil (in particular the so-called 'unconventional' oils) and by carrying out the gradual substitution between these resources of differing qualities. There is also a dynamic impact, through the acceleration of resource availability. Through these three approaches, technical progress makes makes it possible to ensure continuity in oil supply and contributes significantly to the recalculation of reserves. It therefore acts as a compensating factor, counterbalancing the progressive depletion of resources. (author)

  18. Parametric Study on Ultimate Failure Criteria of Elbow Piping Components in Seismically Isolated NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Ki, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is well known that the interface pipes between isolated and non-isolated structures will become the most critical in the seismically isolated NPPs. Therefore, seismic performance of such interface pipes should be evaluated comprehensively especially in terms of the seismic fragility capacity. To evaluate the seismic capacity of interface pipes in the isolated NPP, firstly, we should define the failure mode and failure criteria of critical pipe components. Hence, in this study, we performed the dynamic tests of elbow components which were installed in a seismically isolated NPP, and evaluated the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria by using the test results. To do this, we manufactured 25 critical elbow component specimens and performed cyclic loading tests under the internal pressure condition. The failure mode and failure criteria of a pipe component will be varied by the design parameters such as the internal pressure, pipe diameter, loading type, and loading amplitude. From the tests, we assessed the effects of the variation parameters onto the failure criteria. For the tests, we generated the seismic input protocol of relative displacement between the ends of elbow component. In this paper, elbow in piping system was defined as a fragile element and numerical model was updated by component test. Failure mode of piping component under seismic load was defined by the dynamic tests of ultimate pipe capacity. For the interface piping system, the seismic capacity should be carefully estimated since that the required displacement absorption capacity will be increased significantly by the adoption of the seismic isolation system. In this study, the dynamic tests were performed for the elbow components which were installed in an actual NPPs, and the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria were also evaluated by using the test results.

  19. Ultimate Electrical Means for Severe Accident and Multi Unit Event Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guisez, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Following the Multi Unit Severe Accident that occurred at Fukushima as a result of the tsunami on 11 March 2011, the European Council decided to submit its Nuclear Power Plants to a Stress Test. In Belgium, this Stress Test, named BEST (Belgian Stress Test), was successfully concluded at the end of 2011. Nevertheless, Electrabel decided, in agreement with the Authorities, to start a beyond design basis action plan, with the goal to mitigate the consequences of a Beyond Design Basis Accident and a Multi Unit Event. Consequently, this has led to an improvement of the robustness of its Nuclear Power Plants. Considering the importance of electrical power supply to a nuclear power plant, a significant part of this action plan consisted of setting up a mobile, 'plug and play' method for the electrical power supply to some major safety systems. In order to install this ultimate power supply, three factors were retained as essential. First, important reactor monitoring instrumentation is preserved. Second, core cooling is provided at all times. Finally, systems are easily made operational within a very short delay of time. During normal operation and Design Basis Events, core cooling is provided by High Voltage equipment. However, during high stress circumstances, it is too complex to realize connections on this equipment. Therefore, analysis was performed to realize core cooling with, easier to handle, Low Voltage equipment. These systems are powered by several GenSets, especially designed and manufactured for this application. The outcome of this project are easy to use, ultimate means, that supply electric power to important safety systems in order to drastically reduce the risk of core damage, during a beyond design basis event. Additionally, for all ultimate means, procedures and training modules were developed for the operators. (authors)

  20. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  1. Ultimate pressures achieved in TiZrV sputter-coated vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Cristoforo; Ruzinov, V

    2001-01-01

    Two metre long, cylindrical vacuum chambers of diameter ranging from 34 to 100 mm, coated with TiZrV getter films by sputtering, have been baked for about 24 h at temperatures from 120 to 250 degrees C. The ultimate pressures achieved after bakeout were found to correspond to the ratio of the pressure gauge degassing to the effective pumping speed provided by the chamber at the location of the gauge. The results covering a pressure range from 10/sup -11/ Torr down to 10 /sup -13/ Torr are presented and discussed. (6 refs).

  2. DHC in Helsinki - The Ultimate Heating and Cooling Solution for a Large Urban Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirgentius, Niko; Riipinen, Marko

    2010-09-15

    Since the 1950s there has been successful district energy business in Helsinki. It has been the main factor for superior energy efficiency and low CO2 emissions both in heating and cooling as well as providing clean air for the metropolitan area. The system has been grown by commercial basis based on customers' own willingness to select district energy solution. It also provided a profitable energy business to local energy company, Helsinki Energy. Helsinki DHC system is a good example of ultimate urban energy solution that provides benefits for the customer, energy company, metropolitan area and for the whole society as well.

  3. Investigations on the ultimate compressive strength of composite plates with geometrical imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirlis, K.; Downes, J.; Dow, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    with initial geometric imperfections. This paper presents the validation of finite element models against a series of plate tests that were performed within this framework and parametric studies that were carried out to identify the effects of geometric imperfections on the ultimate compressive strength......A series of studies has been performed within the MARSTRUCT Network of Excellence on Marine Structures in order to investigate the buckling response of glass fibre reinforced polymer plates. These studies include the fabrication, testing and finite element analysis of a large number of plates...

  4. Lava ultimate resin nano ceramic for CAD/ CAM: customization case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, M; Arnetzl, G V; Holly, L; Arnetzl, G

    2012-01-01

    Lava Ultimate Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) blocks are innovative new CAD/CAM materials that make it possible to achieve superior esthetic results in easy steps. The blocks are made of nano ceramic particles embedded in a highly cured resin matrix. Therefore, composite materials can be used to characterize and adjust resin nano ceramic restorations after milling. The milled RNC restorations can be individualized intra-orally or extra-orally, either before or after insertion. Unlike conventional ceramic restorations, customization and glaze firing is neither necessary nor possible with RNC restorations. This opens up the opportunity for intraoral individualization and adaptation of the restorations.

  5. Reflecting on impact, changes and continuities: restructuring workplace cultures: the ultimate work-family challenge.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Suzan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the paper “Restructuring workplace cultures: the ultimate work-family challenge?” is published in Women in Management Review, Vol. 16 No. 1, 2001, pp. 21-9. \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – The impact of the paper is considered within a framework that takes account of national discursive and political contexts in the UK in 2001 and in the present and uses a gendered organisation lens. \\ud \\ud Findings – The 2001 paper demonstrates that...

  6. The legal ensurance of underground ultimate storage of radioactive wastes without risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasse, R.

    1974-01-01

    1. The legal position towards the property owner: a) with a view to the freedom of property claim, b) in the light of the influence of the property owner. 2. The legal position towards the neighbouring property owners: a) resistance rights of the body corporate responsible for the ultimate storage, b) resistance rights of the neighbouring property owner. 3. The legal position towards those authorized to mine: a) mining free minerals, b) mining minerals reserved for the state. 4. The legal position towards prospectors. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I.; Suzuki, K.; Ishiwata, M.; Fujiwaka, T.; Yokota, H.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)

  8. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-01-01

    One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing...

  9. Guide to oil spill exercise planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation (OPRC Convention) foresees a future in which all at risk states have national oil spill preparedness and response plans. The Convention also encourages the idea that national plans be developed in cooperation with oil and shipping industries. The ultimate test of any contingency plan is measured by performance in a real emergency. It is vital, therefore, that any programme for developing a national contingency plan must include an ongoing programme to test the plan through realistic exercises. An exercise programme must progressively prepare the Oil Spill Energy Response Team to perform effectively in realistic representations of the risks that the contingency plan has been designed to meet. This report has been designed to guide all those in government or industry who are faced with the responsibility of developing and managing oil spill response exercises at all levels. It carries with it the authority that derives from peer review by many centres of oil spill response excellence around the world. It is well-illustrated with brief case histories of exercises that have been carried out by many IPIECA member companies. Each of those companies has indicated its preparedness to share more information by providing contact name and address details within this report. (author)

  10. Peak Oil, threat or energy worlds' phantasm?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Peak Oil is based on the work of King Hubbert, a petroleum geologist who worked for Shell in the USA in the 1960's. Based on the fact that discoveries in America reached a maximum in the 1930's, he announced that American production would reach a maximum in 1969, which did actually occur. Geologists members of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil have extrapolated this result to a worldwide scale and, since oil discoveries reached a peak in the 1960's, argued that production will peak in the very near future. It is clear that hydrocarbon reserves are finite and therefore exhaustible. But little is known regarding the level of ultimate (i.e. total existing) reserves. There are probably very large reserves of non conventional oil in addition to the reserves of conventional oil. An increasing number of specialists put maximum production at less than 100 Mb/d more for geopolitical than physical reasons. Attainable peak production will probably vary from year to year and will depend on how crude oil prices develop

  11. The theoretical ultimate magnetoelectric coefficients of magnetoelectric composites by optimization design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.-L.; Liu, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates what is the largest magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient of ME composites, and how to realize it. From the standpoint of energy conservation, a theoretical analysis is carried out on an imaginary lever structure consisting of a magnetostrictive phase, a piezoelectric phase, and a rigid lever. This structure is a generalization of various composite layouts for optimization on ME effect. The predicted theoretical ultimate ME coefficient plays a similar role as the efficiency of ideal heat engine in thermodynamics, and is used to evaluate the existing typical ME layouts, such as the parallel sandwiched layout and the serial layout. These two typical layouts exhibit ME coefficient much lower than the theoretical largest values, because in the general analysis the stress amplification ratio and the volume ratio can be optimized independently and freely, but in typical layouts they are dependent or fixed. To overcome this shortcoming and achieve the theoretical largest ME coefficient, a new design is presented. In addition, it is found that the most commonly used electric field ME coefficient can be designed to be infinitely large. We doubt the validity of this coefficient as a reasonable ME effect index and consider three more ME coefficients, namely the electric charge ME coefficient, the voltage ME coefficient, and the static electric energy ME coefficient. We note that the theoretical ultimate value of the static electric energy ME coefficient is finite and might be a more proper measure of ME effect

  12. Experimental study on ultimate strength and strain behavior of concrete under biaxial compressive stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Yukio

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the ultimate strength failure mode and deformation behavior of concrete under short-term biaxial compressive stresses, as an aid to design and analyze the concrete structures subjected to multiaxial compression such as prestressed or reinforced concrete vessel structures. The experimental work on biaxial compression was carried out on the specimens of three mix proportions and different ages with 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cubic shape in a room controlled at 20 0 C. The results are summarized as follows. (1) To minimize the surface friction between specimens and loading platens, the pads of teflon sheets coated with silicone grease were used. The coefficient of friction was measured and was 3 percent on the average. (2) The test data showed that the strength of the concrete subjected to biaxial compression increased as compared to uniaxial compressive strength, and that the biaxial strength increase was mainly dependent on the ratio of principal stresses, and it was hardly affected by mix proportions and ages. (3) The maximum increase of strength, which occurred at the stress ratio of approximately sigma 2 /sigma 1 = 0.6, was about 27 percent higher than the uniaxial strength of concrete. (4) The ultimate strength in case of biaxial compression could be approximated by the parabolic equation. (Kako, I.)

  13. Secondary Moments due to Prestressing with Different Bond at the Ultimate Limit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvoník Jaroslav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary effects of prestressing develop in statically indeterminate structures (e.g., continuous beams due to the restraint of deformations imposed by hyperstatic restraints. These effects may significantly influence internal forces and stresses in prestressed structures. Secondary effects are influenced by the redundancy of a structural system, which raises the question of whether they will remain constant after a change in the structural system, e.g., due to the development of plastic hinge(s in a critical cross-section(s or after the development of a kinematic mechanism, or if they will disappear when the structure changes into a sequence of simply supported beams. The paper deals with an investigation of the behavior of continuous post-tensioned beams subjected to an ultimate load with significant secondary effects from prestressing. A total of 6 two-span beams prestressed by tendons with different bonds were tested in a laboratory with a load that changed their structural system into a kinematic mechanism. The internal forces and secondary effects of the prestressing were controlled through measurements of the reactions in all the supports. The results revealed that the secondary effects remained as a permanent part of the action on the experimental beams, even after the development of the kinematic mechanism. The results obtained confirmed that secondary effects should be included in all combinations of actions for verifications of ultimate limit states (ULS.

