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Sample records for ultimate load capacity

  1. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, R.M.; Manrique, M.A.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented

  2. Ultimate deformation capacity of reinforced concrete slabs underblast load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Weerheijm, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a test method to determine the deformation capacity and the resistance-deformation curve of blast-loaded slabs is described. This method was developed at TNO-PML. The method has been used to determine the ultimate deformation capacity of some simply supported reinforced concrete slabs

  3. Ultimate load capacity assessment of reinforced concrete shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop capability for prediction of ultimate load capacity of reinforced concrete shell structures. The present finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) adopts a degenerate concept of formulating general isoparametric shell element with a layered approach in the thickness direction. Different failure modes such as crushing, tensile cracking and reinforcement yielding are recognised for various problems. The structure fails by crushing of concrete when the concrete strain/stress reaches the ultimate stress or strain of concrete. Material nonlinearities as a result of tension cracking, tension stiffening between reinforcement and concrete in cracked region and yielding of reinforcement are considered along with geometric nonlinearity. Thus with this code it is possible to predict the pressure at which the first cracking, first through thickness cracking, first yielding of reinforcement occurs. After validating the code with few bench mark problems for different failure modes a reinforced concrete nuclear containment is analysed for its ultimate capacity and the results are matched with the published results. Further the ultimate load capacity of outer containment wall of Narora Atomic Power Station is predicted. It is observed that containment fails in membrane region and has a sufficient margin against design pressure. (author). 9 refs., 56 figs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix with 4 tabs

  4. Nonlinear finite element analysis of nuclear reinforced prestressed concrete containments up to ultimate load capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1996-01-01

    For safety evaluation of nuclear structures a finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) has been developed. Eight/nine noded isoparametric quadrilateral plate/shell element with reinforcement as a through thickness discrete but integral smeared layer of the element is presented to analyze reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Various constitutive models such as crushing, cracking in tension, tension stiffening and rebar yielding are studied and effect of these parameters on the reserve strength of structures is brought out through a number of benchmark tests. A global model is used to analyze the prestressed concrete containment wall of a typical 220 MWe Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) up to its ultimate capacity. This demonstrates the adequacy of Indian PHWR containment design to withstand severe accident loads

  5. The stiffness change and the increase in the ultimate capacity for a stiff pile resulting from a cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lada, Aleksandra; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio

    In the paper the experimental results of small-scale tests on a stiff monopile are presented to outline the change in stiffness during the cyclic loading and the change in the ultimate pile capacity. The results confirm the increase of stiffness and the increase in bearing capacity resulting from...

  6. Evaluation of ultimate load bearing capacity of the primary containment of a typical 540 MWe Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Indrajit; Roy, Raghupati; Verma, U.S.P.; Warudkar, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the Inner Containment Structure (ICS) of a typical 540 MWe Indian PHWR for the purpose of evaluating its ultimate load bearing capacity (ULBC) under beyond postulated design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The methodology adopted for the non-linear analysis of the prestressed concrete ICS including the various issues, viz. behaviour of concrete under compression and tension, tension stiffening, cracked shear modulus etc. have also been discussed in this paper. The effect of accident temperature on ULBC has been studied and discussed in this paper. This paper also discusses about the study carried out for mesh sensitivity of the finite element (FE) discretization on ULBC of ICS in the non-linear range. Based on the detailed analysis, the factor of safety of the ICS under beyond postulated DBA scenario has been evaluated. (author)

  7. Assessment of Ultimate Load Capacity for Pre-Stressed Concrete Containment Vessel Model of PWR Design With BARC Code ULCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basha, S.M.; Singh, R.K.; Patnaik, R.; Ramanujam, S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate load capacity assessment of nuclear containments has been a thrust research area for Indian Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) power programme. For containment safety assessment of Indian PHWRs a finite element code ULCA was developed at BARC, Trombay. This code has been extensively benchmarked with experimental results. The present paper highlights the analysis results for Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) tested at Sandia National Labs, USA in a Round Robin analysis activity co-sponsored by Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), Japan and the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Three levels of failure pressure predictions namely the upper bound, the most probable and the lower bound (all with 90% confidence) were made as per the requirements of the round robin analysis activity. The most likely failure pressure is predicted to be in the range of 2.95 Pd to 3.15 Pd (Pd= design pressure of 0.39 MPa for the PCCV model) depending on the type of liners used in the construction of the PCCV model. The lower bound value of the ultimate pressure of 2.80 Pd and the upper bound of the ultimate pressure of 3.45 Pd are also predicted from the analysis. These limiting values depend on the assumptions of the analysis for simulating the concrete-tendon interaction and the strain hardening characteristics of the steel members. The experimental test has been recently concluded at Sandia Laboratory and the peak pressure reached during the test is 3.3 Pd that is enveloped by our upper bound prediction of 3.45 Pd and is close to the predicted most likely pressure of 3.15 Pd. (authors)

  8. Evaluation of ultimate load bearing capacity of the primary containment of a typical first generation 220 MWe Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Ray, I.; Roy, R.; Garg, R.P.; Verma, U.S.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the Inner Containment Structure (ICS) of a typical first generation 220 MWe Indian PHWR for the purpose of evaluating its ultimate load bearing capacity (ULBC) beyond postulated design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The first generation ICS of Indian PHWRs are made of cylindrical wall capped with prestressed/reinforced cellular containment slab, which is connected monolithically to outer containment (OC) Wall to provide clamping effect during postulated DBA scenario. This paper discusses the simulation of construction sequence in analytical model, which is a very important aspect from point of view of capturing the residual stresses generated in the structure. The methodology adopted for the non-linear analysis of the prestressed concrete ICS including the various issues, viz. behaviour of concrete under compression and tension, tension stiffening, cracked shear modulus etc. have also been discussed in this paper. The effect of accident temperature on ULBC has been studied and discussed in this paper. This paper also discusses the study of mesh sensitivity of the finite element (FE) discretisation on ULBC of ICS in the non-linear range. Based on the detailed analysis, the factor of safety of the ICS beyond postulated DBA scenario has been evaluated. (authors)

  9. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S M; Larsen, G C; Antoniou, I; Lind, S O; Courtney, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  10. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  11. Ductility and Ultimate Capacity of Prestressed Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear numerical analysis of the structural behaviour of prestressed steel reinforced concrete (PSRC beams was carried out by using finite element analysis software ABAQUS. By comparing the load-deformation curves, the rationality and reliability of the finite element model have been confirmed; moreover, the changes of the beam stiffness and stress in the forcing process and the ultimate bearing capacity of the beam were analyzed. Based on the model, the effect of prestressed force, and H-steel to the stiffness, the ultimate bearing capacity and ductility of beam were also analyzed.

  12. Ultimate capacity of piles penetrating in weak soil layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pile foundation is one of the most popular forms of deep foundations. They are routinely employed to transfer axial structure loads through the soft soil to stronger bearing strata. Piles generally used to increase the load carrying capacity of the foundation and reduce the settlement of the foundation. On the other hand, many cases in practice where piles pass through different layers of soil that contain weak layers located at different depths and extension, also some time cavities with a different shape, size, and depth are found. In this study, a total of 96 cases is considered and simulated in PLAXIS 2D program aiming to understand the influence of weak soil on the ultimate pile capacity. The piles embedded in the dense sand with a layer of weak soil at different extension and location. The cross section of the geometry used in this study was designed as an axisymmetric model with the 15-node element; the boundary condition recommended at least 5D in the horizontal direction, and (L+5D in the vertical direction where D and L are the diameter and length of pile, respectively. The soil is modeled as Mohr-Coulomb, with five input parameters and the behavior of pile material represented by the linear elastic model. The results of the above cases are compared with the results found in a pile embedded in dense soil without weak layers or cavities. The results indicated that the existence of weak soil layer within the surrounding soil around the pile decreases the ultimate capacity. Furthermore, it has been found that increase in the weak soil width (extension leads to reduction in the ultimate capacity of the pile. This phenomenon is applicable to all depth of weak soil. The influence of weak layer extension on the ultimate capacity is less when it is presentin the upper soil layers.

  13. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Predicting Ultimate Loads for Wind Turbine Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, P. H.; Pierce, K.; Buhl, M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the statistical uncertainty of loads prediction using structural dynamics simulation codes and the requirements for the number and duration of simulations for obtaining robust load estimates

  15. Ultimate Lateral Capacity of Rigid Pile in c- φ Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-min

    2018-03-01

    To date no analytical solution of the pile ultimate lateral capacity for the general c- φ soil has been obtained. In the present study, a new dimensionless embedded ratio was proposed and the analytical solutions of ultimate lateral capacity and rotation center of rigid pile in c- φ soils were obtained. The results showed that both the dimensionless ultimate lateral capacity and dimensionless rotation center were the univariate functions of the embedded ratio. Also, the ultimate lateral capacity in the c- φ soil was the combination of the ultimate lateral capacity ( f c ) in the clay, and the ultimate lateral capacity ( f φ ) in the sand. Therefore, the Broms chart for clay, solution for clay ( φ=0) put forward by Poulos and Davis, solution for sand ( c=0) obtained by Petrasovits and Awad, and Kondner's ultimate bending moment were all proven to be the special cases of the general solution in the present study. A comparison of the field and laboratory tests in 93 cases showed that the average ratios of the theoretical values to the experimental value ranged from 0.85 to 1.15. Also, the theoretical values displayed a good agreement with the test values.

  16. Discussion of the Method to Determine the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soil Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yangfu

    2017-12-01

    Combining literature examples, this paper has carried out Contrastive analysis of the theoretical formula method and finite element method about the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation, To verify rationality and superiority of the incremental load method in finite element ABAQUS in solving the bearing capacity of foundation soil. The study can provide certain reference for practical engineering calculation and analysis of foundation bearing capacity.

  17. Ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU 6 containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, J.P.; Pradolin, L.; Mamet, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical work carried out and the results obtained when determining the ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the containment structures of CANDU 6 nuclear power plants. The purpose of the analysis work was to demonstrate that such containment structures are capable of meeting design requirements under the most severe accident conditions. For this concrete vessel subjected to internal pressure, the UPC was defined as the pressure causing through cracking in the concrete. The present paper deals with the overall behaviour of the containment. The presence of openings, penetrations and the ultimate pressure of the airlocks were considered separately. (author)

  18. Ultimate load model test for Sizewell 'B' primary containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the factors influencing the adoption of an ultimate load factor for the Sizewell 'B' PWR primary containment structure. As part of the validation process for the ultimate load analysis method, a proposal has been made by Nuclear Design Associates to build and test a 1/10th scale model of the containment structure, which would proceed following the granting of section 2 consent for Sizewell 'B'. The modelling principles, construction method and test proposals are examined in some detail. The proposal is currently being considered by the CEGB's Project Management Team. (author)

  19. Kansas Department of Transportation column expert : ultimate shear capacity of circular columns using the simplified modified compression field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The importance of the analysis of circular columns to accurately predict their ultimate confined : capacity under shear-flexure-axial force interaction domain is recognized in light of the extreme load event : imposed by the current American Associat...

  20. Reduced design load basis for ultimate blade loads estimation in multidisciplinary design optimization frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavese, Christian; Tibaldi, Carlo; Larsen, Torben J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim is to provide a fast and reliable approach to estimate ultimate blade loads for a multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) framework. For blade design purposes, the standards require a large amount of computationally expensive simulations, which cannot be efficiently run each cost...... function evaluation of an MDO process. This work describes a method that allows integrating the calculation of the blade load envelopes inside an MDO loop. Ultimate blade load envelopes are calculated for a baseline design and a design obtained after an iteration of an MDO. These envelopes are computed...... for a full standard design load basis (DLB) and a deterministic reduced DLB. Ultimate loads extracted from the two DLBs with the two blade designs each are compared and analyzed. Although the reduced DLB supplies ultimate loads of different magnitude, the shape of the estimated envelopes are similar...

  1. Ultimate limit states of steel containment vessel under earthquake loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Yuhara, Tetsuo; Shimizu, Seiichi; Hayashi, Kazutoshi; Takahashi, Tadao.

    1986-01-01

    The limit state induced by buckling of cylindrical steel structures under earthquake loadings was investigated from the standpoint of energy concept. A number of the buckling test of cylindrical steel shell structures has been made, which showed that they have a stable load-displacement relation and adequate deformation capacities beyond the buckling. The authors are proposing that the energy input imparted by strong earthquakes to buckled structures and the deformation capacity in post-buckling are suitable indices for seismic resistance of the cylindrical steel shell structures because the buckling does not cause the structure immediately to collapse in the case of such repeated loading as earthquake motions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the energy input to buckled cylindrical steel structures with an increase in the intensity of earthquake motions. A series of nonlinear dynamic analyses were performed under various types of earthquake records by using a hysteresis loop, including buckling, which was derived from the buckling tests. The limit state could be defined as the state in which the deformation of and the energy input into buckled structures increase divergently when the intensity of the earthquake excitation exceeds a certain value. The results obtained in this paper are intended to be adopted to the limit state in the post-buckling region to evaluate the margin of safety against the buckling resistance of cylindrical steel structures under strong earthquake loadings. (author)

  2. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  3. Bearing Capacity of Foundations subjected to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    1996-01-01

    In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless it is com......In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless...

  4. Test research and analysis for ultimate capacity of Qinshan NPP PCCV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zufeng, X.

    1994-01-01

    This paper introduces design and research for containment of Qinshan NPP which is the first PWR in CHINA designed and constructed by ourselves. The PCCV design is basically in conformity to ASME code. To verify the structural integrity capacity of Qinshan NPP containment, we fulfilled SIT and ILRT successfully in June, 1991. The special attention of the paper is focused on the ultimate capacity of the PCCV under severe accidents and earthquake. A study comprised of five different independent parts has been performed for the development of containment model test and corresponding nonlinear analysis. There are two prestressed concrete containment models with equipment hatch. One is 1/15 scale with steel liner tested on shake table and then moved out loaded with atmospheric pressure. The other is 1/10 scale without steel liner loaded with water pressure until destruction. From different methods including model test and nonlinear analysis, all obtained unanimous conclusion. The capacity under internal pressure and earthquake is reliable. The safety margin is enough. Consequently, in the second phase of Qinshan NPP and other PWR NPP under design, PCCV should be a better selection in China since it's more economic, rational and safe. (author)

  5. The Ultimate Pile Bearing Capacity from Conventional and Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizah Bawadi, Nor; Anuar, Shamilah; Rahim, Mustaqqim A.; Mansor, A. Faizal

    2018-03-01

    A conventional and seismic method for determining the ultimate pile bearing capacity was proposed and compared. The Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) method is one of the non-destructive seismic techniques that do not require drilling and sampling of soils, was used in the determination of shear wave velocity (Vs) and damping (D) profile of soil. The soil strength was found to be directly proportional to the Vs and its value has been successfully applied to obtain shallow bearing capacity empirically. A method is proposed in this study to determine the pile bearing capacity using Vs and D measurements for the design of pile and also as an alternative method to verify the bearing capacity from the other conventional methods of evaluation. The objectives of this study are to determine Vs and D profile through frequency response data from SASW measurements and to compare pile bearing capacities obtained from the method carried out and conventional methods. All SASW test arrays were conducted near the borehole and location of conventional pile load tests. In obtaining skin and end bearing pile resistance, the Hardin and Drnevich equation has been used with reference strains obtained from the method proposed by Abbiss. Back analysis results of pile bearing capacities from SASW were found to be 18981 kN and 4947 kN compared to 18014 kN and 4633 kN of IPLT with differences of 5% and 6% for Damansara and Kuala Lumpur test sites, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the seismic method proposed in this study has the potential to be used in estimating the pile bearing capacity.

  6. Ultimate capacity and influenced factors analysis of nuclear RC containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chenning; Hou Gangling; Zhou Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Ultimate compressive bearing capacity, influenced factors and its rules of nuclear RC containment are key problems of safety assessment, accident treatment and structure design, etc. Ultimate compressive bearing capacity of nuclear RC containment is shown by concrete damaged plasticity model and steel double liner model of ABAQUS. The study shows that the concrete of nuclear RC containment cylinder wall becomes plastic when the internal pressure is up to 0.87 MPa, the maximum tensile strain of steel liner exceeds 3000 × 10 6 and nuclear RC containment reaches ultimate status when the internal pressure is up to 1.02 MPa. The result shows that nuclear RC containment is in elastic condition under the design internal pressure and the bearing capacity meets requirement. Prestress and steel liner play key parts in the ultimate internal pressure and failure mode of nuclear RC containment. The study results have value for the analysis of ultimate compressive bearing capacity, structure design and safety assessment. (authors)

  7. Ultimate Strength of Wind Turbine Blades under Multiaxial Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich

    the thickness location. Another modelling approach shows a modelling strategy, where shell and solid elements where combined with the purpose to estimate the strain energy release rate of transversely orientated crack in the trailing edge for different loading conditions. Furthermore, state-of-the-art failure...

  8. Reliability of Estimation Pile Load Capacity Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Lastiasih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available None of numerous previous methods for predicting pile capacity is known how accurate any of them are when compared with the actual ultimate capacity of piles tested to failure. The author’s of the present paper have conducted such an analysis, based on 130 data sets of field loading tests. Out of these 130 data sets, only 44 could be analysed, of which 15 were conducted until the piles actually reached failure. The pile prediction methods used were: Brinch Hansen’s method (1963, Chin’s method (1970, Decourt’s Extrapolation Method (1999, Mazurkiewicz’s method (1972, Van der Veen’s method (1953, and the Quadratic Hyperbolic Method proposed by Lastiasih et al. (2012. It was obtained that all the above methods were sufficiently reliable when applied to data from pile loading tests that loaded to reach failure. However, when applied to data from pile loading tests that loaded without reaching failure, the methods that yielded lower values for correction factor N are more recommended. Finally, the empirical method of Reese and O’Neill (1988 was found to be reliable enough to be used to estimate the Qult of a pile foundation based on soil data only.

  9. LRFD software for design and actual ultimate capacity of confined rectangular columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of concrete columns using unconfined concrete models is a well established practice. On the : other hand, prediction of the actual ultimate capacity of confined concrete columns requires specialized nonlinear : analysis. Modern codes and...

  10. Ultimate resistance of a reinforced concrete foundation under impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Forasassi, G.; Marconi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of a spent nuclear fuel cask against a reinforced concrete slab of a temporary repository for spent nuclear fuel is numerically analysed. The analysis considers accidental events in which a spent nuclear fuel cask would drop against the floor of a repository during lifting operations. Two types of solutions have been taken into account: a simple reinforced concrete structure and a structure provided with a 40 mm thick steel liner on the impacted surface, connected to a 1600 mm thick concrete bed. The model is assumed to be axisymmetric and positioned on an elastic ground (Winkler model). The concrete has been simulated as: elastic perfectly plastic under compressive stresses limited by a crushing strain; elastic linear under tensile stresses until a cracking stress value and a following decrease of stress characterized by a constant or variable softening modulus; limited ability to resist at shear stresses after cracking characterized by a shear retention factor. The steel of the reinforcement bars and of the cask has been simulated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. Several numerical simulations have been performed in order to determine the influence, on the ultimate resistance of the structure under examination, of the steel liner, of some characteristic parameters of concrete (as the softening module and the shear retention factor) and of the Winkler coefficient values, simulating the elastic behaviour of the ground. The obtained results demonstrate that a steel liner produces a lower stress in the concrete as well as in the reinforcement but the bed is still subjected to the cracking phenomenon throughout its entire width although the crushing is localized to only a few elements near the impact zone. The use of a more complex constitutive equation for the concrete considering the shear retention factor and the softening module has given results which do not differ greatly from those related to a more simplified model. A different degree of

  11. A Technique for Temperature and Ultimate Load Calculations of Thin Targets in a Pulsed Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Lundsager, Per

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of transient temperature distributions and ultimate load of rotationally symmetric thin membranes with uniform lateral load and exposed to a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator. Heat transfer by conduction is considered the only transfer...... mechanism. The ultimate load is calculated on the basis of large plastic strain analysis. Analysis of one aluminum and one titanium membrane is shown....

  12. Assessment on Ultimate Load of Cold-formed Steel Channel (CFSC Stub Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sani Mohd Syahrul Hisyam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cold-formed steel is used as the non-structural and structural material in civil engineering work and building. Cold-formed steel channel is selected and cut into 100 mm, 200 mm, 300 mm, 400 mm and 500 mm. The slenderness ratio is calculated and noted as a stub or short column because below 40. The column is tested by using Universal Testing Machine to determine the ultimate load of the stub column. Besides, the CFSC is determined the material properties of CFSC for checking it’s the originality of steel based material. The experimental data are tested and compared with the Direct Strength Method (DSM. It showed that the CFSC1 with a height of 100 mm is reported to have a higher value of ultimate load when compared with other samples. When the height of the stub column increased, the ultimate load of the sample is decreased. Then, the CFSC1 also showed a higher in initial stiffness when compared with other samples. All samples are shown having a higher data in ultimate load when compared with the Direct Strength Method prediction. The ultimate load of experimental and DSM all gave a ratio below 1.03. Finally, all samples can further recommend determining the relation between the ultimate loads with variations of height of the column.

  13. Study on Predicting Axial Load Capacity of CFST Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar, H.; Muthu, K. U.; Kumar, N. S.

    2017-11-01

    This work presents an analytical study and experimental study on the behaviour and ultimate load carrying capacity of axially compressed self-compacting concrete-filled steel tubular columns. Results of tests conducted by various researchers on 213 samples concrete-filled steel tubular columns are reported and present authors experimental data are reported. Two theoretical equations were derived for the prediction of the ultimate axial load strength of concrete-filled steel tubular columns. The results from prediction were compared with the experimental data. Validation to the experimental results was made.

  14. Evaluation of the ultimate pressure capacity of rectangular HVAC ducts for nuclear pwoer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedellsborg, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    Typical Category I HVAC ducts in a nuclear plant must be designed for loads and load combinations including positive and negative pressure loads which are generated due to the normal operation and postulated accident conditions. These pressure loads most often govern the design of the HVAC ducts. Structural design criteria are presently based on the AISI Code which limits the duct panel width-to-thickness ratio to a maximum of 500 and the maximum height-to-thickness ratio to 200, unless it can be shown by structural tests that larger ratios can be used. Test Programs performed on rectangular HVAC ducts subjected to vacumm loads have substantiated the use of ducts having panel width to thickness ratios of up to 1600. The results of the test programs were subsequently incorporated into the design through a more rational analytical design method which was developed from and correlates well with the test results. The purpose of this paper is to present the analytical design method and its correlation with the test results. Simple formulae for the design of rectangular HVAC ducts are presented. Lower bound values of duct sheet, and stiffener ultimate loads are derived, and correlated with recent test results. Analytically predicted ultimate pressures are also compared with other available duct test data

  15. Reliability analysis of production ships with emphasis on load combination and ultimate strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaozhi

    1995-05-01

    This thesis deals with ultimate strength and reliability analysis of offshore production ships, accounting for stochastic load combinations, using a typical North Sea production ship for reference. A review of methods for structural reliability analysis is presented. Probabilistic methods are established for the still water and vertical wave bending moments. Linear stress analysis of a midships transverse frame is carried out, four different finite element models are assessed. Upon verification of the general finite element code ABAQUS with a typical ship transverse girder example, for which test results are available, ultimate strength analysis of the reference transverse frame is made to obtain the ultimate load factors associated with the specified pressure loads in Det norske Veritas Classification rules for ships and rules for production vessels. Reliability analysis is performed to develop appropriate design criteria for the transverse structure. It is found that the transverse frame failure mode does not seem to contribute to the system collapse. Ultimate strength analysis of the longitudinally stiffened panels is performed, accounting for the combined biaxial and lateral loading. Reliability based design of the longitudinally stiffened bottom and deck panels is accomplished regarding the collapse mode under combined biaxial and lateral loads. 107 refs., 76 refs., 37 tabs.

  16. Methodology for predicting ultimate pressure capacity of the ACR-1000 containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudy, A.M.; Awad, A.; Elgohary, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced CANDU Reactor or the ACR-1000 is developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to be the next step in the evolution of the CANDU product line. It is based on the proven CANDU technology and incorporates advanced design technologies. The ACR containment structure is an essential element of the overall defense in depth approach to reactor safety, and is a physical barrier against the release of radioactive material to the environment. Therefore, it is important to provide a robust design with an adequate margin of safety. One of the key design requirements of the ACR containment structure is to have an ultimate pressure capacity that is at least twice the design pressure Using standard design codes, the containment structure is expected to behave elastically at least up to 1.5 times the design pressure. Beyond this pressure level, the concrete containment structure with reinforcements and post-tension tendons behaves in a highly non-linear manner and exhibits a complex response when cracks initiate and propagate. To predict the structural non-linear responses, at least two critical features are involved. These are: the structural idealization by the geometry and material property models, and the adopted solution algorithm. Therefore, detailed idealization of the concrete structure is needed in order to accurately predict its ultimate pressure capacity. This paper summarizes the analysis methodology to be carried out to establish the ultimate pressure capacity of the ACR containment structure and to confirm that the structure meets the specified design requirements. (author)

  17. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  18. Multi-Capacity Load Cell Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif. M. OSMAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Force measuring systems are usually used to calibrate force generated systems, it is not preferable to use load cells to measure forces less than 10 % of its nominal capacity. Several load cells are required to offer calibration facilities at sites to cover different ranges, this lead to difficulties in handling procedures, through the need for several carrying cases to carry this overweight in addition to the over cost of purchasing several load cells. This article concerns with introducing a new concept for designing a multi-capacity load cell as a new force standard in the field of measuring the force. This multi-capacity load cell will replace a set of load cells and reflects economically on the total cost and on easiness of handling procedures.

  19. Assessment of Wind Parameter Sensitivity on Ultimate and Fatigue Wind Turbine Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Amy N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jonkman, Jason [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Quick, Julian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    Wind turbines are designed using a set of simulations to ascertain the structural loads that the turbine could encounter. While mean hub-height wind speed is considered to vary, other wind parameters such as turbulence spectra, sheer, veer, spatial coherence, and component correlation are fixed or conditional values that, in reality, could have different characteristics at different sites and have a significant effect on the resulting loads. This paper therefore seeks to assess the sensitivity of different wind parameters on the resulting ultimate and fatigue loads on the turbine during normal operational conditions. Eighteen different wind parameters are screened using an Elementary Effects approach with radial points. As expected, the results show a high sensitivity of the loads to the turbulence standard deviation in the primary wind direction, but the sensitivity to wind shear is often much greater. To a lesser extent, other wind parameters that drive loads include the coherence in the primary wind direction and veer.

  20. Ultimate load design and testing of a cylindrical prestressed concrete vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanou, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    The object of this research was to design, construct and test to failure a prestressed concrete pressure vessel model that could be used to investigate the behavior of a full scale structure underworking and ultimate load. The properties and the design of the model was based generally on full scale vessels already constructed to house the nuclear reactors used in atomic power stations. To design the model the ultimate load approach was adopted throughout. All load factors associated with the prestressing have been defined and kept to a minimum in order that the vessel's behavior may be predicted. The tests on the vessel were carried out first on the elastic range to observe its behavior at working load and then at the ultimate range to observe the modes of failure and compare the actual results in both cases with the predicted values. Although full agreement between observed results and predicted values was not obtained, the conclusions drawn from the study were useful for the design of full scale vessels. (author)

  1. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  2. Aging characteristics of containment building and sensitivity on ultimate pressure capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Ha, Jae Joo

    1998-03-01

    For the reliable safety assessment of the containment building, structural and material conditions can be investigated in detail and pertinent assessment technologies have to be established. Also, an understanding on the aging-related degradations for the construction materials is required to predict long-term structural safety of the containment building. For the development of reliable aging prediction models, an extensive data base system related to aging properties of the containment building has to be prepared. The objectives of this research are to develop aging models representing long-term degradation of materials and a structural performance assessment program for containment building considering aging-related degradation. According to the results of sensitivity analysis, as the mechanical properties of the constituent materials degrade, the ultimate pressure capacity of containment building may decrease and severe damage may occur around the mid-level of the containment wall. (author). 28 refs., 11 tabs., 36 figs

  3. Review of ultimate pressure capacity test of containment structure and scale model design techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This study was performed to obtain the basic knowledge of the scaled model test through the review of experimental studies conducted in foreign countries. The results of this study will be used for the wall segment test planed in next year. It was concluded from the previous studies that the larger the model, the greater the trust of the community in the obtained results. It is recommended that a scale model 1/4 - 1/6 be suitable considering the characteristics of concrete, reinforcement, liner and tendon. Such a large scale model test require large amounts of time and budget. Because of these reasons, it is concluded that the containment wall segment test with analytical studies is efficient for the verification of the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structures. 57 refs., 46 figs., 11 tabs. (Author)

  4. Ultimate Pressure Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Steel Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) is very important since the PCCV are final protection to prevent the massive leakage of a radioactive contaminant caused by the severe accident of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The tensile behavior of a concrete is an important factor which influence to the UPC of PCCVs. Hence, nowadays, it is interested that the application of the steel fiber to the PCCVs since that the concrete with steel fiber shows an improved performance in the tensile behavior compared to reinforced concrete (RC). In this study, we performed the UPC analysis of PCCVs with steel fibers corresponding to the different volume ratio of fibers to verify the effectiveness of steel fibers on PCCVs

  5. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of a reinforced concrete Mark III containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGaughy, J.P. Jr.; Lin, F.T.; Sen, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The static ultimate capacity of a Mark III BWR pressure suppression type containment has been investigated with a view to determine its capability to withstand the internal pressure associated with a postulated hydrogen burn. The reinforced concrete containment consists of a right circular cylinder covered by a hemispherical dome and supported on a flat circular foundation mat. A 1/4'' thick welded steel liner plate covers the inside surface of the containment shell. The cylinder is a 3.5 ft. thick shell with an inside radius of 62.0 feet. The thickness of the dome is 3.5 feet. Reinforcement in the shell is comprised of multi-layers of circumferential, meridional and diagonal rebars. Major containment penetrations consists of a circular equipment hatch and two personnel airlock assemblies. The containment ultimate capacity is determined by performing a non-linear analysis using the proprietary finite element computer code 'FINEL'. The code has the capability of modelling concrete cracking in tension and redistribution forces and moments to account for such phenomenon. For analysis purposes, the finite element model included the containment dome and the upper portion of the containment cylinder with appropriate boundary conditions applied at the model cut off region. This portion of the containment structure is selected because the segment of the cylinder that is included in the model has the least amount of hopp reinforcement, and when the general yield state is reached, the hoop reinforcement will be the limiting element. The containment structure has been treated as an axisymmetric shell using axisymmetric quadrilateral finite elements in the radial plane to model the liner plate and concrete. The reinforcing steel have been idealized by finite elements with unidirectional stiffness. (orig./RW)

  6. Assessing Fatigue and Ultimate Load Uncertainty in Floating Offshore Wind Turbines Due to Varying Simulation Length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Haid, L.; Matha, D.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2013-07-01

    With the push towards siting wind turbines farther offshore due to higher wind quality and less visibility, floating offshore wind turbines, which can be located in deep water, are becoming an economically attractive option. The International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) 61400-3 design standard covers fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines, but there are a number of new research questions that need to be answered to modify these standards so that they are applicable to floating wind turbines. One issue is the appropriate simulation length needed for floating turbines. This paper will discuss the results from a study assessing the impact of simulation length on the ultimate and fatigue loads of the structure, and will address uncertainties associated with changing the simulation length for the analyzed floating platform. Recommendations of required simulation length based on load uncertainty will be made and compared to current simulation length requirements.

  7. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun

    2012-01-01

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar

  8. Ultimate pressure capacity assessment of R FRC PCCV based on the tension stiffening tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Choun, Young Sun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The use of fibers in concrete or cement composites can enhance the performance of structural elements. Fibers have been used for a cement mixture to increase the toughness and tensile strength, and to improve the cracking and deformation characteristics. The addition of fibers into concrete can improve the ductility and increase the tensile resistance of concrete structures. Recently, the application of fibers to prestressed concrete containment vessels (PCCVs) has been a major research topic. However, the tensile stiffening behavior of reinforced - fiber reinforced concrete (RFRC) is not fully developed yet especially for specimens using large diameter re bars. In nuclear power plant (NPP) PCCVs, large diameter re bars are applied. Therefore, the tensile stiffening behavior model should be developed to assess ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of R FRC PCCVs. In this study, we modeled the tensile stiffening behavior of R FRC PCCVs by using recently developed model, and assessed the UPC of R FRC PCCVs. To do this, we performed tension stiffening test of R FRC with large diameter re bar.

  9. Determination of the ultimate load in concrete slabs by the yield line finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, L.E.; Feijo, B.; Martha, L.F.R.; Lopes, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for calculating the ultimate load in reinforced concrete slabs is proposed. The method follows the finite element aproach representating the continuum slab as an assembly of rigid triangular plates connected along their sides through yield line elements. This approach leads to the definition of the displacement configuration of the plate only as a function of the transversal displacement at the nodes of the mesh (1 DOF per node) reducing significantly the number of DOF's in relation to the conventional formulation by means of the finite element method (minimum of 3 DOF per node). Nonlinear behaviour of the reinforced concrete section is considered in the definition of the moment rotation curve of the yield lines. The effect of the in plane forces acting in the middle surface of the plate is also taken into account. The validity of the model is verified comparing the numerical solutions with the results of the classical yield line theory. (Author) [pt

  10. 49 CFR 237.71 - Determination of bridge load capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... capacity shall be determined. (g) Bridge load capacity may be expressed in terms of numerical values related to a standard system of bridge loads, but shall in any case be stated in terms of weight and...) Bridge load capacity may be expressed in terms of both normal and maximum load conditions. Operation of...

  11. Evaluation of Ultimate Pressure Capacity of a Prestressed Concrete Containment Building with Steel or Polyamide Fiber Reinforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Youngsun; Hahm, Daegi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) includes thousands of small fibers that are distributed randomly in the concrete. Fibers resist the growth of cracks in concrete through their bridging at the cracks. Therefore, FRC fails in tension only when the fibers break or are pulled out of the cement matrix. For this reason, the addition of fibers in concrete mixing increases the tensile toughness of concrete and enhances the post-cracking behavior. A prevention of through-wall cracks and an increase of the post-cracking ductility will improve the ultimate internal pressure capacity of a prestressed concrete containment building (PCCB). In this study, the effects of steel or polyamide fiber reinforcement on the ultimate pressure capacity of a PCCB are evaluated. When R-SFRC contains hooked steel fibers in a volume fraction of 1.0%, the ultimate pressure capacity of a PCCB can be improved by 17%. When R-PFRC contains polyamide fibers in a volume fraction of 1.5%, the ultimate pressure capacity of a PCCB can be enhanced by 10%. Further studies are needed to determine the strain limits acceptable for PCCBs reinforced with fibers.

  12. Evaluation of Ultimate Pressure Capacity of a Prestressed Concrete Containment Building with Steel or Polyamide Fiber Reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choun, Youngsun; Hahm, Daegi

    2014-01-01

    Fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) includes thousands of small fibers that are distributed randomly in the concrete. Fibers resist the growth of cracks in concrete through their bridging at the cracks. Therefore, FRC fails in tension only when the fibers break or are pulled out of the cement matrix. For this reason, the addition of fibers in concrete mixing increases the tensile toughness of concrete and enhances the post-cracking behavior. A prevention of through-wall cracks and an increase of the post-cracking ductility will improve the ultimate internal pressure capacity of a prestressed concrete containment building (PCCB). In this study, the effects of steel or polyamide fiber reinforcement on the ultimate pressure capacity of a PCCB are evaluated. When R-SFRC contains hooked steel fibers in a volume fraction of 1.0%, the ultimate pressure capacity of a PCCB can be improved by 17%. When R-PFRC contains polyamide fibers in a volume fraction of 1.5%, the ultimate pressure capacity of a PCCB can be enhanced by 10%. Further studies are needed to determine the strain limits acceptable for PCCBs reinforced with fibers

  13. Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu

    2008-11-01

    Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.

  14. Ultimate compression after impact load prediction in graphite/epoxy coupons using neural network and multivariate statistical analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire, Alexandre David

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this research was to accurately predict the ultimate compressive load of impact damaged graphite/epoxy coupons using a Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network and multivariate statistical regression analysis (MSRA). An optimized use of these data treatment tools allowed the generation of a simple, physically understandable equation that predicts the ultimate failure load of an impacted damaged coupon based uniquely on the acoustic emissions it emits at low proof loads. Acoustic emission (AE) data were collected using two 150 kHz resonant transducers which detected and recorded the AE activity given off during compression to failure of thirty-four impacted 24-ply bidirectional woven cloth laminate graphite/epoxy coupons. The AE quantification parameters duration, energy and amplitude for each AE hit were input to the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM) neural network to accurately classify the material failure mechanisms present in the low proof load data. The number of failure mechanisms from the first 30% of the loading for twenty-four coupons were used to generate a linear prediction equation which yielded a worst case ultimate load prediction error of 16.17%, just outside of the +/-15% B-basis allowables, which was the goal for this research. Particular emphasis was placed upon the noise removal process which was largely responsible for the accuracy of the results.

  15. On load carrying capacity of frames taking into account finite displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkoaski, A.; Saran, M.

    1981-01-01

    An approximate method that takes into account the influence of finite displacements upon the load carrying capacity of planar unbraced frames is described. It is the iterative procedure where Quadratic Programming is applied for evaluation of subsequent configurations of the frame, whereas Linear Programming serves to find ultimate load factors for each configuration. Numerical tests show that the procedure gives practically acceptable results being at the same time much cheaper than the exact geometrically and physically non-linear incremental analysis. (orig.)

  16. Lateral loading test of full-scaled pile foundation focused on ultimate behavior; Shukyoku kyodo ni chakumokushita jitsubutsudai kui kiso no suihei saika shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosa, K. [Hanshin Expressway Public Corp., Osaka (Japan); Suzuki, N. [CTI Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kimura, Y. [Public Works Research Institute, Tsukuba (Japan); Morita, Y. [Kiso-Jiban Consultants Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-21

    Lateral loading test of full-scaled pile foundation was made up to the ultimate limit state to establish a limit state design method for pile foundations. A full-scaled 3-by-3 pile group driven as bridge foundation was used for the test. A surface reclaimed layer is nearly 13cm in thickness. The lateral unidirectional loading test was repeatedly carried out by using 6 hydraulic jacks at 30MN in maximum load capacity and 50cm in maximum allowable deformation. The test and analysis results are as follows. In a range of 0-40% in pile head displacement/pile diameter ratio, a load-carrying capacity increased gradually. The yield point of a load-displacement curve agreed with the point at which a reinforcing bar of a pile body reaches analytical yield stress. Bending moment of a pile body and shear stress of a pile head increased in the order of back, middle and front rows. It was confirmed that a framework analysis method considering the non-linearity of a pile body and bedrock is also applicable to full-scaled pile group foundations. 17 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. CAPACITY OF ROTARY LOADING MACHINE ON COAL STOCK FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Živković

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of the stock facility, which might contain large coal masses (usually several hundreds of thousands of tons it is important to have the loading capacity adjusted to the transport and boiler capacity. In the case of either too small or too large capacity of loading machinery a technical incompatibility of the loading and transport system can occur, together with some unecessary investments in too large loading machines. This is why it is necessary to have an accurate determination of working conditions, specific for each stocking capacity (the paper is published in Croatian.

  18. Behavior and ultimate strength of an inner concrete structure of a nuclear reactor building subjected to thermal and seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omatsuzawa, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Sato, M.; Takeda, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yoshioka, K.; Nakayama, T.; Furuya, N.; Kawaguchi, T.; Koike, K.; Naganuma, K.

    1987-01-01

    Heating tests and heating-plus-seismic-loading tests at high temperature (T max = 175 0 C) were conducted using various concrete structural members such as beams, cylindrical walls, H-section walls, and 1/10-scale models of the inner concrete (I/C) structure in a fast breeder reactor (FBR) building. Concrete subjected to high temperature exceeding 100 0 C has a tendency to have lower Young's modulus and to shrink. As these material constants are temperature-dependent, the thermal stress occurring within the concrete structure is smaller than the values usually obtained by normal crack analysis methods. Although thermal stresses and cracks exert marked influences on the behaviors of the structures during the earlier stages of loading, they hardly affect the ultimate bending and shear strengths. Specifically, as a result of I/C model tests, it was made clear that the ultimate strength of the structure is considerably greater than the design loads under combined thermal and seismic loading conditions. (orig./HP)

  19. Opposite Effects of Capacity Load and Resolution Load on Distractor Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the load theory of attention, an increased perceptual load reduces distractor processing whereas an increased working memory load facilitates distractor processing. Here we raise the possibility that the critical distinction may instead be between an emphasis on resolution and an emphasis on capacity. That is, perceptual load manipulations typically emphasize resolution (fine-grained discriminations), whereas working memory load manipulations typically emphasize capacity (simulta...

  20. Post-buckling capacity of bi-axially loaded rectangular steel plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Bondum, T. H.

    2012-01-01

    slenderness and edge displacement ratio are included in the investigations presented. Capacity interaction curves are established in the bi-axial stress domain. It turns out that for certain stress ratios the imperfections dominating the ultimate capacity are not affine to the lowest classical buckling mode...... for biaxial stress. It is of great interest that short wave imperfections of a lower magnitude compared to conventionally used imperfections are seen to lower the capacity of the bi-axially loaded plates. The topic is of major concern in the flange plates of long span bridges with multi box girder...

  1. Ultimate design load analysis of planetary gearbox bearings under extreme events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego Calderon, Juan Felipe; Natarajan, Anand; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of extreme events on the planet bearings of a 5 MW gearbox. The system is simulated using an aeroelastic tool, where the turbine structure is modeled, and MATLAB/Simulink, where the drivetrain (gearbox and generator) are modeled using a lumped-parameter approach....... Three extreme events are assessed: low-voltage ride through, emergency stop and normal stop. The analysis is focused on finding which event has the most negative impact on the bearing extreme radial loads. The two latter events are carried out following the guidelines of the International...

  2. Measurements of ultimate accelerating gradients in the SLAC disk-loaded structure. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.W.; Loew, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The work reported here describes measurements made to study the maximum attainable accelerating gradients in a conventional SLAC disk-loaded accelerator section of the constant-gradient type running at 2856 MHz. The objective was to reach an accelerating gradient of at least 100 MV/m. The accelerating gradient at which the SLAC disk-loaded waveguide runs routinely is approx. 9 MV/m (36 MW tubes without SLED) and approx. 12 MV/m with SLED I (2.5 μsec pulse). To reach 100 MV/m in a conventional 3 m constant-gradient section, one would need a klystron with a peak power output of 900 MW. since such a tube is not available, we decided to use a short standing-wave section in which the resonant fields would be allowed to build up. The design criteria for this section, the fabrication, matching and tuning, the experimental set-up and the results are described below

  3. Residual load carrying capacity of timber joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de

    1999-01-01

    Timber joints that have been preloaded for 2 to 8 years have been short term tested in accordance with EN 26891. The applied load levels varied between 30% and 50% of the average short term strength. The study comprised nailed, toothed-plate and split-ring joints. All joints were made of spruce and

  4. STAR load balancing and tiered-storage infrastructure strategy for ultimate db access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipkin, D; Lauret, J; Betts, W; Didenko, L; Van Buren, G

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the STAR experiment's database demands have grown in accord not only with simple facility growth, but also with a growing physics program. In addition to the accumulated metadata from a decade of operations, refinements to detector calibrations force user analysis to access database information post data production. Users may access any year's data at any point in time, causing a near random access of the metadata queried, contrary to time-organized production cycles. Moreover, complex online event selection algorithms created a query scarcity ( s parsity ) scenario for offline production further impacting performance. Fundamental changes in our hardware approach were hence necessary to improve query speed. Initial strategic improvements were focused on developing fault-tolerant, load-balanced access to a multi-slave infrastructure. Beyond that, we explored, tested and quantified the benefits of introducing a Tiered storage architecture composed of conventional drives, solid-state disks, and memory-resident databases as well as leveraging the use of smaller database services fitting in memory. The results of our extensive testing in real life usage are presented.

  5. Influence of loading rate on pile capacity in unsaturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    2004-01-01

    When in-situ tests are performed to determine the ultimate capacity of a pile after the installation, quite a lot of types of tests are available. The following tests are generally used, in order from most used method to least used method: the static testing method, dynamic testing methods,

  6. Opposite effects of capacity load and resolution load on distractor processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Luck, Steven J

    2015-02-01

    According to the load theory of attention, an increased perceptual load reduces distractor processing whereas an increased working memory load facilitates distractor processing. Here we raise the possibility that the critical distinction may instead be between an emphasis on resolution and an emphasis on capacity. That is, perceptual load manipulations typically emphasize resolution (fine-grained discriminations), whereas working memory load manipulations typically emphasize capacity (simultaneous processing of multiple relevant stimuli). To test the plausibility of this hypothesis, we used a visual working memory task that emphasized either the number of items to be stored (capacity load, retaining 2 vs. 4 colors) or the precision of the representations (resolution load, detecting small vs. large color changes). We found that an increased capacity load led to increased flanker interference (a measure of distractor processing), whereas an increased resolution load led to reduced flanker interference. These opposite effects of capacity load and resolution load on distractor processing mirror the previously described opposite effects of perceptual load and working memory load.

