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Sample records for ultimate justification ethical

  1. Ultimate justification: Wittgenstein and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J

    1995-02-01

    Decisions must be justified. In medical ethics various grounds are given to justify decisions, but ultimate justification seems illusory and little considered. The philosopher Wittgenstein discusses the problem of ultimate justification in the context of general philosophy. His comments, nevertheless, are pertinent to ethics. From a discussion of Wittgensteinian notions, such as 'bedrock', the idea that 'ultimate' justification is grounded in human nature as such is derived. This discussion is relevant to medical ethics in at least five ways: it shows generally what type of certainty there is in practical ethics; it seems to imply some objective foundation to our ethical judgements; it squares with our experience of making ethical decisions; it shows something of the nature of moral arguments; and, finally, it has implications for teaching medicine and ethics.

  2. The ethical justification of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wyk, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study pamphlet deals with the questions of ethics, nuclear power and the ethical justification of nuclear power. Nuclear power is not only used for warfare but also in a peaceful way. Ethical questions deal with the use of nuclear weapons. Firstly, a broad discussion of the different types of ethics is given. Secondly, the peaceful uses of nuclear power, such as nuclear power plants, are discussed. In the last place the application of nuclear power in warfare and its disadvantages are discussed. The author came to the conclusion that the use of nuclear power in warfare is in contrary with all Christian ethics

  3. Guidance and justification in particularistic ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihlbom, U

    2000-10-01

    This paper argues that, contrary to a common line of criticism followed by scholars such as Helga Kuhse, a particularistic version of virtue ethics properly elaborated, can provide sound moral guidance and a satisfactory account for moral justification of our opinions regarding, for instance, health care practice. In the first part of the paper, three criteria for comparing normative theories with respect to action-guiding power are outlined, and it is argued that the presented particularistic version of virtue ethics actually can provide more guidance than the universalistic theories followed by Kuhse and others. In the second part of the paper it is claimed that universalist normative theories have serious problems accounting for the role that moral principles are supposed to play in the justification, of moral opinions, whereas the present version of virtue ethics accommodates a plausible alternative idea of justification without invoking moral principles or eschewing objectivity.

  4. Justification and radiology: Some ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology. (authors)

  5. Justification and radiology: some ethical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    This paper, which seeks to address the issue of justification in radiology, intends firstly to comment on the current discussion of the ethical foundation of radiological practice that focuses on the move from utilitarianism to the rights-centred criterion. Secondly, and this constitutes the bulk of the paper, it aims to offer a philosophical perspective, which is hoped will lead to a consideration of certain specific areas in ethical decision-making in the attempts here to deal with the main issue of justification in radiology.

  6. The Ethics for Justification of Radiological Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a steady and continuing interest in ethical issues in radiation protection for a number of years. The International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) has produced a Code of Ethics which was adopted at its last General assembly. Many RP Societies have similar Codes. However, the trend now is the application of ethics to more practical day to day matters. This paper will concentrate of the application of ethics in the field of Justification in Radiation Protection in Medicine. A description of basic ethical concepts will be given, together with some discussion of the application of ethics to the proposed new recommendations from the International Commission for Radiation Protection (ICRP). The paper will conclude with a more detailed discussion of the ethical process of requesting radiological procedures, particularly in line with European Commission Regulations (Directives) and how they can and should be applied locally. To assist participants, an extensive list of references is appended here

  7. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. [ETHICAL PRINCIPALS AND A POSTERIORI JUSTIFICATIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Monica

    2015-12-01

    It is difficult to conceive that the human being, while being the same everywhere, could be cared for in such different ways in other societies. Anthropologists acknowledge that the diversity of cultures implies a diversity of moral values, thus that in a multicultural society the individual could draw upon different moral frames to justify the peculiarities of her/his demand of care. But how could we determine what is the moral frame that catalyzes behaviour while all we can record are a posteriori justifications of actions? In most multicultural societies where several moralframes coexist, there is an implicit hierarchy between ethical systems derived from a hierarchy of power which falsifies these a posteriori justifications. Moreover anthropologists often fail to acknowledge that individual behaviour does not always reflect individual values, but is more often the result of negotiations between the moralframes available in society and her/his own desires and personal experience. This is certainly due to the difficulty to account for a dynamic and complex interplay of moral values that cannot be analysed as a system. The impact of individual experience on the way individuals give or receive care could also be only weakly linked to a moral system even when this reference comes up explicitly in the a posteriori justifications.

  9. Social Justification of Risks, an Ethical Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovy, M.

    2005-01-01

    The expert culture needs more ethical reflection in a risk based society. In order to improve transparency goals in a more democratic decision-making process, the contributions of several types of expertise must be gathered in a trans-disciplinary approach. In Belgium, the involvement of the population in the nuclear waste management projects at local level MONA and Stola is seen as a positive support for building social consensus and as a main channel for communication with laymen. At global level, the role of experts in the editing of safety standard and radiation protection guidance stresses the importance of giving more attention to peer review both from scientific side as from society interests. Within European decommissioning policy we see clear needs for comparisons and justification, especially in fund management on the long term. This could help the population to fill the gap between complex issues and legitimated demands for information. Questioning the mandate of experts and reviewing their contribution will help making explicit basic issues that deal with more social concern for future cost of energy, environmental protection and possible scenarios of energy supply. The governance approach addressed to future generations asks for more social justification from scientists, experts and politicians. This requires specific efforts to build up sustainable platforms of dialogue on controversial topics. The objectives of work performed by SCK-CEN are to support ethical considerations in different reflection groups; to enhance transparency within the communication processes; to favour social review in decision-making processes dealing with expert culture analyses and to suggest more involvement to improve democratic attitudes in techno-scientific reflexion

  10. ICT Student Teachers' Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurt, Turgay; Bardakci, Salih; Keser, Hafize

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers' judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason's (1986) four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents…

  11. Dewey's Ethical Justification for Public Deliberation Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John

    2013-01-01

    Interpretations of John Dewey's political theory grasp his respect for public deliberation, but typically overlook his ethical justification for democracy. Dewey gave two primary reasons why democracy is superior to other forms of government. First, a public educated in the tools of social intelligence can be more effective at managing their…

  12. ICT Student Teachers’ Judgments and Justifications about Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Alakurt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Turkish ICT student teachers’ judgments and justifications in four scenarios involving ICT-related ethical problems were investigated. Scenarios were designed based on Mason’s (1986 four ethical issues: privacy, accuracy, property and accessibility. The study was carried out in the fall of 2010. We used the critical incidents technique (CIT - a qualitative research approach- and the data were gathered via a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was conducted face-toface with an in-person interview. Participants were 35 ICT student teachers from the Faculty of Educational Science at Ankara University. The associations between different categorical variables were analysed with Fisher’s exact test. Open-ended questions were analysed through content analysis. The findings revealed that gender does not affect the ethical judgments and justifications of ICT student teachers. Furthermore the same reasons and justifications were reported by ICT student teachers who have taken course in ethic and those who have not taken the course. Moreover, out of the four issues considered in this study, accessibility was found as the most controversial issue. In addition to that it was observed that a number of ICT student teachers do not attain the right justifications due to the lack of knowledge on copyrights, intellectual property and the policies of web sites

  13. An ethical justification of profit maximization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Carsten Allan

    2010-01-01

    In much of the literature on business ethics and corporate social responsibility, it is more or less taken for granted that attempts to maximize profits are inherently unethical. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether an ethical argument can be given in support of profit maximizing...... behaviour. It is argued that some form of consequential ethics must be applied, and that both profit seeking and profit maximization can be defended from a rule-consequential point of view. It is noted, however, that the result does not apply unconditionally, but requires that certain form of profit (and...... utility) maximizing actions are ruled out, e.g., by behavioural norms or formal institutions....

  14. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees.

  15. Getting the justification for research ethics review right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Dyck and Allen claim that the current model for mandatory ethical review of research involving human participants is unethical once the harms that accrue from the review process are identified. However, the assumptions upon which the authors assert that this model of research ethics governance is justified are false. In this commentary, I aim to correct these assumptions, and provide the right justificatory account of the requirement for research ethics review. This account clarifies why the subsequent arguments that Dyck and Allen make in the paper lack force, and why the 'governance problem' in research ethics that they allude to ought to be explained differently.

  16. Ethical Justification of Moral Norms in Scientific Research: Scientists' External Responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet AKÖZER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper

  17. A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Mark Mason, in his "A Justification, After the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals" Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37 (2005), attempts to justify transcultural multiculturalism. In this paper I argue that he fails to refute moral relativism, and that multiculturalism as he interprets it is not morally…

  18. Appealing to the crowd: ethical justifications in Canadian medical crowdfunding campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jeremy; Crooks, Valorie A; Mathers, Annalise; Chow-White, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Medical crowdfunding is growing in terms of the number of active campaigns, amount of funding raised and public visibility. Little is known about how campaigners appeal to potential donors outside of anecdotal evidence collected in news reports on specific medical crowdfunding campaigns. This paper offers a first step towards addressing this knowledge gap by examining medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients. Using 80 medical crowdfunding campaigns for Canadian recipients, we analyse how Canadians justify to others that they ought to contribute to funding their health needs. We find the justifications campaigners tend to fall into three themes: personal connections, depth of need and giving back. We further discuss how these appeals can understood in terms of ethical justifications for giving and how these justifications should be assessed in light of the academic literature on ethical concerns raised by medical crowdfunding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Can the NICE "end-of-life premium" be given a coherent ethical justification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Richard

    2013-12-01

    In 2009 the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) announced that its health technology appraisal committees would henceforth give special additional weight to health gains from life-extending end-of-life treatments. This was a response to mounting concern from NICE's stakeholders that effective new drugs for end-stage cancer often fail NICE's standard test of cost effectiveness. This change of policy may be justifiable on procedural grounds as the result of a democratic political process responding to stakeholder concerns. However, according to the "accountability for reasonableness" framework proposed by the philosopher Norman Daniels and endorsed by NICE, there also needs to be transparency about the substantive ethical grounds for public health care resource allocation decisions. In that spirit, I analyze eleven potentially relevant justifications for the NICE "end-of-life premium," drawn from the economics and philosophy literature: (1) rule of rescue, (2) fair chances, (3) ex post willingness to pay, (4) caring externality, (5) financial protection, (6) symbolic value, (7) diminishing marginal value of future life years, (8) concentration of benefits, (9) dread, (10) time to set your affairs in order, and (11) severity of illness. I conclude that none of them yields a coherent ethical justification for the NICE end-of-life premium.

  20. Ethical issues in sports medicine: a review and justification for ethical decision making and reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Bruce H; West, Charles Robert

    2012-11-01

    Ethical issues present a challenge for health care professionals working with athletes of sports teams. Health care professionals-including the team physician, the physical therapist, and the athletic trainer-are faced with the challenge of returning an athlete to competition as quickly as possible but as safely as possible. Conflicts of interest arise due to conflicting obligations of the team physician to the athlete and other members of the sports organization, including coaches and the team owner. The multiple stakeholders involved in sports teams challenge the traditional notion of confidentiality and autonomy. The aims of this article are to explicate the ethics of sports medicine, highlight the ethical issues, and provide some strategies and suggestions for ethical decision making.

  1. The trouble with justification, in search of an ethics of method for energy governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this series of slides the author tries to clarify the relationships between risks, knowledge, fairness and public acceptance. Fairness appears to be an important concept when dealing with risks. Fairness means a fair distribution of benefits and burdens and implies an informed consent or the possibility to avoid the risk. Fair risk justification in energy governance is risk justification of which the method of knowledge generation and decision making is trusted as fair by society. Seeking societal trust is the aim of sciences and technologies but the global social challenges we face are ultimately complex and our modern societies based on representative democracy do not favor consensus and stand in various comforts of polarization: pro or contra nuclear energy for instance, the same arguments being used in both sides. The result is a polarisation maintained by a lack of methodological intellectual confrontation in the structures of politics, science and civil society. There is a need for new practical forms of democracy, research and education

  2. The ethical justification for the use of non-human primates in research: the Weatherall report revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar

    2017-10-14

    The Weatherall report on the use of non-human primates in research was published in 2006. Its main conclusion was that there is a strong scientific case for the use of non-human primates in some cases, but the report stressed the importance of evaluating each case in the light of the availability of alternatives. In addition to arguing for the scientific necessity of using non-human primates in research, the report also provided an ethical justification. As could be expected, the report was harshly criticised by animal rights groups, but in the academic literature, only two critical replies appeared. In what follows, I will describe the ethical justification for non-human primate research as it is laid out in the Weatherall report and then consider the criticism in the academic literature. I conclude that the report's ethical justification for the use of non-human primates in research, in particular in basic neuroscientific research, has not been convincingly challenged by its critics. Since the criticism of the report is limited and represents only a small part of the academic discussion about the use of non-human primates in research, and a still smaller part of the ethical discussion about animal research, it is important that the discussion continue both at the academic and social level. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. The Labours of Hercules: Ethical Embodiment and an Erasmian Justification for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, a popular American dorm-room poster luminously asserted crass materialism as "JUSTIFICATION FOR HIGHER EDUCATION". Self-consciously premised on the paradoxical success of my failure or failure of my success as a professor of Renaissance literature and culture, this essay draws on Erasmus's educational theory of…

  4. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Contraindication or Ethical Justification for Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn

    2016-11-01

    Is Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder ever ethically justified? Cosmetic genital surgery (specifically labioplasty) for adolescent girls is one of the most ethically controversial forms of cosmetic surgery and Body Dysmorphic Disorder is typically seen as a contraindication for cosmetic surgery. Two key ethical concerns are (1) that Body Dysmorphic Disorder undermines whatever capacity for autonomy the adolescent has; and (2) even if there is valid parental consent, the presence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder means that cosmetic surgery will fail in its aims. In this article, we challenge, in an evidence-based way, the standard view that Body Dysmorphic Disorder is a contraindication for genital cosmetic surgery in adolescents. Our argument gathers together and unifies a substantial amount of disparate research in the context of an ethical argument. We focus on empirical questions about benefit and harm, because these are ethically significant. Answers to these questions affect the answer to the ethical question. We question the claim that there would be no benefit from surgery in this situation, and we consider possible harms that might be done if treatment is refused. For an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, the most important thing may be to avoid harm. We find ourselves arguing for the ethical justifiability of cosmetic labioplasty for an adolescent with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, even though we recognize that it is a counter intuitive position. We explain how we reached our conclusion. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Ethical Justification of the Thesis that Separates Law from Morality Through John Austin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvão Rabelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The british legal philosopher John Austin stands at the threshold of the evolution of the legal positivist tradition. His work, which dates back to the first half of the 19th century, was especially important to establish the basic elements of this school of legal understanding. Among his contributions to the legal positivist doctrine, lies the creation of the thesis that separates morality from law. Under an ethical context, however, John Austin was an ardent utilitarian who defended the use of the principle of utility as the only rational criteria for the unveiling of superior moral standards (divine laws. Considering both dimensions of his understanding, it has long been wondered if his utilitarian ethics have influenced, somehow, his legal theory, especially in regards to the separation thesis. Said thesis, which is in the center of the legal positivist tradition, has been interpreted in different ways in contemporary legal debate. A particular branch, called ethical positivism, opened new perspectives to the study of this tradition, defending the legal positivism theory as a morally satisfactory theoretical model for the contemporary legal systems. Hence, using the main premise of ethical positivism (which states that there are moral reasons to defend the separation thesis as an interprative and methodological tool, this paper plans on revisiting the link between John Austins legal and ethical convictions, in order to comprehend what were the moral reasons which led him to defend the separation of what law is and what it should be.

  6. Ethical issues, justification, referral criteria for budget limited and high-dose procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the issues connected with questions of ethics, health economics, radiation dose and referral criteria arising from a workshop held under the auspices of the Sentinel Research Program FP6-012909. An extensive bibliography of further reading is included. (authors)

  7. A preliminary declaration of sustainability ethics: making peace with the ultimate bioexecutioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is a utopian vision that requires living harmoniously with nature, which will exact harsh penalties on species that exceed Earth's carrying capacity and violate nature's laws. To make this vision a reality, humankind needs a global ethical consensus on sustainable use of the planet - sustainability ethics. Sustainability ethics has the goal of developing a sustainable, mutualistic relationship between humankind and the interdependent web of life that serves as Earth's ecological life support system. The quest for sustainable use of the planet is a value judgment that has more than one component. Arguably, the most important is increased attention to and compassion for posterity's quality of life, in short, leaving a habitable planet for future generations. This requires leaving natural capital and the ecosystem serves it provides undiminished at the least and increased at best. Although material possessions can be left to direct descendants, protecting the planet's ecological life support system must not only be for all of humankind's descendants but those of the 30+ million other species with which we share the planet. This is difficult because the recipients are distance (as individuals both temporally and spatially. Therefore, this quest will not be realised until an agreement emerges on the values and attitudes necessary to make sustainbility a reality. Science can then develop the standards and criteria necessary to reach this goal. In view of present unsustainable practices, a basis ethical consensus is necessary to develop sustainable practices.

  8. The principle of justification as a humanization of common sense. An approach to the ethics of medical indications with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arranz y Carrillo de Albornoz, L.

    2016-01-01

    The great difficulty for the prescriber to select a correct diagnostic imaging strategy is the large number of available scanners (there are over 800). The choice should be based on an aphorism of great tradition in medicine: First Do No Harm. Unfortunately many of the scans requested are not justified. According to the SERAM, up to 30% of the tests requested do not provide relevant information and many could be avoided and therefore patients were unnecessarily exposed to radiation. There is, therefore, an ethical responsibility the prescribing physician and the specialist physician of performing the examination or treatment, as well as by all the involved staff. Given the international consensus about the evidence of the effects of ionizing radiation, the ICRP summarized the scientific basis of this consensus with ethical and social sense and proposed the Radiation Protection System whose first principle is the justification. This system is based, apart from the well established scientific evidence and experience, on universally shared ethical values. It is necessary that the physicians could base their decision making on a procedure with ionizing radiation by having good formation, good experience, the best scientific knowledge and, above all, taking account the patient, respecting him, listening him and seeking their good. [es

  9. Simulator justifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    For several years, the authors have been convinced by overwhelming evidence that dynamic simulators are justified for many applications where acceptance has been slow. They speculate as to why this situation has existed and list many benefits that accrue to those who use simulators for training and other purposes. This paper along may be sufficient to convince a receptive approval chain of the value of simulator ownership. It is intended primarily as an aid and supporting document for those who find it necessary to build a detailed justification for a specific simulator acquisition. The purchase of a simulator requires justification. For new military aircraft and for spacecraft, a simulator for training and performance evaluation is virtually assumed, value having been proven many times over. for commercial aircraft, safety is the overwhelming justification. For nuclear power plants, government regulations require operators to be licensed by examination on a certified simulator. For other applications, including air traffic control, biomedical, communications, electronic power transmission and distribution, emergency engineering and management, fossil power plants, gaming land vehicles, manufacturing, maintenance, marine vehicles, process plants, weapons, etc

  10. Justification of medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditto, M.

    2009-01-01

    Justification of practices using ionising radiation is one of the principles of radiation protection, in addition to optimisation and limitation of dose. This contribution overviews the legal und practical implementation of the principle of justification of medical exposures taking into account the Austrian situation in particular. (orig.)

  11. Institutional Justification in Frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baden, Christian; Schultz, Friederike

    consensus. It extents research on framing in mass communication by applying institutional theory and Boltanski and Thévenot’s (2006) theory on justification in order to explain how the success and failure of proposed interpretations depend on the mobilization of accepted social institutions to justify...

  12. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-09-01

    Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico-legal requirements by the professional registration body, the Medical Radiation Practice Board of Australia (MRPBA), identify justification as an advocated and obligatory practice for radiographers. Yet, justification remains an inconsistent practice implemented amongst Australian radiographers. This review aims to identify associated barriers inhibiting the consistent practice of justification and the hesitance by radiographers in practicing justification responsibilities. It also recommends a change in workplace culture which encourages radiographers to accept a more autonomous role that cultivates critical thinking, reflection and research-informed decision making as justification will ultimately benefit patients. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.

  13. Justification: theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, W.D.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of justification implies that a specific decision as to the relative merits of benefits and costs and detriment be made whenever: (1) a new practice is introduced that involves an indirect or direct increase in radiation exposure; or (2) an existing practice affecting radiation exposure is modified; or (3) an increase in radiation protection of an existing practice is to be considered. Such decisions are imprecise and involve intangible values. ICRP has, however, developed a mathematical model to express the structure of such decisions. The utility of this model for making the key paramters of justification decisions visible is explored in this paper in two ways. First, the structure of the model and its implications are explored in the abstract. Secondly, several specific applications are studied to determine if the model has utility in structuring application decisions, and the extent to which conclusions can be evolved in a meaningful, visible manner. (author)

  14. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.; Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T.

    2006-01-01

    development of an IAEA Safety Report. Following the experience gained in preparing the report, this paper describes a systematic approach to obtaining the necessary inputs to making decisions on justification and illustrates its possible application to some of the more controversial proposals, including some examples based on past and recent regulatory decisions. The systematic approach requires: a precise identification of the practice and the legal persons responsible for the proposal; identification of the body responsible for the justification decision and clarification of its procedures; the characterisation of the practice, including assessment of the benefits and detriments, both radiation and others; evaluation of alternatives not involving radiation exposure; assessment of ethical and legal aspects; stakeholder involvement; and communication with all parties involved, including an analysis of the practice that puts the exposures in context

  15. Justification of novel practices involving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, G. [Radiation Protection Consul tant, Brighton (United Kingdom); Boal, T.; Mason, C.; Wrixon, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    development of an IAEA Safety Report. Following the experience gained in preparing the report, this paper describes a systematic approach to obtaining the necessary inputs to making decisions on justification and illustrates its possible application to some of the more controversial proposals, including some examples based on past and recent regulatory decisions. The systematic approach requires: a precise identification of the practice and the legal persons responsible for the proposal; identification of the body responsible for the justification decision and clarification of its procedures; the characterisation of the practice, including assessment of the benefits and detriments, both radiation and others; evaluation of alternatives not involving radiation exposure; assessment of ethical and legal aspects; stakeholder involvement; and communication with all parties involved, including an analysis of the practice that puts the exposures in context.

  16. Values, Watersheds and Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    concerning HOW. Together, this also hold potentials of achieving multiple benefits and action promoting resilience and liveability in urban landscapes. One way of approaching the value disputes is by asking if some conception of the common good in case of HOW can be justified at the same time...... as the plurality and diversity of values are recognised. Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot ́s concept of a plurality of regimes of justification -conflicting but also enabling compromise gives an affirmative answer to this question which is exemplified in the final parts of the paper....

  17. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions...

  18. From Ethical Justification to Delimitation of Boundaries between Country Power and Individual Rights:A Settlement Way of the Particular Ethical Conflict in Public Health%从伦理辩护到国家权力、个人权利界限的划定--公共卫生领域特殊伦理冲突的和解之道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珊; 路绪锋

    2014-01-01

    In epidemic prevention work ,in order to protect public health we have no choice but to infringe the right of infectious disease patients ,this is a particular ethical conflict in public health which is different from clinical medicine . Although some scholars argue in favor of the priority of public health according to utilitarianism ,difference principle and the priority of public good ,all of these are not consistent with the individual perspective of medical ethics . In fact , upholding single theoretical perspective is the maximal obstacle on the road to reconciliation of ethical conflict ,only change the single perspective can we open the compatibility of theory .We have to transform ethical justification to practical wisdom ,that is to say ,country power and individual rights should stick to each boundary ,so as to achieve harmonious status between them .%在流行病防控等公共卫生工作中,为了维护公共健康不得不侵犯传染病患者的个人权利,这是公共卫生领域不同于临床医学的特殊伦理冲突。虽然有学者分别依据“效果论”、“差异原则”和“公共善优先”为公共健康的优先性进行了辩护,但都不能与医学伦理学的个体论视角相融洽。实际上,固守单一的理论视角是伦理冲突和解的最大障碍,只有改变单一视角,才能开启理论的兼容性。伦理辩护必须转化为实践智慧,即必须在公共卫生实践中实现国家权力与个人权利的有序协调,使国家权力和个人权利坚守各自的界限。

  19. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Flux scaling: Ultimate regime. With the Nusselt number and the mixing length scales, we get the Nusselt number and Reynolds number (w'd/ν) scalings: and or. and. scaling expected to occur at extremely high Ra Rayleigh-Benard convection. Get the ultimate regime ...

  20. Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Edmund D

    In this brief annual review of ethical issues in medicine, Pellegrino focuses on two issues, AIDS and surrogate mothers. The AIDS epidemic has generated debate over public health needs vs. individual rights, modification of sexual practices, screening programs to detect infected persons, confidentiality of test results, experimental therapies, and the duty of physicians to care for AIDS patients. Surrogate motherhood arrangements have become one of the more controversial of the new reproductive technologies. The publicity that accompanied the custody battle over New Jersey's "Baby M" intensified debate over the commercialization of childbearing and the regulation of reproduction. Pellegrino concludes that physicians, along with ethicists and policymakers, have an obligation to "lead society in careful and judicious deliberation" of the ethical issues raised by AIDS and by reproductive technologies.

  1. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  2. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...... descriptive interests and normative ethics is unsustainable in European Union (EU) foreign policy. What are needed are normative justifications that can help inform political choices about foreign policy in the EU's democratic political order. In other words, what are the un-national normative justifications...

  3. Stalking the ultimate particle

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    If you missed the ARTE programme entitled "L'Ultime Particule" broadcast in February, you have another chance to catch it in CERN's Main Auditorium on 13 March. "L'Ultime Particule" is a documentary by the French director Michel Andrieu that seeks to explain particle physics through a contemplative quest for the research physicists of matter of today and yesteryear. Invariably kitted out in a red parka and a soft hat, the programme's investigator scours the planet and the archives in search of the research physicists who are stalking the ultimate particle, the Higgs boson, in their quest to understand the structure of matter. Naturally enough, CERN is an important stage of his journey where Michel Andrieu and his team spent several days last year. Both from the physics and metaphysical points of view, "L'Ultime Particule" is worth seeing. The film's director, Michel Andrieu, will introduce his documentary and answer questions from the audience after the documentary has been shown. L'Ultime Particule by Mic...

  4. Ethics of Immunization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.; Quah, S.R.; Cockerham, W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Collective immunization can be highly effective in protecting societies against infectious diseases, but policy decisions about both the character and the content of immunization policies require ethical justification. This article offers an overview of ethical aspects that should be taken into

  5. The ultimate quotable Einstein

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Here is the definitive new edition of the hugely popular collection of Einstein quotations that has sold tens of thousands of copies worldwide and been translated into twenty-five languages. The Ultimate Quotable Einstein features 400 additional quotes, bringing the total to roughly 1,600 in all. This ultimate edition includes new sections--"On and to Children," "On Race and Prejudice," and "Einstein's Verses: A Small Selection"--as well as a chronology of Einstein's life and accomplishments, Freeman Dyson's authoritative foreword, and new commentary by Alice Calaprice.

  6. Justification and authority in institutional review board decision letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Gleason, Katharine A; Joffe, Steven

    2017-12-01

    While ethnographic study has described the discussions that occur during human subjects research ethics review, investigators have minimal access to the interactions of ethics oversight committees. They instead receive letters stipulating changes to their proposed studies. Ethics committee letters are central to the practice of research ethics: they change the nature of research, alter the knowledge it produces, and in doing so construct what ethical research is and how it is pursued. However, these letters have rarely been objects of analysis. Accordingly, we conducted a qualitative analysis of letters written by American institutional review boards (IRBs) overseeing biomedical and health behavioral research. We sought to clarify how IRBs exercise their authority by assessing the frequency with which they provided reasons for their stipulations as well as the nature of these reasons. We found that IRBs frequently do not justify their stipulations; rather, they often leave ethical or regulatory concerns implicit or frame their comments as boilerplate language replacements, procedural instructions, or demands for missing information. When they do provide justifications, their rationales exhibit substantial variability in explicitness and clarity. These rhetorical tendencies indicate that the authority of IRBs is grounded primarily in their role as bureaucratic gatekeepers. We conclude by suggesting that greater attention to justification could help shift the basis of the IRB-researcher relationship from compliance to mutual accountability. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethics for pandemics beyond influenza: Ebola, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and anticipating future ethical challenges in pandemic preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maxwell J; Silva, Diego S

    2015-01-01

    The unprecedented outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has raised several novel ethical issues for global outbreak preparedness. It has also illustrated that familiar ethical issues in infectious disease management endure despite considerable efforts to understand and mitigate such issues in the wake of past outbreaks. To improve future global outbreak preparedness and response, we must examine these shortcomings and reflect upon the current state of ethical preparedness. To this end, we focus our efforts in this article on the examination of one substantial area: ethical guidance in pandemic plans. We argue that, due in part to their focus on considerations arising specifically in relation to pandemics of influenza origin, pandemic plans and their existing ethical guidance are ill-equipped to anticipate and facilitate the navigation of unique ethical challenges that may arise in other infectious disease pandemics. We proceed by outlining three reasons why this is so, and situate our analysis in the context of the EVD outbreak and the threat posed by drug-resistant tuberculosis: (1) different infectious diseases have distinct characteristics that challenge anticipated or existing modes of pandemic prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery, (2) clear, transparent, context-specific ethical reasoning and justification within current influenza pandemic plans are lacking, and (3) current plans neglect the context of how other significant pandemics may manifest. We conclude the article with several options for reflecting upon and ultimately addressing ethical issues that may emerge with different infectious disease pandemics.

  8. The Ultimate Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However, by reinterp......One of the most influential philosophers of the 20th century, Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), died prior to the remarkable cloning of the sheep Dolly and before Dr. Venter started his experiments on creating synthetic life, and he never explicitly discussed living technologies. However......, by reinterpreting his notion of "modern technology," this article shows how it is possible to philosophically assess living technologies and to recognize ways in which Heidegger anticipated this phenomenon with his notion of cybernetics. The interpretation elucidates the fundamental process of technology becoming...... living and simultaneously presents living technology as the ultimate technology. The thesis of this article is that living technology is not just one more technology; rather, it is the perfection of technology as understood by Aristotle. Aristotle's thinking is in this way a key example of a profound...

  9. Virtue ethics and nursing: on what grounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    Within the nursing ethics literature, there has for some time now been a focus on the role and importance of character for nursing. An overarching rationale for this is the need to examine the sort of person one must be if one is to nurse well or be a good nurse. How one should be to live well or live a/the good life and to nurse well or be a good nurse seems to necessitate a focus on an agent's character as well as actions because character is (for the most part) expressed in action (e.g. see Laird). This paper will give an overview of the reasons for the role and importance of character in nursing practice and explain its relation to nursing's frequent use of virtue ethics in order to recommend caution. While the paper agrees that the role of character is important in nursing caution is needed in both how much moral and thus normative, emphasis is being placed on the psychology of character and on the drift to virtue ethics. The psychological which may be explanatory needs to be linked with the normative, and a justification for the normative is needed. A justification as virtue ethics is contested, and nursing practice does not need to take on this explanatory and justificatory burden. A tentative proposal raised but not discussed in depth in this paper is that when an ultimate explanation or explanatory ground is needed, nursing practice leads quite naturally to a form of consequentialism as well as a realist metaethic. On this account, there are two levels of moral thinking, and nursing practice entails the virtues at one level and leads quite naturally to moral thinking at another more critical level of the criterion of what makes something right and good independently of character. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Steps to strengthen ethics in organizations: research findings, ethics placebos, and what works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change.

  11. Stereotypes as justifications of prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Christian S; Bahns, Angela J; Warner, Ruth; Schaller, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Three experiments investigate how stereotypes form as justifications for prejudice. The authors created novel content-free prejudices toward unfamiliar social groups using either subliminal (Experiment 1, N = 79) or supraliminal (Experiment 2, N = 105; Experiment 3, N = 130) affective conditioning and measured the consequent endorsement of stereotypes about the groups. Following the stereotype content model, analyses focused on the extent to which stereotypes connoted warmth or competence. Results from all three experiments revealed effects on the warmth dimension but not on the competence dimension: Groups associated with negative affect were stereotyped as comparatively cold (but not comparatively incompetent). These results provide the first evidence that-in the absence of information, interaction, or history of behavioral discrimination-stereotypes develop to justify prejudice.

  12. 16 CFR 240.15 - Cost justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost justification. 240.15 Section 240.15 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.15 Cost justification. It is no defense to a...

  13. Global Ethics Applied: Global Ethics, Economic Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Stückelberger, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Global Ethics Applied’ in four volumes is a reader of 88 selected articles from the author on 13 domains: Vol. 1 Global Ethics, Economic Ethics; Vol. 2 Environmental Ethics; Vol. 3 Development Ethics, Political Ethics, Dialogue and Peace Ethics, Innovation and Research Ethics, Information and Communication Ethics; Vol. 4 Bioethics and Medical Ethics, Family Ethics and Sexual Ethics, Leadership Ethics, Theological Ethics and Ecclesiology, Methods of Ethics. It concludes with the extended Bibli...

  14. The Illusion of Argument Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Matthew; Keil, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Argumentation is an important way to reach new understanding. Strongly caring about an issue, which is often evident when dealing with controversial issues, has been shown to lead to biases in argumentation. We suggest that people are not well calibrated in assessing their ability to justify a position through argumentation, an effect we call the illusion of argument justification. Furthermore we find that caring about the issue further clouds this introspection. We first show this illusion by measuring the difference between ratings before and after producing an argument for one’s own position. The strength of the illusion is predicted by the strength of care for a given issue (Study 1). The tacit influences of framing and priming do not override the effects of emotional investment in a topic (Study 2). However, explicitly considering counterarguments removes the effect of care when initially assessing the ability to justify a position (Study 3). Finally, we consider our findings in light of other recent research and discuss the potential benefits of group reasoning. PMID:23506085

  15. The principle of justification as a humanization of common sense. An approach to the ethics of medical indications with ionizing radiation; El principio de justificación como humanización del sentido común. Un acercamiento a la ética de las indicaciones médicas con radiaciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arranz y Carrillo de Albornoz, L.

    2016-07-01

    The great difficulty for the prescriber to select a correct diagnostic imaging strategy is the large number of available scanners (there are over 800). The choice should be based on an aphorism of great tradition in medicine: First Do No Harm. Unfortunately many of the scans requested are not justified. According to the SERAM, up to 30% of the tests requested do not provide relevant information and many could be avoided and therefore patients were unnecessarily exposed to radiation. There is, therefore, an ethical responsibility the prescribing physician and the specialist physician of performing the examination or treatment, as well as by all the involved staff. Given the international consensus about the evidence of the effects of ionizing radiation, the ICRP summarized the scientific basis of this consensus with ethical and social sense and proposed the Radiation Protection System whose first principle is the justification. This system is based, apart from the well established scientific evidence and experience, on universally shared ethical values. It is necessary that the physicians could base their decision making on a procedure with ionizing radiation by having good formation, good experience, the best scientific knowledge and, above all, taking account the patient, respecting him, listening him and seeking their good. [Spanish] La gran dificultad que tiene el médico prescriptor para seleccionar una correcta estrategia diagnóstica de imagen es la gran cantidad de exploraciones disponibles (existen más de 800). La elección debe estar basada, en un aforismo de enorme tradición en medicina: primum non nocere. Lamentablemente muchas de las exploraciones solicitadas no están justificadas. De acuerdo con la SERAM, hasta un 30% de las pruebas solicitadas no aportan información relevante y muchas podrían haberse evitado y por lo tanto han expuesto innecesariamente a los pacientes a la radiación. Existe, por lo tanto, una responsabilidad ética tanto por

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility: Why? ethical justification of corporate social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susy Caballero Jara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mucho se ha discutido en el Perú sobre qué es la responsabilidad social empresarial (RSE ycómo se implementa. La pregunta de por qué, en cambio, no ha recibido similar interés. Esta esprecisamente la interrogante que el presente artículo busca responder: ¿Qué justifica la RSE?¿Por qué las empresas deben ser socialmente responsables?Tomando como punto de partida la clasificación en cuatro grandes teorías de responsabilidadsocial empresarial o corporativa propuesta por Garriga y Melé (2004, a saber, las teoríasinstrumentales, políticas, integradoras y éticas, se identifican rastros de las mismas en la literaturaperuana. De esta forma, se logra un panorama de las distintas justificaciones brindadas porlos autores peruanos. Posteriormente, se toma partido a favor de las teorías éticas de RSE, enparticular del subgrupo «teoría normativa de los grupos de interés» (stakeholder normativetheory, que ve a la RSE como ética aplicada a los negocios, exponiendo sus versiones utilitaristay deontológica, exposición que deja a esta última mejor posicionada. De esta manera, sepropone ir más allá de las justificaciones exclusivamente rentistas, según la cual el empresariodebe ser socialmente responsable porque le conviene, y considerar la deontología como lajustificación del por qué hacer RSE.

  17. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated

  18. Justification: How to get referring physicians involved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remedios, D.

    2011-01-01

    Barriers to involvement of clinicians in the process of justification include an already overloaded knowledge base, lack of time, inconsistent guidance and disproportionate patient expectations. Strategies to improve referring physicians' input include education, use of imaging referral guidelines, clinical audit and regulation. This article discusses and reviews evidence for approaches to encourage greater participation in justification by clinicians. Approaches are best summarised by 'Awareness, appropriateness and audit'. (authors)

  19. Justification and optimization in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1980-01-01

    Two requirements of the system recommended by the ICRP for radiation protection are discussed: 1) justification of practices involving radiation exposures and 2) optimization of the level of protection for such practices. The ICRP recommended the use of cost-benefit analysis in justification and optimization. The application of cost-benefit analysis and the quantification of the radiation detriment are also discussed. (H.K.)

  20. Fiscal Year 2010 Budget Request. Summary Justification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    SERVICES AND DEFENSE AGENCIES INTRODUCTION Services and Defense Agencies HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget request organizes, trains...DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS INTRODUCTION Special Topics HIGHLIGHTS Overview The FY 2010 budget... MANGEMENT 2-48 DoD FY 2010 Budget Request Summary Justification SPECIAL TOPICS FINANCIAL MANGEMENT 2-49 While DoD has made progress in

  1. IS ETHICAL HACKING ETHICAL?

    OpenAIRE

    MUHAMMAD NUMAN ALI KHAN; DANISH JAMIL,

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the ethics behind ethical hacking and whether there are problems that lie with this new field of work. Since ethical hacking has been a controversial subject over the past few years, the question remains of the true intentions of ethical hackers. The paper also looks at ways in which future research could be looked intoto help keep ethical hacking, ethical.

  2. Ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roethemeyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The activities developed by the Federal Institution of Physical Engineering PTB and by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) concentrated, among others, on work to implement ultimate storage facilities for radioactive wastes. The book illuminates this development from site designation to the preliminary evaluation of the Gorleben salt dome, to the preparation of planning documents proving that the Konrad ore mine is suitable for a repository. The paper shows the legal provisions involved; research and development tasks; collection of radioactive wastes ready for ultimate disposal; safety analysis in the commissioning and post-operational stages, and product control. The historical development of waste management in the Federal Republic of Germany and international cooperation in this area are outlined. (DG) [de

  3. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, F; Redner, S

    2004-01-01

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed

  4. Ultimate fate of constrained voters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, F [Department of Physics, Center for BioDynamics, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Redner, S [Department of Physics, Center for Polymer Studies, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2004-09-03

    We examine the ultimate fate of individual opinions in a socially interacting population of leftists, centrists and rightists. In an elemental interaction between agents, a centrist and a leftist can both become centrists or both become leftists with equal rates (and similarly for a centrist and a rightist). However leftists and rightists do not interact. This interaction step between pairs of agents is applied repeatedly until the system can no longer evolve. In the mean-field limit, we determine the exact probability that the system reaches consensus (either leftist, rightist or centrist) or a frozen mixture of leftists and rightists as a function of the initial composition of the population. We also determine the mean time until the final state is reached. Some implications of our results for the ultimate fate in a limit of the Axelrod model are discussed.