  14. Secondary Moments due to Prestressing with Different Bond at the Ultimate Limit State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvoník, Jaroslav; Pažma, Peter; Vida, Radoslav

    2018-03-01

    Secondary effects of prestressing develop in statically indeterminate structures (e.g., continuous beams) due to the restraint of deformations imposed by hyperstatic restraints. These effects may significantly influence internal forces and stresses in prestressed structures. Secondary effects are influenced by the redundancy of a structural system, which raises the question of whether they will remain constant after a change in the structural system, e.g., due to the development of plastic hinge(s) in a critical cross-section(s) or after the development of a kinematic mechanism, or if they will disappear when the structure changes into a sequence of simply supported beams. The paper deals with an investigation of the behavior of continuous post-tensioned beams subjected to an ultimate load with significant secondary effects from prestressing. A total of 6 two-span beams prestressed by tendons with different bonds were tested in a laboratory with a load that changed their structural system into a kinematic mechanism. The internal forces and secondary effects of the prestressing were controlled through measurements of the reactions in all the supports. The results revealed that the secondary effects remained as a permanent part of the action on the experimental beams, even after the development of the kinematic mechanism. The results obtained confirmed that secondary effects should be included in all combinations of actions for verifications of ultimate limit states (ULS).

  15. Bootstrap calculation of ultimate strength temperature maxima for neutron irradiated ferritic/martensitic steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obraztsov, S. M.; Konobeev, Yu. V.; Birzhevoy, G. A.; Rachkov, V. I.

    2006-12-01

    The dependence of mechanical properties of ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels on irradiation temperature is of interest because these steels are used as structural materials for fast, fusion reactors and accelerator driven systems. Experimental data demonstrating temperature peaks in physical and mechanical properties of neutron irradiated pure iron, nickel, vanadium, and austenitic stainless steels are available in the literature. A lack of such an information for F/M steels forces one to apply a computational mathematical-statistical modeling methods. The bootstrap procedure is one of such methods that allows us to obtain the necessary statistical characteristics using only a sample of limited size. In the present work this procedure is used for modeling the frequency distribution histograms of ultimate strength temperature peaks in pure iron and Russian F/M steels EP-450 and EP-823. Results of fitting the sums of Lorentz or Gauss functions to the calculated distributions are presented. It is concluded that there are two temperature (at 360 and 390 °C) peaks of the ultimate strength in EP-450 steel and single peak at 390 °C in EP-823.

  16. Application of risk-informed design methods to select the PSACS ultimate heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Michael A.; Apostolakis, George E.

    2009-01-01

    In the early phases of advanced system design, information is scarce. The technologies, components and processes to be used have not been specified adequately or are not well understood and uncertainties are very large. Yet, it is during these early phases that design teams and other stakeholders are required to make critical decisions to guide the development of the system. To aid in this decision making, a formal process is proposed based on the Analytic-Deliberative Decision-Making Process (ADP) that allows stakeholders to synthesize rationally their knowledge and experience and facilitate learning and sharing of best practices. The ADP identifies and prioritizes attributes relevant to a decision problem and supports the formulation of metrics to measure the performance of different design options. This paper reports on an application of the ADP to the selection of an ultimate heat sink for the Flexible Conversion Ratio (FCR) reactor's Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System (PSACS). Two ultimate heat sink options are identified and evaluated, air and water.

  17. Plasticity and constraints on social evolution in African mole-rats: ultimate and proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkes, Chris G; Bennett, Nigel C

    2013-05-19

    Here, we review comparative studies of African mole-rats (family Bathyergidae) to explain how constraints acting at the ultimate (environmental) and proximate (organismal) levels have led to convergent gains and losses of sociality within this extensive adaptive radiation of subterranean rodents endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. At the ultimate level, living in environments that range from mesic through to arid has led to both variation and flexibility in social organization among species, culminating in the pinnacle of social evolution in the eusocial naked and Damaraland mole-rats (Heterocephalus glaber and Fukomys damarensis). The common mole-rat (Cryptomys hottentotus) provides a model example of how plasticity in social traits exists within a single species inhabiting areas with different ecological constraint. At the proximate level, reproductive strategies and cooperative breeding may be constrained by the correlated evolution of a suite of traits including physiological suppression of reproduction, the development of physiological and morphological castes, and the mode of ovulatory control and seasonality in breeding. Furthermore, recent neurobiological advances indicate that differential patterns of neurotransmitter expression within the forebrain may underpin (and limit) either a solitary or group living/cooperative lifestyle not only in mole-rats, but also more widely among disparate mammalian taxa.

  18. Evaluation of the ultimate pressure capacity of rectangular HVAC ducts for nuclear pwoer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    Typical Category I HVAC ducts in a nuclear plant must be designed for loads and load combinations including positive and negative pressure loads which are generated due to the normal operation and postulated accident conditions. These pressure loads most often govern the design of the HVAC ducts. Structural design criteria are presently based on the AISI Code which limits the duct panel width-to-thickness ratio to a maximum of 500 and the maximum height-to-thickness ratio to 200, unless it can be shown by structural tests that larger ratios can be used. Test Programs performed on rectangular HVAC ducts subjected to vacumm loads have substantiated the use of ducts having panel width to thickness ratios of up to 1600. The results of the test programs were subsequently incorporated into the design through a more rational analytical design method which was developed from and correlates well with the test results. The purpose of this paper is to present the analytical design method and its correlation with the test results. Simple formulae for the design of rectangular HVAC ducts are presented. Lower bound values of duct sheet, and stiffener ultimate loads are derived, and correlated with recent test results. Analytically predicted ultimate pressures are also compared with other available duct test data

  19. ULtiMATE system for rapid assembly of customized TAL effectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjiao Yang

    Full Text Available Engineered TAL-effector nucleases (TALENs and TALE-based constructs have become powerful tools for eukaryotic genome editing. Although many methods have been reported, it remains a challenge for the assembly of designer-based TALE repeats in a fast, precise and cost-effective manner. We present an ULtiMATE (USER-based Ligation Mediated Assembly of TAL Effector system for speedy and accurate assembly of customized TALE constructs. This method takes advantage of uracil-specific excision reagent (USER to create multiple distinct sticky ends between any neighboring DNA fragments for specific ligation. With pre-assembled templates, multiple TALE DNA-binding domains could be efficiently assembled in order within hours with minimal manual operation. This system has been demonstrated to produce both functional TALENs for effective gene knockout and TALE-mediated gene-specific transcription activation (TALE-TA. The feature of both ease-of-operation and high efficiency of ULtiMATE system makes it not only an ideal method for biologic labs, but also an approach well suited for large-scale assembly of TALENs and any other TALE-based constructions.

  20. Ultimate shearing strength of aseismatic walls with many small holes for reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizaki, Seiji; Ezaki, Tetsuro; Korenaga, Takeyoshi; Sotomura, Kentaro.

    1984-01-01

    The aseismatic walls for reactor buildings have complicated forms, and are characterized by large wall thickness and high reinforcement ratio as compared with ordinary aseismatic walls. The forms are mainly box, cylinder or irregular polygonal prism and their combination. The design of the walls with many small holes has been performed on the basis of the reinforced concrete structure calculation standard of the Architectural Institute of Japan, following the case with large opening. When there are many small holes, the arrangement of reinforcement for the openings becomes complex, and the construction is difficult. It is necessary to rationalize the design and to simplify the reinforcement work. Under the background like this, the experiment to examine the shearing property in bending of the aseismatic walls with many small holes for reactor buildings was carried out, and horizontal loading test was performed on 43 specimens. The method of calculating the ultimate shearing strength of a wall without opening was proposed, and the method of applying it to a wall with many small holes is shown. The experimental method and the results, the examination of the experimental results, and the ultimate shearing strength of the aseismatic walls are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. A New Algorithm for Determining Ultimate Pit Limits Based on Network Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Khodayari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main concerns of the mining industry is to determine ultimate pit limits. Final pit is a collection of blocks, which can be removed with maximum profit while following restrictions on the slope of the mine’s walls. The size, location and final shape of an open-pit are very important in designing the location of waste dumps, stockpiles, processing plants, access roads and other surface facilities as well as in developing a production program. There are numerous methods for designing ultimate pit limits. Some of these methods, such as floating cone algorithm, are heuristic and do not guarantee to generate optimum pit limits. Other methods, like Lerchs–Grossmann algorithm, are rigorous and always generate the true optimum pit limits. In this paper, a new rigorous algorithm is introduced. The main logic in this method is that only positive blocks, which can pay costs of their overlying non-positive blocks, are able to appear in the final pit. Those costs may be paid either by positive block itself or jointly with other positive blocks, which have the same overlying negative blocks. This logic is formulated using a network model as a Linear Programming (LP problem. This algorithm can be applied to two- and three-dimension block models. Since there are many commercial programs available for solving LP problems, pit limits in large block models can be determined easily by using this method.

  2. Characterization of Emulsions of Fish Oil and Water by Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Horn, Anna Frisenfeldt; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Addition of fish oil to industrially prepared food products is attractive to the food industry because of the well-documented health effects of the omega 3 fatty acids in the fish oil [1]. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids including omega 3 fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid oxidation due...... to the many double bonds. Emulsions of fish oil in water are potential candidates for a delivery system of fish oil to food products. It has been suggested that oxidation of oil-in-water emulsions is initiated at the interface between oil and water. It has also been proposed that oxidation is to some extent...... is to characterize fish oil in water emulsions with respect to oil droplet size, distribution, and ultimately to view the structure and thickness of the interface layer. A freeze-fractured surface viewed at low temperatures under the scanning electron microscope is a promising strategy to reveal variations...

  3. Long-term experience in salt mining and experience in salt mine decommissioning - a chance for ultimate storage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitz, P.; Rauche, H.

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses similarities between salt mining and ultimate storage and the possibility of using abandoned salt mines as ultimate storage site. He states that with all the numeric prediction tools now available, expert knowledge of mining engineers is still indispensable [de

  4. Investment requirements in the oil industry of the independent oil exporting countries in the face of environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmat, H.; Hamid, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    The oil industry has to operate under environmental constraints which involve commercial risks. Oil companies need to treat environmental management as an investment as well as an insurance problem, assessing risks and costs and deciding how to minimize them most cost effectively. Petroleum development in Malaysia is accelerating. In view of the high visibility of the industry and the wide publicity generated by a few incidents which have taken place outside Malaysia the national oil company, Petronas, is constantly vigilant in its efforts to preserve the environment. Oil producing countries like Malaysia will need to continue to set aside some of the revenue they obtain from the oil industry and use it for protecting the environment to ensure public acceptance and ultimately, orderly growth of their industry. Clearly they are less able to do so if their income is lessened through the interference with free trade among nations even if the purported reasons for the interference is the environment itself. Ultimately the environmental investment requirement in the oil industry of the independent and developing oil exporting countries is free trade without price distortions. The 1989 Langkawi Declaration on the Environment of the Commonwealth Heads of Government is appended to this article. (author)

  5. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the North Kara Basins and Platforms Province as part of the its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. This geologic province is north of western Siberia, Russian Federation, in the North Kara Sea between Novaya Zemlya to the west and Severnaya Zemlya to the east. One assessment unit (AU) was defined, the North Kara Basins and Platforms AU, which coincides with the geologic province. This AU was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The total estimated mean volumes of undiscovered petroleum resources in the province are ~1.8 billion barrels of crude oil, ~15.0 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and ~0.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  6. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province, north of the Arctic Circle, as part of the Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. The province is in the Russian Federation and is situated between the Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the Siberian craton. The one assessment unit (AU) defined for this study—the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep AU—was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered resources for the Northern Priverkhoyansk Foredeep in the Lena-Vilyui Basin Province are ~400 million barrels of crude oil, 1.3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 40 million barrels of natural-gas liquids, practically all (99.49 percent) of which is north of the Arctic Circle.