  7. Loading capacity of various filters for lithium fire generated aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.; Barreca, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium aerosol loading capacity of a prefilter, HEPA filters and a sand and gravel bed filter was determined. The test aerosol was characterized and was generated by burning lithium in an unlimited air atmosphere. Correlation to sodium aerosol loading capacities were made to relate existing data to lithium aerosol loadings under varying conditions. This work is being conducted in support of the fusion reactor safety program. The lithium aerosol was generated by burning lithium pools, up to 45 kgs, in a 340 m 3 low humidity air atmosphere to supply aerosol to recirculating filter test loops. The aerosol was sampled to determine particle size, mass concentrations and chemical species. The dew point and gas concentrations were monitored throughout the tests. Loop inlet aerosol mass concentrations ranged up to 5 gr/m 3 . Chemical compounds analyzed to be present in the aerosol include Li 2 O, LiOH, and Li 2 CO 3 . HEPA filters with and without separators and a prefilter and HEPA filter in series were loaded with 7.8 to 11.1 kg/m 2 of aerosol at a flow rate of 1.31 m/sec and 5 kPa pressure drop. The HEPA filter loading capacity was determined to be greater at a lower flow rate. The loading capacity increased from 0.4 to 2.8 kg by decreasing the flow rate from 1.31 to 0.26 m/sec for a pressure drop of 0.11 kPa due to aerosol buildup. The prefilter tested in series with a HEPA did not increase the total loading capacity significantly for the same total pressure drop. Separators in the HEPA had only minor effect on loading capacity. The sand and gravel bed filter loaded to 0.50 kg/m 2 at an aerosol flow rate of 0.069 m/sec and final pressure drop of 6.2 kPa. These loading capacities and their dependence on test variables are similar to those reported for sodium aerosols except for the lithium aerosol HEPA loading capacity dependence upon flow rate

  8. Inspiratory muscle load and capacity in chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, N; Kearney, M T; Pride, N B; Green, M; Lofaso, F; Shah, A M; Moxham, J; Polkey, M I

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although breathlessness is common in chronic heart failure (CHF), the role of inspiratory muscle dysfunction remains unclear. We hypothesised that inspiratory muscle endurance, expressed as a function of endurance time (Tlim) adjusted for inspiratory muscle load and inspiratory muscle capacity, would be reduced in CHF.

  9. Experimental investigation on load capacity and wear rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, a boundary condition test was conducted on journal bearing materials (Al-Tin alloy and Lead-Bronze alloy) used in Peugeot and Toyota automobiles were examined at room temperature conditions. The results of experiments are presented in graphics which proves that the average loading capacities, PV factor ...

  10. Processing Capacity under Perceptual and Cognitive Load: A Closer Look at Load Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel; Wenger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Variations in perceptual and cognitive demands (load) play a major role in determining the efficiency of selective attention. According to load theory (Lavie, Hirst, Fockert, & Viding, 2004) these factors (a) improve or hamper selectivity by altering the way resources (e.g., processing capacity) are allocated, and (b) tap resources rather than…

  11. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  12. Assessment of the transportation route of oversize and excessive loads in relation to the load-bearing capacity of existing bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doležel, Jiří; Novák, Drahomír; Petrů, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Transportation routes of oversize and excessive loads are currently planned in relation to ensure the transit of a vehicle through critical points on the road. Critical points are level-intersection of roads, bridges etc. This article presents a comprehensive procedure to determine a reliability and a load-bearing capacity level of the existing bridges on highways and roads using the advanced methods of reliability analysis based on simulation techniques of Monte Carlo type in combination with nonlinear finite element method analysis. The safety index is considered as a main criterion of the reliability level of the existing construction structures and the index is described in current structural design standards, e.g. ISO and Eurocode. An example of a single-span slab bridge made of precast prestressed concrete girders of the 60 year current time and its load bearing capacity is set for the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. The structure’s design load capacity was estimated by the full probability nonlinear MKP analysis using a simulation technique Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS). Load-bearing capacity values based on a fully probabilistic analysis are compared with the load-bearing capacity levels which were estimated by deterministic methods of a critical section of the most loaded girders.

  13. H-M bearing capacity of a modified suction caisson determined by using load-/displacement-controlled methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-kun; Gao, Yu-feng; Li, Da-yong; Mahfouz, Ali H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a series of monotonically combined lateral loading tests to investigate the bearing capacity of the MSCs (modified suction caissons) in the saturated marine fine sand. The lateral loads were applied under load- and displacement-controlled methods at the loading eccentricity ratios of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5. Results show that, in the displacement-controlled test, the deflection-softening behavior of load-deflection curves for MSCs was observed, and the softening degree of the load-deflection response increased with the increasing external skirt length or the decreasing loading eccentricity. It was also found that the rotation center of the MSC at failure determined by the load-controlled method is slightly lower than that by the displacement-controlled method. The calculated MSC capacity based on the rotation center position in serviceability limit state is relatively conservative, compared with the calculated capacity based on the rotation center position in the ultimate limit state. In the limit state, the passive earth pressures opposite the loading direction under load- and displacement-controlled methods decrease by 46% and 74% corresponding to peak values, respectively; however, the passive earth pressures in the loading direction at failure only decrease by approximately 3% and 7%, compared with their peak values.

  14. Loading capacities and failure modes of various reinforced concrete slabs subjected to high-speed loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.; Imamura, A.; Takeuchi, M.; Okamoto, S.; Kasai, Y.; Tsubota, H.; Yoshimura, M.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify experimentally and analytically the loading capacities, deformations and failure modes of various types of reinforced concrete structures subjected to loads applied at various loading rates. Flat slabs, slabs with beams and cylindrical walls were tested under static, low-speed and high-speed loading. Analysis was applied to estimate the test results by the finite element method using a layered shell element. The analysis closely simulated the experimental results until punching shear failure occurred. (author)

  15. LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF THE GLASS RAILING ELEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeta Šamec

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper some basic physical and mechanical properties of glass as structural material are presented. This research is about specifically manufactured glass railing element that will be a part of a pedestrian bridge construction in Zagreb, Croatia. Load bearing capacity test of the glass railing element is conducted within the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Zagreb and obtained experimental results are discussed and compared to the ones provided by the numerical model. Taking into account the behaviour of laminated glass and results of experimental and numerical testing, glass railing element can be regarded as safe.

  16. Effect of geometric imperfections on the ultimate moment capacity of cold-formed sigma-shape se

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem L. Gendy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, cold formed steel sections are used more and more as primary framing components and as a secondary structural system. They are used as purlins and side rails or floor joist, and after that in the building envelops. Beams are not perfectly straight and are usually associated with geometric imperfections. Initial geometric imperfections can significantly influence the stability response of cold-formed steel members. This paper reports a numerical investigation concerning the effect of these imperfections on the behavior of the simply supported beams subjected to a uniform bending moment. The beam profile is cold formed sigma sections. Group of beams with different overall member slenderness ratios were studied. Several approaches have been utilized to model the geometric imperfections. First, the elastic buckling modes were considered as the imperfect beam shape. In this approach, the elastic buckling analysis was done first to get the elastic buckling modes. In the second approach, the imperfections were considered by assuming the beam bent in a half sine wave along its length. Finally, combination of these two approaches was considered. Results reveal that, the ultimate bending moments of beams with short and intermediate overall slenderness ratios are sensitive to the imperfect shape that comprise compression flange local buckling.

  17. Reserves in load capacity assessment of existing bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žitný, Jan; Ryjáček, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    High percentage of all railway bridges in the Czech Republic is made of structural steel. Majority of these bridges is designed according to historical codes and according to the deterioration, they have to be assessed if they satisfy the needs of modern railway traffic. The load capacity assessment of existing bridges according to Eurocodes is however often too conservative and especially, braking and acceleration forces cause huge problems to structural elements of the bridge superstructure. The aim of this paper is to review the different approaches for the determination of braking and acceleration forces. Both, current and historical theoretical models and in-situ measurements are considered. The research of several local European state norms superior to Eurocode for assessment of existing railway bridges shows the big diversity of used local approaches and the conservativeness of Eurocode. This paper should also work as an overview for designers dealing with load capacity assessment, revealing the reserves for existing bridges. Based on these different approaches, theoretical models and data obtained from the measurements, the method for determination of braking and acceleration forces on the basis of real traffic data should be proposed.

  18. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  19. A Novel Load Capacity Model with a Tunable Proportion of Load Redistribution against Cascading Failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Hao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Defence against cascading failures is of great theoretical and practical significance. A novel load capacity model with a tunable proportion is proposed. We take degree and clustering coefficient into account to redistribute the loads of broken nodes. The redistribution is local, where the loads of broken nodes are allocated to their nearest neighbours. Our model has been applied on artificial networks as well as two real networks. Simulation results show that networks get more vulnerable and sensitive to intentional attacks along with the decrease of average degree. In addition, the critical threshold from collapse to intact states is affected by the tunable parameter. We can adjust the tunable parameter to get the optimal critical threshold and make the systems more robust against cascading failures.

  20. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure. Part 1; Ultimate Design Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses finite element analysis and testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part I of the paper considers the five most critical load conditions, which are internal pressure only and positive and negative g-loads with and without internal pressure. Analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during testing. Performance of the test article is found to be closely aligned with predictions and, consequently, able to support the hybrid wing body design loads in pristine and barely visible impact damage conditions.

  1. Determination of residual load-bearing capacity of concrete beams at the operation stage by the strength reinforcement and concrete criterion

    OpenAIRE

    V.S. Utkin

    2015-01-01

    An experimental theoretical method was considered for estimating the residual load-bearing capacity of an individual reinforced concrete beam at the operational stage according to the criteria of the working strength and durability of concrete reinforcement compressed zone of the beam. Integrated methods of beam testing and probabilistic methods of random variables definition were used. Ultimate load in the form of interval during the operational phase was accepted as the measure of carr...

  2. The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archeewa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and

  3. Load Management of Data Centers as Regulation Capacity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Ghatikar, Girish; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2014-01-01

    are of special interest as they account for 500 GWh of consumption in Denmark or nearly 2% of the total electricity consumption. This paper performs an analysis on load management capabilities of data centers in Denmark based on the experiences in the U.S. We characterize the load management capabilities...... for transmission system operators and distribution system operators and balance errors in forecasts made by balance responsible parties. By enabling the demand-side to adapt consumption to match power generation, we can address this in a cost-effective and environmental sound way. In this context, data centers...... of the data centers based on their types, technology, and their application as grid management resources. Further, we identify demand-side entry barriers towards market participation. Our findings suggest that groups of data centers can offer dynamic load flexibility as virtual power plants, and thereby...

  4. The effect of manufacturing tolerances on the load carrying capacity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bearings based on Hertz theory. The nonlinear connector elements are used to model ... Keywords. Slewing bearing; Hertz theory; load distribution; nonlinear connector elements; tolerance. 1. ..... Ngoi B K A, Lim B H and Ang P S 2000 Nexus method for stack analysis of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing problems.

  5. Sodium fire aerosol loading capacity of several sand and gravel filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreca, J.R.; McCormack, J.D.

    1980-04-01

    Improved specific loading capacity for sodium fire aerosols was the objective of a sand and gravel test series. The aerosol capacity and related differential pressure of eight aggregate filters is presented. A maximum specific aerosol capacity, for dry aerosol, of 2.4 kg (Na) m -2 was obtained. This filter was loaded to a final differential pressure of 2.6 kPa. The average superficial face velocity was 0.5 cm/s and the average efficiency was 99.8%. The test results indicate that filter capacity increases with aerosol moisture content and with decreasing superficial velocity

  6. Functional connectivity among multi-channel EEGs when working memory load reaches the capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Huipo; Bai, Wenwen; Tian, Xin

    2016-01-15

    Evidence from behavioral studies has suggested a capacity existed in working memory. As the concept of functional connectivity has been introduced into neuroscience research in the recent years, the aim of this study is to investigate the functional connectivity in the brain when working memory load reaches the capacity. 32-channel electroencephalographs (EEGs) were recorded for 16 healthy subjects, while they performed a visual working memory task with load 1-6. Individual working memory capacity was calculated according to behavioral results. Short-time Fourier transform was used to determine the principal frequency band (theta band) related to working memory. The functional connectivity among EEGs was measured by the directed transform function (DTF) via spectral Granger causal analysis. The capacity was 4 calculated from the behavioral results. The power was focused in the frontal midline region. The strongest connectivity strengths of EEG theta components from load 1 to 6 distributed in the frontal midline region. The curve of DTF values vs load numbers showed that DTF increased from load 1 to 4, peaked at load 4, then decreased after load 4. This study finds that the functional connectivity between EEGs, described quantitatively by DTF, became less strong when working memory load exceeded the capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Applicability of Various Load Test Interpretation Criteria in Measuring Driven Precast Concrete Pile Uplift Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia M. Marcos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented a comprehensive analysis of load test interpretation criteria to determine their suitability to driven precast concrete (PC pile uplift capacity. A database was developed containing static pile load tests and utilized for the evaluation. The piles were round and square cross-sections under drained and undrained loading. To explore and compare their behavior, the stored data were categorized into four groups. In general, the trends of every criterion for the four groups were notably the same. In both drained and undrained loading, slightly larger interpreted capacities were demonstrated by square piles than by round piles. Moreover, round piles demonstrated more ductile load-displacement response than square piles especially in undrained loading. Statistical analyses presented that smaller values of displacements exhibited higher coefficient of variation. The drained and undrained tests were compared and results showed less variability in drained than undrained loading and capacity ratios (Qx/QCHIN in drained loading were slightly higher than in undrained loading. The interrelationship and applicability of these criteria as well as the design recommendations in terms of normalized capacity and displacement were given based on the analyses.

  8. Nondestructive determination of the load bearing capacity of rigid pavement structures. Zerstoerungsfreie Tragfaehigkeitsbestimmung fuer starre Deckenkonstruktionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, U. (Bauakademie, IHLGB, Berlin (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Actual parameters of the bearing capacity of traffic areas are in case of intensive use an indispensable necessity for the determination of the remaining use value with the aim to optimize reinforcing layers and reconstruction periods. Until now there is only one adequate measuring method for flexible layers. With the Rollig load test (RLT) initial data can be gained for the calculation of the load bearing capacity of rigid pavement structures. The method is described with the example of an airplane runway. (BWI).

  9. Load bearing capacities and elastic-plastic behavior of reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Keita; Nagase, Ryuichi

    2017-01-01

    Radial Support Keys (RSKs) are installed at the bottom of Reactor Vessel Internal (RVI) of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and fit into Core Support Lugs of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV). This structure provides reactor core horizontal support and transmits the loads between RVI and RPV. RSK is one of the critical parts of RVI from the view point of earthquake-proof safety. In order to assure the structural integrity of Nuclear Reactor in case of massive earthquake, load bearing capacities of RSK are confirmed by static loading tests with reduced-scale mockups. In addition, collapse loads of actual components calculated by Limit Analyses are conservative enough compared to the load bearing capacities confirmed by the test. Thus, the methodology to calculate collapse load by Limit Analysis is applicable to evaluation of structural integrity for RSK. (author)

  10. The Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings in Cohesionless Soil Subject to Eccentric and Inclined Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Lower bound calculations based on the finite element method is used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to an inclined, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges and with friction angles 25, 30 and 35°. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic following...... the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The results are reported as graphs showing the bearing capacity as a function of the friction angle, the eccentricity, inclination and the surcharge. The results have been compared with the Eurocode 7 and for smaller eccentricities, except in the case of no surcharge......, the lower bound values are the greater, the discrepancy increasing with growing surcharge. Positive load inclinations has a negative effect for smaller eccentricities but may have a beneficial effect on the bearing capacity for greater eccentricities. Negative load inclinations have the opposite effect...

  11. Evaluation of the increased load bearing capacity of steel beams strengthened with pre-stressed FRP laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bennati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported steel beam subjected to uniformly distributed load, strengthened with a pre-stressed fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP laminate. We assume that the laminate is first put into tension, then bonded to the beam bottom surface, and finally fixed at both its ends by suitable connections. The beam and laminate are modelled according to classical beam theory. The adhesive is modelled as a cohesive interface with a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response, softening response, debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with suitable boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces and interfacial stresses. As an application, we consider the standard IPE series for the steel beam and the Sika® CarboDur® system for the adhesive and laminate. For each considered cross section, we first carry out a preliminary design of the unstrengthened steel beam. Then, we imagine to apply the FRP strengthening and calculate the loads corresponding to the elastic limit states in the steel beam, adhesive, and laminate. Lastly, we take into account the ultimate limit state corresponding to the plasticisation of the mid-span steel cross section and evaluate the increased load bearing capacity of the strengthened beam

  12. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majeed Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.

  13. Better Building Alliance, Plug and Process Loads in Commercial Buildings: Capacity and Power Requirement Analysis (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    This brochure addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that can help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. This brochure should be used to make these decisions so systems can operate more energy efficiently; upfront capital costs will also decrease. This information can also be used to drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands. It should enable brokers and tenants to agree about lower PPL capacities. Owner-occupied buildings will also benefit. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems.

  14. Ældre betonbroers bæreevne (Load bearing capacity of old concrete bridges)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1999-01-01

    Two old bridges have been analysed in connection with their demolition. The first one is a pedestrian bridge, the Gefion bridge, from 1894. This is the first bridge of reinforced concrete in Denmark. Here the creep in the concrete severely have changed the way in which the load on the bridge was ...... was carried. - The other is a motor way bridge from 1939, which were reinforced 1991 with external steel plates on the areas of shear on the beams. Four beams were carried to our laboratory and load tested. The steel plates have doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams....

  15. Lower-Bound Calculations of the Bearing Capacity of Eccentrically Loaded Footings in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Lower-bound calculations based on the finite element method are used to determine the bearing capacity of a strip foundation subjected to a vertical, eccentric load on cohesionless soil with varying surcharges. The soil is assumed perfectly plastic following the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. Th...

  16. Estimating values for the moisture source load and buffering capacities from indoor climate measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential for estimating values for the total size of human induced moisture source load and the total buffering (moisture storage) capacity of the interior objects with the use of relatively simple measurements and the use of heat, air, and moisture

  17. Universal resilience patterns in cascading load model: More capacity is not always better

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianwei; Wang, Xue; Cai, Lin; Ni, Chengzhang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Bo

    We study the problem of universal resilience patterns in complex networks against cascading failures. We revise the classical betweenness method and overcome its limitation of quantifying the load in cascading model. Considering that the generated load by all nodes should be equal to the transported one by all edges in the whole network, we propose a new method to quantify the load on an edge and construct a simple cascading model. By attacking the edge with the highest load, we show that, if the flow between two nodes is transported along the shortest paths between them, then the resilience of some networks against cascading failures inversely decreases with the enhancement of the capacity of every edge, i.e. the more capacity is not always better. We also observe the abnormal fluctuation of the additional load that exceeds the capacity of each edge. By a simple graph, we analyze the propagation of cascading failures step by step, and give a reasonable explanation of the abnormal fluctuation of cascading dynamics.

  18. Load Carrying Capacity of Metal Dowel Type Connections of Timber Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocál, Jozef

    2014-12-01

    This paper deals with the load-carrying capacity calculation of laterally loaded metal dowel type connections according to Eurocode 5. It is based on analytically derived, relatively complicated mathematical relationships, and thus it can be quite laborious for practical use. The aim is to propose a possible simplification of the calculation. Due to quite a great variability of fasteners' types and the connection arrangements, the attention is paid to the most commonly used nailed connections. There was performed quite an extensive parametric study focused on the calculation of load-carrying capacity of the simple shear and double shear plane nail connections, joining two or three timber parts of softwood or hardwood. Based on the study results, in conclusion there are presented simplifying recommendations for practical design.

  19. Enhanced load-carrying capacity of hairy surfaces floating on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yahui; Yuan, Huijing; Su, Weidong; Shi, Yipeng; Duan, Huiling

    2014-05-08

    Water repellency of hairy surfaces depends on the geometric arrangement of these hairs and enables different applications in both nature and engineering. We investigate the mechanism and optimization of a hairy surface floating on water to obtain its maximum load-carrying capacity by the free energy and force analyses. It is demonstrated that there is an optimum cylinder spacing, as a result of the compromise between the vertical capillary force and the gravity, so that the hairy surface has both high load-carrying capacity and mechanical stability. Our analysis makes it clear that the setae on water striders' legs or some insects' wings are in such an optimized geometry. Moreover, it is shown that surface hydrophobicity can further increase the capacity of a hairy surface with thick cylinders, while the influence is negligible when the cylinders are thin.

  20. Water Quality Assessment and Determining the Carrying Capacity of Pollution Load Batang Kuranji River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewata, I.; Adri, Z.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the water quality and carrying capacity of pollution load Batang Kuranji River in the headwaters, middle, and downstream. This research is descriptive quantitative parameters of pH, BOD, COD, TSS, and DOES Depictions of river water quality refer to RegulationNo.82/2001, while determination of carrying capacity of pollution load river refers to the Kep Men LHNo.10/2003.The result is Kuranji Batang River water quality upstream region included in either category who meet the quality standard first class ofPP82/2001. TSS concentrations at head waters of 21 mg/L, BOD1,6 mg/L, COD7,99mg/L and DO 7,845 mg/L. While the carrying capacity of pollution load river in upstream region included in both categories namely BOD of 4,4 kg/sec, COD 273,60 kg/sec, TSS906,00kg/sec, and DO parameters of 49.20 kg/sec. Middle region (point 2, 3, and 4) water quality Batang Kuranji River has exceeded the quality standard of 82/2001 for class II and class III. Meanwhile, carrying capacity of pollution load river in area included in ugly category. The calculation is done with application Qual2Kw show that carrying capacity of pollution load river of BOD -857.3 kg/sec, COD -777.40 kg/sec, TSS +9511.5 kg/sec, and DO +69.30 kg/sec.

  1. Impact of pore characteristics of silica materials on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numpilai, Thanapha [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Muenmee, Suthaporn [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Chemical Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Witoon, Thongthai, E-mail: fengttwi@ku.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Chemical Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); NANOTEC-KU-Center of Excellence on Nanoscale Materials Design for Green Nanotechnology, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2016-02-01

    Impact of pore characteristics of porous silica supports on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen was investigated. The porous silica materials and ibuprofen-loaded porous silica materials were thoroughly characterized by N{sub 2}-sorption, thermal gravimetric and derivative weight analyses (TG-DTW), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) to determine the physical properties of materials, amount of ibuprofen adsorbed and position of ibuprofen. The detailed characterization reveals that the ibuprofen molecules adsorbed inside the mesopores. Increasing the mesopore size from 5 nm to 10 nm increased the ibuprofen loading from 0.74 to 0.85 mmol/g, respectively. Incorporation of macropore into the structure of porous silica materials enhanced the ibuprofen loading capacity of 11.8–20.3%. The ibuprofen-loaded bimodal meso-macroporous silica materials exhibited the highest dissolution of 92 wt.% within an hour. The ibuprofen particles deposited on the external surface of the porous silica materials showed a lower dissolution rate than the ibuprofen adsorbed inside the mesopores due to the formation of ibuprofen crystalline. - Highlights: • Impacts of pore characteristics of supports on adsorption and release of ibuprofen • Increasing mesopore size increased the ibuprofen loading and dissolution rate. • Macropores reduced the diffusion pathway of ibuprofen and dissolution medium.

  2. Impact of pore characteristics of silica materials on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numpilai, Thanapha; Muenmee, Suthaporn; Witoon, Thongthai

    2016-01-01

    Impact of pore characteristics of porous silica supports on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen was investigated. The porous silica materials and ibuprofen-loaded porous silica materials were thoroughly characterized by N 2 -sorption, thermal gravimetric and derivative weight analyses (TG-DTW), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) to determine the physical properties of materials, amount of ibuprofen adsorbed and position of ibuprofen. The detailed characterization reveals that the ibuprofen molecules adsorbed inside the mesopores. Increasing the mesopore size from 5 nm to 10 nm increased the ibuprofen loading from 0.74 to 0.85 mmol/g, respectively. Incorporation of macropore into the structure of porous silica materials enhanced the ibuprofen loading capacity of 11.8–20.3%. The ibuprofen-loaded bimodal meso-macroporous silica materials exhibited the highest dissolution of 92 wt.% within an hour. The ibuprofen particles deposited on the external surface of the porous silica materials showed a lower dissolution rate than the ibuprofen adsorbed inside the mesopores due to the formation of ibuprofen crystalline. - Highlights: • Impacts of pore characteristics of supports on adsorption and release of ibuprofen • Increasing mesopore size increased the ibuprofen loading and dissolution rate. • Macropores reduced the diffusion pathway of ibuprofen and dissolution medium.

  3. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  4. BEARING CAPACITY OF A HORIZONTALLY LOADED SINGLE PILE SUPPORT WITH SLEEPERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The supports of a overhead wiring used in transport take up substantial loads both because of wires and constructions holding them and wind, dynamic and other extraordinary impacts. In case of using single-member piles a question about their stability appears. For this reason different sleepers constructions are used. In order to improve the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded single pile supports of the contact systems used in urban, road and rail transport, power lines, etc.., it is recommended to use sleepers as horizontally laid under the ground in the depth of support beams. The calculation methods for different support sleepers of different lengths and cross sections are not well investigated. The proposed calculation method allows determining the carrying capacity of horizontally loaded bearings with soil pieces of different structural dimensions and their location in the soil, which allows choosing the best option for cost and material consumption. The calculations offered by the authors prove the efficiency of sleepers use in order to increase the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded piles and the possibility to chose their size.

  5. Calculation Method for Load Capacity of Urban Rail Transit Station considering Cascading Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The load capacity of urban rail transit station is of great significance to provide reference in station design and operation management. However, it is difficult to carry out quantitative calculation quickly and accurately due to the complex interaction among passenger behaviors, facility layout, and the limit capacity of single facility. In this paper, the association network of facilities is set up based on the analysis of passenger service chain in station. Then the concept of cascading failure is introduced to the dynamic calculation model of load capacity, which is established on the user-equilibrium allocation model. The solution algorithm is optimized with node attack strategy of complex network to effectively reduce the computational complexity. Finally, a case study of Lujiabang Road Station in Shanghai is carried out and compared with the simulation results of StaPass, verifying the feasibility of this approach. The proposed method can not only search for the bottleneck of capacity, but also help to trace the loading variation of facilities network in different scenarios, providing theoretical supports on passenger flow organization.

  6. Impact of pore characteristics of silica materials on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numpilai, Thanapha; Muenmee, Suthaporn; Witoon, Thongthai

    2016-02-01

    Impact of pore characteristics of porous silica supports on loading capacity and release behavior of ibuprofen was investigated. The porous silica materials and ibuprofen-loaded porous silica materials were thoroughly characterized by N2-sorption, thermal gravimetric and derivative weight analyses (TG-DTW), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) to determine the physical properties of materials, amount of ibuprofen adsorbed and position of ibuprofen. The detailed characterization reveals that the ibuprofen molecules adsorbed inside the mesopores. Increasing the mesopore size from 5nm to 10nm increased the ibuprofen loading from 0.74 to 0.85mmol/g, respectively. Incorporation of macropore into the structure of porous silica materials enhanced the ibuprofen loading capacity of 11.8-20.3%. The ibuprofen-loaded bimodal meso-macroporous silica materials exhibited the highest dissolution of 92wt.% within an hour. The ibuprofen particles deposited on the external surface of the porous silica materials showed a lower dissolution rate than the ibuprofen adsorbed inside the mesopores due to the formation of ibuprofen crystalline. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Stålplader gav dobbelt bæreevne (Steel plates doubled the load bearing capacity)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Broch

    1999-01-01

    Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams.......Abstract from an examination of motor road bridge beams reinforced with steel plates on the sides and bottom. The plates doubled the load bearing capacity of the beams....

  8. Recent Steps Towards a Common Understanding of Ball Bearing Load Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Simon; Gaillard, Lionel; Seiler, René; Parzianello, Giorgio; LeLetty, Ronan

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the derivation and substantiation of the load capacity standards currently used to define the de-rating of ball bearings to provide appropriate margins for space applications. It is noted that European and U.S. standards affecting this issue differ, leading to discrepancies in claimed margins and perhaps to mass and performance disadvantages for mechanisms designed strictly in accordance with the present European standard. On the basis of empirical and experimental data, this paper proposes a potential route toward a harmonisation of the load capacity approach for ball bearings both between different international standards and between the separate ECSS standards on mechanisms and structures. The effect of such an approach on bearings and other tribological components intended for space applications is briefly reviewed.

  9. Focusing on Attention: The Effects of Working Memory Capacity and Load on Selective Attention.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background\\ud \\ud Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention.\\ud \\ud Methodology/Principal Findin...

  10. SN-38 loading capacity of hydrophobic polymer blend nanoparticles: formulation, optimization and efficacy evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimchevska, Simona; Geskovski, Nikola; Petruševski, Gjorgji; Chacorovska, Marina; Popeski-Dimovski, Riste; Ugarkovic, Sonja; Goracinova, Katerina

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important problems in nanoencapsulation of extremely hydrophobic drugs is poor drug loading due to rapid drug crystallization outside the polymer core. The effort to use nanoprecipitation, as a simple one-step procedure with good reproducibility and FDA approved polymers like Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and Polycaprolactone (PCL), will only potentiate this issue. Considering that drug loading is one of the key defining characteristics, in this study we attempted to examine whether the nanoparticle (NP) core composed of two hydrophobic polymers will provide increased drug loading for 7-Ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), relative to NPs prepared using individual polymers. D-optimal design was applied to optimize PLGA/PCL ratio in the polymer blend and the mode of addition of the amphiphilic copolymer Lutrol ® F127 in order to maximize SN-38 loading and obtain NPs with acceptable size for passive tumor targeting. Drug/polymer and polymer/polymer interaction analysis pointed to high degree of compatibility and miscibility among both hydrophobic polymers, providing core configuration with higher drug loading capacity. Toxicity studies outlined the biocompatibility of the blank NPs. Increased in vitro efficacy of drug-loaded NPs compared to the free drug was confirmed by growth inhibition studies using SW-480 cell line. Additionally, the optimized NP formulation showed very promising blood circulation profile with elimination half-time of 7.4 h.

  11. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  12. Thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnacinski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of voltage quality on induction motors is investigated. • Power quality significantly affects machine lifetime and load-carrying capacity. • Permissible load levels for induction motors are proposed. - Abstract: This work deals with the effect of a lowered voltage quality on the thermal loss of life and load-carrying capacity of marine induction cage machines. Results of experimental investigations and computer calculations are presented for two low power induction motors with different properties. One of them has a comparatively strongly-saturated magnetic circuit and is especially exposed to the risk of overheating under overvoltage. The other machine has a comparatively weakly-saturated magnetic circuit, and is especially sensitive to undervoltage. The induction motor lifetime expectancy is also estimated on the basis of the temperature coefficient of power quality, whose value is proportional to the windings temperature rise in induction motors especially sensitive to various power quality disturbances. The dependence of the temperature coefficient of power quality and permissible loads for induction motors supplied with voltages of lowered quality is proposed

  13. Bearing capacity and rigidity of short plastic-concrete-tubal vertical columns under transverse load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhenko, A. V.; Naumov, A. E.; Shevchenko, A. E.

    2018-03-01

    The results of mathematical modeling in determining strain-stress distribution parameters of a short plastic-concrete-tubal vertical column under horizontal load as those in vertical constructions are described. Quantitative parameters of strain-stress distribution during vertical and horizontal loads and horizontal stiffness were determined by finite element modeling. The internal stress in the concrete column core was analyzed according to equivalent stress in Mohr theory of failure. It was determined that the bearing capacity of a short plastic- concrete-tubal vertical column is 25% higher in resistibility and 15% higher in rigidness than those of the caseless concrete columns equal in size. Cracks formation in the core of a short plastic-concrete-tubal vertical column happens under significantly bigger horizontal loads with less amount of concrete spent than that in caseless concrete columns. The significant increase of bearing capacity and cracking resistance of a short plastic-concrete-tubal vertical column under vertical and horizontal loads allows recommending them as highly effective and highly reliable structural wall elements in civil engineering.

  14. Research of thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load single screw refrigeration compressor with different capacity control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zengli; Wang, Zhenbo; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Wenchun; Feng, Quanke

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical models of SSRC under part-load condition have been established. • The experiment of SSRC performance under part-load condition was conducted. • Thermal dynamic characteristic of SSRC under part-load condition was gained. • Economy and reliability of SSRC under part-load condition was analyzed. - Abstract: In the single screw refrigeration compressor (SSRC), the capacity control mechanism is normally employed to meet the actual required cooling capacity under different load conditions. In this paper, theoretical calculation models describing the working process of the SSRC with the single slide valve capacity control mechanism (SVCCM) and SSRC with the frequency conversion regulating mechanism (FCRM) are established to research the thermal dynamic characteristics for variable load SSRC under part-load conditions. Experimental investigation on a SSRC under part-load conditions is also carried out to verify the theoretical calculation models. By using these validated models, the thermodynamic performances and dynamic characteristics of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism under part-load conditions have been analyzed and compared. Through the comparison, the economical efficiency and reliability of the SSRC with different capacity control mechanism were obtained. All of these works can provide the basis for the later optimization design for the variable load single screw refrigeration compressor.

  15. An estimation of finger-tapping rates and load capacities and the effects of various factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Mahmut; İşeri, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the finger-tapping rates and finger load capacities of eight fingers (excluding thumbs) for a healthy adult population and investigate the effects of various factors on tapping rate. Finger-tapping rate, the total number of finger taps per unit of time, can be used as a design parameter of various products and also as a psychomotor test for evaluating patients with neurologic problems. A 1-min tapping task was performed by 148 participants with maximum volitional tempo for each of eight fingers. For each of the tapping tasks, the participant with the corresponding finger tapped the associated key in the standard position on the home row of a conventional keyboard for touch typing. The index and middle fingers were the fastest fingers for both hands, and little fingers the slowest. All dominant-hand fingers, except little finger, had higher tapping rates than the fastest finger of the nondominant hand. Tapping rate decreased with age and smokers tapped faster than nonsmokers. Tapping duration and exercise had also significant effect on tapping rate. Normative data of tapping rates and load capacities of eight fingers were estimated for the adult population. In designs of psychomotor tests that require the use of tapping rate or finger load capacity data, the effects of finger, age, smoking, and tapping duration need to be taken into account. The findings can be used for ergonomic designs requiring finger-tapping capacity and also as a reference in psychomotor tests. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  16. Demand response modeling considering Interruptible/Curtailable loads and capacity market programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalami, H.A.; Moghaddam, M. Parsa; Yousefi, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a massive focus has been made on demand response (DR) programs, aimed to electricity price reduction, transmission lines congestion resolving, security enhancement and improvement of market liquidity. Basically, demand response programs are divided into two main categories namely, incentive-based programs and time-based programs. The focus of this paper is on Interruptible/Curtailable service (I/C) and capacity market programs (CAP), which are incentive-based demand response programs including penalties for customers in case of no responding to load reduction. First, by using the concept of price elasticity of demand and customer benefit function, economic model of above mentioned programs is developed. The proposed model helps the independent system operator (ISO) to identify and employ relevant DR program which both improves the characteristics of the load curve and also be welcome by customers. To evaluate the performance of the model, simulation study has been conducted using the load curve of the peak day of the Iranian power system grid in 2007. In the numerical study section, the impact of these programs on load shape and load level, and benefit of customers as well as reduction of energy consumption are shown. In addition, by using strategy success indices the results of simulation studies for different scenarios are analyzed and investigated for determination of the scenarios priority. (author)

  17. Bayesian modeling of the assimilative capacity component of nutrient total maximum daily loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, B. R.

    2008-08-01

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) load capacity is developed and applied. The joint distribution of nutrient retention metrics from a literature review of 495 measurements was used for Monte Carlo sampling with a process transfer function for nutrient attenuation. Using the resulting histograms of nutrient retention, reference prior distributions were developed for sites in which some of the metrics contributing to the transfer function were measured. Contributing metrics for the prior include stream discharge, cross-sectional area, fraction of storage volume to free stream volume, denitrification rate constant, storage zone mass transfer rate, dispersion coefficient, and others. Confidence of compliance (CC) that any given level of nutrient retention has been achieved is also determined using this approach. The shape of the CC curve is dependent on the metrics measured and serves in part as a measure of the information provided by the metrics to predict nutrient retention. It is also a direct measurement, with a margin of safety, of the fraction of export load that can be reduced through changing retention metrics. For an impaired stream in western Oklahoma, a combination of prior information and measurement of nutrient attenuation was used to illustrate the proposed approach. This method may be considered for TMDL implementation.

  18. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  19. Seasonal dynamics in wheel load-carrying capacity of a loam soil in the Swiss Plateau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gut, S.; Chervet, A.; Stettler, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    on in situ measurements of h, measurements of precompression stress at various h and simulations of soil stress. In this work, we concentrated on prevention of subsoil compaction. Calculations were made for different tyres (standard and low-pressure top tyres) and for soil under different tillage......Subsoil compaction is a major problem in modern agriculture caused by the intensification of agricultural production and the increase in weight of agricultural machinery. Compaction in the subsoil is highly persistent and leads to deterioration of soil functions. Wheel load-carrying capacity (WLCC......) is defined as the maximum wheel load for a specific tyre and inflation pressure that does not result in soil stress in excess of soil strength. The soil strength and hence WLCC is strongly influenced by soil matric potential (h). The aim of this study was to estimate the seasonal dynamics in WLCC based...

  20. Seismic Capacity Estimation of Steel Piping Elbow under Low-cycle Fatigue Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Dae Gi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In some cases, this large relative displacement can increase seismic risk of the isolated facility. Especially, a inelastic behavior of crossover piping system to connect base isolated building and fixed base building can caused by a large relative displacement. Therefore, seismic capacity estimation for isolated piping system is needed to increase safety of nuclear power plant under seismic condition. Dynamic behavior analysis of piping system under seismic condition using shake table tests was performed by Touboul et al in 1995. In accordance with their study, plastic behavior could be occurred at pipe elbow under seismic condition. Experimental researches for dynamic behavior of typical piping system in nuclear power plant have been performed for several years by JNES(Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) and NUPEC(Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation). A low cycle ratcheting fatigue test was performed with scaled model of elbow which is a weakest component in piping system by Mizuno et al. In-plane cyclic loading tests under internal pressure condition were performed to evaluate the seismic capacity of the steel piping elbow. Leakage phenomenon occurred on and near the crown in piping elbow. Those cracks grew up in axial direction. The fatigue curve was estimated from test results. In the fatigue curve, loading amplitude exponentially decreased as the number of cycles increased. A FEM model of piping elbow was modified with test results. The relationships between displacement and force from tests and numerical analysis was well matched.

  1. Artificial neural network (ANN)-based prediction of depth filter loading capacity for filter sizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Harshit; Rathore, Anurag S; Hadpe, Sandeep Ramesh; Alva, Solomon J

    2016-11-01

    This article presents an application of artificial neural network (ANN) modelling towards prediction of depth filter loading capacity for clarification of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) product during commercial manufacturing. The effect of operating parameters on filter loading capacity was evaluated based on the analysis of change in the differential pressure (DP) as a function of time. The proposed ANN model uses inlet stream properties (feed turbidity, feed cell count, feed cell viability), flux, and time to predict the corresponding DP. The ANN contained a single output layer with ten neurons in hidden layer and employed a sigmoidal activation function. This network was trained with 174 training points, 37 validation points, and 37 test points. Further, a pressure cut-off of 1.1 bar was used for sizing the filter area required under each operating condition. The modelling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the predicted and experimental data with a regression coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.98. The developed ANN model was used for performing variable depth filter sizing for different clarification lots. Monte-Carlo simulation was performed to estimate the cost savings by using different filter areas for different clarification lots rather than using the same filter area. A 10% saving in cost of goods was obtained for this operation. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1436-1443, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS IN THE EVENT OF THE PRE-SET RELIABILITY, REGULAR LOAD AND BEARING CAPACITY DISTRIBUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrazyan Ashot Georgievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and adequate description of external influences and of the bearing capacity of the structural material requires the employment of the probability theory methods. In this regard, the characteristic that describes the probability of failure-free operation is required. The characteristic of reliability means that the maximum stress caused by the action of the load will not exceed the bearing capacity. In this paper, the author presents a solution to the problem of calculation of structures, namely, the identification of reliability of pre-set design parameters, in particular, cross-sectional dimensions. If the load distribution pattern is available, employment of the regularities of distributed functions make it possible to find the pattern of distribution of maximum stresses over the structure. Similarly, we can proceed to the design of structures of pre-set rigidity, reliability and stability in the case of regular load distribution. We consider the element of design (a monolithic concrete slab, maximum stress S which depends linearly on load q. Within a pre-set period of time, the probability will not exceed the values according to the Poisson law. The analysis demonstrates that the variability of the bearing capacity produces a stronger effect on relative sizes of cross sections of a slab than the variability of loads. It is therefore particularly important to reduce the coefficient of variation of the load capacity. One of the methods contemplates the truncation of the bearing capacity distribution by pre-culling the construction material.

  3. Stalking the ultimate particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you missed the ARTE programme entitled "L'Ultime Particule" broadcast in February, you have another chance to catch it in CERN's Main Auditorium on 13 March. "L'Ultime Particule" is a documentary by the French director Michel Andrieu that seeks to explain particle physics through a contemplative quest for the research physicists of matter of today and yesteryear. Invariably kitted out in a red parka and a soft hat, the programme's investigator scours the planet and the archives in search of the research physicists who are stalking the ultimate particle, the Higgs boson, in their quest to understand the structure of matter. Naturally enough, CERN is an important stage of his journey where Michel Andrieu and his team spent several days last year. Both from the physics and metaphysical points of view, "L'Ultime Particule" is worth seeing. The film's director, Michel Andrieu, will introduce his documentary and answer questions from the audience after the documentary has been shown. L'Ultime Particule by Mic...

  4. Application of the simulation of a tank capacity proposal for loading and unloading process of bulk material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Šaderová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available n this paper, the algorithm is given - how to design a tankfor bulk materials. An important part of the proposal is to setthe loading and unloading of a tank, which is also closely related to the proposal of its capacity and volume. Loading and unloadingprocess is dependent on several factors but the main are: method and speed of loading which represents the parameter - hour powerof loading device (e.g. continuous by a conveyor belt, method andspeed of unloading (continuousor at intervals and a typeand capacity of means of transport, in which the material loading (truck, rail car, conveyor belt system. The paper presents twomethods for determination of the loadingand unloading process - the graphic method and determination during the simulation -creating a simulation model.

  5. The ultimate quotable Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein's Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein's life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson's authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice.

  6. Load bearing capacity of welded joints between dissimilar pipelines with unequal wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Jonghyun; Kim, Youngpyo; Kim, Woosik [Korea Gas Corporation, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The behavior of the load bearing capacity of a pipeline with unequal wall thickness was evaluated using finite element analyses. Pipelines with a wall thickness ratio of 1.22-1.89 were adopted to investigate plastic collapse under tensile, internal pressure, or bending stress. A parametric study showed that the tensile strength and moment of a pipeline with a wall thickness ratio less than 1.5 were not influenced by the wall thickness ratio and taper angle; however, those of a pipeline with a wall thickness ratio more than 1.5 decreased considerably at a low taper angle. The failure pressure of a pipeline with unequal wall thickness was not influenced by the wall thickness ratio and taper angle.

  7. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziukynas, V.; Klementavičius, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011) and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023).

  8. Short-Term Forecasting of Loads and Wind Power for Latvian Power System: Accuracy and Capacity of the Developed Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziukynas V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the performance results of the recently developed short-term forecasting suit for the Latvian power system. The system load and wind power are forecasted using ANN and ARIMA models, respectively, and the forecasting accuracy is evaluated in terms of errors, mean absolute errors and mean absolute percentage errors. The investigation of influence of additional input variables on load forecasting errors is performed. The interplay of hourly loads and wind power forecasting errors is also evaluated for the Latvian power system with historical loads (the year 2011 and planned wind power capacities (the year 2023.

  9. EFFECTS OF SODIUM PHOSPHATE LOADING ON AEROBIC POWER AND CAPACITY IN OFF ROAD CYCLISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Woska

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of short- term (6 days phosphate loading, as well as prolonged (21 days intake of sodium phosphate on aerobic capacity in off-road cyclists. Nineteen well-trained cyclists were randomly divided into a supplemental (S and control group (C. Group S was supplemented for 6 days with tri-sodium phosphate, in a dose of 50 mg·kg-1 of FFM/d, while a placebo was provided for the C group. Additionally, group S was further subjected to a 3-week supplementation of 25 mg·kg-1 FFM/d, while group C received 2g of glucose. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05 increase in VO2max, VEmax, and O2/HR, due to sodium phosphate intake over 6 days. Also a significant (p < 0.05 decrease in HRrest and HRmax occurred. The supplementation procedure caused a significant increase (p < 0.05 in Pmax and a shift of VAT towards higher loads. There were no significant changes in the concentration of 2,3-DPG, acid-base balance and lactate concentration, due to phosphate salt intake

  10. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg−1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo (p = 0.0142, was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.

  11. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Zawieja, Emilia Ewa; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zawieja, Bogna Ewa; Michałowska, Patrycja; Łoniewski, Igor; Jeszka, Jan

    2018-05-30

    Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB) use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg -1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo ( p = 0.0142), was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.