  5. The use of nonhuman animals in biomedical research: necessity and justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francione, Gary L

    2007-01-01

    Discourse about the use of animals in biomedical research usually focuses on two issues: its empirical and moral use. The empirical issue asks whether the use of nonhumans in experiments is required in order to get data. The moral issue asks whether the use of nonhumans can be defended as matter of ethical theory. Although the use of animals in research may involve a plausible necessity claim, no moral justification exists for using nonhumans in situations in which we would not use humans.

  6. Experimental investigation of ultimate loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, S M; Larsen, G C; Antoniou, I; Lind, S O; Courtney, M [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Verification of the structural integrity of a wind turbine involves analysis of fatigue loading as well as ultimate loading. With the trend of persistently growing turbines, the ultimate loading seems to become relatively more important. For wind turbines designed according to the wind conditions prescribed in the IEC-61400 code, the ultimate load is often identified as the leading load parameter. Exemplified by the use of an extensive measurement campaign a procedure for evaluation of the extreme flap-wise bending moments, occurring during normal operating of a wind turbine, is presented. The structural measurements are made on a NEG Micon 650 kW wind turbine erected at a complex high wind site in Oak Creek, California. The turbine is located on the top of a ridge. The prevailing wind direction is perpendicular to the ridge, and the annual mean wind speed is 9.5 m/s. The associated wind field measurement, are taken from two instrumented masts erected less than one rotor diameter in front of the turbine in direction of the prevailing wind direction. Both masts are instrumented at different heights in order to gain insight of the 3D-wind speed structure over the entire rotor plane. Extreme distributions, associated with a recurrence period of 10 minutes, conditioned on the mean wind speed and the turbulence intensity are derived. Combined with the wind climate model proposed in the IEC standard, these distributions are used to predict extreme distributions with recurrence periods equal to one and fifty years, respectively. The synthesis of the conditioned PDF`s and the wind climate model is performed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. (au)

  7. Is nuclear energy ethically justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuend, H.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear technology brings the chance to provide an essential long term contribution to the energy supply of the world population and to use the raw materials uranium and thorium which have no other use. The use of nuclear energy is ethically justifiable providing certain simple fundamental rules for the design of nuclear facilities are observed. Such rules were clearly violated before the reactor accident at Chernobyl. They are, however, observed in our existing nuclear power plants. Compared with other energy systems nuclear energy has, with the exception of natural gas, the lowest risk. The consideration of the ethical justification of nuclear energy must also include the question of withdrawal. A withdrawal would have considerable social consequences for the industrial nations as well as for the developing countries. The problem of spreading alarm (and concern) by the opponents of nuclear energy should also be included in the ethical justification. 8 refs., 2 figs

  8. Ultimate Explanations of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We humans are collectively driven by a powerful - yet not fully explained - instinct to understand. We would like to see everything established, proven, laid bare. The more important an issue, the more we desire to see it clarified, stripped of all secrets, all shades of gray. What could be more important than to understand the Universe and ourselves as a part of it? To find a window onto our origin and our destiny? This book examines how far our modern cosmological theories - with their sometimes audacious models, such as inflation, cyclic histories, quantum creation, parallel universes - can take us towards answering these questions. Can such theories lead us to ultimate truths, leaving nothing unexplained? Last, but not least, Heller addresses the thorny problem of why and whether we should expect to find theories with all-encompassing explicative power.

  9. Ultimate loading of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Ronold, K.; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    1999-01-01

    An extreme loading study has been conducted comprising a general wind climate analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution of the (horizontal) turbulence standard deviation, conditioned on the meanwind speed, has been approximated by fitting......, a design turbulence intensity for off-shore application is proposed which, in the IEC code framework, is applicable for extreme as well as for fatigue loaddetermination. In order to establish a rational method to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition...... a three parameter Weibull distribution to the measured on-shore and off-shore data for wind speed variations. Specific recommendations on off-shore design turbulence intensities are lacking in the presentIEC-code. Based on the present analysis of the off-shore wind climate on two shallow water sites...

  10. [Applying Ethics, Placating Ethics, or Applying ourselves to Ethics? A Critical View of Environmental Ethics as Applied Ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serani Merlo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    There is actually a pervasive tendency to consider environmental ethics and bioethics as specific cases pertaining to a supposed kind of ″applied ethics″. Application can be understood in two different meanings: a concrete sense, as in technical applications, and a psychological meaning, as when we mentally apply ourselves to a task. Ethics has been always thought as a practical knowledge, in a ″praxical″ sense and not in a ″poietic″ one. Ethics has to do with ″ends″ not with ″means″; in this sense ethics is ″useless″. Since ethics has to do with the ultimate meaning of things, ethical choices give meaning to all practical activities. In that sense ethics instead of being useless must be considered as ″over-useful″ (Maritain). Nowadays politics tend to instrumentalize ethics in order to political objectives. The consequence has been the reconceptualization of specific ethics as applied ethics. Environmental ethics and bioethics are then submitted to politics following the logic of technical applications. Environmental ethics and bioethics considered as applied ethics are at risk to becoming not only useless, but also meaningless.

  11. The ethical challenges of animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdowsian, Hope R; Gluck, John P

    2015-10-01

    In 1966, Henry K. Beecher published an article entitled "Ethics and Clinical Research" in the New England Journal of Medicine, which cited examples of ethically problematic human research. His influential paper drew attention to common moral problems such as inadequate attention to informed consent, risks, and efforts to provide ethical justification. Beecher's paper provoked significant advancements in human research policies and practices. In this paper, we use an approach modeled after Beecher's 1966 paper to show that moral problems with animal research are similar to the problems Beecher described for human research. We describe cases that illustrate ethical deficiencies in the conduct of animal research, including inattention to the issue of consent or assent, incomplete surveys of the harms caused by specific protocols, inequitable burdens on research subjects in the absence of benefits to them, and insufficient efforts to provide ethical justification. We provide a set of recommendations to begin to address these deficits.

  12. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he...

  13. 13 CFR 130.460 - Budget justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget justification. 130.460 Section 130.460 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT...) Cost principles. Principles for determining allowable costs are contained in OMB Circulars A-21 (cost...

  14. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  15. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  16. Ultimate explanations and suboptimal choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Marco; Machado, Armando; Pandeirada, Josefa N S

    2018-07-01

    Researchers have unraveled multiple cases in which behavior deviates from rationality principles. We propose that such deviations are valuable tools to understand the adaptive significance of the underpinning mechanisms. To illustrate, we discuss in detail an experimental protocol in which animals systematically incur substantial foraging losses by preferring a lean but informative option over a rich but non-informative one. To understand how adaptive mechanisms may fail to maximize food intake, we review a model inspired by optimal foraging principles that reconciles sub-optimal choice with the view that current behavioral mechanisms were pruned by the optimizing action of natural selection. To move beyond retrospective speculation, we then review critical tests of the model, regarding both its assumptions and its (sometimes counterintuitive) predictions, all of which have been upheld. The overall contention is that (a) known mechanisms can be used to develop better ultimate accounts and that (b) to understand why mechanisms that generate suboptimal behavior evolved, we need to consider their adaptive value in the animal's characteristic ecology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Justification of radiographic examinations: What are the key issues?

    OpenAIRE

    Vom, Jason; Williams, Imelda

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Justification of radiographic examinations is the practice of evaluating requested radiological examinations to assess for clinical merit and appropriateness based on clinical notes and patient information. This implies that justification in radiography requires the evaluation of requested examinations, the justification of exposures being applied and determining whether patients fit the recommended criteria for the procedure. Medico?legal requirements by the professional registratio...

  18. Working class conservatism: a system justification perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, John T

    2017-12-01

    Working class conservatism is a perennial issue in social science, but researchers have struggled to provide an adequate characterization. In social psychology, the question has too often been framed in 'either/or' terms of whether the disadvantaged are more or less likely to support the status quo than the advantaged. This is a crude rendering of the issue obscuring the fact that even if most working class voters are not conservative, millions are-and conservatives could not win elections without their support. System justification theory highlights epistemic, existential, and relational needs to reduce uncertainty, threat, and social discord that are shared by everyone-and that promote conservative attitudes. I summarize qualitative and quantitative evidence of system justification among the disadvantaged and consider prospects for more constructive political activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  20. Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve.

  1. Empirical ethics, context-sensitivity, and contextualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musschenga, Albert W

    2005-10-01

    In medical ethics, business ethics, and some branches of political philosophy (multi-culturalism, issues of just allocation, and equitable distribution) the literature increasingly combines insights from ethics and the social sciences. Some authors in medical ethics even speak of a new phase in the history of ethics, hailing "empirical ethics" as a logical next step in the development of practical ethics after the turn to "applied ethics." The name empirical ethics is ill-chosen because of its associations with "descriptive ethics." Unlike descriptive ethics, however, empirical ethics aims to be both descriptive and normative. The first question on which I focus is what kind of empirical research is used by empirical ethics and for which purposes. I argue that the ultimate aim of all empirical ethics is to improve the context-sensitivity of ethics. The second question is whether empirical ethics is essentially connected with specific positions in meta-ethics. I show that in some kinds of meta-ethical theories, which I categorize as broad contextualist theories, there is an intrinsic need for connecting normative ethics with empirical social research. But context-sensitivity is a goal that can be aimed for from any meta-ethical position.

  2. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

  3. The dream of an ultimate theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1997-10-01

    Steven Weinberg describes how the dream of an ultimate theory began when one tried to unify the fundamental laws governing the stars constellations as elementary particles: electromagnetism, weak-electro theory then standard model which gives only one quantity out of its fields, the gravitation. He tries to explain to what an ultimate theory could look like. but the dream of an ultimate theory is not yet realized, there are some elementary particles to find before and then to build superconducting super colliders. The europe made it. the dream of an ultimate theory became an european dream. (N.C.)

  4. The System Justification Conundrum : Re-Examining the Cognitive Dissonance Basis for System Justification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owuamalam, Chuma K.; Rubin, Mark; Spears, Russell

    2016-01-01

    In a landmark 1994 publication in the British Journal of Social Psychology, Jost and Banaji proposed the existence of a novel, fundamental system justification motive that drives social behaviors. More specifically, they proposed (a) that people have an epistemic need to support social hierarchies

  5. The justification of a medical exposure - Who does it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, P.J.; Hardwick, J.; McHugh, K.

    2001-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the use of ionising radiation in medical exposures must be justified, but it has often been difficult to determine who makes that justification, and who is responsible for it. New legislation introduced in the UK following the European Union Medical Exposures Directive makes it necessary to ensure that justification takes place and to ensure that the individuals responsible for it are identified and are adequately trained. This paper presents an approach to justification which minimises the need for extra training by focussing responsibility for justification on professionals who have gained sufficient knowledge as part of their specialisation. By acknowledging the role of radiographers in the justification process and allowing them flexibility in their judgement, it is proposed that the justification process will become more robust and should screen out inappropriate referrals more effectively. (author)

  6. Concussion Prevalence in Competitive Ultimate Frisbee Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Damien J.; Lichtenstein, Jonathan D.; Tybor, David J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Ultimate Frisbee (ultimate) is a fast-growing, popular sport played nationally by over 4 million athletes. While several studies have examined injury rates in ultimate, no work has investigated the prevalence of concussions specifically or players’ knowledge and management of those injuries. Purpose: To estimate the lifetime prevalence of concussions in ultimate and to assess players’ knowledge of concussions as well as their concussion management behaviors. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: From June to November 2015, we collected ultimate-related concussion data via an anonymous web-based survey, the Concussion in Ultimate Frisbee Survey, from a convenience sample of 787 male and female ultimate players across the United States. Results: There were 553 male and 234 female respondents included in the analysis; 26.58% of men and 24.79% of women reported that they had sustained at least 1 concussion while playing ultimate, with 45.58% and 43.10% of those men and women, respectively, reporting multiple concussions. A total of 67.81% of men and 78.21% of women stated that they would remove themselves from play after sustaining a given concussion, although 45.99% of men and 37.62% of women indicated that they had returned to play in the same game or practice. Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that concussions do commonly occur in competitive ultimate and that better education and management of concussions in ultimate athletes are needed. This study is an important first step in deepening our understanding of these issues. PMID:29552572

  7. Application of the principles of justification and optimisation to products causing public exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, A.B.; Wrixon, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the practical incorporation of the ICRP principles of justification and optimisation into a policy designed to control radioactive consumer products. ICRP recommends the use of cost benefit analysis and differential cost benefit analysis for justification and optimisation respectively, and expresses these procedures in simple mathematical forms. This might suggest that their application should involve quantification and therefore be objective. The problems which arise in such quantification are discussed. These include the derivation of a market demand curve for a given product and its adjustment to remove any distortion of perceived value or risk produced by advertising; the costing of detriment to those who receive no benefit (e.g., as a consequence of uncontrolled disposal); and the costs of the analyses themselves. Furthermore, both cost benefit and differential cost benefit analyses are dependent on availability of market and performance data. This is incompatible with prior approval schemes in which a decision must be made before the product is distributed. Ultimately criteria for product justification must therefore be based on judgements on the acceptability of risk that are political rather than scientific in nature. Optimisation must initially be carried out on an intuitive basis. However as experience is gained with similar products the opportunity for more formal optimisation and the setting of radiological protection standards arise. This requires further value judgements which are illustrated with reference to examples. (author)

  8. On Engster's care-justification of the specialness thesis about healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbold, Benedict

    2017-08-01

    To say health is 'special' is to say that it has a moral significance that differentiates it from other goods (cars, say or radios) and, as a matter of justice, warrants distributing it separately. In this essay, I critique a new justification for the specialness thesis about healthcare (STHC) recently put forth by Engster. I argue that, regrettably, Engster's justification of STHC ultimately fails and fails on much the same grounds as have previous justifications of STHC. However, I also argue that Engster's argument still adds something valuable to the debate around STHC insofar as it reminds us that the moral significance of healthcare may be wider than simply its effect on the incidence of disability and disease: one further reason we may think healthcare is morally significant is because it concerns the treatment and care of those who are already unwell. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. The justification of studies in genetic epidemiology - political scaling in China Medical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2018-04-01

    Genetic epidemiology examines the role of genetic factors in determining health and disease in families and in populations to help addressing health problems in a responsible manner. This paper uses a case study of genetic epidemiology in Taizhou, China, to explore ways in which anthropology can contribute to the validation of studies in genetic epidemiology. It does so, first, by identifying potential overgeneralizations of data, often due to mismatching scale and, second, by examining it's embedding in political, historical and local contexts. The example of the longitudinal cohort study in Taizhou illustrates dimensions of such 'political scaling'. Political scaling is a notion used here to refer to the effects of scaling biases in relation to the justification of research in terms of relevance, reach and research ethics. The justification of a project on genetic epidemiology involves presenting a maximum of benefits and a minimum of burden for the population. To facilitate the delineation of political scaling, an analytical distinction between donating and benefiting communities was made using the notions of 'scaling of relevance', 'scaling of reach' and 'scaling of ethics'. Political scaling results at least partly from factors external to research. By situating political scaling in the context of historical, political and local discourses, anthropologists can play a complementary role in genetic epidemiology.

  10. Justification and quality control in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalen, A. van

    1989-01-01

    The role of the radiodiagnostician in justification of x-ray examination is discussed. Under the final responsibility of the radio-diagnostician the more common examinations are performed by laboratory assistants. A justification judgement before by the radio-diagnostician does not take place. In case of complicated examinations often previous consultation between radio-diagnostician and clinician is necessary. The fast development of new techniques like CT, echography and MRI has as result that the modern radio-diagnostician develops more and more into a imaging-specialist. In the consultation with the clinician he advises about the optimal diagnostics for a certain patient, taking optimally into account the risks of x-radiation. The justifying role of the radio-diagnostician depends further upon the relation with the requiring physician. In general the inter-collegial consultation is assumed to be sufficient within the hospitals, however the feedback to general practitioners seems to be improvable in some cases. With regard to quality assurance it is remarked that the quality of the examination may not be endangered by a too strong emphasis upon radiation reduction. Aspects like education level, protocol learning, dose limits, degressive tariffs, information-transfer, radiation passport, analysis between 'blue' ton, centralization of x-ray examination and quality of apparatus, are discussed. From the Government primarily a constraint setting policy is expected, in which rule-giving with respect to quality of education and apparatus is highly important. A stimulation of inter-collegial consulting may be expected, in particular in financial sense. A permission policy has to be managed, which ensures centralization of apparatus and centrally performance of x-ray examination as much as possible. Finally warning is given for the effects of excessive fear for radiation which causes refraining of medical necessary examination. The various risk have to be weighed up

  11. Physical demands in competitive ultimate frisbee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study game demands in competitive ultimate Frisbee by performing match analysis during a game. Thirteen moderately trained (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test levels 1 and 2 [Yo-Yo IR1 and IR2] performance: 1790 ± 382 m and 657 ± 225 m, respectively) competitive male ultimate...... = 0.74, p ≤ 0.05). Ultimate Frisbee is an intense intermittent team sport with high cardiovascular loading and clear indications of fatigue toward the end of each half. Yo-Yo IR test performances correlate with physical match performance....

  12. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  13. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  14. R. S. Peters' "The Justification of Education" Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2012-01-01

    In his 1973 paper "The Justification of Education" R. S. Peters aspired to give a non-instrumental justification of education. Ever since, his so-called "transcendental argument" has been under attack and most critics conclude that it does not work. They have, however, thrown the baby away with the bathwater, when they furthermore concluded that…

  15. System justification: A motivational process with implications for social conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jost, J. T.; Liviatan, I.; van der Toorn, J.; Ledgerwood, A.; Mandisodza, A.; Nosek, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    According to system justification theory, people are motivated to defend and legitimize the social systems that affect them. In this chapter, we review 15 years of theory and empirical research demonstrating the motivational underpinnings of system justification processes. We begin by explaining why

  16. Ultimate and proximate explanations of strong reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, Jack

    2017-08-23

    Strong reciprocity (SR) has recently been subject to heated debate. In this debate, the "West camp" (West et al. in Evol Hum Behav 32(4):231-262, 2011), which is critical of the case for SR, and the "Laland camp" (Laland et al. in Science, 334(6062):1512-1516, 2011, Biol Philos 28(5):719-745, 2013), which is sympathetic to the case of SR, seem to take diametrically opposed positions. The West camp criticizes advocates of SR for conflating proximate and ultimate causation. SR is said to be a proximate mechanism that is put forward by its advocates as an ultimate explanation of human cooperation. The West camp thus accuses advocates of SR for not heeding Mayr's original distinction between ultimate and proximate causation. The Laland camp praises advocates of SR for revising Mayr's distinction. Advocates of SR are said to replace Mayr's uni-directional view on the relation between ultimate and proximate causes by the bi-directional one of reciprocal causation. The paper argues that both the West camp and the Laland camp misrepresent what advocates of SR are up to. The West camp is right that SR is a proximate cause of human cooperation. But rather than putting forward SR as an ultimate explanation, as the West camp argues, advocates of SR believe that SR itself is in need of ultimate explanation. Advocates of SR tend to take gene-culture co-evolutionary theory as the correct meta-theoretical framework for advancing ultimate explanations of SR. Appearances notwithstanding, gene-culture coevolutionary theory does not imply Laland et al.'s notion of reciprocal causation. "Reciprocal causation" suggests that proximate and ultimate causes interact simultaneously, while advocates of SR assume that they interact sequentially. I end by arguing that the best way to understand the debate is by disambiguating Mayr's ultimate-proximate distinction. I propose to reserve "ultimate" and "proximate" for different sorts of explanations, and to use other terms for distinguishing

  17. Quantitative Justification for Project Authorization to Proceed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Norikazu

    2002-01-01

    Every decision to give the Authorization To Proceed (ATP) for development is made after enough study on the balancing of necessary cost and the benefit from the mission. People are aware that the risk incurred by the development must be also taken into consideration for the decision. However, these studies remain the qualitative descriptions except cost estimation so far (1). Recognizing risk is a quantity, which has the unit of the value (2,3), we can derive a simple inequality, which is useful for the justification for the project ATP. The inequality is a necessary condition that mission value must be larger than the summation of cost and risk. The value of mission is the conversion from all of the benefit from the successful mission to monetary value. Cost includes all of the necessary expense for development and operation. Risk is the expectation of loss, which includes not only direct loss but also indirect loss incurred by the mission failure. The concept of utility should be considered not only in the mission value but also in the loss. The probability of mission failure, which is one of two components of risk, is the degree of belief in the postulate that the mission will end in failure. The concept of probability necessary for risk evaluation is not limit of relative frequency but degree of belief, which is the original meaning of the probability (3). There is the celebrated Laplace's Rule of Succession (4) with respect to this degree of belief probability. There was severe controversy on the Rule because of his equal distribution assumption. However, not assuming equal distribution where no information is available, by recognizing that equal distribution is the expression for no information, we can derive his Rule naturally (5,6). The inequality, which gives the basis for the justification for ATP, is also useful for the midterm decision for project continuation when it is fairly prolonged against the initial schedule. To show the use of this inequality

  18. Hospital pharmacy: what is ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, R M

    1989-01-01

    Characteristics of ethical evaluations as they apply to the dilemmas faced by the pharmacist in the workplace are described, and the general principles and theories of Western normative ethics are discussed. Because ethical dilemmas are commonplace in pharmacy practice, pharmacists must develop a working knowledge of formal and systematic ethical analysis, as well as learn to distinguish ethical issues from social, psychological, political, and legal issues. Ethical evaluations are distinguished by three characteristics: They are ultimate, they possess universality, and they treat the good of everyone alike. Ethical analyses can be thought of as having four different and successive stages. The first stage is ensuring that all parties understand the facts of the specific case. If controversy remains after the facts are clear, parties to the dispute can proceed through three successive stages of general moral reflection: (1) the level of moral rules, (2) the level of ethical principles, and (3) the level of ethical theories. Specific moral rules cover groups of cases, and they generally are regarded as being derived from a shorter list of abstract moral principles. An ethical theory is a systematic position about which principles are morally significant, how the principles relate to each other, and how they should be tested. Pursuit of ethical dilemmas through the full hierarchy of levels of analysis exposes simplistic or irrational moral decisions and clarifies the nature of disputes.

  19. Justification of the hybrid nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcheva-Tsacheva, Marina B.

    2015-01-01

    The annual frequency of nuclear medicine examinations is increasing worldwide. This is partly a consequence of the recently introduced single photon emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, and positron emission tomography, combined with computed tomography, techniques, which combine functional, metabolic and morphological information important for the diagnosis of many diseases. However, since the effective radiation dose is the sum of the dose of two components, the hybrid examinations result in increased patient exposure. Accordingly, their justification becomes mandatory. It starts with their clinical importance-the opportunity to resolve a clinical problem decisive for patients' management. Knowledge of the indications, contraindications and the examinations' limitations is the responsibility of the nuclear medicine physician, as well as the choice of the most adequate examination and protocol. In conclusion, the cost and the accessibility of the examinations should not be the principal consideration as opposed to the diagnostic value and the exposure. Flexible protocols and algorithms should be used for hybrid nuclear medicine examinations. (authors)

  20. Poland: biomedical ethics in a socialist state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawarski, Zbigniew

    1987-06-01

    In one of a Hastings Center Report series of four country reports, a professor of ethics discusses the Polish approach to ethical issues in health care. Szawarski begins by outlining five factors that influence the practice of medicine in Poland: a socialist form of government, the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, an ongoing economic crisis, the legacy of the Nazi death camps, and a lack of formal instruction in biomedical ethics. He then discusses three current ethical concerns of physicians, patients, and the public: regulation of physician conduct, abortion, and in vitro fertilization. There is little formal public debate of the issues, however, and physicians seem committed to upholding traditional medical codes of ethics without analyzing underlying moral principles and justifications.

  1. Librarians Are the Ultimate Knowledge Managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koina, Cathie

    2003-01-01

    Librarians are the ultimate knowledge managers. Everyone knows that. After all, haven't they been the custodians of documented knowledge for centuries? Who could possibly do it better than them? Well, then why aren't people knocking down their doors, begging them to be the knowledge managers of the organisation? Are they just ignorant of how…

  2. Justification and Optimization in Clinical Practice. Chapter 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandborg, M. [Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Båth, M. [Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg (Sweden); Järvinen, H. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Helsinki (Finland); Faulkner, K. [North East Strategic Health Authority, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    All medical exposures must be subject to the principles of justification and optimization of radiological protection, which are common to all practices dealing with potential exposures of humans to ionizing radiation. Justification of medical exposures requires that all medical imaging exposures must show a sufficient net benefit when balanced against possible detriment that the examination might cause. For patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment, there are different levels of justification (see Section 23.2). The practice involving exposure to radiation must be justified in principle through the endorsement of relevant professional societies, as matters of effective medical practice will be central to this judgement. Also, each procedure should be subject to a further, case by case, justification by both the referring clinician who is responsible for the management of the patient and the radiologist who selects the most appropriate imaging examination to answer the referrer’s question.

  3. Ethical fundamentals in human subjects research : On equipoise and human dignity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf - Verhave, R.

    2010-01-01

    In her PhD thesis Rieke van der Graaf has studied how we can ethically justify human subjects research. In particular she has studied two ethical fundamentals that play a key role in the justification process, that of equipoise and human dignity. Equipoise is often taken to mean that

  4. Dispute Resolution and Technology: Revisiting the Justification of Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Koulu, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    This study, Dispute Resolution and Technology: Revisiting the Justification of Conflict Management, belongs to the fields of procedural law, legal theory and law and technology studies. In this study the changes in dispute resolution caused by technology are evaluated. The overarching research question of this study is how does implementing technology to dispute resolution challenge the justification of law as a legitimised mode of violence? Before answering such an abstract research question...

  5. The original risk: overtheologizing ethics and undertheologizing sin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Denis

    2007-01-01

    The project of articulating a theological ethics on the basis of liturgical anthropology is bound to fail if the necessary consequence is that one has to quit the forum of critical modern rationality. The risk of Engelhardt's approach is to limit rationality to a narrow vision of reason. Sin is not to be understood as the negation of human holiness, but as the negation of divine holiness. The only way to renew theological ethics is to understand sin as the anthropological and ethical expression of the biblical message of the justification by faith only. Sin is therefore a secondary category, which can only by interpreted in light of the positive manifestation of liberation, justification, and grace. The central issue of Christian ethics is not ritual purity or morality, but experience, confession and recognition of our own injustice in our dealing with God and men.

  6. Justification and the Role of Technology and Algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frush, D.P.

    2015-01-01

    Justification of the use of ionizing radiation is one of the pillars of radiation protection, including in medical practice. While there are often clear justifications for performing diagnostic imaging examinations, there are many situations in which justification is more arguable. Determining what is justified is an extremely complicated aspect of medical practice as it potentially involves multiple health care providers, with varying levels of experience, anecdotal based decision making and a broad variety of other forces. It is beyond the intent of this paper to fully dissect this aspect of justification in medical imaging. However, there are tools that are becoming available for improving evidence based medicine, including decision rules, practice guidelines and appropriateness criteria, and point-of-care decision support. Many of these advancements are becoming embedded in electronic health care systems. The following material will present background information, define some of the terminology involved in ‘algorithms’ for improving justification, address the current status, provide some of the challenges in implementing models for improved justification of medical imaging, and present some of the current needs. (author)

  7. Paternalistic breaches of confidentiality in prison: mental health professionals' attitudes and justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Bernice Simone; Handtke, Violet; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2015-06-01

    This manuscript presents mental health practitioners' (MHPs) practice, attitudes and justifications for breaching confidentiality when imprisoned patients disclose suicidal thoughts or abuse by others. 24 MHPs working in Swiss prisons shared their experiences regarding confidentiality practices. The data were analysed qualitatively and MHPs' attitudes and course of action were identified. Analysis revealed paternalistic breaches of confidentiality. When patients reported suicidal thoughts and abuse, MHPs believed that forgoing confidentiality is necessary to protect patients, providing several justifications for it. Patients were informed that such information will be transmitted without their consent to medical and non-medical prison personnel. With reference to suicidal attempts, MHPs resorted to methods that may reduce suicidal attempts such as transfer to hospital or internal changes in living arrangements, which would require provision of certain information to prison guards. In cases of abuse, some MHPs convinced patients to accept intervention or sometimes overrode competent patients' refusals to report. Also in the case of abuse, provision of limited information to other prison personnel was seen as an acceptable method to protect patients from further harm. Breaches of confidentiality, whether limited or full, remain unethical, when used for competent patients based solely on paternalistic justifications. Institutionalising ethical and legal procedures to address suicidal and abuse situations would be helpful. Education and training to help both medical and prison personnel to respond to such situations in an appropriate manner that ensures confidentiality and protects patients from suicide and abuse are necessary. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Mandatory influenza vaccination for all healthcare personnel: a review on justification, implementation and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiffany L; Jing, Ling; Bocchini, Joseph A

    2017-10-01

    As healthcare-associated influenza is a serious public health concern, this review examines legal and ethical arguments supporting mandatory influenza vaccination policies for healthcare personnel, implementation issues and evidence of effectiveness. Spread of influenza from healthcare personnel to patients can result in severe harm or death. Although most healthcare personnel believe that they should be vaccinated against seasonal influenza, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that only 79% of personnel were vaccinated during the 2015-2016 season. Vaccination rates were as low as 44.9% in institutions that did not promote or offer the vaccine, compared with rates of more than 90% in institutions with mandatory vaccination policies. Policies that mandate influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel have legal and ethical justifications. Implementing such policies require multipronged approaches that include education efforts, easy access to vaccines, vaccine promotion, leadership support and consistent communication emphasizing patient safety. Mandatory influenza vaccination for healthcare personnel is a necessary step in protecting patients. Patients who interact with healthcare personnel are often at an elevated risk of complications from influenza. Vaccination is the best available strategy for protecting against influenza and evidence shows that institutional policies and state laws can effectively increase healthcare personnel vaccination rates, decreasing the risk of transmission in healthcare settings. There are legal and ethical precedents for institutional mandatory influenza policies and state laws, although successful implementation requires addressing both administrative and attitudinal barriers.

  9. Ethical aspects of trade subject to risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gethmann, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    The paper pleads for unrestricted use of the requirement of rational risk comparison. The ethical aspects of the problem are that human beings cannot help expecting certain people to take risks and others to forsake them. Expectation of risk requires an ethical justification. Consideration of justification has of course to originate from the fact that both readiness to accept risk and also the preference system are subject to strong subjective variations. Consequently, intercession has to be made to compare the definition of subjective probability (competitiveness) and a subjective preference matrix as the basis for a rational definition of risk. General liability results first due to the fact that consistency can be expected from each individual in relation to the readiness to accept risk expected of him. According to the requirement for consistency introduced here, a readiness to accept risk may be expected of an individual which is otherwise already accepted. (orig.) [de

  10. Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Duong, Thi

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present examples of business ethics issues. What is business ethics, things concerned in this field are and why it is needed and important when doing business? The concept of business ethics has connotations to provision, rules and standards in directing the behavior of actors in the business. Business ethics involves compliance with the law, the implementation of ethical responsibilities of a business, the protection of the rights of those who are related to the ...

  11. Health Care Professionals' Attitudes About Physician-Assisted Death: An Analysis of Their Justifications and the Roles of Terminology and Patient Competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Derek W; Marcus, Brian S; Wakim, Paul G; Mercurio, Mark R; Kopf, Gary S

    2017-10-01

    Health care professionals (HCPs) are crucial to physician-assisted death (PAD) provision. To quantitatively assess the favorability of justifications for or against PAD legalization among HCPs, the effect of the terms "suicide" and "euthanasia" on their views and their support for three forms of PAD. Our questionnaire presented three cases: physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia for a competent patient, and euthanasia for an incompetent patient with an advance directive for euthanasia. Respondents judged whether each case was ethical and should be legal and selected their justifications from commonly cited reasons. The sample included physician clinicians, researchers, nonphysician clinicians, and other nonclinical staff at a major academic medical center. Of 221 HCPs, the majority thought that each case was ethical and should be legal. In order of declining favorability, justifications supporting PAD legalization were relief of suffering, right to die, mercy, acceptance of death, nonabandonment, and saving money for the health care system; opposing justifications were the slippery slope argument, unnecessary due to palliative care, killing patients is wrong, religious views, and suicide is wrong. The use of suicide and euthanasia terminology did not affect responses. Participants preferred physician-assisted suicide to euthanasia for a competent patient (P euthanasia for an incompetent patient to euthanasia for a competent patient (P euthanasia language did not bias HCPs against PAD, challenging claims that such value-laden terms hinder dialogue. More research is required to understand the significance of competency in shaping attitudes toward PAD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Ethics of the humanitarian intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Mile

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main subject of this paper are the ethical aspects of humanitarian military intervention. Author shows the weaknesses and difficulties of consequentialistic and deontological justification of humanitarian intervention. He points to the impossibility of a coherent moral theory of humanitarian intervention and argues that the humanitarian interventions of the nineties of the 20th century do not compliance just war. In his opinion, they represent an attempt of the quasi moral masking the real politics which lead the most powerful states in order to protect their national interests. .

  13. Ultimate gradient in solid-state accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-08-01

    The authors recall the motivation for research in high-gradient acceleration and the problems posed by a compact collider. They summarize the phenomena known to appear in operation of a solid-state structure with large fields, and research relevant to the question of the ultimate gradient. They take note of new concepts, and examine one in detail, a miniature particle accelerator based on an active millimeter-wave circuit and parallel particle beams

  14. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemons, T.R. [Uranium Enrichment Organization, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium (DU) is produced as a by-product of the uranium enrichment process. Over 340,000 MTU of DU in the form of UF{sub 6} have been accumulated at the US government gaseous diffusion plants and the stockpile continues to grow. An overview of issues and objectives associated with the inventory management and the ultimate disposition of this material is presented.

  15. Ultimate Strength of Ship Hulls under Torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paik, Jeom Kee; Thayamballi, Anil K.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2001-01-01

    For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength characte......For a ship hull with large deck openings such as container vessels and some large bulk carriers, the analysis of warping stresses and hatch opening deformations is an essential part of ship structural analyses. It is thus of importance to better understand the ultimate torsional strength...... characteristics of ships with large hatch openings. The primary aim of the present study is to investigate the ultimate strength characteristics of ship hulls with large hatch openings under torsion. Axial (warping) as well as shear stresses are normally developed for thin-walled beams with open cross sections...... subjected to torsion. A procedure for calculating these stresses is briefly described. As an illustrative example, the distribution and magnitude of warping and shear stresses for a typical container vessel hull cross section under unit torsion is calculated by the procedure. By theoretical and numerical...

  16. Ethics and Cost-Benefit Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    The purpose of this research report is threefold. Firstly, the author traces the origins and justification of cost-benefit analysis in moral and political philosophy. Secondly, he explain some of the basic features of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool in a step-bystep presentation. Thirdly......, he presents and discusses some of the main ethical difficulties related to the use of cost-benefit analysis as a planning tool....

  17. The Problem of Whistleblowing in Engineering Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the features of whistleblowing by considering the arguments about whistleblowing in engineering ethics. First, I analyze the concept of ‘whistleblowing’ by defining the word as clearly as possible. Second, I examine the standard justification theory of whistleblowing by showing the problems of the theory. Finally, I analyze the dilemma about whistleblowing by revealing a prospective whistleblower‧s struggle to choose moral value or non-moral value.

  18. Justification, optimization and classification of exposure situations in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrabalek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Inspiration to this brief information was the experience of studying the draft Radiation Protection Act submitted by the Ministry of Health to the Interdepartmental Annotation Procedure (IAP) on July 20, 2017 and of the IRP itself. The bill was drafted by officials from the Public Health Service. People who are expected to be well aware of the issue because they form national safety standards and laws, and manage and direct treatment of ionizing radiation sources, and oversee observing rules of protecting humans from the hazardous effects of ionizing radiation sources. Rules on the handling and protection of radiation sources for dangerous effects are recommended by multinational organizations. They are headed by ICRP International Radiological Protection Committee, which periodically issues updated radiation protection guidelines around the 10-year period. In line with ICRP recommendations, other professional organizations, such as the IAEA, WHO, EURATOM, and, ultimately, national governments, update their basic safety standards, translating recommendations into the national legal system. Most of interested know that ICRP 103 (2007) has brought some changes to the radiation protection system. In particular, there was an increased emphasis on the comprehensive optimization of radiation protection, and in the context of the recitals principle, the meaning of the word 'harm' was broadened. In addition to health damage, in the sense of which we have long been accustomed, it includes all economic and social losses to which comes from the introduction of the radiation source and introduction of protective measures around it. To simplify access to protect people from the effects of radiation and radiation sources, three basic models of human irradiation - exposure situations: - Exposure scenarios are the result of the optimization of human irradiation due to the operation of the radiation source or the performance of activities where the risk of irradiation is not

  19. Ethics and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruh, H.

    1991-01-01

    The author attempts a systematic approach towards the ethical aspects of risk and proposes that the problem be locked at on different levels: The highest level might conceivably pertain to the problem of the survival of the human race and other species. This is the level on which the history of the human race and nature are to be looked at with reference to an ethics of ecology. From the anthropocentric perspective, a fundamental question of ecological ethics is formulated: The generations to directly follow us should have a basis of existence which is comparable to ours; this basis must be preserved for them in such a way that irreparable developments can be avoided and they can take full responsibility for their own future. Since there is no justification for taking risks which endanger the basis of the existence of the species, speculation on the probability of occurrence becomes irrelevant as well. On this level, on which we are concerned with natural history and the history of the human race, it is absolutely forbidden to even consider taking such risks. As regards partial but serious damage on a lower level (examples Chernobyl, Bophal) speculation on the probability of occurrence might have some degree of validity, but two additional criteria must be taken into account: 1. Codetermination: From an ethical point of view, such risks are only justified if those who are potentially affected by them have given their consent of their own free will in a democratic decision-making procedure and have knowledge of the facts relevant to the issue. 2. The argument of serious affliction: Most important of all, codetermination must operate on the basis of a clear knowledge of potential suffering. On a level on which the destruction of the basis of existence is not at stake, serious affliction might also be viewed as something which would make taking risks which might potentially incur such affliction totally inacceptable. (orig./HSCH) [de

  20. The ultimate disposition of depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    Significant amounts of the depleted uranium (DU) created by past uranium enrichment activities have been sold, disposed of commercially, or utilized by defense programs. In recent years, however, the demand for DU has become quite small compared to quantities available, and within the US Department of Energy (DOE) there is concern for any risks and/or cost liabilities that might be associated with the ever-growing inventory of this material. As a result, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), was asked to review options and to develop a comprehensive plan for inventory management and the ultimate disposition of DU accumulated at the gaseous diffusion plants (GDPs). An Energy Systems task team, under the chairmanship of T. R. Lemons, was formed in late 1989 to provide advice and guidance for this task. This report reviews options and recommends actions and objectives in the management of working inventories of partially depleted feed (PDF) materials and for the ultimate disposition of fully depleted uranium (FDU). Actions that should be considered are as follows. (1) Inspect UF{sub 6} cylinders on a semiannual basis. (2) Upgrade cylinder maintenance and storage yards. (3) Convert FDU to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} for long-term storage or disposal. This will include provisions for partial recovery of costs to offset those associated with DU inventory management and the ultimate disposal of FDU. Another recommendation is to drop the term tails'' in favor of depleted uranium'' or DU'' because the tails'' label implies that it is waste.'' 13 refs.