  7. Health care quality, access, cost, workforce, and surgical education: the ultimate perfect storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Marshall Z

    2012-01-01

    The discussions on health care reform over the past two years have focused on cost containment while trying to maintain quality of care. Focusing on just cost and quality unfortunately does not address other very important factors that impact on our health care delivery system. Availability of a well-trained workforce, maintaining the sophisticated medical/surgical education system, and ultimately access to quality care by the public are critical to maintaining and enhancing our health care delivery system. Unfortunately, all five of these components are under at risk. Thus, we have evolving the ultimate perfect storm affecting our health care delivery system. Although not ideal and given the uniqueness of our population and their expectations, our current delivery system is excellent compared to other countries. However, the cost of our current system is rising at an alarming rate. Currently, health care consumes 17% of our gross domestic product. If our system is not revised this will continue to rise and by 2025 it will consume 48%. The dilemma, given the current state of our overall economy and rising debt, is how to address this major problem. Unfortunately, the Affordable Care Act, which is now law, does not address most of the issues and the cost was initially grossly under estimated. Furthermore, the law does not address the issues of workforce, maintaining our medical education system or ultimately, access. A major revision of our system will be necessary to truly create a system that protects and enhances all five of the components of our health care delivery system. To effectively accomplish this will require addressing those issues that lead to wasteful spending and diversion of our health care dollars to profit instead of care. Improved and efficient delivery systems that reduce complications, reduction of duplication of tertiary and quaternary programs or services within the same markets (i.e. regionalization of care), health insurance reform, and

  8. Refining oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunstan, A E

    1921-05-12

    The desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons, such as kerosene, ligroin, or shale oil, by treatment with alkaline hypochlorite, such as sodium hypochlorite with free alkali is preceded, followed or both preceded and followed by treatment with alkali. The treatment may be effected in a vessel in which brine is being electrolyzed for the production of sodium hypochlorite, and the temperature may be raised to say 120/sup 0/F. The product may be filtered through animal charcoal, fuller's earth, dehydrated alumina, or other adsorbent substance.

  9. Wash-oil problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chlosta, J

    1941-01-01

    Meier-Grolman and others have deduced from experimental studies of the vapor pressure of solutions of benzene in paraffin oil and Solway oil-paraffin oil mixtures that the higher the proportion of aliphatic compounds in a wash oil, the less suitable it is for benzene scrubbing. This generalization is not supported. Paraffin oils from brown-coal tar and low viscous oils from the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis process are both being successfully used for benzene scrubbing.

  10. Oil trading manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1995-01-01

    This manual provides basic information on all aspects of oil trading. Topics reviewed in Part 1 include physical characteristics and refining and oil pricing arrangements. Part 2 on instruments and markets contains chapters on crude oil markets, product markets, forward and futures contracts, forward paper markets, oil future exchanges, options, swaps and long term oil markets. Part 3 deals with administration and has chapters on operations and logistics, credit control, accounting, taxation of oil trading, contracts and legal and regulatory issues. (UK)

  11. Aging characteristics of containment building and sensitivity on ultimate pressure capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-03-01

    For the reliable safety assessment of the containment building, structural and material conditions can be investigated in detail and pertinent assessment technologies have to be established. Also, an understanding on the aging-related degradations for the construction materials is required to predict long-term structural safety of the containment building. For the development of reliable aging prediction models, an extensive data base system related to aging properties of the containment building has to be prepared. The objectives of this research are to develop aging models representing long-term degradation of materials and a structural performance assessment program for containment building considering aging-related degradation. According to the results of sensitivity analysis, as the mechanical properties of the constituent materials degrade, the ultimate pressure capacity of containment building may decrease and severe damage may occur around the mid-level of the containment wall. (author). 28 refs., 11 tabs., 36 figs

  12. Ultimate Limit State Design Of Sheet Pile Walls By Finite Elements And Nonlinear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Sven

    2002-01-01

    Limit analysis has been used for decades in civil and mechanical engineering practice as a means of analyzing structures of materials which with reasonable accuracy can be described as being rigid-perfectly plastic. Such materials include steel, concrete and soils. Traditionally, most attention has...... been given to the problem which consists of determining the ultimate magnitude of a given set of loads acting on a structure with a given geometry. This problem is relevant when determining e.g. the necessary extrusion pressure in metal forming problems, when evaluating the bearing capacity...... is the load intensity. In the paper we consider the latter of these problems with particular reference to the design of sheet pile walls....

  13. Patient dose rate: An ultimate limit for spatial and density resolution of scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, G.; Wagner, W.

    1979-01-01

    In X-ray scanning systems, picture quality of the reconstructed slices is limited to a maximum spatial as well as density resolution by the applied radiation dose. Density resolution can be improved in proportion to the root of the patient dose, whereas a doubled spatial resolving power requires an eight times higher patient dose, assuming a fixed slice thickness. Only a careful trade-off between the applied patient dose, density resolution and spatial resolution yields a maximal diagnostic value for the physician. Specifications of a scanning system have to take into account these ultimate restrictions, so that picture quality really is limited by the patient's dose rather than by technical constraints. In addition a method is given by which the applied dose can be reduced by focusing the main intensity onto the region of interest, in case that region is known a priori. (orig.) [de

  14. Methodological Challenges of Identifying Ultimate Land Use Changes Caused by Biofuel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Kløverpris, Jesper; Nielsen, Per Henning

    2007-01-01

    that is only poorly dealt with by LCA methods. Even though the use of land, or change of land cover and its eco-systems, is acknowledged to be a very important impact of human activities, a methodology for assessing this impact category has not yet  been properly developed within LCA. Some LCA scientists have...... looked into methods for assessing the impacts of given changes of land use, i.e. the impact assessment component of the LCA, but very few have looked into how to actually do the inventory modelling, i.e. how to identify which land is ultimately affected by the decision and system under study. State...... in the systems being studied. The aims of this paper is to analyse the mechanisms influencing the long-term land use consequences of changes in crop demand and propose a methodological framework for identifying these consequences within a global scope. The outset of the paper is the principles of consequential...

  15. SoundScapes - Beyond Interaction... in search of the ultimate human-centred interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Tony

    2006-01-01

    that can also benefit communication. To achieve this a new generation of intuitive natural interfaces will be required and SoundScapes (see below) is a step toward this goal to discover the ultimate interface for matching the human experience to technology. Emergent hypothesis that have developed...... as a result of the SoundScapes research will be discussed. Introduction to SoundScapes SoundScapes is a contemporary art concept that has become widely known as an interdisciplinary platform for knowledge exchange, innovative product creation of creative and scientific work that uses non-invasive sensor...... Resonance. The multimedia content is adaptable so that the environment is tailored for each participant according to a user profile. This full body movement or the smallest of gesture results in human data input to SoundScapes. The same technology that enables this empowerment is used for performance art...

  16. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  17. Silicon coupled-ring resonator structures for slow light applications: potential, impairments and ultimate limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canciamilla, A; Torregiani, M; Ferrari, C; Morichetti, F; Melloni, A; De La Rue, R M; Samarelli, A; Sorel, M

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-ring resonator-based slow light structures are reported and discussed. By combining the advantages of high index contrast silicon-on-insulator technology with an efficient thermo-optical activation, they provide an on-chip solution with a bandwidth of up to 100 GHz and a slowdown factor of up to 16, as well as a continuous reconfiguration scheme and a fine tunability. The performance of these devices is investigated in detail for both static and dynamic operation, in order to evaluate their potential in optical signal processing applications at high bit rate. The main impairments imposed by fabrication imperfections are also discussed in relation to the slowdown factor. In particular, the analysis of the impact of backscatter, disorder and two-photon absorption on the device transfer function reveals the ultimate limits of these structures and provides valuable design rules for their optimization

  18. Process for extracting residual heat and device for the ultimate absorption of heat for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Lawrence Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a 'heat sink' or device for the ultimate absorption of heat for electric power stations using the most widespread thermal neutron nuclear reactors, namely 'light water' reactors such as boiling or pressurized water reactors. The residual heat given off by these reactors can be safely extracted with this method by using dry cooling. However, the invention does not concern the problems arising from the cooling of the steam used for actuating the steam turbine nor the cooling of the steam exhausted by the turbine or coming from it, but it does concern the 'safety' part of the nuclear power station in which the residual heat discharged in the reactor is controlled and dissipated [fr

  19. Design proposal for ultimate shear strength of tapered steel plate girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bedynek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental and numerical studies on prismatic plate girders subjected to shear can be found in the literature. However, the real structures are frequently designed as non-uniform structural elements. The main objective of the research is the development of a new proposal for the calculation of the ultimate shear resistance of tapered steel plate girders taking into account the specific behaviour of such members. A new mechanical model is presented in the paper and it is used to show the differences between the behaviour of uniform and tapered web panels subjected to shear. EN 1993-1-5 design specifications for the determination of the shear strength for rectangular plates are improved in order to assess the shear strength of tapered elements. Numerical studies carried out on tapered steel plate girders subjected to shear lead to confirm the suitability of the mechanical model and the proposed design expression.

  20. Determination of the ultimate load in concrete slabs by the yield line finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.E.; Feijo, B.; Martha, L.F.R.; Lopes, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for calculating the ultimate load in reinforced concrete slabs is proposed. The method follows the finite element aproach representating the continuum slab as an assembly of rigid triangular plates connected along their sides through yield line elements. This approach leads to the definition of the displacement configuration of the plate only as a function of the transversal displacement at the nodes of the mesh (1 DOF per node) reducing significantly the number of DOF's in relation to the conventional formulation by means of the finite element method (minimum of 3 DOF per node). Nonlinear behaviour of the reinforced concrete section is considered in the definition of the moment rotation curve of the yield lines. The effect of the in plane forces acting in the middle surface of the plate is also taken into account. The validity of the model is verified comparing the numerical solutions with the results of the classical yield line theory. (Author) [pt

  1. Fuzzy stochastic analysis of serviceability and ultimate limit states of two-span pedestrian steel bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Zdeněk; Sandovič, GiedrÄ--

    2012-09-01

    The paper deals with non-linear analysis of ultimate and serviceability limit states of two-span pedestrian steel bridge. The effects of random material and geometrical characteristics on limit states are analyzed. The Monte Carlo method was applied to stochastic analysis. For the serviceability limit state, also influence of fuzzy uncertainty of the limit deflection value on random characteristics of load capacity of variable action was studied. The results prove that, for the type of structure studied, the serviceability limit state is decisive from the point of view of design. The present paper opens a discussion on the use of stochastic analysis to verify the limit deflections given in the standards EUROCODES.

  2. Review of ultimate pressure capacity test of containment structure and scale model design techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This study was performed to obtain the basic knowledge of the scaled model test through the review of experimental studies conducted in foreign countries. The results of this study will be used for the wall segment test planed in next year. It was concluded from the previous studies that the larger the model, the greater the trust of the community in the obtained results. It is recommended that a scale model 1/4 - 1/6 be suitable considering the characteristics of concrete, reinforcement, liner and tendon. Such a large scale model test require large amounts of time and budget. Because of these reasons, it is concluded that the containment wall segment test with analytical studies is efficient for the verification of the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structures. 57 refs., 46 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  3. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  4. Ultimate Pressure Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Steel Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) is very important since the PCCV are final protection to prevent the massive leakage of a radioactive contaminant caused by the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The tensile behavior of a concrete is an important factor which influence to the UPC of PCCVs. Hence, nowadays, it is interested that the application of the steel fiber to the PCCVs since that the concrete with steel fiber shows an improved performance in the tensile behavior compared to reinforced concrete (RC). In this study, we performed the UPC analysis of PCCVs with steel fibers corresponding to the different volume ratio of fibers to verify the effectiveness of steel fibers on PCCVs

  5. La simplexité, ultime avatar de la complexité ?

    OpenAIRE

    Demongeot, Jacques; Amor, Hedi Ben; Hazgui, Hana; Lontos, Athanasios

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction La simplexité peut être considérée comme l’émergence de nouvelles fonctionnalités, issues des interactions entre sous-systèmes (ou modules) d’un système complexe : elle apparaît ainsi comme l’ultime avatar de la complexité, ce qui permet de la définir, sans rupture épistémologique avec le courant scientifique des systèmes complexes, comme la tendance qu’a la nature de sélectionner les fonctions vitales des êtres vivants, en particulier celles les plus utiles à la spécificité e...