  12. Numerical Modelling and Analysis of Hydrostatic Thrust Air Bearings for High Loading Capacities and Low Air Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yunluo; Pu, Guang; Jiang, Kyle

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a numerical simulation study on hydrostatic thrust air bearings to assess the load capacity, compressed air consumptions, and the dynamic response. Finite Difference Method (FDM) and Finite Volume Method (FVM) are combined to solve the non-linear Reynolds equation to find the pressure distribution of the air bearing gas film and the total loading capacity of the bearing. The influence of design parameters on air film gap characteristics, including the air film thickness, supplied pressure, depth of the groove and external load, are investigated based on the proposed FDM model. The simulation results show that the thrust air bearings with a groove have a higher load capacity and air consumption than without a groove, and the load capacity and air consumption both increase with the depth of the groove. Bearings without the groove are better damped than those with the grooves, and the stability of thrust bearing decreases when the groove depth increases. The stability of the thrust bearings is also affected by their loading.

  13. Direct FEM-computation of load carrying capacity of highly loaded passive components; Direkte FEM - Berechnung der Tragfaehigkeit hochbeanspruchter passiver Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staat, M; Heitzer, M [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung und Reaktortechnik

    1998-11-01

    Detailed, inelastic FEM analyses yield accurate information about the stresses and deformations in passive components. The local loading conditions, however, cannot be directly compared with a limit load in terms of structural mechanics. Concentration on the load carrying capacity is an approach simplifying the analysis. Based on the plasticity theory, limit and shakedown analyses calculate the load carrying capacities directly and exactly. The paper explains the implementation of the limit and shakedown data sets in a general FEM program and the direct calculation of the load carrying capacities of passive components. The concepts used are explained with respect to common structural analysis. Examples assuming high local stresses illustrate the application of FEM-based limit and shakedown analyses. The calculated interaction diagrams present a good insight into the applicable operational loads of individual passive components. The load carrying analysis also opens up a structure mechanics-based approach to assessing the load-to-collapse of cracked components made of highly ductile fracture-resistant material. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Genaue Kenntnis der Spannungen und Verformungen in passiven Komponenten gewinnt man mit detailierten inelastischen FEM Analysen. Die lokale Beanspruchung laesst sich aber nicht direkt mit einer Beanspruchbarkeit im strukturmechanischen Sinne vergleichen. Konzentriert man sich auf die Frage nach der Tragfaehigkeit, dann vereinfacht sich die Analyse. Im Rahmen der Plastizitaetstheorie berechnen Traglast- und Einspielanalyse die tragbaren Lasten direkt und exakt. In diesem Beitrag wird eine Implementierung der Traglast- und Einspielsaetze in ein allgemeines FEM Programm vorgestellt, mit der die Tragfaehigkeit passiver Komponenten direkt berechnet wird. Die benutzten Konzepte werden in Bezug auf die uebliche Strukturanalyse erlaeutert. Beispiele mit lokal hoher Beanspruchung verdeutlichen die Anwendung der FEM basierten Traglast- und

  14. Bonded Joints with “Nano-Stitches”: Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Load Capacity and Failure Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique N. P. Oliva

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotubes were employed as adhesive reinforcement/nano-stitches to aluminum bonded joints. The CNT addition to an epoxy adhesive not only lead to an increase on load capacity but it is also the most probable cause of the mixed failure mode (adhesive/cohesive. The damage evolution was described as the stiffness decrease and the failure mixed modes were related to the load capacity. Although the presence of CNT cluster were observed, in small concentrations (< 1.0 wt. %, these clusters acted as crack stoppers and lead to an increase on lap joint shear strength. The addition of 2.0 wt. % carbon nanotubes lead to an increase on load capacity of approximately 116.2 % when the results were compared against the single lap joints without carbon nanotubes.

  15. Mathematical solution of the stone column effect on the load bearing capacity and settlement using numerical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madun, A.; Meghzili, S. A.; Tajudin, SAA; Yusof, M. F.; Zainalabidin, M. H.; Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Dan, M. F. Md; Ismail, M. A. M.

    2018-04-01

    The most important application of various geotechnical construction techniques is for ground improvement. Many soil improvement project had been developed due to the ongoing increase in urban and industrial growth and the need for greater access to lands. Stone columns are one of the best effective and feasible techniques for soft clay soil improvement. Stone columns increase the bearing capacity and reduce the settlement of soil. Finite element analyses were performed using the program PLAXIS 2D. An elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive relation, based on the Mohr–Coulomb criterion, governs the soft clay and stone column behaviour. This paper presents on how the response surface methodology (RSM) software is used to optimize the effect of the diameters and lengths of column on the load bearing capacity and settlement of soft clay. Load tests through the numerical modelling using Plaxis 2D were carried out on the loading plate at 66 mm. Stone column load bearing capacity increases with the increasing diameter of the column and settlement decreases with the increasing length of the column. Results revealed that the bigger column diameter, the higher load bearing capacity of soil while the longer column length, the lower settlement of soil. However, the optimum design of stone column was varied with each factor (diameter and length) separately for improvement.

  16. The Effect of Pre-Stressing on the Static Indentation Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2013-01-01

    Superelastic nickel-titanium alloys, such as 60NiTi (60Ni-40Ti by wt.%), are under development for use in mechanical components like rolling element bearings and gears. Compared to traditional bearing steels, these intermetallic alloys, when properly heat-treated, are hard but exhibit much lower elastic modulus (approx.100 GPa) and a much broader elastic deformation range (approx.3 percent or more). These material characteristics lead to high indentation static load capacity, which is important for certain applications especially space mechanisms. To ensure the maximum degree of elastic behavior, superelastic materials must be pre-stressed, a process referred to as "training" in shape memory effect (SME) terminology, at loads and stresses beyond expected use conditions. In this paper, static indentation load capacity tests are employed to assess the effects of pre-stressing on elastic response behavior of 60NiTi. The static load capacity is measured by pressing 12.7 mm diameter ceramic Si3N4 balls into highly polished, hardened 60NiTi flat plates that have previously been exposed to varying levels of pre-stress (up to 2.7 GPa) to determine the load that results in shallow but measurable (0.6 m, 25 in. deep) permanent dents. Hertz stress calculations are used to estimate contact stress. Without exposure to pre-stress, the 60NiTi surface can withstand an approximately 3400 kN load before significant denting (>0.4 m deep) occurs. When pre-stressed to 2.7 GPa, a static load of 4900 kN is required to achieve a comparable dent, a 30 percent increase. These results suggest that stressing contact surfaces prior to use enhances the static indentation load capacity of the superelastic 60NiTi. This approach may be adaptable to the engineering and manufacture of highly resilient mechanical components such as rolling element bearings.

  17. Study of the effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber HEPA filters has been studied. At humidifies above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the HEPA filter increased non-linearly with the areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance, K 2 , has been computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K. was found to decrease with increasing humidity for the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and the hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K 2 for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) is derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor

  18. Effect of humidity and particle hygroscopicity on the mass loading capacity of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Biswas, P.; Monson, P.R.; Novick, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity, and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber high efficiency particulate air filters was studied. Above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the filter increased nonlinearly with areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of a NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or nonhygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance K 2 was computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K 2 was found to decrease with increasing humidity for nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and for hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K 2 for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) was derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the nonhygroscopic aluminum oxide, the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor. 17 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Physical demands in competitive ultimate frisbee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate...... = 0.74, p ≤ 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance....

  20. Model for determining the load or carrying capacity of rivers and riverbanks for recreational use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to determine the load or functional carrying capacity for the assimilation and recovery of rivers and riverbanks by compiling information on the environment, and to assess the potential for recreation from the environmental and scenic point of view. We set out to find the most significant basis for analysing the pressures limiting carrying capacity and constraining the demand for recreational use. This methodology will help planners and legislators in their decision-making. We also propose a methodology for assessing the recreational use of riverbanks, tested in a number of sites in the Madrid Region, in terms of the satisfaction the activity produces in the users, and the load or carrying capacity of the surrounding environment. A pilot site assessment is presented as a validation of the proposed methodology.El objetivo de este artículo es, determinar la capacidad de carga o acogida funcional, de asimilación y de recuperación de los márgenes y los cursos fluviales mediante la recopilación de información del medio; el potencial recreativo se evalúa además desde un doble punto de vista: ecológico y paisajístico. La forma en que se enfoca el problema y se presenta la metodología y los resultados puede resultar de gran utilidad para planificadores y legisladores. La metodología propuesta para valorar el uso recreativo de los márgenes fluviales, se aplica a una serie de parcelas en la Comunidad de Madrid, teniendo en cuenta la satisfacción que la actividad produce en los usuarios, y la capacidad de carga o acogida del entorno en el que se desarrollan. Como resultado, se presenta la valoración de parcelas piloto, que servirían para validar la metodología propuesta. [fr] Le but de cet article est, déterminer la capacité de charge ou réception fonctionnelle, l’assimilation et rétablissement des marges et les cours de la rivière par le biais de la collecte d’informations de l’environnement: le

  1. A Study on Load Carrying Capacity of Fly Ash Based Polymer Concrete Columns Strengthened Using Double Layer GFRP Wrapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nagan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitability of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP sheets in strengthening of fly ash based polymer members under compression. Experimental results revealed that load carrying capacity of the confined columns increases with GFRP sheets wrapping. Altogether 18 specimens of M30 and G30 grade short columns were fabricated. The G30 specimens were prepared separately in 8 molarity and 12 molarity of sodium hydroxide concentration. Twelve specimens for low calcium fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and six specimens of ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were cast. Three specimens from each molarity fly ash based reinforced polymer concrete and ordinary Portland cement reinforced concrete were wrapped with double layer of GFRP sheets. The load carrying capacity of fly ash based polymer concrete was tested and compared with control specimens. The results show increase in load carrying capacity and ductility index for all strengthened elements. The maximum increase in load carrying capacity was 68.53% and is observed in strengthened G30 specimens.

  2. A dynamic capacity degradation model and its applications considering varying load for a large format Li-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Feng, Xuning; Han, Xuebing; Lu, Languang; Li, Zhe; He, Xiangming

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A dynamic capacity degradation model for large format Li-ion battery is proposed. • The change of the model parameters directly link with the degradation mechanisms. • The model can simulate the fading behavior of Li-ion battery under varying loads. • The model can help evaluate the longevity of a battery system under specific load. • The model can help predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack. - Abstract: The capacity degradation of the lithium ion battery should be well predicted during battery system design. Therefore, high-fidelity capacity degradation models that are suitable for the task of capacity prediction are required. This paper proposes a novel capacity degradation model that can simulate the degradation dynamics under varying working conditions for large-format lithium ion batteries. The degradation model is built based on a mechanistic and prognostic model (MPM) whose parameters are closely linked with the degradation mechanisms of lithium ion batteries. Chemical kinetics was set to drive the parameters of the MPM to change as capacity degradation continues. With the dynamic parameters of the MPM, the capacity predicted by the degradation model decreases as the cycle continues. Accelerated aging tests were conducted on three types of commercial lithium ion batteries to calibrate the capacity degradation model. The good fit with the experimental data indicates that the model can capture the degradation mechanisms well for different types of commercial lithium ion batteries. Furthermore, the calibrated model can be used to (1) evaluate the longevity of a battery system under a specific working load and (2) predict the evolution of cell variations within a battery pack when different cell works at different conditions. Correlated applications are discussed using the calibrated degradation model.

  3. Analysis of Load-Carrying Capacity for Redundant Free-Floating Space Manipulators in Trajectory Tracking Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingxuan Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze load-carrying capacity of redundant free-floating space manipulators (FFSM in trajectory tracking task. Combined with the analysis of influential factors in load-carrying process, evaluation of maximum load-carrying capacity (MLCC is described as multiconstrained nonlinear programming problem. An efficient algorithm based on repeated line search within discontinuous feasible region is presented to determine MLCC for a given trajectory of the end-effector and corresponding joint path. Then, considering the influence of MLCC caused by different initial configurations for the starting point of given trajectory, a kind of maximum payload initial configuration planning method is proposed by using PSO algorithm. Simulations are performed for a particular trajectory tracking task of the 7-DOF space manipulator, of which MLCC is evaluated quantitatively. By in-depth research of the simulation results, significant gap between the values of MLCC when using different initial configurations is analyzed, and the discontinuity of allowable load-carrying capacity is illustrated. The proposed analytical method can be taken as theoretical foundation of feasibility analysis, trajectory optimization, and optimal control of trajectory tracking task in on-orbit load-carrying operations.

  4. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  5. An electrical betweenness approach for vulnerability assessment of power grids considering the capacity of generators and load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Zhang, Bu-han; Zhang, Zhe; Yin, Xiang-gen; Wang, Bo

    2011-11-01

    Most existing research on the vulnerability of power grids based on complex networks ignores the electrical characteristics and the capacity of generators and load. In this paper, the electrical betweenness is defined by considering the maximal demand of load and the capacity of generators in power grids. The loss of load, which reflects the ability of power grids to provide sufficient power to customers, is introduced to measure the vulnerability together with the size of the largest cluster. The simulation results of the IEEE-118 bus system and the Central China Power Grid show that the cumulative distributions of node electrical betweenness follow a power-law and that the nodes with high electrical betweenness play critical roles in both topological structure and power transmission of power grids. The results prove that the model proposed in this paper is effective for analyzing the vulnerability of power grids.

  6. Effects of reducing temperatures on the hydrogen storage capacity of double-walled carbon nanotubes with Pd loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qu; Wu, Huimin; Wexler, David; Liu, Huakun

    2014-06-01

    The effects of different temperatures on the hydrogen sorption characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with palladium loading have been investigated. When we use different temperatures, the particle sizes and specific surface areas of the samples are different, which affects the hydrogen storage capacity of the DWCNTs. In this work, the amount of hydrogen storage capacity was determined (by AMC Gas Reactor Controller) to be 1.70, 1.85, 2.00, and 1.93 wt% for pristine DWCNTS and for 2%Pd/DWCNTs-300 degrees C, 2%Pd/DWCNTs-400 degrees C, and 2%Pd/DWCNTs-500 degrees C, respectively. We found that the hydrogen storage capacity can be enhanced by loading with 2% Pd nanoparticles and selecting a suitable temperature. Furthermore, the sorption can be attributed to the chemical reaction between atomic hydrogen and the dangling bonds of the DWCNTs.

  7. Influence of different outdoor design conditions on design cooling load and design capacities of air conditioning equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktacir, Mehmet Azmi; Bueyuekalaca, Orhan; Bulut, Huesamettin; Yilmaz, Tuncay

    2008-01-01

    Outdoor design conditions are important parameters for energy efficiency of buildings. The result of incorrect selection of outdoor design conditions can be dramatic in view of comfort and energy consumption. In this study, the influence of different outdoor design conditions on air conditioning systems is investigated. For this purpose, cooling loads and capacities of air conditioning equipments for a sample building located in Adana, Turkey are calculated using different outdoor design conditions recommended by ASHRAE, the current design data used in Turkey and the daily maximum dry and wet bulb temperatures of July 21st, which is generally accepted as the design day. The cooling coil capacities obtained from the different outdoor design conditions considered in this study are compared with each other. The cost analysis of air conditioning systems is also performed. It is seen that the selection of outdoor design conditions is a very critical step in calculation of the building cooling loads and design capacities of air conditioning equipments

  8. Focusing on attention: the effects of working memory capacity and load on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lubna; de Fockert, Jan W

    2012-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low) concurrent working memory load (WML), and in individuals with low (vs. high) working memory capacity (WMC). In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. In Experiment 1, distractibility from a distractor at a fixed distance from the target was greater when either WML was high or WMC was low, but surprisingly smaller when both WML was high and WMC low. Thus we observed an inverted-U relationship between reductions in WM resources and distractibility. In Experiment 2, we mapped the distribution of spatial attention as a function of WMC and WML, by recording distractibility across several target-to-distractor distances. The pattern of distractor effects across the target-to-distractor distances demonstrated that the distribution of the attentional window becomes dispersed as WM resources are limited. The attentional window was more spread out under high compared to low WML, and for low compared to high WMC individuals, and even more so when the two factors co-occurred (i.e., under high WML in low WMC individuals). The inverted-U pattern of distractibility effects in Experiment 1, replicated in Experiment 2, can thus be explained by differences in the spread of the attentional window as a function of WM resource availability. The current findings show that limitations in WM resources, due to either WML or individual differences in WMC, affect the spatial distribution of attention. The difference in attentional constraining between high and low WMC individuals demonstrated in the current experiments helps characterise the nature of previously established associations between WMC and controlled attention.

  9. Focusing on attention: the effects of working memory capacity and load on selective attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna Ahmed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Working memory (WM is imperative for effective selective attention. Distractibility is greater under conditions of high (vs. low concurrent working memory load (WML, and in individuals with low (vs. high working memory capacity (WMC. In the current experiments, we recorded the flanker task performance of individuals with high and low WMC during low and high WML, to investigate the combined effect of WML and WMC on selective attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, distractibility from a distractor at a fixed distance from the target was greater when either WML was high or WMC was low, but surprisingly smaller when both WML was high and WMC low. Thus we observed an inverted-U relationship between reductions in WM resources and distractibility. In Experiment 2, we mapped the distribution of spatial attention as a function of WMC and WML, by recording distractibility across several target-to-distractor distances. The pattern of distractor effects across the target-to-distractor distances demonstrated that the distribution of the attentional window becomes dispersed as WM resources are limited. The attentional window was more spread out under high compared to low WML, and for low compared to high WMC individuals, and even more so when the two factors co-occurred (i.e., under high WML in low WMC individuals. The inverted-U pattern of distractibility effects in Experiment 1, replicated in Experiment 2, can thus be explained by differences in the spread of the attentional window as a function of WM resource availability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current findings show that limitations in WM resources, due to either WML or individual differences in WMC, affect the spatial distribution of attention. The difference in attentional constraining between high and low WMC individuals demonstrated in the current experiments helps characterise the nature of previously established associations between WMC and controlled

  10. A pollutant load hierarchical allocation method integrated in an environmental capacity management system for Zhushan Bay, Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shidong; Jia, Haifeng; Yang, Cong; Melching, Charles; Yuan, Yongping

    2015-11-15

    An environmental capacity management (ECM) system was developed to help practically implement a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for a key bay in a highly eutrophic lake in China. The ECM system consists of a simulation platform for pollutant load calculation and a pollutant load hierarchical allocation (PLHA) system. The simulation platform was developed by linking the Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) and Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP). In the PLHA, pollutant loads were allocated top-down in several levels based on characteristics of the pollutant sources. Different allocation methods could be used for the different levels with the advantages of each method combined over the entire allocation. Zhushan Bay of Taihu Lake, one of the most eutrophic lakes in China, was selected as a case study. The allowable loads of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, and chemical oxygen demand were found to be 2122.2, 94.9, 1230.4, and 5260.0 t·yr(-1), respectively. The PLHA for the case study consists of 5 levels. At level 0, loads are allocated to those from the lakeshore direct drainage, atmospheric deposition, internal release, and tributary inflows. At level 1 the loads allocated to tributary inflows are allocated to the 3 tributaries. At level 2, the loads allocated to one inflow tributary are allocated to upstream areas and local sources along the tributary. At level 3, the loads allocated to local sources are allocated to the point and non-point sources from different towns. At level 4, the loads allocated to non-point sources in each town are allocated to different villages. Compared with traditional forms of pollutant load allocation methods, PLHA can combine the advantages of different methods which put different priority weights on equity and efficiency, and the PLHA is easy to understand for stakeholders and more flexible to adjust when applied in practical cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Ultimate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterp......One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However......, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming...... living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound...

  12. Approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongfang; Wu, Peng; Guo, Bo; Lü, Yanjun; Liu, Fuxi; Yu, Yingtian

    2015-01-01

    The instability of the rotor dynamic system supported by oil journal bearing is encountered frequently, such as the half-speed whirl of the rotor, which is caused by oil film lubricant with nonlinearity. Currently, more attention is paid to the physical characteristics of oil film due to an oil-lubricated journal bearing being the important supporting component of the bearing-rotor systems and its nonlinear nature. In order to analyze the lubrication characteristics of journal bearings efficiently and save computational efforts, an approximate solution of nonlinear oil film forces of a finite length turbulent journal bearing with couple stress flow is proposed based on Sommerfeld and Ocvirk numbers. Reynolds equation in lubrication of a finite length turbulent journal bearing is solved based on multi-parametric principle. Load-carrying capacity of nonlinear oil film is obtained, and the results obtained by different methods are compared. The validation of the proposed method is verified, meanwhile, the relationships of load-carrying capacity versus eccentricity ratio and width-to-diameter ratio under turbulent and couple stress working conditions are analyzed. The numerical results show that both couple stress flow and eccentricity ratio have obvious influence on oil film pressure distribution, and the proposed method approximates the load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings efficiently with various width-to-diameter ratios. This research proposes an approximate solution of oil film load-carrying capacity of turbulent journal bearings with different width-to-diameter ratios, which are suitable for high eccentricity ratios and heavy loads.

  13. Numerical Evaluation on the Different Shapes of Gravelly Sand Columns to Increase the Loading Capacity of Soft Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghzili Sif Allah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on soft clay by the installation of stone column is one of the most popular methods followed worldwide. Different analytical and numerical solutions have already been developed for understanding the load transfer mechanism of soft soil reinforced with stone column. This study investigated a bearing capacity of the gravelly sand column, installed in soft clay bed at 15kpa of undrained shear strength. The column variable of length and diameter ratio at 7, 8 and 9 were evaluated. On top of that, the combination of two diameters in single column was tested and the uniform diameter was used as a control. In the numerical analysis, Mohrcoulomb model was adopted in the idealization of the behaviour of the gravelly sand column and soft clay materials. The results revealed that the optimum design that gave the highest loading capacity of the combination 11=12 of column diameter was the length and diameter ratio of 8.

  14. Classic debates in selective attention: early vs late, perceptual load vs dilution, mean RT vs measures of capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael D; Crisostomo, Marisa; Khericha, Alifiya; Russo, Francis; Thorne, Gary L

    2012-01-01

    We briefly summarize two important debates regarding selective attention (early vs late selection; perceptual load vs distractor dilution). Also, we report the results of an attempt to replicate Lavie (1995, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 21 451-468). We suggest that measures capable of characterizing the capacity of information processing systems (compared to reporting only mean reaction time) could add great clarity to this literature.

  15. Effect of interface condition on the undrained capacity of subsea mudmats under six-degree-of-freedom loading

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Z.; Feng, X.; Gourvenec, S.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of soil–foundation interface condition on the undrained capacity of rectangular mudmat foundations under loading in six degrees of freedom is investigated. Undrained failure envelopes for mudmats with zero-tension interface have been derived from finite-element analyses, and compared with the solutions from traditional methods and established for an unlimited-tension interface condition. The zero-tension interface has minimal effect on failure envelopes in the absence of moment, bu...

  16. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  17. The Load-Bearing Capacity of Timber-Glass Composite I-Beams Made with Polyurethane Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodacki, Konrad

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the issue of composite timber-glass I-beams, which are an interesting alternative for load-bearing beams of ceilings and roofs. The reasoning behind the use of timber-glass I-beams is the combination of the best features of both materials - this enables the creation of particularly safe beams with regard to structural stability and post-breakage load capacity. Due to the significant differences between the bonding surfaces of timber and glass, a study on the adhesion of various adhesives to both surfaces is presented at the beginning of the paper. After examination, two adhesives were selected for offering the best performance when used with composite beams. The beams were investigated using a four-point bending test under quasi-static loading.

  18. Load-Bearing Capacity and Retention of Newly Developed Micro-Locking Implant Prosthetic System: An In Vitro Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to introduce the newly developed micro-locking implant prosthetic system and to evaluate the resulting its characteristics. To evaluate load-bearing capacity, 25 implants were divided into five groups: external-hexagon connection (EH, internal-octagon connection (IO, internal-hexagon connection (IH, one-body implant (OB, micro-locking implant system (ML. The maximum compressive load was measured using a universal testing machine (UTM according to the ISO 14801. Retention was evaluated in two experiments: (1 a tensile test of the structure modifications of the components (attachment and implant and (2 a tensile test after cyclic loading (total 5,000,000 cycles, 100 N, 2 Hz. The load-bearing capacity of the ML group was not significantly different from the other groups (p > 0.05. The number of balls in the attachment and the presence of a hexagonal receptacle did not show a significant correlation with retention (p > 0.05, but the shape of the retentive groove in the implant post had a statistically significant effect on retention (p < 0.05. On the other hand, the retention loss was observed during the initial 1,000,000 cycles, but an overall constant retention was maintained afterward. Various preclinical studies on this novel micro-locking implant prosthetic system should continue so that it can be applied in clinical practice.

  19. Optimal Planning Method of On-load Capacity Regulating Distribution Transformers in Urban Distribution Networks after Electric Energy Replacement Considering Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Su

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Electric energy replacement is the umbrella term for the use of electric energy to replace oil (e.g., electric automobiles, coal (e.g., electric heating, and gas (e.g., electric cooking appliances, which increases the electrical load peak, causing greater valley/peak differences. On-load capacity regulating distribution transformers have been used to deal with loads with great valley/peak differences, so reasonably replacing conventional distribution transformers with on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers can effectively cope with load changes after electric energy replacement and reduce the no-load losses of distribution transformers. Before planning for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers, the nodal effective load considering uncertainties within the life cycle after electric energy replacement was obtained by a Monte Carlo method. Then, according to the loss relation between on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers and conventional distribution transformers, three characteristic indexes of annual continuous apparent power curve and replacement criteria for on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers were put forward in this paper, and a set of distribution transformer replaceable points was obtained. Next, based on cost benefit analysis, a planning model of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers which consists of investment profitability index within the life cycle, investment cost recouping index and capacity regulating cost index was put forward. The branch and bound method was used to solve the planning model within replaceable point set to obtain upgrading and reconstruction scheme of distribution transformers under a certain investment. Finally, planning analysis of on-load capacity regulating distribution transformers was carried out for electric energy replacement points in one urban distribution network under three scenes: certain load, uncertain load and nodal

  20. Simple Evaluation of Load-Carrying Capacity of Multi-Span Folding Bridges based on Floating Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marszałek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The papers covers simple evaluation of load-carrying capacity of multi-span folding bridges based on floating supports. Combined bridges built in this approach, could be used as a temporary crossing. The methodology of this evaluation is shown graphically on the basis of designed nomograms for two existing bridge structures i.e. MS-54 and DMS-65, mounted on rigid and floating supports. These nomograms facilitate the simple and fast determination of the impact of changing fixed support into floating support with different bridge length spans on the carrying capacity of the bridge. The paper also presents the influence of long-term use (enlarging the mounting backlash in the joints of these structures on the carrying capacity of the bridge.[b]Keywords[/b]: building, folding bridges, nomograms, assembly clearances

  1. Study of Flexible Load Dispatch to Improve the Capacity of Wind Power Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunlei, Yang; Shifeng, Zhang; Xiao, Chang; Da, Lei; Min, Zhang; Jinhao, Wang; Shengwen, Li; Huipeng, Li

    2017-05-01

    The dispatch method which track the trend of load demand by arranging the generation scheme of controllable hydro or thermal units faces great difficulties and challenges. With the increase of renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic power introduced to grid, system has to arrange much more spinning reserve units to compensate the unbalanced power. How to exploit the peak-shaving potential of flexible load which can be shifted with time or storage energy has become many scholars’ research direction. However, the modelling of different kinds of load and control strategy is considerably difficult, this paper choose the Air Conditioner with compressor which can storage energy in fact to study. The equivalent thermal parameters of Air Conditioner has been established. And with the use of “loop control” strategies, we can predict the regulated power of Air Conditioner. Then we established the Gen-Load optimal scheduling model including flexible load based on traditional optimal scheduling model. At last, an improved IEEE-30 case is used to verify. The result of simulation shows that flexible load can fast-track renewable power changes. More than that, with flexible load and reasonable incentive method to consumers, the operating cost of the system can be greatly cut down.

  2. PLUTONIUM LOADING CAPACITY OF REILLEX HPQ ANION EXCHANGE COLUMN - AFS-2 PLUTONIUM FLOWSHEET FOR MOX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; King, W.; O' Rourke, P.

    2012-07-26

    Radioactive plutonium (Pu) anion exchange column experiments using scaled HB-Line designs were performed to investigate the dependence of column loading performance on the feed composition in the H-Canyon dissolution process for plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) product shipped to the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). These loading experiments show that a representative feed solution containing {approx}5 g Pu/L can be loaded onto Reillex{trademark} HPQ resin from solutions containing 8 M total nitrate and 0.1 M KF provided that the F is complexed with Al to an [Al]/[F] molar ratio range of 1.5-2.0. Lower concentrations of total nitrate and [Al]/[F] molar ratios may still have acceptable performance but were not tested in this study. Loading and washing Pu losses should be relatively low (<1%) for resin loading of up to 60 g Pu/L. Loading above 60 g Pu/L resin is possible, but Pu wash losses will increase such that 10-20% of the additional Pu fed may not be retained by the resin as the resin loading approaches 80 g Pu/L resin.

  3. Evaluating Moisture Control of Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps in Mechanically Ventilated, Low-Load Homes in Climate Zone 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Martin, Chuck Withers, Janet McIlvaine, Dave Chasar, and David Beal

    2018-03-29

    Low-load homes can present a challenge when selecting appropriate space-conditioning equipment. Conventional, fixed-capacity heating and cooling equipment is often oversized for small homes, causing increased first costs and operating costs. This report evaluates the performance of variable-capacity comfort systems, with a focus on inverter-driven, variable-capacity systems, as well as proposed system enhancements.

  4. Parametric Study on Ultimate Failure Criteria of Elbow Piping Components in Seismically Isolated NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Ki, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is well known that the interface pipes between isolated and non-isolated structures will become the most critical in the seismically isolated NPPs. Therefore, seismic performance of such interface pipes should be evaluated comprehensively especially in terms of the seismic fragility capacity. To evaluate the seismic capacity of interface pipes in the isolated NPP, firstly, we should define the failure mode and failure criteria of critical pipe components. Hence, in this study, we performed the dynamic tests of elbow components which were installed in a seismically isolated NPP, and evaluated the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria by using the test results. To do this, we manufactured 25 critical elbow component specimens and performed cyclic loading tests under the internal pressure condition. The failure mode and failure criteria of a pipe component will be varied by the design parameters such as the internal pressure, pipe diameter, loading type, and loading amplitude. From the tests, we assessed the effects of the variation parameters onto the failure criteria. For the tests, we generated the seismic input protocol of relative displacement between the ends of elbow component. In this paper, elbow in piping system was defined as a fragile element and numerical model was updated by component test. Failure mode of piping component under seismic load was defined by the dynamic tests of ultimate pipe capacity. For the interface piping system, the seismic capacity should be carefully estimated since that the required displacement absorption capacity will be increased significantly by the adoption of the seismic isolation system. In this study, the dynamic tests were performed for the elbow components which were installed in an actual NPPs, and the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria were also evaluated by using the test results.

  5. Continuously Growing Ultrathick CrN Coating to Achieve High Load-Bearing Capacity and Good Tribological Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zechao; Wang, Yongxin; Cheng, Xiaoying; Zeng, Zhixiang; Li, Jinlong; Lu, Xia; Wang, Liping; Xue, Qunji

    2018-01-24

    Continuous growth of traditional monolayer CrN coatings up to 24 h is successfully achieved to fabricate ultrathickness of up to 80 μm on the 316 stainless steel substrate using a multiarc ion plating technique. The microstructures, mechanical properties, and tribological properties evolution with the CrN coating continuously growing was evaluated in detail. The transmission electron microscopy observations and inverse Fourier-filtered images reveal a relaxation mechanism during the continuous growth of CrN coating, which can lead to a decrease in the residual stress when coating growth time exceeds 5 h. The scratch test and friction test results both show that the load-bearing capacity of coating is significantly increased as CrN coatings growing thicker. During the scratch test, the ultrathick CrN coating of thickness 80.6 μm is not failed under the load of 180 N, and the dominant failure mechanism is the cohesive failure including wedge spallation and cracking. The dry-sliding friction test results show the mean coefficient of friction and the wear rate of ultrathick CrN are respectively decreased by 17.2 and 56.8% at most compared with the thin coating (thickness is 5.4 μm). The ultrahigh load-bearing capacity and excellent tribological property are attributed to the relaxation mechanism and limited contact pressure as the coating grows continuously.

  6. Aggregate Effect on the Concrete Cone Capacity of an Undercut Anchor under Quasi-Static Tensile Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcon, Marco; Ninčević, Krešimir; Boumakis, Ioannis; Czernuschka, Lisa-Marie; Wan-Wendner, Roman

    2018-05-01

    In the last decades, fastening systems have become an essential part of the construction industry. Post-installed mechanical anchors are frequently used in concrete members to connect them with other load bearing structural members, or to attach appliances. Their performance is limited by the concrete related failure modes which are highly influenced by the concrete mix design. This paper aims at investigating the effect that different aggregates used in the concrete mix have on the capacity of an undercut anchor under tensile quasi-static loading. Three concrete batches were cast utilising three different aggregate types. For two concrete ages (28 and 70 days), anchor tensile capacity and concrete properties were obtained. Concrete compressive strength, fracture energy and elastic modulus are used to normalize and compare the undercut anchor concrete tensile capacity employing some of the most widely used prediction models. For a more insightful comparison, a statistical method that yields also scatter information is introduced. Finally, the height and shape of the concrete cones are compared by highly precise and objective photogrammetric means.

  7. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  8. Load Carriage Capacity of the Dismounted Combatant - A Commanders’ Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Brigadier Colin Kahn, DSO, former CO of the 5 RAR Dawn Service Address, 1987 detailing mental images that summed up Vietnam quoted in...men and women. Journal of Applied Physiology 76 (3) March 1, 1994 1247-1255 Stuempfle, K. J., Drury , D. G. and Wilson, A. L. (2004) Effect of load

  9. Use of pile driving analysis for assessment of axial load capacity of piles : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic response of a pile during driving is very : complex, involving the interactions of the hammer, cushion, : pile and soil during application of an impact load. : The first analysis aimed at simulating a hammer blow on : a pile was published...

  10. Lateral capacity of rock sockets in limestone under cyclic and repeated loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report contains the results from full scale lateral load testing of two short rock socketed shafts in : limestone, and the development of recommendations for p-y analysis using those results. Two short shafts 42 : inches in diameter were constru...

  11. Lateral capacity of rock sockets in limestone under cyclic and repeated loading : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Drilled shafts are a type of deep foundation that is capable of supporting very large vertical and lateral loads. Drilled shafts are constructed by drilling a hole from the ground surface to the target depth or formation and filling the hole with rei...

  12. Pareto-Optimal Evaluation of Ultimate Limit States in Offshore Wind Turbine Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Muskulus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate capacity of support structures is checked with extreme loads. This is straightforward when the limit state equations depend on a single load component, and it has become common to report maxima for each load component. However, if more than one load component is influential, e.g., both axial force and bending moments, it is not straightforward how to define an extreme load. The combination of univariate maxima can be too conservative, and many different combinations of load components can result in the worst value of the limit state equations. The use of contemporaneous load vectors is typically non-conservative. Therefore, in practice, limit state checks are done for each possible load vector, from each time step of a simulation. This is not feasible when performing reliability assessments and structural optimization, where additional, time-consuming computations are involved for each load vector. We therefore propose to use Pareto-optimal loads, which are a small set of loads that together represent all possible worst case scenarios. Simulations with two reference wind turbines show that this approach can be very useful for jacket structures, whereas the design of monopiles is often governed by the bending moment only. Even in this case, the approach might be useful when approaching the structural limits during optimization.

  13. Quantifying the increase in lateral capacity of monopiles in sand due to cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo; O'Loughlin, Conleth

    2017-01-01

    and centrifuge tests. The agreement between the model test data and the predictions is typically within 2%. Application of the method shows that the moment capacity of a monopile in dense sand, for the conditions tested here, is up to 36% higher after cycling. This contrasts with a 10% reduction that would...

  14. Impact of the thermal effect on the load-carrying capacity of a slipper pair for an aviation axial-piston pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng TANG

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A thermal hydraulic model based on the lumped parameter method is presented to analyze the load-carrying capacity of a slipper pair in an aviation axial-piston pump under specified operating conditions. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the thermal hydraulic model. The results illustrate that the squeezing force and thermal wedge bearing force are the main factors that affect the film thickness and load-carrying capacity. At high oil temperature and high load pressure, the film thickness decreases with increasing clamping force due to a combined action of the squeezing bearing force and the thermal wedge bearing force, but the load-carrying capacity will increase. An increase of the film thickness is proven to be beneficial under high shaft rotational speed but especially dangerous as it strongly increases the ripple amplitude of the film thickness, which leads to decreasing the load-carrying capacity. The structural parameters of the slipper can be optimized to achieve desired performance, such as the slipper radius ratio and orifice length diameter ratio. To satisfy the requirement of the load-carrying capacity, the slipper radius ratio should be selected from 1.4 to 1.8, and the orifice length diameter ratio should be selected from 4 to 5. Keywords: Aviation axial piston pump, Fluid lubrication, Load-carrying capacity, Slipper pair, Thermal effect

  15. Influence of time-dependent elastic-plastic material behaviour on the load-carrying capacity of shells of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The present report deals with the influence of time-dependent material behavior on the load-carrying capacity of thin-walled shells of revolution. In the first part various creep-hardening hypotheses as well as the spatial and temporal discretization procedures employed are described. The adaptation of a well-tested finite element method based on ring elements to the treatment of creep problems and several time-integration procedures, in particular the iterative treatment of the coupling between creep and elastic-plastic strains as well as the important aspect of time-step-control are discussed in detail. In the second part several typical shell configurations are analyzed and a comparison with available theoretical and experimental results is made. Finally, the time-dependent load-carrying behavior of torispherical pressure vessel ends subjected to internal and external pressure is investigated and design aids for the determination of creep collapse times are proposed. (orig.) [de

  16. Analysis of waste-load assimilative capacity of the Yampa River, Steamboat Springs to Hayden, Routt County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel P.; Steele, Timothy Doak; Anderson, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Yampa River from Steamboat Springs to Hayden, Colo., a distance of 38 miles, was made during September 1975 to obtain information on the effects of projected waste loadings on this stream reach. Simulations of effects of waste loadings on streamflow quality were made using a steady-state water-quality model. The simulations were based on 7-day low-flow values with a 10-year recurrence interval and population projections for 2010. Model results for December and September streamflow conditions indicated that the recommended 1978 Colorado and 1976 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality standard of 0.02 milligram per liter for nonionized ammonia concentration would be exceeded. Model simulations also included the effect of a flow augmentation of 20 cubic feet per second from a proposed upstream reservoir. The permissible ammonia loading in the study reach could be increased approximately 25 percent with this amount of flow augmentation. Simulations of concentrations of dissolved oxygen, fecal-coliform bacteria, and nitrate nitrogen indicated that the State 's water-quality goals proposed for 1978, 1983, or 1985 would not be exceeded. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF AGE HENS ON THE INTENSITY LOAD CAPACITY FROM DIFFERENT WEIGHT GROUPS EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Pandurević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of age of hens on the intensity of load from different weight groups eggs. This paper presents the correlation connection, meaning and significance of differences connection for two weight classes (M - 53 to 63g and L – 63g to 73g, which make up the largest part of the total number of eggs produced during the entire production cycle, as well as for all of the eggs produced, as compared to age-laying hens. Between age and intensity of load to 53 weeks of age hens (SN53/34, there is a strong positive, medium and slight correlation coefficients determined and phenotypic correlation are statistically confirmed at the level of P 0.05. Between the age of hens and intensity of load hardest groups (classes eggs (L there is a complete and very strong connections and established correlation coefficients were statistically significant at P <0.001.

  18. Load carrying capacity of keyed joints reinforced with high strength wire rope loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    friendly shear connection can be obtained by replacing the U-bars with high strength looped wire ropes. The wire ropes have the advantage of being flexible (they have virtually no bending stiffness) which makes installation of wall elements much easier. The looped wire ropes are usually pre-installed in so......-called wire boxes which are embedded in the precast wall elements. Once the joint is grouted with mortar, the boxes will function as shear keys and the overlapping wire loops will function as transverse reinforcement that replaces the U-bars. This paper presents a rigid-plastic upper bound model to determine...... the shear capacity of wire loop connections. Tests have shown that the shear capacity of such joints – due to the relatively high tensile strength of the wire ropes - is more prone to be governed by fracture of the joint mortar in combination with yielding of the locking bar. To model this type of failure...

  19. Buckling Capacity Curves for Steel Spherical Shells Loaded by the External Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błażejewski, Paweł; Marcinowski, Jakub

    2015-03-01

    Assessment of buckling resistance of pressurised spherical cap is not an easy task. There exist two different approaches which allow to achieve this goal. The first approach involves performing advanced numerical analyses in which material and geometrical nonlinearities would be taken into account as well as considering the worst imperfections of the defined amplitude. This kind of analysis is customarily called GMNIA and is carried out by means of the computer software based on FEM. The other, comparatively easier approach, relies on the utilisation of earlier prepared procedures which enable determination of the critical resistance pRcr, the plastic resistance pRpl and buckling parameters a, b, h, l 0 needed to the definition of the standard buckling resistance curve. The determination of the buckling capacity curve for the particular class of spherical caps is the principal goal of this work. The method of determination of the critical pressure and the plastic resistance were described by the authors in [1] whereas the worst imperfection mode for the considered class of spherical shells was found in [2]. The determination of buckling parameters defining the buckling capacity curve for the whole class of shells is more complicated task. For this reason the authors focused their attention on spherical steel caps with the radius to thickness ratio of R/t = 500, the semi angle j = 30o and the boundary condition BC2 (the clamped supporting edge). Taking into account all imperfection forms considered in [2] and different amplitudes expressed by the multiple of the shell thickness, sets of buckling parameters defining the capacity curve were determined. These parameters were determined by the methods proposed by Rotter in [3] and [4] where the method of determination of the exponent h by means of additional parameter k was presented. As a result of the performed analyses the standard capacity curves for all considered imperfection modes and amplitudes 0.5t, 1.0t, 1.5t

  20. Total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status in saliva of periodontitis patients in relation to bacterial load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taowen eZhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidant status (TOS in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response.

  1. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Status in Saliva of Periodontitis Patients in Relation to Bacterial Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taowen; Andrukhov, Oleh; Haririan, Hady; Müller-Kern, Michael; Liu, Shutai; Liu, Zhonghao; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    The detection of salivary biomarkers has a potential application in early diagnosis and monitoring of periodontal inflammation. However, searching sensitive salivary biomarkers for periodontitis is still ongoing. Oxidative stress is supposed to play an important role in periodontitis progression and tissue destruction. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) in saliva of periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls and their relationship with periodontopathic bacteria and periodontal disease severity. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 45 patients with generalized severe periodontitis and 37 healthy individuals and the TAC/TOS were measured. In addition, salivary levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Fusobacterium nucleatum in saliva were measured. Salivary TAC was lower in periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls. Moreover, a significant negative correlation of salivary TAC with clinical attachment loss was observed in periodontitis patients. No significant difference in the salivary TOS was observed between periodontitis patients and healthy controls. Bacterial load was enhanced in periodontitis patients and exhibited correlation with periodontal disease severity but not with salivary TAC/TOS. Our data suggest that changes in antioxidant capacity in periodontitis patients are not associated with increased bacterial load and are probably due to a dysregulated immune response. PMID:26779448

  2. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex GABA Concentration in Humans Predicts Working Memory Load Processing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H; Grandelis, Anthony; Maddock, Richard J

    2016-11-16

    The discovery of neural mechanisms of working memory (WM) would significantly enhance our understanding of complex human behaviors and guide treatment development for WM-related impairments found in neuropsychiatric conditions and aging. Although the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has long been considered critical for WM, we still know little about the neural elements and pathways within the DLPFC that support WM in humans. In this study, we tested whether an individual's DLPFC gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) content predicts individual differences in WM task performance using a novel behavioral approach. Twenty-three healthy adults completed a task that measured the unique contribution of major WM components (memory load, maintenance, and distraction resistance) to performance. This was done to address the possibility that components have differing GABA dependencies and the failure to parse WM into components would lead to missing true associations with GABA. The subjects then had their DLPFC GABA content measured by single-voxel proton magnetic spectroscopy. We found that individuals with lower DLPFC GABA showed greater performance degradation with higher load, accounting for 31% of variance, p (corrected) = 0.015. This relationship was component, neurochemical, and brain region specific. DLPFC GABA content did not predict performance sensitivity to other components tested; DLPFC glutamate + glutamine and visual cortical GABA content did not predict load sensitivity. These results confirm the involvement of DLPFC GABA in WM load processing in humans and implicate factors controlling DLPFC GABA content in the neural mechanisms of WM and its impairments. This study demonstrated for the first time that the amount of gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, in an individual's prefrontal cortex predicts working memory (WM) task performance. Given that WM is required for many of the most characteristic cognitive and

  3. Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    then in combina-tion with the ultimate limit state requirements leads to the specific constitutive relations. As a result finite element models based on shell elements incorporating a structural and a loading model are introduced and described in detail. Applying these models the ultimate capacity of the support...... on the basis of literature review and measurement data from a prototype Multibrid M5000 support structure. In combination with the developed structural and loading models, sensitivity analyses in regard to the responses are peiformed to enhance the understanding and to refine the developed models. To this end...... variables on the responses including nonlinearity the refinement of the model is performed on a quantitative basis....