  1. Ethical review of research on human subjects at Unilever: reflections on governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Mark; Marti, Vernon; Roberts, Tony

    2014-07-01

    This article considers the process of ethical review of research on human subjects at a very large multinational consumer products company. The commercial context of this research throws up unique challenges and opportunities that make the ethics of the process of oversight distinct from mainstream medical research. Reflection on the justification of governance processes sheds important, contrasting light on the ethics of governance of other forms and context of research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. THE ETHICS OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN TURKEY: RESPONSIBILITY AND CONSENT TO RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Artvinli, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Work-related diseases, injuries, risks and deaths are the issues that have been recently gaining importance especially in developing countries. The ethical dimensions of occupational health and safety have remained as relatively understudied areas. Concepts such as responsibility, consent, autonomy, paternalism, choice, and certain values or justifications that are used in medical ethics and bioethics are also applicable to occupational health and safety. This article examines the ethical iss...

  3. Justification in radiation protection: a study on screening mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.; Law, J.

    2002-01-01

    Justification was defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in publication 26 as no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit. ICRP have subsequently refined this definition. In ICRP 60 justification is defined as no practice involving exposures to radiation should be adopted unless it produces sufficient benefit to the exposed individual or to society to offset the detriment it causes. (The justification of a practice). The European Commission have included justification in the recent medical exposures directive. This Directive distinguishes between individual medical exposures and medical practices. Justification is defined in the Medical Exposures Directive as showing a sufficient net benefit weighing the total potential diagnostic or therapeutic benefits it produces, including the direct health benefits to an individual and the benefits to society, against the individual detriment that the exposure might cause. Detriment is defined in the Medical Exposures Directive as clinically observable deleterious effects that are expressed in individuals or their descendants, the appearance of which is either immediate or delayed and, in the latter case, implies a probability, rather than a certainty, of appearance

  4. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, Fernando

    2006-10-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented.

  5. Perspectives on Applied Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Applied ethics is a growing, interdisciplinary field dealing with ethical problems in different areas of society. It includes for instance social and political ethics, computer ethics, medical ethics, bioethics, envi-ronmental ethics, business ethics, and it also relates to different forms of professional ethics. From the perspective of ethics, applied ethics is a specialisation in one area of ethics. From the perspective of social practice applying eth-ics is to focus on ethical aspects and ...

  6. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  7. Why ethics?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang, Huber

    2015-01-01

    In this address, the author explores the necessity of ethical reflection on our moral responsibility regarding the challenges of today's globalized world and the future of humankind in the midst of God's creation. In this context, the differentiation of modern ethics is seen as accompanied by the task to reintegrate the ethical discourse by means of an interdisciplinary exchange and to further especially the dialogue between theological and philosophical ethics. By agreeing on Hans-Richard Re...

  8. Medical Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  9. Ethical leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.

    2015-01-01

    High-profile cases of leaders’ ethical failure in different settings and sectors have led to increased attention to ethical leadership in organizations. In this review, I discuss the rapidly developing field of ethical leadership from an organizational behavior/psychology perspective, taking a

  10. The Ethics of Doing Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2017-02-01

    Ethicists have investigated ethical problems in other disciplines, but there has not been much discussion of the ethics of their own activities. Research in ethics has many ethical problems in common with other areas of research, and it also has problems of its own. The researcher's integrity is more precarious than in most other disciplines, and therefore even stronger procedural checks are needed to protect it. The promotion of some standpoints in ethical issues may be socially harmful, and even our decisions as to which issues we label as "ethical" may have unintended and potentially harmful social consequences. It can be argued that ethicists have an obligation to make positive contributions to society, but the practical implications of such an obligation are not easily identified. This article provides an overview of ethical issues that arise in research into ethics and in the application of such research. It ends with a list of ten practical proposals for how these issues should be dealt with.

  11. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  12. Ultimate-gradient accelerators physics and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich

    1995-01-01

    As introduction, the needs and ways for ultimate acceleration gradients are discussed briefly. The Plasma Wake Field Acceleration is analized in the most important details. The structure of specific plasma oscillations and "high energy driver beam SP-plasma" interaction is presented, including computer simulation of the process. Some pratical ways to introduce the necessary mm-scale bunching in driver beam and to arrange sequential energy multiplication are dicussed. The influence of accelerating beam particle - plasma binary collisions is considered, also. As applications of PWFA, the use of proton super-colliders beams (LHC and Future SC) to drive the "multi particle types" accelerator, and the arrangements for the electron-positron TeV range collider are discussed.

  13. Ultimate load capacities of expansion anchor bolts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarnecki, R.M.; Manrique, M.A.; Samaddar, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of available experimental expansion anchor bolt test data is presented. These data were collected as part of programs by the nuclear industry to address generic issues related to verification of seismic adequacy of equipment in nuclear power plants. Some of the data presented are suitable for use in seismic probabilistic risk assessments. For example, mean values of ultimate strength, along with their standard deviation and coefficients of variation, for a range of most typical expansion anchor bolt sizes are presented. Effects of interaction between shear and tension, edge distance, spacing, and cracking of the concrete are presented in a manner that is more suitable for use in deterministic evaluations. Related industry programs to derive anchor bolt capacities are briefly discussed. Recommendations for areas of further investigation are also presented

  14. Focused ion beam technology and ultimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierak, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    In this topical review, the potential of the focused ion beam (FIB) technology and ultimate applications are reviewed. After an introduction to the technology and to the operating principles of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), of ion optics and instrument architectures, several applications are described and discussed. First, the application of FIB for microcircuit inspection, metrology and failure analysis is presented. Then, we introduce and illustrate some advanced patterning schemes we propose as next generation FIB processing examples. These patterning schemes are (i) local defect injection or smoothing in magnetic thin film direct patterning, (ii) functionalization of graphite substrates to guide organization of clusters, (iii) local and selective epitaxy of III–V semiconductor quantum dots and (iv) FIB patterned solid-state nanopores for biological molecules manipulation and analysis. We conclude this work by giving our vision of the future developments for FIB technology. (topical review)

  15. Transcending matter: physics and ultimate meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Steve; Frank, Adam; Kaiser, David; Maudlin, Tim; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2015-12-01

    From the discovery of new galaxies and nearly undetectable dark energy to the quantum entanglement of particles across the universe, new findings in physics naturally elicit a sense of awe and wonder. For the founders of modern physics-from Einstein and Bohr to Heisenberg, Pauli, and Bohm-a fascination with deeper questions of meaning and ultimate reality led some of them to explore esoteric traditions and metaphysics. More recently, however, physicists have largely shunned such philosophical and spiritual associations. What can contemporary physics offer us in the quest to understand our place in the universe? Has physics in some ways become a religion unto itself that rejects the search for existential meaning? Discussion of these and related questions is presented in this paper. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. UHS, Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.; Nuttle, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function of wind speed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. 2 - Method of solution: The transfer of heat and water vapor is modeled using an equilibrium temperature procedure for an UHS cooling pond. The UHS spray pond model considers heat, mass, and momentum transfer from a single water drop with the surrounding air, and modification of the surrounding air resulting from the heat, mass, and momentum transfer from many drops in different parts of a spray field. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program SPRCO uses RANF, a uniform random number generator which is an intrinsic function on the CDC. All programs except COMET use the NAMELIST statement, which is non standard. Otherwise these programs conform to the ANSI Fortran 77 standard. The meteorological data scanning procedure requires tens of years of recorded data to be effective. The models and methods, provided as useful tool for UHS analyses of cooling ponds and spray ponds, are intended as guidelines only. Use of these methods does not automatically assure NRC approval, nor are they required procedures for nuclear-power-plant licensing

  17. Ethics by opinion poll? The functions of attitudes research for normative deliberations in medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine; Vollmann, Jochen; Schildmann, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Empirical studies on people's moral attitudes regarding ethically challenging topics contribute greatly to research in medical ethics. However, it is not always clear in which ways this research adds to medical ethics as a normative discipline. In this article, we aim to provide a systematic account of the different ways in which attitudinal research can be used for normative reflection. In the first part, we discuss whether ethical judgements can be based on empirical work alone and we develop a sceptical position regarding this point, taking into account theoretical, methodological and pragmatic considerations. As empirical data should not be taken as a direct source for normative justification, we then delineate different ways in which attitudes research can be combined with theoretical accounts of normative justification in the second part of the article. Firstly, the combination of attitudes research with normative-ethical theories is analysed with respect to three different aspects: (a) The extent of empirical data which is needed, (b) the question of which kind of data is required and (c) the ways in which the empirical data are processed within the framework of an ethical theory. Secondly, two further functions of attitudes research are displayed which lie outside the traditional focus of ethical theories: the exploratory function of detecting and characterising new ethical problems, and the field of 'moral pragmatics'. The article concludes with a methodological outlook and suggestions for the concrete practice of attitudinal research in medical ethics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Liberal democracy and nuclear despotism: two ethical foreign policy dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Doyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critical analysis of John Rawls's justification of liberal democratic nuclear deterrence in the post-Cold War era as found in The Law of Peoples. Rawls's justification overlooked how nuclear-armed liberal democracies are ensnared in two intransigent ethical dilemmas: one in which the mandate to secure liberal constitutionalism requires both the preservation and violation of important constitutional provisions in domestic affairs, and the other in which this same mandate requires both the preservation and violation of the liberal commitment to international legal arrangements and to the rule of law generally. On this view, the choice to violate constitutional provisions and international legal arrangements is evidence of nuclear despotism. Moreover, this choice does not imply that the ethical foreign policy dilemmas were resolved. Instead, it implies that the dilemmas force liberal democratic governments into implementing ethically paradoxical policy outcomes.

  19. Ethical issues in neonatal research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    Research involving critically ill neonates creates many ethical challenges. Neonatal clinical research has always been hard to perform, is very expensive, and may generate some unique ethical concerns. This article describes some examples of historical and modern controversies in neonatal research, discusses the justification for research involving such vulnerable and fragile patients, clarifies current federal regulations that govern research involving neonates, and suggests ways that clinical investigators can develop and implement ethically grounded human subjects research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Business ethics in ethics committees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, P

    1990-01-01

    The "Ethics committees" column in this issue of the Hastings Center Report features an introduction by Cynthia B. Cohen and four brief commentaries on the roles hospital ethics committees may play in the making of institutional and public health care policy in the 1990s. The pros and cons of a broader, more public role for ethics committees in reconciling the business and patient care aspects of health care delivery are debated by Cohen in "Ethics committees as corporate and public policy advocates," and by Philip Boyle in this article. Boyle is an associate for ethical studies at The Hastings Center.

  1. Inoculating against Pro-Plagiarism Justifications: Rational and Affective Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh; Pfau, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Student plagiarism continues to threaten academic integrity. This investigation assessed whether an inoculation message strategy could combat university plagiarism by protecting student attitudes against pro-plagiarism justification arguments. Additionally, we sought theoretical confirmation of previous findings on involvement and accessibility in…

  2. In between St. Augustine and Luther: Grace and justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Ramos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The view presented in this study emphasized grace as a cause of spiritual strength and justification of man. In understanding the deep meaning and nature of grace, this paper analyzes the formations given on the subject by two great minds, St. Augustine and Martin Luther. Because of the great influence of their work on the theology of grace and justification, this paper attempts to seek whether man’s understanding and belief of prudence would mean nothing at all, that any good that he will perform on his behalf would do nothing for his own justification. Thus it raises the question on the purpose of man’s freedom if his proprium is nothing and that divine prudence is the source of everything good. This led to the idea that grace is the primary energy source of man to make good, not by his own, but by divine prudence to obtain justification. Therefore, in this sense there is nothing good in man.

  3. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford

  4. Justification for Continued Operation for Tank 241-Z-361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGEN, D.M.

    1999-09-01

    This justification for continued operations (JCO) summarizes analyses performed to better understand and control the potential hazards associated with Tank 241-2-361. This revision to the JCO has been prepared to identify and control the hazards associated with sampling the tank using techniques developed and approved for use in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) at Hanford.

  5. Lower Pay for Women's Coaches: Refuting Some Common Justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph P.

    1995-01-01

    The two standard justifications for different salaries paid to male and female coaches under 1963 and 1964 civil rights/equal pay legislation must fail under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, which independently prohibits gender discrimination in employment and mandates equal athletic opportunity for female students. Some suggestions…

  6. First steps in the computation of root justifications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meyer, T

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available in section 3. The method is based on the notion of root justifications which we define and discuss. The approach we describe is applicable to a wide class of DLs. We don’t provide a comprehensive formal introduction to DLs, but rather point the reader...

  7. Extricating Justification Scheme Theory in Middle School Mathematical Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteson, Shirley; Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty middle grades students were interviewed to gain insights into their reasoning about problem-solving strategies using a Problem Solving Justification Scheme as our theoretical lens and the basis for our analysis. The scheme was modified from the work of Harel and Sowder (1998) making it more broadly applicable and accounting for research…

  8. What Provides Justification for Cheating : Producing or Observing Counterfactuals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassarak, C.; Leib, M.; Mischkowski, D.; Strang, S.; Glöckner, A.; Shalvi, S.

    2017-01-01

    When people can profit financially by lying, they do so to the extent to which they can justify their lies. One type of justification is the observation and production of desirable counterfactual information. Here, we disentangle observing and producing of desired counterfactuals and test whether

  9. Kierkegaard, Justification and the Integrity of Christian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    The doctrine of justification is frequently interpreted in a manner that excludes our active involvement in the drama of salvation. This reading has a detrimental effect on Christian education concerned to enable the learner's attentive, reasonable and responsible understanding of the Gospel. Taking its lead from Kierkegaard's account of…

  10. Justification for measurement equation: a fundamental issue in theoretical metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander V. Prokopov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A review and a critical analysis of the specialized literature on justification for the measurement equation and an estimation of a methodical error (uncertainty of the measurement result are presented in the paper, and some prospects for solving of the issue are discussed herein.

  11. Justification for measurement equation: a fundamental issue in theoretical metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksander V. Prokopov

    2013-01-01

    A review and a critical analysis of the specialized literature on justification for the measurement equation and an estimation of a methodical error (uncertainty) of the measurement result are presented in the paper, and some prospects for solving of the issue are discussed herein.

  12. Ethical problems in clinical psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oerlinghausen, B

    1978-10-01

    The present article originates from some intriguing problems which the author, working as a clinical pharmacologist and psychiatrist, was faced with during clinical investigations. Practical difficulties appearing at first glance as of a rather methodological nature often reveal themselves as ethical questions. Investigation of psychotropic drugs in normal volunteers as well as in psychiatric patients is taken as a model to exemplify certain fundamental ethical aspects of medical research. It is emphasized that the "solution" of ethical problems cannot be achieved by referring to a given code of norms which themselves depend on certain historical circumstances, but rather by recognizing and reasoning the conflicts which result from various moral maxims. Clinical psychopharmacology should not only be conscious of its methodological shortcomings and future goals but also accept the justification of discussions about the ethical and legal questions involved in its dealings and take an active part in these debates. With regard to the relationship between patient and investigator, "solidarity" [23] instead of ongoing paternalism or legal formalism, appears to be a realistic goal. This is also true in the area of psychopharmacological research.

  13. Wall roughness induces asymptotic ultimate turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaojue; Verschoof, Ruben A.; Bakhuis, Dennis; Huisman, Sander G.; Verzicco, Roberto; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence governs the transport of heat, mass and momentum on multiple scales. In real-world applications, wall-bounded turbulence typically involves surfaces that are rough; however, characterizing and understanding the effects of wall roughness on turbulence remains a challenge. Here, by combining extensive experiments and numerical simulations, we examine the paradigmatic Taylor-Couette system, which describes the closed flow between two independently rotating coaxial cylinders. We show how wall roughness greatly enhances the overall transport properties and the corresponding scaling exponents associated with wall-bounded turbulence. We reveal that if only one of the walls is rough, the bulk velocity is slaved to the rough side, due to the much stronger coupling to that wall by the detaching flow structures. If both walls are rough, the viscosity dependence is eliminated, giving rise to asymptotic ultimate turbulence—the upper limit of transport—the existence of which was predicted more than 50 years ago. In this limit, the scaling laws can be extrapolated to arbitrarily large Reynolds numbers.

  14. Why should ethics approval be required prior to publication of health promotion research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Ainsley J; Lipworth, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    Most academic journals that publish studies involving human participants require evidence that the research has been approved by a human research ethics committee (HREC). Yet journals continue to receive submissions from authors who have failed to obtain such approval. In this paper, we provide an ethical justification of why journals should not, in general, publish articles describing research that has no ethics approval, with particular attention to the health promotion context. Using theoretical bioethical reasoning and drawing on a case study, we first rebut some potential criticisms of the need for research ethics approval. We then outline four positive claims to justify a presumption that research should, in most instances, be published only if it has been undertaken with HREC approval. We present four justifications for requiring ethics approval before publication: (1) HREC approval adds legitimacy to the research; (2) the process of obtaining HREC approval can improve the quality of an intervention being investigated; (3) obtaining HREC approval can help mitigate harm; and (4) obtaining HREC approval demonstrates respect for persons. This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive assessment of why research ethics approval should generally be obtained before publishing in the health promotion context. So what? Journals such as the Health Promotion Journal of Australia have recently begun to require research ethics approval for publishing research. Health promotion researchers will be interested in learning the ethical justification for this change.

  15. After Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Nick; Haber, Alejandro

    While books on archaeological and anthropological ethics have proliferated in recent years, few attempt to move beyond a conventional discourse on ethics to consider how a discussion of the social and political implications of archaeological practice might be conceptualized differently....... The conceptual ideas about ethics posited in this volume make it of interest to readers outside of the discipline; in fact, to anyone interested in contemporary debates around the possibilities and limitations of a discourse on ethics. The authors in this volume set out to do three things. The first is to track...... the historical development of a discussion around ethics, in tandem with the development and “disciplining” of archaeology. The second is to examine the meanings, consequences and efficacies of a discourse on ethics in contemporary worlds of practice in archaeology. The third is to push beyond the language...

  16. The ultimate challenge of cloacal exstrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Carmichael, Polly A; Hines, Melissa; Ransley, Philip G

    2002-01-01

    Our review addresses the various system abnormalities associated with cloacal exstrophy and revisits the question of gender assignment. Gender assignment decisions and psychological aspects of gender issues have become the "ultimate challenge." Exploration of gender identity, gender role behavior and sexual orientation has just begun. A comprehensive literature review was performed with all world literature regarding the current management of cloacal exstrophy. Research focused on management principles, outcomes and documentation of concurrent anomalies. We also describe original research evaluating gender identity in our own series of patients raised as girls to illustrate the challenge of treatment and augment the available literature, which is scant. Abnormalities of the vertebral column ranged from hemivertebra to myelomeningocele. With magnetic resonance imaging, the incidence of spinal dysraphism approached 100% and cord tethering was also more frequently recognized. For children with the short bowel syndrome, advances in antibiotic usage, and parenteral and enteral nutrition have increased the survival rate and reduced morbidity. A neurological component has been recognized for bladder function, bladder neck continence, lower extremity function and erectile capacity. Mitrofanoff-type reconstruction with bladder neck closure and continent catheterizable stoma dramatically increased continence. Diminutive or absent penis has been documented in 30% of males, and no documentation of paternity exists. The majority of females have bicornuate uterus. However, ovaries and tubes were generally normal. No reports of proven fertility exist. The strategy and timing of surgery relating to gender assignment remain controversial. A desperate need exists for research focusing on gender development and quality of life. Until that time, a cautious watchful approach may be most appropriate as our patients with cloacal exstrophy mature into adulthood.

  17. Ethical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoppers, B.M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ethical questions about molecular biology and human radiation studies are raised. The questions relate to the following: genetic epidemiology leading to possible stigmatization of certain groups; protection of medical information, including samples, and respect for privacy; effect of genetic characterization on standards and procedures relating to occupational exposure; exclusion of vulnerable groups from research studies. On the positive side, there is increased funding within Canada for studies of ethical, legal and social issues, and internationally ethical standards are being developed

  18. The Exploration Ethic: Its Historical-Intellectual Basis. Outlook for Space (1980 - 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priscoli, J. D.; Marney, M.

    1975-01-01

    Principle components of the exploration ethic are discussed. Attempts were made to justify both the historical and intellectual aspects of the concept. It was noted that intellectual justification is strongly grounded on: (1) the complementarity of objective and normative inquiry as to method, and (2) interdisciplinary alliance of ethics of adaptive systems with contemporary decision sciences, as a theoretical basis. Historical exploration justification was associated with: (1) periods of civilization transition, (2) changes in the process of exploration which cause change in types of rationals used, sponsors involved, and explorers interest, and (3) the incorrectness of proven prior cost/benefit calculations.

  19. Medical ethics and ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyalomhe, G B S

    2009-01-01

    Ethical problems routinely arise in the hospital and outpatient practice settings and times of dilemma do occur such that practitioners and patients are at cross-roads where choice and decision making become difficult in terms of ethics. This paper attempts a synopsis of the basic principles of medical ethics, identifies some ethical dilemmas that doctors often encounter and discusses some strategies to address them as well as emphasizes the need for enhanced ethics education both for physicians and patients particularly in Nigeria. Literature and computer programmes (Medline and PsychoInfo databases) were searched for relevant information. The search showed that the fundamental principles suggested by ethicists to assist doctors to evaluate the ethics of a situation while making a decision include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Although the above principles do not give answers as to how to handle a particular situation, they serve as a guide to doctors on what principles ought to apply to actual circumstances. The principles sometimes conflict with each other leading to ethical dilemmas when applied to issues such as abortion, contraception, euthanasia, professional misconduct, confidentiality truth telling, professional relationship with relatives, religion, traditional medicine and business concerns. Resolution of dilemmas demand the best of the doctor's knowledge of relevant laws and ethics, his training and experience, his religious conviction and moral principles as well as his readiness to benefit from ethics consultation and the advice of his colleagues. Ethics education should begin from the impressionable age in homes, continued in the medical schools and after graduation to ensure that doctors develop good ethical practices and acquire the ability to effectively handle ethical dilemmas. Also, education of patients and sanction of unethical behaviour will reduce ethical dilemmas.

  20. Law and ethics in conflict over confidentiality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2000-09-01

    Ethical principles that require the preservation of patients' confidential information are reinforced by principles found in several areas of law, such as law on contracts, negligence, defamation and fiduciary duty. However, laws sometimes compel disclosures of medical confidences, and more often may justify or excuse disclosures. Legally contentious issues concern patients' confidences regarding possible unlawful conduct, such as pregnancy termination, and the risk of spread of HIV and other infections. This article reviews the various legal bases of the duty of confidentiality, and legal challenges to the ethical obligation of non-disclosure. It addresses the justifications and limits of exchange of patients' health information among healthcare professionals and trainees, and considers legally recognized limits of confidential duties, and the scope of legitimate disclosure. An underlying theme is how to determine whether physicians are ethically justified in employing the discretion the law sometimes affords them to breach patients' expectations of confidentiality.

  1. Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  2. Large ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    This essay presents an alternative to the traditional view that ethics means judging individual behavior against standards of right and wrong. Instead, ethics is understood as creating ethical communities through the promises we make to each other. The "aim" of ethics is to demonstrate in our own behavior a credible willingness to work to create a mutually better world. The "game" of ethics then becomes searching for strategies that overlap with others' strategies so that we are all better for intending to act on a basis of reciprocal trust. This is a difficult process because we have partial, simultaneous, shifting, and inconsistent views of the world. But despite the reality that we each "frame" ethics in personal terms, it is still possible to create sufficient common understanding to prosper together. Large ethics does not make it a prerequisite for moral behavior that everyone adheres to a universally agreed set of ethical principles; all that is necessary is sufficient overlap in commitment to searching for better alternatives.

  3. BUSINESS ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu BURCEA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the elements that will form the basis of this scientific study. Lately, business ethics has been becoming an increasingly popular topic. Set against the global economic crisis, the companies’ credibility could become a major concern. Business ethics also becomes a challenge for training and informing employees and employers, in order to make not only economical, but also ethical decisions regarding their profits. In the study we shall also address the ethical standards required in a business world interested in fundamental values that can make the difference in 21st century business. Also, according to a study conducted by the authors, we shall address the two most important ethical values that prove to be essential to a business.

  4. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-15

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  5. National Survey on Justification of CT-examinations in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, Anja; Leitz, Wolfram; Richter, Sven

    2009-02-01

    All examinations in diagnostic radiology shall be justified to avoid unnecessary irradiation of the patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the degree of justification for CT-examinations in Sweden. Referrals for all examinations performed during one day were retrospectively evaluated by a group of physicians. The study was designed and conducted by a project group lead by prof. Haakan Jorulf. The authors of this report have derived the results and conclusions on the basis of the data and are responsible for the content of this report. The principle result was that approximately 20 % of all examinations were not justified. The degree of justification varied strongly with organ examined, moderately with prescriber affiliation and weakly with geographical region. If unjustified examinations could be avoided a large dose reduction for the population would be achieved. This study shows that there is a need for improvements and the authority will continue to work with this issue

  6. Locating Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Research ethics has become integrated into what it means to conduct good science. This thesis is about the nature of that integration, which I argue is not neutral, carrying with it ideas of duty, moral obligations, organisational mechanisms, and processes of monitoring. For developing countries...... to participate in global research, the pre-requisite of ethical review has necessitated a growth in capacity building exercises. The chapters aim to elucidate ethnographically the activities and implications of 'capacity building' activities in biomedical research ethics, through following the trainings......, assessments and networking of the Forum of Ethics Review Committees of Asia and the Pacific (FERCAP), a Non-Governmental Organisation. The work provides a critical reflection on the spread and uptake of ethics, contributing particularly to literatures in medical anthropology, organisational studies...

  7. Intelligence Ethics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  8. Design and economic justification of group blanks application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Todić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Within the manufacturing process planning, blanks are either selected or designed, respectively forms of input material for the manufacture of products. Reviewed in this paper are three types of group blanks: group castings, group forgings manufactured by closed die forging and free forging, and group blanks manufactured by pressing melted metal in casts. The paper also presents requisites for design and evaluation of economic justification of group blanks application.

  9. Exploring the Application of Capital Facility Investment Justification Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Karić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available For decades now, the models for identifying and quantifying the level of risk of investment projects and investment justification evaluation have been the subject of investigation by members of professional and research communities. It is important to quantify the level of risk because by evaluating investment justification in terms of the risks involved, the decision-maker (investor is able to choose from available alternatives the one that will achieve the most favourable ratio of expected profit to the assumed risk. In this way, the economic entity can raise its productivity, profitability and the quality of business operation in general. The aim of this paper was to investigate the extent to which medium and large companies have been using modern methods of investment justification evaluation in their decision-making process and determine the level of quality of the application of the selected methods in practice. The study was conducted on a sample of medium and large enterprises in the eastern Croatia during 2011 and 2012, and it was established that despite the fact that a large number of modern investment project profitability and risk assessment models have been developed, the level of their application in practice is not high enough. The analyzed investment proposals included only basic methods of capital budgeting without risk assessment. Hence, it was concluded that individual investors were presented with low-quality and incomplete investment justification evaluation results on the basis of which the decisions of key importance for the development of the economic entity as a whole were made. This paper aims to underline the need for financial managers to get informed and educate themselves about contemporary investment project profitability and risk assessment models as well as the need to create educational programmes and computer solutions that will encourage key people in companies to acquire new knowledge and apply modern

  10. The justification principle applied to Computed tomography exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado Tejeda, A.; Mora Machado, R. de la; Garcia Moreira, T.; Hing Perdomo, J.

    2008-01-01

    The increasing use of imaging technologies and the installation of more sophisticated equipment in radiology services, such as multi-slice CT scanners have consequently increased the number of treated patients, as well as the collective doses to population. Radiation doses received from CT exams are higher than those received in conventional radiology. The optimal use of CT equipment, considering optimized techniques, and the justification of examinations, are imperative in order to minimize the undesirable effects of radiation. In this paper we do set out to the assessment of justification criteria applied for CT exams in a Cuban Hospital. The justification of prescribed tests by physicians was analyzed, assessing its incidence depending on the kind of studies and percentage (%) of positive and negative cases. The study was carried out in a Clinical Surgical Hospital in Havana City. This hospital has installed a Shimadzu SCT-7800TC helical single-slice device. The sample is made up of 81 patients, between 24 and 80 years old, both men and women. For all of them the pathology that causes the order of the exam as well as the existence of other previous tests, were considered. As a result of the assessment, the 56.8% of all cases turned out to be positives; the 55.5% only confirmed the pathologies and the 1.23% produced new evidences. On the other hand, the remaining 43.2% were negatives noting that the 65.3% of the patients there were not previous imaging tests. Skull exam was the most incidences compiling the 67.7% of cases, and it was the headache the most frequent clinical problem to perform the 41.1%. In terms of justification, the evaluation of prescriptions evidenced that CT exams were not justified in 43.2% of cases. As part of this last group, it was also found that 46.9% of clinical studies were negative. (author)

  11. The acceptability of conducting data linkage research without obtaining consent: lay people's views and justifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xafis, Vicki

    2015-11-17

    A key ethical issue arising in data linkage research relates to consent requirements. Patients' consent preferences in the context of health research have been explored but their consent preferences regarding data linkage specifically have been under-explored. In addition, the views on data linkage are often those of patient groups. As a result, little is known about lay people's views and their preferences about consent requirements in the context of data linkage. This study explores lay people's views and justifications regarding the acceptability of conducting data linkage research without obtaining consent. A qualitative study explored lay people's views regarding consent requirements in data linkage via four hypothetical data linkage scenarios of increasing complexity. Prior to considering the scenarios, participants were provided with information regarding best practice data linkage processes via discussion and a diagrammatic representation of the process. Lay people were able to understand the intricate processes involved in data linkage and the key protections afforded within a short amount of time. They were supportive of data linkage research and, on the whole, believed it should be conducted without consent provided a data linkage organization de-identifies the data used so that researchers do not handle identifiable data. Many thought that de-identified data holds a different status to identifiable data and should be used without specific consent in research that aims to benefit society. In weighing up conflicting values and interests, participants shifted consent preferences before arriving at their final consent preference for each scenario and provided justifications for their choices. They considered the protection of people's information, societal benefits, and the nature and constraints of research and recognized that these need to be balanced. With some exposure to the features of data linkage, lay people have the capacity to understand the

  12. The ethics of 'public understanding of ethics'--why and how bioethics expertise should include public and patients' voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicktanz, Silke; Schweda, Mark; Wynne, Brian

    2012-05-01

    "Ethics" is used as a label for a new kind of expertise in the field of science and technology. At the same time, it is not clear what ethical expertise consists in and what its political status in modern democracies can be. Starting from the "participatory turn" in recent social research and policy, we will argue that bioethical reasoning has to include public views of and attitudes towards biomedicine. We will sketch the outlines of a bioethical conception of "public understanding of ethics," addressing three different issues: (a) the methodological relevance of moral questions and problems raised by lay persons in everyday life regarding biomedicine and technology, (b) the normative relevance of such lay moralities for the justification of ethical decisions, and (c) the necessity of public deliberation in this context. Finally, we draw conclusions in view of the concepts and methods such a conception of "public understanding of ethics" should employ.

  13. Epistemic Beliefs about Justification Employed by Physics Students and Faculty in Two Different Problem Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çağlayan Mercan, Fatih

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the epistemic beliefs about justification employed by physics undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in the context of solving a standard classical physics problem and a frontier physics problem. Data were collected by a think-aloud problem solving session followed by a semi-structured interview conducted with 50 participants, 10 participants at freshmen, seniors, masters, PhD, and faculty levels. Seven modes of justification were identified and used for exploring the relationships between each justification mode and problem context, and expertise level. The data showed that justification modes were not mutually exclusive and many respondents combined different modes in their responses in both problem contexts. Success on solving the standard classical physics problem was not related to any of the justification modes and was independent of expertise level. The strength of the association across the problem contexts for the authoritative, rational, and empirical justification modes fell in the medium range and for the modeling justification mode fell in the large range of practical significance. Expertise level was not related with the empirical and religious justification modes. The strength of the association between the expertise level and the authoritative, rational, experiential, and relativistic justification modes fell in the medium range, and the modeling justification mode fell in the large range of practical significance. The results provide support for the importance of context for the epistemic beliefs about justification and are discussed in terms of the implications for teaching and learning science.

  14. BUSINESS ETHICS

    OpenAIRE

    Nelu BURCEA; Ion CROITORU

    2014-01-01

    Through this study we seek to explore the concept of business ethics, in those aspects that we consider to be essential and concrete. We started from a few questions: Could the two concepts be compatible? If not, why not? If yes, could they be complementary? How real is the use of ethics in the profits of a business? How can be business ethics be exemplified and what principles are essential in doing business? How does the business environment react to the concept? These are some of the eleme...

  15. Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Michael; Anderson, Susan Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The newly emerging field of machine ethics (Anderson and Anderson 2006) is concerned with adding an ethical dimension to machines. Unlike computer ethics -- which has traditionally focused on ethical issues surrounding humans' use of machines -- machine ethics is concerned with ensuring that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. In this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics, the need for machines that represent ...

  16. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  17. Transplant Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altınörs, Nur; Haberal, Mehmet

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to review and discuss the great variety of ethical issues related to organ donation, organ procurement, transplant activities, and new ethical problems created as a result of technologic and scientific developments. An extensive literature survey was made, and expert opinions were obtained. The gap between demand and supply of organs for transplant has yielded to organ trafficking, organ tourism, and commercialism. This problem seems to be the most important issue, and naturally there are ethical dilemmas related to it. A wide number of ideas have been expressed on the subject, and different solutions have been proposed. The struggle against organ trafficking and commercialism should include legislation, efforts to increase deceased-donor donations, and international cooperation. China's policy to procure organs from prisoners sentenced to death is unethical, and the international community should exert more pressure on the Chinese government to cease this practice. Each particular ethical dilemma should be taken separately and managed.

  18. Ethics fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Ethics is about studying the right and the good; morality is about acting as one should. Although there are differences among what is legal, charitable, professional, ethical, and moral, these desirable characteristics tend to cluster and are treasured in dentistry. The traditional approach to professionalism in dentistry is based on a theory of biomedical ethics advanced 30 years ago. Known as the principles approach, general ideals such as respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity, are offered as guides. Growth in professionalism consists in learning to interpret the application of these principles as one's peers do. Moral behavior is conceived as a continuous cycle of sensitivity to situations requiring moral response, moral reasoning, the moral courage to take action when necessary, and integration of habits of moral behavior into one's character. This essay is the first of two papers that provide the backbone for the IDEA Project of the College--an online, multiformat, interactive "textbook" of ethics for the profession.

  19. Ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness.

  20. Classical ethical positions and their relevance in justifying behavior: A model of prescriptive attribution.

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, E.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper separates empirical research on ethics from classical research on morality and relates it to other central questions of social psychology and sociology, e.g., values, culture, justice, attribution. In addition, reference is made to some founding studies of ethical research and its historical development. Based on this line of tradition the development of prescriptive attribution research is introduced, which concentrates on the justification of actions by weighting the importance o...

  1. Ethical aspect in medical radiation use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Medical radiation uses hold a specific position in radiation protection. Patients are purposely exposed to radiation while usually radiation exposure should be avoided. The radiation doses are (at least in principle) planned the risks may be estimated (again in principle). The hazards are justified by the medical benefit. Otherwise irradiation is a violation of physical integrity (article 2 Grundgesetz) that can be prosecuted. For patients no dose limits exist, the responsible physician decides on the real exposures. Justification and optimization are of predominant importance. The decision on the radiological measure, the applied technology is an ethically motivated decision besides the everyday routine.

  2. Radiation protection: Some philosophical and ethical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sia, Santiago; Chhem, Rethy K.; Czarwinski, Renate

    2010-01-01

    The ethical issue of justification has become an urgent issue in radiology. There has been a shift in emphasis in the discussion from what has been regarded as a rather paternalistic attitude of practitioners to one that stresses the rights of the individual patient. This article comments on this current move on the part of the profession by offering certain relevant philosophical considerations. Using a medical scenario as the context to comment on this shift, it discusses important and fundamental issues, such as the autonomy and the rights of the patient in addition to the question of consent on the patient's part.

  3. Ethical dilemmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabro, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter.......What are the characteristics of an ethical dilemma? And how do we handle them in the area of early childhood education? These are some of the questions that will be dealt with in this chapter....

  4. Capability ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative comm...

  5. Direct ultimate disposal of spent fuel DEAB. Systems analysis. Ultimate disposal concepts. Final report. Main volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.

    1995-10-01

    The results elaborated under the project, systems analysis of mixed radwaste disposal concepts and systems analysis of ultimate disposal concepts, provide a comprehensive description and assessment of a radwaste repository, for heat generating wastes and for wastes with negligible heat generation, and thus represent the knowledge basis for forthcoming planning work for a repository in an abandoned salt mine. A fact to be considered is that temperature field calculations have shown that there is room for further optimization with regard to the mine layout. The following aspects have been analysed: (1) safety of operation; (2) technical feasibility and realisation and licensability of the concepts; (3) operational aspects; (4) varieties of utilization of the salt dome for the intended purpose (boreholes for waste emplacement, emplacement in galleries, multi-horizon systems); (5) long-term structural stability of the mine; (6) economic efficiency; (7) nuclear materials safeguards. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Seriously ill patients as living unspecified kidney donors: rationale and justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakké, Yannick S; Zuidema, Willij C; Hilhorst, Medard T; Erdman, Ruud A M; Massey, Emma K; Betjes, Michiel G H; Dor, Frank J M F; IJzermans, Jan N M; Weimar, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Between 2000 and December 2013, 106 live donor nephrectomies from anonymous living-donors were performed at the Erasmus MC Rotterdam; five of the donors (5.4%) had a life-threatening disease. The aim of the present report is to give the rational and justification for this procedure. All five donors underwent the national standard living-donor screening procedure. Additionally, motivation to donate and psychologic stability were assessed by a psychologist using in-depth interview techniques and a psychologic complaints questionnaire. Post-donor nephrectomy follow-up consisted of standard questionnaires and clinical check-ups. One patient had cerebral and caudal ependymomas, one had severe and progressive emphysema, two had Huntington's disease and one had a grade 2 oligodendroglioma. The psychologic screening revealed genuine motivation, adequate risk perception, and normal sense of reality. No contraindications for donation were found. The five donor nephrectomies made nine kidney transplantations possible. All donors were satisfied with the donation procedure. Three donors died during follow-up (0.6-4.9 years) as a result of their disease. In the absence of apparent additional health risks, medical, and psychologic contraindications, we consider it ethically justified to accept an offer from a cognitively competent patient with a life-threatening disease in view of their self-reported satisfaction during follow-up. Although based on a limited number of patients, we conclude that a stricter psychologic screening for seriously ill donors compared to healthy unspecified anonymous donors to unspecified patients is not necessary.

  7. Editorial: Ethics approval: responsibilities of journal editors, authors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meaningful progress of medicine depends on research that must ultimately involve human subjects. Obtaining ethical approval therefore, especially in medical sciences, should be a moral reflex for researchers. This unfortunately is not the case, with numerous researchers bypassing the ethics approval procedure, or simply ...