  6. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  7. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  8. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of a reinforced concrete Mark III containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGaughy, J.P. Jr.; Lin, F.T.; Sen, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The static ultimate capacity of a Mark III BWR pressure suppression type containment has been investigated with a view to determine its capability to withstand the internal pressure associated with a postulated hydrogen burn. The reinforced concrete containment consists of a right circular cylinder covered by a hemispherical dome and supported on a flat circular foundation mat. A 1/4'' thick welded steel liner plate covers the inside surface of the containment shell. The cylinder is a 3.5 ft. thick shell with an inside radius of 62.0 feet. The thickness of the dome is 3.5 feet. Reinforcement in the shell is comprised of multi-layers of circumferential, meridional and diagonal rebars. Major containment penetrations consists of a circular equipment hatch and two personnel airlock assemblies. The containment ultimate capacity is determined by performing a non-linear analysis using the proprietary finite element computer code 'FINEL'. The code has the capability of modelling concrete cracking in tension and redistribution forces and moments to account for such phenomenon. For analysis purposes, the finite element model included the containment dome and the upper portion of the containment cylinder with appropriate boundary conditions applied at the model cut off region. This portion of the containment structure is selected because the segment of the cylinder that is included in the model has the least amount of hopp reinforcement, and when the general yield state is reached, the hoop reinforcement will be the limiting element. The containment structure has been treated as an axisymmetric shell using axisymmetric quadrilateral finite elements in the radial plane to model the liner plate and concrete. The reinforcing steel have been idealized by finite elements with unidirectional stiffness. (orig./RW)

  9. Ultimate refrigerating conditions, behavior turning and a thermodynamic analysis for absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Danxing; Meng Xuelin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two novel fundamental concepts of the absorption refrigeration cycle were proposed. ► The interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters was investigated. ► A set of optimal operating condition of hybrid refrigeration cycle was found. ► A simulation and investigation for R134a-DMF hybrid refrigeration cycle was performed. - Abstract: The absorption–compression hybrid refrigeration cycle has been considered as an effective approach to reduce the mechanical work consumption by using low-grade heat, such as solar energy. This work aims at studying the thermodynamic mechanism of the hybrid refrigeration cycle. Two fundamental concepts have been proposed, which are the ultimate refrigerating temperature (or the ultimate temperature lift) and the behavior turning. On the basis of that, the interaction mechanism of compressor pressure increasing with other key-parameters and the impact of compressor pressure increasing on the cycle performance have been investigated. The key-parameters include the concentration difference, the circulation ratio of working fluid, etc. The work points out that the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance varies with the change of compressor outlet pressure and depends on which one achieves dominance in the hybrid refrigeration cycle, the absorption sub-system or the compression sub-system. The behavior turning point during parameters changing corresponds to a maximum value of the heat powered coefficient of performance. In this case, the hybrid refrigeration cycle performance is optimal because the low-grade heat utilization is the most effective. In addition, to validate the theoretical analysis, a solar hybrid refrigeration cycle with R134a–DMF as working pair was simulated. The Peng–Robinson equation of state was adopted to calculate thermophysical properties when the reliability assessment of the prediction models on the available literature data of R134a–DMF system had been

  10. Converting heavy oils into light oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mony, H

    1915-12-22

    A process is described for transforming heavy oils obtained by the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, shales into light oils, and also the heavy oils of mineral and vegetable origin, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid substances or liquids suitably chosen to cause the distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature; solid and liquid substances which favor the production of light products under the influence of heat being added preferably to the oil to be treated before putting it in the retort and before heating, so that light oils are obtained by treatment of the heavy oils in a single operation.

  11. Artificial weathering of oils by rotary evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Hollebone, B.P.; Singh, N.R.; Tong, T.S.; Mullin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil weathering has a considerable affect on the behaviour, impact and ultimate fate of an oil spill. As such, efforts have been made to study weathering as a whole using bench-scale procedures. The studies are generally divided into individual processes where the effect of other major processes are introduce as an amended sample input rather than a concurrent process. The weathering process that has the greatest effect immediately following an oil spill is evaporation, particularly for lighter oils. The rotary evaporator apparatus offers a convenient means of producing artificially weathered oil for laboratory studies. This paper reported on a study that examined the representativeness of samples obtained by this method compared to pan evaporation and the impact of changes to the apparatus or method parameters on sample chemistry. Experiments were performed on Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend no. 5 in a rotary evaporator under varying conditions of temperature and air flow at ambient pressure using 2 apparatus. The rate of mass loss increased with temperature and air flow rate as expected, but the quantitative relationships could not be defined from the data due to contributions by other uncontrolled factors. It was concluded that the rotary evaporator is not suited for evaporation rate studies, but rather for producing samples suitable for use in other studies. Chemical analysis showed that the relative abundance distributions of target n-alkane hydrocarbons varied with the degree of weathering of an oil in a consistent manner at ambient pressure, regardless of the temperature, rate of air exchange or other factors related to the apparatus and procedure. The composition of the artificially weathered oil was also consistent with that from an open pan simulation of a weathered oil slick. Loss of water content varied with the conditions of evaporation because of the differential rates of evaporation due to relative humidity considerations. It was concluded that weathering

  12. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P.

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  13. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Jokuty, P. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science Div

    2001-07-01

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  15. Two-phase reactive mass transfer of an oil-soluble chemical in porous media : A CT-scan study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elewaut, K.

    2009-01-01

    Water production is a growing problem within the oil industry, as oil and gas fields mature worldwide and water breakthrough becomes more and more common. Often water production leads to reduction in productivity and reduction of the ultimate hydrocarbon recovery from a field. The challenges we face

  16. Oil sands naphthenic acids: a review of properties, measurement, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa D; Ulrich, Ania C

    2015-05-01

    The Alberta oil sands contain one of the world's largest reserves of oil - over 169 billion barrels of bitumen are economically recoverable with current extraction technologies. Surface mining and subsequent hot water extraction of bitumen from the ore generates about nine cubic meters of raw tailings per cubic meter of oil. Oil sands facilities are required to operate under a policy of zero water discharge, resulting in ponds containing more than one billion cubic meters of tailings, a mixture of sand, fines and process-affected water. Process-affected water contains numerous organic compounds, including naphthenic acids (NAs), which have been identified as the primary source of acute toxicity of process-affected water. Developments in analytical techniques, aerobic biodegradability, and treatment via chemical oxidation (ozone) of NAs are reviewed. The field continues to be challenged by the lack of a cost-effective, accurate analytical technique for NAs or an understanding of all the organic constituents in process-affected water that may be contributing to observed toxicity and thus requiring treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. External hazards in the PRA of Olkiluoto 1 and 2 NPP units - Accidental oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunturivuori, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Oil transports in Finnish territorial waters have increased significantly during the last 10 years. The Gulf of Finland is at this moment a very important route of oil being transported from Russia to the Western Europe. Although the number of accidental oil spills is decreasing in amount and in size, there is a growing concern of their effects to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The amounts of oil transported on the Gulf of Bothnia are much smaller than on the Gulf of Finland. However, accidental oil spills have occurred also there, the size and amount of which are smaller, though. Accidental oil spills are often a result of grounding of a ship or collision of two ships, and often occur during harsh weather conditions like storm or dense fog. However, also coastal oil depots may break, the oil of which may spread over wide distances on the sea. The modelling of initiating events resulting from accidental oil spills includes oil spill response actions performed by the regional rescue services, alarming of the oil spill by the emergency response centre to the NPP rescue services and spill response by the NPPs rescue services. It is unclear what the consequences are if drifted oil would enter the coolant water tunnels. The effect of different oil types to the operation of the safety-related service water systems and components are being assessed. In the ultimate case, an oil spill would clog the inlet channels thus failing the ultimate heat sink of the NPP units. The licensee is evaluating what is the optimal way to operate the NPP units in the case that an oil slick is threatening the plant to ensure reactor core cooling and RHR. The continued operation of, and especially the cooling of, at least one auxiliary feedwater pump is critical in the mitigation of the initiating event. Strategies, like reversing the water flow of the cooling water channels or closing of the cooling water channels, are being evaluated. (authors)

  18. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  19. The anatomy and importance of project finance for oil and gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that project financing can be of great benefit to oil and gas projects because by separately identifying and securing assets and cashflows it can provide large sums not otherwise accessible to whole projects or to individual companies. Project financing is of interest to members of the SPE because it routinely requires the expertise of petroleum engineers and other professionals to vouch for the viability of petroleum projects and the recoverability of reserves. its essential attraction is that risk analysis and the application of precise professional criteria enable large projects and amounts to be financed, which otherwise might not occur. This is particularly the case when there are a number of participants in a large project, none of which is on its own able to support the finance. The growth in the average size of projects means that an increasing number of projects must be financed in this way or not be able to go forward

  20. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  1. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-12-15

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  2. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  3. Treatment of the loss of ultimate heat sink initiating events in the IRSN level 1 PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Patricia; Georgescu, Gabriel; Corenwinder, Francois

    2014-01-01

    The total loss of the ultimate heat sink is an initiating event which, even it is mainly of external origin, has been considered in the frame of internal events Level 1 PSA by IRSN. The on-going actions on the development of external hazards PSA and the recent incident of loss of the heat sink induced by the ingress of vegetable matter that occurred in France in 2009 have pointed out the need to improve the modeling of the loss of the heat sink initiating event and sequences to better take into account the fact that this loss may be induced by external hazards and thus affect all the site units. The paper presents the historical steps of the modeling of the total loss of the heat sink, the safety stakes of this modeling, the main assumptions used by IRSN in the associated PSA for the 900 MWe reactors and the results obtained. The total loss of the heat sink was not initially addressed in the safety demonstration of French NPPs. On the basis of the insights of the first probabilistic assessments performed in the 80's, the risks associated to this 'multiple failure situation' turned out to be very significant and design and organisational improvements were implemented on the plants. Reviews of the characterization of external hazards and of their consequences on the installations and French operating feedback have revealed that extreme hazards may induce a total loss of the heat sink. Moreover, the accident that occurred at Fukushima in 2011 has pointed out the risk of such a loss of long duration at all site units in case of extreme hazards. In this context, it seems relevant to further improve the modelling of the total loss of the heat sink by considering the external hazards that may cause this loss. In a first step, IRSN has improved the assumptions and data used in the loss of the heat sink PSA model, in particular by considering that such a loss may affect all the site units. The next challenge will be the deeper analysis of the impact of external hazards on

  4. NEOCE: a new external occulting coronagraph experiment for ultimate observations of the chromosphere, corona and interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Fineschi, Silvano; Kuzin, Sergey; Von Fay-Siebenburgen, Erdélyi Robert

    Several ground facilities and space missions are currently dedicated to the study of the Sun at high resolution and of the solar corona in particular. However, and despite significant progress with the advent of space missions and UV, EUV and XUV direct observations of the hot chromosphere and million-degrees coronal plasma, much is yet to be achieved in the understanding of these high temperatures, fine dynamic dissipative structures and of the coronal heating in general. Recent missions have shown the definite role of a wide range of waves and of the magnetic field deep in the inner corona, at the chromosphere-corona interface, where dramatic and physically fundamental changes occur. The dynamics of the chromosphere and corona is controlled and governed by the emerging magnetic field. Accordingly, the direct measurement of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields is of prime importance. The solar corona consists of many localised loop-like structures or threads with the plasmas brightening and fading independently. The plasma evolution in each thread is believed to be related to the formation of filaments, each one being dynamic, in a non-equilibrium state. The mechanism sustaining this dynamics, oscillations or waves (Alfvén or other magneto-plasma waves), requires both very high-cadence, multi-spectral observations, and high resolution and coronal magnetometry. This is foreseen in the future Space Mission NEOCE (New External Occulting Coronagraph Experiment), the ultimate new generation high-resolution coronagraphic heliospheric mission, to be proposed for ESA M4. NEOCE, an evolution of the HiRISE mission, is ideally placed at the L5 Lagrangian point (for a better follow-up of CMEs), and provides FUV imaging and spectro-imaging, EUV and XUV imaging and spectroscopy, and ultimate coronagraphy by a remote external occulter (two satellites in formation flying 375 m apart minimizing scattered light) allowing to characterize temperature, densities and

  5. Exercise-based transportation reduces oil dependence, carbon emissions and obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, P.A.T.