  4. Experimental study on buckling and ultimate strength of thin-walled box stub columns; Usuniku hakogata danmen buzai no zakutsu / shukyoku kyodo tokusei ni kansuru jikkenteki kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, H.; Kitada, T. [Osaka City Univ. (Japan); Oryu, T. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1998-10-21

    Thin-walled box stub columns such as beams of cable-stayed bridge, suspension bridge tower, arch rib of arch bridge and steel piers and so forth can also bear torsion at the same time besides compression and bending. These thin-walled box stub columns may achieve ultimate condition before reaching to plastic condition due to the effect of local buckling and so forth. Accordingly, it is the important topic to study the properties regarding ultimate strength of thin-walled box members in order to evaluate correctly the effect on load bearing resistance of local buckling. In this report, validity of load bearing resistance curve and ultimate strength interaction curve proposed by authors was studied using load bearing capacity experiment results. As a result, all ultimate strengths obtained by the experiment were higher than the ultimate strengths estimated by load bearing capacity curve and ultimate strength interaction curve. Further, it was revealed that the specimens subjected to torsion or subjected to bending and torsion and so forth exceeded the plastic strength due to the effect of strain hardening. 12 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Trophic loading capacity of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, Zimmermann, 1780

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Martínez Revol

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was carried out in the Tibisí locality of the Minas de Matahambre Agroforestry Company, in 3 formations of pine forests and semideciduous forest, considering the characteristics of the arboreal and shrub layer, during the low rainy season (lower biomass production of November to April and from May to October (maximum biomass production. One of the bases for the proper management of O. virginianus is to determine the carrying capacity of the habitat, as well as the botanical composition of the diet of the species on which it feeds. The density and coverage of the tree species and the density of the shrub species were evaluated with the method of quadrants centered on a point, the coverage of the shrub species with the method of plots of 4 x 4 m and the production of biomass with the method of Adelaide. The biomass production of the species used by the deer in the low rainy season did not present a significant difference between vegetation types, according to the Tukey test (α = 0.05. However, for the rainy season a significant difference was found in the gallery forest with respect to the rest of the plant formations. For the rainy season (183 days the carrying capacity that the area can support is 4.3 deer x ha, feeding on vegetable groups (trees, shrubs and lianas, distributed in the four types of forests. During the less rainy season the available dry matter only tolerates 1.2 deer x ha.

  6. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. PMID:23222206

  7. Simulation of water environmental capacity and pollution load reduction using QUAL2K for water environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruibin; Qian, Xin; Yuan, Xingcheng; Ye, Rui; Xia, Bisheng; Wang, Yulei

    2012-12-07

    In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of COD(Cr) NH(3)-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH(3)-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  8. Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulei Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, water quality degradation associated with rapid socio-economic development in the Taihu Lake Basin, China, has attracted increasing attention from both the public and the Chinese government. The primary sources of pollution in Taihu Lake are its inflow rivers and their tributaries. Effective water environmental management strategies need to be implemented in these rivers to improve the water quality of Taihu Lake, and to ensure sustainable development in the region. The aim of this study was to provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making. In this study, the QUAL2K model for river and stream water quality was applied to predict the water quality and environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, which is a polluted tributary in the Taihu Lake Basin. The model parameters were calibrated by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The calibrated QUAL2K model was used to calculate the water environmental capacity of the Hongqi River, and the water environmental capacities of CODCr NH3-N, TN, and TP were 17.51 t, 1.52 t, 2.74 t and 0.37 t, respectively. The results showed that the NH3-N, TN, and TP pollution loads of the studied river need to be reduced by 50.96%, 44.11%, and 22.92%, respectively to satisfy the water quality objectives. Thus, additional water pollution control measures are needed to control and reduce the pollution loads in the Hongqi River watershed. The method applied in this study should provide a basis for water environmental management decision-making.

  9. Analysis of chiller units capacity for different heat loads considering variation of ambient air and cooling water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coman, Aurelia Camelia; Tenescu, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    The paper purpose is to analyze the chiller units capacity to determine whether they can cope with high air and cooling water temperatures during summer time to remove heat loads imposed from Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) units in a CANDU 6 Nuclear Power Plant. The starting point is calculation of the overall heat transfer coefficient at the evaporator and condenser. They are used in heat balance equations of heat exchangers. A mathematical model was developed that simulates the refrigeration cycle to assess the response of chilled water system and its performance at different heat loads. In this analysis there were calculated values for inlet/outlet chilled water temperature and the refrigerant cycle thermodynamic parameters (condenser and evaporator pressure/temperature, refrigerant mass flowrate, refrigerant quality at the evaporator, refrigerant vapour superheated temperature at the compressor outlet, refrigerant subcooled temperature at the condenser outlet). To find the adequate functioning parameters of the installation, the MathCAD 13 software was used in all cases analyzed. The behaviour of the chiller units was investigated by examining the variation of three basic parameters, namely: - cooling water (river water) temperature; - air temperature; - heat load. The simultaneous variation of these three independent parameters allows to identify the actual chillers unit operating point (including chiller trip). (authors)

  10. Behavior of masonry strengthened infilled reinforced concrete frames under in-plane load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila M. Abdel-Hafez

    2015-08-01

    The ductility of infilled frame strengthened with ferrocement was the best of all strengthened frames, while strengthening with GFRP increases its ultimate load carrying capacity but reduces its ductility.

  11. Capacidad de carga de las transmisiones por tornillo sinfín y corona. // Load capacity of worm gears transmissions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rivero Llerena

    2003-01-01

    on worm gears load capacity. It consists in a procedure forcalculating the gear‘s tooth active surface and a mathematic expression to predict the load capacity according to contactrequisites for specific preciseness.Key words: Load capacity, contact impression, worm gear.

  12. Investigating the influence of working memory capacity when driving behavior is combined with cognitive load: An LCT study of young novice drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Veerle; Jongen, Ellen M M; Wang, Weixin; Brijs, Tom; Brijs, Kris; Ruiter, Robert A C; Wets, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Distracted driving has received increasing attention in the literature due to potential adverse safety outcomes. An often posed solution to alleviate distraction while driving is hands-free technology. Interference by distraction can occur however at the sensory input (e.g., visual) level, but also at the cognitive level where hands-free technology induces working memory (WM) load. Active maintenance of goal-directed behavior in the presence of distraction depends on WM capacity (i.e., Lavie's Load theory) which implies that people with higher WM capacity are less susceptible to distractor interference. This study investigated the interaction between verbal WM load and WM capacity on driving performance to determine whether individuals with higher WM capacity were less affected by verbal WM load, leading to a smaller deterioration of driving performance. Driving performance of 46 young novice drivers (17-25 years-old) was measured with the lane change task (LCT). Participants drove without and with verbal WM load of increasing complexity (auditory-verbal response N-back task). Both visuospatial and verbal WM capacity were investigated. Dependent measures were mean deviation in the lane change path (MDEV), lane change initiation (LCI) and percentage of correct lane changes (PCL). Driving experience was included as a covariate. Performance on each dependent measure deteriorated with increasing verbal WM load. Meanwhile, higher WM capacity related to better LCT performance. Finally, for LCI and PCL, participants with higher verbal WM capacity were influenced less by verbal WM load. These findings entail that completely eliminating distraction is necessary to minimize crash risks among young novice drivers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lateral Load Capacity of Piles: A Comparative Study Between Indian Standards and Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasree, P. K.; Arun, K. V.; Oormila, R.; Sreelakshmi, H.

    2018-05-01

    As per Indian Standards, laterally loaded piles are usually analysed using the method adopted by IS 2911-2010 (Part 1/Section 2). But the practising engineers are of the opinion that the IS method is very conservative in design. This work aims at determining the extent to which the conventional IS design approach is conservative. This is done through a comparative study between IS approach and the theoretical model based on Vesic's equation. Bore log details for six different bridges were collected from the Kerala Public Works Department. Cast in situ fixed head piles embedded in three soil conditions both end bearing as well as friction piles were considered and analyzed separately. Piles were also modelled in STAAD.Pro software based on IS approach and the results were validated using Matlock and Reese (In Proceedings of fifth international conference on soil mechanics and foundation engineering, 1961) equation. The results were presented as the percentage variation in values of bending moment and deflection obtained by different methods. The results obtained from the mathematical model based on Vesic's equation and that obtained as per the IS approach were compared and the IS method was found to be uneconomical and conservative.

  14. Calculation of load-bearing capacity of prestressed reinforced concrete trusses by the finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapov, Vladimir; Golovanov, Roman; Aidemirov, Kurban

    2017-10-01

    The technique of calculation of prestressed reinforced concrete trusses with taking into account geometrical and physical nonlinearity is considered. As a tool for solving the problem, the finite element method has been chosen. Basic design equations and methods for their solution are given. It is assumed that there are both a prestressed and nonprestressed reinforcement in the bars of the trusses. The prestress is modeled by setting the temperature effect on the reinforcement. The ways of taking into account the physical and geometrical nonlinearity for bars of reinforced concrete trusses are considered. An example of the analysis of a flat truss is given and the behavior of the truss on various stages of its loading up to destruction is analyzed. A program for the analysis of flat and spatial concrete trusses taking into account the nonlinear deformation is developed. The program is adapted to the computational complex PRINS. As a part of this complex it is available to a wide range of engineering, scientific and technical workers

  15. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  16. Further Development of the Nordic Electricity Market - a Common Solution for Investments in Transmission, Congestion Management and Peak Load Capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstroem, Per-Olof

    2005-06-01

    The Nordic market fits well into place as a regional market in the over all European development, and it is therefore necessary to change the perspectives from a national one to a common Nordic approach. Despite the fact that the Nordic market is seen as a success, significant further improvements for customers and society can be made through deeper Nordic integration. The ongoing work on the Nordic electricity market within the Nordic Council of Ministers is therefore very welcomed and the Nordel report 'Enhancing Efficient Functioning of the Nordic Electricity Market' constitutes a good basis material for the further development of the market. There is a need to accelerate the pace of the harmonisation process, by making a clear timetable and prioritisation for the further work. Key issues for the next step are: Harmonisation of the legal framework and hence intensified co-operation among the Nordic governments; Implementation of the five known transmission investments, including a cost-benefit analysis; A more precise definition of the TSO responsibilities and core businesses, including operational reserves a prerequisite for further work on, e.g. the peak load issue; Initiation of cost-benefit analysis concerning future transmission investments; Guaranteed cross border capacity for market players; An analysis on settlement of imbalances and how this is affecting the peak load issue

  17. Searching while loaded: Visual working memory does not interfere with hybrid search efficiency but hybrid search uses working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Trafton; Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2016-02-01

    In "hybrid search" tasks, such as finding items on a grocery list, one must search the scene for targets while also searching the list in memory. How is the representation of a visual item compared with the representations of items in the memory set? Predominant theories would propose a role for visual working memory (VWM) either as the site of the comparison or as a conduit between visual and memory systems. In seven experiments, we loaded VWM in different ways and found little or no effect on hybrid search performance. However, the presence of a hybrid search task did reduce the measured capacity of VWM by a constant amount regardless of the size of the memory or visual sets. These data are broadly consistent with an account in which VWM must dedicate a fixed amount of its capacity to passing visual representations to long-term memory for comparison to the items in the memory set. The data cast doubt on models in which the search template resides in VWM or where memory set item representations are moved from LTM through VWM to earlier areas for comparison to visual items.

  18. The capacity-load model of non-communicable disease risk: understanding the effects of child malnutrition, ethnicity and the social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2018-05-01

    The capacity-load model is a conceptual model developed to improve understanding of the life-course aetiology of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their ecological and societal risk factors. The model addresses continuous associations of both (a) nutrition and growth patterns in early life and (b) lifestyle factors at older ages with NCD risk. Metabolic capacity refers to physiological traits strongly contingent on early nutrition and growth during the first 1000 days, which promote the long-term capacity for homeostasis in the context of fuel metabolism and cardiovascular health. Metabolic load refers to components of nutritional status and lifestyle that challenge homeostasis. The higher the load, and the lower the capacity, the greater the NCD risk. The model therefore helps understand dose-response associations of both early development and later phenotype with NCD risk. Infancy represents a critical developmental period, during which slow growth can constrain metabolic capacity, whereas rapid weight gain may elevate metabolic load. Severe acute malnutrition in early childhood (stunting, wasting) may continue to deplete metabolic capacity, and confer elevated susceptibility to NCDs in the long term. The model can be applied to associations of NCD risk with socio-economic position (SEP): lower SEP is generally associated with lower capacity but often also with elevated load. The model can also help explain ethnic differences in NCD risk, as both early growth patterns and later body composition differ systematically between ethnic groups. Recent work has begun to clarify the role of organ development in metabolic capacity, which may further contribute to ethnic differences in NCD risk.

  19. Spatial Variation of Phosphorous Retention Capacity in Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands: Effect of Wetland Type and Inflow Loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwei Yu

    Full Text Available For verification of spatial distribution of phosphorous retention capacity in constructed wetlands systems(CWs, two horizontal subsurface flow(HSSF CWs and two vertical subsurface flow(VSSF CWs, using sand as substrate and Typha latifolia as wetland plants, were constructed and put into use for synthetic wastewater treatment. Five months later, significant spatial variations of TP and inorganic phosphorus(Ca-P, Fe-P and Al-P were observed, which were found to be greatly affected by CWs type and hydraulic loading. The results revealed that though spatial distribution of Fe-P and Al-P displayed a similar order of substrate content as "rhizosphere" > "near-rhizosphere" > "non-rhizosphere" and "inflow section" > "outflow section" regardless of types and loading, the distribution of Ca-P was positively correlated to that of Fe-P and Al-P in HSSF CWs, while negative correlation was shown in VSSF CWs. As a result, TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs demonstrated a greater dissimilarity than that in VSSF CWs. For HSSF CWs with low hydraulic loading, the lowest TP content was found in non-rhizosphere substrate of outflow section, while the highest one was discovered in rhizonsphere substrate of inflow section. The values in 6 parts of areas ranged from 0.138 g·kg-1 to 2.710 g·kg-1, which also were from -33.5% to 1209% compared to the control value. On contrast, spatial difference of TP content in substrates of VSSF CWs was insignificant, with a variation ranging from 0.776 g·kg-1 to 1.080 g·kg-1, that was 275% to 421% higher than the control value. In addition, when hydraulic loading was increased, TP content in VSSF CWs sharply decreased, ranging from 0.210 g·kg-1 to 0.634 g·kg-1. Meanwhile, dissimilarity of TP spatial distribution in HSSF CWs was reduced, with TP content ranging from 0.258 g·kg-1 to 2.237 g·kg-1. The results suggested that P spatial distribution should be taken into account for CWs design and operation.

  20. An experimental investigation on the ultimate strength of epoxy repaired braced partial infilled RC frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil

    2014-09-01

    Due to earthquake, buildings are damaged partially or completely. Particularly structures with soft storey are mostly affected. In general, such damaged structures are repaired and reused. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted on models of single-bay, single-storey of partial concrete infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames up to collapse with corner, central and diagonal steel bracings. Such collapsed frames were repaired with epoxy resin and retested. The initiative was to identify the behaviour, extent of restored ultimate strength and deflection of epoxy-retrofitted frames in comparison to the braced RC frames. The performance of such frames has been considered only for lateral loads. In comparison to bare RC frames, epoxy repaired partial infilled frames have significant increase in the lateral load capacity. Central bracing is more effective than corner and diagonal bracing. For the same load, epoxy repaired frames have comparable deflection than similar braced frames.

  1. Evaluating Moisture Control of Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps in Mechanically Ventilated, Low-Load Homes in Climate Zone 2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Eric [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Florida Solar Energy Center; Withers, Chuck [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Florida Solar Energy Center; McIlvaine, Janet [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Florida Solar Energy Center; Chasar, Dave [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Florida Solar Energy Center; Beal, David [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Florida Solar Energy Center

    2018-02-07

    The well-sealed, highly insulated building enclosures constructed by today's home building industry coupled with efficient lighting and appliances are achieving significantly reduced heating and cooling loads. These low-load homes can present a challenge when selecting appropriate space-conditioning equipment. Conventional, fixed-capacity heating and cooling equipment is often oversized for small homes, causing increased first costs and operating costs. Even if fixed-capacity equipment can be properly specified for peak loads, it remains oversized for use during much of the year. During these part-load cooling hours, oversized equipment meets the target dry-bulb temperatures very quickly, often without sufficient opportunity for moisture control. The problem becomes more acute for high-performance houses in humid climates when meeting ASHRAE Standard 62.2 recommendations for wholehouse mechanical ventilation.

  2. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  3. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Redner, S

    2004-01-01

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed

  4. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, F [Department of Physics, Center for BioDynamics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Redner, S [Department of Physics, Center for Polymer Studies, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2004-09-03

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed.

  5. A novel concept for CT with fixed anodes (FACT): Medical imaging based on the feasibility of thermal load capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermeier, Markus; Bert, Christoph; Müller, Reinhold G

    2015-07-01

    Focussing primarily on thermal load capacity, we describe the performance of a novel fixed anode CT (FACT) compared with a 100 kW reference CT. Being a fixed system, FACT has no focal spot blurring of the X-ray source during projection. Monte Carlo and finite element methods were used to determine the fluence proportional to thermal capacity. Studies of repeated short-time exposures showed that FACT could operate in pulsed mode for an unlimited period. A virtual model for FACT was constructed to analyse various temporal sequences for the X-ray source ring, representing a circular array of 1160 fixed anodes in the gantry. Assuming similar detector properties at a very small integration time, image quality was investigated using an image reconstruction library. Our model showed that approximately 60 gantry rounds per second, i.e. 60 sequential targetings of the 1160 anodes per second, were required to achieve a performance level equivalent to that of the reference CT (relative performance, RP = 1) at equivalent image quality. The optimal projection duration in each direction was about 10 μs. With a beam pause of 1 μs between projections, 78.4 gantry rounds per second with consecutive source activity were thermally possible at a given thermal focal spot. The settings allowed for a 1.3-fold (RP = 1.3) shorter scan time than conventional CT while maintaining radiation exposure and image quality. Based on the high number of rounds, FACT supports a high image frame rate at low doses, which would be beneficial in a wide range of diagnostic and technical applications. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Parasite load in the blood and skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum is correlated with their capacity to infect sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Sousa, Orlando Marcos Farias de; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Bordoni, Marcelo; Magalhães, Jairo Torres; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-10-15

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity of parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as

  7. An Improved Model for Headway-Based Bus Service Unreliability Prevention with Vehicle Load Capacity Constraint at Bus Stops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved model for improving headway-based bus route service reliability at bus stops using real-time preventive operation control, taking into account dynamic interaction among random passenger demand, stochastic driving conditions of route segments, and vehicle load capacity constraint. In this model, the real-time information of passenger demand and vehicle operation is involved to predict the imminent unacceptable headway deviation, in the case of which some in-time preventive control strategies are deployed according to the given control rules. As a case study, a single fixed bus route with high-frequency services was simulated and different scenarios of real-time preventive operation control were performed. Headway adherence and average passenger wait time were used to measure bus service reliability. The results show that the improved model is closer to the real bus route service, and using real-time information to predict potential service unreliability and trigger in-time preventive control can reduce bus bunching and avoid big gap.

  8. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-12-17

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of "loading capacity" (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale.

  9. Effect of a self-adhesive coating on the load-bearing capacity of tooth-coloured restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, R; Palamara, Jea; Mese, A; Manton, D J

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of tooth-coloured restorative materials with and without applying a self-adhesive coating for up to 6 months. Specimens were prepared from three resin composites (RC), two resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (RM-GIC) and two conventional glass-ionomer cements (CGIC). All materials were tested both with and without applying G-Coat Plus (GCP). Specimens were conditioned in 37 °C distilled deionized water for 24 h, and 1, 3 and 6 months. The specimens were strength tested using a four-point bend test jig in a universal testing machine. The broken specimen's halves were used for Vickers hardness testing. Representative specimens were examined under an environmental scanning electron microscope. Data analysis showed that regardless of time and materials, generally the surface coating was associated with a significant increase in the flexural strength of the materials. Applying the GCP decreased the hardness of almost all materials significantly (P < 0.05) and effect of time intervals on hardness was material dependent. The load-bearing capacity of the restorative materials was affected by applying self-adhesive coating and ageing. The CGIC had significantly higher hardness but lower flexural strength than the RM-GIC and RC. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Evaluation of fiber’s misorientation effect on compliance and load carry capacity of shaped composite beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polilov, A. N.; Tatus’, N. A.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this paper is analysis of design methods for composite beams and plates with curvilinear fiber trajectories. The novelty of this approach is determined by the fact that traditional composite materials are typically formed using prepregs with rectilinear fibers only. The results application area is associated with design process for shaped composite structure element by using of biomechanical principles. One of the related problems is the evaluation of fiber’s misorientation effect on stiffness and load carry capacity of shaped composite element with curvilinear fiber trajectories. Equistrong beam with constant cross-section area is considered as example, and it can be produced by unidirectional fiber bunch forming, impregnated with polymer matrix. Effective elastic modulus evaluation methods for structures with curvilinear fiber trajectories are validated. Misorientation angle range (up to 5o) when material with required accuracy can be considered as homogeneous, neglecting fiber misorientation, is determined. It is shown that for the beams with height-to-width ratio small enough it is possible to consider 2D misorientation only.

  11. A New Methodology for Solving Trajectory Planning and Dynamic Load-Carrying Capacity of a Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjin Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology using a direct method for obtaining the best found trajectory planning and maximum dynamic load-carrying capacity (DLCC is presented for a 5-degree of freedom (DOF hybrid robot manipulator. A nonlinear constrained multiobjective optimization problem is formulated with four objective functions, namely, travel time, total energy involved in the motion, joint jerks, and joint acceleration. The vector of decision variables is defined by the sequence of the time-interval lengths associated with each two consecutive via-points on the desired trajectory of the 5-DOF robot generalized coordinates. Then this vector of decision variables is computed in order to minimize the cost function (which is the weighted sum of these four objective functions subject to constraints on joint positions, velocities, acceleration, jerks, forces/torques, and payload mass. Two separate approaches are proposed to deal with the trajectory planning problem and the maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF robot manipulator using an evolutionary optimization technique. The adopted evolutionary algorithm is the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. A numerical application is performed for obtaining best found solutions of trajectory planning and maximum DLCC calculation for the 5-DOF hybrid robot manipulator.

  12. XRCC1 and PCNA are loading platforms with distinct kinetic properties and different capacities to respond to multiple DNA lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonhardt Heinrich

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome integrity is constantly challenged and requires the coordinated recruitment of multiple enzyme activities to ensure efficient repair of DNA lesions. We investigated the dynamics of XRCC1 and PCNA that act as molecular loading platforms and play a central role in this coordination. Results Local DNA damage was introduced by laser microirradation and the recruitment of fluorescent XRCC1 and PCNA fusion proteins was monitored by live cell microscopy. We found an immediate and fast recruitment of XRCC1 preceding the slow and continuous recruitment of PCNA. Fluorescence bleaching experiments (FRAP and FLIP revealed a stable association of PCNA with DNA repair sites, contrasting the high turnover of XRCC1. When cells were repeatedly challenged with multiple DNA lesions we observed a gradual depletion of the nuclear pool of PCNA, while XRCC1 dynamically redistributed even to lesions inflicted last. Conclusion These results show that PCNA and XRCC1 have distinct kinetic properties with functional consequences for their capacity to respond to successive DNA damage events.

  13. XRCC1 and PCNA are loading platforms with distinct kinetic properties and different capacities to respond to multiple DNA lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortusewicz, Oliver; Leonhardt, Heinrich

    2007-01-01

    Background Genome integrity is constantly challenged and requires the coordinated recruitment of multiple enzyme activities to ensure efficient repair of DNA lesions. We investigated the dynamics of XRCC1 and PCNA that act as molecular loading platforms and play a central role in this coordination. Results Local DNA damage was introduced by laser microirradation and the recruitment of fluorescent XRCC1 and PCNA fusion proteins was monitored by live cell microscopy. We found an immediate and fast recruitment of XRCC1 preceding the slow and continuous recruitment of PCNA. Fluorescence bleaching experiments (FRAP and FLIP) revealed a stable association of PCNA with DNA repair sites, contrasting the high turnover of XRCC1. When cells were repeatedly challenged with multiple DNA lesions we observed a gradual depletion of the nuclear pool of PCNA, while XRCC1 dynamically redistributed even to lesions inflicted last. Conclusion These results show that PCNA and XRCC1 have distinct kinetic properties with functional consequences for their capacity to respond to successive DNA damage events. PMID:17880707

  14. A Novel Absorbent of Nano-Fe Loaded Biomass Char and Its Enhanced Adsorption Capacity for Phosphate in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel composite adsorbent of Fe loaded biomass char (Fe-BC was fabricated to treat phosphorus in water. Fe-BC was prepared by a procedure including metal complex anion incorporation and precipitation with the pyrolysis char of corn straw as supporting material. The abundant porous structures of the as-prepared sample can be easily observed from its scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. Observations by X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS analyses show that inorganic nanoiron oxides deposited in the composite could be amorphous hydrous iron oxide α-FeOOH. Adsorption of phosphate onto the Fe-BC composite and its precursor (BC from aqueous solutions were investigated and discussed. The equilibrium adsorption data of phosphate was described by Langmuir and Freundlich models, and Langmuir isotherm was found to be better fitted than Freundlich isotherm. The maximum phosphate adsorption capacity for phosphate of Fe-BC was as high as 35.43 mg/g, approximately 2.3 times of BC at 25°C. The adsorption kinetics data were better fitted by pseudo-second-order model and intraparticle diffusion model, indicating that the adsorption process was complex. The Fe-BC composite has been proved as an effective adsorbent of phosphate from aqueous solutions owing to its unique porous structures and the greater Lewis basicity of the α-FeOOH.

  15. Membrane Bioreactor-Based Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saudi Arabia: Reduction of Viral Diversity, Load, and Infectious Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad

    2017-07-18

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia was assessed over a nine-month period for virus removal efficiency. Viral diversity was detected using omics-based approaches. Log reduction values (LRV) of Adenoviruses (AdV) and Enteroviruses (EV) were enumerated using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) and assessed for infectivity using fluorescence-based infection assays. MBR treatment was successful in reducing viral diversity. Plant viruses remained abundant in the treated effluent. Human enteric viruses were present in lower abundance than plant viruses, and were reduced by MBR at varying LRV. AdV copy numbers were reduced by 3.7-log. Infectious AdV was not detected in the effluent. EV copy numbers were reduced by 1.7-log post MBR and infectious EV decreased by an average of 2.0-log. Infectious EV was detected in the chlorinated effluent, occasionally in concentrations that approximate to its 50% infectious dose. Overall, results indicated that a MBR-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effectively reduces viral diversity, viral load, and infectious capacity by up to 4-logs. These findings suggest potential concerns associated with plant and human enteric viruses for reuse events in this country. Local guidelines for assessment of treated water quality should take into consideration both infectious viral concentration and LRV.

  16. Working memory capacity and visual-verbal cognitive load modulate auditory-sensory gating in the brainstem: toward a unified view of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörqvist, Patrik; Stenfelt, Stefan; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2012-11-01

    Two fundamental research questions have driven attention research in the past: One concerns whether selection of relevant information among competing, irrelevant, information takes place at an early or at a late processing stage; the other concerns whether the capacity of attention is limited by a central, domain-general pool of resources or by independent, modality-specific pools. In this article, we contribute to these debates by showing that the auditory-evoked brainstem response (an early stage of auditory processing) to task-irrelevant sound decreases as a function of central working memory load (manipulated with a visual-verbal version of the n-back task). Furthermore, individual differences in central/domain-general working memory capacity modulated the magnitude of the auditory-evoked brainstem response, but only in the high working memory load condition. The results support a unified view of attention whereby the capacity of a late/central mechanism (working memory) modulates early precortical sensory processing.

  17. Ultimate Explanations of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We humans are collectively driven by a powerful - yet not fully explained - instinct to understand. We would like to see everything established, proven, laid bare. The more important an issue, the more we desire to see it clarified, stripped of all secrets, all shades of gray. What could be more important than to understand the Universe and ourselves as a part of it? To find a window onto our origin and our destiny? This book examines how far our modern cosmological theories - with their sometimes audacious models, such as inflation, cyclic histories, quantum creation, parallel universes - can take us towards answering these questions. Can such theories lead us to ultimate truths, leaving nothing unexplained? Last, but not least, Heller addresses the thorny problem of why and whether we should expect to find theories with all-encompassing explicative power.

  18. An Experimental Investigation on the Ultimate Strength of Partially Infilled: Braced Steel Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Shailendra Kumar Damodar; Kute, Sunil Y.

    2017-12-01

    Infilled walls are usually, considered as non-structural elements. However, these walls are effective in carrying lateral loads. In this regard, an experimental investigation was planned and conducted to study the effect of braced and partially infilled steel frames with cement mortar and concrete in comparison to the bare frames. All these frames were tested up to collapse and subjected only to horizontal loads to obtain an effective and possible solution for soft storey which are generally not infilled. In comparison to bare steel frames, partially infilled frames have an increase of lateral load capacity by 45-60%. Central bracing is more effective than that of the corner bracing. For the same load partially infilled frames have significantly less deflection than that of the bare frames. A reduced load factor is suggested for the design of soft storey columns with the partial infills. A mathematical model has been proposed to calculate the theoretical ultimate load for the braced, cement mortar and concrete partial infilled frames.

  19. THE ULTIMATE STATE CONCEPT APPLIED TO TUNNEL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Hudec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The most questionable are the values of pressures between rock and support resulting from common deformations on the contact area between rock and support. Therefore the modelling and design of the tunnel support is not reliable, if it is based on active rock pressure resulting from this common deformations. The inversion of the design procedure is proposed. Instead of the active extreme pressure of the rock on support, the influence of ultimate reaction of the support on the rock has to be analysed. This procedure can be performed using the ultimate load principle, as proposed by Eurocodc 7 (Geotechnies. Normally, the rock has the tendency to increase the common conver¬gence until the support reaches its ultimate state. So, loading of profile boundary with the ultimate possible reaction of the support is very plausible. The reactive support pressures have to be probable and itself in equilibrium. The ultimate reactive load has to be reduced by Euro-code safety factor for structural elements and applied on the rock with given properties, or alternatively (as proposed by Eurocode 7 the soil or rock properties have to be diminished and calculated with full ultimate support pressures. If the rock with given (or proposed pro¬perties and loaded with ultimate reactive pressures resulting from supposed support, satisfy its failure criterion, then is the compound system support-rock verificatcd. By this procedure, the number of relevant material properties is reduce to the primary stress ratio and the constants defining the failure criterion. The verification can be performed by any of numerical methods, but we prefer here used boundary elements method (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Ultimate Limit State Design Of Sheet Pile Walls By Finite Elements And Nonlinear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Kristian; Damkilde, Lars; Krabbenhøft, Sven

    2002-01-01

    Limit analysis has been used for decades in civil and mechanical engineering practice as a means of analyzing structures of materials which with reasonable accuracy can be described as being rigid-perfectly plastic. Such materials include steel, concrete and soils. Traditionally, most attention has...... been given to the problem which consists of determining the ultimate magnitude of a given set of loads acting on a structure with a given geometry. This problem is relevant when determining e.g. the necessary extrusion pressure in metal forming problems, when evaluating the bearing capacity...... is the load intensity. In the paper we consider the latter of these problems with particular reference to the design of sheet pile walls....

  1. Ultimate explanations and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Machado, Armando; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2018-07-01

    Researchers have unraveled multiple cases in which behavior deviates from rationality principles. We propose that such deviations are valuable tools to understand the adaptive significance of the underpinning mechanisms. To illustrate, we discuss in detail an experimental protocol in which animals systematically incur substantial foraging losses by preferring a lean but informative option over a rich but non-informative one. To understand how adaptive mechanisms may fail to maximize food intake, we review a model inspired by optimal foraging principles that reconciles sub-optimal choice with the view that current behavioral mechanisms were pruned by the optimizing action of natural selection. To move beyond retrospective speculation, we then review critical tests of the model, regarding both its assumptions and its (sometimes counterintuitive) predictions, all of which have been upheld. The overall contention is that (a) known mechanisms can be used to develop better ultimate accounts and that (b) to understand why mechanisms that generate suboptimal behavior evolved, we need to consider their adaptive value in the animal's characteristic ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Prestressing Loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMITH, JEFFREY A.

    2001-01-01

    Reduced prestressing and degradation of prestressing tendons in concrete containment vessels were investigated using finite element analysis of a typical prestressed containment vessel. The containment was analyzed during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with varying levels of prestress loss and with reduced tendon area. It was found that when selected hoop prestressing tendons were completely removed (as if broken) or when the area of selected hoop tendons was reduced, there was a significant impact on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel. However, when selected hoop prestressing tendons remained, but with complete loss of prestressing, the predicted ultimate capacity was not significantly affected for this specific loss of coolant accident. Concrete cracking occurred at much lower levels for all cases. For cases where selected vertical tendons were analyzed with reduced prestressing or degradation of the tendons, there also was not a significant impact on the ultimate load carrying capacity for the specific accident analyzed. For other loading scenarios (such as seismic loading) the loss of hoop prestressing with the tendons remaining could be more significant on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel than found for the accident analyzed. A combination of loss of prestressing and degradation of the vertical tendons could also be more critical during other loading scenarios

  3. An Applied Method for Predicting the Load-Carrying Capacity in Compression of Thin-Wall Composite Structures with Impact Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, O.; Pavelko, I.; Varickis, S.; Vagele, A.

    2018-03-01

    The necessity for considering both strength criteria and postbuckling effects in calculating the load-carrying capacity in compression of thin-wall composite structures with impact damage is substantiated. An original applied method ensuring solution of these problems with an accuracy sufficient for practical design tasks is developed. The main advantage of the method is its applicability in terms of computing resources and the set of initial data required. The results of application of the method to solution of the problem of compression of fragments of thin-wall honeycomb panel damaged by impacts of various energies are presented. After a comparison of calculation results with experimental data, a working algorithm for calculating the reduction in the load-carrying capacity of a composite object with impact damage is adopted.

  4. Increasing Working Memory Load Reduces Processing of Cross-Modal Task-Irrelevant Stimuli Even after Controlling for Task Difficulty and Executive Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sharon S; Tusch, Erich S; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2016-01-01

    The classic account of the load theory (LT) of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC) and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM) load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual) and task-irrelevant modality (auditory). Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models.

  5. Increasing working memory load reduces processing of cross-modal task-irrelevant stimuli even after controlling for task difficulty and executive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Sanz Simon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The classic account of the Load Theory (LT of attention suggests that increasing cognitive load leads to greater processing of task-irrelevant stimuli due to competition for limited executive resource that reduces the ability to actively maintain current processing priorities. Studies testing this hypothesis have yielded widely divergent outcomes. The inconsistent results may, in part, be related to variability in executive capacity (EC and task difficulty across subjects in different studies. Here, we used a cross-modal paradigm to investigate whether augmented working memory (WM load leads to increased early distracter processing, and controlled for the potential confounders of EC and task difficulty. Twenty-three young subjects were engaged in a primary visual WM task, under high and low load conditions, while instructed to ignore irrelevant auditory stimuli. Demands of the high load condition were individually titrated to make task difficulty comparable across subjects with differing EC. Event-related potentials (ERPs were used to measure neural activity in response to stimuli presented in both the task relevant modality (visual and task-irrelevant modality (auditory. Behavioral results indicate that the load manipulation and titration procedure of the primary visual task were successful. ERPs demonstrated that in response to visual target stimuli, there was a load-related increase in the posterior slow wave, an index of sustained attention and effort. Importantly, under high load, there was a decrease of the auditory N1 in response to distracters, a marker of early auditory processing. These results suggest that increased WM load is associated with enhanced attentional engagement and protection from distraction in a cross-modal setting, even after controlling for task difficulty and EC. Our findings challenge the classic LT and offer support for alternative models.

  6. Least Limiting Water Range and Load Bearing Capacity of Soil under Types of Tractor-Trailers for Mechanical Harvesting of Green Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Higino Frederico Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The expansion of the sugarcane industry in Brazil has intensified the mechanization of agriculture and caused effects on the soil physical quality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the limiting water range and soil bearing capacity of a Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico (Rhodic Hapludox under the influence of different tractor-trailers used in mechanical sugarcane harvesting. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with five replications. The treatments consisted of green sugarcane harvesting with: harvester without trailer (T1; harvester with two trailers with a capacity of 10 Mg each (T2; harvester with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (T3 and harvester and truck with trailer with a capacity of 20 Mg (10 Mg per compartment (T4. The least limiting water range and soil bearing capacity were evaluated. The transport equipment to remove the harvested sugarcane from the field (trailer at harvest decreased the least limiting water range, reducing the structural soil quality. The truck trailer caused the greatest impact on the soil physical properties studied. The soil load bearing capacity was unaffected by the treatments, since the pressure of the harvester (T1 exceeded the pre-consolidation pressure of the soil.

  7. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber

  8. Structural Test and Analysis of RC Slab After Fire Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chulhun; Im, Cho Rong; Park, Jaegyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    In the present study the behavior of fire and the residual strength of fire-ignited RC slabs are investigated by experimental tests and numerical simulations. The fire tests of RC slabs were carried out in a furnace using the ISO 834 standard fire. The load capacity of the cooled RC slabs that were not loaded during the fire tests was evaluated by additional 3 point bending tests. The influence of the proportion of PP (polypropylene) fibers in the RC slabs on the structural behavior of the RC slabs after the fire loading was investigated. The results of the fire tests showed that the maximum temperature of concrete with PP fiber was lower than that of concrete without PP fiber. As the concrete was heated, the ultimate compressive strength decreased and the ultimate strain increased. The load-deflection relations of RC slabs after fire loading were compared by using existing stress-strain-temperature models. The comparison between the numerical analysis and the experimental tests showed that some numerical analyses were reliable and therefore, can be applied to evaluate the ultimate load of RC slabs after fire loading. The ultimate load capacity after cooling down the RC slabs without PP fiber showed a considerable reduction from that of the RC slabs with PP fiber.

  9. Full-scale load tests of Pearl-Chain arches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halding, Philip Skov; Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2017-01-01

    -Decks: First an investigation of the system’s elastic response (maximum load of 648kN), and second a demonstration of its collapse mechanism and ultimate capacity (maximum load of 970kN). The full-scale test showed formation of plastic hinges and clear warning signs are observed at 84% of the failure load......A full-scale load test is made of two Pearl-Chain (PC) concrete arches in order to evaluate the structural response and assess the design safety. Pearl-Chain structures and Pearl-Chain arches are invented and patented at the Technical University of Denmark. PC-Arches consist of specially designed....... The ultimate, experimental load capacity is 14% higher than the calculated mainly due to the assumed static system used for the calculation. In addition to the full-scale test bridge the first ever permanent PC-Bridge is erected in Denmark in 2015....

  10. Mystery of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-free Turbomachinery Unlocked: Load Capacity Rule-of-thumb Allows Simple Estimation of Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center has unlocked one of the mysteries surrounding foil air bearing performance. Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings that use ambient air, or any fluid, as their lubricant. In operation, the motion of the shaft's surface drags fluid into the bearing by viscous action, creating a pressurized lubricant film. This lubricating film separates the stationary foil bearing surface from the moving shaft and supports load. Foil bearings have been around for decades and are widely employed in the air cycle machines used for cabin pressurization and cooling aboard commercial jetliners. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team is fostering the maturation of this technology for integration into advanced Oil-Free aircraft engines. Elimination of the engine oil system can significantly reduce weight and cost and could enable revolutionary new engine designs. Foil bearings, however, have complex elastic support structures (spring packs) that make the prediction of bearing performance, such as load capacity, difficult if not impossible. Researchers at Glenn recently found a link between foil bearing design and load capacity performance. The results have led to a simple rule-of-thumb that relates a bearing's size, speed, and design to its load capacity. Early simple designs (Generation I) had simple elastic (spring) support elements, and performance was limited. More advanced bearings (Generation III) with elastic supports, in which the stiffness is varied locally to optimize gas film pressures, exhibit load capacities that are more than double those of the best previous designs. This is shown graphically in the figure. These more advanced bearings have enabled industry to introduce commercial Oil-Free gas-turbine-based electrical generators and are allowing the aeropropulsion industry to incorporate the technology into aircraft engines. The rule-of-thumb enables engine and bearing designers to easily size and

  11. Investigation on the fiber based approach to estimate the axial load carrying capacity of the circular concrete filled steel tube (CFST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscesa, B.; Attard, M. M.; Suprobo, P.; Samani, A. K.

    2017-11-01

    External confining devices are often used to enhance the strength and ductility of reinforced concrete columns. Among the available external confining devices, steel tube is one of the most widely used in construction. However, steel tube has some drawbacks such as local buckling which needs to be considered when estimating the axial load carrying capacity of the concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) column. To tackle this problem in design, Eurocode 4 provided guidelines to estimate the effective yield strength of the steel tube material. To study the behavior of CFST column, in this paper, a non-linear analysis using a fiber-based approach was conducted. The use of the fiber-based approach allows the engineers to predict not only the axial load carrying capacity but also the complete load-deformation curve of the CFST columns for a known confining pressure. In the proposed fiber-based approach, an inverse analysis is used to estimate the constant confining pressure similar to design-oriented models. This paper also presents comparisons between the fiber-based approach model with the experimental results and the 3D non-linear finite element analysis.

  12. Dynamics of special working capacity of skilled athlete’s karate under the influence of anaerobic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Rovnyy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental verification of hypothetical models of planning a large volume glycolytic loads of targeted development of special endurance karate. Material and Methods: the experiment was attended by 25 athletes aged 16-18 years, who were divided into 5 groups (5 athletes each. We determined the rates of overall disability (IGST and special endurance (CSR. Results: analyzed the effectiveness of the training program a combination of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Conclusions: established the optimum combination of loads, which contributed to the development of special anaerobic endurance.

  13. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF DISK SPRING CONFIGURATIONS WITH REGARD TO LOAD CAPACITY OF SAFETY PROGRESSIVE GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł LONKWIC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of various disk spring package configurations on brake load of safety progressive gears. The numerical analysis is performed using the Abaqus/CAE software and the designed 3D models. The numerical results are then verified in experimental tests. The tests also examine the effect of lubrication on brake load of spring packages. In addition, the paper investigates the work conditions of safety progressive gears at emergency braking. The experimental results show agreement with the numerical results.

  14. Squat Biomechanical Modeling Results from Exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data is also obtained using free weights for a comparison to the resistively loaded exercise device. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the body loads. The focus of this presentation is to summarize the results from the full squat exercises

  15. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon [Youngdong Univ., Yeongdong (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2003-03-15

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study.

  16. A study on nonlinear behavior of reactor containment structures during ultimate accident condition(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Hoon; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Joo Yeon

    2003-03-01

    In this study, the following scope and contents are established for first year's study of determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Comparative study on structural characteristics and analysis model of CANDU-type reactor containment. State-of-arts on evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity of prestressed concrete reactor containment. Enhancement of evaluation method of the ultimate pressure capacity for PWR containment structure. In order to determine a realistic lower bound of a typical reactor containment structural capacity for internal pressure, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate capacity are required. Especially, the in-depth evaluation of modeling technique and analysis procedure for determining ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment is required. Therefore, modelling techniques and analytical investigation to predict its non-linear behavior up to ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU-type reactor containment for internal pressure will be suggested in this study

  17. Pile load test on large diameter steel pipe piles in Timan-Pechora, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, S. [Golder Associates Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Tart, B. [Golder Associates Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Swartz, R. [Paragon Engineering Services Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Pile load testing conducted in May and June of 1993 at the Polar Lights Ardalin project in Arkangelsk province, Russia, was documented. Pile load testing was conducted to determine the ultimate and allowable pile loads for varying pile lengths and ground temperature conditions and to provide creep test data for deformation under constant load. The piles consisted of 20 inch diameter steel pipe piles driven open ended through prebored holes into the permafrost soils. Ultimate pile capacities, adfreeze bond, and creep properties observed were discussed. 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. The Benefit of Attention-to-Memory Depends on the Interplay of Memory Capacity and Memory Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Joo; Wöstmann, Malte; Geweke, Frederik; Obleser, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Humans can be cued to attend to an item in memory, which facilitates and enhances the perceptual precision in recalling this item. Here, we demonstrate that this facilitating effect of attention-to-memory hinges on the overall degree of memory load. The benefit an individual draws from attention-to-memory depends on her overall working memory performance, measured as sensitivity (d′) in a retroactive cue (retro-cue) pitch discrimination task. While listeners maintained 2, 4, or 6 auditory syllables in memory, we provided valid or neutral retro-cues to direct listeners’ attention to one, to-be-probed syllable in memory. Participants’ overall memory performance (i.e., perceptual sensitivity d′) was relatively unaffected by the presence of valid retro-cues across memory loads. However, a more fine-grained analysis using psychophysical modeling shows that valid retro-cues elicited faster pitch-change judgments and improved perceptual precision. Importantly, as memory load increased, listeners’ overall working memory performance correlated with inter-individual differences in the degree to which precision improved (r = 0.39, p = 0.029). Under high load, individuals with low working memory profited least from attention-to-memory. Our results demonstrate that retrospective attention enhances perceptual precision of attended items in memory but listeners’ optimal use of informative cues depends on their overall memory abilities. PMID:29520246

  19. The Benefit of Attention-to-Memory Depends on the Interplay of Memory Capacity and Memory Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Joo Lim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans can be cued to attend to an item in memory, which facilitates and enhances the perceptual precision in recalling this item. Here, we demonstrate that this facilitating effect of attention-to-memory hinges on the overall degree of memory load. The benefit an individual draws from attention-to-memory depends on her overall working memory performance, measured as sensitivity (d′ in a retroactive cue (retro-cue pitch discrimination task. While listeners maintained 2, 4, or 6 auditory syllables in memory, we provided valid or neutral retro-cues to direct listeners’ attention to one, to-be-probed syllable in memory. Participants’ overall memory performance (i.e., perceptual sensitivity d′ was relatively unaffected by the presence of valid retro-cues across memory loads. However, a more fine-grained analysis using psychophysical modeling shows that valid retro-cues elicited faster pitch-change judgments and improved perceptual precision. Importantly, as memory load increased, listeners’ overall working memory performance correlated with inter-individual differences in the degree to which precision improved (r = 0.39, p = 0.029. Under high load, individuals with low working memory profited least from attention-to-memory. Our results demonstrate that retrospective attention enhances perceptual precision of attended items in memory but listeners’ optimal use of informative cues depends on their overall memory abilities.