  8. Ethics and mental illness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2002-09-01

    ethical issues are recognized as inextricably linked: science as a human activity carries complex ethical meanings and responsibilities, and ethics itself is subject to scrutiny and amenable to scientific inquiry. Building a broader, more versatile, and more effective repertoire of safeguards will be increasingly important, and safeguards, in this view, represent a modest price for the privilege of studying serious illnesses--diseases that cause grave suffering and yet are a source of both vulnerability and strength. In this paradigm, attention to ethics safeguards is no longer understood as a barrier to scientific advancement, but rather as the means by which psychiatric research may be conducted with broad societal support, honorably and, ultimately, with the expectation of bringing benefit to millions of people with mental illness.

  9. An Ethical Review of Euthanasia and Physician-assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Božidar; Turanjanin, Veljko; Miloradović, Anđela

    2017-02-01

    In the majority of countries, active direct euthanasia is a forbidden way of the deprivation of the patients' life, while its passive form is commonly accepted. This distinction between active and passive euthanasia has no justification, viewed through the prism of morality and ethics. Therefore, we focused on attention on the moral and ethical implications of the aforementioned medical procedures. Data were obtained from the Clinical Hospital Center in Kragujevac, collected during the first half of the 2015. The research included 88 physicians: 57 male physicians (representing 77% of the sample) and 31 female physicians (23% of the sample). Due to the nature, subject and hypothesis of the research, the authors used descriptive method and the method of the theoretical content analysis. A slight majority of the physicians (56, 8%) believe that active euthanasia is ethically unacceptable, while 43, 2% is for another solution (35, 2% took a viewpoint that it is completely ethically acceptable, while the remaining 8% considered it ethically acceptable in certain cases). From the other side, 56, 8% of respondents answered negatively on the ethical acceptability of the physician-assisted suicide, while 33% of them opted for a completely ethic viewpoint of this procedure. Out of the remaining 10, 2% opted for the ethical acceptability in certain cases. Physicians in Serbia are divided on this issue, but a group that considers active euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide as ethically unacceptable is a bit more numerous.

  10. Public Health Ethics, Legitimacy, and the Challenges of Industrial Wind Turbines: The Case of Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin

    2011-01-01

    While industrial wind turbines (IWTs) clearly raise issues concerning threats to the health of a few in contrast to claimed health benefits to many, the trade-off has not been fully considered in a public health framework. This article reviews public health ethics justifications for the licensing and installation of IWTs. It concludes that the…

  11. Law and ethics of strikes in the Nigerian health system | Mcfubara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite that health services are essential, health sector strikes have continued. The purpose here was to examine the legal and ethical justification of strikes in the Nigerian health sector. Documentary analysis and literature reviews were carried out. It was found that the Trade Disputes Act and the National Health Act do not ...

  12. Ethical Orientations for Understanding Business Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Phillip V.; Speck, Henry E., III

    1990-01-01

    Argues that history provides the necessary framework in which both to discuss and to seek answers to the three necessary and sequential questions about business ethics: (1) What is ethics and what does it mean to be ethical? (2) Why be ethical?; and (3) How can one be ethical? (SG)

  13. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  14. Business Reporting: How Transparency becomes a Justification Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    through linking disclosure to value creation is emphasized. As transparency is in the eye of the beholder, the process of developing corporate reporting practices must be concerned with reaching a common understanding and agreement between producers and consumers of such disclosures. Transparency...... is perceived as both a key objective and outcome of comprehensive business reporting. However, the concept of transparency seems to be an empty concept merely constituting a justification mechanism for actual behaviour, i.e. that disclosure instead is driven by the signalling value for the individual company...

  15. Justifications on social ineaqualities. Notes on the Salvadoran case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Lungo Rodríguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This note presents the theoretical and methodological guidelines of my phd dissertation, which is under preparation. My concern is about cultural aspects that underlie social inequalities in contemporary El Salvador. Currently, this country is characterized by the primacy of neoliberal acumulation model, the rise of an unprecedented democracy, processes of reconcentration of capital and the persistence of high levels of social exclusion. Specifically, I study the justification of inequalities from the case of the “elite” middle classes in El Salvador. This research is inscribed whitin the sociological debates on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality.

  16. An Extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action in Ethical Decision Contexts: The Role of Normative Influence and Ethical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celuch, Kevin; Dill, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The moral conduct of organizations is ultimately dependent on the discrete actions of individuals. The authors address the scholarly and managerial imperative of how individuals combine various cognitions in their ethical decision making. The study extends the understanding of ethical decision making by exploring relationships among Theory of…

  17. Ecological Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Deborah Oughton started with a view of the work in progress by the ICRP TG 94 on ethics, from the historical context and the principles-based ethics in RP, to continue with an overview of the ethical theories and with the main area of elaboration which concerns the common values, to conclude with considerations about the implementation in different area such as biomedicine, nuclear safety and workers, ecological aspects, and environmental health and society. By reading again the ICRP and IAEA publications on the ethical aspects in the protection of environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, the presentation covers the various and different cultures within the history of environmental ethics, the perception of Nature and the theories of environmental ethics, in particular by focusing on anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as philosophical worldwide views, and on conservation, biodiversity, sustainability, environmental justice and human dignity, as primary principles of environmental protection. The influence of western Christianity, with a view of man dominating over every creeping thing on earth, and of the non-western ideas, the human perception of Nature has been analyzed and discussed to conclude that, in reality then, the anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism, as reflected in many cultures and religions, they all support the need to protect the environment and to recognise and preserve the diversity. Three challenges were then discussed in the presentation: the ecosystem approach and ecological economics, for example in the case of Fukushima by asking what is the economic cost of marine contamination; the ecosystem changes with attention to what harms, as in the case of the environment in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl; and the environmental consequences of remediation, which can be considered a source of controversy for environmental ethics and policy

  18. Firefighters United for Safety, Ethics, and Ecology (FUSEE): Torchbearers for a new fire management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee; Joseph Fox; Patrick Withen

    2007-01-01

    Firefighters United for Safety, Ethics, and Ecology (FUSEE) is a nonprofit organization promoting safe, ethical, ecological wildland fire management. FUSEE believes firefighter and community safety are ultimately interdependent with ethical public service, wildlands protection, and ecological restoration of fire-adapted ecosystems. Our members include current, former,...

  19. What's the matter with business ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, A

    1993-01-01

    The more business ethics secures its status in campuses across the country, the more bewildering it appears to actual managers. It's not that managers dislike the idea of doing the right thing. As University of Toronto Assistant Professor Andrew Stark argues, far too many business ethicists just haven't offered them the practical advice they need. Before business ethics became a formal discipline, advocates of corporate social responsibility claimed that the market would ultimately reward ethical behavior. But ethics and interests did not always intersect so fruitfully in the real world. And when they did not, managers were left in the dark to grope for the right ethical course. In the 1970s, the brand-new field of business ethics came onto the scene to address this issue. Critical of the "ethics pays" approach, academics held that ethics and interests can and do conflict. Still, scholars took an equally unrealistic line. To them, a manager's motivation could be either altruistic or self-interested, but never both. In short, ethicists still weren't addressing the difficult moral dilemmas that managers face on a day-to-day basis, and only recently have they begun to do so. After some initial stumbles, ethicists are getting their hands dirty and seriously considering the costs of doing the right thing. Finally, a new business ethics is emerging that acknowledges and accepts the messy world of mixed motives. As a result, novel concepts are springing up: moderation, pragmatism, minimalism, among others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Qualitative analysis of healthcare professionals' viewpoints on the role of ethics committees and hospitals in the resolution of clinical ethical dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Brian S; Shank, Gary; Carlson, Jestin N; Venkat, Arvind

    2015-03-01

    Ethics consultation is a commonly applied mechanism to address clinical ethical dilemmas. However, there is little information on the viewpoints of health care providers towards the relevance of ethics committees and appropriate application of ethics consultation in clinical practice. We sought to use qualitative methodology to evaluate free-text responses to a case-based survey to identify thematically the views of health care professionals towards the role of ethics committees in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas. Using an iterative and reflexive model we identified themes that health care providers support a role for ethics committees and hospitals in resolving clinical ethical dilemmas, that the role should be one of mediation, rather than prescription, but that ultimately legal exposure was dispositive compared to ethical theory. The identified theme of legal fears suggests that the mediation role of ethics committees is viewed by health care professionals primarily as a practical means to avoid more worrisome medico-legal conflict.

  1. Case Study on Justification: High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Annex II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    High intensity discharge lamps produce bright white light of a high intensity in an energy efficient manner. These lamps are typically used in large numbers in public and professional settings such as shops, warehouses, hotels and offices. They are also used in outdoor applications to illuminate streets, buildings, statues, flags and gardens and further as architectural lighting. They also have applications associated with film projection in cinemas, manufacture of semiconductors, fluorescence endoscopy and microscopy, schlieren photography, hologram projection, ultraviolet curing, sky beamers and car headlights. Some types of high intensity discharge lamp, as well as certain other consumer products for lighting, contain radioactive substances for functional reasons. The radionuclides that are typically incorporated into high intensity discharge lamps are 85 Kr and 232 Th. Given the wide range of uses, specific decisions on justification may be required for different applications. A small number of safety assessments for high intensity discharge lamps have been carried out and published. No published decisions at the national level specifically addressing the justification of the use of high intensity discharge lamps have been identified

  2. Ultimate Educational Aims, Overridingness, and Personal Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Ishtiyaque; Cuypers, Stefaan E.

    2011-01-01

    Discussion regarding education's aims, especially its ultimate aims, is a key topic in the philosophy of education. These aims or values play a pivotal role in regulating and structuring moral and other types of normative education. We outline two plausible strategies to identify and justify education's ultimate aims. The first associates these…

  3. Sensitivity analysis on ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigo, P.; Sarghiuta, R.; Estefen, S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an extensive sensitivity analysis carried out by the Committee III.1 "Ultimate Strength" of ISSC?2003 in the framework of a benchmark on the ultimate strength of aluminium stiffened panels. Previously, different benchmarks were presented by ISSC committees on ul...

  4. Data Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Tranberg, Pernille

    Respect for privacy and the right to control one’s own data are becoming key parameters to gain a competitive edge in today’s business world. Companies, organisations and authorities which view data ethics as a social responsibility, giving it the same importance as environmental awareness...... and respect for human rights, are tomorrow’s winners. Digital trust is paramount to digital growth and prosperity. This book combines broad trend analyses with case studies to examine companies which use data ethics to varying degrees. The authors make the case that citizens and consumers are no longer just...... concerned about a lack of control over their data, but they also have begun to act. In addition, they describe alternative business models, advances in technology and a new European data protection regulation, all of which combine to foster a growing market for data-ethical products and services...

  5. Ethical issues in public health promotion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... Health promotion has three main ethical issues: (i) what are the ultimate goals for public .... construction of new norms, the shaping of existing norms, the .... despite the fact that we know they are bad for people's health. There.

  6. The Role of Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultation in Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel; Hurst, Samia; Danis, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Background Decisions about the allocation and rationing of medical interventions likely occur in all health care systems worldwide. So far very little attention has been given to the question of what role ethics consultation and ethics committees could or should play in questions of allocation at the hospital level. Objectives and Methods This article argues for the need for ethics consultation in rationing decisions using empirical data about the status quo and the inherent nature of bedside rationing. Subsequently, it introduces a 4-stage process for establishing and conducting ethics consultation in rationing questions with systematic reference to core elements of procedural justice. Results Qualitative and quantitative findings show a significant demand for ethics consultation expressed directly by doctors, as well as additional indirect evidence of such a need as indicated by ethically challenging circumstances of inconsistent and structurally disadvantaging rationing decisions. To address this need, we suggest 4 stages for establishing and conducting ethics consultation in rationing questions we recommend: (1) training, (2) identifying actual scarcity-related problems at clinics, (3) supporting decision-making, and (4) evaluation. Conclusion This process of ethics consultation regarding rationing decisions would facilitate the achievement of several practical goals: (i) encouragement of an awareness and understanding of ethical problems in bedside rationing, (ii) encouragement of achieving efficiency along with rationing, (iii) reinforcement of consistency in inter- and intraindvidual decision-making, (iv) encouragement of explicit reflection and justification of the prioritization criteria taken into consideration, (v) improvement in internal (in-house) and external transparency, and (vi) prevention of the misuse of the corresponding consulting structures. PMID:20706163

  7. Justification and Rationality from the perspective of the Dual System Theory of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan García-Campos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption in epistemology is that there is an important connection between the notions of justification and rationality. However, this connection is unclear since there is no consensus about what rationality is or what a “correct” notion of justification would be. The purpose of this paper is to explain how the dual system theory of reasoning can build a “bridge” between justification and rationality. We argue that the dual system theory of reasoning supports, to a certainextent, an externalist notion of justification and a consequentialist view of rationality.

  8. Ethics approval: responsibilities of journal editors, authors and research ethics committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Luchuo Engelbert

    2017-01-01

    Meaningful progress of medicine depends on research that must ultimately involve human subjects. Obtaining ethical approval therefore, especially in medical sciences, should be a moral reflex for researchers. This unfortunately is not the case, with numerous researchers bypassing the ethics approval procedure, or simply unaware of its importance. Good research involves risks taken by research participants and uses tax payers' money in the process. These mandates the research endeavor to aim at attaining the highest degree of respect for the sacrifices made by others for science. Most researchers mistake scientific clearance or approval, for ethics approval. For a study to be ethical sound, it must be scientifically sound. This is only one of the activities carried out during protocol review. It is not uncommon for sensitive ethical concerns, especially in the social sciences to be overlooked and considered not to be accompanied by any serious risks for the research participants.The researcher has the responsibility of systematically consulting the competent ethics committee for advice and consequent approvals or ethical waivers. Journal editors and reviewers have the duty to systematically evaluate the ethical soundness of manuscripts submitted for review. Capacity building in research ethics and institutional support for Research Ethics Committees to speed up protocol review could reduce the incentive of carrying out research in human subjects without ethics approvals. It is hypocritical and idle to continue to expect optimal reviews on time and of good quality, from ethics committees functioning purely on altruistic grounds. Capacity building for researchers in research ethics, and institutional reforms and support for Research Ethics Committees appear not to have received the attention they truly deserve.

  9. Ethics-sensitivity of the Ghana national integrated strategic response plan for pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; DeBruin, Debra

    2015-05-07

    Many commentators call for a more ethical approach to planning for influenza pandemics. In the developed world, some pandemic preparedness plans have already been examined from an ethical viewpoint. This paper assesses the attention given to ethics issues by the Ghana National Integrated Strategic Plan for Pandemic Influenza (NISPPI). We critically analyzed the Ghana NISPPI's sensitivity to ethics issues to determine how well it reflects ethical commitments and principles identified in our review of global pandemic preparedness literature, existing pandemic plans, and relevant ethics frameworks. This paper reveals that important ethical issues have not been addressed in the Ghana NISPPI. Several important ethical issues are unanticipated, unacknowledged, and unplanned for. These include guidelines on allocation of scarce resources, the duties of healthcare workers, ethics-sensitive operational guidelines/protocols, and compensation programs. The NISPPI also pays scant attention to use of vaccines and antivirals, border issues and cooperation with neighboring countries, justification for delineated actions, and outbreak simulations. Feedback and communication plans are nebulous, while leadership, coordination, and budgeting are quite detailed. With respect to presentation, the NISPPI's text is organized around five thematic areas. While each area implicates ethical issues, NISPPI treatment of these areas consistently fails to address them. Our analysis reveals a lack of consideration of ethics by the NISPPI. We contend that, while the plan's content and fundamental assumptions provide support for implementation of the delineated public health actions, its consideration of ethical issues is poor. Deficiencies include a failure to incorporate guidelines that ensure fair distribution of scarce resources and a lack of justification for delineated procedures. Until these deficiencies are recognized and addressed, Ghana runs the risk of rolling out unjust and ethically

  10. Familiar ethical issues amplified: how members of research ethics committees describe ethical distinctions between disaster and non-disaster research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Catherine M; Anderson, James; Boulanger, Renaud F; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Pringle, John; Schwartz, Lisa; Hunt, Matthew

    2017-06-28

    The conduct of research in settings affected by disasters such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes is challenging, particularly when infrastructures and resources were already limited pre-disaster. However, since post-disaster research is essential to the improvement of the humanitarian response, it is important that adequate research ethics oversight be available. We aim to answer the following questions: 1) what do research ethics committee (REC) members who have reviewed research protocols to be conducted following disasters in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) perceive as the key ethical concerns associated with disaster research?, and 2) in what ways do REC members understand these concerns to be distinct from those arising in research conducted in non-crisis situations? This qualitative study was developed using interpretative description methodology; 15 interviews were conducted with REC members. Four key ethical issues were identified as presenting distinctive considerations for disaster research to be implemented in LMICs, and were described by participants as familiar research ethics issues that were amplified in these contexts. First, REC members viewed disaster research as having strong social value due to its potential for improving disaster response, but also as requiring a higher level of justification compared to other research settings. Second, they identified vulnerability as an overarching concern for disaster research ethics, and a feature that required careful and critical appraisal when assessing protocols. They noted that research participants' vulnerabilities frequently change in the aftermath of a disaster and often in unpredictable ways. Third, they identified concerns related to promoting and maintaining safety, confidentiality and data security in insecure or austere environments. Lastly, though REC members endorsed the need and usefulness of community engagement, they noted that there are significant challenges in a disaster

  11. Ethics in science: ecotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns Jr.

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Predictive ecotoxicology emphasizes the probable environmental outcome of exposure to toxics, rather than the mere appraisal of existing damage, and in so doing raises some complex but interesting ethical issues. Awareness of endocrine-disrupting chemicals is blurring the line between humankind and other life forms in toxicity testing by providing evidence that both humans and wildlife suffer adverse reproductive and developmental effect. There is a wide variety of chemicals that have been reported as potential endocrine disruptors. Finally, with the increasing loss of wildlife habitat, protecting the quality and ultimate fate of the remaining habitat from the effects of toxis substances becomes increasingly important to the moral quest for sustainable use of the planet.

  12. Is nuclear energy ethically justifiable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuend, H.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear technology offers the chance to make an extremely long term contribution to the energy supply of the earth. The use of nuclear energy is ethically justifiable, provided that several fundamental rules are obeyed during the technical design of nuclear installations. Such fundamental rules were unequivocally violated in the nuclear power plant Chernobyl. They are, however, fulfilled in the existing Swiss nuclear power plants. Improvements are possible in new nuclear power plants. Compared to other usable energy systems nuclear energy is second only to natural gas in minimal risk per generated energy unit. The question of ethical justification also may rightly be asked of the non-use of nuclear energy. The socially weakest members of the Swiss population would suffer most under a renunciation of nuclear energy. Future prospects for the developing countries would deteriorate considerably with a renunciation by industrial nations of nuclear energy. The widely spread fear concerning the nuclear energy in the population is a consequence of non-objective discussion. 8 refs., 2 figs

  13. Transgressive ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    2013-01-01

    of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground...

  14. Animal ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Clare; Sandøe, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes and discusses different views concerning our duties towards animals. First, we explain why it is necessary to engage in thinking about animal ethics and why it is not enough to rely on feelings alone. Secondly, we present and discuss five different kinds of views about...

  15. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  16. Ultimate Lateral Capacity of Rigid Pile in c- φ Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-min

    2018-03-01

    To date no analytical solution of the pile ultimate lateral capacity for the general c- φ soil has been obtained. In the present study, a new dimensionless embedded ratio was proposed and the analytical solutions of ultimate lateral capacity and rotation center of rigid pile in c- φ soils were obtained. The results showed that both the dimensionless ultimate lateral capacity and dimensionless rotation center were the univariate functions of the embedded ratio. Also, the ultimate lateral capacity in the c- φ soil was the combination of the ultimate lateral capacity ( f c ) in the clay, and the ultimate lateral capacity ( f φ ) in the sand. Therefore, the Broms chart for clay, solution for clay ( φ=0) put forward by Poulos and Davis, solution for sand ( c=0) obtained by Petrasovits and Awad, and Kondner's ultimate bending moment were all proven to be the special cases of the general solution in the present study. A comparison of the field and laboratory tests in 93 cases showed that the average ratios of the theoretical values to the experimental value ranged from 0.85 to 1.15. Also, the theoretical values displayed a good agreement with the test values.

  17. References to Human Rights in Codes of Ethics for Psychologists: Critical Issues and Recommendations. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Жанель Готье

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available There are codes of ethics in psychology that explicitly refer to human rights. There are also psychologists interested in the protection and promotion of human rights who are calling for the explicit inclusion of references to human rights in all psychology ethics codes. Yet, references to human rights in ethics documents have rarely been the focus of attention in psychological ethics. This article represents the first part of a two-part article series focusing on critical issues associated with the inclusion of references to human rights in the ethical codes of psychologists, and recommendations about how psychological ethics and the human rights movement can work together in serving humanity. The first part of the article series examines issues pertaining to the interpretation of references to human rights in codes of ethics for psychologists, and the justifications for including these references in psychological ethics codes. The second part of the article series examines how the Universal Declaration of Ethical Principles for Psychologists can be used to extend or supplement codes of ethics in psychology, how ethical principles and human rights differ and complement each other, and how psychological ethics and the human rights movement can work together in serving humanity and improving the welfare of both persons and peoples.

  18. Economic Justification of Patents and Exceptions to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present article is the conclusion of a review of economic justifications for patent rights conducted with the objective of determining whether such arguments are per se capable of sustaining the existence of a different patentability regime for inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic...... methods (art.53 (c) European Patent Convention). It starts by exploring the normative background and summarily describes the different types of claims allowed under the current legal framework and their differences. The following sections will describe and apply the main economic arguments sustaining...... patent rights inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. These reasoning will be later confronted with contra-arguments. This piece will finalize with the formulation of conclusions extracted from the previous debate, inter-alia that economic reasoning does not per se sustain...

  19. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  20. System justification and the defense of committed relationship ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Kay, Aaron C; Holmes, John G; Napier, Jaime L

    2011-08-01

    A consequential ideology in Western society is the uncontested belief that a committed relationship is the most important adult relationship and that almost all people want to marry or seriously couple (DePaulo & Morris, 2005). In the present article, we investigated the extent to which the system justification motive may contribute to the adoption of this ideology. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined whether a heightened motive to maintain the status quo would increase defense of committed relationship values. In Study 3, we examined the reverse association, that is, whether a threat to committed relationship ideology would also affect sociopolitical system endorsement. As past research has found that the justification of political systems depends upon how much these systems are perceived as controlling, in Study 4 we tested whether the defense of the system of committed relationships would also increase when framed as controlling. Results from Studies 1-4 were consistent with our hypotheses, but only for men. In Study 5, using cross-cultural data, we sought to replicate these findings correlationally and probe for a cause of the gender effect. Results from more than 33,000 respondents indicated a relationship (for men) between defense of the sociopolitical system and defense of marriage in countries where the traditional advantages of men over women were most threatened. In Studies 6 and 7, we investigated when this gender difference disappears. Results revealed that when we measured (Study 6) or manipulated (Study 7) personal relationship identity rather than relationship ideology, effects also emerge for women.

  1. Being Ethically Minded: Practising the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in an Ethical Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth L. Healey

    2013-09-01

    case study that illustrates the complexity of ethical issues in SoTL. The Ethical SoTL Matrix is a flexible framework designed to support SoTL practitioners, particularly in the formative stages of their inquiries. Three dominant ethical traditions form the basis of the matrix: teleological or pragmatic, external, and deontological. The key message of the paper is that SoTL practitioners should reflect on different perspectives in their efforts to do what is right in any given situation. The matrix introduces three dominant ethical traditions, but SoTL practitioners may ultimately move beyond these traditions to explore a range of ethical considerations appropriate to their projects and disciplines.

  2. Influence of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive consideration regarding influence mechanisms of initial imperfections on ultimate strength of spherical shells is taken to satisfy requirement of deep-sea structural design. The feasibility of innovative numerical procedure that combines welding simulation and non-linear buckling analysis is verified by a good agreement to experimental and theoretical results. Spherical shells with a series of wall thicknesses to radius ratios are studied. Residual stress and deformations from welding process are investigated separately. Variant influence mechanisms are discovered. Residual stress is demonstrated to be influential to stress field and buckling behavior but not to the ultimate strength. Deformations are proved to have a significant impact on ultimate strength. When central angles are less than critical value, concave magnitudes reduce ultimate strengths linearly. However, deformations with central angles above critical value are of much greater harm. Less imperfection susceptibility is found in spherical shells with larger wall thicknesses to radius ratios.

  3. Ultimate guide to YouTube for business

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate Guide to YouTube for Business helps small business owners create marketing videos to help promote their products, share their story, build a community around their brand without spending a fortune-all the while making money.

  4. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe eight…

  5. Investigating the Development of Chinese Oral Explanation and Justification in Singapore Primary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Explanation and justification require cognitive ability which selects and organises relevant information in a logical way, and linguistic ability which enables speakers to encode the information with linguistic knowledge. This study aims to investigate the development of Chinese oral explanation and justification in Singapore primary students. The…

  6. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuyun; Liu, Li; Huang, Zhenwei; Zheng, Wenwen; Liang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose, we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  7. The Effects of General System Justification on Corruption Perception and Intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuyun Tan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research stresses that system justifying belief can weaken corruption perception, by this possibly fostering unjust behaviors. However, general results of the effect of general system justification on corruption are ambiguous, indicating also a lessening impact. We conducted a line of studies trying to elucidate these circumstances by testing the effect of general system justification on corruption perception and intention. In addition, we explored institutional trust as a possible mediator in this process. For this purpose we conducted three studies. The first two studies examined the association between general system justification and corruption. In Study 1, a correlational design was run using questionnaires to assess the relation between general system justification and corruption perception as well as corruption intention. In Study 2, an experimental design was conducted manipulating general system justification via exposure to high or low system threat condition, then measuring its effect on corruption perception and corrupt intention. In Study 3, two sub-studies using correlational and experimental designs were run to explore the mediating role of institutional trust, respectively. Results replicated former studies showing that general system justification is negatively associated with corruption perception. However, they also showed a negative correlation with corrupt intention. Furthermore, they showed that institutional trust mediated the relation between general system justification and corruption. We suggest to consider these findings to further elucidate the psychological basis underlying different effects of general system justification on human behaviors.

  8. "Should We Kill the Grey Squirrels?" A Study Exploring Students' Justifications and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evagorou, Maria; Jimenez-Aleixandre, Maria Pilar; Osborne, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    A problem that is still unexplored in the field of socioscientific issues (SSI) and that was explored in this study is how different students decide upon a SSI they are discussing, how their justifications change during the instruction and how they use (or not) the evidence from the learning environment to support their justifications. For the…

  9. Ultimate Opening Combined with Area Stability Applied to Urban Scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Marcotegui , Beatriz; Serna , Andrés; Hernández , Jorge

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper explores the use of ultimate opening in urban analysis context. It demonstrates the efficiency of this approach for street level elevation images, derived from 3D point clouds acquired by terrestrial mobile mapping systems. An area-stability term is introduced in the residual definition, reducing the over-segmentation of the vegetation while preserving small significant regions. We compare two possible combinations of the Ultimate Opening and the Area Stabil...

  10. Direct ultimate disposal - state of investigations and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasterstaedt, N.

    1991-01-01

    Based on a decision adopted by the Prime Ministers on 25/10/90, the principles governing preventive waste management of nuclear power plants are reviewed. Increasing importance is attached to the direct ultimate disposal alternative. The legal and political framework, the technology involved, the state of developments, future activities under the R and D programme as well as a cost estimate of direct ultimate disposal are presented. (orig.) [de

  11. Assessment and characterization of radioactive waste for ultimate storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.; Warnecke, E.

    1986-01-01

    The waste specifications determined from site safety analyses define the requirements to be met by waste forms for ultimate storage. Product quality control is the process step ensuring compliance with the conditions to be met for ultimate storage. For this purpose, radionuclide inventory, fixation method, container type, waste form and quantity, and type of waste are the most significant items on the checking list. (DG) [de

  12. A Second Opinion: A Case Narrative on Clinical Ethics Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Contrasting traditional and common forms of ethics consultation with bioethics mediation, I describe the case of a "second opinion" consultation in the care of a patient with advanced cancer for whom treatment was futile. While the initial ethics consultation, performed by a colleague, led to a recommendation that some may deem ethical, the process failed to involve key stakeholders and failed to explore the underlying values and reasons for the opinions voiced by various stakeholders. The process of mediation ultimately led to creative solutions in which all stakeholders could reach consensus on a plan of care. Copyright 2015 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  13. The Argentine Approach to Radiation Safety: Its Ethical Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The ethical bases of Argentina's radiation safety approach are reviewed. The applied principles are those recommended and established internationally, namely: the principle of justification of decisions that alters the radiation exposure situation; the principle of optimization of protection and safety; the principle of individual protection for restricting possible inequitable outcomes of optimized safety; and the implicit principle of inter generational prudence for protection future generations and the habitat. The principles are compared vis-a-vis the prevalent ethical doctrines: justification vis-a-vis teleology; optimization vis-a-vis utilitarianism; individual protection vis-a-vis de ontology; and, inter generational prudence vis-a-vis aretaicism (or virtuosity). The application of the principles and their ethics in Argentina is analysed. These principles are applied to All exposure to radiation harm; namely, to exposures to actual doses and to exposures to actual risk and potential doses, including those related to the safety of nuclear installations, and they are harmonized and applied in conjunction. It is concluded that building a bridge among all available ethical doctrines and applying it to radiation safety against actual doses and actual risk and potential doses is at the roots of the successful nuclear regulatory experience in Argentina.

  14. Diagnosis of autism, abortion and the ethics of childcare in Yoruba culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayemi, Ademola Kazeem

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the ethics of childcare in Yoruba culture in the contexts of autism and abortion. The traditional Yoruba moral principles of ibikojuibi (equality of humans at birth) and ajowapo (solidarity) have been theoretically developed to establish the personhood of autistic children and provide a justification for not aborting foetuses with autism. Despite these justifications, this paper argues that there is a need for contextual rethinking, which would allow for: (i) prenatal genetic testing, as well as abortion of foetuses with a high risk of the autism mutation, and (ii) early clinical diagnosis and treatment of autistic children in contemporary Yoruba society.

  15. Environmental ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautassi G, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    When the Homo Faber; to the beginning of the humanization, overcame the instinct that established a relationship balanced in the ecosphere between the animal and the nature, an interference it began in the relationship man-nature; since that was not adapted this but rather it began its transformation adapting the environment to its necessities. During miles of years the development of this production technique of the Homo Faber could be considered like a progressive and innocuous exploitation of the natural resources. At the present time, kind of a dialectical transformation of the quantity in a new quality characterizes the critical stadium of the new phase of the evolution inaugurated by the Homo Faber. We arrive this way today to that the production force, by means of the science and the technique, outlines us the problem of if for a bigger development in the productivity is necessary a progressive destruction of the ecosphere. That is to say, so that there is progress and will civilization be necessary a progressive interference of the natural balance, with the consequent setting in danger of the life? Moreover this article treats topics about their location and focuses, environmental ethics framed in the talkative ethics and virtues of the environmental ethics, among other topics

  16. Immortal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John

    2004-06-01

    This article draws on ideas published in my "Intimations of Immortality" essay in Science (Vol. 288, No. 5463, p. 59, April 7, 2000) and my "Intimations of Immortality-The Ethics and Justice of Life Extending Therapies" in editor Michael Freeman's Current Legal Problems (Oxford University Press 2002: 65-97). This article outlines the ethical issues involved in life-extending therapies. The arguments against life extension are examined and found wanting. The consequences of life extension are explored and found challenging but not sufficiently daunting to warrant regulation or control. In short, there is no doubt that immortality would be a mixed blessing, but we should be slow to reject cures for terrible diseases that may be an inextricable part of life-extending procedures even if the price we have to pay for those cures is increasing life expectancy and even creating immortals. Better surely to accompany the scientific race to achieve immortality with commensurate work in ethics and social policy to ensure that we know how to cope with the transition to parallel populations of mortals and immortals as envisaged in mythology.

  17. e-Government Ethics : a Synergy of Computer Ethics, Information Ethics, and Cyber Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Arief Ramadhan; Dana Indra Sensuse; Aniati Murni Arymurthy

    2011-01-01

    Ethics has become an important part in the interaction among humans being. This paper specifically discusses applied ethics as one type of ethics. There are three applied ethics that will be reviewed in this paper, i.e. computer ethics, information ethics, and cyber ethics. There are two aspects of the three applied ethics that were reviewed, i.e. their definition and the issues associated with them. The reviewing results of the three applied ethics are then used for defining e-Government eth...

  18. Ultimate - a new generation of gasoline and diesel fuels; Ultimate - eine neue Generation von Otto- und Dieselkraftstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strempel, G. [Aral Forschung/Global Fuels Technology, Bochum (Germany); Beckwith, P. [BP Fuels Management Group, Pangbourne (United Kingdom); Froehling, J. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Labor/Analytik; Baron, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Motor- und Fahrzeuglaboratorium; Sauermann, P.; Balfanz, U. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktentwicklung; Doermer, W. [Aral Forschung, Bochum (Germany). Produktqualitaet

    2005-06-01

    With the launch of Ultimate 100 gasoline and Ultimate Diesel, motorists in Germany now have the opportunity to choose new advanced performance fuels designed to get the very best from their engines. This article gives details of the technical development behind these fuels, their wide range of benefits, and how it is possible to manufacture fuels which meet the considerable technical challenge of achieving both more performance and less pollution. (orig.)

  19. A Framework for Ethics in Radiological Protection? Considerations from Elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boniolo, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The lecturer started by presenting the principles of biomedical ethics of autonomy, justice, non-maleficence and beneficence and the Ethical theories, taking into consideration the Ethics of Conduct (what sort of actions should be performed) by incorporating consequentialism and deontology and the Ethics of Character (what sort of people should we be?) which converges into Aristotelianism. Together with justification, optimization and limitation, another important aspect is the informed consent, in its three constituents of information, voluntarism and decisional capacity. The participation pact, with the ethical counselling, is suggested in view of a real patient empowerment, putting the patient at the heart of services. The presentation introduced the ACCE model process (Analytical validity, Clinical validity, Clinical utility, Ethical, legal and social implication), used for evaluating genetic tests and structured with a standard set of 44 targeted questions which address disorder, testing and clinical scenario, as well as associated ethical, legal and social issues, since an important 'byproduct' of this model is the identification of gaps in knowledge, which may help to define future agendas. As 'Innovation happens elsewhere' is often a reality and in any case a good point of reflection and view, a scheme similar to ACCE is tentatively proposed for RP, in biomedicine, by discussing the aspects of Analytical validity, Clinical validity, Clinical utility and Empowerment of the patient, together with the suggestion to address targeted questions concerning the aspects of importance in RP

  20. THE ULTIMATE STATE CONCEPT APPLIED TO TUNNEL SUPPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Hudec

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The most questionable are the values of pressures between rock and support resulting from common deformations on the contact area between rock and support. Therefore the modelling and design of the tunnel support is not reliable, if it is based on active rock pressure resulting from this common deformations. The inversion of the design procedure is proposed. Instead of the active extreme pressure of the rock on support, the influence of ultimate reaction of the support on the rock has to be analysed. This procedure can be performed using the ultimate load principle, as proposed by Eurocodc 7 (Geotechnies. Normally, the rock has the tendency to increase the common conver¬gence until the support reaches its ultimate state. So, loading of profile boundary with the ultimate possible reaction of the support is very plausible. The reactive support pressures have to be probable and itself in equilibrium. The ultimate reactive load has to be reduced by Euro-code safety factor for structural elements and applied on the rock with given properties, or alternatively (as proposed by Eurocode 7 the soil or rock properties have to be diminished and calculated with full ultimate support pressures. If the rock with given (or proposed pro¬perties and loaded with ultimate reactive pressures resulting from supposed support, satisfy its failure criterion, then is the compound system support-rock verificatcd. By this procedure, the number of relevant material properties is reduce to the primary stress ratio and the constants defining the failure criterion. The verification can be performed by any of numerical methods, but we prefer here used boundary elements method (the paper is published in Croatian.

  1. Some Basics about Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of ethics focuses on the role of human performance technology professionals in helping corporate ethicists. Highlights include definitions of ethics, morals, values, and business ethics; ethics in academia and in business; and application of the knowledge of ethics to decision-making. (Contains 18 references.) (LRW)

  2. Ethics for life scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.; Bogers, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    In this book we begin with two contributions on the ethical issues of working in organizations. A fruitful side effect of this start is that it gives a good insight into business ethics, a branch of applied ethics that until now is far ahead of ethics for life scientists. In the second part, ethics

  3. The Ethic of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  4. [Continuing education in ethics: from clinical ethics to institutional ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau-Lamontagne, Lucie

    2012-01-01

    The mandate of the Ethics Committee of the Conseil de médecins, dentistes et pharmaciens (CMDP) at the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS), Sherbrooke, Quebec is three-fold: to guide the clinical decision; to address the institutional ethical function; to create the program for continuing education in ethics (Formation éthique continue or FEC). Might FEC be the means of bridging from individual ethics to institutional ethics at a hospital? To take the FEC perspectives considered appropriate for doctors and consider them for validation or disproving in the context of those of other professionals. Situate the proposed FEC mandate in a reference framework to evaluate (or triangulate) the clinical decision and the institutional ethic. CONVICTION: Sustainable professional development for doctors (DPD) includes ethics; it cannot be ignored. Without constant attention to upgrading one's abilities in professional ethics, these suffer the same fate as other professional aptitudes and competences (for example, techniques and scientific knowledge): decay.

  5. Ultimate load capacity assessment of reinforced concrete shell structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop capability for prediction of ultimate load capacity of reinforced concrete shell structures. The present finite element code ULCA (Ultimate Load Capacity Assessment) adopts a degenerate concept of formulating general isoparametric shell element with a layered approach in the thickness direction. Different failure modes such as crushing, tensile cracking and reinforcement yielding are recognised for various problems. The structure fails by crushing of concrete when the concrete strain/stress reaches the ultimate stress or strain of concrete. Material nonlinearities as a result of tension cracking, tension stiffening between reinforcement and concrete in cracked region and yielding of reinforcement are considered along with geometric nonlinearity. Thus with this code it is possible to predict the pressure at which the first cracking, first through thickness cracking, first yielding of reinforcement occurs. After validating the code with few bench mark problems for different failure modes a reinforced concrete nuclear containment is analysed for its ultimate capacity and the results are matched with the published results. Further the ultimate load capacity of outer containment wall of Narora Atomic Power Station is predicted. It is observed that containment fails in membrane region and has a sufficient margin against design pressure. (author). 9 refs., 56 figs., 3 tabs., 1 appendix with 4 tabs

  6. Sex selection abortion in Kazakhstan: understanding a cultural justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Dennis; Chesnokova, Irina

    2011-12-01

    The topic of abortion has been extensively researched, and the research has produced a large number of arguments and discussions. Missing in the literature, however, are discussions of practices in some areas of the Developing or Third World. In this paper, we examine the morality of sex selection abortions in Kazakhstan's Kazakh culture, and argue that such abortions can be ethically justified based, in part, on the unique perspectives of Kazakh culture. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all p...