    2005-09-15

    Societal dependence on oil leads to increasingly negative social consequences throughout the world, including climate change, air pollution, political and economic instability, and habitat degradation. Reliance on the automobile for transportation also contributes to a sedentary lifestyle, an obesity epidemic and poor health. These problems are particularly pronounced in the USA, which currently consumes c. 27% of global oil production and produces c. 25% of global carbon emissions, and where c. 65% of adults are overweight or obese. Other countries throughout the world that replicate or hope to replicate the automobile-based lifestyle of the USA face similar problems now or in the near future. This paper develops and applies calculations relating the distances that could be travelled through recommended daily walking or cycling with weight loss, oil consumption and carbon emissions. These straightforward calculations demonstrate that widespread substitution of driving with distances travelled during recommended daily exercise could reduce the USA's oil consumption by up to 38%. This saving far exceeds the amount of oil recoverable from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, suggesting that exercise can reduce foreign oil dependence and provide an alternative to oil extraction from environmentally sensitive habitat. At the same time, an average individual who substitutes this amount of exercise for transportation would burn respectively c. 12.2 and 26.0 kg of fat per year for walking and cycling. This is sufficient to eliminate obese and overweight conditions in a few years without dangerous or draconian diet plans. Furthermore, a reduction in carbon dioxide emissions of c. 35% is possible if the revenue saved through decreased health care spending on obesity is redirected toward carbon abatement. As a result, exercise-based transportation may constitute a favourable alternative to the energy and diet plans that are currently being implemented in the USA and may

  6. Kansas Department of Transportation column expert : ultimate shear capacity of circular columns using the simplified modified compression field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The importance of the analysis of circular columns to accurately predict their ultimate confined : capacity under shear-flexure-axial force interaction domain is recognized in light of the extreme load event : imposed by the current American Associat...

  7. Classification of radioactive waste and determination of waste specifications as well as conditions of acceptance for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, E.

    1983-04-01

    The determination of waste specification and conditions of acceptance must follow a certain scheme, the basics of which will be presented. First the types of waste and the ultimate storage facilities will be characterized. The various categories of waste will be listed in a universally valid system, and the preliminary conditioning options will be determined. Based on the results of safety analysis taking into account the whole system - geological circumstances, ultimate store mines, types and forms of waste - specifications for the various ultimate store products are to be derived following iterative methods. Suggestions though not of a binding nature and probably subject to eventual revisions in part will be presented. To ensure the safety goals, i.e. the exclusion of radioactivity from the human biosphere, appropriate quality control is required concerning the production and the acceptance at the ultimate store. The guiding principles to be heeded will be discussed in brief. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  9. Oil and influence: the oil weapon examined

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maull, H

    1975-01-01

    The term ''oil weapon'' as used here signifies any manipulation of the price and/or supply of oil by exporting nations with the intention of changing the political behavior of the consumer nations. The political potential of the oil price is fairly restricted so, in effect, the supply interruptions are of prime concern. Manipulating price does, in principle, offer the possibilities of both conferring rewards and inflicting sanctions. Oil could be sold on preferential prices and terms. A precondition for using the oil weapon successfully would be the ability to cause real and serious damage to the consumer countries. Four damaging potentials for using the oil weapon could include its application by: (1) one producer against one consumer; (2) one producer against all consumers; (3) a group of producers against one consumer; and (4) by a group of producers against all consumers. It is concluded that the oil weapon will continue to be a force in the international system. (MCW)

  10. A probabilistics safety assessment of ultimate response guidelines of Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, P-Y.; Lee, M. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chao, C-C. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Ultimate Response Guidelines (URGs) was proposed to mitigate the so called 'Fukushima type accident' of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As specified in URGs, if it is necessary, operators will depressurize the secondary side of steam generators (SGs) to bring in the low pressure water. The injection damages the economic value of the plant. However, the injection prevents the cladding temperature from rising above 1500 F (1089 K), which is the temperature that release of volatile fission products from gap is initiated. In the present study, the impact of URGs on the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) in a SBO (Station Blackout) accident of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) designed by Westinghouse and adopts large dry containment is quantified. In the Base Case analysis of the study, the actions in the URGs are not considered. The CDF of SBO in the base case calculation is 2.49x10{sup -7} year. The actions specified in URGs can reduce CDF by 62%. The strategies in URGs are very effective in enhancing the reliability of decay heat removal via SG secondary side. Therefore, the implementation of these strategies can reduce the CDF of sequences involving late failure of AFWS. After the incorporation URGs, the dominant sequences of SBO are the sequences with seal failure. (author)

  11. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun

    2012-01-01

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar

  12. Ultimate disposal of radioactive waste in the FRG - current progress of projects and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesel, H.

    1989-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the state is responsible for providing for the ultimate disposal of radioactive waste, whereas the cost is borne by the waste producing establishments. The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety, (BMU), as the competent state authority has delegated its responsibilities in this matter to the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The PTB is allowed to have work done by third parties. For this purpose, the Deutsche Gesellschaft zum Bau und Betrieb von Endlagern fuer Abfallstoffe mbH (DBE) has been founded, which since 1979 is investigating the Gorleben salt dome for suitability to serve as a repository for all type of solid, radioactive waste. The final decisions on site approval can be taken after completion of the underground exploration work, which according to current schedules is expected to be achieved at the end of the 1990s. The other candidate site, the Konrad mine, has been investigated by the GSF in the years 1976 to 1982, and on August 31, 1982 the PTB has filed an application to institute the plan approval procedure for the Konrad mine to be prepared to serve as a waste repository. The plan is expected to be laid open in the first half of 1989, and hearings possibly be held in the second half. In case of plan approval, the site preparation will probably take 3 years, so that the Konrad mine will be ready to receive radioactive waste by the year 1993. (orig.) [de

  13. An Experimental Investigation on the Ultimate Strength of Partially Infilled: Braced Steel Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil Y.

    2017-12-01

    Infilled walls are usually, considered as non-structural elements. However, these walls are effective in carrying lateral loads. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the effect of braced and partially infilled steel frames with cement mortar and concrete in comparison to the bare frames. All these frames were tested up to collapse and subjected only to horizontal loads to obtain an effective and possible solution for soft storey which are generally not infilled. In comparison to bare steel frames, partially infilled frames have an increase of lateral load capacity by 45-60%. Central bracing is more effective than that of the corner bracing. For the same load partially infilled frames have significantly less deflection than that of the bare frames. A reduced load factor is suggested for the design of soft storey columns with the partial infills. A mathematical model has been proposed to calculate the theoretical ultimate load for the braced, cement mortar and concrete partial infilled frames.

  14. Hierarchical nanoporous metals as a path toward the ultimate three-dimensional functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous metals prepared via dealloying or selective leaching of solid solution alloys and compounds represent an emerging class of materials. They possess a three-dimensional (3D) structure of randomly interpenetrating ligaments/nanopores with sizes between 5 nm and several tens of micrometers, which can be tuned by varying their preparation conditions (such as dealloying time and temperature) or additional thermal coarsening. As compared to other nanostructured materials, nanoporous metals have many advantages, including their bicontinuous structure, tunable pore sizes, bulk form, good electrical conductivity, and high structural stability. Therefore, nanoporous metals represent ideal 3D materials with versatile functionality, which can be utilized in various fields. In this review, we describe the recent applications of nanoporous metals in molecular detection, catalysis, 3D graphene synthesis, hierarchical pore formation, and additive manufacturing (3D printing) together with our own achievements in these areas. Finally, we discuss possible ways of realizing the ultimate 3D functionality beyond the scope of nanoporous metals.

  15. COLLECTIVE VORTEX BEHAVIORS: DIVERSITY, PROXIMATE, AND ULTIMATE CAUSES OF CIRCULAR ANIMAL GROUP MOVEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delcourt, Johann; Bode, Nikolai W F; Denoël, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These "collective vortex behaviors" occur at different group sizes from pairs to several million individuals and have been reported in a large number of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, including humans. However, to date, no comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on vortex behaviors has been conducted. Here, we review the state of the art of the proximate and ultimate causes of vortex behaviors. The ubiquity of this behavioral phenomenon could suggest common causes or fundamental underlying principles across contexts. However, we find that a variety of proximate mechanisms give rise to vortex behaviors. We highlight the potential benefits of collective vortex behaviors to individuals involved in them. For example, in some species, vortices increase feeding efficiency and could give protection against predators. It has also been argued that vortices could improve collective decision-making and information transfer. We highlight gaps in our understanding of these ubiquitous behavioral phenomena and discuss future directions for research in vortex studies.

  16. Ultimate intra-wafer critical dimension uniformity control by using lithography and etch tool corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Michael; Wise, Rich; Reijnen, Liesbeth; Viatkina, Katja; Jaenen, Patrick; Luca, Melisa; Mernier, Guillaume; Chahine, Charlotte; Hellin, David; Kam, Benjamin; Sobieski, Daniel; Vertommen, Johan; Mulkens, Jan; Dusa, Mircea; Dixit, Girish; Shamma, Nader; Leray, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    With shrinking design rules, the overall patterning requirements are getting aggressively tighter. For the 7-nm node and below, allowable CD uniformity variations are entering the Angstrom region (ref [1]). Optimizing inter- and intra-field CD uniformity of the final pattern requires a holistic tuning of all process steps. In previous work, CD control with either litho cluster or etch tool corrections has been discussed. Today, we present a holistic CD control approach, combining the correction capability of the etch tool with the correction capability of the exposure tool. The study is done on 10-nm logic node wafers, processed with a test vehicle stack patterning sequence. We include wafer-to-wafer and lot-to-lot variation and apply optical scatterometry to characterize the fingerprints. Making use of all available correction capabilities (lithography and etch), we investigated single application of exposure tool corrections and of etch tool corrections as well as combinations of both to reach the lowest CD uniformity. Results of the final pattern uniformity based on single and combined corrections are shown. We conclude on the application of this holistic lithography and etch optimization to 7nm High-Volume manufacturing, paving the way to ultimate within-wafer CD uniformity control.

  17. Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.scalise@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Rinaldi, Daniele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Perugia (Italy); Davi, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Architettura Costruzioni e Strutture, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Paone, Nicola [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2011-10-21

    Scintillating crystals are employed in high energy physics, in medical imaging, diagnostic and security. Two mechanical properties of lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate cerium-doped Lu{sub 2(1-x)}Y{sub 2x}SiO{sub 5}:Ce with x=0.1 (LYSO) crystals have been measured: the ultimate tensile stress ({sigma}{sub UTS}) and the Young elastic modulus (E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results account for an elastic-brittle stress-strain relation, which depends heavily on the specimen preparation and the material defects. {sigma}{sub UTS} along the [0 1 0] tensile direction ranges within 68.14 and 115.61 MPa, which, in the lowest case, is more than twice with respect to those measured for PbWO{sub 4} (PWO), exhibiting a marked difference between the annealed and the not-annealed samples. The mean elastic modulus (E), along the same direction, is E=1.80x10{sup 11} ({+-}2.15x10{sup 10}) N/m{sup 2}, with lower dispersion respect to UTS data. This type of analysis and study can be included into quality control procedures of crystals, based on samples taken out of production; such procedures can be established for industrial processing of crystals aimed to the high energy physics (calorimeters) and medical imaging (PET, etc.) applications.

  18. PEP-X: An Ultimate Storage Ring Based on Fourth-Order Geometric Achromats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; Bane, Karl; Hettel, Robert; Nosochkov, Yuri; Wang, Min-Huey; /SLAC

    2012-04-06

    We have designed an 'ultimate' storage ring for the PEP-X light source that achieves the diffraction limited emittances (at 1.5 {angstrom}) of 12 pm-rad in both horizontal and vertical planes with a 4.5-GeV beam. These emittances include the contribution of intrabeam scattering at a nominal current of 200 mA in 3300 bunches. This quality beam in conjunction with a conventional 4-m undulator in a straight section can generate synchrotron radiation having a spectral brightness above 10{sup 22} [photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1% BW] at a 10 keV photon energy. The high coherence at the diffraction limit makes PEP-X competitive with 4th generation light sources based on an energy recovery linac. In addition, the beam lifetime is several hours and the dynamic aperture is large enough to allow off-axis injection. The alignment and stability tolerances, though challenging, are achievable. A ring with all these properties is only possible because of several major advances in mitigating the effects of nonlinear resonances.

  19. A new approach to the modeling of ultimate heat sink cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policastro, A.J.; Wastag, M.; Paul, J.; Carhart, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ultimate heat sink (UHS) cooling pond thermal performance is analyzed by a new method in which zero, one, and three-dimensional models are used in combination. A typical UHS pond has an irregular shape covering 20 hectares at an average depth of 4 m with a heavy thermal load of 40 MWt (megawatts thermal) per hectare. The resulting flow field can be one, two or three dimensional. A three-dimensional numerical model (Paul 1983) is modified and used to determine the effective dimensionality of the pond under accident conditions. The model's surface heat transfer formulas and its predictions of thermal hydraulics are verified using laboratory and field data. The Paul model shows that, unlike normal cooling ponds, a typical UHS pond is vertically-mixed with only a longitudinal temperature variation. Buoyancy-driven circulations, strong discharge-to-intake flow, and rapid surface heat removal break down the usual vertical stratification. Predictions of the one-dimensional MITEMP model are shown to agree with Paul model predictions for a typical UHS pond at the Catawba Nuclear Power Plant

  20. Test research and analysis for ultimate capacity of Qinshan NPP PCCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zufeng, X.