  20. Scaling the Information Load of Occupations: Preliminary Findings of the Fit between Individual Capacities and Environmental Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Richard F.; Ferreira, Joaquim Armando G. A.; Santos, Eduardo J. R.; Aguayo, Gina M.; Fallon, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    Person-Environment (P-E) fit models provide a conceptually powerful way to think about career development, vocational choice, and occupational success. The work reported here focuses on yet another pair of P-E criteria: self-reported individual capacity for information processing (the ability to tolerate information overload from a variety of…

  1. Slow loaded breathing training improves blood pressure, lung capacity and arm exercise endurance for older people with treated and stable isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ublosakka-Jones, Chulee; Tongdee, Phailin; Pachirat, Orathai; Jones, David A

    2018-03-28

    Hypertension and reduced lung function are important features of aging. Slow loaded breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the question is whether this can also improve lung function. Thirty-two people (67 ± 5 years, 16 male) with controlled isolated systolic hypertension undertook an eight weeks randomised controlled training trial with an inspiratory load of 25% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) at 6 breaths per minute (slow loaded breathing; SLB) or deep breathing control (CON). Outcome measures were resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate; MIP; lung capacity; chest and abdominal expansion; arm cranking exercise endurance at 50% heart rate reserve. Home based measurement of resting systolic BP decreased by 20 mm Hg (15 to 25) (Mean and 95%CI) for SLB and by 5 mm Hg (1 to 7) for CON. Heart rate and diastolic BP also decreased significantly for SLB but not CON. MIP increased by 15.8 cm H 2 O (11.8 to 19.8) and slow vital capacity by 0.21 L (0.15 to 0.27) for SLB but not for CON. Chest and abdominal expansion increased by 2.3 cm (2.05 to 2.55) and 2.5 cm (2.15 to 2.85), respectively for SLB and by 0.5 cm (0.26 to 0.74) and 1.7 cm (1.32 to 2.08) for CON. Arm exercise time increased by 4.9 min (3.65 to 5.15) for SLB with no significant change for CON. Slow inspiratory muscle training is not only effective in reducing resting BP, even in older people with well controlled isolated systolic hypertension but also increases inspiratory muscle strength, lung capacity and arm exercise duration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Polyethyleneimine-loaded bimodal porous silica as low-cost and high-capacity sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witoon, Thongthai, E-mail: fengttwi@ku.ac.th [National Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advance Material, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Center for Advanced Studies in Nanotechnology and Its Applications in Chemical Food and Agricultural Industries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2012-11-15

    In this work, bimodal (meso-macro) porous silicas with different mesopore diameters synthesized by using rice husk ash as a low-cost silica source and chitosan as a natural template were used as a polyethyleneimine (PEI) support for CO{sub 2} capture. Unimodal porous silica supports with equivalent mesopore diameters to bimodal porous silica supports have been prepared for purpose of comparison. Effects of different PEI contents (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) on CO{sub 2} sorption capacity have been systematically investigated. The porous silica supports and the PEI-loaded porous silica supports were characterized by N{sub 2}-sorption analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. CO{sub 2} sorption measurements of all PEI-loaded porous silica supports were performed at different adsorption temperatures (60, 75, 85, 90, 95 and 105 Degree-Sign C). At low PEI contents (10-20 wt%), the CO{sub 2} sorption of all adsorbents was found to decrease as a function of adsorption temperature, which was a characteristic of a thermodynamically-controlled regime. A transition from the thermodynamically-controlled regime to a kinetically-controlled regime was found when the PEI content was increased up to 30 wt% for PEI-loaded unimodal porous silicas and 40 wt% for PEI-loaded bimodal porous silicas. At high PEI contents (40-50 wt%), the CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency of the PEI-loaded bimodal porous silicas was found to be considerably greater than that of the PEI-loaded unimodal porous silicas, indicating that most of the amine groups of PEI molecules loaded on the unimodal porous silica supports was useless, and thus the appeared macroporosity of the bimodal porous silica supports could provide a higher effective amine density to adsorb CO{sub 2}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEI-impregnated bimodal porous silica as low-cost sorbent for CO{sub 2} capture. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Macropores enhances

  3. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests : Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  4. The dream of an ultimate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1997-10-01

    Steven Weinberg describes how the dream of an ultimate theory began when one tried to unify the fundamental laws governing the stars constellations as elementary particles: electromagnetism, weak-electro theory then standard model which gives only one quantity out of its fields, the gravitation. He tries to explain to what an ultimate theory could look like. but the dream of an ultimate theory is not yet realized, there are some elementary particles to find before and then to build superconducting super colliders. The europe made it. the dream of an ultimate theory became an european dream. (N.C.)

  5. Fuzzy stochastic analysis of serviceability and ultimate limit states of two-span pedestrian steel bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Zdeněk; Sandovič, GiedrÄ--

    2012-09-01

    The paper deals with non-linear analysis of ultimate and serviceability limit states of two-span pedestrian steel bridge. The effects of random material and geometrical characteristics on limit states are analyzed. The Monte Carlo method was applied to stochastic analysis. For the serviceability limit state, also influence of fuzzy uncertainty of the limit deflection value on random characteristics of load capacity of variable action was studied. The results prove that, for the type of structure studied, the serviceability limit state is decisive from the point of view of design. The present paper opens a discussion on the use of stochastic analysis to verify the limit deflections given in the standards EUROCODES.

  6. The ultimate challenge of cloacal exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Carmichael, Polly A; Hines, Melissa; Ransley, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Our review addresses the various system abnormalities associated with cloacal exstrophy and revisits the question of gender assignment. Gender assignment decisions and psychological aspects of gender issues have become the "ultimate challenge." Exploration of gender identity, gender role behavior and sexual orientation has just begun. A comprehensive literature review was performed with all world literature regarding the current management of cloacal exstrophy. Research focused on management principles, outcomes and documentation of concurrent anomalies. We also describe original research evaluating gender identity in our own series of patients raised as girls to illustrate the challenge of treatment and augment the available literature, which is scant. Abnormalities of the vertebral column ranged from hemivertebra to myelomeningocele. With magnetic resonance imaging, the incidence of spinal dysraphism approached 100% and cord tethering was also more frequently recognized. For children with the short bowel syndrome, advances in antibiotic usage, and parenteral and enteral nutrition have increased the survival rate and reduced morbidity. A neurological component has been recognized for bladder function, bladder neck continence, lower extremity function and erectile capacity. Mitrofanoff-type reconstruction with bladder neck closure and continent catheterizable stoma dramatically increased continence. Diminutive or absent penis has been documented in 30% of males, and no documentation of paternity exists. The majority of females have bicornuate uterus. However, ovaries and tubes were generally normal. No reports of proven fertility exist. The strategy and timing of surgery relating to gender assignment remain controversial. A desperate need exists for research focusing on gender development and quality of life. Until that time, a cautious watchful approach may be most appropriate as our patients with cloacal exstrophy mature into adulthood.

  7. A core-shell albumin copolymer nanotransporter for high capacity loading and two-step release of doxorubicin with enhanced anti-leukemia activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuzhou; Ihme, Susann; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Kuan, Seah Ling; Eisele, Klaus; Lamla, Markus; Wang, Yanran; Buske, Christian; Weil, Tanja

    2013-06-01

    The native transportation protein serum albumin represents an attractive nano-sized transporter for drug delivery applications due to its beneficial safety profile. Existing albumin-based drug delivery systems are often limited by their low drug loading capacity as well as noticeable drug leakage into the blood circulation. Therefore, a unique albumin-derived core-shell doxorubicin (DOX) delivery system based on the protein denaturing-backfolding strategy was developed. 28 DOX molecules were covalently conjugated to the albumin polypeptide backbone via an acid sensitive hydrazone linker. Polycationic and pegylated human serum albumin formed two non-toxic and enzymatically degradable protection shells around the encapsulated DOX molecules. This core-shell delivery system possesses notable advantages, including a high drug loading capacity critical for low administration doses, a two-step drug release mechanism based on pH and the presence of proteases, an attractive biocompatibility and narrow size distribution inherited from the albumin backbone, as well as fast cellular uptake and masking of epitopes due to a high degree of pegylation. The IC50 of these nanoscopic onion-type micelles was found in the low nanomolar range for Hela cells as well as leukemia cell lines. In vivo data indicate its attractive potential as anti-leukemia treatment suggesting its promising profile as nanomedicine drug delivery system. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Experimental and numerical assessment of the improvement of the load-carrying capacities of butterfly-shaped coupling components in composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altan, Gurkan; Topcu, Muzaffer

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the load-carrying capacities of composite structures connected face-to-face by a butterfly coupling component experimentally and numerically without adhesive. The results of the experimental studies were supported with numerical analysis. In addition, the butterfly coupling component was developed geometrically with a view to the results of the numerical and experimental studies. The change in the load-carrying capacity of the improved butterfly coupling components was analyzed numerically and experimentally to obtain new results. Half-specimens and butterfly-shaped lock components were cut with a water jet machine. Experiments and analyses were conducted to analyze the effects of coupling geometry parameters, such as the ratio of the butterfly end width to the specimen width (w/b), the ratio of the butterfly middle width to the butterfly end width (x/w), and the ratio of the butterfly half height to the specimen width (y/b). It was intended to determine the damage in the butterfly before any damage to the composite structure and to increase the service-life span of the composite structure with the repair of the butterfly lock. As a result of this study, it was determined that the geometrical fixed ratios (w/b) and (x/w) were 0.4 and 0.2 at 0.4 of (y/b) according to the experimental and numerical studies with basic and modified models

  9. Assessment of leg muscles mechanical capacities: Which jump, loading, and variable type provide the most reliable outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Feriche, Belén; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Padial, Paulino; Jaric, Slobodan

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to explore the strength of the force-velocity (F-V) relationship of lower limb muscles and the reliability of its parameters (maximum force [F 0 ], slope [a], maximum velocity [V 0 ], and maximum power [P 0 ]). Twenty-three men were tested in two different jump types (squat and countermovement jump: SJ and CMJ), performed under two different loading conditions (free weight and Smith machine: Free and Smith) with 0, 17, 30, 45, 60, and 75 kg loads. The maximum and averaged values of F and V were obtained for the F-V relationship modelling. All F-V relationships were strong and linear independently whether observed from the averaged across the participants (r ≥ 0.98) or individual data (r = 0.94-0.98), while their parameters were generally highly reliable (F 0 [CV: 4.85%, ICC: 0.87], V 0 [CV: 6.10%, ICC: 0.82], a [CV: 10.5%, ICC: 0.81], and P 0 [CV: 3.5%, ICC: 0.93]). Both the strength of the F-V relationships and the reliability of their parameters were significantly higher for (1) the CMJ over the SJ, (2) the Free over the Smith loading type, and (3) the maximum over the averaged F and V variables. In conclusion, although the F-V relationships obtained from all the jumps tested were linear and generally highly reliable, the less appropriate choice for testing the F-V relationship could be through the averaged F and V data obtained from the SJ performed either in a Free weight or in a Smith machine. Insubstantial differences exist among the other combinations tested.

  10. Maintenance of working capacity of movement mechanism of load trolley with linear traction electric drive of bridge type crane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Denisov, I. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the influence of the air gap size between the linear motor elements on the stability of the traction drive of the movement mechanism of the trolley of the bridge type crane. The main factors affecting the air gap size and the causes of their occurrence are described. The technique of calculating the magnitude of air gap variation is described in relation to the general deformation of the crane metal structure. Recommendations on the need for installation of additional equipment for load trolleys of various designs are given. The optimal values of the length of the trolley base are proposed. Observance of these values ensures normal operation of the traction drive.

  11. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  12. Concussion Prevalence in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Damien J.; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D.; Tybor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultimate Frisbee (ultimate) is a fast-growing, popular sport played nationally by over 4 million athletes. While several studies have examined injury rates in ultimate, no work has investigated the prevalence of concussions specifically or players’ knowledge and management of those injuries. Purpose: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of concussions in ultimate and to assess players’ knowledge of concussions as well as their concussion management behaviors. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: From June to November 2015, we collected ultimate-related concussion data via an anonymous web-based survey, the Concussion in Ultimate Frisbee Survey, from a convenience sample of 787 male and female ultimate players across the United States. Results: There were 553 male and 234 female respondents included in the analysis; 26.58% of men and 24.79% of women reported that they had sustained at least 1 concussion while playing ultimate, with 45.58% and 43.10% of those men and women, respectively, reporting multiple concussions. A total of 67.81% of men and 78.21% of women stated that they would remove themselves from play after sustaining a given concussion, although 45.99% of men and 37.62% of women indicated that they had returned to play in the same game or practice. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that concussions do commonly occur in competitive ultimate and that better education and management of concussions in ultimate athletes are needed. This study is an important first step in deepening our understanding of these issues. PMID:29552572

  13. Dynamic behavior structural response and capacity evaluation of the standardized WWER-1000 nuclear power plants subjected to severe loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriashvili, Y.K.; Krutzik, N.J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to verify the structural capacity of standardized WWER-1000 MW nuclear power plants, comprehensive static and dynamic analyses were performed in cooperation between Siemens and Atomenergoprojekt. The main goal of these investigations was to perform of a number of seismic analyses of standardized WWER-1000 reactor buildings on the basis of 13 given seismological inputs, taking into account the local soil conditions at 17 different sites defined by in-situ investigations. The analyses were based on appropriate mathematical models (equivalent beam models as well as detailed spatial surface element models) of the coupled vibrating structures (base structure, outer structure, containment, inner structure) and of the layered soil. The analyses were mainly performed using the indirect method (substructure method). Based on the results of the seismic analysis as well as the results of static analysis (pressure and temperature due to LOCA, dead weight, prestressing) an assessment was made of the seismic safety of the containment and the reactor building. Using a complex 3-dimensional model of the structure and the soil, the influence of the flexibility of the basement structure on the structural response was also studied. The structural analyses of the WWER-1000 reactor building led to the conclusion that its design accounts well for the main factors governing the dynamic behavior of the building. The assessment of the forces acting in the structures shows that the bearing capacity of the analyzed building structure corresponds to an earthquake intensity of about 0.2 g to 0.25 g

  14. Radiation preparation of drug carriers based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) hydrogels, their loading capacities and controlled release rates for dexamethasone and tegafur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Dang Sang; Nguyen Van Binh; Tran Bang Diep; Nguyen Thi Thom; Hoang Phuong Thao; Pham Duy Duong; Tran Minh Quynh

    2015-01-01

    Thermo-sensitive hydrogels have great potential in some applications. In order to use as the drug delivery systems, the hydrogels should be biocompatibility. New polymers with more biocompatibility and better biodegradability, and environmental friendly crosslinking agents would be necessary for the successful drug carriers. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-dimethylacrylamide) based hydrogels have been prepared from the admixture solutions of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) and N,N’-dimethyl acrylamide (DMA) by radiation copolymerization and crosslinking at radiation dose of 20 kGy as reported in our previous study. Water swelling behaviour of the resulting hydrogels were much depended on their nature such as initial ratio of NIPA and DMA. The drug-loaded hydrogels were prepared by merging hydrogel in the solutions containing corresponding drugs. Loading capacity of the hydrogels were about 48.6 and 95.7 mg per g dried hydrogel for dexamethasone and tegafur. The release studies showed that the presence of ions in simulated body fluid and temperature of the solution much affecting to in vitro release behaviors of hydrogels for dexamethasone and tegafur. The release rates were fast for both drug models. The result also revealed that these drug carriers were biocompatibility without skin irritation, suggested the drug-loaded hydrogels may be used as controlled release drug delivery systems. (author)

  15. Isolating Age-Group Differences in Working Memory Load-Related Neural Activity: Assessing the Contribution of Working Memory Capacity Using a Partial-Trial fMRI Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J.; Rivera, Hannah G.; Rypma, Bart

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies examining age-group differences in working memory load-related neural activity have yielded mixed results. When present, age-group differences in working memory capacity are frequently proposed to underlie these neural effects. However, direct relationships between working memory capacity and working memory load-related activity have only been observed in younger adults. These relationships remain untested in healthy aging. Therefore, the present study examined patterns of working memory load-related activity in 22 younger and 20 older adults and assessed the contribution of working memory capacity to these load-related effects. Participants performed a partial-trial delayed response item recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, participants encoded either 2 or 6 letters, maintained them during a delay, and then indicated whether a probe was present in the memory set. Behavioral results revealed faster and more accurate responses to load 2 versus 6, with age-group differences in this load condition effect for the accuracy measure. Neuroimaging results revealed one region (medial superior frontal gyrus) that showed age-group differences in load-related activity during the retrieval period, with less (greater) neural activity for the low versus high load condition in younger (older) adults. Furthermore, for older adults, load-related activity did not vary as a function of working memory capacity. Thus, working memory-related activity varies with healthy aging, but these patterns are not due solely to working memory capacity. Neurocognitive aging theories that feature capacity will need to account for these results. PMID:23357076

  16. Isolating age-group differences in working memory load-related neural activity: assessing the contribution of working memory capacity using a partial-trial fMRI method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ilana J; Rivera, Hannah G; Rypma, Bart

    2013-05-15

    Previous studies examining age-group differences in working memory load-related neural activity have yielded mixed results. When present, age-group differences in working memory capacity are frequently proposed to underlie these neural effects. However, direct relationships between working memory capacity and working memory load-related activity have only been observed in younger adults. These relationships remain untested in healthy aging. Therefore, the present study examined patterns of working memory load-related activity in 22 younger and 20 older adults and assessed the contribution of working memory capacity to these load-related effects. Participants performed a partial-trial delayed response item recognition task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, participants encoded either 2 or 6 letters, maintained them during a delay, and then indicated whether a probe was present in the memory set. Behavioral results revealed faster and more accurate responses to load 2 versus 6, with age-group differences in this load condition effect for the accuracy measure. Neuroimaging results revealed one region (medial superior frontal gyrus) that showed age-group differences in load-related activity during the retrieval period, with less (greater) neural activity for the low versus high load condition in younger (older) adults. Furthermore, for older adults, load-related activity did not vary as a function of working memory capacity. Thus, working memory-related activity varies with healthy aging, but these patterns are not due solely to working memory capacity. Neurocognitive aging theories that feature capacity will need to account for these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation of bearing capacity of bored piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on how one can possibly predict the ultimate load for the piles that did not reach failure. This challenge was acquired through Chin- Konder method by which, the estimated settlement that correspond to failure load is well defined. Hence, this research aims to make a comparative study between the results of pile load tests carried out in Al-Basrah sewage treatment plant project, and those results induced from the numerical analysis in term of ultimate pile capacity. Consequently, it may give a clear idea on the ability of numerical simulation in getting close to the actual behavior of piles. In the current study, a numerical study using Plaxis 3D Foundation program has been performed on bored piles by the assistance of site investigations of soil. Mohr- Coulomb and linear elastic models were adopted in the simulation for soil and pile respectively. Ten bored piles were used in this analysis under different values of loading. The diameter and length of pile are 0.6m and 24m respectively. The test results indicate that, an excellent agreement has been found as a response of pile capacity between the field and numerical studies. Also, ideal load- settlement curves were created using Chin- Konder method to predict the failure load of bored piles. Also, the results have demonstrated that, the pile capacity obtained from the simulation process is larger about 51% than that design load estimated before the design of piles. This may present a priority to use the finite element method to be accounted as an effective approach in the primary analysis.

  18. In vitro validation of a novel mechanical model for testing the anchorage capacity of pedicle screws using physiological load application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebsch, Christian; Zimmermann, Julia; Graf, Nicolas; Schilling, Christoph; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Kienle, Annette

    2018-01-01

    Biomechanical in vitro tests analysing screw loosening often include high standard deviations caused by high variabilities in bone mineral density and pedicle geometry, whereas standardized mechanical models made of PU foam often do not integrate anatomical or physiological boundary conditions. The purpose of this study was to develop a most realistic mechanical model for the standardized and reproducible testing of pedicle screws regarding the resistance against screw loosening and the holding force as well as to validate this model by in vitro experiments. The novel mechanical testing model represents all anatomical structures of a human vertebra and is consisting of PU foam to simulate cancellous bone, as well as a novel pedicle model made of short carbon fibre filled epoxy. Six monoaxial cannulated pedicle screws (Ø6.5 × 45mm) were tested using the mechanical testing model as well as human vertebra specimens by applying complex physiological cyclic loading (shear, tension, and bending; 5Hz testing frequency; sinusoidal pulsating forces) in a dynamic materials testing machine with stepwise increasing load after each 50.000 cycles (100.0N shear force + 20.0N per step, 51.0N tension force + 10.2N per step, 4.2Nm bending moment + 0.8Nm per step) until screw loosening was detected. The pedicle screw head was fixed on a firmly clamped rod while the load was applied in the vertebral body. For the in vitro experiments, six human lumbar vertebrae (L1-3, BMD 75.4 ± 4.0mg/cc HA, pedicle width 9.8 ± 0.6mm) were tested after implanting pedicle screws under X-ray control. Relative motions of pedicle screw, specimen fixture, and rod fixture were detected using an optical motion tracking system. Translational motions of the mechanical testing model experiments in the point of load introduction (0.9-2.2mm at 240N shear force) were reproducible within the variation range of the in vitro experiments (0.6-3.5mm at 240N shear force). Screw loosening occurred continuously in

  19. A load-displacement based approach to assess the bearing capacity and deformations of mono-bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammadjavad; Diaz, Alberto Troya; Nielsen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    It is now accepted that a larger effort must be made in order to optimize the design so that offshore wind turbines can be competitive with the other energy resources. In this regard, mono-buckets are known as a cost-effective offshore foundation solution. In the current study, a load–displacemen......It is now accepted that a larger effort must be made in order to optimize the design so that offshore wind turbines can be competitive with the other energy resources. In this regard, mono-buckets are known as a cost-effective offshore foundation solution. In the current study, a load...... and run the calculations is proposed. The model is validated, and its accuracy is analyzed, by comparison with field test results for a bucket foundation installed in silty, sandy soil....

  20. Demonstration and evaluation of the 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system, Eldorado Resources, Ltd., Port Hope, Ontario, September 3-4, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Huxford, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    On September 3 and 4, 1986, the prototype 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system (LCBWS) developed by the US Enrichment Safeguards Program (ESP) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., was field tested at the Eldorado Resources, Ltd., (ERL) facility in Port Hope, Ontario. The 20-ton-capacity LCBWS has been designed and fabricated for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verifying the masses of large-capacity UF 6 cylinders during IAEA safeguards inspections at UF 6 handling facilities. The purpose of the Canadian field test was to demonstrate and to evaluate with IAEA inspectorates and with UF 6 bulk handling facility operators at Eldorado the principles, procedures, and hardware associated with using the 20-ton-capacity LCBWS as a portable means for verifying the masses of 10- and 14-ton UF 6 cylinders. Session participants included representatives from the IAEA, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Eldorado Resources, Ltd., the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), and the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Appendix A presents the list of participants and their organization affiliation. The two-day field test involved a formal briefing by ESP staff, two cylinder weighing sessions, IAEA critiques of the LCBWS hardware and software, and concluding discussions on the field performance of the system. Appendix B cites the meeting agenda. Summarized in this report are (1) the technical information presented by the system developers, (2) results from the weighing sessions, and (3) observations, suggestions, and concluding statements from meeting participants

  1. Testing a capacity-load model for hypertension: disentangling early and late growth effects on childhood blood pressure in a prospective birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos S Grijalva-Eternod

    Full Text Available In 2005, it was estimated that hypertension affected 26.4% of the adult population worldwide. By 2025, it is predicted that it will affect about 60% of adults, a total of 1.56 billion. Both pre- and postnatal growth patterns have been associated with later blood pressure (BP, but in contrasting directions. These inconsistent associations of growth during different developmental periods merit elucidation. We tested a theoretical model treating birth weight as a marker of homeostatic metabolic capacity, and childhood height, lean mass and fat mass as independent indices of metabolic load. We predicted that decreased capacity and increased load would be independently associated with increased BP.Data from the ALSPAC cohort on growth from birth to 7 years, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and BP at 9 years, were analysed (n = 6579. Data were expressed as standard deviation scores (SDS or standardised regression residuals (SRR. BP was independently and positively associated with each of height, lean mass and fat mass. In a joint model systolic BP was positively associated with conditional weight velocity [males 0.40 (95%CI: 0.37-0.44 & females 0.44 (95%CI: 0.40-0.47 SDS/SRR], but not birth weight [0.00 (95%CI: -0.03-0.04 & 0.03 (95%CI: -0.01-0.07 SDS/SDS]. Adjusting for height, lean mass and fat mass, the association of systolic BP and conditional weight velocity attenuated [0.00(95%CI: -0.09-0.08 & -0.06(95%CI: -0.14-0.03 SDS/SRR], whereas that with birth weight became negative [-0.10 (95%CI: -0.14-0.06 & -0.09 (95%CI: -0.13-0.05 SDS/SDS]. Similar results were obtained for diastolic BP and pulse pressure.Consistent with our theoretical model, high metabolic load relative to metabolic capacity is associated with increased BP. Our data demonstrate the contribution of different growth and body composition components to BP variance, and clarify the developmental aetiology of hypertension.

  2. Strain Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Members Subjected to Uniaxial Tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Rasmussen, Annette Beedholm; Fisker, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to set up a method to determine the strain capacity of tension bars of reinforced concrete (RC) subjected to pure tension. Due to the interaction between reinforcement and concrete and due to the presence of cracks, the stresses in both reinforcement and concrete...... are varying along the length of the tension bar. The strain capacity of the tension bar is seen as the average strain in the reinforcement at the load level corresponding to the ultimate stress capacity of the reinforcement at the cracks. The result of the approach is in overall good agreement when comparing...

  3. Assessing the pollution risk of soil Chromium based on loading capacity of paddy soil at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mingkai; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Chuanrong; Huang, Biao; Zhao, Yongcun

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of a trace metal in rice grain is not only affected by the total concentration of the soil trace metal, but also by crop variety and related soil properties, such as soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and so on. However, these factors were seldom considered in previous studies on mapping the pollution risk of trace metals in paddy soil at a regional scale. In this study, the spatial nonstationary relationships between rice-Cr and a set of perceived soil properties (soil-Cr, soil pH and SOM) were explored using geographically weighted regression; and the relationships were then used for calculating the critical threshold (CT) of soil-Cr concentration that may ensure the concentration of rice-Cr being below the permissible limit. The concept of “loading capacity” (LC) for Cr in paddy soil was then defined as the difference between the CT and the real concentration of Cr in paddy soil, so as to map the pollution risk of soil-Cr to rice grain and assess the risk areas in Jiaxing city, China. Compared with the information of the concentration of the total soil-Cr, such results are more valuable for spatial decision making in reducing the accumulation of rice-Cr at a regional scale. PMID:26675587

  4. Influence of Excessive Moisture in the Subgrade on the Durability and Load-Bearing Capacity of Road Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowski, P.; Budziński, B.

    2018-05-01

    When well performed, pavement renewal or alteration shall ensure the desired properties of the road during the assumed period of operation. Presence of water in the subgrade can be one of the main factors affecting the structural capacity of pavement and can result in cracking of the bituminous layers, even after a very short period of trafficking. Reconstruction of one of regional roads in Poland has been chosen to serve as an example of inappropriate approach to the problem of the presence of water in the road structure. The project included construction of new layers of pavement and increasing the design life of the whole pavement structure to 4.06 million ESAL of 100 kN (as per the Standard Catalogue of Typical Flexible and Semi-rigid Road Pavement Structures, issue of 1997). After a relatively short period of trafficking (3-5 years) localised alligator cracking appeared on the surface along with structural deformations. The pavement condition assessment including FWD tests was carried out to reveal excessive deflections (over 500 μm) which classify the road for renewal. The analysis of data showed that the main cause of distress was softening of the subgrade caused by an ingress of precipitation water under the pavement layers through the roadway and shoulder edges. The deficiencies of the performed reconstruction occurred both in the roadway (including small step-outs in the cement-treated layer) and partly in the shoulders where the existing soil was in places replaced with impervious material, with the existing (cohesive) material left in place on a major part of the overall length.

  5. High sensitivity and selectivity in quantitative analysis of drugs in biological samples using 4-column multidimensional micro-UHPLC-MS enabling enhanced sample loading capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald; Vereyken, Liesbeth; François, Isabelle; Dillen, Lieve; Vreeken, Rob J; Cuyckens, Filip

    2017-10-09

    Sensitivity is often a critical parameter in quantitative bioanalyses in drug development. For liquid-chromatography-based methods, sensitivity can be improved by reducing the column diameter, but practical sensitivity gains are limited by the reduced sample loading capacity on small internal diameter (I.D.) columns. We developed a set-up that has overcome these limitations in sample loading capacity. The set-up uses 4 columns with gradually decreasing column diameters along the flow-path (2.1 → 1 → 0.5 → 0.15 mm). Samples are pre-concentrated on-line on a 2.1 mm I.D. trapping column and back flushed to a 1 mm I.D. UHPLC analytical column and separated. The peak(s) of interest are transferred using heartcutting to a second trapping column (0.5 mm I.D.), which is back-flushed to a 0.15 mm I.D. micro-UHPLC analytical column for orthogonal separation. The proof of concept of the set-up was demonstrated by the simultaneous analysis of midazolam and 1'-hydroxy midazolam in plasma by injection of 80 μL of protein precipitated plasma. The 4-column funnel set-up proved to be robust and resulted in a 10-50 times better sensitivity compared to a trap-elute approach and 250-500 fold better compared to direct micro-UHPLC analysis. A lower limit of quantification of 100 fg/mL in plasma was obtained for both probe compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  7. Porous-Shell Vanadium Nitride Nanobubbles with Ultrahigh Areal Sulfur Loading for High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lianbo; Yuan, Hao; Zhang, Wenjun; Zhu, Guoyin; Wang, Yanrong; Hu, Yi; Zhao, Peiyang; Chen, Renpeng; Chen, Tao; Liu, Jie; Hu, Zheng; Jin, Zhong

    2017-12-13

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great promise for the applications of high energy density storage. However, the performances of Li-S batteries are restricted by the low electrical conductivity of sulfur and shuttle effect of intermediate polysulfides. Moreover, the areal loading weights of sulfur in previous studies are usually low (around 1-3 mg cm -2 ) and thus cannot fulfill the requirement for practical deployment. Herein, we report that porous-shell vanadium nitride nanobubbles (VN-NBs) can serve as an efficient sulfur host in Li-S batteries, exhibiting remarkable electrochemical performances even with ultrahigh areal sulfur loading weights (5.4-6.8 mg cm -2 ). The large inner space of VN-NBs can afford a high sulfur content and accommodate the volume expansion, and the high electrical conductivity of VN-NBs ensures the effective utilization and fast redox kinetics of polysulfides. Moreover, VN-NBs present strong chemical affinity/adsorption with polysulfides and thus can efficiently suppress the shuttle effect via both capillary confinement and chemical binding, and promote the fast conversion of polysulfides. Benefiting from the above merits, the Li-S batteries based on sulfur-filled VN-NBs cathodes with 5.4 mg cm -2 sulfur exhibit impressively high areal/specific capacity (5.81 mAh cm -2 ), superior rate capability (632 mAh g -1 at 5.0 C), and long cycling stability.

  8. Statistically-Based Comparison of the Removal Efficiencies and Resilience Capacities between Conventional and Natural Wastewater Treatment Systems: A Peak Load Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging global threats, such as climate change, urbanization and water depletion, are driving forces for finding a feasible substitute for low cost-effective conventional activated sludge (AS technology. On the other hand, given their low cost and easy operation, nature-based systems such as constructed wetlands (CWs and waste stabilization ponds (WSPs appear to be viable options. To examine these systems, a 210-day experiment with 31 days of peak load scenario was performed. Particularly, we conducted a deliberate strategy of experimentation, which includes applying a preliminary study, preliminary models, hypothetical tests and power analysis to compare their removal efficiencies and resilience capacities. In contrast to comparable high removal efficiencies of organic matter—around 90%—both natural systems showed moderate nutrient removal efficiencies, which inferred the necessity for further treatment to ensure their compliance with environmental standards. During the peak period, the pond treatment systems appeared to be the most robust as they indicated a higher strength to withstanding the organic matter and nitrogen shock load and were able to recover within a short period. However, high demand of land—2.5 times larger than that of AS—is a major concern of the applicability of WSPs despite their lower operation and maintenance (O&M costs. It is also worth noting that initial efforts on systematic experimentation appeared to have an essential impact on ensuring statistically and practically meaningful results in this comparison study.

  9. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF DEEP BEAM UNDER DIRECT AND INDIRECT LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem K. Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This research study the effect of exist of opening in web of deep beam loaded directly and indirectly and the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams without with and without web reinforcement, the opening size and shear span ratio (a/d was constant. Nonlinear analysis using the finite element method with ANSYS software release 12.0 program was used to predict the ultimate load capacity and crack propagation for reinforced concrete deep beams with openings. The adopted beam models depend on experimental test program of reinforced concrete deep beam with and without openings and the finite element analysis result showed a good agreement with small amount of deference in ultimate beam capacity with (ANSYS analysis and it was completely efficient to simulate the behavior of reinforced concrete deep beams. The mid-span deflection at ultimate applied load and inclined cracked were highly compatible with experimental results. The model with opening in the shear span shows a reduction in the load-carrying capacity of beam and adding the vertical stirrup has improve the capacity of ultimate beam load.

  10. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  11. Librarians Are the Ultimate Knowledge Managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koina, Cathie

    2003-01-01

    Librarians are the ultimate knowledge managers. Everyone knows that. After all, haven't they been the custodians of documented knowledge for centuries? Who could possibly do it better than them? Well, then why aren't people knocking down their doors, begging them to be the knowledge managers of the organisation? Are they just ignorant of how…

  12. The Influence of Time on Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. Lysebjerg; Augustesen, A.; Sørensen, Carsten S.

    2004-01-01

    In Danish engineering practice, one of the ways to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of an axially loaded pile is by means of geostatic formulas. In the equation describing the contribution from the shaft friction to the total bearing capacity for piles located entirely or partly in clay......, a regeneration factor appears. The regeneration factor accounts for effects of dissipation of pore pressure due to pile driving and true time effects such as ageing on the ultimate bearing capacity. Normally the factor is 0.4 but in this paper, the influence of the undrained shear strength and time...... on the regeneration factor is investigated. A relation between the quantities is proposed, which in the end may imply an economical benefit in the design of pile foundations....

  13. Semiportable load-cell-based weighing system prototype of 18.14-metric-ton (20-ton) capacity for UF6 cylinder weight verifications: description and testing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The 18.14-metric-ton-capacity (20-ton) Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS) prototype tested at the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Gaseous Diffusion Plant March 20-30, 1984, is semiportable and has the potential for being highly accurate. Designed by Brookhaven National Laboratory, it can be moved to cylinders for weighing as opposed to the widely used operating philosophy of most enrichment facilities of moving cylinders to stationary accountability scales. Composed mainly of commercially available, off-the-shelf hardware, the system's principal elements are two load cells that sense the weight (i.e., force) of a uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder suspended from the LCBWS while the cylinder is in the process of being weighed. Portability is achieved by its attachment to a double-hook, overhead-bridge crane. The LCBWS prototype is designed to weigh 9.07- and 12.70-metric ton (10- and 14-ton) UF 6 cylinders. A detailed description of the LCBWS is given, design information and criteria are supplied, a testing procedure is outlined, and initial test results are reported. A major objective of the testing is to determine the reliability and accuracy of the system. Other testing objectives include the identification of (1) potential areas for system improvements and (2) procedural modifications that will reflect an improved and more efficient system. The testing procedure described includes, but is not limited to, methods that account for temperature sensitivity of the instrumentation, the local variation in the acceleration due to gravity, and buoyance effects. Operational and safety considerations are noted. A preliminary evaluation of the March test data indicates that the LCBWS prototype has the potential to have an accuracy in the vicinity of 1 kg

  14. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  15. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  16. A one-stage, high-load capacity separation actuator using anti-friction rollers and redundant shape memory alloy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojun, Yan; Dawei, Huang; Xiaoyong, Zhang; Ying, Liu; Qiaolong, Yang

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a SMA (shape memory alloy) wire-based separation actuator with high-load capacity and simple structure. The novel actuator is based on a one-stage locking mechanism, which means that the separation is directly driven by the SMA wire. To release a large preload, a group of anti-friction rollers are adopted to reduce the force for triggering. In addition, two SMA wires are used redundantly to ensure a high reliability. After separation, the actuator can be reset automatically without any auxiliary tool or manual operation. Three prototypes of the separation actuator are fabricated and tested. According to the performance test results, the actuator can release a maximum preload of 40 kN. The separation time tends to decrease as the operation current increases and it can be as short as 0.5 s under a 7.5 A (the voltage is 5.8 V) current. Lifetime test indicates that the actuator has a lifetime of more than 50 cycles. The environmental tests demonstrate that the actuator can endure the typical thermal and vibration environment tests without unexpected separation or structure damage, and separate normally after these environment tests.

  17. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  18. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  19. Simulation of PV/FC power hybrid system. Change of system capacity with load form factor; Taiyoko hatsuden nenryo denchi hybrid system no simulation. Fuka keijoritsu ni yoru system yoryo no henka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiguchi, N.; Tani, T. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study is conducted of a photovoltaic/fuel-cell hybrid system whose power storage is a hydrogen storage that uses a hydrogen absorbing alloy. In a simulation in this research, the solar cell conversion efficiency is changed from 15.0% to 21.0% and the fuel cell power conversion efficiency from 40.0% to 50.0%, and the resultant changes in the capacity and operation rate are investigated for each of the devices in the system. The findings follow. A 1.0% change in the solar cell conversion efficiency results in a 4.8kW change in the solar cell capacity and a 1.6-ton change in the hydrogen storage capacity. With a 1.0% change in the fuel cell power conversion efficiency, there is a 14.7kW change in the solar cell capacity and a 5.3-ton change in the hydrogen storage capacity. The fuel cell capacity is not dependent on the solar cell conversion efficiency or fuel cell power conversion efficiency but on the maximum load in each of the load form factors. The rate of occurrence of an operation rate of less than 30% is 54.7% both in DC/DC converter and hydrogen generator, 24.6% in fuel cells, and 16.7% in the DC/DC inverter. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  1. Behaviour of concrete nuclear containment structures upto ultimate failure with special reference to MAPP-1 containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appa Rao, T.V.S.R.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental methods for investigating the behaviour of concrete secondary containment structures subjected to loads upto their ultimate failure have been discussed in the paper. Need for inelastic nonlinear analysis of containments has been emphasized. Different contitutive models of concrete that can be employed in the nonlinear analysis of concrete structures were briefly reviewed. Based on the experimental results obtained in a 1:12 scale model test conducted at the Structural Engineering Research (Regional) Centre, Madras, behaviour of the MAPP-1 containment to internal pressure loading upto its ultimate failure has been discussed. (author)

  2. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  3. Ultimate-gradient accelerators physics and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich

    1995-01-01

    As introduction, the needs and ways for ultimate acceleration gradients are discussed briefly. The Plasma Wake Field Acceleration is analized in the most important details. The structure of specific plasma oscillations and "high energy driver beam SP-plasma" interaction is presented, including computer simulation of the process. Some pratical ways to introduce the necessary mm-scale bunching in driver beam and to arrange sequential energy multiplication are dicussed. The influence of accelerating beam particle - plasma binary collisions is considered, also. As applications of PWFA, the use of proton super-colliders beams (LHC and Future SC) to drive the "multi particle types" accelerator, and the arrangements for the electron-positron TeV range collider are discussed.

  4. Focused ion beam technology and ultimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierak, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    In this topical review, the potential of the focused ion beam (FIB) technology and ultimate applications are reviewed. After an introduction to the technology and to the operating principles of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), of ion optics and instrument architectures, several applications are described and discussed. First, the application of FIB for microcircuit inspection, metrology and failure analysis is presented. Then, we introduce and illustrate some advanced patterning schemes we propose as next generation FIB processing examples. These patterning schemes are (i) local defect injection or smoothing in magnetic thin film direct patterning, (ii) functionalization of graphite substrates to guide organization of clusters, (iii) local and selective epitaxy of III–V semiconductor quantum dots and (iv) FIB patterned solid-state nanopores for biological molecules manipulation and analysis. We conclude this work by giving our vision of the future developments for FIB technology. (topical review)

  5. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. UHS, Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.; Nuttle, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function of wind speed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. 2 - Method of solution: The transfer of heat and water vapor is modeled using an equilibrium temperature procedure for an UHS cooling pond. The UHS spray pond model considers heat, mass, and momentum transfer from a single water drop with the surrounding air, and modification of the surrounding air resulting from the heat, mass, and momentum transfer from many drops in different parts of a spray field. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program SPRCO uses RANF, a uniform random number generator which is an intrinsic function on the CDC. All programs except COMET use the NAMELIST statement, which is non standard. Otherwise these programs conform to the ANSI Fortran 77 standard. The meteorological data scanning procedure requires tens of years of recorded data to be effective. The models and methods, provided as useful tool for UHS analyses of cooling ponds and spray ponds, are intended as guidelines only. Use of these methods does not automatically assure NRC approval, nor are they required procedures for nuclear-power-plant licensing

  7. Proximate and ultimate controls on carbon and nutrient dynamics of small agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Zahra; Abbott, Benjamin W.; Troccaz, Olivier; Baudry, Jacques; Pinay, Gilles

    2016-03-01

    Direct and indirect effects from human activity have dramatically increased nutrient loading to aquatic inland and estuarine ecosystems. Despite an abundance of studies investigating the impact of agricultural activity on water quality, our understanding of what determines the capacity of a watershed to remove or retain nutrients remains limited. The goal of this study was to identify proximate and ultimate controls on dissolved organic carbon and nutrient dynamics in small agricultural catchments by investigating the relationship between catchment characteristics, stream discharge, and water chemistry. We analyzed a 5-year, high-frequency water chemistry data set from three catchments in western France ranging from 2.3 to 10.8 km2. The relationship between hydrology and solute concentrations differed between the three catchments and was associated with hedgerow density, agricultural activity, and geology. The catchment with thicker soil and higher surface roughness had relatively invariant carbon and nutrient chemistry across hydrologic conditions, indicating high resilience to human disturbance. Conversely, the catchments with smoother, thinner soils responded to both intra- and interannual hydrologic variation with high concentrations of phosphate (PO43-) and ammonium (NH4+) in streams during low flow conditions and strong increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sediment, and particulate organic matter during high flows. Despite contrasting agricultural activity between catchments, the physical context (geology, topography, and land-use configuration) appeared to be the most important determinant of catchment solute dynamics based on principle components analysis. The influence of geology and accompanying topographic and geomorphological factors on water quality was both direct and indirect because the distribution of agricultural activity in these catchments is largely a consequence of the geologic and topographic context. This link between inherent

  8. Impact of measurement uncertainty from experimental load distribution factors on bridge load rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangone, Michael V.; Whelan, Matthew J.

    2018-03-01

    Load rating and testing of highway bridges is important in determining the capacity of the structure. Experimental load rating utilizes strain transducers placed at critical locations of the superstructure to measure normal strains. These strains are then used in computing diagnostic performance measures (neutral axis of bending, load distribution factor) and ultimately a load rating. However, it has been shown that experimentally obtained strain measurements contain uncertainties associated with the accuracy and precision of the sensor and sensing system. These uncertainties propagate through to the diagnostic indicators that in turn transmit into the load rating calculation. This paper will analyze the effect that measurement uncertainties have on the experimental load rating results of a 3 span multi-girder/stringer steel and concrete bridge. The focus of this paper will be limited to the uncertainty associated with the experimental distribution factor estimate. For the testing discussed, strain readings were gathered at the midspan of each span of both exterior girders and the center girder. Test vehicles of known weight were positioned at specified locations on each span to generate maximum strain response for each of the five girders. The strain uncertainties were used in conjunction with a propagation formula developed by the authors to determine the standard uncertainty in the distribution factor estimates. This distribution factor uncertainty is then introduced into the load rating computation to determine the possible range of the load rating. The results show the importance of understanding measurement uncertainty in experimental load testing.