  8. Modern environmental ethics and the possible implications for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Environmental ethics is concerned with the moral relations that hold between humans and the natural world. The ethical principles governing those relations determine our duties, obligations, and responsibilities with regard to the Earth's natural environment and the animals and plants that inhabit it. When a life-centered view is accepted as has been done by Taylor, the obligations and responsibilities we have with respect to the wild animals and plants of the Earth are seen to arise from certain moral relations between ourselves and the natural world itself. Considering the shift of ethical values that have occurred in the world, we may now be at a point in history when it is timely and when there also exist scientific reasons to set up a protection policy equivalent to the ICRP principles for protection of humans (justification, optimisation and dose limits) for the protection of environment (including animals) against the harmful effects of radiation

  9. Patient prioritization in medical emergencies: an ethical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Paulo Antônio de Carvalho; Pereira, Patricia Cristina Andrade

    2012-01-01

    To identify and analyze, in the light of ethical considerations, the choices and justifications of public health professionals in hypothetical situations of patient prioritization in circumstances of limited resources during emergency medical care. Qualitative and quantitative study, carried out through interviews with 80 public health professionals, graduate students (MSc and PhD students) in public health who were faced with hypothetical situations involving the criteria of gender, age, and responsibility, asked to choose between alternatives that referred to the existence of people, equally submitted to life-threatening situations, who needed care in an emergency department. The choices prioritized children, young individuals, women, and married women, with decision-making invoking the ethical principles of vulnerability, social utility, and equity. The study shows a clear tendency to justify the choices that were made, guided by utilitarian ethics.

  10. Justifications for caregiving in white, Asian American, and native Hawaiian grandparents raising grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A

    2013-01-01

    Race has been found to predict justifications for caregiving in family caregivers for older adults. However, little is known about this relationship in another type of family caregiver, Grandparents Raising Grandchildren (GRG). This study examined relationships between race and justifications for caregiving in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and White GRG. A sample of 259 GRG registered as students' primary caregivers with a public school system completed a modified version of the 10-item Cultural Justifications for Caregiving (CJCG) scale. CJCG items did not load onto a single analytic factor. Two factors, custom and responsibility, emerged. Race was predictive of custom, with Native Hawaiian GRG having significantly higher scores than White or Asian American GRG. Native Hawaiian GRG also scored higher than Asian American, but not White, GRG on responsibility. Justifications for raising grandchildren appear to differ among groups based on racial identification. Findings elucidate cultural justification for caregiving in understudied GRG populations and suggest that justifications for caregiving are configured differently in GRG and family caregivers for older adults. Future studies should examine justifications for caregiving in GRG of other races.

  11. Justification of x-ray examinations: General principles and an Irish perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Kate; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2008-01-01

    The principles of justification and optimisation, and the establishment and use of Diagnostic Reference Levels are core tenets of the European Medical Exposures Directive [Council Directive 97/43], and ensuing legislation across Europe. In Ireland, the European Medical Exposures Directive [Council Directive 97/43] was enacted into national law in Statutory Instrument 478 of 2002. This series of three review articles discusses the status of justification and optimisation of X-ray examinations nationally, and progress with the establishment of Irish Diagnostic Reference Levels. The current article will outline the ICRP recommendations which preceded the European Medical Exposures Directive, describe how the Directive was transposed into Irish Statute, and review the literature associated with some of the justification concepts arising from the Statute in order to elucidate the prevailing practice regarding justification in Ireland. Three levels of justification are identified: general, generic and individual. The relationship between referral guidelines and generic justification is explored, and practical issues in the implementation of individual justification are considered with reference to the role of the radiographer. Two further articles in the series will adopt a similar approach in discussing optimisation, and the establishment and use of Diagnostic Reference Levels

  12. The Just War Tradition: A Model for Healthcare Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Chaplain John D

    2018-06-01

    Healthcare ethics committees, physicians, surgeons, nurses, families, and patients themselves are constantly under pressure to make appropriate medically ethical decisions concerning patient care. Various models for healthcare ethics decisions have been proposed throughout the years, but by and large they are focused on making the initial ethical decision. What follows is a proposed model for healthcare ethics that considers the most appropriate decisions before, during, and after any intervention. The Just War Tradition is a model that is thorough in its exploration of the ethics guiding a nation to either engage in or refuse to engage in combatant actions. In recent years, the Just War Tradition has expanded beyond the simple consideration of going to war or not to include how the war is conducted and what the post-war phase would look like ethically. This paper is an exploration of a healthcare ethics decision making model using the tenets of the Just War Tradition as a framework. It discusses the initial consult level of decision making prior to any medical intervention, then goes further in considering the ongoing ethical paradigm during medical intervention and post intervention. Thus, this proposal is a more holistic approach to healthcare ethics decision making that encourages healthcare ethics committees to consider alternate models and ways of processing so that ultimately what is best for patient, family, staff, and the environment is all taken into consideration.

  13. Participatory approaches for environmental governance: theoretical justifications and practical effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, Sybille

    2003-01-01

    A key justification for the rapid development of participatory approaches for environment and sustainable development governance stems from the characteristics of environmental issues. Environmental issues - and radioactive waste disposal is a good example - typically present four important physical characteristics: complexity, uncertainty, large temporal and spatial scales, and irreversibility, which all have consequences on what can be called the social characteristics of environmental issues. These include: social complexity and conflicts of interests, transversality, diffuse responsibilities and impacts, no clear division between micro- and macro-levels, and short-term costs of dealing with the issue associated with benefits which might occur only in the long-term. In turn, these physical and social characteristics determine the type of problem-solving processes needed to tackle environmental issues. It appears that the problem-solving processes best suited to confront global environmental issues will be dynamic processes of capacity-building, - aiming at innovative, flexible and adjustable answers, - allowing for the progressive integration of information as it becomes available, and of different value judgements and logics, - involving various actors from different backgrounds and levels. In promoting more democratic practices, these processes additionally should supersede traditional politics and allow co-ordination across different policy areas. It is deemed that participatory approaches have the potential to meet these problem-solving requirements

  14. Concepts of optimisation and justification consequences for radiological mass screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Mass radiological screening campaigns have been mounted in many countries for different conditions and the needs of one country are not necessarily those of another. However, in the European community there is a reasonable uniformity about disease patterns and therefore, a mass screening situation applicable to one country is probably equally applicable throughout the Community. In radiation protection terms, all these potential surveys must be looked at under the same factors. In radiation protection, one thinks first of all justification of the practice. Then one follows it by optimisation of the technique used, so as to obtain the best balance between benefit and detriment, and at this point one must remember that the radiation protection concept of optimisation includes a financial element as well as a purely clinical element and this must lead us on eventually to touch on cost effectiveness. The last portion of the ICRP system is the actual setting of dose limits. Now these are really only applicable to workers not to patients. One cannot set an upper limit on the dose one is prepared to use in a diagnostic radiological examination, but one can say that the dose per examination, should be examined and that the dose range of that examination between various institutions should be ascertained. This should enable any one institution to see where their dose range lies in the larger dose range, and to see that their radiological practice is giving as low a dose as is reasonably achievable

  15. The Justification of Organizational Performance in Annual Report Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Sanches Pagliarussi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the nature of organizational discourse is theoretically underpinned by the concept of self-serving attributions, a type of causal reasoning that allows the writer to take credit for good news and avoid blame for bad news. We incorporated signaling theory to the extant theoretical framework for self-serving attributions in order to develop hypotheses for the expected levels of attributional bias in the justification of organizational performance. A sample of 49 companies was selected, both from a bad year and a good year regarding the capital market context. Each company’s Letter to Shareholders was content analyzed in order to test our propositions concerning the presence and intensity of self-serving attributions in that section of annual reports. The results partially corroborate the proposed theoretical hypotheses, but the sample size is an issue in terms of robustness. Nevertheless, the results indicate that companies attempt to create a positive corporate image to external stakeholders even when negative performance occurs in a clearly favorable external context. Moreover, we observed that companies with positive performance in a good external context blame negative effects on the environment in a proportion equivalent to that observed for companies with positive performance in a bad year.

  16. Ductility and Ultimate Capacity of Prestressed Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear numerical analysis of the structural behaviour of prestressed steel reinforced concrete (PSRC beams was carried out by using finite element analysis software ABAQUS. By comparing the load-deformation curves, the rationality and reliability of the finite element model have been confirmed; moreover, the changes of the beam stiffness and stress in the forcing process and the ultimate bearing capacity of the beam were analyzed. Based on the model, the effect of prestressed force, and H-steel to the stiffness, the ultimate bearing capacity and ductility of beam were also analyzed.

  17. Ultimate load model test for Sizewell 'B' primary containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowder, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the factors influencing the adoption of an ultimate load factor for the Sizewell 'B' PWR primary containment structure. As part of the validation process for the ultimate load analysis method, a proposal has been made by Nuclear Design Associates to build and test a 1/10th scale model of the containment structure, which would proceed following the granting of section 2 consent for Sizewell 'B'. The modelling principles, construction method and test proposals are examined in some detail. The proposal is currently being considered by the CEGB's Project Management Team. (author)

  18. Ultimate pressure capacity of CANDU 6 containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, J.P.; Pradolin, L.; Mamet, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical work carried out and the results obtained when determining the ultimate pressure capacity (UPC) of the containment structures of CANDU 6 nuclear power plants. The purpose of the analysis work was to demonstrate that such containment structures are capable of meeting design requirements under the most severe accident conditions. For this concrete vessel subjected to internal pressure, the UPC was defined as the pressure causing through cracking in the concrete. The present paper deals with the overall behaviour of the containment. The presence of openings, penetrations and the ultimate pressure of the airlocks were considered separately. (author)

  19. ''Project Crystal'' for ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    NAGRA (The National Association for storage of radioactive waste) in Baden has launched in North Switzerland an extensive geological research program. The current research program, under the title of ''Project Crystal'', aims at providing the scientific knowledge which is required for the assessment of the suitability of the crystalline sub-soil of North Switzerland for the ultimate storage of highly radioactive waste. Safety and feasibility of such ultimate storage are in the forefront of preoccupations. Scientific institutes of France, Germany, USA and Canada are cooperating more particularly on boring research and laboratory analyses. Technical data are given on the USA and German installations used. (P.F.K.)

  20. Trump er gældsøkonomiens ultimative illusionist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne.......Trump giver ikke kun gevaldige skattelettelser og nærer en illusion om, at vækst vil løse alle problemer. Han fortrænger også gældsøkonomiens ultimative bundlinje i form af klimaforandringerne....

  1. The Role of Business Schools in Ethics Education in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Throstur Olaf; Vaiman, Vlad; Arnardottir, Audur Arna

    2014-01-01

    should not be held responsible for employees’ unethical behavior. Nevertheless, managers believe that business schools should assist future employees in understanding ethics by including business ethics in teaching curricula. Second, managers believe that the workplace is not where ethics are learned......This article explores managers’ views on various ways in which business schools can contribute to providing solid ethics education to their students, who will ultimately become the next generation of business leaders. One thousand top level managers of Icelandic firms were approached and asked......, while also insisting that former students should already have strong ethical standards when entering the workplace. Third, managers call for business schools not only to contribute more to influencing students’ ethical standards, but also to reshape the knowledge and capabilities of practicing managers...

  2. Religious and Philosophical Justifications for War: A Synthesis of Selected Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martzen, E

    2000-08-15

    The Critical Issues Forum (CIF) is a cooperative education program supported in part by the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The Science and Technology Education Program (STEP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory manages one component of this program. CIF engages high school students and teachers regarding issues of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, arms control, and international security. These issues are viewed in light of their scientific, economic, socio-cultural, and political/geopolitical influences and implications. This year CIF's focus is on chemical and biological weapons (CBW). CBW is becoming more of a threat today than ever before. Many countries are developing these weapons. CBW also presents certain ethical dilemmas for many individuals, especially if those individuals feel it is their religious duty to use or avoid the use of such weapons. Religion has become an important determining factor in international security because many cultures, and even governments make decisions based on religious traditions. This paper is an attempt to look at these religions and philosophical traditions with an emphasis on views of ''just war''. The ultimate purpose of this paper is to promote awareness about religion's influence on international security issues. This paper was written by Cadet Ernst ''Mitch'' Martzen, AFROTC. He is an intern with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Science and Technology Education Program, under the guidance of Dr. Stephen C. Sesko, the director of LLNL's CIF program. Every major religion and ethical system has developed a societal concept of ''just war''. Today, the world's largest religions include Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Each faith lays claim to a heritage rich with thousands of years of history, and the power of great minds to support its ethical and moral beliefs. These religions

  3. Sustainable Growth and Ethics: A Study of Business Ethics in Vietnam between Business Students and Working Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam D. Nguyen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable growth is not only the ultimate goal of business corporations but also the primary target of local governments as well as regional and global economies. One of the cornerstones of sustainable growth is ethics. An ethical organizational culture provides support to achieve sustain- able growth. Ethical leaders and employees have great potential for positive influence on decisions and behaviors that lead to sustainability. Ethical behavior, therefore, is expected of everyone in the modern workplace. As a result, companies devote many resources and training programs to make sure their employees live according to the high ethical standards. This study provides an analysis of Vietnamese business students’ level of ethical maturity based on gender, education, work ex- perience, and ethics training. The results of data from 260 business students compared with 704 working adults in Vietnam demonstrate that students have a significantly higher level of ethical maturity. Furthermore, gender and work experience are significant factors in ethical maturity. While more educated respondents and those who had completed an ethics course did have a higher level of ethical maturity, the results were not statistically significant. Analysis of the results along with suggestions and implications are provided.

  4. Sustainable Growth and Ethics: A Study of Business Ethics in Vietnam between Business Students and Working Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam D. Nguyen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available 1024x768 Sustainable growth is not only the ultimate goal of business corporations but also the primary target of local governments as well as regional and global economies. One of the cornerstones of sustainable growth is ethics. An ethical organizational culture provides support to achieve sustainable growth. Ethical leaders and employees have great potential for positive influence on decisions and behaviors that lead to sustainability. Ethical behavior, therefore, is expected of everyone in the modern workplace. As a result, companies devote many resources and training programs to make sure their employees live according to the high ethical standards. This study provides an analysis of Vietnamese business students’ level of ethical maturity based on gender, education, work experience, and ethics training. The results of data from 260 business students compared with 704 working adults in Vietnam demonstrate that students have a significantly higher level of ethical maturity. Furthermore, gender and work experience are significant factors in ethical maturity. While more educated respondents and those who had completed an ethics course did have a higher level of ethical maturity, the results were not statistically significant. Analysis of the results along with suggestions and implications are provided. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE

  5. Ultimate deformation capacity of reinforced concrete slabs underblast load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van; Weerheijm, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a test method to determine the deformation capacity and the resistance-deformation curve of blast-loaded slabs is described. This method was developed at TNO-PML. The method has been used to determine the ultimate deformation capacity of some simply supported reinforced concrete slabs

  6. 49 Stories That Make an Ultimate STEM Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Swati; Mehta, Rohit; Berzina-Pitcher, Inese; Seals, Christopher; Mishra, Punya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we reviewed what 49 large urban public school district STEM teachers enrolled in a year-long graduate certificate and fellowship program at a large Midwestern university considered as their amazing teaching moments. They were asked to share their amazing teaching moments that would make an Ultimate Lesson Plan in STEM. In smaller…

  7. Ultimate capabilities of soft x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A.V.; Zorev, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    Nonimaging soft X-ray optics is examined. The ultimate capabilities of a number of X-ray optical components designed for concentration and collimation of radiation from point sources are determined. The applications of X-ray optics are discussed together with the properties of materials in the X-ray range

  8. Safety related aspects of ultimate disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, R.

    1992-01-01

    Solutions and questions related to nuclear waste management are presented. In particular, long-term safety of repositories in Germany and Sweden is considered, with special attention being paid to methods of detection, geotechnical barriers and post-operational phase of salt dome repositories, and conditioning of wastes to make them fit for ultimate disposal. (DG) [de

  9. Analysis of ultimate-heat-sink spray ponds. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codell, R.

    1981-08-01

    This report develops models which can be utilized in the design of certain types of spray ponds used in ultimate heat sinks at nuclear power plants, and ways in which the models may be employed to determine the design basis required by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.27

  10. Ultimate internal pressure capacity of concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, C.N.; Namperumal, R.; Al-Dabbagh, A.

    1983-01-01

    Lesson learned from the accident at Three-Mile Island nuclear plant has necessitated the computation of the ultimate internal pressure capacity of containment structures as a licensing requirement in the U.S. In general, a containment structure is designed to be essentially elastic under design accident pressure. However, as the containment pressure builds up beyond the design value due to a more severe postulated accident, the containment response turns nonlinear as it sequentially passes through cracking of concrete, yielding of linear plate, yielding of rebar, and yielding of post-tensioning tendon (if the containment concrete is prestressed). This paper reports on the determination of the ultimate internal pressure capacity and nonlinear behavior of typical reinforced and prestressed concrete BWR containments. The probable modes of failure, the criteria for ultimate pressure capacity, and the most critical sections are described. Simple equations to hand-calculate the ultimate pressure capacity and the nonlinear behavior at membrane sections of the containment shell are presented. A nonlinear finite element analysis performed to determine the nonlinear behavior of the entire shell including nonmembrane sections is briefly discribed. The analysis model consisted of laminated axisymmetric shell finite elements with nonlinear stress-strain properties for each material. Results presented for typical BWR concrete containments include nonlinear response plots of internal pressure versus containment deflection and strains in the liner, rebar, and post-tensioning tendons at the most stressed section in the shell. Leak-tightness of the containment liner and the effect of thermal loads on the ultimate capacity are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  12. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  13. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, P.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Doumont, C.; Mared, A.

    2000-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  14. DART - for design basis justification and safety related information management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billington, A.; Blondiaux, B.; Boucau, J.; Cantineau, B.; Mared, A.

    2001-01-01

    DART is the acronym for Design Analysis Re-Engineering Tool. It embodies a systematic and integrated approach to NPP safety re-assessment and configuration management, that makes use of Reverse Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in conjunction with a state-of-the-art relational database and a standardized data format, to permit long-term management of plant safety related information. The plant design is reviewed in a step-by-step logical fashion by constructing fault trees that identify the link between undesired consequences and their causes. Each failure cause identified in a fault tree is addressed by defining functional requirements, which are in turn addressed by documenting the specific manner in which the plant complies with the requirement. The database can then be used to generate up-to-date plant safety related documents, including: SAR, Systems Descriptions, Technical Specifications and plant procedures. The approach is open-minded by nature and therefore is not regulatory driven, however the plant licensing basis will also be reviewed and documented within the same database such that a Regulatory Conformance Program may be integrated with the other safety documentation. This methodology can thus reconstitute the plant design bases in a comprehensive and systematic way, while allowing to uncover weaknesses in design. The original feature of the DART methodology is that it links all the safety related documents together, facilitating the evaluation of the safety impact resulting from any plant modification. Due to its capability to retrieve the basic justifications of the plant design, it is also a useful tool for training the young generation of plant personnel. The DART methodology has been developed for application to units 2, 3 and 4 at Vattenfall's Ringhals site in Sweden. It may be applied to any nuclear power plant or industrial facility where public safety is a concern. (author)

  15. Justification, optimization and decision-aiding in existing exposure situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, Per

    2004-01-01

    The existing ICRP system of radiological protection from 1990 (ICRP Publication 60) can be seen as a binary or dual-line system dealing with protection in exposure situations categorized as either practices or interventions. The distinction between practices and interventions is summarized in the paper with focus on some of the problems experienced in making such a distinction. The protection principles within the existing system of protection are presented with emphasis on the application to de facto or existing exposure situations. Decision on countermeasures to mitigate the consequences of existing exposure situations such as nuclear or radiological accidents and naturally occurring exposure situations include factors or attributes describing benefits from the countermeasure and those describing harm. Some of these attributes are discussed and the general process of justification of intervention and optimization of protection arriving at generic reference levels for implementing protective measures is presented. In addition, the role of radiological protection professionals and other stakeholders in the decision-making process is discussed. Special attention is given to the question whether radiological protection should form only one of many decision-aiding inputs to a broader societal decision-making process or whether societal aspects should be fully integrated into the radiological protection framework. The concepts of practices and interventions, however logical they are, have created some confusion when applied to protection of the public following a nuclear or radiological accident. These problems may be solved in a new set of general ICRP recommendations on radiological protection, which are anticipated to supersede Publication 60 in 2005. The evolution of the basic ICRP principles for radiological protection in existing exposure situations into a new set of ICRP recommendations is briefly discussed based upon the various material that has been presented

  16. Limits Legal Ethics of Biotechnology in XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Cabrini Morgato

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the ethical and legal consequences of developments in biotechnological science, with a focus on the field of genetic engineering. We classify situations originating from developments in biotechnological science depending on their ethical and legal justification, based on Habermas’ reflections in his work “The future of human nature”, and differentiate between negative eugenics, representing ethically and legally justified situations, given their therapeutic potential of bringing benefits to human beings; and positive eugenics, describing situations, which are not justified by Ethics and Law, since they represent risks for the ethical self-understanding of the human species and are also incompatible with the imperative nature of human life protection, which is struc- tured by the Ibero-American constitutional states. We conclude that all moral judgments must follow the principle of human dignity as a major guideline, because the prevention of harmful practices against human beings requires, apart from legal and ethical rules, the responsibility to exclusively employ technologies for therapeutic purposes and to impede that the consumer society and its by-products completely artificialize the human nature.

  17. Conjoined Twins: Philosophical Problems and Ethical Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian; Persson, Ingmar

    2016-02-01

    We examine the philosophical and ethical issues associated with conjoined twins and their surgical separation. In cases in which there is an extensive sharing of organs, but nevertheless two distinguishable functioning brains, there are a number of philosophical and ethical challenges. This is because such conjoined twins: 1. give rise to puzzles concerning our identity, about whether we are identical to something psychological or biological; 2. force us to decide whether what matters from an ethical point of view is the biological life of our organisms or the existence of our consciousness or mind; 3. raise questions concerning when, if ever, it is morally acceptable to sacrifice one of us to save another; 4. force us to reflect on the conditions for ownership of organs and the justification of removal of organs for transplantation which causes the death of the donor; 5. raise questions about who should take decisions about life-risking treatments when this cannot be decided by patients themselves. We examine and suggest answers to these questions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Evaluating Ethical Responsibility in Inverse Decision Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Kabil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers have considerable autonomy on how they make decisions and what type of support they receive. This situation places the DSS analyst in a different relationship with the client than his colleagues who support regular MIS applications. This paper addresses an ethical dilemma in “Inverse Decision Support,” when the analyst supports a decision maker who requires justification for a preconceived selection that does not correspond to the best option that resulted from the professional resolution of the problem. An extended application of the AHP model is proposed for evaluating the ethical responsibility in selecting a suboptimal alternative. The extended application is consistent with the Inverse Decision Theory that is used extensively in medical decision making. A survey of decision analysts is used to assess their perspective of using the proposed extended application. The results show that 80% of the respondents felt that the proposed extended application is useful in business practices. 14% of them expanded the usability of the extended application to academic teaching of the ethics theory. The extended application is considered more usable in a country with a higher Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index (TICPI than in a country with a lower one.

  19. A gentle ethical defence of homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David; Gadd, Ben; Kerridge, Ian; Komesaroff, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Recent discourses about the legitimacy of homeopathy have focused on its scientific plausibility, mechanism of action, and evidence base. These, frequently, conclude not only that homeopathy is scientifically baseless, but that it is "unethical." They have also diminished patients' perspectives, values, and preferences. We contend that these critics confuse epistemic questions with questions of ethics, misconstrue the moral status of homeopaths, and have an impoverished idea of ethics-one that fails to account either for the moral worth of care and of relationships or for the perspectives, values, and preferences of patients. Utilitarian critics, in particular, endeavour to present an objective evaluation-a type of moral calculus-quantifying the utilities and disutilities of homeopathy as a justification for the exclusion of homeopathy from research and health care. But these critiques are built upon a narrow formulation of evidence and care and a diminished episteme that excludes the values and preferences of researchers, homeopaths, and patients engaged in the practice of homeopathy. We suggest that homeopathy is ethical as it fulfils the needs and expectations of many patients; may be practiced safely and prudentially; values care and the virtues of the therapeutic relationship; and provides important benefits for patients.

  20. Les justifications en faveur de l'allocation universelle : une présentation critique

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Quirion

    1996-01-01

    National audience; The universal grant proposal has been championed by many authors. It consists in supplying each citizen with a benefit which is unconditional and can be drawn concurrently to every other resource. This paper builds a typology of the various justifications that have been provided for this proposal, and submits them to a critical examination. Justifications in which a universal grant is a cure for unemployment and thus a way to provide a right to work appear to be weakly-foun...

  1. A Pragmatic Approach to Ethical Decision-Making in Engineering Practice: Characteristics, Evaluation Criteria, and Implications for Instruction and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Jesiek, Brent K

    2017-06-01

    This paper begins by reviewing dominant themes in current teaching of professional ethics in engineering education. In contrast to more traditional approaches that simulate ethical practice by using ethical theories to reason through micro-level ethical dilemmas, this paper proposes a pragmatic approach to ethics that places more emphasis on the practical plausibility of ethical decision-making. In addition to the quality of ethical justification, the value of a moral action also depends on its effectiveness in solving an ethical dilemma, cultivating healthy working relationships, negotiating existing organizational cultures, and achieving contextual plausibility in everyday professional practice. This paper uses a cross-cultural ethics scenario to further elaborate how a pragmatic approach can help us rethink ethical reasoning, as well as ethics instruction and assessment. This paper is expected to be of interest to educators eager to improve the ability of engineers and other professional students to effectively and appropriately deal with the kinds of everyday ethical issues they will likely face in their careers.

  2. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  3. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: Monitoring and limiting effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J. A. M.; Nunes, R.

    2011-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors. (authors)

  4. Ethical issues related to professional exposure of pregnant women in the medical field: monitoring and limiting effective dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J A M; Nunes, R

    2011-03-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations for occupational exposed pregnant women do not imply necessarily the complete avoidance of work with radiation or radioactive materials. Instead, a careful review of the exposure conditions, once the pregnancy is declared, as part of the exercise of the ICRP optimisation principle (based in a teleological ethics point of view) is suggested. The dose limitation (following a deontological ethics point of view) of the fetus/embryo is, however, not clearly well established as happens in the case of workers or members of the public. Also, the justification of practices (to continue to work or not with radiation or radioactive materials) is not clearly addressed in most national or international recommendations. An analysis of this justification (bearing in mind both teleological and deontological ethics) is examined in this work having in mind the best interest of the child-to-be as well as other existing social and economical factors.

  5. Teaching for Ethical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues for the importance of teaching for ethical reasoning. Much of our teaching is in vain if it is not applied to life in an ethical manner. The article reviews lapses in ethical reasoning and the great costs they have had for society. It proposes that ethical reasoning can be taught across the curriculum. It presents an eight-step…

  6. Emerging technology and ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2011-01-01

    This e-book on Emerging Technologies and Ethics includes a collection of essays which explore the future and ethics of emerging information and communication technologies. Articles in the collection include an overview of the legal implications which may be relevant to the ethical aspects of emerging technologies and also ethical issues arising from the mass-take up of mobile technologies.

  7. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  8. Stripped of illusions? Exploring system justification processes in capitalist and post-Communist societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocka, Aleksandra; Jost, John T

    2014-02-01

    Sociologists and political scientists have often observed that citizens of Central and Eastern Europe express high levels of disillusionment with their social, economic and political systems, in comparison with citizens of Western capitalist societies. In this review, we analyze system legitimation and delegitimation in post-Communist societies from a social psychological perspective. We draw on system justification theory, which seeks to understand how, when and why people do (and do not) defend, bolster and justify existing social systems. We review some of the major tenets and findings of the theory and compare research on system-justifying beliefs and ideologies in traditionally Capitalist and post-Communist countries to determine: (1) whether there are robust differences in the degree of system justification in post-Communist and Capitalist societies, and (2) the extent to which hypotheses derived from system justification theory receive support in the post-Communist context. To this end, we summarize research findings from over 20 countries and cite previously unpublished data from a public opinion survey conducted in Poland. Our analysis confirms that there are lower levels of system justification in post-Communist countries. At the same time, we find that system justification possesses similar social and psychological antecedents, manifestations and consequences in the two types of societies. We offer potential explanations for these somewhat complicated patterns of results and conclude by addressing implications for theory and research on system justification and system change (or transition). © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Revision of Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Sigmund

    2011-01-01

    Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would li...

  10. Cable tray ultimate strength test employing a large shaker table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, K.; Myojin, K.; Imai, K. [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan); Fuyama, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Takasago (Japan); Kokubo, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industdries Ltd, Kobe (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Ultimate behaviors of cable trays, used in nuclear plants, have not been well studied since cable trays are designed based on conservative design criteria. In this study, by employing a large shaker table, an ultimate strength test was conducted for cable trays used in nuclear power plants. This report describes the results of shaker table test. The following results were obtained. First, in an S{sub 2} earthquake, the damping ratio was so large - more than 30% due to the rubbing of cables - that a large response was not present and the strains in the support were within the elastic limits. Secondly, the support was strong enough to sustain the cable trays even when the strain in the support was 20 times larger than the elastic limit. (authors)

  11. Landau damping: the mechanics model and its ultimate entropy gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannay, J H; Kluge, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Classical mechanics has only been invoked to account for Landau damping in a rather half-hearted way, alongside plasma perturbation theory. In particular this invocation is essential for the study of the saturation, or post-linear (or 'nonlinear') regime of the damping initiated by Dawson and O'Neill. By embracing mechanics wholeheartedly here, with its attendant phase space, one can access results, old and new, cleanly and directly, and with one fewer numerical integration for the post-linear regime. By using a summation technique familiar in semiclassical quantum mechanics (Poisson summation), the one remaining numerical integration can be much improved in accuracy. Also accessible from mechanics is the ultimate entropy gain. Though zero for any finite time (in the absence of coarse graining), the entropy gain is ultimately non-zero (at infinite time the required coarse graining is zero). It is calculated analytically by using the appropriate asymptotics, hitherto not fully exploited.

  12. Management and ultimate storage of wastes from nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    The annotation on R and D prorgam 86 parts I-II have been brought together in the present report part I, together with some general viewpoints, and been classified according to subject. Part II of the present report comprises viewpoints of 'Research Program 1987-1992' and part III of 'Alternative methods of ultimate storage'. Swedish and French viewpoints are presented in Swedish, the remaining foreign material in English. The comments are grouped in subject catergories. (O.S.)

  13. The ultimate challenge of pregnancy-associated breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, R.; Tahira, A.

    2005-01-01

    Pregnancy associated breast carcinoma requires making judicious use of all diagnostic modalities and the therapeutic options of surgery, irradiation, chemotherapy and hormonal therapy to enhance survival rates. Individualization of treatment for each patient is the key to success. The effects on future fertility, the time interval before next conception, and whether to breast feed or not are all well-documented. A multidisciplinary coordinated team approach to this ultimate challenge of patient care will prove fruitful. (author)

  14. Ultimate Gradient Limitation in Niobium Superconducting Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchin, Mattia [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Grassellino, Anna [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Posen, Sam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Romanenko, Alexander [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Zasadzinski, John [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The present study is addressed to the theoretical description of the ultimate gradient limitation in SRF cavities. Our intent is to exploit experimental data to confirm models which provide feed-backs on how to improve the current state-of-art. New theoretical insight on the cavities limiting factor can be suitable to improve the quench field of N-doped cavities, and therefore to take advantage of high Q0 at high gradients.

  15. Ultimate capacity of piles penetrating in weak soil layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Obaidi Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A pile foundation is one of the most popular forms of deep foundations. They are routinely employed to transfer axial structure loads through the soft soil to stronger bearing strata. Piles generally used to increase the load carrying capacity of the foundation and reduce the settlement of the foundation. On the other hand, many cases in practice where piles pass through different layers of soil that contain weak layers located at different depths and extension, also some time cavities with a different shape, size, and depth are found. In this study, a total of 96 cases is considered and simulated in PLAXIS 2D program aiming to understand the influence of weak soil on the ultimate pile capacity. The piles embedded in the dense sand with a layer of weak soil at different extension and location. The cross section of the geometry used in this study was designed as an axisymmetric model with the 15-node element; the boundary condition recommended at least 5D in the horizontal direction, and (L+5D in the vertical direction where D and L are the diameter and length of pile, respectively. The soil is modeled as Mohr-Coulomb, with five input parameters and the behavior of pile material represented by the linear elastic model. The results of the above cases are compared with the results found in a pile embedded in dense soil without weak layers or cavities. The results indicated that the existence of weak soil layer within the surrounding soil around the pile decreases the ultimate capacity. Furthermore, it has been found that increase in the weak soil width (extension leads to reduction in the ultimate capacity of the pile. This phenomenon is applicable to all depth of weak soil. The influence of weak layer extension on the ultimate capacity is less when it is presentin the upper soil layers.

  16. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-01-01

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π 0 ,η,η ′ ) decay channels for the ψ ′ looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc ¯ intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  17. Nursing Ethics: A Lifelong Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Jeschke, E Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the health-care context as well as the roles and responsibilities of nurses have drastically changed. Leaders in nursing around the world recognize that the health-care system is stressed and the well-being of the nursing workforce plagued by the pressures and challenges it faces in everyday practice. We do not intend to make a strong normative argument for why nursing ethics education should be done in a certain way, but instead show from where we have come and to where we can go, so that educators are positioned to address some of the current shortcomings in ethics education. Our goal is to provide an illustration of ethics education as an interwoven, ongoing, and essential aspect of nursing education and professional development. By developing professional identity as character, we hope that professional nurses are given the skills to stand in the face of adversity and to act in a way that upholds the core competencies of nursing. Ultimately, health-care organizations will thrive because of the support they provide nurses and other health-care professionals.

  18. Hydrogeological problems in the ultimate storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uerpmann, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    The following work shows how one can achieve the safe closure of ultimate-stored radioactive wastes by connecting a series of various barriers to the biosphere. The propagation of radionuclides by ground water is considered to be the most important long-term transport mechanism. Salt occurences in the Federal Republic of Germany are considered to be the best form suitable for end storage formations for known reasons. When not observing mining and hydrogeological knowledge, the danger of uncontrollable water flow in the end storage can arise from the water solubility of the salt rocks. Therefore the filling of salt mines and the subsequent procedures are dealt with in detail. The leading of radioactive nuclides is influenced by the properties of the ultimately stored wastes and by the quality of the remaining filling of the caves. These problems are dealt with in detail. A series of barriers to the closure of the underground caves are suggested and discussed. The most important barriers consist of the stability of the corresponding selected end storage structure. Possible arrangements of the storage cave are given which even after storage must maintain a high stability. Proposals are made on how the ultimately stored wastes can protect themselves against contact with free water or salt solutions. (orig.) [de

  19. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.

  20. Inclusion of ethical issues in dementia guidelines: a thematic text analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knüppel, Hannes; Mertz, Marcel; Schmidhuber, Martina; Neitzke, Gerald; Strech, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) aim to improve professionalism in health care. However, current CPG development manuals fail to address how to include ethical issues in a systematic and transparent manner. The objective of this study was to assess the representation of ethical issues in general CPGs on dementia care. To identify national CPGs on dementia care, five databases of guidelines were searched and national psychiatric associations were contacted in August 2011 and in June 2013. A framework for the assessment of the identified CPGs' ethical content was developed on the basis of a prior systematic review of ethical issues in dementia care. Thematic text analysis and a 4-point rating score were employed to assess how ethical issues were addressed in the identified CPGs. Twelve national CPGs were included. Thirty-one ethical issues in dementia care were identified by the prior systematic review. The proportion of these 31 ethical issues that were explicitly addressed by each CPG ranged from 22% to 77%, with a median of 49.5%. National guidelines differed substantially with respect to (a) which ethical issues were represented, (b) whether ethical recommendations were included, (c) whether justifications or citations were provided to support recommendations, and (d) to what extent the ethical issues were explained. Ethical issues were inconsistently addressed in national dementia guidelines, with some guidelines including most and some including few ethical issues. Guidelines should address ethical issues and how to deal with them to help the medical profession understand how to approach care of patients with dementia, and for patients, their relatives, and the general public, all of whom might seek information and advice in national guidelines. There is a need for further research to specify how detailed ethical issues and their respective recommendations can and should be addressed in dementia guidelines. Please see later in the article for the Editors

  1. Ethics in retail business

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRUŠKA, Leoš

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current state of ethics in retail establishments and to find suitable solutions to improve the situation. In literary part I described the important concepts of business ethics, moral, ethics, social responsibility. I also dealt with business ethics and implementation of codes of conduct, which I explained in more detail in the practical part. In the practical part, I examined the ethical codes of retail companies and for better illustrative there is a ...

  2. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no commun...

  3. Ethics in Management Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Vallini

    2007-01-01

    Ethics is a relevant value in business and management consulting. The presence of recognized ethics tends to reduce the need for informative or legal-contractual precautions in the formalization of relationships, for both of the parts involved in a negotiation. Management Consulting on ethics will develop more and more. Law will consider more and more ethics in business and management consulting. The ethics of corporations influences their workers and behaviour with the customers. It is an e...

  4. An integrated ethical approach to bioethical decision-making: A proposed model for ministers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena C. de Lange

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined a model for guidance in ‘doing’ bioethics in a Reformed context. The proposed model suggested that in order to arrive at responsible ethical decisions, one must refer to both contextual elements and theory. The theoretical grounding for this model was based on the integration of a deontological and virtue ethics approach, arguing that virtue enables persons to know and desire the right moral ends and motivates them to carry out appropriate action toward achieving these ends. An integrative model opens up the possibility whereby bioethics as a systematic tool provides the individual decision-maker with the critical-reflective skills and justification for the ultimate choice that is lacking in the general decision-making processes. This could lead to clearer thinking and increased confidence in the justification of decisions within the Reformed tradition. The proposed hermeneutical perspective on ethical decision-making represents a shift in views about the nature of knowledge and the process of how we come to know. The key to this hermeneutical approach is to acknowledge the dialectic between the universal and the subjectivity of human relations. Working in specific religious communities, one needs to take cognisance of the fact that knowledge is situated in the context of human relationships in which the interpreter participates when articulating the meaning of bioethical experiences. Another aspect that is anticipated lies in the realisation that people struggling with bioethical dilemmas should not be viewed as isolated individuals, but as members of a broader faith community. ‘n Geïntegreerde etiese benadering tot bioetiese besluitneming: Voorgestelde model vir predikante. Hierdie artikel het ‘n model geskets wat moontlike riglyne aantoon vir die  beoefening  van  bioetiek  binne  ‘n  Gereformeerde  konteks.  Die  voorgestelde  model argumenteer dat verwysing na beide kontekstuele elemente en teorie

  5. Justification of working out of combine harvesters technological certificate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Chepurin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of grain crops productivity in the main grain growing regions of Siberian Federal District is presented. Major factors shoud be considered at justification of a class of combine harvesters for their effective operation in various climatic and working conditions. loading efficiency of a combine thresher depends on productivity and operating width of windrowers or headers at straight-cutting and windrowing. A tailings maintenance in the threshed grain heap influences on the harvester capacity. Certificate capacity of combines of a class of 5-12 kg/s at the 1.5 percent admissible level of losses behind a combine thresher is depending on the tailings maintenance in the threshed grain heap. In accordance to analysis the capacity of combines of any class of the classical design increases by 1.45 times at reduction of a straw content from 1.5 to 0.7 relative to standard indicators, and decreases by 1.16 times at increase of this parameter to 2.3. The combine of a class of 7 kg/s is completely loaded when pickup threshing by harvesters with a operating width of 20; 16 and 12 m at a speed of movement 7.2; 9.0 and 12.0 km/h respectively. The combine of a class of 10 kg/s at crop productivity of 1.8 t/ha will be completely loaded when pickup threshing if the operating width is 20 m and the speed equals 12 km/h, and at the width of 16 m speed has to make 13 km/h. The content of the technological certificate by the example of use of combines of a class of 7 kg/s (GS-07 and 10 kg/s (GS-10 is proved. The algorithm of determination of the movement speed is presented. Its use provides certificate loading of a thresher when threshing of grain crops with different productivity at straight-cutting and windrowing.