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces design and research for containment of Qinshan NPP which is the first PWR in CHINA designed and constructed by ourselves. The PCCV design is basically in conformity to ASME code. To verify the structural integrity capacity of Qinshan NPP containment, we fulfilled SIT and ILRT successfully in June, 1991. The special attention of the paper is focused on the ultimate capacity of the PCCV under severe accidents and earthquake. A study comprised of five different independent parts has been performed for the development of containment model test and corresponding nonlinear analysis. There are two prestressed concrete containment models with equipment hatch. One is 1/15 scale with steel liner tested on shake table and then moved out loaded with atmospheric pressure. The other is 1/10 scale without steel liner loaded with water pressure until destruction. From different methods including model test and nonlinear analysis, all obtained unanimous conclusion. The capacity under internal pressure and earthquake is reliable. The safety margin is enough. Consequently, in the second phase of Qinshan NPP and other PWR NPP under design, PCCV should be a better selection in China since it's more economic, rational and safe. (author)

  1. Ultimate methane yield from beef cattle manure: effect of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A G; Varel, V H; Chen, Y R

    1981-10-01

    The effects of temperature, ration constituents, antibiotics and manure age on the ultimate methane yield (Bo, litre CH4/g volatile solids fed (VSf)) were investigated using 4-litre batch fermenters. The average Bo for fermenters maintained at 30-60 degrees Celcius (at 5 degrees Celcius intervals) was 0.328 litre CH4/g VSf. The Bo at 65 degrees Celcius averaged 0.118 litre CH4g VSf, but this low yield was attributed to unstable fermentation rather than decreased substrate availability at that temperature. These results agreed well with Bo values estimated from daily-fed fermenters. Chlortetracycline and monensin did not affect Bo; however, monensin did delay the start of active fermentation in batch fermenters. The average Bo of manure from cattle fed 91.5, 40 and 7% corn silage were 0.173, 0.232 and 0.290 litre CH4/g VSf, respectively. The average Bo for 6-8 week old manure from a dirt feedlot was 0.210 litre CH4/g VSf. (Refs. 14).

  2. Ultimate disposition of aluminum clad spent nuclear fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, C.E.; Clark, W.D.; Clapper, M.; Mustin, T.P.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment and disposition of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the United States has changed significantly over the last decade due to change in world climate associated with nuclear material. Chemical processing of aluminum based SNF is ending and alternate disposition paths are being developed that will allow for the ultimate disposition of the enriched uranium in this SNF. Existing inventories of aluminum based SNF are currently being stored primarily in water-filled basins at the Savannah River Site (SRS) while these alternate disposition paths are being developed and implemented. Nuclear nonproliferation continues to be a worldwide concern and it is causing a significant influence on the development of management alternatives for SNF. SRS recently completed an environmental impact statement for the management of aluminum clad SNF that selects alternatives for all of the fuels in inventory. The U.S. Department of Energy and SRS are now implementing a dual strategy of processing small quantities of 'problematic' SNF while developing an alternative technology to dispose of the remaining aluminum clad SNF in the proposed monitored geologic repository. (author)

  3. Structural Phenomenon of Cement-Based Composite Elements in Ultimate Limit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iskhakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement-based composite materials have minimum of two components, one of which has higher strength compared to the other. Such materials include concrete, reinforced concrete (RC, and ferrocement, applied in single- or two-layer RC elements. This paper discusses experimental and theoretical results, obtained by the authors in the recent three decades. The authors have payed attention to a structural phenomenon that many design features (parameters, properties, etc. at ultimate limit state (ULS of a structure are twice higher (or lower than at initial loading state. This phenomenon is evident at material properties, structures (or their elements, and static and/or dynamic structural response. The phenomenon is based on two ideas that were developed by first author: quasi-isotropic state of a structure at ULS and minimax principle. This phenomenon is supported by experimental and theoretical results, obtained for various structures, like beams, frames, spatial structures, and structural joints under static or/and dynamic loadings. This study provides valuable indicators for experiments’ planning and estimation of structural state. The phenomenon provides additional equation(s for calculating parameters that are usually obtained experimentally and can lead to developing design concepts and RC theory, in which the number of empirical design coefficients will be minimal.

  4. Thermal performance experiments on ultimate heat sinks, spray ponds, and cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.

    1976-12-01

    A program of measurement on a Battelle-Northwest (BNW) spray pond has been completed to prove an integrated instrumentation system for application in future field experiments. The measurement programs in the field will produce data of relevance to the design and understanding of performance for ultimate heat sinks as components of emergency core cooling systems. In the absence of active emergency cooling systems, the data will be obtained on analog systems--prime candidates among these are the naturally-occurring hot ponds at Yellowstone National Park and man-made hot cooling ponds at Savannah River National Laboratory as well as spray ponds at various industrial facilities. The proof experiment has provided data that not only illustrate the effectiveness of the instrumentation system but also display interesting site-specific heat transfer processes. The data to be obtained in the field will also be site specific but must be of generic applicability in modeling for design and performance purposes. The integrated instrumentation system will evolve, through modest modifications and substantial supplementation, to provide the requisite data for the more demanding situation of work in and about hot water

  5. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS, an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS tool to accelerate plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng eHe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broaden NGS usages to large crop genomes such as maize and wheat, genotyping by sequencing (GBS has been developed and applied in sequencing multiplexed samples that combine molecular marker discovery and genotyping. GBS is a novel application of NGS protocols for discovering and genotyping SNPs in crop genomes and populations. The GBS approach includes the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes followed by the ligation of barcode adapter, PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplified DNA pool on a single lane of flow cells. Bioinformatic pipelines are needed to analyze and interpret GBS datasets. As an ultimate MAS tool and a cost-effective technique, GBS has been successfully used in implementing genome-wide association study (GWAS, genomic diversity study, genetic linkage analysis, molecular marker discovery and genomic selection (GS under a large scale of plant breeding programs.

  6. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar.

  7. The CRISPR-Cas9 technology: Closer to the ultimate toolkit for targeted genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quétier, Francis

    2016-01-01

    The first period of plant genome editing was based on Agrobacterium; chemical mutagenesis by EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate) and ionizing radiations; each of these technologies led to randomly distributed genome modifications. The second period is associated with the discoveries of homing and meganuclease enzymes during the 80s and 90s, which were then engineered to provide efficient tools for targeted editing. From 2006 to 2012, a few crop plants were successfully and precisely modified using zinc-finger nucleases. A third wave of improvement in genome editing, which led to a dramatic decrease in off-target events, was achieved in 2009-2011 with the TALEN technology. The latest revolution surfaced in 2013 with the CRISPR-Cas9 system, whose high efficiency and technical ease of use is really impressive; scientists can use in-house kits or commercially available kits; the only two requirements are to carefully choose the location of the DNA double strand breaks to be induced and then to order an oligonucleotide. While this close-to- ultimate toolkit for targeted editing of genomes represents dramatic scientific progress which allows the development of more complex useful agronomic traits through synthetic biology, the social acceptance of genome editing remains regularly questioned by anti-GMO citizens and organizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design Dependent Cutoff Frequency of Nanotransistors Near the Ultimate Performance Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordrostami, Zoheir; Sheikhi, M. Hossein; Zarifkar, Abbas

    2012-12-01

    We have studied the effect of different structural designs of double gate MOSFETs (DG-MOSFETs) and carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) on the cutoff frequency (fT). The effects of metallic contacts with Schottky barriers, gate work function, dual material gate (DMG), halo doped channel and lightly doped drain and source (LDDS) architectures on the fT have been investigated for DG-MOSFETs and CNTFETs and the design dependent fT for both types of transistors has been studied for the first time. The simulations are based on the Schrödinger-Poisson solvers developed for each nanotransistor separately. The ballistic limit has been studied as the ultimate performance limit of the DG-MOSFETs and CNTFETs. The results of this paper, for the first time, show how some designations used for modification of short channel effects or current-voltage characteristics affect the fT. The results revealed that the cutoff frequencies of both types of the transistors exhibit the same behavior with changing design parameters. We have shown that the Schottky barriers, parasitic capacitances and halo doping reduce the fT and have proposed the DMG and LDDS artchitectures as ways to increase the fT for DG-MOSFETs and CNTFETs for the first time.

  9. Pareto-Optimal Evaluation of Ultimate Limit States in Offshore Wind Turbine Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Muskulus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate capacity of support structures is checked with extreme loads. This is straightforward when the limit state equations depend on a single load component, and it has become common to report maxima for each load component. However, if more than one load component is influential, e.g., both axial force and bending moments, it is not straightforward how to define an extreme load. The combination of univariate maxima can be too conservative, and many different combinations of load components can result in the worst value of the limit state equations. The use of contemporaneous load vectors is typically non-conservative. Therefore, in practice, limit state checks are done for each possible load vector, from each time step of a simulation. This is not feasible when performing reliability assessments and structural optimization, where additional, time-consuming computations are involved for each load vector. We therefore propose to use Pareto-optimal loads, which are a small set of loads that together represent all possible worst case scenarios. Simulations with two reference wind turbines show that this approach can be very useful for jacket structures, whereas the design of monopiles is often governed by the bending moment only. Even in this case, the approach might be useful when approaching the structural limits during optimization.

  10. Peak Oil, Peak Coal and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J. W.

    2009-05-01

    Research on future climate change is driven by the family of scenarios developed for the IPCC assessment reports. These scenarios create projections of future energy demand using different story lines consisting of government policies, population projections, and economic models. None of these scenarios consider resources to be limiting. In many of these scenarios oil production is still increasing to 2100. Resource limitation (in a geological sense) is a real possibility that needs more serious consideration. The concept of 'Peak Oil' has been discussed since M. King Hubbert proposed in 1956 that US oil production would peak in 1970. His prediction was accurate. This concept is about production rate not reserves. For many oil producing countries (and all OPEC countries) reserves are closely guarded state secrets and appear to be overstated. Claims that the reserves are 'proven' cannot be independently verified. Hubbert's Linearization Model can be used to predict when half the ultimate oil will be produced and what the ultimate total cumulative production (Qt) will be. US oil production can be used as an example. This conceptual model shows that 90% of the ultimate US oil production (Qt = 225 billion barrels) will have occurred by 2011. This approach can then be used to suggest that total global production will be about 2200 billion barrels and that the half way point will be reached by about 2010. This amount is about 5 to 7 times less than assumed by the IPCC scenarios. The decline of Non-OPEC oil production appears to have started in 2004. Of the OPEC countries, only Saudi Arabia may have spare capacity, but even that is uncertain, because of lack of data transparency. The concept of 'Peak Coal' is more controversial, but even the US National Academy Report in 2007 concluded only a small fraction of previously estimated reserves in the US are actually minable reserves and that US reserves should be reassessed using modern methods. British coal production can be

  11. Evaluation of heavy-oil and tar sands in Bourbon, Crawford, and Cherokee Counties, Kansas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebanks, W.J. Jr.; James, G.W.; Livingston, N.D.

    1977-12-01

    The current national energy-resource situation has provided the incentive to investigate more fully deposits of heavy-oil bearing sandstone in southeastern Kansas, as part of a larger, three-state study. The results of this study indicate that the size of the heavy-oil resource in the three Kansas counties studied is smaller than earlier estimates suggested. A resource of 200 to 225 million barrels of oil in-place is estimated to be present in areas of ''known oil occurrence,'' as established by this study. The amount of this in-place resource which may be considered to be reserves, that is, recoverable under existing technology and economics, is zero. The estimates of resource-size are severely downgraded from earlier estimates mainly because of the discontinuous nature of the potential reservoir sandstone bodies and because of the thinness and shaliness of some of these sandstones. The earlier impression of these heavy-oil reservoirs, at least in Kansas, as being widespread, heavily oil saturated, ''blanket'' sandstones unfortunately is not correct. There are areas, shown on maps, which may warrant further investigation because of locally good oil-saturation, i.e., more than 400 barrels per acre foot, in trends of sandstone thicker than 20 feet. It is concluded that there will be no widespread exploitation of subsurface heavy-oil sandstones within the areas of Bourbon, Crawford, and Cherokee Counties, Kansas. Smaller areas indicated here may warrant further drilling and investigation, but the potential size of the heavy-oil resource is severely downgraded from earlier estimates.