  9. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  10. Safety margins associated with containment structures under dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    A technical basis for assessing the true safety margins of containment structures involved with MARK I boiling water reactor reevaluation activities is presented. It is based on the results of a plane-strain, large displacement, elasto-plastic, finite-element analysis of a thin cylindrical shell subjected to external and internal pressure pulses. An analytical procedure is presented for estimating the ultimate load capacity of the thin shell structure, and subsequently, for quantifying the design margins of safety for the type of loads under consideration. For defining failure of structures, a finite strain failure criterion is derived that accounts for multiaxiality effects

  11. Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moelholt Jensen, Find

    2008-05-15

    of the profile, also called 'local deformations', to verify a more complex response than that of a Bernoulli-Euler Beam. A large number of mechanical displacement sensors and strain gauges were mounted inside and outside the structure. These measurements further proved highly useful when validating Finite Element based analysis and failure mechanisms should be decided. Finally, comparisons of the ultimate failure loads observed in the full-scale tests are presented and conclusions are drawn based on the mechanisms found. (au)

  12. Biomechanical Modeling of Split-leg Squat and Heel Raise on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William K.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen M.; Humphreys, Brad; Funk, Justin; Funk, Nathan; Dewitt, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. Computational models currently use OpenSim software, an open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, with biomechanical input data from subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. Subjects are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device. Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. This data is input into the OpenSim biomechanical model, which has been scaled to match the anthropometrics of the test subject, to calculate the loads on the body. Multiple exercises are performed and evaluated during a test session such as a full squat, single leg squat, heel raise and dead lift. Variables for these exercises include applied device load, narrow or wide foot stance, slow or fast cadence and the harness or long bar interface between the test subject and the device. Data from free weights are compared to the resistively loaded exercise

  13. Alternative methods for 85Kr ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzhorn, R.D.

    Storage by ion implantation is described. Ion implantation (II) involves the penetration and retention of ions accelerated in the keV-MeV energy range in the surface layer of a solid material. Through collisions, the accelerated ions that are to be implanted give off electrical energy to the target material and heat it up. The number of ions implanted, resulting from the entire ion current, depends not on the physical properties of the implantation material but rather is determined by the external system. The gas enclosed in the matrix is in the form of small bubbles. The size of the bubbles depends on the temperature and is in the range of a few hundred Angstrom units. The bubbles are stable at least up to the temperature at which they were produced. Therefore, bombardment of the metal at higher temperatures decreases the danger of the gas being released, even at very high temperatures. Methods of producing noble gas ions are discussed along with embedding capacity, safety, recovery, and advantages and disadvantages of the method

  14. Testing and modeling of cyclically loaded rock anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joar Tistel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA is planning for an upgrade of the E39 highway route at the westcoast of Norway. Fixed links shall replace ferries at seven fjord crossings. Wide spans and large depths at the crossings combined with challenging subsea topography and environmental loads call for an extension of existing practice. A variety of bridge concepts are evaluated in the feasibility study. The structures will experience significant loads from deadweight, traffic and environment. Anchoring of these forces is thus one of the challenges met in the project. Large-size subsea rock anchors are considered a viable alternative. These can be used for anchoring of floating structures but also with the purpose of increasing capacity of fixed structures. This paper presents first a thorough study of factors affecting rock anchor bond capacity. Laboratory testing of rock anchors subjected to cyclic loading is thereafter presented. Finally, the paper presents a model predicting the capacity of a rock anchor segment, in terms of a ribbed bar, subjected to a cyclic load history. The research assumes a failure mode occurring in the interface between the rock anchor and the surrounding grout. The constitutive behavior of the bonding interface is investigated for anchors subjected to cyclic one-way tensile loads. The model utilizes the static bond capacity curve as a basis, defining the ultimate bond τbu and the slip s1 at τbu. A limited number of input parameters are required to apply the model. The model defines the bond-slip behavior with the belonging rock anchor capacity depending on the cyclic load level (τmax cy/τbu, the cyclic load ratio (R = τmin cy/τmax cy, and the number of load cycles (N. The constitutive model is intended to model short anchor lengths representing an incremental length of a complete rock anchor.

  15. Experimental investigation on ultimate strength and failure response of composite box beams used in wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jing; Chen, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    This study focuses on the ultimate strength and failure response of composite box beams under three-point bending. The box beams consist of spar caps and shear webs and they are typically used in wind turbine blades as load-carrying members. Different spar cap configurations and loading directions...

  16. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  17. Thermal performance measurements on ultimate heat sinks--cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.; Abbey, O.B.

    1977-12-01

    The primary objective of the studies described is to obtain the requisite data, with respect to modeling requirements, to characterize thermal performance of heat sinks for nuclear facilities existing at elevated water temperatures in result of experiencing a genuinely large heat load and responding to meteorological influence. The data should reflect thermal performance for combinations leading to worst-case meteorological influence. A geothermal water retention basin has been chosen as the site for the first measurement program and data have been obtained in the first of several experiments scheduled to be performed there. These data illustrate the thermal and water budgets during episodes of cooling from an initially high pond water bulk temperature. Monitoring proceeded while the pond experienced only meteorological and seepage influence. The data are discussed and are presented as a data volume which may be used for calculation purposes. Suggestions for future measurement programs are stated with the intent to maintain and improve relevance to nuclear ultimate heat sinks while continuing to examine the performance of the analog geothermal pond. It is further suggested that the geothermal pond, with some modification, may be a suitable site for spray pond measurements

  18. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  19. Bearing capacity of Skirt circular footing on sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Z. EL Wakil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skirts are used to improve the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sandy soil by constraining the soil beneath and containing the plastic flow of soil. They are used as an alternative to deep foundations in soils with low strength at the surface. As there has been available little work studying the performance of skirted foundation, we are performing eighteen laboratory experiments on circular steel footings of different diameters and different skirt lengths. The aim of these experiments is to shed some lights on the effects of skirts on the bearing capacity of shallow footings. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the ultimate load attained were investigated. From the accomplished laboratory tests, it was found that skirts improve appreciably the sustainability of shallow footings to applied load as they increase the ultimate load of shallow footings by some up to 6.25 times for the current study conditions and variables. The performance of skirted footing depends upon the relative density of sand and on the skirt length to footing diameter ratio. Skirts are more beneficial in case of footings on loose sand than in case of medium and dense sand.

  20. Thermical Load Calculation and Capacity of Cooling and Venting Equipment of a Diesel Engine Emissions Study Bench; Calculo de Cargas Termicas y Capacidad de los Equipos de Refrigeracion y Ventilacion de un Banco de Estudio de Emisiones de Motores Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Garcia, E.; Fonseca Gonzalez, N. A.

    2005-07-01

    The present report tries to develop the calculation of thermical loads and to define the capacity of the equipments of cooling and ventilation that should have the engines test bench that is being ensemble in the installation of the CIEMAT named {sup D}iesel engine emissions study bench (E65-P0). The test bench is formed essentially by a dynamometrical brake and an engine connected at previous one, both of them inside a cabin of isolation acoustic. The thermical loads to be dissipated will be calculated for all the elements that compose the bench and considering his maximum values, to determine the suitable system of cooling air - water of the devices and ventilation in the cabin. (Author) 2 refs.

  1. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel DEAB. Systems analysis. Ultimate disposal concepts. Final report. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.

    1995-10-01

    The results elaborated under the project, systems analysis of mixed radwaste disposal concepts and systems analysis of ultimate disposal concepts, provide a comprehensive description and assessment of a radwaste repository, for heat generating wastes and for wastes with negligible heat generation, and thus represent the knowledge basis for forthcoming planning work for a repository in an abandoned salt mine. A fact to be considered is that temperature field calculations have shown that there is room for further optimization with regard to the mine layout. The following aspects have been analysed: (1) safety of operation; (2) technical feasibility and realisation and licensability of the concepts; (3) operational aspects; (4) varieties of utilization of the salt dome for the intended purpose (boreholes for waste emplacement, emplacement in galleries, multi-horizon systems); (5) long-term structural stability of the mine; (6) economic efficiency; (7) nuclear materials safeguards. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  3. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  4. Probabilistic evaluation of concrete containment capacity for beyond design basis internal pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.T.; Dameron, R.A.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1995-01-01

    For beyond design basis internal pressure loading, experimental studies have demonstrated that the most probable failure mode governing the ultimate functional capacity of concrete containments is leak rather than break. Based on leak rates measured in experiments, a prediction formula for leak rate as functions of containment liner size and internal pressure has been postulated. The determination of liner tear is cast in a probabilistic framework. In calculating leakage, particular attention is paid to the evaluation of leakage versus rupture and the loading rates that may be required to leapfrog over a leakage mode. (orig.)

  5. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  6. Bearing Capacity of Floating Ice Sheets under Short-Term Loads: Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    under Short-Term Loads Over-Sea-Ice Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Co ld R eg io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra...Traverse from McMurdo Station to Marble Point Jason C. Weale and Devinder S. Sodhi Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) U.S...Division of Polar Programs operates an over-sea-ice traverse from McMurdo Station to rou- tinely resupply Marble Point Camp. The traverse requires that

  7. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  8. Ultimate analysis of PWR prestressed concrete containment subjected to internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.-T.; Lin, Y.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Numerical analyses are carried out by using the ABAQUS finite element program to predict the ultimate pressure capacity and the failure mode of the PWR prestressed concrete containment at Maanshan nuclear power plant. Material nonlinearity such as concrete cracking, tension stiffening, shear retention, concrete plasticity, yielding of prestressing tendon, yielding of steel reinforcing bar and degradation of material properties due to high temperature are all simulated with proper constitutive models. Geometric nonlinearity due to finite deformation has also been considered. The results of the analysis show that when the prestressed concrete containment fails, extensive cracks take place at the apex of the dome, the junction of the dome and cylinder, and the bottom of the cylinder connecting to the base slab. In addition, the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment is higher than the design pressure by 86%

  9. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  10. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  11. Sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigo, P.; Sarghiuta, R.; Estefen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive sensitivity analysis carried out by the Committee III.1 "Ultimate Strength" of ISSC?2003 in the framework of a benchmark on the ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels. Previously, different benchmarks were presented by ISSC committees on ul...

  12. Containment bellows testing under extreme loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splezter, B.L.; Lambert, L.D.; Parks, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting several research programs to help develop validated methods for the prediction of the ultimate pressure capacity, at elevated temperatures, of light water reactor (LWR) containment structures. To help understand the ultimate pressure of the entire containment pressure boundary, each component must be evaluated. The containment pressure boundary consists of the containment shell and many access, piping, and electrical penetrations. The focus of the current research program is to study the ultimate behavior of flexible metal bellows that are used at piping penetrations. Bellows are commonly used at piping penetrations in steel containments; however, they have very few applications in concrete (reinforced or prestressed) containments. The purpose of piping bellows is to provide a soft connection between the containment shell and the pipe are attached while maintaining the containment pressure boundary. In this way, piping loads caused by differential movement between the piping and the containment shell are minimized. SNL is conducting a test program to determine the leaktight capacity of containment bellows when subjected to postulated severe accident conditions. If the test results indicate that containment bellows could be a possible failure mode of the containment pressure boundary, then methods will be developed to predict the deformation, pressure, and temperature conditions that would likely cause a bellows failure. Results from the test program would be used to validate the prediction methods. This paper provides a description of the use and design of bellows in containment piping penetrations, the types of possible bellows loadings during a severe accident, and an overview of the test program, including available test results at the time of writing

  13. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    of the diameter, depth and soil strength, and increase of each these will give an increase in stiffness. • Cyclic response of a lateral loaded pile is depended on the characteristics of the cyclic load. Behaviour of a monopile is a classic soil-structure interaction problem depending on the pile stiffness....... The target is to improve the use of monopiles as preferred support structure beyond the current limit at a water depth of 30 m. Design of foundations for wind turbines has a large focus on the stiffness of the combined structure, turbine-tower-foundation, which has an influence on the environmental loads...... initial response and a higher ultimate capacity. The initial stiffness of the soil-structure interaction measured in the centrifuge tests, equivalent to initial stiffness of p-y curves, shows a dependency of depth and diameter. Control issues in relation to cyclic tests have resulted in tests...

  14. Friction effects on lateral loading behavior of rigid piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2012-01-01

    taking into account the shear frictional resistance along the pile. For this purpose efficient three dimensional finite element models of different diameter have been developed. The increase of the side friction and of the diameter of the pile is shown to alter the failure pattern and increase...... the lateral capacity of the pile. The obtained p - y curves demonstrate the importance of the aforementioned parameters in the design of rigid piles, as the reduction of friction along the interface reduces not only the ultimate load but also the stiffness of the soil-pile response. Read More: http...

  15. Time dependent variation of carrying capacity of prestressed precast beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr; Matečková, Pavlína

    2018-04-01

    The article deals with the evaluation of the precast concrete element time dependent carrying capacity. The variation of the resistance is inherited property of laboratory as well as in-situ members. Thus the specification of highest, yet possible, laboratory sample resistance is important with respect to evaluation of laboratory experiments based on the test machine loading capabilities. The ultimate capacity is evaluated through the bending moment resistance of a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The probabilistic assessment is applied. Scatter of random variables of compressive strength of concrete and effective height of the cross section is considered. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to investigate the performance of the cross section of the beam with changes of tendons’ positions and compressive strength of concrete.

  16. Influence of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive consideration regarding influence mechanisms of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells is taken to satisfy requirement of deep-sea structural design. The feasibility of innovative numerical procedure that combines welding simulation and non-linear buckling analysis is verified by a good agreement to experimental and theoretical results. Spherical shells with a series of wall thicknesses to radius ratios are studied. Residual stress and deformations from welding process are investigated separately. Variant influence mechanisms are discovered. Residual stress is demonstrated to be influential to stress field and buckling behavior but not to the ultimate strength. Deformations are proved to have a significant impact on ultimate strength. When central angles are less than critical value, concave magnitudes reduce ultimate strengths linearly. However, deformations with central angles above critical value are of much greater harm. Less imperfection susceptibility is found in spherical shells with larger wall thicknesses to radius ratios.

  17. Ultimate guide to YouTube for business

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate Guide to YouTube for Business helps small business owners create marketing videos to help promote their products, share their story, build a community around their brand without spending a fortune-all the while making money.

  18. Ultimate strength analysis of ring-stiffened cylinders subjected to hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chi Mo

    1990-01-01

    In this study, ultimate strength analysis of ring-stiffened cylinders have been performed, considering the elasto-plastic large deflection. In the elasto-plastic analysis, von Mises yield criteria, the plastic flow theory and the layered approach have been adopted. In order to take into account the follower force effect of the hydrostatic pressure, the incremental load components have been updated at every loading step. As collapse modes, axisymmetric yielding, interframe shell buckling and general buckling are considered, while local buckling of ring-stiffener is not considered. Initial shape imperfection is assumed to be the elastic buckling mode to obtain the lower bound of the ultimate strength. Results of numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results to show the validity of the present approach. It has been drawn that the present numerical results are closely correlated with the experimental results. On the other hand, the effects of initial shape imperfection and condition on the ultimate strength have been investigated. (Author)

  19. Ultimate Opening Combined with Area Stability Applied to Urban Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotegui , Beatriz; Serna , Andrés; Hernández , Jorge

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the use of ultimate opening in urban analysis context. It demonstrates the efficiency of this approach for street level elevation images, derived from 3D point clouds acquired by terrestrial mobile mapping systems. An area-stability term is introduced in the residual definition, reducing the over-segmentation of the vegetation while preserving small significant regions. We compare two possible combinations of the Ultimate Opening and the Area Stabil...

  20. Direct ultimate disposal - state of investigations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a decision adopted by the Prime Ministers on 25/10/90, the principles governing preventive waste management of nuclear power plants are reviewed. Increasing importance is attached to the direct ultimate disposal alternative. The legal and political framework, the technology involved, the state of developments, future activities under the R and D programme as well as a cost estimate of direct ultimate disposal are presented. (orig.) [de

  1. Assessment and characterization of radioactive waste for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Warnecke, E.

    1986-01-01

    The waste specifications determined from site safety analyses define the requirements to be met by waste forms for ultimate storage. Product quality control is the process step ensuring compliance with the conditions to be met for ultimate storage. For this purpose, radionuclide inventory, fixation method, container type, waste form and quantity, and type of waste are the most significant items on the checking list. (DG) [de

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of slabs on ground subjected to concentrated loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverli, Jan

    2014-09-01

    An experimental program is presented where a slab on ground is subjected to concentrated loading at the centre, the edges and at the corners. Analytical solutions for the ultimate load capacity fit well with the results obtained in the tests. The non-linear behaviour of the slab is captured by performing nonlinear finite element analyses. The soil is modelled as a no-tension bedding and a smeared crack approach is employed for the concrete. Through a parametric study, the finite element model has been used to assess the influence of subgrade stiffness and shrinkage. The results indicate that drying shrinkage can cause severe cracking in slabs on grade.

  3. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  4. Factors controlling strength of structures, and anticipated overstrength for seismic load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses how the safe shutdown earthquake level, the ratio of operating basis earthquake to safe shutdown earthquake level, the shape of the earthquake spectra and the modeling of the structure affect the seismic overstrength of structures. The relationship between actual mean strength and the minimum specified strength of concrete and structural steel is also presented. The paper identifies which concrete and steel structures are generally sized for earthquake loads and which are generally sized for other factors, e.g., tornado missiles, loss of coolant accident pressure loads, equipment laydown loads and radiation shielding. The results of a study evaluating the mean ultimate capacity of a pressurized water reactor containment are presented to show that in terms of a ground motion, the seismic capacity may be four to five times the design safe shutdown earthquake level

  5. Ultimate - a new generation of gasoline and diesel fuels; Ultimate - eine neue Generation von Otto- und Dieselkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strempel, G. [Aral Forschung/Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany); Beckwith, P. [BP Fuels Management Group, Pangbourne (United Kingdom); Froehling, J. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Labor/Analytik; Baron, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Motor- und Fahrzeuglaboratorium; Sauermann, P.; Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktentwicklung; Doermer, W. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktqualitaet

    2005-06-01

    With the launch of Ultimate 100 gasoline and Ultimate Diesel, motorists in Germany now have the opportunity to choose new advanced performance fuels designed to get the very best from their engines. This article gives details of the technical development behind these fuels, their wide range of benefits, and how it is possible to manufacture fuels which meet the considerable technical challenge of achieving both more performance and less pollution. (orig.)

  6. Out-of-plane ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nukui, Yasushi; Imamura, Akira; Terayama, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Tetsuya; Kojima, Isao

    2011-01-01

    There have been few studies on the out-of-plane shear in RC mat-slab foundations, and the reasonable method has been demanded to estimate ultimate shear strength of RC mat-slab foundations in the nuclear facilities. In the previous study, the out-of-plane loading tests on the 20 square slab specimens had been performed to collect the fundamental data. In this study, the test results were successfully predicted by 3D non-linear Finite Element Analysis. It has been confirmed that the ultimate shear stress in the slab specimen can be estimated by the Arakawa's formula, which is commonly used to estimate the shear strength of RC beams. (author)

  7. Experimental research on the ultimate strength of hard aluminium alloy 2017 subjected to short-time radioactive heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafang, Wu; Yuewu, Wang; Bing, Pan; Meng, Mu; Lin, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultimate strength at transient heating is critical to security design of missiles. ► We measure the ultimate strength of alloy 2017 subjected to transient heating. ► Experimental results at transient heating are lacking in strength design handbook. ► Ultimate strength of alloy 2017 experimented is much higher than handbook value. ► The results provide a new method for optimal design of high-speed flight vehicles. -- Abstract: Alloy 2017 (Al–Cu–Mg) is a hard aluminium alloy strengthened by heat treatment. Because of its higher strength, finer weldability and ductility, hard aluminium alloy 2017 has been widely used in the field of aeronautics and astronautics. However, the ultimate strength and other characteristic mechanical parameters of aluminium alloy 2017 in a transient heating environment are still unclear, as these key mechanical parameters are lacking in the existing strength design handbook. The experimental characterisation of these critical parameters of aluminium alloy 2017 is undoubtedly meaningful for reliably estimating life span of and improving safety in designing high-speed flight vehicles. In this paper, the high-temperature ultimate strength, loading time and other mechanical properties of hard aluminium alloy 2017 under different transient heating temperatures and loading conditions are investigated by combining a transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and a material testing machine. The experimental results reveal that the ultimate strength and loading capability of aluminium alloy 2017 subjected to transient thermal heating are much higher than those tested in a long-time stable high-temperature environment. The research of this work not only provides a substantial basis for the loading capability improvement and optimal design of aerospace materials and structures subject to transient heating but also presents a new research direction with a practical application value.

  8. Ultimate load analysis of prestressed concrete reactor pressure vessels considering a general material law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimmelpfennig, K.

    1975-01-01

    A method of analysis is presented, by which progressive fracture processes in axisymmetric prestressed concrete pressure vessels during increasing internal pressure can be evaulated by means of a continuum calculation considering a general material law. Formulations used in the analysis concerning material behaviour are derived on one hand from appropriate results of testing small concrete specimens, and are on the other hand gained by parametric studies in order to solve questions still existing by recalulating fracture tests on concrete bodies with more complex states of stress. Due attention is focussed on investigating the behaviour of construction members subjected to high shear forces (end slabs.). (Auth.)

  9. A Comparison of Ultimate Loads from Fully and Sequentially Coupled Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Fabian F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Damiani, Rick R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-14

    This poster summarizes the scope and preliminary results of a study conducted for the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement aimed at quantifying differences between two modeling approaches (fully coupled and sequentially coupled) through aero-hydro-servo-elastic simulations of two offshore wind turbines on a monopile and jacket substructure.

  10. Vulnerabilidad sísmica y capacidad de carga de un puente atirantado basados en confiabilidad estructural Seismic vulnerability and loading capacity of a wire strained bridge based on structural reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Muñoz

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta en este documento los análisis de vulnerabilidad sísmica y de capacidad de carga del Viaducto Cesar Gaviria Trujillo, empleando las técnicas de confiabilidad estructural basada en las labores de instrumentación. En él se incluye labores tales como: ensayos geofísicos, ensayos de las propiedades mecánicas de materiales, vibraciones ambiéntales, medición de los efectos de la cargas vehiculares, instrumentación inalámbrica, pruebas de carga, medición de tensiones de tirantes, etc. También se explican los modelos estructurales en elementos finitos desarrollados para el puente y su proceso de calibración basado en la prueba de carga y las propiedades dinámicas determinadas experim en taimen te. Además la forma como se realizó la reconstrucción de las historias de esfuerzos de todos los elementos estructurales durante su construcción, de acuerdo con la bitácora de obra. Para los análisis de confiabilidad se hizo un estudio de amenaza sísmica y respuesta dinámica del sitio del puente, donde se obtuvieron nueve espectros de respuesta con diferentes periodos de retorno. Al estudiar las curvas de probabilidad de resistencia y solicitaciones sísmicas de los pilones, se encontró que tienen unos índices de confiabilidad adecuados dentro de las recomendaciones de las normas internacionales. Además que uno de los elementos de la superestructura que se instrumentó para evaluar su capacidad para los efectos de tráfico, tiene un índice de confiabilidad por fuera de los rangos sugeridos por las normas internacionales. Finalmente algunos tirantes tienen niveles de tensiones mayores a las admisibles especificadas durante su diseño y a las recomendadas internacionalmente para este tipo de puentes.This document presents the analysis of seismic vulnerability and load capacity for Cesar Gaviria Trujilo Viaduct, by means of structural reliability techniques based on instrumentation works. Such study includes: geophysical trial

  11. Experimental study on performance of laterally loaded plumb and battered piles in layered sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra S. Albusoda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a series of single and pile group model tests subjected to lateral loads in . multilayered sand from Karbala, Iraq. The aim of this study is to investigate: the performance of the pile groups subjected to lateral loads; in which the pile batter inclination angle is changed; the effect of pile spacing (s/d ratio, the influence of using different number of piles and pile group configuration. Results revealed that the performance of single negative (Reverse Battered piles with inclination of 10° and 20° show a gain of 32% and 76 % in the ultimate lateral capacity over the regular ones. For pile groups, the use of a combination of regular, negative and positive battered piles in different angles of inclination within the same group shows a significant increase in the ultimate lateral load carrying capacity. Increasing the spacing between piles in groups of the same category shows an increase in the group efficiency, also changing the piles number within the group by using different patterns will influence the ultimate lateral resistance of the pile group.

  12. ''Project Crystal'' for ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    NAGRA (The National Association for storage of radioactive waste) in Baden has launched in North Switzerland an extensive geological research program. The current research program, under the title of ''Project Crystal'', aims at providing the scientific knowledge which is required for the assessment of the suitability of the crystalline sub-soil of North Switzerland for the ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste. Safety and feasibility of such ultimate storage are in the forefront of preoccupations. Scientific institutes of France, Germany, USA and Canada are cooperating more particularly on boring research and laboratory analyses. Technical data are given on the USA and German installations used. (P.F.K.)

  13. Trump er gældsøkonomiens ultimative illusionist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne.......Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne....

  14. Optimisation of load control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, P.

    1998-01-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  15. Optimisation of load control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    Electricity cannot be stored in large quantities. That is why the electricity supply and consumption are always almost equal in large power supply systems. If this balance were disturbed beyond stability, the system or a part of it would collapse until a new stable equilibrium is reached. The balance between supply and consumption is mainly maintained by controlling the power production, but also the electricity consumption or, in other words, the load is controlled. Controlling the load of the power supply system is important, if easily controllable power production capacity is limited. Temporary shortage of capacity causes high peaks in the energy price in the electricity market. Load control either reduces the electricity consumption during peak consumption and peak price or moves electricity consumption to some other time. The project Optimisation of Load Control is a part of the EDISON research program for distribution automation. The following areas were studied: Optimization of space heating and ventilation, when electricity price is time variable, load control model in power purchase optimization, optimization of direct load control sequences, interaction between load control optimization and power purchase optimization, literature on load control, optimization methods and field tests and response models of direct load control and the effects of the electricity market deregulation on load control. An overview of the main results is given in this chapter

  16. 49 Stories That Make an Ultimate STEM Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Swati; Mehta, Rohit; Berzina-Pitcher, Inese; Seals, Christopher; Mishra, Punya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed what 49 large urban public school district STEM teachers enrolled in a year-long graduate certificate and fellowship program at a large Midwestern university considered as their amazing teaching moments. They were asked to share their amazing teaching moments that would make an Ultimate Lesson Plan in STEM. In smaller…

  17. Ultimate capabilities of soft x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A.V.; Zorev, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    Nonimaging soft X-ray optics is examined. The ultimate capabilities of a number of X-ray optical components designed for concentration and collimation of radiation from point sources are determined. The applications of X-ray optics are discussed together with the properties of materials in the X-ray range

  18. Safety related aspects of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Solutions and questions related to nuclear waste management are presented. In particular, long-term safety of repositories in Germany and Sweden is considered, with special attention being paid to methods of detection, geotechnical barriers and post-operational phase of salt dome repositories, and conditioning of wastes to make them fit for ultimate disposal. (DG) [de

  19. Analysis of ultimate-heat-sink spray ponds. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1981-08-01

    This report develops models which can be utilized in the design of certain types of spray ponds used in ultimate heat sinks at nuclear power plants, and ways in which the models may be employed to determine the design basis required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.27

  20. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  1. Comparison between field data and ultimate heat-sink cooling-pond and spray-pond models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1982-09-01

    Two previously published reports, NUREG-0693 and NUREG-0733, presented models and methods by which ultimate heat sink cooling ponds and spray ponds used for safety-related water supplies in nuclear power plants could be analyzed for design-basis conditions of heat load and meteorology. These models were only partially verified with field data. The present report compares the NRC models to data collected for NRC by Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories on the performance of small geothermally heated ponds and spray ponds. These comparisons generally support the conclusion that the NRC models are useful tools in predicting ultimate heat sink performance

  2. Numerical Study on Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted End-Plate Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.S. Ismail

    Full Text Available Abstract Bolted end-plate steel connections have become more popular due to ease of fabrication. This paper presents a three dimension Finite Element Model (FEM, using the multi-purpose software ABAQUS, to study the effect of different geometrical parameters on the ultimate behavior of the connection. The proposed model takes into account material and geometrical non-linearities, initial imperfection, contact between adjacent surfaces and the pretension force in the bolts. The Finite Element results are calibrated with published experimental results ''briefly reviewed in this paper'' and verified that the numerical model can simulate and analyze the overall and detailed behavior of different types of bolted end-plate steel connections. Using verified FEM, parametric study is then carried out to study the ultimate behavior with variations in: bolt diameter, end-plate thickness, length of column stiffener, angle of rib stiffener. The results are examined with respect to the failure modes, the evolution of the resistance, the initial stiffness, and the rotation capacity. Finally, the ultimate behavior of the bolted end-plate steel connection is discussed in detail, and recommendations for the design purpose are made.

  3. Simulations of floor cooling system capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odyjas, Andrzej; Górka, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Floor cooling system capacity depends on its physical and operative parameters. Using numerical simulations, it appears that cooling capacity of the system largely depends on the type of cooling loads occurring in the room. In the case of convective cooling loads capacity of the system is small. However, when radiation flux falls directly on the floor the system significantly increases productivity. The article describes the results of numerical simulations which allow to determine system capacity in steady thermal conditions, depending on the type of physical parameters of the system and the type of cooling load occurring in the room. Moreover, the paper sets out the limits of system capacity while maintaining a minimum temperature of the floor surface equal to 20 °C. The results are helpful for designing system capacity in different type of cooling loads and show maximum system capacity in acceptable thermal comfort condition. -- Highlights: ► We have developed numerical model for simulation of floor cooling system. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on its physical parameters. ► We have described floor system capacity depending on type of cooling loads. ► The most important in the obtained cooling capacities is the type of cooling loads. ► The paper sets out the possible maximum cooling floor system capacity

  4. Secondary Moments due to Prestressing with Different Bond at the Ultimate Limit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvoník Jaroslav

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary effects of prestressing develop in statically indeterminate structures (e.g., continuous beams due to the restraint of deformations imposed by hyperstatic restraints. These effects may significantly influence internal forces and stresses in prestressed structures. Secondary effects are influenced by the redundancy of a structural system, which raises the question of whether they will remain constant after a change in the structural system, e.g., due to the development of plastic hinge(s in a critical cross-section(s or after the development of a kinematic mechanism, or if they will disappear when the structure changes into a sequence of simply supported beams. The paper deals with an investigation of the behavior of continuous post-tensioned beams subjected to an ultimate load with significant secondary effects from prestressing. A total of 6 two-span beams prestressed by tendons with different bonds were tested in a laboratory with a load that changed their structural system into a kinematic mechanism. The internal forces and secondary effects of the prestressing were controlled through measurements of the reactions in all the supports. The results revealed that the secondary effects remained as a permanent part of the action on the experimental beams, even after the development of the kinematic mechanism. The results obtained confirmed that secondary effects should be included in all combinations of actions for verifications of ultimate limit states (ULS.

  5. Secondary Moments due to Prestressing with Different Bond at the Ultimate Limit State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvoník, Jaroslav; Pažma, Peter; Vida, Radoslav

    2018-03-01

    Secondary effects of prestressing develop in statically indeterminate structures (e.g., continuous beams) due to the restraint of deformations imposed by hyperstatic restraints. These effects may significantly influence internal forces and stresses in prestressed structures. Secondary effects are influenced by the redundancy of a structural system, which raises the question of whether they will remain constant after a change in the structural system, e.g., due to the development of plastic hinge(s) in a critical cross-section(s) or after the development of a kinematic mechanism, or if they will disappear when the structure changes into a sequence of simply supported beams. The paper deals with an investigation of the behavior of continuous post-tensioned beams subjected to an ultimate load with significant secondary effects from prestressing. A total of 6 two-span beams prestressed by tendons with different bonds were tested in a laboratory with a load that changed their structural system into a kinematic mechanism. The internal forces and secondary effects of the prestressing were controlled through measurements of the reactions in all the supports. The results revealed that the secondary effects remained as a permanent part of the action on the experimental beams, even after the development of the kinematic mechanism. The results obtained confirmed that secondary effects should be included in all combinations of actions for verifications of ultimate limit states (ULS).

  6. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Do Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures

  7. Ultimate strength performance of tankers associated with industry corrosion addition practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Kyun Kim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ship and offshore structure design, age-related problems such as corrosion damage, local denting, and fatigue damage are important factors to be considered in building a reliable structure as they have a significant influence on the residual structural capacity. In shipping, corrosion addition methods are widely adopted in structural design to prevent structural capacity degradation. The present study focuses on the historical trend of corrosion addition rules for ship structural design and investigates their effects on the ultimate strength performance such as hull girder and stiffened panel of double hull oil tankers. Three types of rules based on corrosion addition models, namely historic corrosion rules (pre-CSR, Common Structural Rules (CSR, and harmonised Common Structural Rules (CSRH are considered and compared with two other corrosion models namely UGS model, suggested by the Union of Greek Shipowners (UGS, and Time-Dependent Corrosion Wastage Model (TDCWM. To identify the general trend in the effects of corrosion damage on the ultimate longitudinal strength performance, the corrosion addition rules are applied to four representative sizes of double hull oil tankers namely Panamax, Aframax, Suezmax, and VLCC. The results are helpful in understanding the trend of corrosion additions for tanker structures.

  8. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  9. Inplane shear capacity of reinforced composite masonry block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.H.; Tseng, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe a test program performed to determine the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility of composite masonry walls subjected to earthquake type loadings. Specimens were simultaneously subjected to a range of compressive loads to simulate dead load; and inplane shear loads with full load reversal to simulate the earthquake cycling load. The influence of horizontal and vertical reinforcing steel percentages on the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility was also investigated. (orig./HP)

  10. Cable tray ultimate strength test employing a large shaker table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, K.; Myojin, K.; Imai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Fuyama, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Takasago (Japan); Kokubo, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industdries Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Ultimate behaviors of cable trays, used in nuclear plants, have not been well studied since cable trays are designed based on conservative design criteria. In this study, by employing a large shaker table, an ultimate strength test was conducted for cable trays used in nuclear power plants. This report describes the results of shaker table test. The following results were obtained. First, in an S{sub 2} earthquake, the damping ratio was so large - more than 30% due to the rubbing of cables - that a large response was not present and the strains in the support were within the elastic limits. Secondly, the support was strong enough to sustain the cable trays even when the strain in the support was 20 times larger than the elastic limit. (authors)

  11. Landau damping: the mechanics model and its ultimate entropy gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Kluge, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Classical mechanics has only been invoked to account for Landau damping in a rather half-hearted way, alongside plasma perturbation theory. In particular this invocation is essential for the study of the saturation, or post-linear (or 'nonlinear') regime of the damping initiated by Dawson and O'Neill. By embracing mechanics wholeheartedly here, with its attendant phase space, one can access results, old and new, cleanly and directly, and with one fewer numerical integration for the post-linear regime. By using a summation technique familiar in semiclassical quantum mechanics (Poisson summation), the one remaining numerical integration can be much improved in accuracy. Also accessible from mechanics is the ultimate entropy gain. Though zero for any finite time (in the absence of coarse graining), the entropy gain is ultimately non-zero (at infinite time the required coarse graining is zero). It is calculated analytically by using the appropriate asymptotics, hitherto not fully exploited.

  12. Management and ultimate storage of wastes from nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The annotation on R and D prorgam 86 parts I-II have been brought together in the present report part I, together with some general viewpoints, and been classified according to subject. Part II of the present report comprises viewpoints of 'Research Program 1987-1992' and part III of 'Alternative methods of ultimate storage'. Swedish and French viewpoints are presented in Swedish, the remaining foreign material in English. The comments are grouped in subject catergories. (O.S.)

  13. The ultimate challenge of pregnancy-associated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R.; Tahira, A.

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy associated breast carcinoma requires making judicious use of all diagnostic modalities and the therapeutic options of surgery, irradiation, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy to enhance survival rates. Individualization of treatment for each patient is the key to success. The effects on future fertility, the time interval before next conception, and whether to breast feed or not are all well-documented. A multidisciplinary coordinated team approach to this ultimate challenge of patient care will prove fruitful. (author)

  14. Ultimate Gradient Limitation in Niobium Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchin, Mattia [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, Anna [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Posen, Sam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Romanenko, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zasadzinski, John [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The present study is addressed to the theoretical description of the ultimate gradient limitation in SRF cavities. Our intent is to exploit experimental data to confirm models which provide feed-backs on how to improve the current state-of-art. New theoretical insight on the cavities limiting factor can be suitable to improve the quench field of N-doped cavities, and therefore to take advantage of high Q0 at high gradients.

  15. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π 0 ,η,η ′ ) decay channels for the ψ ′ looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc ¯ intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  16. Hydrogeological problems in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uerpmann, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The following work shows how one can achieve the safe closure of ultimate-stored radioactive wastes by connecting a series of various barriers to the biosphere. The propagation of radionuclides by ground water is considered to be the most important long-term transport mechanism. Salt occurences in the Federal Republic of Germany are considered to be the best form suitable for end storage formations for known reasons. When not observing mining and hydrogeological knowledge, the danger of uncontrollable water flow in the end storage can arise from the water solubility of the salt rocks. Therefore the filling of salt mines and the subsequent procedures are dealt with in detail. The leading of radioactive nuclides is influenced by the properties of the ultimately stored wastes and by the quality of the remaining filling of the caves. These problems are dealt with in detail. A series of barriers to the closure of the underground caves are suggested and discussed. The most important barriers consist of the stability of the corresponding selected end storage structure. Possible arrangements of the storage cave are given which even after storage must maintain a high stability. Proposals are made on how the ultimately stored wastes can protect themselves against contact with free water or salt solutions. (orig.) [de

  17. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  18. Capacity assessment of concrete containment vessels subjected to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andonov, Anton; Kostov, Marin; Iliev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An approach to assess the containment capacity to aircraft impact via fragility curves is proposed. • Momentum over Area was defined as most suitable reference parameter to describe the aircraft load. • The effect of the impact induced damages on the containment pressure capacity has been studied. • The studied containment shows no reduction of the pressure capacity for the investigated scenarios. • The effectiveness of innovative protective structure against aircraft impact has been evaluated. - Abstract: The paper describes the procedure and the results from the assessment of the vulnerability of a generic pre-stressed containment structure subjected to a large commercial aircraft impact. Impacts of Boeing 737, Boeing 767 and Boeing 747 have been considered. The containment vulnerability is expressed by fragility curves based on the results of a number of nonlinear dynamic analyses. Three reference parameters have been considered as impact intensity measure in the fragility curve definition: peak impact force (PIF), peak impact pressure (PIP) and Momentum over Area (MoA). Conclusions on the most suitable reference parameter as well on the vulnerability of such containment vessels are drawn. The influence of the aircraft impact induced damages on the containment ultimate pressure capacity is also assessed and some preliminary conclusions on this are drawn. The paper also addresses a conceptual design of a protective structure able to decrease the containment vulnerability and provide a preliminary assessment of the applicability of such concept.

  19. Capacity assessment of concrete containment vessels subjected to aircraft impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andonov, Anton, E-mail: anton.andonov@mottmac.com; Kostov, Marin; Iliev, Alexander

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • An approach to assess the containment capacity to aircraft impact via fragility curves is proposed. • Momentum over Area was defined as most suitable reference parameter to describe the aircraft load. • The effect of the impact induced damages on the containment pressure capacity has been studied. • The studied containment shows no reduction of the pressure capacity for the investigated scenarios. • The effectiveness of innovative protective structure against aircraft impact has been evaluated. - Abstract: The paper describes the procedure and the results from the assessment of the vulnerability of a generic pre-stressed containment structure subjected to a large commercial aircraft impact. Impacts of Boeing 737, Boeing 767 and Boeing 747 have been considered. The containment vulnerability is expressed by fragility curves based on the results of a number of nonlinear dynamic analyses. Three reference parameters have been considered as impact intensity measure in the fragility curve definition: peak impact force (PIF), peak impact pressure (PIP) and Momentum over Area (MoA). Conclusions on the most suitable reference parameter as well on the vulnerability of such containment vessels are drawn. The influence of the aircraft impact induced damages on the containment ultimate pressure capacity is also assessed and some preliminary conclusions on this are drawn. The paper also addresses a conceptual design of a protective structure able to decrease the containment vulnerability and provide a preliminary assessment of the applicability of such concept.

  20. TFTR generator load assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, F.M.

    1975-10-01

    Typical experimental load demands on the TFTR generators are illustrated based on the electrical characteristics of the field coils, the coil leads, the main bus work, the various auxiliary bus work, the rectifiers, and transformers. The generator MW capacities are shown to be adequate for the proposed experimental operations with allowances made for variations in the final designs. The generator MVA capacities are shown to be adequate provided portions of the TF and EF rectifiers are freewheeled at selected times

  1. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  2. Correction of the calculation of the ultimate strength of studs shear connectors in solid slab composite section; Correccion del calculo de la capacidad resistente ultima de conectadores tipo perno de estructuras mixtas en la tipologia de viga-losa maciza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonilla Rocha, J. D.; Larrua Quevedo, R.; Recarey Morfa, C. A.; Mirambell Arrizabalaga, E.

    2009-07-01

    In this work is studied starting from the numeric simulation with previous calibration and validation, the behavior of studs shear connectors of composite structures of concrete and steel formed by beam sections and solid slab of concrete, subjected to flexion under loads static. In such a sense it is carried out a parametric study that allows to value the influence of the different factors that intervene in the behavior of the connection and allow to establish the variables of the proposed formulation, obtaining a procedure enough easy and practical. Finally a new formulation the one is achieved which supposes a significant advances with regard to the existent ones in the main ones normative international: AISC-LRFD (2005), Eurocode 4 (IN-1994-1-1:2004), as well as the normative cuban NR 080-2004, when taking in consideration in the expression new factors, redounding in a bigger in the presage of the ultimate strength capacity. (Author) 22 refs.

  3. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers The Ultimate Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2010-01-01

    If you already have a good knowledge of Adobe Photoshop and are looking to advance your skills, Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers: The Ultimate Workshop is the book you've been waiting for.  Renowned photographers Martin Evening and Jeff Schewe impart their Photoshop tips and workflow, showing you how to use a vast array of rarely seen advanced Photoshop techniques.  Whether the subject is serious retouching work, weird and wonderful compositions, or planning a shoot before you've even picked up a camera, you can be sure that the advice is based on years of practical experience.

  4. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-03-07

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π{sup 0},η,η{sup ′}) decay channels for the ψ{sup ′} looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc{sup ¯} intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  5. Simulation of reinforced concrete short shear wall subjected to cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulekar, Y.M.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Pegon, P.; Wenzel, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Prediction of the capacity of squat shear wall using tests and analysis. • Modification of model of concrete in the softening part. • Pushover analysis using softened truss theory and FE analysis is performed. • Modified concrete model gives reasonable accurate peak load and displacement. • The ductility, ultimate load and also crack pattern can be accurately predicted. - Abstract: This paper addresses the strength and deformation capacity of stiff squat shear wall subjected to monotonic and pseudo-static cyclic loading using experiments and analysis. Reinforced concrete squat shear walls offer great potential for lateral load resistance and the failure mode of these shear walls is brittle shear mode. Shear strength of these shear walls depend strongly on softening of concrete struts in principal compression direction due to principal tension in other direction. In this work simulation of the behavior of a squat shear wall is accurately predicted by finite element modeling by incorporating the appropriate softening model in the program. Modification of model of concrete in the softening part is suggested and reduction factor given by Vecchio et al. (1994) is used in the model. The accuracy of modeling is confirmed by comparing the simulated response with experimental one. The crack pattern generated from the 3D model is compared with that obtained from experiments. The load deflection for monotonic loads is also obtained using softened truss theory and compared with experimental one

  6. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  7. The prospects of transition metal dichalcogenides for ultimately scaled CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, S.; Kinberger, W.; Granzner, R.; Fiori, G.; Schwierz, F.

    2018-05-01

    MOSFET gate length scaling has been a main source of progress in digital electronics for decades. Today, researchers still spend considerable efforts on reducing the gate length and on developing ultimately scaled MOSFETs, thereby exploring both new device architectures and alternative channel materials beyond Silicon such as two-dimensional TMDs (transition metal dichalcogenide). On the other hand, the envisaged scaling scenario for the next 15 years has undergone a significant change recently. While the 2013 ITRS edition required a continuation of aggressive gate length scaling for at least another 15 years, the 2015 edition of the ITRS suggests a deceleration and eventually a levelling off of gate length scaling and puts more emphasis on alternative options such as pitch scaling to keep Moore's Law alive. In the present paper, future CMOS scaling is discussed in the light of emerging two-dimensional MOSFET channel, in particular two-dimensional TMDs. To this end, the scaling scenarios of the 2013 and 2015 ITRS editions are considered and the scaling potential of TMD MOSFETs is investigated by means of quantum-mechanical device simulations. It is shown that for ultimately scaled MOSFETs as required in the 2013 ITRS, the heavy carrier effective masses of the Mo- and W-based TMDs are beneficial for the suppression of direct source-drain tunneling, while to meet the significantly relaxed scaling targets of the 2016 ITRS heavy-effective-mass channels are not needed.