  6. The necessary guidance on the application of JUSTIFICATION and ALARA by the nuclear authorities, using 'Accountability for Reasonableness' as a decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veuchelen, Ludo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In all branches of law, but foremost in international nuclear law, the global economic system brings along a vast record of Soft Law covering General Principles and Standards. For a part we can find these Soft Law Principles and Standards back in the clothing of hard law, or in the licensing procedures, at the national level. The larger part however is never 'transposed' into national laws and especially the harmonization, the implementation and control of such Principles and Standards remain doubtful. In this paper the focus lies on JUSTIFICATION and ALARA, as the main nuclear safety principles, accepted world-wide. The regulatory guidance and demonstration of these Principles, indicating which (numerical) safety levels or safety objectives are mandatory and which are only guidance should be undertaken by the international regulators and authorities, but are often lacking. It is the aim of this paper to come up with a better procedural framework for a priority setting process by nuclear authorities. Establishing a fair process for priority setting is easier than agreeing on principles. We use the idea of 'Accountability for Reasonableness', developed in the field of Health Care Management. An ideal model of priority setting within the JUSTIFICATION/ALARA approach will need to specify what should be done (i.e. justified ethically) and how it can be done (i.e. based in empirical reality and on benchmarking), to reach optimal levels of nuclear safety. (author)

  7. A moral justification for gay and lesbian civil rights legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar, V J

    1994-01-01

    This essay explores, in two parts, the problems of justifying civil rights legislation for gays, lesbians, and bisexuals. Part I shows that discrimination against gays and lesbians at least in respect to employment, housing, and public accommodations is an evil unsupported by ethical traditions in utilitarianism, rights theory, and communitarianism. It also shows that two theories, Kantian theory and natural law theory, which do support such discrimination on the claim that homoerotic behavior is universally or objectively immoral only do so because of a failure to make precise the concept of "natural" which underlies those theories. Part II argues that anti-discrimination legislation is both an appropriate and effective means to promote the idea that discrimination against lesbians and gays in respect to most employment, housing, and public accommodations is sufficiently injurious to both individuals and society that it should not be tolerated. The section also explains how such legislation might succeed practically in eliminating discrimination in these areas.

  8. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  9. Personalized medicine and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josko, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    An entire series could be dedicated to the topic of ethics in personalized medicine. Due to the advancements in NGS and genetic testing, personalized medicine is no longer something that will occur in the future, the reality is upon us now. Sequencing an individual's genome can have a substantial impact on the patient's treatment and overall quality of life. However, this can open "Pandora's box" especially if an individual does not want to know the information obtained. In addition, will insurance companies require genetic testing in order to pay for a targeted treatment? If the patient refuses to have the genetic testing, will they have to pay for their treatment out of pocket? In the human interest story presented, the researcher and his team discovered over activity of the FTL3 protein through RNA sequencing which resulted in rapid proliferation of his leukemic cells. He identified a drug marketed for advanced kidney cancer which was a FTL3 inhibitor. However, his insurance company refused to pay for the drug because it was not a known treatment for his condition of ALL. He incurred numerous out of pocket expenses in order to go into remission. Was it unethical for the insurance company to not pay for a treatment that ultimately worked but was not marketed or FDA cleared for his type of leukemia? There are so many questions and concerns when personalized medicine is implemented. Only time will tell the effects next generation sequencing and its role in personalized medicine will have in the future.

  10. Applied Ethics in Nowadays Society

    OpenAIRE

    Tomita CIULEI

    2013-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to Nowadays Applied Ethics in Society, and falls in the field of social sciences and humanities, being hosted both theoretical approaches and empirical research in various areas of applied ethics. Applied ethics analyzes of a series of morally concrete situations of social or professional practice in order to make / adopt decisions. In the field of applied ethics are integrated medical ethics, legal ethics, media ethics, professional ethics, environmental ethic...

  11. Business ethics founded on christian moral theology: Perspectives for the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    Mele, Domenec

    2000-01-01

    Religion influences the world of business through its influence on people's moral conscience and motivation, so it would be unrealistic not to take it into account. Theology does not see itself as being opposed to philosophy but, rather, as building on it. Through its rational and systematic justification of faith, theology opens up new horizons for business ethics. Furthermore, if public debate requires the contribution of acknowledged authorities on moral issues, then there is clearly a pla...

  12. A Second Opinion: A Case Narrative on Clinical Ethics Mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Contrasting traditional and common forms if ethics consultation with bioethics mediation. I describe the case of a "second opinion" consultation in the care of a patient with advanced cancer for whom treatment was futile. While the initial ethics consultation, performed by a colleague, let to a recommendation that some may deem ethical, the process failed to involve key stakeholders and failed to explore the underlying values and reasons for the opinions voiced by various stakeholders. The process of mediation ultimately led to creative solutions in which all stakeholders could reach consensus on a plan of care.

  13. The historical context of business ethics: implications for choices and challenges in wound care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, S M

    1999-08-01

    Wound care clinicians are regularly asked to make decisions of an ethical nature within their work settings. Business and business practices are influenced by a number of factors, such as history, culture, and individual choices. This article describes business practices and ultimately business ethics from an historical context, the meaning of business culture within the dominant culture, and the debate over business ethics as it relates to choices and challenges for wound care clinicians.

  14. Educating for ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Ann; Tschudin, Verena

    2010-04-01

    In this article we consider the nature of ethical leadership in nursing. An appreciation of the basis of such leadership requires an understanding of responsibility and of key intellectual and ethical qualities or virtues. We examine some of the educational and practice strategies to promote ethical leadership. We argue that there are different levels of ethical leadership. All members of the nursing workforce are ethical leaders in so far as they demonstrate a commitment to ethical practice in their everyday work and act as ethical role models for others. Nurse managers are responsible for influencing their team and for acting as arbiters between organisational and professional values. Nurse educators are role models and ethical leaders as they ensure that the explicit and hidden curriculum demonstrate a commitment to professional values. Nurses who assume political roles have an obligation to lead on ethical agenda compatible with the values of nursing.

  15. What are applied ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, Fritz

    2011-03-01

    This paper explores the relationships that various applied ethics bear to each other, both in particular disciplines and more generally. The introductory section lays out the challenge of coming up with such an account and, drawing a parallel with the philosophy of science, offers that applied ethics may either be unified or disunified. The second section develops one simple account through which applied ethics are unified, vis-à-vis ethical theory. However, this is not taken to be a satisfying answer, for reasons explained. In the third section, specific applied ethics are explored: biomedical ethics; business ethics; environmental ethics; and neuroethics. These are chosen not to be comprehensive, but rather for their traditions or other illustrative purposes. The final section draws together the results of the preceding analysis and defends a disunity conception of applied ethics.

  16. Revision of Business Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Sigmund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Business ethics is a controversial topic. In my article I would like to explore where the limits of business ethics are and to what extent it can become part of the economic world. I would like to explore the question what the relationship between ethics and business is and whether what business ethicists consider ethics is real ethics in the fundamental sense of the world. The concept of business ethics will be discussed compared to general ethical theories and consequences drawn. I would like to show the contradictions inherent to the connection of business and ethics are no coincidence. At the end a possible relationship between ethics and business sphere will be suggested.

  17. Rapid population growth and environmental degradation: ultimate versus proximate factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R P

    1989-01-01

    This philosophical review of 2 arguments about responsibility for and solutions to environmental degradation concludes that both sides are correct: the ultimate and the proximal causes. Ultimate causes of pollution are defined as the technology responsible for a given type of pollution, such as burning fossil fuel; proximate causes are defined as situation-specific factors confounding the problem, such as population density or rate of growth. Commoner and others argue that developed countries with low or negative population growth rates are responsible for 80% of world pollution, primarily in polluting technologies such as automobiles, power generation, plastics, pesticides, toxic wastes, garbage, warfaring, and nuclear weapons wastes. Distortionary policies also contribute; examples are agricultural trade protection, land mismanagement, urban bias in expenditures, and institutional rigidity., Poor nations are responsible for very little pollution because poverty allows little waste or expenditures for polluting, synthetic technologies. The proximal causes of pollution include numbers and rate of growth of populations responsible for the pollution. Since change in the ultimate cause of pollution remains out of reach, altering the numbers of polluters can make a difference. Predictions are made for proportions of the world's total waste production, assuming current 1.6 tons/capita for developed countries and 0.17 tons/capita for developing countries. If developing countries grow at current rates and become more wealthy, they will be emitting half the world's waste by 2025. ON the other hand, unsustainable population growth goes along with inadequate investment in human capital: education, health, employment, infrastructure. The solution is to improve farming technologies in the 117 non-self-sufficient countries, fund development in the most unsustainable enclaves of growing countries, break institutionalized socio-political rigidity in these enclaves, and focus on

  18. Ethical Components in Radiological Protection Communication: First Feedbacks from Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochud, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The presentation started by underlying that moral philosophy relates to deontology, virtues and utilitarianism: deontology defines the way an actor is acting; an actor is judged based on the virtues of his actions and the actions are judged by their consequences (Utilitarianism). The presentation then moves on by talking about ethical history in medicine and focusing the attention on the three basic principles of bio-ethics: Autonomy (deontology), Beneficence or non-maleficence (utilitarianism) and Justice (deontology). The three principles of radiation protection: justification, optimization and limitation were then framed within the ICRP publications 103 and 105 and discussed with reference to the bio-ethics basic of deontology, virtue and utilitarianism. For a practical application of these principles, the lecturer used different examples to demonstrate the difficulties encountered in applying them and the degree of flexibility needed in doing so. Examples were related to: back scattering images (airplane boarding); annual effective dose related to the decision to leave the house; person genetically more radiosensitive (risk of leukaemia) and people tobacco smoking. The scheme to present the examples is the same in three steps: 1. First answers to a question involving moral or ethical elements; 2. Rephrasing the same question with an ethical perspective; 3. Second answers to the rephrased question. Finally the first and second answers are compared and commented. After the discussion around these examples, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ethical principles are enshrined in radiation protection and in medicine; Ethical decisions need to be taken with the help of different schools of moral philosophy and Ethics and radiation protection are dynamic (Now and here versus tomorrow and there)

  19. Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers The Ultimate Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Evening, Martin

    2010-01-01

    If you already have a good knowledge of Adobe Photoshop and are looking to advance your skills, Adobe Photoshop CS5 for Photographers: The Ultimate Workshop is the book you've been waiting for.  Renowned photographers Martin Evening and Jeff Schewe impart their Photoshop tips and workflow, showing you how to use a vast array of rarely seen advanced Photoshop techniques.  Whether the subject is serious retouching work, weird and wonderful compositions, or planning a shoot before you've even picked up a camera, you can be sure that the advice is based on years of practical experience.

  20. Ultimate survival in anomalous ψ(2S) decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gérard, Jean-Marc; Martini, Antony

    2014-03-07

    The hierarchy among the radiative γ(π{sup 0},η,η{sup ′}) decay channels for the ψ{sup ′} looks quite different from the J/ψ one. The fate of charm, namely an ultimate survival of on-shell cc{sup ¯} intermediate states, might give us the clue for this new puzzle in exclusive charmonium decays. A similar self-preservation has already been invoked in the past to solve the so-called ρπ puzzle.

  1. Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Danilov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai

  2. How Should Ethical Theories Be Dealt with in Engineering Ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Toshihiro

    Contemporary engineering ethics scholars deal with contesting several ethical theories without criticizing them radically and try to use them to solve ethical problems. In this paper I first show that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial, and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Second, I claim that the way to deal with contesting ethical theories in contemporary engineering ethics has an unacceptable side which does not accord with my argument that a conflict between ethical theories is not superficial and pragmatic methods are adopted in engineering ethics. Finally, I conclude that this inconsistency in contemporary engineering ethics should be corrected to make contemporary engineering ethics consistent.

  3. Code of ethics: principles for ethical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flite, Cathy A; Harman, Laurinda B

    2013-01-01

    The code of ethics for a professional association incorporates values, principles, and professional standards. A review and comparative analysis of a 1934 pledge and codes of ethics from 1957, 1977, 1988, 1998, 2004, and 2011 for a health information management association was conducted. Highlights of some changes in the healthcare delivery system are identified as a general context for the codes of ethics. The codes of ethics are examined in terms of professional values and changes in the language used to express the principles of the various codes.

  4. Ethical aspects of business

    OpenAIRE

    Konečná, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis covers the topic of the ethical aspects of business. The paper defines what an ethics and a business ethics are and it describes selected tools of business ethics. The practical part focuses on building company called Skanska and on its view of business ethics. This part consists of an interview with managing director of Skanska SK a.s. and of a questionnaire survey. The main goal of this thesis is to analyze the level of the business ethics in this building company. The main rese...

  5. Biblical Ethics and Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maria

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of unification versus relationality in ethics. It compares two different ethical approaches from Late Antiquity, highlighting the contrast between Plotinian (Neoplatonic) ethics as striving for perfect unification of the human soul with the divinity...... - and Biblical ethics as a relational ethics, where alterity remains operative in the encounter with the deity, and where the primary ethical demand is to relate properly to fellow creatures and God as other. The latter demand is exemplified by the figure of Job, whose righteousness is interpreted as his...

  6. The ethics of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1997-01-01

    experience. The report also underlines the importance of the research effort and stresses the dissemination of innovative technologies in the field of energy generation. Considerations of an ethical nature cannot be dictated by progress in science and technology alone. The examination of everything which conditions the acquisition and use of energies must also be done in a global manner. It would appear therefore that energy-related problems are intimately linked to a large number of other concerns, such as developments in population growth and economies the globalization of markets, the upholding of cultural diversity, and the pursuit of efforts towards peace. Finally, there can be no ethics without the organization of democratic debate, which must take place at every level, local, regional, national and international, and must be preceded by the dissemination and provision of the relevant information. UNESCO has assumed its responsibilities by proposing the creation of a World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology, which is destined to play an essential role in organizing and leading these discussions. For the energy problem implies that every country be correctly informed of the issues at stake, so that they can take the right decisions at their own level and will agree to discuss and, it is to be hoped, adopt the appropriate measures at the supranational level. As a conclusion to this report, it is suggested that UNESCO make use of the esteem every in which it is held by the community of nations to set up, organize and ultimately operate, on the most democratic and open basis possible, the institutions that are likely to help the international community make energy a factor for progress, and not a persistent cause of inequality, imbalance, tension and conflict. (author)

  7. FuturICT — The road towards ethical ICT

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hoven, J.; Helbing, D.; Pedreschi, D.; Domingo-Ferrer, J.; Gianotti, F.; Christen, M.

    2012-11-01

    The pervasive use of information and communication technology (ICT) in modern societies enables countless opportunities for individuals, institutions, businesses and scientists, but also raises difficult ethical and social problems. In particular, ICT helped to make societies more complex and thus harder to understand, which impedes social and political interventions to avoid harm and to increase the common good. To overcome this obstacle, the large-scale EU flagship proposal FuturICT intends to create a platform for accessing global human knowledge as a public good and instruments to increase our understanding of the information society by making use of ICT-based research. In this contribution, we outline the ethical justification for such an endeavor. We argue that the ethical issues raised by FuturICT research projects overlap substantially with many of the known ethical problems emerging from ICT use in general. By referring to the notion of Value Sensitive Design, we show for the example of privacy how this core value of responsible ICT can be protected in pursuing research in the framework of FuturICT. In addition, we discuss further ethical issues and outline the institutional design of FuturICT allowing to address them.

  8. The oil industry and climate change: strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hove, S. van den; Le Menestrel, M.; Bettignies, H.C. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see,' and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO 2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (i) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (ii) avoiding responsibility; and (iii) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors. (Author)

  9. The oil industry and climate change. Strategies and ethical dilemmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, S.; Le Menestrel, Marc; De Bettignies, Henri-Claude

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the different climate change strategies chosen by three major multinational oil corporations: ExxonMobil, TotalFinaElf and BP Amoco. They are referred to, as the 'fight against emission constraints,' 'wait and see', and 'proactive' strategies, respectively. The justifications given to support these strategies are identified. They cover the business, scientific, political, economic, technological and social dimensions. In a business ethics framework, the issue of climate change brings forth an ethical dilemma for the oil industry, in the form of a tension between profits and CO2 emissions. The strategies are analysed as three attitudes towards this dilemma: (1) placing priority on the business consequences while weakening the perception that anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are causing climate change; (2) avoiding responsibility; and (3) placing priority on the need for a modification of the business process while limiting the negative effect in terms of business consequences. In conclusion, we propose that beyond the ethical issues proper to climate change itself, additional ethical issues are raised if society at large is instrumentalised by an industry in its search for profit. Publicly gauging and valorising the ethical commitment of a corporation appear as ways of inducing more collaborative and proactive attitudes by business actors

  10. Ethics commentary: subjects of knowledge and control in field primatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, N M; Fuentes, A; White, F J

    2010-09-01

    Our primate kin are routinely displaced from their habitats, hunted for meat, captured for trade, housed in zoos, made to perform for our entertainment, and used as subjects in biomedical testing. They are also the subjects of research inquiries by field primatologists. In this article, we place primate field studies on a continuum of human and alloprimate relationships as a heuristic device to explore the unifying ethical implications of such inter-relationships, as well as address specific ethical challenges arising from common research protocols "in the field" (e.g. risks associated with habituation, disease transmission, invasive collection of biological samples, etc.). Additionally, we question the widespread deployment of conservation- and/or local economic development-based justifications for field-based primatological pursuits. Informed by decades of combined fieldwork experience in Indonesia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, we demonstrate the process by which the adherence to a particular ethical calculus can lead to unregulated and ethically problematic research agendas. In conclusion, we offer several suggestions to consider in the establishment of a formalized code of ethics for field primatology. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Ethical principles for physician rating sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strech, Daniel

    2011-12-06

    During the last 5 years, an ethical debate has emerged, often in public media, about the potential positive and negative effects of physician rating sites and whether physician rating sites created by insurance companies or government agencies are ethical in their current states. Due to the lack of direct evidence of physician rating sites' effects on physicians' performance, patient outcomes, or the public's trust in health care, most contributions refer to normative arguments, hypothetical effects, or indirect evidence. This paper aims, first, to structure the ethical debate about the basic concept of physician rating sites: allowing patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' performance, online and visible to everyone. Thus, it provides a more thorough and transparent starting point for further discussion and decision making on physician rating sites: what should physicians and health policy decision makers take into account when discussing the basic concept of physician rating sites and its possible implications on the physician-patient relationship? Second, it discusses where and how the preexisting evidence from the partly related field of public reporting of physician performance can serve as an indicator for specific needs of evaluative research in the field of physician rating sites. This paper defines the ethical principles of patient welfare, patient autonomy, physician welfare, and social justice in the context of physician rating sites. It also outlines basic conditions for a fair decision-making process concerning the implementation and regulation of physician rating sites, namely, transparency, justification, participation, minimization of conflicts of interest, and openness for revision. Besides other issues described in this paper, one trade-off presents a special challenge and will play an important role when deciding about more- or less-restrictive physician rating sites regulations: the potential psychological and financial harms for

  12. Radiation Ethics in a Globalized World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoelzer, Friedo

    2013-01-01

    The presentation focused on implications to the ethics in RP, in a world more and more globalized and it challenges the present status of the moral philosophy underlying the ICRP recommendations, which appears to be preferentially based on western ethics. After presenting evident data showing that the center of gravity for existing and new nuclear plants is more and more toward far east populated countries, Friedo Zolzer asked himself if there is something like a 'common morality' to approach moral questions from very different cultural perspectives. Reference was made to the studies of Beauchamp and Childress with their identification of four principles and their claim that 'all persons committed to morality' would agree with their four principles. Common morality, for the author, cannot be defined via a 'Universal poll', but by studying cultures and religions practiced by the different populations in the past ages. He stated the need to develop common morality into 'cross cultural ethics' and the presentation went on by finding a relationship between the three RP principles (Justification, Optimization, Limitation) with the four principles of biomedical ethics (as part of the common morality). The lecturer then asked himself if the common morality can be of help in cases where the three RP principles are not directly applicable and after discussing three different cases, he concluded that common morality can provide us with additional criteria for certain problems not covered by the main RP principles. This approach, open to new different cultural backgrounds, seems to give a fresh inside to some problems, which cannot be addressed only on the basis of the current mix of utilitarian and deontological approaches in RP

  13. 75 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Activities: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  14. A Reply to the Current Critiques Formulated Against Hoppe's Argumentation Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Eabrasu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This article responds to current critiques directed against Hoppe’s justification by performative contradiction of the self-ownership axiom. Maintaining that ethics should be grounded on sound principles, Hoppe observes that only self-ownership can pass the test of performative contradiction. From this idea, he concludes that only libertarianism (the ethical system grounded on the axiom of self-ownership can be justified. Any other ethic is self-defeating. An important debate in ethics was stimulated by numerous critiques formulated against the performative contradiction and more precisely against the use that Hoppe makes of it in justifying libertarianism. Without endorsing Hoppe’s argumentation, this article prevents some common misunderstandings, systemizes the types of critiques and thoroughly replies to them.

  15. The prospects of transition metal dichalcogenides for ultimately scaled CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, S.; Kinberger, W.; Granzner, R.; Fiori, G.; Schwierz, F.

    2018-05-01

    MOSFET gate length scaling has been a main source of progress in digital electronics for decades. Today, researchers still spend considerable efforts on reducing the gate length and on developing ultimately scaled MOSFETs, thereby exploring both new device architectures and alternative channel materials beyond Silicon such as two-dimensional TMDs (transition metal dichalcogenide). On the other hand, the envisaged scaling scenario for the next 15 years has undergone a significant change recently. While the 2013 ITRS edition required a continuation of aggressive gate length scaling for at least another 15 years, the 2015 edition of the ITRS suggests a deceleration and eventually a levelling off of gate length scaling and puts more emphasis on alternative options such as pitch scaling to keep Moore's Law alive. In the present paper, future CMOS scaling is discussed in the light of emerging two-dimensional MOSFET channel, in particular two-dimensional TMDs. To this end, the scaling scenarios of the 2013 and 2015 ITRS editions are considered and the scaling potential of TMD MOSFETs is investigated by means of quantum-mechanical device simulations. It is shown that for ultimately scaled MOSFETs as required in the 2013 ITRS, the heavy carrier effective masses of the Mo- and W-based TMDs are beneficial for the suppression of direct source-drain tunneling, while to meet the significantly relaxed scaling targets of the 2016 ITRS heavy-effective-mass channels are not needed.

  16. The ultimate security bounds of quantum key distribution protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolopoulos, G.M.; Alber, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols exploit quantum correlations in order to establish a secure key between two legitimate users. Recent work on QKD has revealed a remarkable link between quantum and secret correlations. In this talk we report on recent results concerning the ultimate upper security bounds of various QKD schemes (i.e., the maximal disturbance up to which the two legitimate users share quantum correlations) under the assumption of general coherent attacks. In particular, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of QKD schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases. As long as the two legitimate users focus on the sifted key and treat each pair of data independently during the post processing, our results are valid for arbitrary dimensions of the information carriers. The bound we have derived is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is also discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions, however, such equivalence is generally no longer valid. (author)

  17. Ultimate internal pressure capacity assessment of SC structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyungkui; Choi, Inkil

    2013-01-01

    An SC structure applied to a containment building can be quite effective. However, an SC structure cannot be applied to a containment building, because its internal pressure resistance performance has not been verified. The containment building, which undergoes ultimate internal pressure, resists the internal pressure through a pre-stress tendon. It is hard to apply a tendon to an SC structure because of its structural characteristics. Therefore, the internal pressure resistance performance of the SC structure itself should be ensured to apply it to a structure with internal pressure resistance. In this study, the suitability of an SC structure as a substitution for the tendon of a pressure resistant structure was evaluated. A containment structure model was used in this study, because it was representative structures that resistance of ultimate internal pressure be required. In this study, a nonlinear analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the behaviors of tendon model and SC structure model. By comparing the internal pressure-displacement according to the structure type, the stability of SC structure model was assessed

  18. Cognitive Success: Instrumental Justifications of Normative Systems of Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard eSchurz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4, I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011 distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological versus teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based versus a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7, I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general versus locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve a dual account of rationality.

  19. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1–4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5–7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality. PMID:25071624

  20. Cognitive success: instrumental justifications of normative systems of reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurz, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of the paper (sec. 1-4), I argue that Elqayam and Evan's (2011) distinction between normative and instrumental conceptions of cognitive rationality corresponds to deontological vs. teleological accounts in meta-ethics. I suggest that Elqayam and Evans' distinction be replaced by the distinction between a-priori intuition-based vs. a-posteriori success-based accounts of cognitive rationality. The value of cognitive success lies in its instrumental rationality for almost-all practical purposes. In the second part (sec. 5-7), I point out that the Elqayam and Evans's distinction between normative and instrumental rationality is coupled with a second distinction: between logically general vs. locally adaptive accounts of rationality. I argue that these are two independent distinctions that should be treated as independent dimensions. I also demonstrate that logically general systems of reasoning can be instrumentally justified. However, such systems can only be cognitively successful if they are paired with successful inductive reasoning, which is the area where the program of adaptive (ecological) rationality emerged, because there are no generally optimal inductive reasoning methods. I argue that the practical necessity of reasoning under changing environments constitutes a dilemma for ecological rationality, which I attempt to solve within a dual account of rationality.

  1. Environmental ethics: An African understanding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    environmental ethical theories, that is, normative environmental ethics, sentientist ethics, ... environmental ethics is challenging those life-threatening concerns, critical explorations of ..... such negligence, every business organization must be.

  2. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  3. Ethics Training in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Guloksuz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ethics training is one of the core components of psychiatric education, it is not sufficiently addressed in the curricula of many educational institutions. It is shown that many of the psychiatry residents received no ethics training in both residency and medical school. Predictably, over half of the psychiatry residents had faced an ethical dilemma that they felt unprepared to meet, and nearly all of them indicated ethics education would have helped them to solve this dilemma. In addition to learning about the fundamental topics of ethics like confidentiality, boundary violations, justice, benefience and nonmaleficence, psychiatrists must also learn to deal with other hidden ethical dilemmas which are mostly due to the changing world order. It is obvious that residency training should include a well developed ethics curriculum. However, some still believe that ethical principles cannot be taught and are formed in one’s early moral development. Accepting the fact that teaching ethics is difficult, we believe that it is getting easier with the new methods for teaching in medicine. These methods are clinical supervisions, rol-models, case studies, role playing, small group discussions, team based learning and “let’s talking medicine” groups which is a useful methods for discussing ethics dilemmas on daily practice and C.A.R.E (Core Beliefs, Actions, Reasons, Experience which is a special training method for teaching ethics. In this review, the need of ethics training in residency curriculum will be discussed and new methods for teaching ethics will be proposed.

  4. Discussions About Lying With An Ethical Reasoning Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Felix; Wächter, Laura; Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2017-01-01

    The conversational ethical reasoning robot Immanuel is presented. Immanuel is capable of defending multiple ethical views on morally delicate situations. A study was conducted to evaluate the acceptance of Immanuel. The participants had a conversation with the robot on whether lying is permissibile...... in a given situation. The robot first signaled uncertainty about whether lying is right or wrong in the situation, then disagreed with the participant’s view, and finally asked for justification. The results indicate that participants with a higher tendency to utilitarian judgments are initially more certain...... about their view as compared to participants with a higher tendency to deontological judgments. These differences vanish at the end of the dialogue. Lying is defended and argued against by both utilitarian and deontologically oriented participants. The diversity of the reported arguments gives an idea...

  5. New ethical issues for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The ethical basis for many medical practices has been challenged over the last two decades. Radiology has seen enormous growth during the same period. Many practices and equipment types, now commonplace, did not exist a generation ago. Yet the fundamental ethical basis for these practices has not seen a corresponding level of development. This is possibly an oversight, and may be particularly important given that these innovations have taken place over a period of changing social attitudes. Areas of concern include, for example, issues around justification, consent/authorisation, inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo during pregnancy and the place of paternalism/individual autonomy in the structure of practice. This paper provides the background to a workshop on these issues held in late-2006 and presents a summary of its findings. (authors)

  6. Ethical codes in business practice

    OpenAIRE

    Kobrlová, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis discusses the issues of ethics and codes of ethics in business. The theoretical part defines basic concepts of ethics, presents its historical development and the methods and tools of business ethics. It also focuses on ethical codes and the area of law and ethics. The practical part consists of a quantitative survey, which provides views of selected business entities of business ethics and the use of codes of ethics in practice.

  7. Communication, ethics and anthropoethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense of establishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  8. Critical Virtue Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Schmidt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of Anscombe’s famous paper “Modern Moral Philosophy” (1958, virtue ethics has become a matter of discussion among scholars. At least four charges have been raised against virtue ethics, one of which is the charge of promoting undue enthusiasm regarding the moral fitness of human beings. This article explores the limits of virtue ethics with regard to the frailty of human virtuousness. After giving a report of the charges raised against virtue ethics from the perspective of empirical ethics, the author presents the idea of what he would like to call critical virtue ethics as seen by three Lutheran thinkers: Immanuel Kant, Friedrich Nietzsche and Martin Luther himself. He will demonstrate that the empirical contestation of virtue ethics shows a remarkable resemblance to insights found in Luther, Kant and Nietzsche. And finally, the writer draws tentative conclusions about the future of critical virtue ethics.

  9. [Toward a practical ethic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbelle, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between ethics and philosophy and jurisdiction is described; different kinds of ethics are presented. The increasing pressure of liberal points of view has boosted the ethics of utility. The ethics of care oppose a too rational utilitarianism, taking into consideration relationships such as the caregiver-patient relationship. In the multicultural society ethics of care and virtue ethics are being criticised for not giving universal answers to ethical dilemmas. Can one still define "doing good"? Is "doing good" so culturally biased that it no longer provides the basis for ethical conduct? An accurate procedural assessment of values, sometimes interpreted quite differently in different cultures, could be a tool to judge values in a less relativistic way.

  10. COMMUNICATION, ETHICS AND ANTHROPOETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Martins da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to dream of – in the sense ofestablishing – the utopian perspective of a scenario that remains utopian but which nonetheless provides the first indications that we may be entering a new paradigm, that of communication-ethics, that is to say, the ethical dimension of communication, which in this case is not restricted to technological advancements but concerns communication with ethics and as ethics, to conclude that without ethics, there is no communication and by extension, no genuine mankind nor genuine humanity. Communication and ethics therefore appear inseparable; one cannot exist without the other. The audacity of this ethical visionary lies in managing to perceive more than just technological marvels, but also to appreciate the paradigm of anthropoethics entering the realm of the concrete, that is to say, ethics for mankind and for humanity, as conceived of by Apel, Habermas and Morin.

  11. Ethics for Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  12. From mirror self-recognition to the looking-glass self: exploring the Justification Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Leigh S

    2005-01-01

    In his Tree of Knowledge (ToK) System, Henriques (2003) posits that the human ego or "self" has evolved because human beings are the only animals that have had to justify their behavior to others. This essay provides evidence for this Justification Hypothesis (JH) from everyday life sociology, starting with the work of George Herbert Mead and Charles Horton Cooley, and focuses on research related to the concept of the "looking-glass self." Special emphasis is given to the pragmatics of speech acts, the presentation of self in interaction rituals, the accounts given by actors in justification of their actions, and the role of social norms and conformity in the large-scale justification systems commonly called "culture."

  13. Gutting’s critical View to the Truth-Independent Justification Models on Believe in God

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Justification of believe in God had been one of the most challenging problem throughout history of philosophy. The problem is "is believe in god epistemically justified?" Gutting's theory in justification of theism is combined of two parts. He critiques Witgenstainian's view firstly, and then considers Aquinas’, Plantinga's, and some other views as incorrect views on theism. Gutting says that Witgenstainians and Tomistic approaches cannot draw a religious language exactly. He also considers Plantinga's view as an incorrect view, because it is completely possible that the viewpoint of believers in believing to the existence of God to be evaluate epistemological as true as the non-believers’ view to the nonexistence of God. Discussing his own view, Gutting justifies believing in God regarding the religious experience. This article explains Gutting's critique of Witgenstainian's, Thomistic and Planting's approach on justification of believe in God.

  14. Justifications and comparisons in the division of household labor: the relevance of gender ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Paterna, Consuelo; Yago, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    This study tests the direct relevance of justifications and social comparisons (predictors of perceptions of fairness) on different types of household labour distribution, and the importance of masculinity ideology and neosexism on these variables. The participants were heterosexual dual-earner couples. Our results showed that both men and women use more justifications when their housework distribution is not equal, but only women use social comparisons associated with the ways of distributing domestic work. In addition, we observe that, in both men and women, justifications are related to a traditional masculine ideology, but a different model appears in relation to comparisons which are associated with neosexism in men and with traditional masculine ideology in women. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. System justification, the denial of global warming, and the possibility of "system-sanctioned change".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygina, Irina; Jost, John T; Goldsmith, Rachel E

    2010-03-01

    Despite extensive evidence of climate change and environmental destruction, polls continue to reveal widespread denial and resistance to helping the environment. It is posited here that these responses are linked to the motivational tendency to defend and justify the societal status quo in the face of the threat posed by environmental problems. The present research finds that system justification tendencies are associated with greater denial of environmental realities and less commitment to pro-environmental action. Moreover, the effects of political conservatism, national identification, and gender on denial of environmental problems are explained by variability in system justification tendencies. However, this research finds that it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of system justification on environmentalism by encouraging people to regard pro-environmental change as patriotic and consistent with protecting the status quo (i.e., as a case of "system-sanctioned change"). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Report of a consultation on justification of patient exposures in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation protection in medicine is underpinned by the concepts of justification and optimisation. Over the last 20 y much successful work has been devoted to developing and consolidating approaches to optimisation. A substantial knowledge base and a set of practical approaches have now been created to give effect to it. With respect to justification, less effort has been applied and the efforts applied have not yet been as successful. Authoritative sources suggest that a substantial fraction of radiological examinations may be unnecessary. In addition, a mainstream general medical journal has identified that few of those responsible for prescribing or performing examinations were familiar with the units used to specify the amount of radiation (and risk) received. This report sets out the conclusions of a consultation held in Vienna, by the International Atomic Energy Agency, dealing with the nature of justification and how to give effect to it in practice. (authors)

  17. The Virtue of Principle Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersoff, Donald N.

    1996-01-01

    Presents arguments against adopting virtue ethics as a guiding concept in developing counseling guidelines: (1) virtue ethics is irrelevant in the resolution of most ethics cases; (2) virtue and principle ethics overlap; (3) principle ethics are more suited to acting and deciding; (4) the emphasis on virtue ethics increases the possibility of…

  18. The Ethics and Politics of Ethics Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, Tim; Riley, Dan; Avery, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory scope of Human Research Ethics Committees can be problematic for a variety of reasons. Some scholars have argued the ethics approval process, for example, is antithetical to certain disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, while others are willing to give it qualified support. This article uses a case study to cast the…

  19. Digital Media Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online.......Provides a philosophical-ethical "toolkit" for analyzing central ethical issues evoked by our use of new media, including privacy, copyright, violent and sexual content online, and cross-cultural communication online....

  20. The human genome as public: Justifications and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayefsky, Michelle J

    2017-03-01

    Since the human genome was decoded, great emphasis has been placed on the unique, personal nature of the genome, along with the benefits that personalized medicine can bring to individuals and the importance of safeguarding genetic privacy. As a result, an equally important aspect of the human genome - its common nature - has been underappreciated and underrepresented in the ethics literature and policy dialogue surrounding genetics and genomics. This article will argue that, just as the personal nature of the genome has been used to reinforce individual rights and justify important privacy protections, so too the common nature of the genome can be employed to support protections of the genome at a population level and policies designed to promote the public's wellbeing. In order for public health officials to have the authority to develop genetics policies for the sake of the public good, the genome must have not only a common, but also a public, dimension. This article contends that DNA carries a public dimension through the use of two conceptual frameworks: the common heritage (CH) framework and the common resource (CR) framework. Both frameworks establish a public interest in the human genome, but the CH framework can be used to justify policies aimed at preserving and protecting the genome, while the CR framework can be employed to justify policies for utilizing the genome for the public benefit. A variety of possible policy implications are discussed, with special attention paid to the use of large-scale genomics databases for public health research. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Marquard, P. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nason, P. [INFN, Sezione di Milano Bicocca (Italy); Steinhauser, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik

    2016-05-15

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  2. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beneke, M.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2016-05-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS mass, and conclude that this uncertainty is around 70 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be 250 MeV.

  3. ONE FINANCIAL REPORTING GLOBAL LANGUAGE: THE ULTIMATE GOAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Limijaya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyse the extent to which international accounting standards is applied and whether it is the ultimate goal. Up until the end of 2016, approximately there are 84% of the 149 jurisdictions analysed which require IFRS for all or most domestic publicly accountable entities. This may indicate that we are not that much further from having a single set of globally-accepted accounting standards. However, there is more to financial reporting than just accounting standards alone, such as the political aspect of accounting standard-setting, translation issues surrounding IFRS adoption, the US position and the complexity of financial reporting. Improving financial reporting quality needs more than just having global accounting standards, rather, it is also essential to consider the preparers’ incentives and other institutions surrounding the firm. Stakeholders need to broaden the perspective when viewing financial reporting, so that it will not be focused merely on accounting standards alone.

  4. On the ultimate uncertainty of the top quark pole mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, M.; Marquard, P.; Nason, P.; Steinhauser, M.

    2017-12-01

    We combine the known asymptotic behaviour of the QCD perturbation series expansion, which relates the pole mass of a heavy quark to the MS ‾ mass, with the exact series coefficients up to the four-loop order to determine the ultimate uncertainty of the top-quark pole mass due to the renormalon divergence. We perform extensive tests of our procedure by varying the number of colours and flavours, as well as the scale of the strong coupling and the MS ‾ mass. Including an estimate of the internal bottom and charm quark mass effect, we conclude that this uncertainty is around 110 MeV. We further estimate the additional contribution to the mass relation from the five-loop correction and beyond to be around 300 MeV.

  5. Multiple (Two) Met Bel 601 In Series Ultimate Vacuum Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-30

    SRNL Environmental and Chemical Process Technology (E&CPT) was requested to perform testing of vacuum pumps per a verbal request from the Customer, SRNL Hydrogen Processing Technology. Tritium Operations is currently having difficulties procuring the Normetex™® Model 15 m3/hr (9 CFM) vacuum pump (formerly Normetex Pompes, now EumecaSARL). One possible solution proposed by Hydrogen Processing Technology personnel is to use two Senior Aerospace Metal Bellows MB-601 vacuum pumps piped with the heads in series, and the pumps in series (Figure 1 below). This memorandum documents the ultimate vacuum testing that was performed to determine if this concept was a viable alternate vacuum pump strategy. This testing dovetails with previous pump evaluations documented in references 1 and 2.