  12. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  13. Cracking hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seigle, A A.F.M.

    1922-12-20

    Hydrocarbon oils such as petroleum, peat, shale, or lignite oils, heavy tars, resin oils, naphthalene oils, etc., are vaporized by being fed from a tank through a preheater to the lower part of a vertical annular retort heated by a flame projected down the central cavity from a burner. The oil vapors rise through annular passages formed by disks, on which are placed chips of copper, iron, aluminum, etc., to act as catalysts.

  14. Evaluation of solution and rheological properties for hydrophobically associated polyacrylamide copolymer as a promised enhanced oil recovery candidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. El-hoshoudy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil is the most critical energy source in the world, especially for transportation, provision of heat and light as there has not been a sufficient energy source to replace crude oil has broadly integrated, so there is an urgent need to maximize the extraction of the original oil in-place for every reservoir, and accelerating the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies. Polymer flooding by hydrophobically associated polyacrylamides (HAPAM is a widely used technique through EOR technology. For successful application of these polymers, one should evaluate rheological and solution properties at simulated reservoir conditions as a function of polymer concentration, salinity, temperature and shear rate. The results showed that these copolymers exhibit favorable salt tolerance, temperature resistance, and recoverable viscosity after shearing, reasonable thickening behavior and improved viscosity enhancement properties due to presence of hydrophobic association in the copolymer main chains. Moreover, its capacity for oil production improvement was evaluated during flooding experiments through one dimensional sandstone model at simulated reservoir conditions.

  15. Contact Allergy to Neem Oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Anton; Jagtman, Berend A; Woutersen, Marjolijn

    2018-01-01

    A case of allergic contact dermatitis from neem oil is presented. Neem oil (synonyms: Melia azadirachta seed oil [INCI name], nim oil, margosa oil) is a vegetable (fixed) oil obtained from the seed of the neem tree Azadirachta indica by cold pressing. Contact allergy to neem oil has been described

  16. Gulf of Alaska/Yakutat Planning Area oil and gas lease sale 158: Draft environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses a proposed Federal action that will offer for lease areas in the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). These areas may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. At this time, gas is not considered economically recoverable. Lease Sale 158, proposed for 1997, is comprised of lease blocks in the Gulf of Alaska Planning Area. Up to 977 blocks will be available for lease under the proposed action; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. Of the blocks that will be leased, only a portion will be drilled and could possibly result in production. The analytical methods used in this EIS have been formulated over a period of years. The first step of the analysis is the identification of significant environmental and socioeconomic resources through the scoping process outlined in Section I.D. The MMS then derives a range of energy-resource estimates from geologic and economic assumptions and establishes alternatives to the proposed action. The MMS assumes estimated levels of exploration and development activity for analyzing the proposed action. The MMS then analyzes the potential effects expected from the interaction between significant environmental and socioeconomic resources and OCS-related activities

  17. Squat Biomechanical Modeling Results from Exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data is also obtained using free weights for a comparison to the resistively loaded exercise device. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the body loads. The focus of this presentation is to summarize the results from the full squat exercises

  18. The ultimate response guideline simulation and analysis by using (TRACE) for Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hao-Tzu [Atomic Energy Council, Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shu-Ming; Chen, Shao-Wen; Wang, Jong-Rong; Shih, Chunkuan [National Tsing Hua Univ., Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, HsinChu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this research, the TRACE/SNAP model of Lungmen ABWR nuclear power plant (NPP) has been established for the simulation and analysis of ultimate response guideline (URG). The main actions of URG are depressurization and low pressure water injection of reactor and containment venting. This research focuses to assess the URG utility of Lungmen NPP under Fukushima-like conditions. This study consists of three steps. The first step is the establishment of Lungmen NPP TRACE/SNAP model. In order to evaluate the system response of TRACE/SNAP model, FSAR data (MSIV closure and loss of feedwater flow transient) were used to compare with the results of TRACE. The second step is the URG simulation and analysis under Fukushima-like conditions by using Lungmen NPP TRACE/SNAP model. In this step, the no URG case was also performed in order to evaluate the URG effectiveness of Lungmen NPP. In order to confirm the mechanical property and integrity of fuel rods, the final step is FRAPTRAN analysis. According to TRACE analysis results, the URG can keep the peak cladding temperature (PCT) below the criteria 1088.7 K under Fukushima-like conditions which indicates that Lungmen NPP can be controlled in a safe situation. Nevertheless, if Lungmen NPP does not perform the URG under Fukushima-like conditions, the water level may drop lower than TAF after 1100 s which means a safety issue about the fuel rods may be generated. The analysis results of FRAPTRAN also indicate the integrity of fuel rods cannot be kept under the above conditions.

  19. The in vitro digestibility of beef varies with its inherent ultimate pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M; Wu, Guojie; Frost, Deborah A; Clerens, Stefan; Knowles, Scott O

    2014-11-01

    Animal carcasses and cuts of meat are usually differentiated and valued according to size and compositional attributes. An underappreciated variable of red meat is its inherent ultimate pH (pHu) value, which affects organoleptic and processing characteristics. This study tests the hypothesis that high pHu aged meat would be more digestible than low pHu unaged (fresh) meat. Longissimus dorsi muscles collected from 59 bull carcasses had pHu values of 5.6-6.9. These were aged for 21 days at -1.5 °C, then raw and cooked (72 °C) samples were enzymatically digested at 37 °C with pepsin (pH 1.9 for 90 min) followed by pancreatin (pH 8.0 for an additional 120 min) to simulate conditions in the stomach and small intestine, respectively. Meat proteins and peptides in the digests were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. Regardless of pHu, ageing or cooking, most sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins were rapidly digested by pepsin, with concomitant release of products identified by LC-MS/MS as mainly myosin-1, -2 and -7, α-actinin-2 or -3 and tropomyosin beta and alpha chains. These products were resistant to further digestion for the entire 210 min duration of the incubation. In terms of rate and extent of digestibility of these resistant products, high pHu > low pHu (P unaged (P meat samples increased with increasing pHu (P meat was highly digestible but could be further differentiated on the basis of its pHu and the ease of digestibility of proteins. Specific carcasses or cuts could be targeted to consumer groups in order to provide benefits and add value.

  20. Long-time safety aspects of ultimate storage of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.

    1992-10-01

    Based on the amounts of transuranium elements generated in nuclear reactors, the inventories of these elements in the repository are described for various ultimate disposal strategies. The data are used to give an outline description of accident-induced ingress of brines into the backfilled repository shaft during the post-closure period and the resulting mechanisms of a mobilization of the transuranium elements and their escape from the repository, and to calculate amounts released. The effects of the released transuranium elements on the biosphere and the different contributions of the various isotopes to the calculated radiation exposure are given as an estimate and are described in more detail by means of data determined by parameter variation. The effects of transuranium elements during the entire migration process are restricted to the production of daughter nuclides, especially of the uranium isotopes. They give no particular contribution to environmental radiation exposure because of their low mobility. With the only exception of Np-237 which, due to its long half-time and relatively good migration capacity, can reach the biosphere. The contributions of the transuranium elements to the dose maxima, caused by the daughter products, of the uranium isotopes or the neptunium are calculated to be about 50%. All publications to date presenting a safety analysis of the site of the Gorleben repository assume the dose maxima of all uranium isotopes together to be approx. 10%, and those of the neptunium isotope approx. 20%, referring to the most significant fission products. This indicates that uranium or neptunium are of secondary significance in the process, and the other transuranium elements are only third-rate. (orig./HP) [de

  1. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEGRASSI, G.; HOFMAYER, C.; MURPHY, C.; SUZUKI, K.; NAMITA, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper

  2. The Ultimate Pile Bearing Capacity from Conventional and Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizah Bawadi, Nor; Anuar, Shamilah; Rahim, Mustaqqim A.; Mansor, A. Faizal

    2018-03-01

    A conventional and seismic method for determining the ultimate pile bearing capacity was proposed and compared. The Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) method is one of the non-destructive seismic techniques that do not require drilling and sampling of soils, was used in the determination of shear wave velocity (Vs) and damping (D) profile of soil. The soil strength was found to be directly proportional to the Vs and its value has been successfully applied to obtain shallow bearing capacity empirically. A method is proposed in this study to determine the pile bearing capacity using Vs and D measurements for the design of pile and also as an alternative method to verify the bearing capacity from the other conventional methods of evaluation. The objectives of this study are to determine Vs and D profile through frequency response data from SASW measurements and to compare pile bearing capacities obtained from the method carried out and conventional methods. All SASW test arrays were conducted near the borehole and location of conventional pile load tests. In obtaining skin and end bearing pile resistance, the Hardin and Drnevich equation has been used with reference strains obtained from the method proposed by Abbiss. Back analysis results of pile bearing capacities from SASW were found to be 18981 kN and 4947 kN compared to 18014 kN and 4633 kN of IPLT with differences of 5% and 6% for Damansara and Kuala Lumpur test sites, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the seismic method proposed in this study has the potential to be used in estimating the pile bearing capacity.

  3. Effect of Incorporation of Antifungal Agents on the Ultimate Tensile Strength of Temporary Soft Denture Liners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana; Lima, Jozely Francisca Mello; Hotta, Juliana; Galitesi, Lucas Lulo; Almeida, Ana Lucia Pompéia Fraga; Urban, Vanessa Migliorini

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the ultimate tensile strength of temporary soft denture liners modified by minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents for Candida albicans biofilm (SC5314) determined in previous microbiological research. Dumbbell-shaped specimens (n = 7) with a central cross-sectional area of 6 × 3 × 33 mm were produced by Softone and Trusoft, without (control) or with incorporation of drugs in powder form at MICs for C. albicans biofilm (per g of material powder): nystatin (0.032 g), chlorhexidine diacetate (0.064 g), ketoconazole (0.128 g), miconazole (0.256 g), and itraconazole (0.256 g). After plasticization, specimens were immersed in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours, 7 or 14 days, and then tested in tension in a universal testing machine at 40 mm/min. Data of tensile strength (MPa) and elongation percentage (%) were submitted to 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). At the end of 14 days, the tensile strength for both materials was significantly lower in the groups modified by miconazole and itraconazole compared to the other groups (p 0.05). After 7 and 14 days in water, miconazole and itraconazole added into both materials resulted in significantly lower elongation percentages compared to the other antifungal agents and control (p 0.05). The addition of the nystatin, chlorhexidine, and ketoconazole at MICs for C. albicans biofilm resulted in no harmful effects on the tensile strength and elongation percentage of the temporary soft denture liner materials up to 14 days. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli-Matti Pakanen

    Full Text Available Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony. Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence, in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major and the willow tit (Poecile montanus by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider

  5. Assessment of cooling tower (ultimate heat sink) performance in the Byron individual plant examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.D.; Hawley, J.T.; Klopp, G.T.; Thelen, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    A time-dependent model of the Byron Nuclear Generation Station safety-related cooling towers has been developed for use with the Byron PRA (IPE). The model can either be run in a stand-alone program with externally supplied heat loads, or can be directly coupled into MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program). The primary feature of the model is a careful tracking of the basin temperature through the progression of different severe accidents. Heat removal rates from containment, both from containment fan-coolers and the residual heat removal system, are determined by the feed-back of this time-varying return temperature. Also, the inventory of the basin is tracked in time, and this is controlled by make-up, evaporative losses due to the heat load supplied to the towers, and the possibility of unsecured blowdown. The model has been used to determine the overall capabilities and vulnerabilities of the Byron Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). It was determined that the UHS is very reliable with respect to maintaining acceptably low basin temperatures, requiring only at most two of eight operating cooling tower fans. Further, when the two units have their Essential Service Water (ESW) systems cross-tied, one of four ESW operating pumps is sufficient to handle the loads from the accident unit with the other unit proceeding to an orderly shutdown. The major vulnerability of the Byron UHS is shown to be the ability to maintain inventory, although the time-scales for basin dry-out are relatively long, being eight to twenty-one hours, depending upon when blowdown is secured. (author)