  8. The ultimate security bounds of quantum key distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, G.M.; Alber, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols exploit quantum correlations in order to establish a secure key between two legitimate users. Recent work on QKD has revealed a remarkable link between quantum and secret correlations. In this talk we report on recent results concerning the ultimate upper security bounds of various QKD schemes (i.e., the maximal disturbance up to which the two legitimate users share quantum correlations) under the assumption of general coherent attacks. In particular, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of QKD schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases. As long as the two legitimate users focus on the sifted key and treat each pair of data independently during the post processing, our results are valid for arbitrary dimensions of the information carriers. The bound we have derived is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is also discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions, however, such equivalence is generally no longer valid. (author)

  9. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaohu [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Li, Xiaojun, E-mail: beerli@vip.sina.com [The College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China); Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  10. Steel plates and concrete filled composite shear walls related nuclear structural engineering: Experimental study for out-of-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaohu; Li, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Based on the program of CAP1400 nuclear structural engineering, the out-of-plane seismic behavior of steel plate and concrete infill composite shear walls (SCW) was investigated. 6 1/5 scaled specimens were conducted which consist of 5 SCW specimens and 1 reinforced concrete (RC) specimen. The specimens were tested under out-of-plane cyclic loading. The effect of the thickness of steel plate, vertical load and the strength grade of concrete on the out-of-plane seismic behavior of SCW were analyzed. The results show that the thickness of steel plate and vertical load have great influence on the ultimate bearing capacity and lateral stiffness, however, the influence of the strength grade of concrete was little within a certain range. SCW is presented to have a better ultimate capacity and lateral stiffness but have worse ductility in failure stage than that of RC. Based on the experiment, the cracking load of concrete infill SCW was analyzed in theory. The modified calculation formula of the cracking load was made, the calculated results showed good agreement with the test results. The formula can be used as the practical design for the design of cracking loads.

  11. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    A spatial planning act was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive....../cities. Four different sectors (water, food production, waste, and forests) were selected as core areas for decentralised spatial planning. Indicators for SCC and ACC were identified and assessed with regard to relevance and quantifiability. For each of the indicators selected, a legal threshold or guiding...... was introduced inIndonesia 1992 and renewed in 2008. It emphasised the planning role of decentralised authorities. The spatial planning act covers both spatial and environmental issues. It defines the concept of carrying capacity and includes definitions of supportive carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative...

  12. Experimental study on ultimate strength and strain behavior of concrete under biaxial compressive stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuma, Hiroshi; Aoyagi, Yukio

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study the ultimate strength failure mode and deformation behavior of concrete under short-term biaxial compressive stresses, as an aid to design and analyze the concrete structures subjected to multiaxial compression such as prestressed or reinforced concrete vessel structures. The experimental work on biaxial compression was carried out on the specimens of three mix proportions and different ages with 10cm x 10cm x 10cm cubic shape in a room controlled at 20 0 C. The results are summarized as follows. (1) To minimize the surface friction between specimens and loading platens, the pads of teflon sheets coated with silicone grease were used. The coefficient of friction was measured and was 3 percent on the average. (2) The test data showed that the strength of the concrete subjected to biaxial compression increased as compared to uniaxial compressive strength, and that the biaxial strength increase was mainly dependent on the ratio of principal stresses, and it was hardly affected by mix proportions and ages. (3) The maximum increase of strength, which occurred at the stress ratio of approximately sigma 2 /sigma 1 = 0.6, was about 27 percent higher than the uniaxial strength of concrete. (4) The ultimate strength in case of biaxial compression could be approximated by the parabolic equation. (Kako, I.)

  13. Ultimate shearing strength of aseismatic walls with many small holes for reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizaki, Seiji; Ezaki, Tetsuro; Korenaga, Takeyoshi; Sotomura, Kentaro.

    1984-01-01

    The aseismatic walls for reactor buildings have complicated forms, and are characterized by large wall thickness and high reinforcement ratio as compared with ordinary aseismatic walls. The forms are mainly box, cylinder or irregular polygonal prism and their combination. The design of the walls with many small holes has been performed on the basis of the reinforced concrete structure calculation standard of the Architectural Institute of Japan, following the case with large opening. When there are many small holes, the arrangement of reinforcement for the openings becomes complex, and the construction is difficult. It is necessary to rationalize the design and to simplify the reinforcement work. Under the background like this, the experiment to examine the shearing property in bending of the aseismatic walls with many small holes for reactor buildings was carried out, and horizontal loading test was performed on 43 specimens. The method of calculating the ultimate shearing strength of a wall without opening was proposed, and the method of applying it to a wall with many small holes is shown. The experimental method and the results, the examination of the experimental results, and the ultimate shearing strength of the aseismatic walls are reported. (Kako, I.)

  14. Installed capacity in New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation discussed capacity issues related to the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO). The NYISO's market volume was approximately $11 billion in 2005, and it was responsible for providing 32,075 MW of electricity at peak load to its users. Regulatory uncertainty is currently discouraging investment in new generating resources. All load serving entities are required to contract for sufficient capacity in order to meet their capacity obligations. Market participants currently determine capacity and energy revenues. The NYISO market allows suppliers to recover variable costs for providing ancillary services, and the economic value of the revenue source governs decisions made in the wholesale electricity market. The installed capacity market was designed as a spot auction deficiency auction. Phased-in demand curves are used to modify the installed capacity market's design. A sloped demand curve mechanism is used to value capacity above the minimum requirement for both reliability and competition. Participation in the day-ahead market enhances competition and exerts downward pressure on energy and ancillary service market prices. It was concluded that the market structures and design features of the installed capacity markets recognize the need for system reliability in addition to encouraging robust competition and recognizing energy price caps and regulatory oversights. tabs., figs

  15. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  16. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  17. ONE FINANCIAL REPORTING GLOBAL LANGUAGE: THE ULTIMATE GOAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Limijaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the extent to which international accounting standards is applied and whether it is the ultimate goal. Up until the end of 2016, approximately there are 84% of the 149 jurisdictions analysed which require IFRS for all or most domestic publicly accountable entities. This may indicate that we are not that much further from having a single set of globally-accepted accounting standards. However, there is more to financial reporting than just accounting standards alone, such as the political aspect of accounting standard-setting, translation issues surrounding IFRS adoption, the US position and the complexity of financial reporting. Improving financial reporting quality needs more than just having global accounting standards, rather, it is also essential to consider the preparers’ incentives and other institutions surrounding the firm. Stakeholders need to broaden the perspective when viewing financial reporting, so that it will not be focused merely on accounting standards alone.

  18. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  19. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  20. Robust surgery loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, Mark; Kazemier, Geert

    2008-01-01

    We consider the robust surgery loading problem for a hospital’s operating theatre department, which concerns assigning surgeries and sufficient planned slack to operating room days. The objective is to maximize capacity utilization and minimize the risk of overtime, and thus cancelled patients. This

  1. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary causes and proximate (mechanistic correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life, whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our

  2. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  3. Vulnerabilidad sísmica y capacidad de carga de un puente en acero basado en confiabilidad estructural Seismic vulnerability and load carrying capacity studies of a steel bridge based on structural relia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Por medio de la confiabilidad estructural, para un Puente en Colombia después de su monitoreo. Los resultados de este trabajo son parte de una nueva metodología para evaluar puentes existentes mediante una colaboración entre Universidad-Empresas-Gobierno Nacional. Este estudio ayuda en la toma de decisiones y en la priorización de tareas de rehabilitación. Este estudio incluyó: caracterización dinámica de las vibraciones naturales del puente; adquisición de datos de fuerzas internas debidas al tráfico por medio de tecnología de LVDT's y Strain Gages; evaluación de las fuerzas actuales comparadas contra los esfuerzos máximos permitidos; modelación estática, dinámica y estructural. Adicionalmente se hizo un estudio de amenaza sísmica y respuesta dinámica del área del puente y nueve (9 diferentes espectros de respuesta fueron obtenidos, cada uno con un periodo de retorno diferente. Se encontró que las torres del puente tienen una probabilidad de falla mayor que la permitida por los códigos. Lo anterior condujo a un reforzamiento inmediato del puente.In this document, seismic vulnerability and load carrying capacity analyses are presented for a bridge in Colombia after monitoring by means of reliability of structures. Results of this work are part of a new methodology to evaluate existing bridges carried out though a partnership among University - Private Companies - and Goverment. This study helps in decision making on the priority of rehabilitation tasks. This study included: dynamic characterization of natural vibrations of the bridge; data logging of inner forces due to traffic by using LVDT's and strain gages technology; evaluation of actual forces to be compared to allowed stresses, dynamic and static structural modelling. Also, a seismic hazard and dynamic response of the local area of the bridge was developed and nine (9 different response spectra were obtained, each one varying its return period. It was found that the

  4. Strain measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensors for in situ pile loading tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Straub, Tilmann; Naumann, Marcel; Borm, Günter; Lauerer, Robert; Beck, Christoph; Schwarz, Wolfgang

    2003-07-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network has been installed into a large diameter concrete pile on a real construction site. The intention was to monitor its deformation behavior during several quasi-static loading cycles. The skin friction between pile and subsoil affecting the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile as well as the settlement behavior of the structure under investigation has been derived from our measurements. A comparison between the results of the fiber Bragg grating sensors and conventional concrete strain gages (CSG) has shown excellent correspondence.

  5. Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Find Mølholt

    2009-01-01

    reinforcements helping to prevent undesired structural elastic mechanisms are presented. The functionality of two of the suggested structural reinforcements was demonstrated in full-scale tests and the rest trough FE-studies. The blade design under investigation consisted of an aerodynamic airfoil and a load...... carrying box girder. In total, five full-scale tests have been performed involving one complete blade and two shortened box girders. The second box girder was submitted to three independent tests covering different structural reinforcement alternatives. The advantages and disadvantages of testing......The present PhD project contains a study of the structural static strength of wind turbine blades loaded in flap-wise direction. A combination of experimental and numerical work has been used to address the most critical failure mechanisms and to get an understanding of the complex structural...

  6. Hydroelastic response of 19,000 TEU class ultra large container ship with novel mobile deckhouse for maximizing cargo capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Il Im

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is related to structural design evaluation of 19,000 TEU ultra large container ship, dealing with hydroelastic response, i.e. springing and whipping. It illustrates application of direct calculation tools and methodologies to both fatigue and ultimate strength assessment, simultaneously taking into account ship motions and her elastic deformations. Methodology for springing and whipping assessment within so called WhiSp notation is elaborated in details, and in order to evaluate innovative container ship design with increased loading capacity, a series of independent hydroelastic computations for container ship with mobile deckhouse and conventional one are performed with the same calculation setup. Fully coupled 3D FEM – 3D BEM model is applied, while the ultimate bending capacity of hull girder is determined by means of MARS software. Beside comparative analysis of representative quantities for considered ships, relative influence of hydroelasticity on ship response is addressed.

  7. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Footing Using Random Layers Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawa Marek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of bearing capacity of strip foundation on random purely cohesive soil. The approach proposed combines random field theory in the form of random layers with classical limit analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. For given realization of random the bearing capacity of strip footing is evaluated by employing the kinematic approach of yield design theory. The results in the form of histograms for both bearing capacity of footing as well as optimal depth of failure mechanism are obtained for different thickness of random layers. For zero and infinite thickness of random layer the values of depth of failure mechanism as well as bearing capacity assessment are derived in a closed form. Finally based on a sequence of Monte Carlo simulations the bearing capacity of strip footing corresponding to a certain probability of failure is estimated. While the mean value of the foundation bearing capacity increases with the thickness of the random layers, the ultimate load corresponding to a certain probability of failure appears to be a decreasing function of random layers thickness.

  8. Post-Buckling and Ultimate Strength Analysis of Stiffened Composite Panel Base on Progressive Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guofan; Sun, Xiasheng; Sun, Zhonglei

    Stiffened composite panel is the typical thin wall structure applied in aerospace industry, and its main failure mode is buckling subjected to compressive loading. In this paper, the development of an analysis approach using Finite Element Method on post-buckling behavior of stiffened composite structures under compression was presented. Then, the numerical results of stiffened panel are obtained by FE simulations. A thorough comparison were accomplished by comparing the load carrying capacity and key position strains of the specimen with test. The comparison indicates that the FEM results which adopted developed methodology could meet the demand of engineering application in predicting the post-buckling behavior of intact stiffened structures in aircraft design stage.

  9. Compressive force-path method unified ultimate limit-state design of concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kotsovos, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a method which simplifies and unifies the design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures and is applicable to any structural element under both normal and seismic loading conditions. The proposed method has a sound theoretical basis and is expressed in a unified form applicable to all structural members, as well as their connections. It is applied in practice through the use of simple failure criteria derived from first principles without the need for calibration through the use of experimental data. The method is capable of predicting not only load-carrying capacity but also the locations and modes of failure, as well as safeguarding the structural performance code requirements. In this book, the concepts underlying the method are first presented for the case of simply supported RC beams. The application of the method is progressively extended so as to cover all common structural elements. For each structural element considered, evidence of the validity of the proposed method is presented t...

  10. Exerting Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, J Michael; Phillips, Carolyn A

    2017-05-01

    Patient safety has been at the forefront of nursing research since the release of the Institute of Medicine's report estimating the number of preventable adverse events in hospital settings; yet no research to date has incorporated the perspectives of bedside nurses using classical grounded theory (CGT) methodology. This CGT study explored the perceptions of bedside registered nurses regarding patient safety in adult acute care hospitals. Data analysis used three techniques unique to CGT-the constant comparative method, coding, and memoing-to explore the values, realities, and beliefs of bedside nurses about patient safety. The analysis resulted in a substantive theory, Exerting Capacity, which explained how bedside nurses balance the demands of keeping their patients safe. Exerting Capacity has implications for health care organization leaders, nursing leaders, and bedside nurses; it also has indications for future research into the concept of patient safety.

  11. Rowing, the ultimate challenge to the human body - implications for physiological variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, S.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    Clinical diagnoses depend on a variety of physiological variables but the full range of these variables is seldom known. With the load placed on the human body during competitive rowing, the physiological range for several variables is illustrated. The extreme work produced during rowing...... is explained by the seated position and the associated ability to increase venous return and, thus, cardiac output. This review highlights experimental work on Olympic rowing that presents a unique challenge to the human capacities, including cerebral metabolism, to unprecedented limits, and provides a unique...

  12. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  13. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  14. Test on the splitting failure capacity of the bottom rail due to uplift in partially anchored shear walls

    OpenAIRE

    Caprolu, Giuseppe; Girhammar, Ulf Arne; Källsner, Bo; Johnsson, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Källsner and Girhammar have developed a new plastic design method for wood-frame shear walls at ultimate limit state. The method is capable of calculating the load-carrying capacity of partially anchored shear walls, where the leading stud is not necessarily anchored against uplift. In fully anchored shear walls, the leading stud needs to be anchored using some kind of hold-downs to resist uplift and the bottom rail needs to be fixed by anchor bolts to resist horizontal shear forces. In parti...

  15. Efficiency Of Different Teaching Models In Teaching Of Frisbee Ultimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuffová Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of two frisbee ultimate teaching models at 8-year grammar schools relative to age. In the experimental group was used a game based model (Teaching Games for Understanding and in the control group the traditional model based on teaching techniques. 6 groups of female students took part in experiment: experimental group 1 (n=10, age=11.6, experimental group 2 (n=12, age=13.8, experimental group 3 (n=14, age =15.8, control group 1 (n=11, age =11.7, control group 2 (n=10, age =13.8 and control group 3 (n=9, age =15.8. Efficiency of the teaching models was evaluated based of game performance and special knowledge results. Game performance was evaluated by the method of game performance assessment based on GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument through video record. To verify level of knowledge, we used a knowledge test, which consisted of questions related to the rules and tactics knowledge of frisbee ultimate. To perform statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Game performance assessment and knowledge level indicated higher efficiency of TGfU in general, but mostly statistically insignificant. Experimental groups 1 and 2 were significantly better in the indicator that evaluates tactical aspect of game performance - decision making (p<0.05. Experimental group 3 was better in the indicator that evaluates skill execution - disc catching. The results showed that the students of the classes taught by game based model reached partially better game performance in general. Experimental groups achieved from 79.17 % to 80 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 75 % to 87.5 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test. Control groups achieved from 57.69 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 51.92 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test.

  16. An Experimental Study of Circular Cutout Hole Effect of Kevlar/epoxy-Al2O3 Composite under Subjected to Quasi-Static Compressive and Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Abed Ramadhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has presented an experimental study of quasi-static compressive and tensile loading of cutout hole specimens of Kevlar-29/epoxy-Al2O3 laminated composite. The experimental procedure hasbeen developed to study the performance of (50%, 55% and 60% volume fraction (vf and (0o/90o and +45o/-45o fiber orientation angle effects of these composites under quasi-static tensile and compressiveload using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The study was concluded that the ultimate load capacity increases as volume fraction increases in tensile test. While, the maximum load bearing capacity increaseswith the decrease of volume fraction in compression test. Hence, from the results obtained it can have considered the 55% volume fraction of composite panels is a good value for tensile and compressionapplications.

  17. Load eccentricity effects on behavior of circular footings reinforced with geogrid sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Badakhshan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study for an eccentrically loaded circular footing, resting on a geogrid reinforced sand bed, is performed. To achieve this aim, the steel model footing of 120 mm in diameter and sand in relative density of 60% are used. Also, the effects of depth of first and second geogrid layers and number of reinforcement layers (1–4 on the settlement-load response and tilt of footing under various load eccentricities (0 cm, 0.75 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.25 cm and 3 cm are investigated. Test results indicate that ultimate bearing capacity increases in comparison with unreinforced condition. It is observed that when the reinforcements are placed in the optimum embedment depth (u/D = 0.42 and h/D = 0.42, the bearing capacity ratio (BCR increases with increasing load eccentricity to the core boundary of footing, and that with further increase of load eccentricity, the BCR decreases. Besides, the tilt of footing increases linearly with increasing settlement. Finally, by reinforcing the sand bed, the tilt of footing decreases at 2 layers of reinforcement and then increases by increasing the number of reinforcement layers.

  18. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    The objective of the project 'Competence Building Capacity Shortage' has been 'to increase knowledge about central approaches aimed at solving the peaking capacity problem in restructured power systems'. With respect to reserve markets, a model was developed in the project to analyze the relations between reserve requirements and prices in the spot and reserve markets respectively. A mathematical model was also developed and implemented, which also includes the balance market, and has a good ability to predict the relations between these markets under various assumptions. With some further development, this model can be used fore realistic analyses of these markets in a Nordic context. It was also concluded that certain system requirements with respect to frequency and time deviation can be relaxed without adverse effects. However, the requirements to system bias, Frequency Activated Operating Reserves and Frequency Activated Contingency Reserves cannot be relaxed, the latter because they must cover the dimensioning fault in the system. On the other hand, Fast Contingency Reserves can be reduced by removing requirements to national balances. Costs can furthermore be reduced by increasingly adapting a Nordic as opposed to national approach. A model for stepwise power flow was developed in the project, which is especially useful to analyze slow power system dynamics. This is relevant when analysing the effects of reserve requirements. A model for the analysis of the capacity balance in Norway and Sweden was also developed. This model is useful for looking at the future balance under various assumptions regarding e.g. weather conditions, demand growth and the development of the generation system. With respect to the present situation, if there is some price flexibility on the demand side and system operators are able to use reserves from the demand side, the probability for load shedding during the peak load hour is close to zero under the weather conditions after

  19. Structural Phenomenon of Cement-Based Composite Elements in Ultimate Limit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iskhakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement-based composite materials have minimum of two components, one of which has higher strength compared to the other. Such materials include concrete, reinforced concrete (RC, and ferrocement, applied in single- or two-layer RC elements. This paper discusses experimental and theoretical results, obtained by the authors in the recent three decades. The authors have payed attention to a structural phenomenon that many design features (parameters, properties, etc. at ultimate limit state (ULS of a structure are twice higher (or lower than at initial loading state. This phenomenon is evident at material properties, structures (or their elements, and static and/or dynamic structural response. The phenomenon is based on two ideas that were developed by first author: quasi-isotropic state of a structure at ULS and minimax principle. This phenomenon is supported by experimental and theoretical results, obtained for various structures, like beams, frames, spatial structures, and structural joints under static or/and dynamic loadings. This study provides valuable indicators for experiments’ planning and estimation of structural state. The phenomenon provides additional equation(s for calculating parameters that are usually obtained experimentally and can lead to developing design concepts and RC theory, in which the number of empirical design coefficients will be minimal.

  20. Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable

  1. ZIO: The Ultimate Linux I/O Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Cobas, J D; Rubini, A; Nellaga, S; Vaga, F

    2014-01-01

    ZIO (with Z standing for “The Ultimate I/O” Framework) was developed for CERN with the specific needs of physics labs in mind, which are poorly addressed in the mainstream Linux kernel. ZIO provides a framework for industrial, high-bandwith, high-channel count I/O device drivers (digitizers, function generators, timing devices like TDCs) with performance, generality and scalability as design goals. Among its features, it offers abstractions for • both input and output channels, and channel sets • run-time selection of trigger types • run-time selection of buffer types • sysfs-based configuration • char devices for data and metadata • a socket interface (PF ZIO) as alternative to char devices In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of ZIO, and describe representative cases of driver development for typical and exotic applications: drivers for the FMC (FPGAMezzanine Card, see [1]) boards developed at CERN like the FMC ADC 100Msps digitizer, FMC TDC timestamp counter, and FMC DEL ...

  2. Episodic foresight and anxiety: Proximate and ultimate perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloyan, Beyon; Bulley, Adam; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between episodic foresight and anxiety from an evolutionary perspective, proposing that together they confer an advantage for modifying present moment decision-making and behaviour in the light of potential future threats to fitness. We review the body of literature on the role of episodic foresight in anxiety, from both proximate and ultimate perspectives. We propose that anxious feelings associated with episodic simulation of possible threat-related future events serve to imbue these simulations with motivational currency. Episodic and semantic details of a future threat may be insufficient for motivating its avoidance, but anxiety associated with a simulation can provoke adaptive threat management. As such, we detail how anxiety triggered by a self-generated, threat-related future simulation prepares the individual to manage that threat (in terms of its likelihood and/or consequences) over greater temporal distances than observed in other animals. We then outline how anxiety subtypes may represent specific mechanisms for predicting and managing particular classes of fitness threats. This approach offers an inroad for understanding the nature of characteristic future thinking patterns in anxiety disorders and serves to illustrate the adaptive function of the mechanism from which clinical anxiety deviates. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  4. Accounting conservatism,ultimate ownership and investment efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Xu; Xia Wang; Nina Han

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze and examine the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behavior in China.Design/methodology/approach-By combining a developed theoretical framework and empirical study,this paper examines the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment.The sample and data are all collected from Wind and CAMAR databases.Findings-The paper finds that the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly positive when inside capital is not enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can expend the level of investment by decreasing information asymmetry and cost of capital;however,the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly negative when inside capital is enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can curtail the level of investment by mitigating the interest conflicts between management and outside shareholders and decreasing agency costs.Additionally,the paper finds that the severity of information asymmetry and agency problem affects the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behaviour,and the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is weaker for firms with ultimate ownership controller as local government or individuals.Originality/value-This is the first paper to analyze and examine the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment in China directly.The findings are also useful to explain the awkward predicament found by prior literature.

  5. Ultimate storage of radioactive wastes annual report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is a cooperative effort by the Company for Radiation and Environmental Research, Munich, and the Company for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe, and provides a survey of work carried out during 1973 in the area of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes. Mining and construction works which were carried out in the Asse Salt Mine near Remlingen both underground as well as above the ground and which were used for repair, maintenance and expansion of the operation consistent with its future tasks are reported. The storage of low-level wastes at the 750 m level and also the test-oriented storage of medium-level waste materials at the 490 m level were carried out within the reporting period. Shielded storage casks S7V developed by the GfK were used for the first time in September for transporting 200 l iron-hooped drums filled with medium-level radioactive wastes to Asse, each shipment always containing seven drums. With two round-trips a week taking place between the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe and the Asse II shaft installation, 14 drums were brought each week so that, by the end of the year, the quantity in storage amounted to a total of 233 drums. Further information is provided concerning the present status of research work in the fields of oromechanics, geology and hydrology as well as other findings. Further, storage techniques are discussed which are presently in the planning stage

  6. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm 2 . The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  7. THE STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM ELEMENTS UNDER CYCLIC ALTERNATING LOADING AND LOW CYCLE LOAD OF CONSTANT SIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semina Yuliya Anatol'evna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of reinforced concrete elements under some types of cyclic loads is described in the paper. The main aim of the investigations is research of the stress-strain state and strength of the inclined sections of reinforced concrete beam elements in conditions of systemic impact of constructive factors and the factor of external influence. To spotlight the problem of cyclic loadings three series of tests were conducted by the author. Firstly, the analysis of the tests showed that especially cyclic alternating loading reduces the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams and their crack resistance by 20 % due to the fatigue of concrete and reinforcement. Thus the change of load sign creates serious changes of stress-strain state of reinforced concrete beam elements. Low cycle loads of constant sign effect the behavior of the constructions not so adversely. Secondly, based on the experimental data mathematical models of elements’ strength were obtained. These models allow evaluating the impact of each factor on the output parameter not only separately, but also in interaction with each other. Furthermore, the material spotlighted by the author describes stress-strain state of the investigated elements, cracking mechanism, changes of deflection values, the influence of mode cyclic loading during the tests. Since the data on the subject are useful and important to building practice, the ultimate aim of the tests will be working out for improvement of nonlinear calculation models of span reinforced concrete constructions taking into account the impact of these loads, and also there will be the development of engineering calculation techniques of their strength, crack resistance and deformability.

  8. The role of the demand-duration curve in the evaluation of power station installation policies. Remarks on its effects on stations' utilization, generating capacity, load factor history and consumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Maineri, M.; Zanantoni, C.

    1976-12-01

    The role of the load-duration curve in determining the installation policy for an electric power system, is examined. The effect of the priority order for the allocation of the power stations in the load-diagram is also discussed: in the model used here (program TOTEM) this priority is given as a function of type and age of the station. The significance of the load factor history for a power station as a function of its age is also discussed. It is suggested that such a curve be deduced as a result of strategy calculations made with TOTEM rather than assumping it as input data

  9. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloy, Brian; Mallick, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  10. Assessment of cooling tower (ultimate heat sink) performance in the Byron individual plant examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.D.; Hawley, J.T.; Klopp, G.T.; Thelen, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    A time-dependent model of the Byron Nuclear Generation Station safety-related cooling towers has been developed for use with the Byron PRA (IPE). The model can either be run in a stand-alone program with externally supplied heat loads, or can be directly coupled into MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program). The primary feature of the model is a careful tracking of the basin temperature through the progression of different severe accidents. Heat removal rates from containment, both from containment fan-coolers and the residual heat removal system, are determined by the feed-back of this time-varying return temperature. Also, the inventory of the basin is tracked in time, and this is controlled by make-up, evaporative losses due to the heat load supplied to the towers, and the possibility of unsecured blowdown. The model has been used to determine the overall capabilities and vulnerabilities of the Byron Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). It was determined that the UHS is very reliable with respect to maintaining acceptably low basin temperatures, requiring only at most two of eight operating cooling tower fans. Further, when the two units have their Essential Service Water (ESW) systems cross-tied, one of four ESW operating pumps is sufficient to handle the loads from the accident unit with the other unit proceeding to an orderly shutdown. The major vulnerability of the Byron UHS is shown to be the ability to maintain inventory, although the time-scales for basin dry-out are relatively long, being eight to twenty-one hours, depending upon when blowdown is secured. (author)

  11. The Modeling of Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Fiber Reinforced Polymer and Its acidic/alkaline Corrosion Mechanism Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Liping

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the overall property of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP was researched. It is currently widely used in all areas, mainly in civil engineering. The huge need of this material drives the research of its mechanical property and corrosion mechanism. It is proven that the FRP can significantly strengthen the whole structure due to the support of fiber. And by applying osmosis hypothesis into the explanation of corrosion of FRP, we concluded that its corrosion rate is much slower than common materials, like steel. Generally, based on these conclusions, FRP is suitable for most of the facilities in civil engineering.

  12. Ultimate strength, low stress creep characteristics, and thermal intercept methods for an epoxy fiberglass tension member support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Hoffman, J.A.; Mataya, K.F.; Smelser, P.; Young, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    A support system utilizing epoxy fiberglass tension members will be used for the UTSI Superconducting Dipole Magnet. Elements of a support system have a basic member which is a link in which a composite is wound around a mandrel. This element uses the strength of the material fibers in a most advantageous way. The flexural and torsional load imputs to the link at its end must be minimized. A spherical bearing with a cylindrical outer surface functions as the central pin. Experience gained in the application with emphasis on tension member material, ultimate strength, creep, and heat intercepts is presented

  13. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars

    This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects.......This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects....

  14. Additives for high-load extruders; Additivsysteme fuer hochbelastete Spritzgussmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletschinger, M.; Brand, F. [Ciba Speciality Chemicals Inc., Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    The requirement for tight sealing of hydraulic systems, such as between the moving cylinders and the seals in extruders, has led to the development of new technologies in particular with respect to the sealing materials. Today PTFE/bronze (Poly-Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene/embedded bronze powder) seals are widely used for these applications, which require in addition reliability and long seal life. Needs to replace environmentally problematic hydraulic fluids based on ZnDTP has gained momentum and therefore new lubricants have also been evaluated for these hydraulic systems. The well-known seal manufacturer Busak + Shamban observed axial tiny scratches in the contact area cylinder-seal on the metal surface when replacing ZnDTP based with Zn-free lubricants. ''Micro-scratching'' refers to this phenomenon, which ultimately leads to fluid leakage thus reducing the efficiency of the hydraulic systems. A first assumption was that this problem is associated with the additive technology. A subsequent root cause analysis clearly showed that this preliminary hypothesis was incorrect. An in depth investigation showed that the phenomenon occurs when the load carrying capacity of the lubricant is insufficient and is not associated with the lubricant additive technology (Zn-free vs. Zn-containing). The load carrying capacity is predominantly determined by the selection of the correct lubricant viscosity and by its appropriate wear inhibition system. In this work it could be demonstrated that there are also Zn-free lubricants available which meet all these requirements. (orig.)

  15. Effect of practice on perceptual load

    OpenAIRE

    Mejia-Ramirez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Within attention studies, Lavie's load theory (Lavie & Tsal, 1994; Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004) presented an account that could settle the question whether attention selects stimuli to be processed at an early or late stage of cognitive processing. This theory relied on the concepts of "perceptual load" and "attentional capacity", proposing that attentional resources are automatically allocated to stimuli, but when the perceptual load of the stimuli exceeds person's capacity, tas...

  16. Capacity factors and solar job creation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, Matt

    2011-01-01

    We discuss two main job creation statistics often used by solar advocates to support increased solar deployment. Whilst overall solar technologies have a tendency to be labor-intensive, we find that the jobs per gigawatt hour statistic is relatively mis-leading as it has a tendency to reward technologies that have a low capacity factor. Ultimately the lower the capacity factor the more amplified the solar job creation number. - Highlights: → Solar generation is labor intensive. → Jobs per gigawatt hour statistics are often mis-leading. → The lower the capacity factor the higher the jobs per gigawatt. → Reliance on job creation statistics may lead to inefficient deployment.

  17. Capacity factors and solar job creation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croucher, Matt, E-mail: matthew.croucher@asu.edu [Department of Economics, L. William Seidman Research Institute, W.P. Carey School of Business, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 873806, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We discuss two main job creation statistics often used by solar advocates to support increased solar deployment. Whilst overall solar technologies have a tendency to be labor-intensive, we find that the jobs per gigawatt hour statistic is relatively mis-leading as it has a tendency to reward technologies that have a low capacity factor. Ultimately the lower the capacity factor the more amplified the solar job creation number. - Highlights: > Solar generation is labor intensive. > Jobs per gigawatt hour statistics are often mis-leading. > The lower the capacity factor the higher the jobs per gigawatt. > Reliance on job creation statistics may lead to inefficient deployment.

  18. A Capacity Supply Model for Virtualized Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander PINNOW

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with determining the capacity supply for virtualized servers. First, a server is modeled as a queue based on a Markov chain. Then, the effect of server virtualization on the capacity supply will be analyzed with the distribution function of the server load.

  19. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  20. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  1. Biomechanical Modeling Analysis of Loads Configuration for Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Jagodnik, Kathleen; De Witt, John K.

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Long duration space travel will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to assist loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft for travel to the Moon or to Mars is limited and therefore compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) currently on the ISS is being used as a benchmark for the functional performance of these new devices. Biomechanical data collection and computational modeling aid the device design process by quantifying the joint torques and the musculoskeletal forces that occur during exercises performed on the prototype devices. METHODS The computational models currently under development utilize the OpenSim [1] software platform, consisting of open source code for musculoskeletal modeling, using biomechanical input data from test subjects for estimation of muscle and joint loads. The OpenSim Full Body Model [2] is used for all analyses. The model incorporates simplified wrap surfaces, a new knee model and updated lower body muscle parameters derived from cadaver measurements and magnetic resonance imaging of young adults. The upper body uses torque actuators at the lumbar and extremity joints. The test subjects who volunteer for this study are instrumented with reflective markers for motion capture data collection while performing squat exercising on the Hybrid Ultimate Lifting Kit (HULK) prototype device (ZIN Technologies, Middleburg Heights, OH). Ground reaction force data is collected with force plates under the feet, and device loading is recorded through load cells internal to the HULK. Test variables include

  2. Use of an integrated containment and ultimate heat sink (UHS) response approach to evaluate nuclear power plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, M.C.; Vieira, A.T.; Patton, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Detailed containment and Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS) performance evaluations often are required to support major plant modifications, such as power up-rates and steam generator replacements. These UHS and containment pressure and temperature response evaluations are interrelated. Not only is the containment heat load to the UHS a factor in these evaluations, but other heat loads, such as those from the spent fuel pool, may change as a result of the plant modification and impact containment or UHS response. Our experience is that if an integrated containment/UHS response model is developed prior to the feasibility evaluations for such plant modifications, significant savings in engineering hours can be achieved. This paper presents an overview of such a front-end engineering tool that has been developed and used to support engineering evaluations. 3 refs., 2 figs

  3. Fundamentos para la determinación de la capacidad de carga de un remolque cañero durante su proceso de diseño // Basics for the determination of load capacity of a sugar cane trailer during its design process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Álvarez-Sánchez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra como determinar el valor racional de la capacidad de carga de unremolque cañero durante su proceso de diseño, de modo que en el momento de su explotación losgastos de la actividad de transporte tiendan a un mínimo.El principio que se ha seguido para ello es el de modelar matemáticamente su requerimientofuncional fundamental, capacidad de carga, en función de los gastos de explotación con los que sevincula, que son los costos del combustible y los gastos de amortización.Como restricciones del modelo se analizaron: La potencia efectiva del motor (Ne, el tiemposumario de traslado (Ttras y la fuerza tangencial de tracción máxima (Pφ.Palabras claves: diseño, remolque cañero, eficiencia, capacidad de carga, costos mínimos._____________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this work it is shown how to determine the rational value of load capacity in a CANE trolleyduring its design process, so at the exploitation moment the transportation costs are minimized.The principle followed in this research was the mathematical modeling of their fundamentalfunctional requirement (load capacity as a function of the exploitation and other related expenses.For the restrictions of the model the following aspects were considered: The effective power of theengine (Ne, the summary time of transfer of the sugar cane (Ttras and the maximum tangentialforce of traction (Pφ.Key words: design, sugar cane trolley, efficiency, load capacity, minimum costs

  4. N and P as ultimate and proximate limiting nutrients in the northern Gulf of Mexico: implications for hypoxia reduction strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Fennel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of hypoxia in coastal oceans is a long-standing and growing problem worldwide and is clearly linked to anthropogenic nutrient inputs. While the need for reducing anthropogenic nutrient loads is generally accepted, it is costly and thus requires scientifically sound nutrient-reduction strategies. Issues under debate include the relative importance of nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P as well as the magnitude of the reduction requirements. The largest anthropogenically induced hypoxic area in North American coastal waters (of 15 000 ± 5000 km2 forms every summer in the northern Gulf of Mexico where the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers deliver large amounts of freshwater and nutrients to the shelf. A 2001 plan for reducing this hypoxic area by nutrient management in the watershed called for a reduction of N loads. Since then evidence of P limitation during the time of hypoxia formation has arisen, and a dual nutrient-reduction strategy for this system has been endorsed. Here we report the first systematic analysis of the effects of single and dual nutrient load reductions from a spatially explicit physical–biogeochemical model for the northern Gulf of Mexico. The model has been shown previously to skillfully represent the processes important for hypoxic formation. Our analysis of an ensemble of simulations with stepwise reductions in N, P, and N and P loads provides insight into the effects of both nutrients on primary production and hypoxia, and it allows us to estimate what nutrient reductions would be required for single and dual nutrient-reduction strategies to reach the hypoxia target. Our results show that, despite temporary P limitation, N is the ultimate limiting nutrient for primary production in this system. Nevertheless, a reduction in P load would reduce hypoxia because primary production is P limited in the region where density stratification is conducive to hypoxia development, but reductions in N load have

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Seeking Ultimates. An Intuitive Guide to Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil

    2000-05-01

    Physics has the reputation of being a difficult and dry subject. Many books have been written in attempts to show that the difficulties are not insurmountable, even for the layman, and to convey some of the fascination it provides for those within it. In Seeking Ultimates Peter Landsberg avoids mathematics, the source of so many difficulties, entirely, and seeks to make physics comprehensible by what he terms intuition. He also emphasizes that there is almost no part of science that is completely understood; there are always areas of incompleteness and uncertainty, capable of providing exciting new results, and examples of this are highlighted throughout the book. After an introduction Landsberg starts with macroscopic phenomena for ease of understanding, though one might question whether the chosen topic of thermodynamics is ever going to be easy. Next he looks at microscopic effects, from atomic structure to the fundamental particles of the standard model and their interactions. There follow chapters on time and entropy, on chaos theory, on quantum mechanics and then cosmology. The final chapters look at physical constants (including the anthropic principle), whether physics has room for a creator God (the conclusion is that this is not the province of science), and some thoughts on science as a human activity. The chosen topics are those which have been important in the late twentieth century and remain important. Each chapter cites an eminent scientist as a `hero', though little is made of this. There are occasional historical notes, set in boxes, and a few short poems to leaven the text. What the book achieves is difficult to assess. Removing mathematics and adding a glossary of technical terms do not necessarily allow non-scientists to enjoy the text, as the publisher's note on the back cover suggests. The concepts can baffle the layman even more than the mathematics, and one of the most difficult of all physical concepts permeates so much of this book

  6. Human Factors Evaluation of the Modular Lightweight Load-Carrying Equipment (MOLLE) System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sampson, James

    2001-01-01

    .... The FEA was used in drafting a new user requirements document and initiating the development of a modular load-carrying system which ultimately became known as the Modular Lightweight Load-carrying Equipment (MOLLE...

  7. Measurement of ultimate tensile strength and Young modulus in LYSO scintillating crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.scalise@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Rinaldi, Daniele [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Perugia (Italy); Davi, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Architettura Costruzioni e Strutture, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Paone, Nicola [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2011-10-21

    Scintillating crystals are employed in high energy physics, in medical imaging, diagnostic and security. Two mechanical properties of lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate cerium-doped Lu{sub 2(1-x)}Y{sub 2x}SiO{sub 5}:Ce with x=0.1 (LYSO) crystals have been measured: the ultimate tensile stress ({sigma}{sub UTS}) and the Young elastic modulus (E). Measurements are made by means of a 4-points loading device and the experimental results account for an elastic-brittle stress-strain relation, which depends heavily on the specimen preparation and the material defects. {sigma}{sub UTS} along the [0 1 0] tensile direction ranges within 68.14 and 115.61 MPa, which, in the lowest case, is more than twice with respect to those measured for PbWO{sub 4} (PWO), exhibiting a marked difference between the annealed and the not-annealed samples. The mean elastic modulus (E), along the same direction, is E=1.80x10{sup 11} ({+-}2.15x10{sup 10}) N/m{sup 2}, with lower dispersion respect to UTS data. This type of analysis and study can be included into quality control procedures of crystals, based on samples taken out of production; such procedures can be established for industrial processing of crystals aimed to the high energy physics (calorimeters) and medical imaging (PET, etc.) applications.

  8. A new approach to the modeling of ultimate heat sink cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Policastro, A.J.; Wastag, M.; Paul, J.; Carhart, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ultimate heat sink (UHS) cooling pond thermal performance is analyzed by a new method in which zero, one, and three-dimensional models are used in combination. A typical UHS pond has an irregular shape covering 20 hectares at an average depth of 4 m with a heavy thermal load of 40 MWt (megawatts thermal) per hectare. The resulting flow field can be one, two or three dimensional. A three-dimensional numerical model (Paul 1983) is modified and used to determine the effective dimensionality of the pond under accident conditions. The model's surface heat transfer formulas and its predictions of thermal hydraulics are verified using laboratory and field data. The Paul model shows that, unlike normal cooling ponds, a typical UHS pond is vertically-mixed with only a longitudinal temperature variation. Buoyancy-driven circulations, strong discharge-to-intake flow, and rapid surface heat removal break down the usual vertical stratification. Predictions of the one-dimensional MITEMP model are shown to agree with Paul model predictions for a typical UHS pond at the Catawba Nuclear Power Plant

  9. Dynamic tensile loading improves the functional properties of mesenchymal stem cell-laden nanofiber-based fibrocartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brendon M; Shah, Roshan P; Huang, Alice H; Mauck, Robert L

    2011-05-01

    Fibrocartilaginous tissues such as the meniscus serve critical load-bearing roles, relying on arrays of collagen fibers to resist tensile loads experienced with normal activity. As these structures are frequently injured and possess limited healing capacity, there exists great demand for tissue-engineered replacements. Toward recreating the structural features of these anisotropic tissues in vitro, we employ scaffolds composed of co-aligned nanofibers that direct mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) orientation and the formation of organized extracellular matrix (ECM). Concomitant with ECM synthesis, the mechanical properties of constructs increase with free-swelling culture, but ultimately failed to achieve equivalence with meniscal fibrocartilage. As mechanical forces are essential to the development and maintenance of musculoskeletal tissues, this work examined the effect of cyclic tensile loading on MSC-laden nanofibrous constructs. We hypothesized that loading would modulate the transcriptional behavior of MSCs, spur the deposition of ECM, and lead to enhancements in construct mechanical properties compared to free-swelling controls. Fiber-aligned scaffolds were seeded with MSCs and dynamically loaded daily in tension or maintained as nonloaded controls for 4 weeks. With mechanical stimulation, fibrous gene expression increased, collagen deposition increased, and the tensile modulus increased by 16% relative to controls. These results show that dynamic tensile loading enhances the maturation of MSC-laden aligned nanofibrous constructs, suggesting that recapitulation of the structural and mechanical environment of load-bearing tissues results in increases in functional properties that can be exploited for tissue engineering applications.

  10. Variation of moment-curvature diagrams in square columns of reinforced concrete due to the presence of loads outside the plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo Camacho, Glen

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation was developed to determine if has existed a variation in the moment-curvature diagrams, basic input of performance-based methodologies, due to the presence of loads outside the plane. A documentary revision of experimental, analytical and instrumentation methods is contemplated for the determination of the effect of loads outside the plane, the design of a prototype column in agreement with the requirements of current design, the construction and the failure of four columns subjected to different requests of load outside the plane. The test has consisted of a column of 14 cm of cantilevered side to which horizontal load combinations are applied, outside and inside the plane, in the upper part, as well as an axial load by means of a system of post tension with servo control. Four specimens are studied in which the only difference has been the horizontal load applied. An incremental load is applied for the control case in the plane until reaching the structural failure. The remaining tests are developed based on the magnitude of the maximum load, for which a constant load is first applied outside the plane corresponding to a percentage of the control load (30%, 50% and 80%) and then has proceed to apply the incremental load in the plane. The results have showed that for out-of-plane loads greater than 30%, both ultimate curvature and capacity are considerably reduced. In addition, a linear reduction of the ductility of the element is observed as the loads outside the plane increase. An underestimation of capabilities is shown in analytical research. In addition, the software used is shown without consider the effect of off-plane loads. (author) [es

  11. Application of a Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Jacket in Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams under Monotonic and Repeated Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin E. Chalioris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an experimental study on the application of a reinforced self-compacting concrete jacketing technique in damaged reinforced concrete beams. Test results of 12 specimens subjected to monotonic loading up to failure or under repeated loading steps prior to total failure are included. First, 6 beams were designed to be shear dominated, constructed by commonly used concrete, were initially tested, damaged, and failed in a brittle manner. Afterwards, the shear-damaged beams were retrofitted using a self-compacting concrete U-formed jacket that consisted of small diameter steel bars and U-formed stirrups in order to increase their shear resistance and potentially to alter their initially observed shear response to a more ductile one. The jacketed beams were retested under the same loading. Test results indicated that the application of reinforced self-compacting concrete jacketing in damaged reinforced concrete beams is a promising rehabilitation technique. All the jacketed beams showed enhanced overall structural response and 35% to 50% increased load bearing capacities. The ultimate shear load of the jacketed beams varied from 39.7 to 42.0 kN, whereas the capacity of the original beams was approximately 30% lower. Further, all the retrofitted specimens exhibited typical flexural response with high values of deflection ductility.