  6. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schausberger

    Full Text Available Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary causes and proximate (mechanistic correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life, whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our

  7. Ultimate Drivers and Proximate Correlates of Polyandry in Predatory Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schausberger, Peter; Patiño-Ruiz, J David; Osakabe, Masahiro; Murata, Yasumasa; Sugimoto, Naoya; Uesugi, Ryuji; Walzer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is more widespread than anticipated from Bateman's principle but its ultimate (evolutionary) causes and proximate (mechanistic) correlates are more difficult to pinpoint than those of polygyny. Here, we combined mating experiments, quantification of reproductive traits and microsatellite genotyping to determine the fitness implications of polyandry in two predatory mite species, where males are highly polygynous (up to 45 fertilized females during life), whereas females range from monandry to various polyandry levels. The medium-level polyandrous (up to eight male mates possible) Neoseiulus californicus received clear direct and indirect benefits: multiply mated females produced more offspring with higher survival chances over longer times than singly mated females. In contrast, singly and multiply mated females of the low-level polyandrous (commonly two male mates at maximum) Phytoseiulus persimilis produced similar numbers of offspring having similar survival chances. In both species, multiple mating resulted in mixed offspring paternities, opening the chance for indirect fitness benefits such as enhanced genetic compatibility, complementarity and/or variability. However, the female re-mating likelihood and the paternity chance of non-first male mates were lower in P. persimilis than in N. californicus. Regarding proximate factors, in both species first mating duration and female re-mating likelihood were negatively correlated. Based on occasional fertilization failure of first male mates in P. persimilis, and mixed offspring paternities in both species, we argue that fertilization assurance and the chance to gain indirect fitness benefits are the ultimate drivers of polyandry in P. persimilis, whereas those of N. californicus are higher offspring numbers coupled with enhanced offspring viability and possibly other indirect fitness benefits. Overall, the adaptive significance and proximate events well reflected the polyandry levels. Our study provides a

  8. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  9. Ethics and engineering design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Poel, I.R.; van der Poel, Ibo; Verbeek, Peter P.C.C.

    2006-01-01

    Engineering ethics and science and technology studies (STS) have until now developed as separate enterprises. The authors argue that they can learn a lot from each other. STS insights can help make engineering ethics open the black box of technology and help discern ethical issues in engineering

  10. Management and ethical responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Most authors believe that ethics is set of moral principles and values which leads a person or a group toward what is good or bad. Ethics sets the standards about what is good, and what is bad in behaving and decision making. Principles are the rules or the laws that create ethical codex.

  11. Developments in marketing ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurissen, R.J.M.; Ven, van de B.W.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a response to the following papers: "Ethical Marketing," by P.E. Murphy, G.R. Laczniak, N.E. Bowie, and T.A. Klein, "Marketing Ethics: Cases and Readings," edited by P.E. Murphy and G.R. Laczniak, "Advertising Ethics" by E.H. Spence and B. van Heekeren, and "Corporate Social

  12. Ethics in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlin, E. Lander

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is defined as a set of guidelines and/or rules for the conduct of individual behavior in an organization or civil society. This ethical code of conduct is intended to guide policies, practices, and decision-making for employees on behalf of the organization. This article explores the importance of ethics, the basis for making ethical…

  13. Health branding ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Sandøe, Peter; Kamin, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    into account the ethical dimensions of health branding: this article presents a conceptual analysis of potential ethical problems in health branding. The analysis focuses on ethical concerns related to the application of three health brand elements (functional claims, process claims, and health symbols...

  14. Ethics: No Longer Optional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveslage, Thomas; D'Angelo, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that publications advisors have sound, practical reasons for addressing ethical decision making. Presents a brief review of the Supreme Court's message in "Hazelwood." Surveys staffs and advisors of award-winning high school newspapers concerning ethical issues facing the student press. Finds that advisors believe ethics to be…

  15. Ethical issues for librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Rasche

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available It approaches the librarian ethics comprehending the Librarianship constitution from a systemic view. In this way, with the objective to raise issues to discuss professional ethics, it places the librarian in the work world and points approaches between exertion and relation context of the professionals themselves with the human rights and alteration ethics.

  16. Business ethics as practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clegg, S.R.; Kornberger, M.; Rhodes, C.

    2007-01-01

    In this article we develop a conceptualization of business ethics as practice. Starting from the view that the ethics that organizations display in practice will have been forged through an ongoing process of debate and contestation over moral choices, we examine ethics in relation to the ambiguous,

  17. Ethics in the Marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnet, Chris, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of five library integrated system vendors express their views on ethics and the marketplace, emphasizing the need for ethical behavior by librarians, consultants, and vendors. Four sidebars are included: one on the need for customer data rights standards; others containing the codes of ethics of three professional consultants'…

  18. Ethical Child Welfare Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leever, Martin G.; DeCiani, Gina; Mulaney, Ellen; Hasslinger, Heather; Gambrill, Eileen

    Noting that child welfare professionals can improve the quality and integrity of the services they provide if they develop ethical decision making skills, this book provides child welfare administrators and caseworkers with a framework for assessing ethical dilemmas, making sound ethical decisions, and delivering services with integrity to…

  19. Ethical Delphi Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Millar, K.; Tomkins, S.; Thorstensen, E.; Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.

    2006-01-01

    An ethical Delphi is an iterative participatory process between experts for exchanging views and arguments on ethical issues. The method is structured around the notion of a virtual committee where the exchange of ideas is conducted remotely through a series of opinion exchanges. The ethical Delphi

  20. Towards a systemic ethic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2003-01-01

    ambiguities of the new normative concepts and the conflicts between new and traditional moral concepts and theories. We employ a systemic approach to analyze the past and possible future extension of ethics and establish an inclusive framework of ethical extension. This framework forms the basis for what we...... call a systemic ethic...

  1. Reciprocity and Ethical Tuberculosis Treatment and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Dawson, Angus; Upshur, Ross E G

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores the notion of reciprocity in the context of active pulmonary and laryngeal tuberculosis (TB) treatment and related control policies and practices. We seek to do three things: First, we sketch the background to contemporary global TB care and suggest that poverty is a key feature when considering the treatment of TB patients. We use two examples from TB care to explore the role of reciprocity: isolation and the use of novel TB drugs. Second, we explore alternative means of justifying the use of reciprocity through appeal to different moral and political theoretical traditions (i.e., virtue ethics, deontology, and consequentialism). We suggest that each theory can be used to provide reasons to take reciprocity seriously as an independent moral concept, despite any other differences. Third, we explore general meanings and uses of the concept of reciprocity, with the primary intention of demonstrating that it cannot be simply reduced to other more frequently invoked moral concepts such as beneficence or justice. We argue that reciprocity can function as a mid-level principle in public health, and generally, captures a core social obligation arising once an individual or group is burdened as a result of acting for the benefit of others (even if they derive a benefit themselves). We conclude that while more needs to be explored in relation to the theoretical justification and application of reciprocity, sufficient arguments can be made for it to be taken more seriously as a key principle within public health ethics and bioethics more generally.

  2. [Ethical principles of clinical trials in minors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, H J; Raschka, C

    2002-12-05

    Clinical trials in volunteers and patients are essential to ensure rational treatment of patients. As a rule, drugs are routinely developed for adults, but children are excluded. A major reason for this restriction are ethical justifications, in particular the lack of autonomy on the part of children. The principle of fairness, however, requires that everyone should benefit from progress. Industry, science and society are therefore called upon to find ways of making available safe and adequate treatment for children as quickly as possible, by defining the required conditions for pediatric clinical trials. Important principles are minimal risk, minimal invasivity, rapid decision-making, and careful documentation of trial results. Dynamic ethical principles, such as autonomy and competence in adolescents must be considered on equal footing with existing international GCP guidelines. Aspects of child psychology indicate that the autonomy of adolescents should be respected. Where economic incentives for such trials are absent, for example, in the case of non-pharmacological problems, pediatric trials must be considered a task for society as a whole.

  3. Improving Ethical Attitudes or Simply Teaching Ethical Codes? The Reality of Accounting Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Robyn Ann; O'Leary, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Ethical instruction is critical in accounting education. However, does accounting ethics teaching actually instil core ethical values or simply catalogue how students should act when confronted with typical accounting ethical dilemmas? This study extends current literature by distinguishing between moral/ethical and legal/ethical matters and then…

  4. Business Ethics in CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Birkvad Bernth, Camilla; Houmøller Mortensen, Kasper; Calles, Mark Benjamin; Wind, Martin; Saalfeldt, Rie

    2013-01-01

    This project seeks to dissect the advent of CSR in business practice from the view of ethics. We perform this by laying out the theories of CSR, business ethics, deontology and utilitarianism. We then use the case studies of Lundbeck, The Body Shop, and British American Tobacco, to dissect some productions of CSR. These are compared to the above mentioned theories on ethics. We conclude that business ethics and CSR are only as good as the ethical base upon which they are built. This projec...

  5. Scientists' perspectives on the ethical issues of stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaff, Holly; Schuppli, Catherine A; Preto, Nina; Lafrenière, Darquise; McDonald, Michael

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes findings from an ethics education project funded by the Canadian Stem Cell Network (SCN). The project is part of a larger research initiative entitled "The Stem Cell Research Environment: Drawing the Evidence and Experience Together". The ethics education study began with a series of focus groups with SCN researchers and trainees as part of a "needs assessment" effort. The purpose of these discussions was to identify the main ethical issues associated with stem cell (SC) research from the perspective of the stem cell community. This paper will focus on five prominent themes that emerged from the focus group data including: (1) the source of stem cells; (2) the power of stem cells; (3) working within a charged research environment; (4) the regulatory context; and (5) ethics training for scientists. Additional discussions are planned with others involved in Canadian stem cell research (e.g., research ethics board members, policy makers) to supplement initial findings. These assessment results combined with existing bioethics literature will ultimately inform a web-based ethics education module for the SCN. We believe that our efforts are important for those analyzing the ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) in this area because our in depth understanding of stem cell researcher perspectives will enable us to develop more relevant and effective education material, which in turn should help SC researchers address the important ethical challenges in their area.

  6. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yunhai

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend achromatic cell, we

  7. Future Synchrotron Light Sources Based on Ultimate Storage Rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yunhai; /SLAC

    2012-04-09

    The main purpose of this talk is to describe how far one might push the state of the art in storage ring design. The talk will start with an overview of the latest developments and advances in the design of synchrotron light sources based on the concept of an 'ultimate' storage ring. The review will establish how bright a ring based light source might be, where the frontier of technological challenges are, and what the limits of accelerator physics are. Emphasis will be given to possible improvements in accelerator design and developments in technology toward the goal of achieving an ultimate storage ring. An ultimate storage ring (USR), defined as an electron ring-based light source having an emittance in both transverse planes at the diffraction limit for the range of X-ray wavelengths of interest for a scientific community, would provide very high brightness photons having high transverse coherence that would extend the capabilities of X-ray imaging and probe techniques beyond today's performance. It would be a cost-effective, high-coherence 4th generation light source, competitive with one based on energy recovery linac (ERL) technology, serving a large number of users studying material, chemical, and biological sciences. Furthermore, because of the experience accumulated over many decades of ring operation, it would have the great advantage of stability and reliability. In this paper we consider the design of an USR having 10-pm-rad emittance. It is a tremendous challenge to design a storage ring having such an extremely low emittance, a factor of 100 smaller than those in existing light sources, especially such that it has adequate dynamic aperture and beam lifetime. In many ultra-low emittance designs, the injection acceptances are not large enough for accumulation of the electron beam, necessitating on-axis injection where stored electron bunches are completely replaced with newly injected ones. Recently, starting with the MAX-IV 7-bend

  8. What Ethics for Bioart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaage, Nora S

    Living artworks created with biotechnology raise a range of ethical questions, some of which are unprecedented, others well known from other contexts. These questions are often discussed within the framework of bioethics, the ethics of the life sciences. The basic concern of institutionalised bioethics is to develop and implement ethical guidelines for ethically responsible handling of living material in technological and scientific contexts. Notably, discussions of ethical issues in bioart do not refer to existing discourses on art and morality from the field of aesthetics. The latter framework is primarily concerned with how the moral value of an artwork affects its artistic value. The author argues that a successful integration of these two frameworks will make possible an ethics of bioart that is adequate to its subject matter and relevant for practice. Such an integrated approach can give increased depth to understandings of ethical issues in bioart, inspire new ways of thinking about ethics in relation to art in general and give novel impulses to bioethics and technology assessment. Artworks by the Tissue Culture and Art Project and their reception serve as the empirical starting point for connecting perspectives in art with those of bioethics, developing an ethics for bioart. The author suggests that consideration of the effect of these artworks is vital in validating ethically problematical applications of biotechnology for art. It is argued that the affective, visceral qualities of living artworks may spur the audience to adjust, revise or develop their personal ethical framework.

  9. Efficiency Of Different Teaching Models In Teaching Of Frisbee Ultimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žuffová Zuzana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to verify the efficiency of two frisbee ultimate teaching models at 8-year grammar schools relative to age. In the experimental group was used a game based model (Teaching Games for Understanding and in the control group the traditional model based on teaching techniques. 6 groups of female students took part in experiment: experimental group 1 (n=10, age=11.6, experimental group 2 (n=12, age=13.8, experimental group 3 (n=14, age =15.8, control group 1 (n=11, age =11.7, control group 2 (n=10, age =13.8 and control group 3 (n=9, age =15.8. Efficiency of the teaching models was evaluated based of game performance and special knowledge results. Game performance was evaluated by the method of game performance assessment based on GPAI (Game Performance Assessment Instrument through video record. To verify level of knowledge, we used a knowledge test, which consisted of questions related to the rules and tactics knowledge of frisbee ultimate. To perform statistical evaluation Mann-Whitney U-test was used. Game performance assessment and knowledge level indicated higher efficiency of TGfU in general, but mostly statistically insignificant. Experimental groups 1 and 2 were significantly better in the indicator that evaluates tactical aspect of game performance - decision making (p<0.05. Experimental group 3 was better in the indicator that evaluates skill execution - disc catching. The results showed that the students of the classes taught by game based model reached partially better game performance in general. Experimental groups achieved from 79.17 % to 80 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 75 % to 87.5 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test. Control groups achieved from 57.69 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the rules and from 51.92 % to 72.22 % of correct answers relating to the tactical knowledge in the knowledge test.

  10. Ethics and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Courtney Page

    . However, social scientists have yet to devote much attention to this ethically contentious and medically complex field. This project aimed to identify and explore social and ethical factors shaping gene therapy practice in clinical settings. It is based on six months of participant observation in a London...... children’s hospital (the UKCH), thirty-two interviews with key actors in the gene therapy field, and scientific and policy document analysis. One of the main interests of this research is with the politics of ethics. The thesis shows that ‘ethical boundary work’ was central to establishing the credibility...... of gene therapy, and the authority of its practitioners. The politics of ethics can also be discerned in practice: the UK research ethics system structures scientific work but cannot account for the various, complex, and on-going ethical dilemmas that patients and practitioners face when undertaking gene...

  11. Radiology and Ethics Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Aline; Liu, Li; Yousem, David M

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess medical ethics knowledge among trainees and practicing radiologists through an online survey that included questions about the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics and the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics. Most survey respondents reported that they had never read the American Medical Association Code of Medical Ethics or the American College of Radiology Code of Ethics (77.2% and 67.4% of respondents, respectively). With regard to ethics education during medical school and residency, 57.3% and 70.0% of respondents, respectively, found such education to be insufficient. Medical ethics training should be highlighted during residency, at specialty society meetings, and in journals and online resources for radiologists.

  12. Clinical ethics and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devettere, R J

    1993-02-01

    Most contemporary accounts of clinical ethics do not explain why clinicians should be ethical. Those few that do attempt an explanation usually claim that clinicians should be ethical because ethical behavior provides an important good for the patient--better care. Both these approaches ignore the customary traditional reason for being ethical, namely, the good of the moral agent. This good was commonly called 'happiness'. The following article shows how the personal happiness of the moral agent provided a major reason for being ethical in the ancient philosophical and biblical traditions and how it continues to play a role in the more modern rights-based, Kantian and utilitarian theories. This history suggests that the personal happiness of the clinician, rightly understood, is a legitimate and important goal of clinical ethics.

  13. Effect of ethical leadership and climate on effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos S. Engelbrecht

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The increasing prevalence of theft, sabotage and other deviant behaviours in the workplace has disastrous effects for organisations, such as lowered effectiveness, escalated costs and the organisation’s declining reputation. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to design and investigate the relationships among perceived leader effectiveness, ethical climate and ethical leadership. A further objective of the investigation was to validate a conceptual model clarifying the structural associations among the latent constructs in the South African corporate domain. Motivation for the study: A successful leader is both an ethical and an effective leader. An organisation’s leadership is seen as the most critical element in establishing and maintaining an ethical climate in organisations. Research design, approach and method: A convenient and multi-cultural sample comprised of 224 employees from various organisations in South Africa. The structure and content of the variables were analysed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, beside item analysis. Main findings: Satisfactory reliability was found for all the measurement scales. The results of CFA demonstrated acceptable fit with the data for the refined measurement and structural models. The results of structural equation modelling (SEM indicated positive relationships among ethical leadership, ethical climate and leader effectiveness. Practical implications: Organisational leaders should take full responsibility for cultivating ethics through ethical leader behaviour and an ethical climate. By reinforcing these aspects, perceived leader effectiveness can be advanced, which will ultimately decrease corruption and other forms of counterproductive behaviour in South African organisations. Contribution: The study provides further theoretical and empirical evidence that leadership effectiveness can be realised through instilling an ethical organisational climate in which

  14. Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable

  15. ZIO: The Ultimate Linux I/O Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez Cobas, J D; Rubini, A; Nellaga, S; Vaga, F

    2014-01-01

    ZIO (with Z standing for “The Ultimate I/O” Framework) was developed for CERN with the specific needs of physics labs in mind, which are poorly addressed in the mainstream Linux kernel. ZIO provides a framework for industrial, high-bandwith, high-channel count I/O device drivers (digitizers, function generators, timing devices like TDCs) with performance, generality and scalability as design goals. Among its features, it offers abstractions for • both input and output channels, and channel sets • run-time selection of trigger types • run-time selection of buffer types • sysfs-based configuration • char devices for data and metadata • a socket interface (PF ZIO) as alternative to char devices In this paper, we discuss the design and implementation of ZIO, and describe representative cases of driver development for typical and exotic applications: drivers for the FMC (FPGAMezzanine Card, see [1]) boards developed at CERN like the FMC ADC 100Msps digitizer, FMC TDC timestamp counter, and FMC DEL ...

  16. Episodic foresight and anxiety: Proximate and ultimate perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloyan, Beyon; Bulley, Adam; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between episodic foresight and anxiety from an evolutionary perspective, proposing that together they confer an advantage for modifying present moment decision-making and behaviour in the light of potential future threats to fitness. We review the body of literature on the role of episodic foresight in anxiety, from both proximate and ultimate perspectives. We propose that anxious feelings associated with episodic simulation of possible threat-related future events serve to imbue these simulations with motivational currency. Episodic and semantic details of a future threat may be insufficient for motivating its avoidance, but anxiety associated with a simulation can provoke adaptive threat management. As such, we detail how anxiety triggered by a self-generated, threat-related future simulation prepares the individual to manage that threat (in terms of its likelihood and/or consequences) over greater temporal distances than observed in other animals. We then outline how anxiety subtypes may represent specific mechanisms for predicting and managing particular classes of fitness threats. This approach offers an inroad for understanding the nature of characteristic future thinking patterns in anxiety disorders and serves to illustrate the adaptive function of the mechanism from which clinical anxiety deviates. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Yield, utilization, storage and ultimate storage of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumueller, L.; Hermann, J.

    1977-11-01

    More than 80% of the uranium leaving uranium enrichment plants is depleted to a residual content of about 0,25% U 235. Due to the present ineconomical further depletion to the technically possible residual content of 0,1% U 235, the so-called 'tails' are first of all stored. The quantity of stored depleted uranium in the FRG should be about 100.000 t by the year 2000. It represents a strategic reserve for future energy supply regardless of profitableness. The study analysis the conceivable possible uses for the tails quantity considered. These are, besides further depletion whose profitableness is considered, also the use as breeder material in breeder reactors and the use in the non-nuclear field. The main part of the study deals with the various storage possibilities of the depleted uranium in oxidic or fluoride form. A comparison of costs of alternative storage concepts showed a clear advantage for the storage of UF 6 in 48 inch containers already in use. The conceivable accidents in storing are analyzed and measures to reduce the consequences are discussed. Finally, the problems of ultimate storage for the remaining waste after further depletion or use are investigated and the costs arising here are also estimated. (RB) [de

  18. Optimized molten salt receivers for ultimate trough solar fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffelmann, Klaus-J.; Richert, Timo; Kuckelkorn, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Today parabolic trough collectors are the most successful concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. For the next development step new systems with increased operation temperature and new heat transfer fluids (HTF) are currently developed. Although the first power tower projects have successfully been realized, up to now there is no evidence of an all-dominant economic or technical advantage of power tower or parabolic trough. The development of parabolic trough technology towards higher performance and significant cost reduction have led to significant improvements in competitiveness. The use of molten salt instead of synthetic oil as heat transfer fluid will bring down the levelized costs of electricity (LCOE) even further while providing dispatchable energy with high capacity factors. FLABEG has developed the Ultimate TroughTM (UT) collector, jointly with sbp Sonne GmbH and supported by public funds. Due to its validated high optical accuracy, the collector is very suitable to operate efficiently at elevated temperatures up to 550 °C. SCHOTT will drive the key-innovations by introducing the 4th generation solar receiver that addresses the most significant performance and cost improvement measures. The new receivers have been completely redesigned to provide a product platform that is ready for high temperature operation up to 550 °C. Moreover distinct product features have been introduced to reduce costs and risks in solar field assembly and installation. The increased material and design challenges incurred with the high temperature operation have been reflected in sophisticated qualification and validation procedures.

  19. Accounting conservatism,ultimate ownership and investment efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Xu; Xia Wang; Nina Han

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze and examine the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behavior in China.Design/methodology/approach-By combining a developed theoretical framework and empirical study,this paper examines the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment.The sample and data are all collected from Wind and CAMAR databases.Findings-The paper finds that the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly positive when inside capital is not enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can expend the level of investment by decreasing information asymmetry and cost of capital;however,the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is significantly negative when inside capital is enough to use for investment,suggesting that conservatism can curtail the level of investment by mitigating the interest conflicts between management and outside shareholders and decreasing agency costs.Additionally,the paper finds that the severity of information asymmetry and agency problem affects the role of accounting conservatism on firm investment behaviour,and the association between accounting conservatism and capital expenditure is weaker for firms with ultimate ownership controller as local government or individuals.Originality/value-This is the first paper to analyze and examine the impacts of accounting conservatism on firm investment in China directly.The findings are also useful to explain the awkward predicament found by prior literature.

  20. Ultimate storage of radioactive wastes annual report, 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report is a cooperative effort by the Company for Radiation and Environmental Research, Munich, and the Company for Nuclear Research, Karlsruhe, and provides a survey of work carried out during 1973 in the area of ultimate storage of radioactive wastes. Mining and construction works which were carried out in the Asse Salt Mine near Remlingen both underground as well as above the ground and which were used for repair, maintenance and expansion of the operation consistent with its future tasks are reported. The storage of low-level wastes at the 750 m level and also the test-oriented storage of medium-level waste materials at the 490 m level were carried out within the reporting period. Shielded storage casks S7V developed by the GfK were used for the first time in September for transporting 200 l iron-hooped drums filled with medium-level radioactive wastes to Asse, each shipment always containing seven drums. With two round-trips a week taking place between the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe and the Asse II shaft installation, 14 drums were brought each week so that, by the end of the year, the quantity in storage amounted to a total of 233 drums. Further information is provided concerning the present status of research work in the fields of oromechanics, geology and hydrology as well as other findings. Further, storage techniques are discussed which are presently in the planning stage

  1. Thermal performance measurements on ultimate heat sinks--cooling ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, R.K.; Abbey, O.B.

    1977-12-01

    The primary objective of the studies described is to obtain the requisite data, with respect to modeling requirements, to characterize thermal performance of heat sinks for nuclear facilities existing at elevated water temperatures in result of experiencing a genuinely large heat load and responding to meteorological influence. The data should reflect thermal performance for combinations leading to worst-case meteorological influence. A geothermal water retention basin has been chosen as the site for the first measurement program and data have been obtained in the first of several experiments scheduled to be performed there. These data illustrate the thermal and water budgets during episodes of cooling from an initially high pond water bulk temperature. Monitoring proceeded while the pond experienced only meteorological and seepage influence. The data are discussed and are presented as a data volume which may be used for calculation purposes. Suggestions for future measurement programs are stated with the intent to maintain and improve relevance to nuclear ultimate heat sinks while continuing to examine the performance of the analog geothermal pond. It is further suggested that the geothermal pond, with some modification, may be a suitable site for spray pond measurements

  2. Exploring Ultimate Water Capillary Evaporation in Nanoscale Conduits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinxiao; Alibakhshi, Mohammad Amin; Zhao, Yihong; Duan, Chuanhua

    2017-08-09

    Capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits is an efficient heat/mass transfer strategy that has been widely utilized by both nature and mankind. Despite its broad impact, the ultimate transport limits of capillary evaporation in nanoscale conduits, governed by the evaporation/condensation kinetics at the liquid-vapor interface, have remained poorly understood. Here we report experimental study of the kinetic limits of water capillary evaporation in two dimensional nanochannels using a novel hybrid channel design. Our results show that the kinetic-limited evaporation fluxes break down the limits predicated by the classical Hertz-Knudsen equation by an order of magnitude, reaching values up to 37.5 mm/s with corresponding heat fluxes up to 8500 W/cm 2 . The measured evaporation flux increases with decreasing channel height and relative humidity but decreases as the channel temperature decreases. Our findings have implications for further understanding evaporation at the nanoscale and developing capillary evaporation-based technologies for both energy- and bio-related applications.

  3. Verification or Proof: Justification of Pythagoras' Theorem in Chinese Mathematics Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents key findings of my research on the approaches to justification by investigating how a sample of teachers in Hong Kong and Shanghai taught the topic Pythagoras theorem. In this study, 8 Hong Kong videos taken from TIMSS 1999 Video Study and 11 Shanghai videos videotaped by the researcher comprised the database. It was found that…

  4. 75 FR 53269 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... and approval of sole-source contracts over $20 million under the 8(a) small business development... valuable component of its deliberations in preparing to implement this law, which includes contracting with... Regulation; Tribal Consultation; Justification and Approval of Sole-Source 8(a) Contracts AGENCIES...

  5. Authority and Moral Reasons: Parenting Style and Children's Perceptions of Adult Rule Justifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    The style of parenting of 100 children (mean age 11 years, 5 months) was established according to Baumrind's typology. Children were asked to indicate what they thought an adult would say to justify a moral rule in five different scenarios. Results indicated that parenting style did not relate to the number of justifications that children thought…

  6. Hegel’s justification of the human right to non-domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westphal Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ‘Hegel’ and ‘human rights’ are rarely conjoined, and the designation ‘human rights’ appears rarely in his works. Indeed, Hegel has been criticised for omitting civil and political rights all together. My surmise is that readers have looked for a modern Decalogue, and have neglected how Hegel justifies his views, and hence just what views he does justify. Philip Pettit (1997 has refocused attention on republican liberty. Hegel and I agree with Pettit that republican liberty is a supremely important value, but appealing to its value, or justifying it by appeal to reflective equilibrium, are insufficient both in theory and in practice. By reconstructing Kant’s Critical methodology and explicating the social character of rational justification in non-formal domains, Hegel shows that the republican right to non-domination is constitutive of the equally republican right to justification (Forst 2007 - both of which are necessary requirements for sufficient rational justification in all non-formal domains, including both claims to rights or imputations of duties or responsibilities. That is the direct moral, political and juridical implication of Hegel’s analysis of mutual recognition, and its fundamental, constitutive role in rational justification. Specific corollaries to the fundamental republican right to non-domination must be determined by considering what forms of illicit domination are possible or probable within any specific society, in view of its social, political and economic structures and functioning.

  7. Fundamentals of legal argumentation : A survey of theories on the justification of legal decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2017-01-01

    This book is an updated and revised edition of Fundamentals of Legal Argumentation published in 1999. It discusses new developments that have taken place in the past 15 years in research of legal argumentation, legal justification and legal interpretation, as well as the implications of these new

  8. THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATION OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION LAW OF DISTANCES BETWEEN STOPS OF CITY PUBLIC TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbachov, P.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigation of relation bitween the trip distance on stops location on the route between places of attraction. Theoretical justification of the use fulness of exponential distribution with the shift parameter for describing the trip distance between stops is given.

  9. Details and justifications for the MAP concept specification for acceleration above 63 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J. Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-02-28

    The Muon Accelerator Program (MAP) requires a concept specification for each of the accelerator systems. The Muon accelerators will bring the beam energy from a total energy of 63 GeV to the maximum energy that will fit on the Fermilab site. Justifications and supporting references are included, providing more detail than will appear in the concept specification itself.

  10. Chinese Children's Justifications for Sharing Resources: Why Do We Have to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Mun

    2011-01-01

    Gilligan argued that Kohlberg's justice-based stage theory of morality reflects only one type of morality and does not consider people's tendency to use care-based moral judgements. This study examines Chinese children's tendency to use justice-based and care-based justifications for moral reasoning. Children's attitudes to conforming to the…

  11. American Sterilization: The Racist Justifications for Sterilization in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Price

    2016-01-01

    An investigative analysis into anthropometrics, sterilization, eugenics, and other forms of scientific racism used to justify white supremacy and racial thought in the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States. The Tuskegee syphilis study, Darwinistic ideals, and neo-Lamarckian thoughts are critically analyzed as justifications for institutional racism.

  12. 75 FR 34273 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; FAR Case 2008-003, Public Disclosure of Justification and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... (c) (i.e., other than competitive procedures) to require public availability of the justification and... members of the intelligence community regards the potential security threat from publication of even... the sensitive but unclassified nature of the intelligence business. If this new requirement cannot be...

  13. Researching Justification Texts of a First Instance Court from Assignment to Results and Reporting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langbroek, Philip; van der Linden - Smith, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Court decisions are reasoned to legitimize them. Lay people seem to understand little of the work of the courts. One of the questions for court administrators and judges is: for whom do judges write their judgments? Is it possible to analyze judicial justification texts with a view to the audiences

  14. The importance of meta-ethics in engineering education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haws, David R

    2004-04-01

    Our shared moral framework is negotiated as part of the social contract. Some elements of that framework are established (tell the truth under oath), but other elements lack an overlapping consensus (just when can an individual lie to protect his or her privacy?). The tidy bits of our accepted moral framework have been codified, becoming the subject of legal rather than ethical consideration. Those elements remaining in the realm of ethics seem fragmented and inconsistent. Yet, our engineering students will need to navigate the broken ground of this complex moral landscape. A minimalist approach would leave our students with formulated dogma--principles of right and wrong such as the National Society for Professional Engineers (NSPE) Code of Ethics for Engineers--but without any insight into the genesis of these principles. A slightly deeper, micro-ethics approach would teach our students to solve ethical problems by applying heuristics--giving our students a rational process to manipulate ethical dilemmas using the same principles simply referenced a priori by dogma. A macro-ethics approach--helping students to inductively construct a posteriori principles from case studies--goes beyond the simple statement or manipulation of principles, but falls short of linking personal moral principles to the larger, social context. Ultimately, it is this social context that requires both the application of ethical principles, and the negotiation of moral values--from an understanding of meta-ethics. The approaches to engineering ethics instruction (dogma, heuristics, case studies, and meta-ethics) can be associated with stages of moral development. If we leave our students with only a dogmatic reaction to ethical dilemmas, they will be dependent on the ethical decisions of others (a denial of their fundamental potential for moral autonomy). Heuristics offers a tool to deal independently with moral questions, but a tool that too frequently reduces to casuistry when rigidly

  15. Ethical and legal analyses of policy prohibiting tobacco smoking in enclosed public spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriola, Taiwo A

    2009-01-01

    A spate of legislations prohibiting cigarette smoking in enclosed public spaces, mainly on grounds of public health protection, recently swept across cities around the world. This is in tandem with a raft of increasingly restrictive national laws that emerged on the back of the ratification of the WHO Framework for Tobacco Control by more than one 168 countries in 2005. The central debate on the increasingly restrictive tobacco laws revolves on the extent to which public health interests justification should ground political intervention in a private right as basic as tobacco smoking, which interestingly is often lumped in the food and beverage category. The pertinent legal and ethical questions therefore are the following: Is or should there be a general unrestricted right to tobacco smoking? If there were such a right, should public health or ethical considerations trump private right to smoke in enclosed public spaces? And if public health interests were so paramount, should they go farther and ground tobacco smoking proscription in all private and public spheres? Using ethical principles and rights-based arguments, the paper critically examines the legal and ethical ramifications of public health justification for tobacco smoking proscription in enclosed public spaces.

  16. The ethics of animal research: a UK perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    The Nuffield Council on Bioethics, an independent body in the United Kingdom, has published a 2005 report titled The Ethics of Research Involving Animals. The Report, produced by a Working Party that represented a wide range of views, seeks to clarify the debate that surrounds this topic and aims to help people identify and analyze the relevant scientific and ethical issues. The Working Party considered the arguments surrounding whether animal research yields useful results, and recommends that its predictability and transferability should be evaluated more fully, particularly in controversial areas. Commonly encountered ethical questions and arguments were considered in order to understand what lies behind disagreement on the moral justification of animal research. Four possible ethical positions on animal research, which represent points on a continuum, are described. Despite the range of views that exist among members of the Working Party, the Report presents a "Consensus Statement" that identifies agreement on several important issues. Building on this statement, recommendations are made for improving the quality of the debate and promoting the 3Rs (refinement, reduction, and replacement).

  17. [AN EVALUATION OF JUSTICE AND RIGHT TO HEALTH CONCEPTS IN THE PERSPECTIVES OF ETHICAL THEORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Perihan Elif; Arda, Berna

    Right to health is considered as a fundamental human right. However the realization of right to health is facing obstacles due to the scarce resources which are needed for the provision of health services. Besides the vast technological improvements in medical area leads to the development of diagnosis and treatment possibilities each and every day. Thus, the provision of health services becomes a subject of distributive justice. To define the concept of justice, first one should identify the conditions of demanding right to have something and then determine how and who is obliged to give the deserved. Ethical theories form their own paradigms of acting right regarding their anchor points and priority values. The basic concepts such as justice or right to health are considered and conceptualized within the paradigms of the ethical theories. Thus some ethical theories consider right to health as a natural constituent of human being, while some may consider it contextual and others may reject it completely. In a similar vein, justice and related concepts of justice such as formal and material principles of justice differ regarding the paradigm of the ethical theory in which we position ourselves. The paradigms of ethical theories demand different approaches from each other both in defining the concepts and implementations in practical life. This paper sets forth how justice and right to health is conceptualized in the virtue ethics, deontological ethics, liberal ethical theory and communitarian ethical theories. To this end first the general frame of each ethical theory and how justice is conceptualized within this frame is defined. Following that a discussion of the possibility of justification of the right to health within the context of ethical theory is perused.

  18. Is mandatory research ethics reviewing ethical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary

    2013-08-01

    Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen.

  19. The paradox of imperfect duty in Kant's moral philosophy: A problem in 'applying' ethics'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richter Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Applied Ethics debate has not yet sufficiently clarified what application of ethics exactly is. The issue of application is considered to be especially problematic in Kantian ethics or in discourse ethics. This article describes the concept of applying ethics in Kant. In discussing the duty of helping others and the theory of its application in Metaphysics of Morals it is shown that a strict separation of justification and application in ethical theory results in the paradox of imperfect duty. The paradox says that the duty to help others would be fulfilled without ever being fulfilled in action. To overcome the paradox it is necessary to form submaximes of helping, which are not arbitrarily but instructed by a theory of casuistry. This casuistry, if it is considered as a doctrine of application in Kantian ethics, can overcome the paradox of imperfect duty. However, the casuistry can overcome this paradox only if it is understood as a philosophy of prudence, which can be found in Aristotle or Descartes.

  20. ICRP Publication 138: Ethical Foundations of the System of Radiological Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K-W; Cantone, M-C; Kurihara-Saio, C; Le Guen, B; Martinez, N; Oughton, D; Schneider, T; Toohey, R; ZöLzer, F

    2018-02-01

    Despite a longstanding recognition that radiological protection is not only a matter of science, but also ethics, ICRP publications have rarely addressed the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection explicitly. The purpose of this publication is to describe how the Commission has relied on ethical values, either intentionally or indirectly, in developing the system of radiological protection with the objective of presenting a coherent view of how ethics is part of this system. In so doing, it helps to clarify the inherent value judgements made in achieving the aim of the radiological protection system as underlined by the Commission in Publication 103. Although primarily addressed to the radiological protection community, this publication is also intended to address authorities, operators, workers, medical professionals, patients, the public, and its representatives (e.g. NGOs) acting in the interest of the protection of people and the environment. This publication provides the key steps concerning the scientific, ethical, and practical evolutions of the system of radiological protection since the first ICRP publication in 1928. It then describes the four core ethical values underpinning the present system: beneficence/ non-maleficence, prudence, justice, and dignity. It also discusses how these core ethical values relate to the principles of radiological protection, namely justification, optimisation, and limitation. The publication finally addresses key procedural values that are required for the practical implementation of the system, focusing on accountability, transparency, and inclusiveness. The Commission sees this publication as a founding document to be elaborated further in different situations and circumstances.

  1. Ethics of international clinical research collaboration - the experience of AlloStem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, C

    2006-02-01

    This paper examines the ethics of international clinical collaboration in stem cell research by focusing on the AlloStem project. AlloStem is an international research programme, financed by the European Union under the Sixth Framework Programme, with the aim of advancing the use of stem cells in treating leukaemia and other haematological diseases. Several areas of ethical importance are explored. Research justification and the need to consider both deontological and teleological aspects are examined. Ethical sensitivity in research and the requirement to respond to areas of ethical concern identified by the European Commission, such as the involvement of human beings, the use of human tissue, and the use of animals are also explored. Ethical issues around project structure and management, such as ethical standardization in international research, and achieving set targets are discussed. The ethical importance of dissemination of findings and teaching in clinical research is also considered. Finally, the distribution of benefits is addressed and the importance of distributive justice is emphasized.

  2. Ethics: Can It Be Taught

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Running head: ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 1 Ethics : Can It Be Taught? Ancel B. Hodges Defense Acquisition University...U.S. Army Materiel Command Public Affairs ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 2 Approval Page Title: Ethics ...Date Submitted for Journal Publication: ETHICS : CAN IT BE TAUGHT? 3 Acknowledgements I would like to thank

  3. The Ethics of Strategic Ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jim; Strbiak, Christy A.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the concept of strategic ambiguity in communication, and addresses the ethics of strategic ambiguity from an intrapersonal perspective that considers the congruity of communicators' espoused-ethics, ethics-in-use, and behavior, where ethical judgements are based on the congruity between espoused-ethics and actual behavior. Poses questions…

  4. Anticipatory Ethics for Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this essay, a new approach for the ethical study of emerging technology ethics will be presented, called anticipatory technology ethics (ATE). The ethics of emerging technology is the study of ethical issues at the R&D and introduction stage of technology development through anticipation of

  5. The science of ethics: Deception, the resilient self, and the APA code of ethics, 1966-1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper has two aims. The first is to shed light on a remarkable archival source, namely survey responses from thousands of American psychologists during the 1960s in which they described their contemporary research practices and discussed whether the practices were "ethical." The second aim is to examine the process through which the American Psychological Association (APA) used these survey responses to create principles on how psychologists should treat human subjects. The paper focuses on debates over whether "deception" research was acceptable. It documents how members of the committee that wrote the principles refereed what was, in fact, a disagreement between two contemporary research orientations. The paper argues that the ethics committee ultimately built the model of "the resilient self" into the APA's 1973 ethics code. At the broadest level, the paper explores how prevailing understandings of human nature are written into seemingly universal and timeless codes of ethics. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-05-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.

  7. Introduction to computer ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is becoming one of the most often used but also misinter­preted words. It is often taken as an additional, corrective parameter to the policies and strategies that has to be adopted in the area of political works, environment, business, and medicine. Computer ethics thus makes the latest ethical discipline in the scientific sky. But its roots, as it was the case with environmental ethics, ranging decades; only the speech and the use of the same, as well as discussions on the postulates of computer ethics, are the results of rapid IT development in the last decade or two. In this paper, according to the title, will be shown introduction to computer ethics-its basis, the most important representatives, as well as the most important succession.