  6. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zahra; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Troccaz, Olivier; Baudry, Jacques; Pinay, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    Direct and indirect effects from human activity have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. Despite an abundance of studies investigating the impact of agricultural activity on water quality, our understanding of what determines the capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients remains limited. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments by investigating the relationship between catchment characteristics, stream discharge, and water chemistry. We analyzed a 5-year, high-frequency water chemistry data set from three catchments in western France ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2. The relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations differed between the three catchments and was associated with hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness had relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions, indicating high resilience to human disturbance. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and interannual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of phosphate (PO43-) and ammonium (NH4+) in streams during low flow conditions and strong increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land-use configuration) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on water quality was both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent

  7. The establishment of MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan nuclear power plant for Ultimate Response Guideline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Wen-Sheng, E-mail: wshsu@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiang, Yu, E-mail: s101013702@m101.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Jong-Rong, E-mail: jongrongwang@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Ting-Yi, E-mail: minired1119@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Te-Chuan, E-mail: tcwang@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research Atomic Energy Council, R.O.C., 1000, Wenhua Road Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Teng, Jyh-Tong, E-mail: jyhtong@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shao-Wen, E-mail: chensw@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Nuclear and New Energy Education and Research Foundation, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Rd., HsinChu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); and others

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The establishment of a MELCOR/SNAP model of Chinshan (BWR/4). • MELCOR/SNAP model was used to estimate the effectiveness of URG for Chinshan. • The MELCOR results were compared to MAAP, TRACE and PCTRAN. • URG is a new method to prevent a Fukushima-like accident. • The low raw water (150 GPM) can make the cladding temperature below 1088.7 K. - Abstract: After Fukushima Daiichi disaster, the safety analysis of severe accidents became one of the safety concerns in Taiwan. The Emergency Operating Procedure (EOP) cannot cope with a multiple system failure situation under a severe accident since it is a “Symptom-basis” procedure. To deal with that, Taiwan Power Company built up a new strategy for Fukushima-like accident called Ultimate Response Guideline (URG). It is a simple strategy with three main conditions: loss of regular motor driven injection system, loss of all AC power and tsunami/earthquake warning. If two of three happen, the operating procedure will change from EOP to URG and start the main works by following the strategy. There are three main works in URG: controlled-depressurization, line up low pressure injection water and prepare containment venting. In this study, MELCOR2.1 was used to calculate the cases of URG and checked the goal of the strategy that prevents the accident or not. There were three steps in this research. First, a model of Chinshan nuclear power plant (NPP) was built. Second, one was the case with URG and the other was not by using the above MELCOR model. The results were compared to MAAP5.0, TRACE and PCTRAN. Finally, some sensitivity studies of depressurization and water injection rate were done.

  8. Human performance evaluation: The procedures of ultimate response guideline for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kang-Hung, E-mail: alvinks@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Engery Council, No. 1000, Whenhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, Taiwan (China); Hwang, Sheue-Ling, E-mail: slhwang@ie.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • This study adopts SPAR-H to evaluate HEPs in the URG procedures. • The involvement of URG procedures could reduce CDF significantly. • Upgrading the training level of staff will enhance the reliability effectively. • Aiding the plant manager in making URG decision will enhance the reliability. - Abstract: In the nuclear accident which occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011, several units of Fukushima conventional BWR experienced a total loss of power and water supply triggered by a heavy earthquake and subsequent Tsunami which were outside design models. In the past, when an accident occurred, operators in nuclear power plants (NPP) followed emergency operating procedures (EOPs) or severe accident management guidance (SAMG). However, EOP and SAMG are symptom-based procedures to cope with severe transients and accidents, depending on real-time operational parameters. Ultimate response guidelines (URG), a plant specific interim remedy action plan, was developed to manage accidents caused by compound disasters which exceed design models. The URG guides the plant operators’ conduct of reactor depressurization, core cooling water injection, and containment venting. This study adopts NUREG/CR-6883 (Standardized Plant Analysis Risk Human Reliability Analysis, SPAR-H) to evaluate human error probabilities (HEPs) of action and diagnosis in the current URG procedures. We found the human reliability of URG procedures analyzed by SPAR-H is about 85% (depending on different decision makers). Upgrading the training level of staff or enhancing plant managers ability to decide whether to execute URG will enhance the human reliability of URG procedures.

  9. Property description and fact-finding report for NPR-3 Natrona County, Wyoming. Addendum to 22 August 1996 study of alternatives for future operations of the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves NPR-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has asked Gustavson Associates, Inc. to serve as an Independent Petroleum Consultant under contract DE-AC01-96FE64202. This authorizes a study and recommendations regarding future development of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) in Natrona County, Wyoming. The report that follows is the Phase I fact-finding and property description for that study. The United States of America owns 100 percent of the mineral rights and surface rights in 9,321-acre NPR-3. This property comprises the Teapot Dome oil field and related production, processing and other facilities. Discovered in 1914, this field has 632 wells producing 1,807 barrels of oil per day. Production revenues are about $9.5 million per year. Remaining recoverable reserves are approximately 1.3 million barrels of oil. Significant plugging and abandonment (P&A) and environmental liabilities are present.

  10. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  11. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    undergo formation lipid (alkyl peroxyl radicals which (ROO. in the presence of heme or other metallic compounds (ROOH à ROO. (Figure 1 [5, 11]. This peroxyradical can break DNA/RNA or damage proteins and lead to cell death [4-7, 11]. Time course of carotenoids extraction into the purified canola oil, in which 1 or 5% (dry wt/wt of tomato juice waste-residue yielded a significantly high carotenoid values, and extraction reached a plateau in about two to three weeks (Fig. 2A. The absorption spectrum shows multiple peaks corresponding lycopene (Fig. 2B. (b Anti-POV after heat and light exposure. Upon exposure to oxidation condition, POV was significantly suppressed to 25% after 5 hrs at 150oC and light exposure (above to the 5% (w/w tomato-residue-treated oil, and showed suppression of POV to about 25% (net at 5 hrs (Fig. 3. (c TBARS value after light and heat exposure. Figure 4C, D shows results of function fortified effect in oils treated with tomato- and wine ferment-waste-residues. They also showed significant suppression against the increase of acid value and POV (Figure 4A, B, which is consistent with absorption spectra. These results indicate antioxidant components in dried tomato juice-waste-residues and wine ferment waste-residues were extracted into commercial low functional grade rapeseed oil. The results warrant a simple procedure to convert low quality edible oils to function-enriched high grade oils. The procedure not only prevents oxidation of oils, but also beneficial in providing various functional components such as polyphenolics, flavonoids, carotenoid, or lycopene. This method and products thus obtained will ultimately benefit human health such as prevention of cancer and inflammation [8, 9, 11]. We have previously published that alkyl peroxyradical facilitates promotion step in carcinogenesis, and it was suppressed by various vegetable soup extracts, thus in suppressing promotion step in multistep carcinogenesis [2, 4, 10]. The step may be related to

  12. New trends in Saudi Oil policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akins, J E

    1985-01-01

    It is deplorable that the United States and other importing countries persist in viewing OPEC as the enemy. The OPEC plan, at least insofar as Yamani has outlined it (and it seems to be acceptable to other OPEC countries), is reasonable and should be supported by consumers as well as exporters. There should be some understanding, at least in governmental circles, of the ultimate consequences of the collapse of the price of oil, not only the effects it would have on major friendly oil exporters such as Mexico, Nigeria and Venezuela, but the consequences it would have on the banking system, and most important what would happen to long-term supply and demand. Unfortunately there is no indication of any understanding or any appreciation of OPEC's positive role or of the benign nature of the Yamani plan.

  13. Oil's tenacious lock on health of economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canes, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    Oil is so vital that its importance cannot be overstated, says the author. Current world reserves are estimated at 1,000 billion barrels - a 43-year supply at current rates of consumption, he reports. The ultimate supply, however, is much greater, he adds, a fact that casts the world's economic outlook in a positive light. The challenge for the US is to take advantage of oil's abundance while, at the same time, protecting against the adverse effects of market instability, environmental degradation, and excessive military involvement. He outlines a number of policy options for the US: further development of domestic petroleum resources; encouragement of production outside the Middle East; strategic stockpiling, conservation, research and development; and environmental protection. Most of these policies would enhance resource efficiency and thus improve both the nation's economy and energy outlook

  14. The 2008 oil bubble. Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokic, Damir

    2010-01-01

    We argue that 'the 2008 Oil Bubble' was directly and indirectly created by the Federal Reserve in response to deflationary risks that resurfaced after the housing bubble burst and the resulting credit crisis of 2008. Deflationary risks first appeared after the dot.com bubble burst in 2000 and after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001. Manipulation of the US dollar value has been one of the key emergency tools in the Fed's arsenal. During the entire period from 2000 to 2008, the US dollar has been falling, while the price of crude oil has been rising, with the culmination in July 2008. If other global central banks embrace the Fed's anti-deflationary strategies, the consequences could be dire for the global economy, potentially resulting in an ultimate gold bubble. (author)

  15. Exploring the undulating plateau: the future of global oil supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Peter M; Smith, Leta K

    2014-01-13

    In this paper, we analyse the factors that will influence long-term oil supply and describe the future form of the global oil supply profile as an 'undulating plateau' rather than an irreversible, short-term peak or an ever upward trend of increasing production. The ultimate transition from a world of relatively plentiful and cheap oil to one of tight supply and high cost will be slow and challenging. An understanding of the signposts for the future path of supply and the drivers of that profile will be critical to managing the transition. The ultimate form of the global supply curve may well be dictated by demand evolution rather than a limited resource endowment in the longer term. Several factors will probably control future global oil supply. We believe that the scale of global oil resource will not constitute a physical supply limit for at least the next two or three decades. However, all categories of oil resources are already more expensive to develop than in the past, requiring high oil prices to stimulate supply growth. Lower rates of oil demand growth relative to economic growth, combined with more challenging supply growth, will probably lead to an undulating plateau sometime after 2040, with demand from non-Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development states continuing to dominate. Upstream investment requirements and oil price volatility will increase towards and beyond the undulating production plateau. In this new world, high oil prices will induce demand destruction, fuel substitution and ever increasing energy efficiency. As we discuss below, the fundamental differences between the IHS Cambridge Energy Research Associates' (IHS CERA) view of the future of oil supply and many peak oil supply models are the timing of the onset of a dramatic slowdown in the rate of growth of supply and the existence or otherwise of a production plateau. We do not dispute that supply will plateau and eventually fall; the question is when, how and at what price

  16. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  17. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  18. Microbial consortia in mesocosm bioremediation trial using oil sorbents, slow-release fertilizer and bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertler, Christoph; Gerdts, Gunnar; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2009-08-01

    An experimental prototype oil boom including oil sorbents, slow-release fertilizers and biomass of the marine oil-degrading bacterium, Alcanivorax borkumensis, was applied for sorption and degradation of heavy fuel oil in a 500-L mesocosm experiment. Fingerprinting of DNA and small subunit rRNA samples for microbial activity conducted to study the changes in microbial communities of both the water body and on the oil sorbent surface showed the prevalence of A. borkumensis on the surface of the oil sorbent. Growth of this obligate oil-degrading bacterium on immobilized oil coincided with a 30-fold increase in total respiration. A number of DNA and RNA signatures of aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were detected both in samples of water body and on oil sorbent. Ultimately, the heavy fuel oil in this mesocosm study was effectively removed from the water body. This is the first study to successfully investigate the fate of oil-degrading microbial consortia in an experimental prototype for a bioremediation strategy in offshore, coastal or ship-bound oil spill mitigation using a combination of mechanical and biotechnological techniques.

  19. Quantifying the external cost of oil consumption within the context of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Sabour, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of sustainability implies that the flow of services derived from the use of natural capital must be constant over time and should be obtained at a constant price. For a depletable resource such as oil, the future generations are highly impacted due to the consumption behavior of the current generation. Since the ultimate oil stock within the Earth declines with cumulative consumption, excessive consumption of oil now reduces the availability of oil for future needs. Moreover, since oil reserves are normally extracted in the order of ascending cost and descending quality, excessive consumption of relatively high-quality, cheap oil reserves by the current generation raises the cost at which future generations can meet their needs of oil and hence imposes an external cost on the future generations. This study aims to quantify the external cost of consuming a barrel of oil within the context of sustainable development. An option-pricing model is developed to quantify this external cost assuming that the external cost of consuming a barrel of oil now equals the value of the option to get a barrel of oil in the future at the same current cost. Then, the total cost of consuming a barrel of oil now, that should be used in lifecycle costing to design more sustainable products, is the summation of the oil price and the external cost

  20. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of