  12. Abnormal liquid loading in gas wells of the Samandepe Gasfield in Turkmenistan and countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijun Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With complicated formation mechanisms, liquid loading in gas wells during gasfield development may significantly affect the productivity of gas wells and the ultimate recovery rate. Dynamic monitoring data of the Samandepe Gasfield in Turkmenistan shows that liquid loading can be found extensively in gas wells. Their formation mechanisms and negative impacts on gasfield development severely restrict the productivity enhancement of this gasfield. With their origins taken into consideration, liquid loads in gas wells were classified into three types: formation water, condensed liquid, and external liquid. By using the hydrostatic pressure gradient method and through PLT monitoring, properties of liquid loads in the Samandepe Gasfield were determined. In addition, formation mechanisms related to liquid loading in gas wells were obtained through analyses of critical fluid-carrying capacities and by using gas-reservoir production data. The following findings were obtained. Liquid loading was commonly found in this gas well with majority of reservoir formations in lower well intervals flooded. However, the formation mechanisms for these liquid loads are different from those of other gasfields. Due to long-term shut-down of gas wells, killing fluids precipitated and pores in lower reservoir formations were plugged. As a result, natural gas had no access to boreholes, killing fluids were impossibly carried out of the borehole. Instead, the killing fluid was detained at the bottomhole to generate liquid load and eliminate the possibility of formation water coning. Moreover, since the gasfield was dominated by block reservoirs with favorable physical properties and connectivity, impacts of liquid load on gasfield development were insignificant. Thus, to enhance the recovery rate of the Samandepe Gasfield significantly, it is necessary to expand the gasfield development scale and strengthen the development of marginal gas reservoirs.

  13. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianka, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs

  14. Experimental behavior of full-scale exterior beam-column space joints retrofitted by ferrocement layers under cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim G. Shaaban

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A majority of the traditional reinforced concrete frame buildings, existing across the Middle East, lack adequate confinement in beam-column joints, or in other words, are shear deficient because they were constructed before the introduction of seismic codes for construction. This research studies the experimental behavior of full-scale beam-column space (three-dimensional joints under displacement-controlled cyclic loading. Eleven joint specimens, included a traditionally reinforced one (without adequate shear reinforcement, a reference one with sufficient shear reinforcement according to ACI 318, and nine specimens retrofitted by ferrocement layers, were experimentally tested to evaluate a retrofit technique for strengthening shear deficient beam column joints. The studied variables were the number of layers, orientation angle of expanded wire mesh per layer, and presence of steel angles in the corners of joint specimen prior to wrapping with ferrocement layers. The experimental results showed that proper shear reinforcement for the test joints, according to ACI 318, enhanced the behavior of the specimen over that of the traditionally reinforced specimens without adequate shear reinforcement. The joints retrofitted by ferrocement layers showed higher ultimate capacity, higher ultimate displacement prior to failure (better ductility, and they did not suffer heavily damage as observed for the traditionally reinforced one. Increasing the number of ferrocement layers for retrofitted specimens led to improving performance for such specimens compared to the traditionally reinforced ones in terms of enhancing the ultimate capacity and ultimate displacement. Specimens retrofitted by ferrocement layers reinforced by expanded wire mesh of 60° orientation angle showed slightly better performance than those of 45° orientation angles. Retrofitting using steel angles in addition to ferrocement layers improves the seismic performance of the specimens

  15. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  16. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    failure envelopes. A jacked installation test is successfully compared with existing models. Tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading applied at different loading rates are analysed. As expected, the bearing capacity of bucket foundations under transient lateral loading increases dramatically...... documents on bearing capacity and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed and the results from the models found in literature are compared to the experimental results obtained in the current study. Monotonic tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading until failure are compared with existing...

  17. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEGRASSI, G.; HOFMAYER, C.; MURPHY, C.; SUZUKI, K.; NAMITA, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper

  18. Comparison of field and laboratory models of the load bearing capacity in coffee plantations Comparação de modelos de capacidade de suporte de carga do solo de campo e laboratório em plantações de café

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Iori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Precompression stress is an important property for assessment of tropical soil structure sustainability and is often determined in laboratory tests. The objective of this study was to compare the load bearing capacity models obtained with controlled moisture in laboratory and those obtained with natural field moistures determined a long one year. The evaluation of soil structural sustainability follows four distinct steps: soil sampling in the field, uniaxial compression test of the samples in the laboratory, determination of precompression stress and estimation of the load bearing capacity models. Laboratory estimates of precompression stress were obtained from moisture controlled in laboratory and from natural moisture determined in a field a long one year. In this process, the soil samples were saturated by capillarity with distilled water in laboratory, and after 48 hours, the samples were air dried to obtain the different moisture contents. Then, the precompression stress was determined for this both conditions. To verify if the load bearing capacity models obtained with controlled moisture in laboratory may represent the load bearing models obtained with natural field moisture, these models were compared using the homogeneity test procedure. It was observed that 75% of field models analyzed were similar to the laboratory models. Thus, due to the similarity on the load-bearing capacity models obtained using natural (field or controlled (laboratory moisture contents, the assessment of the soil structure sustainability can be done using both methods.Pressão de pré-consolidação é uma importante propriedade na avaliação da sustentabilidade estrutural do solo e é determinada em testes de laboratório. Neste estudo, objetivou-se comparar modelos de capacidade de suporte de carga obtidos com umidade controlada em laboratório e com umidade natural de campo ao longo de um ano. A avaliação da sustentabilidade estrutural do solo ocorreu em

  19. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System Load Reduction and Prototype Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Markussen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a hydraulic soft yaw concept for wind turbines leads to significant load reductions in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates as a shock absorption system on a car, hence absorbing the loading from turbulent wind conditions instead of leading them into the stiff wind...... turbine structure. Results presented shows fatigue reductions of up to 40% and ultimate load reduction of up to 19%. The ultimate load reduction increases even more when the over load protection system in the hydraulic soft yaw system is introduced and results show how the exact extreme load cut off...... operates. Further it is analyzed how the soft yaw system influence the power production of the turbine. It is shown that the influence is minimal, but at larger yaw errors the effect is possitive. Due to the implemeted functions in the hydraulic soft yaw system such as even load distribution on the pinions...

  20. Fourier series analysis of a cylindrical pressure vessel subjected to axial end load and external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brar, Gurinder Singh; Hari, Yogeshwar; Williams, Dennis K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of a reliability technique that employs a Fourier series representation of random axisymmetric and asymmetric imperfections in a cylindrical pressure vessel subjected to an axial end load and external pressure, with evaluations prescribed by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 2 Rules. The ultimate goal of the reliability technique described herein is to predict the critical buckling load associated with the subject cylindrical pressure vessel. Initial geometric imperfections are shown to have a significant effect on the calculated load carrying capacity of the vessel. Fourier decomposition was employed to interpret imperfections as structural features that can be easily related to various other types of defined imperfections. The initial functional description of the imperfections consists of an axisymmetric portion and a deviant portion, which are availed in the form of a double Fourier series. Fifty simulated shells generated by the Monte Carlo technique are employed in the final prediction of the critical buckling load. The representation of initial geometrical imperfections in the cylindrical pressure vessel requires the determination of respective Fourier coefficients. Multi-mode analyses are expanded to evaluate a large number of potential buckling modes for both predefined geometries in combination with asymmetric imperfections as a function of position within the given cylindrical shell. The probability of the ultimate buckling stress exceeding a predefined threshold stress is also calculated. The method and results described herein are in stark contrast to the “knockdown factor” approach as applied to compressive stress evaluations currently utilized in industry. Further effort is needed to improve on the current design rules regarding column buckling of large diameter pressure vessels subjected to an axial end load and external pressure designed in accordance with ASME Boiler and

  1. Long-time safety aspects of ultimate storage of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.

    1992-10-01

    Based on the amounts of transuranium elements generated in nuclear reactors, the inventories of these elements in the repository are described for various ultimate disposal strategies. The data are used to give an outline description of accident-induced ingress of brines into the backfilled repository shaft during the post-closure period and the resulting mechanisms of a mobilization of the transuranium elements and their escape from the repository, and to calculate amounts released. The effects of the released transuranium elements on the biosphere and the different contributions of the various isotopes to the calculated radiation exposure are given as an estimate and are described in more detail by means of data determined by parameter variation. The effects of transuranium elements during the entire migration process are restricted to the production of daughter nuclides, especially of the uranium isotopes. They give no particular contribution to environmental radiation exposure because of their low mobility. With the only exception of Np-237 which, due to its long half-time and relatively good migration capacity, can reach the biosphere. The contributions of the transuranium elements to the dose maxima, caused by the daughter products, of the uranium isotopes or the neptunium are calculated to be about 50%. All publications to date presenting a safety analysis of the site of the Gorleben repository assume the dose maxima of all uranium isotopes together to be approx. 10%, and those of the neptunium isotope approx. 20%, referring to the most significant fission products. This indicates that uranium or neptunium are of secondary significance in the process, and the other transuranium elements are only third-rate. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Ultimate architecture

    CERN Multimedia

    Jencks, Charles

    2007-01-01

    "European physics hothouse CERN recently unveiled Atlas, the world's most powerful particle detector, which it will use to search for the fundamental building blocks of nature from May next year. Charles Jencks describes the experience of getting up clsoe to the engineering marvel that could en up creating a mini-black hole."(5 pages with photos).

  3. Ultimate energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    An explanation is given of the complexity faced by the scientific researcher in an effort to achieve fusion power. Outlines the theory and current experiments being pursued in this complex project, including visits to five major fusion research laboratories, and interviews with physicists

  4. Regeneration limit of classical Shannon capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, M. A.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Since Shannon derived the seminal formula for the capacity of the additive linear white Gaussian noise channel, it has commonly been interpreted as the ultimate limit of error-free information transmission rate. However, the capacity above the corresponding linear channel limit can be achieved when noise is suppressed using nonlinear elements; that is, the regenerative function not available in linear systems. Regeneration is a fundamental concept that extends from biology to optical communications. All-optical regeneration of coherent signal has attracted particular attention. Surprisingly, the quantitative impact of regeneration on the Shannon capacity has remained unstudied. Here we propose a new method of designing regenerative transmission systems with capacity that is higher than the corresponding linear channel, and illustrate it by proposing application of the Fourier transform for efficient regeneration of multilevel multidimensional signals. The regenerative Shannon limit—the upper bound of regeneration efficiency—is derived.

  5. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  6. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  7. Handling load with less stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Gamarnik, D.

    2006-01-01

    We study how the average performance of a system degrades as the load nears its peak capacity. We restrict our attention to the performance measures of average sojourn time and the large deviation rates of buffer overflow probabilities. We first show that for certain queueing systems, the average

  8. Mechanics of arterial subfailure with increasing loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2007-01-01

    Arterial subfailure leads to delayed symptomatology and high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly for the thoracic aorta and carotid arteries. Although arterial injuries occur during high-velocity automotive collisions, previous studies of arterial subfailure focused on quasi-static loading. This investigation subjected aortic segments to increasing loading rates to quantify effects on elastic, subfailure, and ultimate vessel mechanics. Sixty-two specimens were axially distracted, and 92% demonstrated subfailure before ultimate failure. With increasing loading rate, stress at initial subfailure and ultimate failure significantly increased, and strain at initial subfailure and ultimate failure significantly decreased. Present results indicate increased susceptibility for arterial subfailure and/or dissection under higher-rate extension. According to the present results, automotive occupants are at greater risk of arterial injury under higher velocity impacts due to greater body segment motions in addition to decreased strain tolerance to subfailure and catastrophic failure.

  9. An analysis of the static load test on single square pile of 40x40 cm2, using finite element method in Rusunawa project, Jatinegara, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harasid, Harun; Roesyanto; Iskandar, Rudi; Silalahi, Sofyan A.

    2018-03-01

    Piling Foundation is one of the foundations which is used to penetrate its load through soil layer. The power carried by the piling is obtained from the end bearing capacity, that is, the compressive end piling and friction bearing capacity obtained from friction bearing and adhesive capacity between the piling and the soil around it. The investigation on the Standard Penetration Test is aimed to get the description of soil layer, based on the type and color of soil through visual observation, and soil characteristics. SPT data can be used to calculate bearing capacity. Besides investigating the SPT, this study is also been equipped by taking the samples in laboratory and loading test on the piling and Ducth Cone Penetrometer (DCP) data to confirm its bearing capacity. This study analyzed bearing capacity and settlement in the square pile of 40X40 cm in diameter in a single pile or grouped, using an empirical method, AllPile program, Plaxis program, and comparing the result with interpreting its loading test in the foundation of Rusunawa project, Jatinegara, Jakarta. The analysis was been done by using the data on soil investigation and laboratory by comparing them with Mohr-Coulomb soil model. Ultimate bearing capacity from the SPT data in the piling of 15.4 meters was 189.81 tons and the parameter of soil shear strength was 198.67 tons. The sander point, based on Aoki and De Alencar bearing capacity was 276.241 tons and based on Mayerhoff it was 305.49 tons. Based on the loading test of bearing capacity, unlimited bearing capacity for the three methods was Davisson (260 tons), Mazurkiewich (270 tons), and Chin (250 tons). The efficiency of grouped piles according to Converse-Library Equation method = 0.73, according to Los Angeles Group Action Equation method = 0.59, and according to Sheila-Keeny method = 0.94. Bearing capacity based on piling strength was 221.76 tons, bearing capacity based on calendaring data was 201.71 tons, and lateral bearing capacity of a

  10. 75 FR 76746 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or Educational Purposes. This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary...

  11. 7 CFR 4280.21 - Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... care providers; (5) Projects that utilize Advanced Telecommunications or computer networks to... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. 4280... Economic Development Loan and Grant Programs § 4280.21 Eligible REDG Ultimate Recipients and Projects. The...

  12. 78 FR 55117 - Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2013-0203] Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants; Draft... (DG), DG-1275, ``Ultimate Heat Sink for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide (RG) describes methods and procedures acceptable to the NRC staff that nuclear power plant facility licensees and...

  13. Load sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder

  14. Carbohydrate Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  15. Temperature distributions in a salt formation used for the ultimate disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploumen, P.

    1980-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany the works on waste disposal is focussed on the utilization of a salt formation for ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes. Heat released from the high-level waste will be dissipated in the salt and the surrounding geologic formations. The occuring temperature distributions will be calculated with computer codes. A survey of the developed computer codes will be shown; the results for a selected example, taking into account the loading sequence of the waste, the mine ventilation as well as an air gap between the waste and the salt, will be discussed. Furthermore it will be shown that by varying the disposal parameters, the maximum salt temperature can be below any described value. (Auth.)

  16. Blade-Pitch Control for Wind Turbine Load Reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lio, Alan Wai Hou

    Large wind turbines are subjected to the harmful loads that arise from the spatially uneven and temporally unsteady oncoming wind. Such loads are the known sources of fatigue damage that reduce the turbine operational lifetime, ultimately increasing the cost of wind energy to the end-users. In re...

  17. Probabilistic assessment of an aged highway bridge under traffic load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Maljaars, J.; Morales Nápoles, O.; Abspoel, L.

    2012-01-01

    Existing civil infrastructure represents a large economic value. Within the actions applied to the bridges, the traffic load is, in general, the most significant variable action to be considered when the ultimate limit states are under investigation. Consequently, the traffic load models play an

  18. Experimental Investigation into Corrosion Effect on Mechanical Properties of High Strength Steel Bars under Dynamic Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The tensile behaviors of corroded steel bars are important in the capacity evaluation of corroded reinforced concrete structures. The present paper studies the mechanical behavior of the corroded high strength reinforcing steel bars under static and dynamic loading. High strength reinforcing steel bars were corroded by using accelerated corrosion methods and the tensile tests were carried out under different strain rates. The results showed that the mechanical properties of corroded high strength steel bars were strain rate dependent, and the strain rate effect decreased with the increase of corrosion degree. The decreased nominal yield and ultimate strengths were mainly caused by the reduction of cross-sectional areas, and the decreased ultimate deformation and the shortened yield plateau resulted from the intensified stress concentration at the nonuniform reduction. Based on the test results, reduction factors were proposed to relate the tensile behaviors with the corrosion degree and strain rate for corroded bars. A modified Johnson-Cook strength model of corroded high strength steel bars under dynamic loading was proposed by taking into account the influence of corrosion degree. Comparison between the model and test results showed that proposed model properly describes the dynamic response of the corroded high strength rebars.

  19. Methods for determining the carrying capacity of eccentrically compressed concrete elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starishko Ivan Nikolaevich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The author presents the results of calculations of eccentrically compressed elements in the ultimate limit state of bearing capacity, taking into account all possiblestresses in the longitudinal reinforcement from the R to the R , caused by different values of eccentricity longitudinal force. The method of calculation is based on the simultaneous solution of the equilibrium equations of the longitudinal forces and internal forces with the equilibrium equations of bending moments in the ultimate limit state of the normal sections. Simultaneous solution of these equations, as well as additional equations, reflecting the stress-strain limit state elements, leads to the solution of a cubic equation with respect to height of uncracked concrete, or with respect to the carrying capacity. According to the author it is a significant advantage over the existing methods, in which the equilibrium equations using longitudinal forces obtained one value of the height, and the equilibrium equations of bending moments - another. Theoretical studies of the author, in this article and the reasons to calculate specific examples showed that a decrease in the eccentricity of the longitudinal force in the limiting state of eccentrically compressed concrete elements height uncracked concrete height increases, the tension in the longitudinal reinforcement area gradually (not abruptly goes from a state of tension compression, and load-bearing capacity of elements it increases, which is also confirmed by the experimental results. Designed journalist calculations of eccentrically compressed elements for 4 cases of eccentric compression, instead of 2 - as set out in the regulations, fully cover the entire spectrum of possible cases of the stress-strain limit state elements that comply with the European standards for reinforced concrete, in particular Eurocode 2 (2003.

  20. Behaviour of C-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N.H.; Suhatril, Meldi; Shariati, Ali; Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M.; Sinaei, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► C-shaped angle connectors show 8.8–33.1% strength degradation under cyclic loading. ► Connector fracture type of failure was experienced in C-shaped angle shear connectors. ► In push-out samples, more cracking was observed in those slabs with longer angles. ► C-shaped angle connectors show good behaviour in terms of the ultimate shear capacity. ► C-shaped angle connectors did not fulfil the requirements for ductility criteria. -- Abstract: This paper presents an evaluation of the structural behaviour of C-shaped angle shear connectors in composite beams, suitable for transferring shear force in composite structures. The results of the experimental programme, including eight push-out tests, are presented and discussed. The results include resistance, strength degradation, ductility, and failure modes of C-shaped angle shear connectors, under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading. The results show that connector fracture type of failure was experienced in C-shaped angle connectors and after the failure, more cracking was observed in those slabs with longer angles. On top of that, by comparing the shear resistance of C-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic and cyclic loading, these connectors showed 8.8–33.1% strength degradation, under fully reversed cyclic loading. Furthermore, it was concluded that the mentioned shear connector shows a proper behaviour, in terms of the ultimate shear capacity, but it does not satisfy the ductility criteria, imposed by the Eurocode 4, to perform a plastic distribution of the shear force between different connectors along the beam length.

  1. Duration of load effects of solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    Test methods for studying the effect of long-term loading on the load carrying capacity of structural wood are discussed. The impact of sampling procedures on test results is investigated and is exemplified. It is concluded from this investigation that the sampling method has a significant impact...

  2. Evaluation of Strip Footing Bearing Capacity Built on the Anthropogenic Embankment by Random Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczynska-Kozlowska, Joanna

    2014-05-01

    One of a geotechnical problem in the area of Wroclaw is an anthropogenic embankment layer delaying to the depth of 4-5m, arising as a result of historical incidents. In such a case an assumption of bearing capacity of strip footing might be difficult. The standard solution is to use a deep foundation or foundation soil replacement. However both methods generate significant costs. In the present paper the authors focused their attention on the influence of anthropogenic embankment variability on bearing capacity. Soil parameters were defined on the basis of CPT test and modeled as 2D anisotropic random fields and the assumption of bearing capacity were made according deterministic finite element methods. Many repeated of the different realizations of random fields lead to stable expected value of bearing capacity. The algorithm used to estimate the bearing capacity of strip footing was the random finite element method (e.g. [1]). In traditional approach of bearing capacity the formula proposed by [2] is taken into account. qf = c'Nc + qNq + 0.5γBN- γ (1) where: qf is the ultimate bearing stress, cis the cohesion, qis the overburden load due to foundation embedment, γ is the soil unit weight, Bis the footing width, and Nc, Nq and Nγ are the bearing capacity factors. The method of evaluation the bearing capacity of strip footing based on finite element method incorporate five parameters: Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (ν), dilation angle (ψ), cohesion (c), and friction angle (φ). In the present study E, ν and ψ are held constant while c and φ are randomized. Although the Young's modulus does not affect the bearing capacity it governs the initial elastic response of the soil. Plastic stress redistribution is accomplished using a viscoplastic algorithm merge with an elastic perfectly plastic (Mohr - Coulomb) failure criterion. In this paper a typical finite element mesh was assumed with 8-node elements consist in 50 columns and 20 rows. Footings width B

  3. Mechanical Properties of Steel-FRP Composite Bars under Tensile and Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The factory-produced steel-fiber reinforced polymer composite bar (SFCB is a new kind of reinforcement for concrete structures. The manufacturing technology of SFCB is presented based on a large number of handmade specimens. The calculated stress-strain curves of ordinary steel bar and SFCB under repeated tensile loading agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The energy-dissipation capacity and residual strain of both steel bar and SFCB were analyzed. Based on the good simulation results of ordinary steel bar and FRP bar under compressive loading, the compressive behavior of SFCB under monotonic loading was studied using the principle of equivalent flexural rigidity. There are three failure modes of SFCB under compressive loading: elastic buckling, postyield buckling, and no buckling (ultimate compressive strength is reached. The increase in the postyield stiffness of SFCB rsf can delay the postyield buckling of SFCB with a large length-to-diameter ratio, and an empirical equation for the relationship between the postbuckling stress and rsf is suggested, which can be used for the design of concrete structures reinforced by SFCB to consider the effect of reinforcement buckling.

  4. Seismic shear wall ISP NUPEC's seismic ultimate dynamic response test. Comparison report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In the seismic design of a nuclear power plant, evaluation of the ultimate strength of the nuclear reactor building is an important subject for assessment of seismic reliability of the plant. In order to carry out the evaluation, the response characteristics of reinforced concrete seismic shear walls up to their ultimate state have to be understood. For this purpose, there is a need to develop reliable non-linear response analysis methods which enables the reliable ultimate strength evaluation of nuclear reactor buildings. Along with this need, many computer codes have been developed. These computer codes are compared. (K.A.)

  5. Load sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Van den Ende, D.; Almeida, P.M.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a load sensor comprising a polymer matrix and a piezo-ceramic material such as PZT, em not bedded in the polymer matrix, which together form a compos not ite, wherein the polymer matrix is a liquid crystalline resin, and wherein the piezo-ceramic material is a PZT powder forming 30-60% by volume of the composite, and wherein the PZT powder forms 40-50% by volume of the composite.

  6. Ultimate Bound of a 3D Chaotic System and Its Application in Chaos Synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiezhi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ellipsoidal ultimate boundary regions of a special three-dimensional (3D chaotic system are proposed. To this chaotic system, the linear coefficient of the ith state variable in the ith state equation has the same sign; it also has two one-order terms and one quadratic cross-product term in each equation. A numerical solution and an analytical expression of the ultimate bounds are received. To get the analytical expression of the ultimate boundary region, a new result of one maximum optimization question is proved. The corresponding ultimate boundary regions are demonstrated through numerical simulations. Utilizing the bounds obtained, a linear controller is proposed to achieve the complete chaos synchronization. Numerical simulation exhibits the feasibility of the designed scheme.

  7. [Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice] / Olaf Mertelsmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mertelsmann, Olaf, 1969-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Deniss Hanovs, Valdis Tēraudkalns: Ultimate Freedom - no choice. The culture of authoritarianism in Latvia, 1934-1940. (Central and Eastern Europe. Reginal perspectives in global context, Bd. 2.) Brill. Leiden-Boston 2013

  8. By, With, and Through: The Theory and Practice of Special Operations Capacity-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    agricultural matters; legal and immigration matters; and, developmental and humanitarian aid matters.”109 Ultimately, short of war, the Department...Cone ( Chile , Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay).269 Within these regions, USSOUTHCOM focused intently on partnership, engagement, and capacity

  9. Recommendation for basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report is the result of the preparation process, and it describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for the site selection, storage construction, and safety analyses. (LN)

  10. Low cognitive load strengthens distractor interference while high load attenuates when cognitive load and distractor possess similar visual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Shipstead, Zach; Osaka, Naoyuki; Engle, Randall W

    2015-07-01

    Studies on visual cognitive load have reported inconsistent effects of distractor interference when distractors have visual characteristic that are similar to the cognitive load. Some studies have shown that the cognitive load enhances distractor interference, while others reported an attenuating effect. We attribute these inconsistencies to the amount of cognitive load that a person is required to maintain. Lower amounts of cognitive load increase distractor interference by orienting attention toward visually similar distractors. Higher amounts of cognitive load attenuate distractor interference by depleting attentional resources needed to process distractors. In the present study, cognitive load consisted of faces (Experiments 1-3) or scenes (Experiment 2). Participants performed a selective attention task in which they ignored face distractors while judging a color of a target dot presented nearby, under differing amounts of load. Across these experiments distractor interference was greater in the low-load condition and smaller in the high-load condition when the content of the cognitive load had similar visual characteristic to the distractors. We also found that when a series of judgments needed to be made, the effect was apparent for the first trial but not for the second. We further tested an involvement of working memory capacity (WMC) in the load effect (Experiment 3). Interestingly, both high and low WMC groups received an equivalent effect of the cognitive load in the first distractor, suggesting these effects are fairly automatic.

  11. Ultimate strength analysis of long-span cable-stayed bridges; Chodai chachokyo no shukyoku kyodo kaiseki to kyodo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, X.; Yamaguchi, H. [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan)] Nagai, M. [Nagaoka Technical Coll., Niigata (Japan)

    1998-07-21

    Recently, span of cable-stayed bridges has been getting loner and longer, present situation is that cable-stayed bridges with span 600 to 800m class have been built inside and outside the country, and accurate determination of its ultimate strength has been an important problem statistically. However, concrete design method for evaluating load bearing stress of long-span cable-stayed bridge. Particularly of the main beam whose axial stress is dominating, has not been established so far. As for cable-stayed bridge, even for long-span, effect of plasticization of cross section on ultimate strength is severe because there is little effect of geometric nonlinearity and it is thought that accurate evaluation of ultimate strength only by elastic finite potential analysis is difficult. Accordingly, it is necessary to study the behavior by using combined nonlinear analysis considering the nonlinearity of the material in order to evaluate the safety and economy to long-span cable-stayed bridge. In this report, 3 dimensional analysis method was formularized taking into account the combine nonlinearity of multi-box girder and analysis program of ultimate strength behavior of long-span cable-stayed bridge was developed. 19 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Educational attainment and ultimate fertility among Swedish women born in 1955-59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Neyer

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two companion papers addressing the association between educational attainment and fertility for some sixty educational groups of Swedish women, defined according to field of education as well as level of education. The first paper is about childlessness and education, the present one about the mean number of children ever born. We find that ultimate fertility decreases somewhat with an increasing educational level, but its dependence on the field of education is much more impressive. In general, educational groups with relatively little childlessness also have relatively high ultimate fertility, and educational groups with much childlessness have relatively low ultimate fertility. In particular, women educated for the teaching or health-care professions have less childlessness and a higher ultimate fertility than others. Conversely, women with an education for esthetic or (non-teacher humanist occupations have unusually high fractions childless and low ultimate fertility. Women with religious educations stand out by having very high fractions childless but quite ordinary mean ultimate fertility nevertheless; such women have very little childbearing outside of marriage. Women with research degrees have remarkably ordinary childbearing behavior; they do not forego motherhood to the extent that some theories would predict.

  13. Excess glycogen does not resolve high ultimate pH of oxidative muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Eric M; Matarneh, Sulaiman K; Oliver, Emily M; Apaoblaza, Ariel; Scheffler, Tracy L; Shi, Hao; Gerrard, David E

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle glycogen content can impact the extent of postmortem pH decline. Compared to glycolytic muscles, oxidative muscles contain lower glycogen levels antemortem which may contribute to the higher ultimate pH. In an effort to explore further the participation of glycogen in postmortem metabolism, we postulated that increasing the availability of glycogen would drive additional pH decline in oxidative muscles to equivalent pH values similar to the ultimate pH of glycolytic muscles. Glycolysis and pH declines were compared in porcine longissimus lumborum (glycolytic) and masseter (oxidative) muscles using an in vitro system in the presence of excess glycogen. The ultimate pH of the system containing longissimus lumborum reached a value similar to that observed in intact muscle. The pH decline of the system containing masseter samples stopped prematurely resulting in a higher ultimate pH which was similar to that of intact masseter muscle. To investigate further, we titrated powdered longissimus lumborum and masseter samples in the reaction buffer. As the percentage of glycolytic sample increased, the ultimate pH decreased. These data show that oxidative muscle produces meat with a high ultimate pH regardless of glycogen content and suggest that inherent muscle factors associated with glycolytic muscle control the extent of pH decline in pig muscles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Strength of Glued-in Bolts after Full Scale Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Clorius, Christian Odin; Damkilde, Lars

    1999-01-01

    with a length of 500 mm had a special hollow tapering giving them a higher load bearing capacity than solid bolts of equal dimensions. A FEM-analysis confirms the higher load bearing capacity. The mean residual strength was found to be 362 kN with a standard deviation of 37 kN, which is 95% of the predicted...

  15. The Unintentional Memory Load in Tests for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret Hubbard

    The validity of certain standardized tests may be affected by the short-term memory load therein and its relation to a child's short-term memory capacity. Factors of testing which increase a test's memory load and consequently interfere with comprehension are discussed. It is hypothesized that a test which strains the short-term memory capacity of…

  16. Representation of Solar Capacity Value in the ReEDS Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibanez, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    An important issue for electricity system operators is the estimation of renewables' capacity contributions to reliably meeting system demand, or their capacity value. While the capacity value of thermal generation can be estimated easily, assessment of wind and solar requires a more nuanced approach due to the resource variability. Reliability-based methods, particularly assessment of the Effective Load-Carrying Capacity, are considered to be the most robust and widely-accepted techniques for addressing this resource variability. This report compares estimates of solar PV capacity value by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model against two sources. The first comparison is against values published by utilities or other entities for known electrical systems at existing solar penetration levels. The second comparison is against a time-series ELCC simulation tool for high renewable penetration scenarios in the Western Interconnection. Results from the ReEDS model are found to compare well with both comparisons, despite being resolved at a super-hourly temporal resolution. Two results are relevant for other capacity-based models that use a super-hourly resolution to model solar capacity value. First, solar capacity value should not be parameterized as a static value, but must decay with increasing penetration. This is because -- for an afternoon-peaking system -- as solar penetration increases, the system's peak net load shifts to later in the day -- when solar output is lower. Second, long-term planning models should determine system adequacy requirements in each time period in order to approximate LOLP calculations. Within the ReEDS model we resolve these issues by using a capacity value estimate that varies by time-slice. Within each time period the net load and shadow price on ReEDS's planning reserve constraint signals the relative importance of additional firm capacity.

  17. Study on Mechanical Properties of Barite Concrete under Impact Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z. F.; Cheng, K.; Wu, D.; Gan, Y. C.; Tao, Q. W.

    2018-03-01

    In order to research the mechanical properties of Barite concrete under impact load, a group of concrete compression tests was carried out under the impact load by using the drop test machine. A high-speed camera was used to record the failure process of the specimen during the impact process. The test results show that:with the increase of drop height, the loading rate, the peak load, the strain under peak load, the strain rate and the dynamic increase factor (DIF) all increase gradually. The ultimate tensile strain is close to each other, and the time of impact force decreases significantly, showing significant strain rate effect.

  18. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  19. Lightening the load: perceptual load impairs visual detection in typical adults but not in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Anna M; Swettenham, John G; Lavie, Nilli

    2012-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) research portrays a mixed picture of attentional abilities with demonstrations of enhancements (e.g., superior visual search) and deficits (e.g., higher distractibility). Here we test a potential resolution derived from the Load Theory of Attention (e.g., Lavie, 2005). In Load Theory, distractor processing depends on the perceptual load of the task and as such can only be eliminated under high load that engages full capacity. We hypothesize that ASD involves enhanced perceptual capacity, leading to the superior performance and increased distractor processing previously reported. Using a signal-detection paradigm, we test this directly and demonstrate that, under higher levels of load, perceptual sensitivity was reduced in typical adults but not in adults with ASD. These findings confirm our hypothesis and offer a promising solution to the previous discrepancies by suggesting that increased distractor processing in ASD results not from a filtering deficit but from enhanced perceptual capacity.

  20. A comparative analysis of capacity adequacy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doorman, Gerard; Botterud, Audun; Wolfgang, Ove

    2007-06-01

    In this paper a stochastic dynamic optimization model is used to analyze the effect of different generation adequacy policies in restructured power systems. The expansion decisions of profit-maximizing investors are simulated under a number of different market designs: Energy Only with and without a price cap, Capacity Payment, Capacity Obligation, Capacity Subscription, and Demand Elasticity. The results show that the overall social welfare is reduced compared to a centralized social welfare optimization for all policies except Capacity Subscription and Demand Elasticity. In particular, an energy only market with a low price cap leads to a significant increase in involuntary load shedding. Capacity payments and obligations give additional investment incentives and more generating capacity, but also result in a considerable transfer of wealth from consumers to producers due to the capacity payments. Increased demand elasticity increases social welfare, but also results in a transfer from producers to consumers, compared to the theoretical social welfare optimum. In contrast, the capacity subscription policy increases the social welfare, and both producers and consumers benefit. This is possible because capacity subscription explicitly utilizes differences in consumers' preferences for uninterrupted supply. This advantage must be weighed against the cost of implementation, which is not included in the model.

  1. Selection History Modulates Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Cheng Kuo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that past selection history affects the allocation of attention on target selection. However, it is unclear whether context-driven selection history can modulate the efficacy of attention allocation on working memory (WM representations. This study tests the influences of selection history on WM capacity. A display of one item (low load or three/four items (high load was shown for the participants to hold in WM in a delayed response task. Participants then judged whether a probe item was in the memory display or not. Selection history was defined as the number of items attended across trials in the task context within a block, manipulated by the stimulus set-size in the contexts with fewer possible stimuli (4-item or 5-item context or more possible stimuli (8-item or 9-item context from which the memorized content was selected. The capacity measure (i.e. the K parameter was estimated to reflect the number of items that can be held in WM. Across four behavioral experiments, the results revealed that the capacity was significantly reduced in the context with more possible stimuli relative to the context with fewer possible stimuli. Moreover, the reduction in capacity was significant for high WM load and not observed when the focus was on only a single item. Together, these findings indicate that context-driven selection history and focused attention influence WM capacity.

  2. The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project: A comprehensive approach to study the long term fate of CO2 geological storage sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigane, P.; Brown, S.; Dimier, A.; Pearce, J.; Frykman, P.; Maurand, N.; Le Gallo, Y.; Spiers, C. J.; Cremer, H.; Rutters, H.; Yalamas, T.

    2013-12-01

    The European FP7 ULTimateCO2 project aims at significantly advance our knowledge of specific processes that could influence the long-term fate of geologically stored CO2: i) trapping mechanisms, ii) fluid-rock interactions and effects on mechanical integrity of fractured caprock and faulted systems and iii) leakage due to mechanical and chemical damage in the well vicinity, iv) brine displacement and fluid mixing at regional scale. A realistic framework is ensured through collaboration with two demonstration sites in deep saline sandstone formations: the onshore former NER300 West Lorraine candidate in France (ArcelorMittal GeoLorraine) and the offshore EEPR Don Valley (former Hatfield) site in UK operated by National Grid. Static earth models have been generated at reservoir and basin scale to evaluate both trapping mechanisms and fluid displacement at short (injection) and long (post injection) time scales. Geochemical trapping and reservoir behaviour is addressed through experimental approaches using sandstone core materials in batch reactive mode with CO2 and impurities at reservoir pressure and temperature conditions and through geochemical simulations. Collection of data has been generated from natural and industrial (oil industry) analogues on the fluid flow and mechanical properties, structure, and mineralogy of faults and fractures that could affect the long-term storage capacity of underground CO2 storage sites. Three inter-related lines of laboratory experiments investigate the long-term evolution of the mechanical properties and sealing integrity of fractured and faulted caprocks using Opalinus clay of Mont Terri Gallery (Switzerland) (OPA), an analogue for caprock well investigated in the past for nuclear waste disposal purpose: - Characterization of elastic parameters in intact samples by measuring strain during an axial experiment, - A recording of hydraulic fracture flow properties by loading and shearing samples in order to create a 'realistic

  3. Spatial peak-load pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arellano, M. Soledad; Serra, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    This article extends the traditional electricity peak-load pricing model to include transmission costs. In the context of a two-node, two-technology electric power system, where suppliers face inelastic demand, we show that when the marginal plant is located at the energy-importing center, generators located away from that center should pay the marginal capacity transmission cost; otherwise, consumers should bear this cost through capacity payments. Since electric power transmission is a natural monopoly, marginal-cost pricing does not fully cover costs. We propose distributing the revenue deficit among users in proportion to the surplus they derive from the service priced at marginal cost. (Author)

  4. Intergranular Cracking as a Major Cause of Long-Term Capacity Fading of Layered Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Wolf, Mark; Karki, Khim; Yu, Young-Sang; Stach, Eric A; Cabana, Jordi; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J

    2017-06-14

    Capacity fading has limited commercial layered Li-ion battery electrodes to NCA) electrode change after capacity fade following months of slow charge-discharge. The changes in the reactions that underpin energy storage after long-term cycling directly correlate to the capacity loss; heterogeneous reaction kinetics observed during extended cycles quantitatively account for the capacity loss. This reaction heterogeneity is ultimately attributed to intergranular fracturing that degrades the connectivity of subsurface grains within the polycrystalline NCA aggregate.

  5. Validity of Submaximal Cycle Ergometry for Estimating Aerobic Capacity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myhre, Loren

    1998-01-01

    ... that allows early selection of the most appropriate test work load. A computerized version makes it possible for non-trained personnel to safely administer this test for estimating aerobic capacity...

  6. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  7. Air capacity for Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Like most large cities, Sydney has an airport problem. Demand is increasing faster than supply, and additional capacity will be needed if costly rationing, and delays, are to be avoided. However, compared to many cities, the problems facing Sydney are modest. At the moment, demand is only just exceeding capacity. There is a good chance that the available capacity will be rationed efficiently. Options for expanding capacity are being evaluated well. There may be problems in the future- poor op...

  8. Responsibility and Capacities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    That responsible moral agency presupposes certain mental capacities, constitutes a widely accepted view among theorists. Moreover, it is often assumed that degrees in the development of the relevant capacities co-vary with degrees of responsibility. In this article it is argued that, the move from...... the view that responsibility requires certain mental capacities to the position that degrees of responsibility co-vary with degrees of the development of the mental capacities, is premature....

  9. Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ziaie Moayed; B. Mohammadi-Haji

    2016-01-01

    Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of ...

  10. Assessing Power System Stability Following Load Changes and Considering Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ngo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An increase in load capacity during the operation of a power system usually causes voltage drop and leads to system instability, so it is necessary to monitor the effect of load changes. This article presents a method of assessing the power system stability according to the load node capacity considering uncertainty factors in the system. The proposed approach can be applied to large-scale power systems for voltage stability assessment in real-time.

  11. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  12. PAYMENT CAPACITY SENSITIVITY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel BRÎNDESCU – OLARIU

    2014-11-01

    The results of the study facilitate the determination and classification of the main sensitivity factors for the payment capacity at sample level, the establishment of general benchmarks for the payment capacity (as no such benchmarks currently exist in the Romanian literature and the identification of the mechanisms through which the variation of different factors impacts the payment capacity.

  13. Investigation of suction anchor pullout capacity under undrained conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jarand, Pollestad

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Floating units are dependent on reliable mooring systems to ensure safety during marine operations. Suction anchors have proved to be a technologically viable and cost-effective concept. They are capable of precision installation, re-use, and provide large resistive capacity. This thesis investigates load capacity and failure modes of suction anchors subjected to vertical, horizontal (lateral), and incline loading. Suction anchor design co...

  14. Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, F.; Tuovinen, J.E.; Tabbers, H.; van Gerven, P.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses cognitive load measurement techniques with regard to their contribution to cognitive load theory (CLT). CLT is concerned with the design of instructional methods that efficiently use people's limited cognitive processing capacity to apply acquired knowledge and skills to new

  15. Bayesian Modeling of the Assimilative Capacity Component of Stream Nutrient Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementing stream restoration techniques and best management practices to reduce nonpoint source nutrients implies enhancement of the assimilative capacity for the stream system. In this paper, a Bayesian method for evaluating this component of a TMDL load capacity is developed...

  16. Functional and rheological properties of proteins in frozen turkey breast meat with different ultimate pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J T Y; Omana, D A; Betti, M

    2011-05-01

    Functional and rheological properties of proteins from frozen turkey breast meat with different ultimate pH at 24 h postmortem (pH(24)) have been studied. Sixteen breast fillets from Hybrid Tom turkeys were initially selected based on lightness (L*) values for each color group (pale, normal, and dark), with a total of 48 breast fillets. Further selection of 8 breast samples was made within each class of meat according to the pH(24). The average L* and pH values of the samples were within the following range: pale (L* >52; pH ≤5.7), normal (46 meat, respectively. Ultimate pH did not cause major changes in the emulsifying and foaming properties of the extracted sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins. An SDS-PAGE profile of proteins from low and normal pH meat was similar, which revealed that the extent of protein denaturation was the same. Low pH meat had the lowest water-holding capacity compared with normal and high pH meat as shown by the increase in cooking loss, which can be explained by factors other than protein denaturation. Gel strength analysis and folding test revealed that gel-forming ability was better for high pH meat compared with low and normal pH meat.Dynamic viscoelastic behavior showed that myosin denaturation temperature was independent of pH(24). Normal and high pH meat had similar hardness, springiness, and chewiness values as revealed by texture profile analysis. The results from this study indicate that high pH meat had similar or better functional properties than normal pH meat. Therefore, high pH meat is suitable for further processed products, whereas low pH meat may need additional treatment or ingredient formulations to improve its functionality.

  17. Ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model: Tumor eradication and related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkov, Konstantin E.; Krishchenko, Alexander P.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we consider the ultimate dynamics of the Kirschner-Panetta model which was created for studying the immune response to tumors under special types of immunotherapy. New ultimate upper bounds for compact invariant sets of this model are given, as well as sufficient conditions for the existence of a positively invariant polytope. We establish three types of conditions for the nonexistence of compact invariant sets in the domain of the tumor-cell population. Our main results are two types of conditions for global tumor elimination depending on the ratio between the proliferation rate of the immune cells and their mortality rate. These conditions are described in terms of simple algebraic inequalities imposed on model parameters and treatment parameters. Our theoretical studies of ultimate dynamics are complemented by numerical simulation results.

  18. Revisiting perceptions of quality of hospice care: managing for the ultimate referral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchman, Richard; York, Grady S; Woodard, Beth; Wainright, Charles; Rau-Foster, Mary

    2014-08-01

    Hospice services provided in the final months of life are delivered through complex interpersonal relationships between caregivers, patients, and families. Often, service value and quality are defined by these interpersonal interactions. This understanding provides hospice leaders with an enormous opportunity to create processes that provide the optimal level of care during the last months of life. The authors argue that the ultimate referral is attained when a family member observes the care of a loved one, and the family member conveys a desire to receive the same quality of services their loved one received at that facility. The point of this article is to provide evidence that supports the methods to ultimately enhance the patient's and family's experience and increase the potential for the ultimate referral. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Ultimate Owner and Firm Performance - Evidence from Romanian Mining and Quarrying Listed Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin MIHAI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this paper are to describe the necessary steps to identify the ultimate owner and to investigate the relation between the ultimate ownership and the financial performance of Romanian mining and quarrying listed firms. The study was conducted for the companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange, in both regulated and non-regulated segments. The final sample included 17 companies of mining and quarrying. Return on Equity was used for measuring the financial performance of the firms. The ultimate ownership was measured by the percentage of voting rights held by a shareholder. Econometric tools like multiple linear regression analysis were used for analysis. The results of the study suggest that there is a significant negative link between financial performance and divergence between voting rights and cash-flow rights.

  20. The importance of mines for ultimate storage at Deilmann-Haniel Shaft Sinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, Jochen; Oellers, Thomas; Ahlbrecht, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Deilmann-Haniel Shaft Sinking GmbH and its predecessor and associate companies have been involved in projects for underground ultimate storage in Germany, Europe and America for over 45 years. The field of activities previously comprised surveying, planning and sinking of shafts, repair and conversion work, design of underground sealing structures, planning of conveyors and support of the BfS in planning approval procedures. Following discontinuation of activities in the German coal mining industry the use of mines for ultimate storage is an important support for German specialist mining companies. The use of mines for ultimate storage ensures that the existing mining know how in Germany is maintained, because training of the younger generation on the commercial and engineering side of the companies is made possible by the imminent major projects.