  8. Virtues and humanitarian ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the contribution of virtue ethics, the study of good character traits, to the humanitarian context. It argues that a virtue ethics perspective paints a realistic picture of the use of ethical standards in morally complex circumstances. Virtuous relief workers can employ standards in their thinking, but they are also committed to professional excellence that goes beyond any formal code. The concept of virtue ethics places a stress on moral development, which can be facilitated by role models that impart modest and feasible ideals. However, virtue ethics cannot provide simple guidelines on how to resolve difficult situations. It is possible that two virtuous persons can disagree on what should be done in a particular instance. In addition, a virtue ethics perspective emphasises the need for both individuals and organisations to discuss the actual purpose of relief work in order to pinpoint the virtues of a good relief professional. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  9. Fieldwork and ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilianova Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Slovak Association of Social Anthropologists initiated recently a discussion about the ethics in the ethnology, social and cultural anthropology. In January 2009 the association organized the seminar “Ethics in ethnology/social anthropology which brought vivid response in the academic community in Slovakia. The paper will deal with the question which are the most frequent ethic problems in field work such as for example the selection of research topic from the ethic point of view, ethic regulations during the conducting of field work, the protection of respondent’s personal data during the elaboration of data and archiving, the publication of research data etc. The author will inform about approaches and react to the current discussion about the possibilities how to solve the ethic questions in the field work.

  10. Finnish Teachers’ Ethical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Kuusisto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the ethical sensitivity of Finnish teachers (=864 using a 28-item Ethical Sensitivity Scale Questionnaire (ESSQ. The psychometric qualities of this instrument were analyzed, as were the differences in self-reported ethical sensitivity between practicing and student teachers and teachers of different subjects. The results showed that the psychometric qualities of the ESSQ were satisfactory and enabled the use of an explorative factor analysis. All Finnish teachers rated their level of ethical sensitivity as high, which indicates that they had internalized the ethical professionalism of teaching. However, practicing teachers’ assessments were higher than student teachers’. Moreover, science as a subject was associated with lower self-ratings of ethical sensitivity.

  11. [Ethics, science and utilitarianism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T

    1997-11-01

    We begin this article with the distinction between Deontology, Moral and Ethics. We also review the concept and the relevance of Bioethics, as the "science of survival", and as part of Ethics, a section of Philosophy. We tried to answer two further questions considering the role of Science in orienting Ethics, or the possible place of utilitarianism in controlling Ethics. The author discusses some new aspects of the doctor/patient relationship, and their evolution in the last 100 years, as well as the relations between patients and Health care institutions. Some ethical problems were also raised related to the beginning and the end of life. Finally the author reflects on the difficulties of defining ethical concepts in the near future.

  12. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  13. “We’re the Ones that Stand Up and Tell You the Truth”: Necessity of Ethical Intelligence Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Phillips

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of ethical intelligence is sometimes cited as an oxymoron. However, as the ultimate responsibility for intelligence agencies work lies with the government of the day, it is posited that intelligence-related decisions are ethically sound. This is because ethical standards provide the confidence that decisions can be judged fairly, giving governments legitimacy to carrying out what may otherwise be considered questionable activities.

  14. Ethical Ideology and Ethical Judgments of Accounting Practitioners in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to explore the ethical ideology and ethical judgments of accounting practitioners in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are twofold. First, the paper intends to examine the factors that contribute to the different ethical ideology among Malaysian accounting practitioners. Second, it aims to investigate the influence of demographic factors and ethical ideology on ethical judgments of accounting practitioners. The study used Forsyth’s (1980 Ethics Position Questionnaire instrument to examine the ethical ideology of the accountants and adopted ethics vignettes used by Emerson et al. (2007 to assess the ethical judgments of the respondents. From the statistical analysis, this study found that age and gender have a significant impact on ethical judgment but not on ethical ideology. In addition, idealism and relativism have a significant influence on ethical judgment, especially in a legally unethical situation.

  15. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-01-01

    The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...

  16. Secretary's Business Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾玉丹

    2017-01-01

    Secretary is a comprehensive, service, auxiliary and political job with high requests. The so-called secretary's business ethics refers to the sum of all the secretary's acts required to comply with professional responsibility, professional emotion, role orientation, discipline-obeying and ethics-obeying. The purpose of this paper is to present a good way to know the ethics that a secretary should own to act out perfectly.

  17. Cybersecurity and Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Yaghmaei, Emad; van de Poel, Ibo; Christen, Markus; Gordijn, Bert; Kleine, Nadia; Loi, Michele; Morgan, Gwenyth; Weber, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    This White Paper outlines how the ethical discourse on cybersecurity has developed in the scientific literature, which ethical issues gained interest, which value conflicts are discussed, and where the “blind spots” in the current ethical discourse on cybersecurity are located. The White Paper is based on an extensive literature with a focus on three reference domains with unique types of value conflicts: health, business/finance and national security. For each domain, a systematic literature...

  18. Ethics without Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    Ethics Without Intention tackles the questions raised by difficult moral dilemmas by providing a critical analysis of double effect and its most common ethical and political applications. The book discusses the philosophical distinction between intended harm and foreseen but unintended harm...... of our time. An engaging and comprehensive introduction to the doctrine of double effect. - See more at: http://www.bloomsbury.com/uk/ethics-without-intention-9781472525796/#sthash.NKISOPL8.dpuf...

  19. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  20. ETHICAL ASPECTS OF SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Amantova-Salmane, Liene

    2015-01-01

    Ethics can be defined as a reflection on nature and a definition of “the good”. Individuals value qualities and things dissimilarly, most visibly, but they also value their goods in different ways, in different relations to each other, for different reasons, and to different ends. These differences are very applicable to sustainability. In other words, sustainability cannot be achieved without attention to its ethical dimensions. The aim of this research is to examine the ethical aspects of s...

  1. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT)

  2. Business ethics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaias Rivera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the review of the literature dedicated to relevant social issues that have been addressed by business practices and the business ethics literature, especially during the past century. The review of practical literature is undertaken from the perspective of the practitioner and demonstrates that the business ethics literature has been lax in the sense that it mostly addresses specific managerial problems and personal ethics within the business environment.

  3. Ultimate strength of a large wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moelholt Jensen, Find

    2008-05-15

    of the profile, also called 'local deformations', to verify a more complex response than that of a Bernoulli-Euler Beam. A large number of mechanical displacement sensors and strain gauges were mounted inside and outside the structure. These measurements further proved highly useful when validating Finite Element based analysis and failure mechanisms should be decided. Finally, comparisons of the ultimate failure loads observed in the full-scale tests are presented and conclusions are drawn based on the mechanisms found. (au)

  4. Ultimate resistance of a reinforced concrete foundation under impulsive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquaro, D.; Forasassi, G.; Marconi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of a spent nuclear fuel cask against a reinforced concrete slab of a temporary repository for spent nuclear fuel is numerically analysed. The analysis considers accidental events in which a spent nuclear fuel cask would drop against the floor of a repository during lifting operations. Two types of solutions have been taken into account: a simple reinforced concrete structure and a structure provided with a 40 mm thick steel liner on the impacted surface, connected to a 1600 mm thick concrete bed. The model is assumed to be axisymmetric and positioned on an elastic ground (Winkler model). The concrete has been simulated as: elastic perfectly plastic under compressive stresses limited by a crushing strain; elastic linear under tensile stresses until a cracking stress value and a following decrease of stress characterized by a constant or variable softening modulus; limited ability to resist at shear stresses after cracking characterized by a shear retention factor. The steel of the reinforcement bars and of the cask has been simulated as an elastic perfectly plastic material. Several numerical simulations have been performed in order to determine the influence, on the ultimate resistance of the structure under examination, of the steel liner, of some characteristic parameters of concrete (as the softening module and the shear retention factor) and of the Winkler coefficient values, simulating the elastic behaviour of the ground. The obtained results demonstrate that a steel liner produces a lower stress in the concrete as well as in the reinforcement but the bed is still subjected to the cracking phenomenon throughout its entire width although the crushing is localized to only a few elements near the impact zone. The use of a more complex constitutive equation for the concrete considering the shear retention factor and the softening module has given results which do not differ greatly from those related to a more simplified model. A different degree of

  5. Ethical Consideration of Radiological Protection: Learning from Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara-Saio, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Chieko Kurihara suggested the bio-ethics principles of autonomy, beneficence and justice as related and linked to those ones of radiological protection, justification, optimization and dose limit, by giving the bases for an introductory discussion around them and the RP system. The second part of the presentation focused on ethical considerations about actual issues which happened in Fukushima, by analyzing and studying them from different perspectives and points of view: logistics, communication, evacuation-return processes, aspects such as compensation, conflict of interests and future perspectives. For example a lack of logistic in repairing the facilities, evacuation and elimination of contaminated land contributed in the distrustfulness of public; lay-experts, learning from anti-nuke experts have been communicating about radiation risk; mandatory evacuation was criticized by considering other types of impact resulting from the evacuation itself. Also decision-making about returning is always difficult in view of the protection of vulnerable groups such as of elderly, children and fetus while hot discussions were opened on the basis of to which extent damage resulting from radiation exposure should be compensated and the level of epidemiological survey. A significant part of criticisms started about the conflict of interest among NPP related companies, government, students with great attention of the public. Within the conclusions it was highlighted the need to make RP system working well and properly, especially in emergency situations and this could be improved if the RP system, well before emergency situations, is understood at least by politicians and stakeholders and implemented in governmental policies and regulations, with ethical justifications

  6. Ethics in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Ethics is a branch of philosophy. Its object is the study of both moral and immoral behaviour in order to make well founded judgements and to arrive at adequate recommendations. The Collins English Dictionary provides the following definitions of the word ethic: Ethic: a moral principle or set of moral values held by an individual or group; Ethics(singular): the philosophical study of the moral value of human conduct and of the rules and principles that ought to govern it; Ethics(pleural): a social, religious or civil code of behaviour considered correct, especially that of a particular group, profession or individual; Ethics(pleural): the moral fitness of a decision, course of action, etc. Ethics has a two-fold objective: Firstly it evaluates human practices by calling upon moral standards; it may give prescriptive advice on how to act morally in a specific kind of situation. This implies analysis and evaluation. Sometimes this is known as Normative ethics. The second is to provide therapeutic advice, suggesting solutions and policies. It must be based on well-informed opinions and requires a clear understanding of the vital issues. In the medical world, we are governed by the Hippocratic Oath. Essentially this requires medical practitioners (doctors) to do good, not harm. There is great interest and even furore regarding ethics in radiation protection

  7. Ethics and marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethics is the inner law of the individual. Its application is controlled and sacked by the self-awareness and the surrounding (by ethical codecs. The self-awareness is the inner law produced by everyday life, and is therefore changeable and adaptable to the outer reality. The ethics is a common field of marketing research, within the processes of ethical dilemmas and the marketing research process itself (identified target segments: the public the consumer, the subject ordering marketing research and marketing researchers.

  8. Ethics in IT Outsourcing

    CERN Document Server

    Gold, Tandy

    2012-01-01

    In IT divisions and organizations, the need to execute in a competitive and complex technical environment while demonstrating personal integrity can be a significant personal and organizational challenge. Supplying concrete guidelines for those at an ethical crossroads, Ethics in IT Outsourcing explores the complex challenges of aligning IT outsourcing programs with ethical conduct and standards. This one-stop reference on the ethical structure and execution of IT outsourcing incorporates an easy-to-apply checklist of principles for outsourcing executives and managers. It examines certificatio

  9. Whistleblowing and organizational ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Susan L

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss an external whistleblowing event that occurred after all internal whistleblowing through the hierarchy of the organization had failed. It is argued that an organization that does not support those that whistle blow because of violation of professional standards is indicative of a failure of organizational ethics. Several ways to build an ethics infrastructure that could reduce the need to resort to external whistleblowing are discussed. A relational ethics approach is presented as a way to eliminate the negative consequences of whistleblowing by fostering an interdependent moral community to address ethical concerns.

  10. Evolving Ethical Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Van Rensselaer

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the role of the scientist in changing ethical concepts from simple interpersonal and theological imperatives towards "survival imperatives that must form the core of environmental bioethics." (CS)

  11. Revisiting eco-ethics and econ-ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Kinne

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern humanity can survive only if traditional ethics are extended to include eco-ethics and econ-ethics. Success or failure in developing and implementing these new ethical constructs will affect the fate of our species Homo sapiens and that of millions of other forms of life. In the long run failure to accept and apply eco-ethics and econ-ethics would reduce the capacities of Planet Earth to support life.

  12. Public titles of clinical trials should have ethics review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Carla; Reveiz, Ludovic; Tisdale, John F

    2015-09-01

    A key aspect to guarantee that research with human subjects is ethical is being overlooked. Ethics review committees invest great effort examining the informed consent documents of research protocols to ensure that potential participants can provide consent validly and are not deluded into thinking that the experimental intervention they may sign up for is already known to be therapeutic. However, these efforts to avoid what is called the "therapeutic misconception" might be in vain if the title with which the studies are being introduced to the potential participants escapes ethics review. Research participants might be deceived by clinical trials entitled "novel therapy" when the point of the trial is precisely to find out whether the intervention at stake is therapeutic or not. Providing potential research participants with such misleading information hampers their ability to make informed decisions. The well-established scrutiny that ethics review committees exercise with regard to consent forms is limited if the registration of clinical trials, for which a public title is chosen, constitutes a process that is independent from the ethics review. In this article, we examine this problem, assess recent measures to integrate clinical trial registration with ethics review processes, and provide specific recommendations to solve the problem and ultimately enhance the accountability, transparency, and ethics of research with human subjects. Copyright © 2015 Pan American Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. THE ETHICS OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY IN TURKEY: RESPONSIBILITY AND CONSENT TO RISK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artvinli, Fatih

    2016-06-01

    Work-related diseases, injuries, risks and deaths are the issues that have been recently gaining importance especially in developing countries. The ethical dimensions of occupational health and safety have remained as relatively understudied areas. Concepts such as responsibility, consent, autonomy, paternalism, choice, and certain values or justifications that are used in medical ethics and bioethics are also applicable to occupational health and safety. This article examines the ethical issues of responsibility and consent to occupational risk. It will first define the concepts of consent and risk, and then different views on responsibility and consent to risk will be discussed. The article will also examine the responsibility of the society and government regarding these concepts.

  14. Peter Koslowski’s Ethics and Economics or Ethical Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of ethical economy (Wirtschaftsethik) and the relation between ethics and economics on the basis of the work of the German ethical economist Peter Koslowski. The concept of ethical economy includes three levels: micro, meso and macro levels; and it also deals...... with the philosophical analysis of the ethical foundations of the economy. After the discussion of these elements of the ethical economy, the paper presents some possible research topics for a research agenda about economic ethics or ethical economy....

  15. Minimum Age of Sale for Tobacco Products and Electronic Cigarettes: Ethical Acceptability of US "Tobacco 21 Laws".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morain, Stephanie Rubino; Malek, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have recently passed laws that raise the minimum age of sale for tobacco products and electronic cigarettes to 21 years (Tobacco 21 laws). Although these laws have been demonstrated to be an effective means to reduce youth smoking initiation, their passage and potential expansion have provoked controversy. Critics have objected to these laws, claiming that they unduly intrude on individual freedom and that they irrationally and paternalistically restrict the freedom of those aged 18 to 20 years, who were previously able to legally purchase tobacco products. We have examined the ethical acceptability of Tobacco 21 laws. First, we have described ethical support for such a restriction grounded in its public health benefit. We have then offered arguments that raise doubts about the soundness of critics' objections to these regulations and described an additional ethical justification arising from concern about preventing harm to others. On the basis of this analysis, we conclude that Tobacco 21 laws are ethically justifiable.

  16. Computer Ethics and Neoplatonic Virtue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamatellos, Giannis

    2011-01-01

    attempts for application to computer ethics and cyberethics. In this paper, the author argues that current trends and behaviours in online communication require an ethics of self-care found in Plotinus’ self-centred virtue ethics theory. The paper supports the position that Plotinus’ virtue ethics......n normative ethical theory, computer ethics belongs to the area of applied ethics dealing with practical and everyday moral problems arising from the use of computers and computer networks in the information society. Modern scholarship usually approves deontological and utilitarian ethics...... as appropriate to computer ethics, while classical theories of ethics, such as virtue ethics, are usually neglected as anachronistic and unsuitable to the information era and ICT industry. During past decades, an Aristotelian form of virtue ethics has been revived in modern philosophical enquiries with serious...

  17. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  18. Minors and euthanasia: a systematic review of argument-based ethics literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuman, Giulia; Gastmans, Chris

    2017-07-01

    Euthanasia was first legalised in the Netherlands in 2002, followed by similar legislation in Belgium the same year. Since the beginning, however, only the Netherlands included the possibility for minors older than 12 years to request euthanasia. In 2014, the Belgian Act legalising euthanasia was amended to include requests by minors who possess the capacity of discernment. This amendment sparked great debate, and raised difficult ethical questions about when and how a minor can be deemed competent. We conducted a systematic review of argument-based literature on euthanasia in minors. The search process followed PRISMA guidelines. Thirteen publications were included. The four-principle approach of medical ethics was used to organise the ethical arguments underlying this debate. The justification for allowing euthanasia in minors is buttressed mostly by the principles of beneficence and respect for autonomy. Somewhat paradoxically, both principles are also used in the literature to argue against the extension of legislation to minors. Opponents of euthanasia generally rely on the principle of non-maleficence. The present analysis reveals that the debate surrounding euthanasia in minors is at an early stage. In order to allow a more in-depth ethical discussion, we suggest enriching the four-principle approach by including a care-ethics approach. What is Known: • The Netherlands and Belgium are the only two countries in the world with euthanasia legislation making it possible for minors to receive euthanasia. • This legislation provoked great debate globally, with ethical arguments for and against this legislation. What is New: • A systematic description of the ethical concepts and arguments grounding the debate on euthanasia in minors, as reported in the argument-based ethics literature. • A need has been identified to enrich the debate with a care-ethics approach to avoid oversimplifying the ethical decision-making process.

  19. Motivation, justification, normalization: talk strategies used by Canadian medical tourists regarding their choices to go abroad for hip and knee surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Keri; Crooks, Valorie A; Chouinard, Vera; Snyder, Jeremy; Johnston, Rory; Casey, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Contributing to health geography scholarship on the topic, the objective of this paper is to reveal Canadian medical tourists' perspectives regarding their choices to seek knee replacement or hip replacement or resurfacing (KRHRR) at medical tourism facilities abroad rather than domestically. We address this objective by examining the 'talk strategies' used by these patients in discussing their choices and the ways in which such talk is co-constructed by others. Fourteen interviews were conducted with Canadians aged 42-77 who had gone abroad for KRHRR. Three types of talk strategies emerged through thematic analysis of their narratives: motivation, justification, and normalization talk. Motivation talk referenced participants' desires to maintain or resume physical activity, employment, and participation in daily life. Justification talk emerged when participants described how limitations in the domestic system drove them abroad. Finally, being a medical tourist was talked about as being normal on several bases. Among other findings, the use of these three talk strategies in patients' narratives surrounding medical tourism for KRHRR offers new insight into the language-health-place interconnection. Specifically, they reveal the complex ways in which medical tourists use talk strategies to assert the soundness of their choice to shift the site of their own medical care on a global scale while also anticipating, if not even guarding against, criticism of what ultimately is their own patient mobility. These talk strategies provide valuable insight into why international patients are opting to engage in the spatially explicit practice of medical tourism and who and what are informing their choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What is data ethics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano; Taddeo, Mariarosaria

    2016-12-28

    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping data ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing and use), algorithms (including artificial intelligence, artificial agents, machine learning and robots) and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data ethics builds on the foundation provided by computer and information ethics but, at the same time, it refines the approach endorsed so far in this research field, by shifting the level of abstraction of ethical enquiries, from being information-centric to being data-centric. This shift brings into focus the different moral dimensions of all kinds of data, even data that never translate directly into information but can be used to support actions or generate behaviours, for example. It highlights the need for ethical analyses to concentrate on the content and nature of computational operations-the interactions among hardware, software and data-rather than on the variety of digital technologies that enable them. And it emphasizes the complexity of the ethical challenges posed by data science. Because of such complexity, data ethics should be developed from the start as a macroethics, that is, as an overall framework that avoids narrow, ad hoc approaches and addresses the ethical impact and implications of data science and its applications within a consistent, holistic and inclusive framework. Only as a macroethics will data ethics provide solutions that can maximize the value of data science for our societies, for all of us and for our environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Promotion of ethical principles in provision of medication therapy management services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Kelling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As pharmacists move toward more patient-centered care through medication therapy management (MTM, important issues and conflicts may arise within the therapeutic relationship, requiring pharmacists to use ethical knowledge and skills toward conflict-resolution. The purpose of this paper is to explore practical strategies that pharmacists and other champions of MTM may utilize to support the ethical principles of autonomy, veracity, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice, along with an ethic of care during the provision of MTM services. With a deeper understanding of ethical principles and the Code of Ethics for Pharmacists, pharmacists may be more prepared to make difficult ethical decisions, and ultimately, guide better patient care.   Type: Idea Paper

  2. Ethical concerns arising from screening procedures such as mammography and self-referral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.

    2009-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of X-rays, their harmful effects became apparent. While the harmful effects of ionising radiation were recognised at an early stage, it took some time before a systematic approach to radiation protection evolved. This began with the development of simple rules to reduce the risk of stochastic effects (such as cancer induction) and the occurrence of deterministic injuries (e.g. cataract formation). These rules have evolved into the basic principles of radiation protection, one of which is the concept of justification, which in its simplest form may be taken as doing more benefit than harm. The concept of justification has particular ethical concerns when applied to population screening procedures. These problems are described in this paper with a particular emphasis on the cases of screening and self-referral procedures. (authors)

  3. Ethics and Leadership: Integration or Disharmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ethical theories and ethics in war, provides a summary of the three important ethical theories ( utilitarianism , rule- based ethical ...practical merit: utilitarianism , rule- based ethical systems, and virtue ethics . Utilitarian Ethics Utilitarian acts are defined as morally right... utilitarian ethics certainly can be applied to justify some restrictions on the conduct of warfare.23 According to this theory, the solution to

  4. Mechanisms Linking Ethical Leadership to Ethical Sales Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Chi

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior. A total of 248 matched surveys with participant responses from insurance agents and their customers were collected. The insurance agents were asked to rate the ethical leadership of their leaders, the ethical climate in their organization, and their individual moral identity. Customers were asked to rate the perceived ethical sales behavior of the insurance agents. This empirical study utilized moderated mediation techniques to analyze the data. Results indicated that ethical climate mediated the relationship between ethical leadership and ethical sales behavior when moral identity was high, however, did not when moral identity was low. The research framework including contextual effects (i.e., ethical climate) and individual differences in moral judgment (i.e., moral identity) can provide a comprehensive picture of how ethical leadership influences ethical sales behavior. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  5. Introducing the Medical Ethics Bowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Allison; Green, Rochelle; Cunningham, Thomas V; Eisenberg, Leah R; Hester, D Micah

    2016-01-01

    Although ethics is an essential component of undergraduate medical education, research suggests that current medical ethics curricula face considerable challenges in improving students' ethical reasoning. This article discusses these challenges and introduces a promising new mode of graduate and professional ethics instruction for overcoming them. We begin by describing common ethics curricula, focusing in particular on established problems with current approaches. Next, we describe a novel method of ethics education and assessment for medical students that we have devised: the Medical Ethics Bowl (MEB). Finally, we suggest the pedagogical advantages of the MEB when compared to other ethics curricula.

  6. Ethical principles of scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov G. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.

  7. 78 FR 69101 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... Activities: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee That Articles Were Exported for Temporary Scientific or... the Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...: Title: Declaration of the Ultimate Consignee that Articles were Exported for Temporary Scientific or...

  8. Victim derogation and victim enhancement as alternate routes to system justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Aaron C; Jost, John T; Young, Sean

    2005-03-01

    Abstract-Numerous studies have documented the potential for victim-blaming attributions to justify the status quo. Recent work suggests that complementary, victim-enhancing stereotypes may also increase support for existing social arrangements. We seek to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings by proposing that victim derogation and victim enhancement are alternate routes to system justification, with the preferred route depending on the perception of a causal link between trait and outcome. Derogating "losers" (and lionizing "winners") on traits (e.g., intelligence) that are causally related to outcomes (e.g., wealth vs. poverty) serves to increase system justification, as does compensating "losers" (and downgrading "winners") on traits (e.g., physical attractiveness) that are causally unrelated to those outcomes. We provide converging evidence using system-threat and stereotype-activation paradigms.

  9. Justifying decisions in social dilemmas: justification pressures and tacit coordination under environmental uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kwaadsteniet, Erik W; van Dijk, Eric; Wit, Arjaan; De Cremer, David; de Rooij, Mark

    2007-12-01

    This article investigates how justification pressures influence harvesting decisions in common resource dilemmas. The authors argue that when a division rule prescribes a specific harvest level, such as under environmental certainty, people adhere more strongly to this division rule when they have to justify their decisions to fellow group members. When a division rule does not prescribe a specific harvest level, such as under environmental uncertainty, people restrict their harvests when they have to justify their decisions to fellow group members. The results of two experimental studies corroborate this line of reasoning. The findings are discussed in terms of tacit coordination. The authors specify conditions under which justification pressures may or may not facilitate efficient coordination.

  10. Redundancy of Redundancy in Justifications of Verdicts of Polish The Constitutional Tribuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Winczorek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of an empirical study of 150 justifications of verdicts of the Polish Constitutional Tribunal (CT are discussed. CT justifies its decisions mostly on authoritative references to previous decisions and other doxa- type arguments. It thus does not convince the audience of a decision's validity, but rather documents it. Further, the methodology changes depending on features of the case. The results are analysed using a conceptual    framework    of sociological systems theory. It is shown that CT's justification methodology ignores the redundancy (excess of references and dependencies of the legal system, finding redundancy redundant. This is a risky strategy of decision- making, enabling political influence.

  11. Combining Theory of Institutional Logics and Theory of Justification in Understanding Ambiguous Decision Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    I propose to understand decision making by combining theory of institutional logics (Friedland; Thornton, Ocasio & Lounsbury) and theory of justification (Boltanski and Thévenot). These two theoretical approaches are different but, at the same time, deal with the socially constructed plurality...... companies have located part of their business in Denmark. Finally I conclude and discuss why theory of institutional logics needs theory of justification and vice versa....... of the world nesting a macro-meso-micro level analysis. My argument is that both theories may learn from each other and enrich the study of ambiguous decision making. In the paper I describe, compare and combine the two theoretical approaches. I then illustrate the combined approach by a case where Chinese...

  12. Are Business Ethics Ethical? Do company ethics live up to what they claim?

    OpenAIRE

    Berge-Venter, Maud-Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The following Master's thesis is an analysis of the terms used in both the ethical guidelines and values espoused by companies, weighed up against classical philosophical texts and normative ethical theories, as well as traditional business ethics.

  13. The ethical cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van de I.R.; Royakkers, L.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Arriving at a moral judgment is not a straightforward or linear process in which ethical theories are simply applied to cases. Instead it is a process in which the formulation of the moral problem, the formulation of possible "solutions", and the ethical judging of these solutions go hand in hand.

  14. Ethical Matrix Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mepham, B.; Kaiser, M.; Thorstensen, E.; Tomkins, S.; Millar, K.

    2006-01-01

    The ethical matrix is a conceptual tool designed to help decision-makers (as individuals or working in groups) reach sound judgements or decisions about the ethical acceptability and/or optimal regulatory controls for existing or prospective technologies in the field of food and agriculture.

  15. Ethics in Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presents a lesson developed by the Center for Civic Education giving secondary students the opportunity to explore ethical issues in government from the perspective of corrective justice. Outlines role plays and other class activities based on a fictitious ethics scandal involving bribery. Identifies specific questions to be asked on issues of…

  16. Making Room for Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the work that goes in to ‘making room’ for ethics, literally and figuratively. It follows the activities of a capacity building Asia-Pacific NGO in training and recognising ethics review committees, using multi-sited field materials collected over 12 months between 2009...

  17. The Ethical Employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    A study examined the extent to which the issues of business ethics and corporate social responsibility are becoming pertinent among the United Kingdom workforce. A self-completion questionnaire sought views on a range of issues relating to employment and asked about perceptions of individual companies/organizations on work and ethical issues.…

  18. Teaching Behavioral Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many ethics courses are philosophy based, others focus on building character, and many are a combination of the two. Sharpening one's moral reasoning and reinforcing one's character are certainly beneficial courses of action for those who wish to be better people and those who wish to teach others how to act more ethically. Because the empirical…

  19. Ethics in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The video gives examples, where the social educator in the very situations in the kindergartens has to make ethical decisions when using digital media in a kindergarten.......The video gives examples, where the social educator in the very situations in the kindergartens has to make ethical decisions when using digital media in a kindergarten....

  20. Code of Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  1. Ethics of Reproductive Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buuck, R. John

    1977-01-01

    Artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, artificial placentas, and cloning are examined from a ethical viewpoint. The moral, social, and legal implications of reproductive engineering are considered important to biology as well as medicine. The author suggests that these ethical issues should be included in the biology curriculum and lists…

  2. Ethics a la Dilbert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Elizabeth A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the Ethics Challenge Game (developed by Lockheed Martin Corp. and free to educators), which is a board game based on the Dilbert comic strip character that provides realistic scenarios for discussion of ethical behavior in various business/workplace situations. Describes the game, offers comments on faculty reactions after playing the…

  3. Ethics of Information Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, Charles

    This discussion of the ethics of the information process provides a brief review of the process of information supply and flow, primarily in science and technology; looks at various points in the flow of information; and highlights particular ethical concerns. Facets of the process discussed in more detail include ways in which some scientists…

  4. Information technology ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hongladarom, Soraj; Ess, Charles

    This book was the first publication to take a genuinely global approach to the diverse ethical issues evoked by Information and Communication Technologies and their possible resolutions. Readers will gain a greater appreciation for the problems and possibilities of genuinely global information...... ethics, which are urgently needed as information and communication technologies continue their exponential growth...

  5. Digital media ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles

    Designed as both a teaching text and reader for students and faculty across diverse disciplines, the book provides an "ethical toolkit" - an introduction to prevailing ethical frameworks - and shows their application to both general issues and specific case-studies in digital media (privacy...

  6. Ethics in Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence

    2014-01-01

    There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…

  7. UNESCO's Ethics Education Programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, H.A.M.J. ten

    2008-01-01

    Unesco initiated the Ethics Education Programme in 2004 at the request of member states to reinforce and increase the capacities in the area of ethics teaching. The programme is focused on providing detailed information about existing teaching programmes. It also develops and promotes teaching

  8. [Ethical dilemmas in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boléo-Tomé, J

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to speak of ethic dilemmas in a society that has relativism as the oficial philosophical and political doctrine, i.e., stable values and behavior references, are denied, both in health care and in any other area of human knowledge. In the field of medical sciences it is even pretended to pass from the observational methodology to a field of manipulation and manipulability. It is the very Ethic that is presented as a dilemma. In these conditions one needs to know the lines of thought that are defended, to replace and make disappear the stable ethic references: ecletism, historicism, scientificism, pragmatism, and nihilism itself, that lead to the 'new ethic paradigm', that has created by itself a pseudo-spirituality. The truth is we are adrift in the 'Ethic of Convenience' which changes according to the majorities. In this setting the way to go is to rediscover the abandoned ethic values: only with an objective ethic, with sound references and foundations, it is possible to re-establish and perfect the patient-physician relationship, for a better social health. And this begins with the ethic problem of human life.

  9. Evaluation and Justification of an RFID Implementation : Pilot at IKEA Customer Distribution Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Björn; Qviberg, Ola

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this final thesis isto develop a model for justification and evaluation of RFID technology. RFID is a new, relatively untested, technology using radio signals for automatic identification of different objects. Our theoretical frame of references focuses on research about RFID and implementation iss ues, we also conducted case studies and interviews in order to learn about RFID. Most RFID installations of today are Pilots or early adopters wanting to try new technology. A lot of...

  10. Justification of Individual Medical Exposures for Diagnosis: A HERCA Position Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Improving the application of the justification principle in medical imaging is the responsibility of many stakeholders. This document is intended to provide clarity on the regulator's approach to the roles and responsibilities of the undertaking as well as a range of professionals involved in medical exposures. In doing so it considers the requirements of the new European Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directive 2013/59/Euratom and discusses a number of emerging challenges associated with efficient, effective and rapidly changing health care systems. In summary, - the justification process should be completed prior to the exposure taking place and include consideration of the following: - adequate information regarding the clinical condition(s) of the patient, relevant to the imaging request -this must be available including known possible contraindications (e.g. pregnancy, breast feeding) - the diagnostic question(s) to be addressed - where practicable, information, with regard to possible previous/concurrent examinations - the decision on the appropriate imaging procedure including the option of one that does not involve ionising radiation - traceability of the above to the referrer and practitioner, - the role of the regulator is to provide, through regulations and associated guidance, a clear and unambiguous regulatory framework including requirements for the justification process and accountability within local procedures - these will be subject to inspection, - the role of the undertaking and the professionals involved is to demonstrate compliance with regulations through procedures and documentation associated with each individual exposure, showing beyond reasonable doubt that the elements of the justification process have been completed, and by whom, in accordance with the responsibilities laid down in procedures

  11. Predictions of Actions and Their Justifications in False-Belief Tasks: The Role of Executive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putko Adam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine whether children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states is related, in a similar way as the ability to predict actions, to such aspects of executive function (EF as executive control and working memory. An additional objective was to check whether the frequency of different types of justifications made by children in false-belief tasks is associated with aforementioned aspects of EF, as well as language. The study included 59 children aged 3-4 years. The ability to predict actions and to justify these predictions was measured with false-belief tasks. Luria’s hand-game was used to assess executive control, and the Counting and Labelling dual-task was used to assess working memory capacity. Language development was controlled using an embedded syntax test. It was found that executive control was a significant predictor of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions in terms of mental states, even when age and language were taken into account. Results also indicated a relationship between the type of justification in the false-belief task and language development. With the development of language children gradually cease to justify their action predictions in terms of current location, and they tend to construct irrelevant justifications before they begin to refer to beliefs. Data suggest that executive control, in contrast to language, is a factor which affects the development of the children’s ability to justify their action predictions only in its later phase, during a shift from irrelevant to correct justifications.

  12. Weighing Animal Lives : A Critical Assessment of Justification and Prioritization in Animal-Rights Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The project underlying this dissertation aims at analyzing three pro-animal-rights theories, evaluating the theories, and outlining an alternative theoretical account of animal rights. The analytical categories are justification and function of animal rights, the definition of the right holder, and the resolution approach to rights conflict. The categories are applied to a naturalist, a theocentric, and a contractarian approach to defend animal rights. The evaluation is substantiated by the a...

  13. Ethics in Online Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaart, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Journals have been publishing the results of scientific investigations since the founding of Philosophical Transactions in 1665. Since then we have witnessed a massive expansion in the number of journals to the point that there are now approximately 28,000 active, peer reviewed journals collectively publishing more than 1.8 million articles per year. Before the mid-1990s, these journals were only available on paper but by the end of the 20th century, most journals had moved to online platforms. Online publication has also served as the impetus for the move to 'open-access' to the information contained in journals. The fact that a publication is 'on-line' and 'open-access' does not negate the responsibility of the author and the publisher to publish in an ethical way. [1] The document produced by the IFCC Ethics Task Force (TF-E) on publication ethics states that 'Ethics in Science at its broadest level encompasses research ethics, medical ethics, publication ethics, conflicts of interest, ethical responsibilities as educator, plus many other areas.' Thus publication ethics is a continuum from the first step of research design through to the information being read by the reader. In general terms 'publication ethics' includes the ethical behaviour of the authors in writing and submitting a scientific manuscript to a publisher for the purpose of publication, thus any discussion of publication ethics must include the role of the authors, referees, publisher and reader and the issues of authorship (and the use of 'ghosts'), plagiarism, duplicate publication (including in different languages), image manipulation (particularly in the era of digitisation), and conflict of interest [2]. To aid the authors, and others involved in the process of publication, a number of resources are now available particularly those from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) [3] and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) [4]. More recently the issue of 'publisher ethics' has

  14. Ethical Leadership: Need for Business Ethics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpa Shetty

    2012-01-01

    “Leadership is lifting a person’s vision to higher sights, the raising of a person’s performance to a higher standard, the building of a personality beyond its normal limitations” – Peter F Drucker. Leadership is a special talent based on timeless wisdom that not all people possess. Leadership is based on one’s vision, principle and integrity. To be effective, a leader must be ethical. Ethical leadership involves one’s core values, to live a life of integrity and in service of the...

  15. The ethics of information

    CERN Document Server

    Floridi, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    Luciano Floridi develops an original ethical framework for dealing with the new challenges posed by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). ICTs have profoundly changed many aspects of life, including the nature of entertainment, work, communication, education, health care, industrial production and business, social relations, and conflicts. They have had a radical and widespread impact on our moral lives and on contemporary ethical debates. Privacy, ownership, freedom of speech, responsibility, technological determinism, the digital divide, and pornography online are only some of the pressing issues that characterise the ethical discourse in the information society. They are the subject of Information Ethics (IE), the new philosophical area of research that investigates the ethical impact of ICTs on human life and society. Since the seventies, IE has been a standard topic in many curricula. In recent years, there has been a flourishing of new university courses, international conferences, workshop...

  16. Ethics in Ethnobiology Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R. Welch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the recent multiplication of traditional and electronic venues for publishing in ethnobiology, the social sciences, the life sciences, and related fields, it is increasingly important that authors practice self-diligence to ensure that the contents of their publications meet criteria of veracity and ethical soundness. Although the peer-review process encourages high standards, it is an insufficient means for verifying the ethical worthiness of most publications. The ethical merits of published research derive from a cumulative process including formulating a research design, obtaining permissions, collecting and analyzing data, and finally composing and submitting a manuscript. Unfortunately, there is no failsafe ethical gatekeeper at any stage of the process. The importance of ethical publishing is all the more important in the field of ethnobiology, as professionals in the field  often cross the intellectual and methodological boundaries between disciplines, and their research often involves multiple stakeholders in widespread jurisdictions.

  17. Glosa about political ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Debates about political ethics aren't new. They have been present since ancient Greek philosophers. Machiavelli set some new principles, regarding amoral behavior of the prince, which could be quite legitimate and legal. He didn't invented anything new, he just admitted that, that was the reality. Some modern authors think that ethics and politics should be departed always, some other think that they should cooperate. In the end of the day, the voters are those who must face with amoral behavior of politicians, because it seems that politicians don't recognize ethics at all? Or is it just look like? In this paper, we will try in short to tell something about origins of political ethics, its burning issues, and about possible ways of implementation of political ethics and its development.

  18. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  19. MEDICAL GENETICS AND ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Fast development of medical genetics and it’s subdisciplines is noticed in last thirty years. Modern diagnostic methods made possible to establish human genome and its impairment. In human genetics, ethic is main principle in working. Ethic is science about biggest goodness for human or society, and its aim pro­tecting human health.Today's conditions for leaving and science development open a wide way for ethical approaches, but also for non-ethical manipulations with human even before his conception. We must keep to attitude that without law, with our behavior will must conduct our conscience. It is best to have neutral eugenetic attitude, which allows free ethical choice of each individual, in any case, for the well being of man.

  20. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, Herman

    2003-01-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible