Vogels, Hanns Arnt
The role of space projects as drivers and catalysts of technology advances is discussed and illustrated from the perspective of the West German aerospace industry, summarizing a talk presented at the 1986 meeting of the German aerospace society DGLR. The history of space-transportation-system (STS) technology since the 1950s is traced, emphasizing the needs for greater payload weights and lower costs, and the design concept of Saenger II, a proposed two-stage ESA STS employing a hypersonic jet transport aircraft as its first stage, is outlined. It is argued that experience gained in developing the rocket-launched Hermes STS will be applicable to the second stage of Saenger II. Recent developments in microsystems (combining microelectronics, micromechanics, and microoptics), advanced materials (fiber-reinforced plastics, metals, and ceramics), and energy technology (hydrogen-based systems and solar cells) are surveyed, and their applicability to STSs is considered.
Ruppe, Harry O.
Political and technological aspects of proposals for ESA reusable and/or SSTO launch vehicles (LVs) are examined in a critical review. The lack of reliable performance and cost estimates for such unconventional LV designs as Hotol, Saenger II, LART, ADV, and EARL is pointed out, and it is argued that progress toward the ESA goal of greater European space autonomy could be seriously endangered by abandoning or underfunding the current Ariane/Hermes LV program. The cost and reliability of expendable and reusable LV systems are discussed; two-stage and hybrid air-breathing engine concepts are compared; and the need for fundamental in-depth planning studies based on presently available technology or realistic projections is stressed. Long-term funding of such research at about 5 percent of present Ariane/Hermes levels is recommended.
Missa, J N
Eugenics--or 'the cultivation of a race'--is a concept dating from the latter part of the 19th century. It preceded the new science of genetics by merely 25 years. Negative eugenics stressed especially the exclusion of negative characteristics and was associated with the practice and theory of radical eugenics between the two World Wars. In order to redress 'the decline of the race', reinforcement by positive eugenics was also advocated. After the atrocities committed by the Nazis there was a lull in the practice and discourse of eugenics. More recent technical advances in assisted reproduction techniques and the genome project, however, have revived the eugenics debate. State eugenics and eugenics as an individual choice ought to be distinguished.
Galton, D J
With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works...
Galton, D J
With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century.
Holtzman, N A
Pressures to lower health-care costs remain an important stimulus to eugenic approaches. Prenatal diagnosis followed by abortion of affected fetuses has replaced sterilization as the major eugenic technique. Voluntary acceptance has replaced coercion, but subtle pressures undermine personal autonomy. The failure of the old eugenics to accurately predict who will have affected offspring virtually disappears when prenatal diagnosis is used to predict Mendelian disorders. However, when prenatal diagnosis is used to detect inherited susceptibilities to adult-onset, common, complex disorders, considerable uncertainty is inherent in the prediction. Intolerance and the resurgence of genetic determinism are current pressures for a eugenic approach. The increasing use of carrier screening (to identify those at risk of having affected offspring) and of prenatal diagnosis could itself generate intolerance for those who refuse the procedures. Genetic determinism deflects society from social action that would reduce the burden of disease far more than even the maximum use of eugenics.
Shasha, Shaul M
The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.
Ooten, Melissa; Trembanis, Sarah
In teaching eugenics to undergraduate students and general public audiences, film should he considered as a provocative and fruitful medium that can generate important discussions about the intersections among eugenics, gender, class, race, and sexuality. This paper considers the use of two films, A Bill of Divorcement and The Lynchburg Story, as pedagogical tools for the history of eugenics. The authors provide background information on the films and suggestions for using the films to foster an active engagement with the historical eugenics movement.
Cowan, Ruth Schwartz
The connection that critics make between medical genetics and eugenics is historically fallacious. Activists on the political right are as mistaken as activists on the political left: Genetic screening was not eugenics in the past, is not eugenics in the present, and, unless its technological systems become radically transformed, will not be…
Kondziella, Daniel; Frahm-Falkenberg, Siska
to the clinical neurosciences, including pioneering work in neurosurgery, neuropsychology, and child psychiatry. However, it has not been recognized in the English literature that Anton was also a dedicated advocate of eugenics and racial hygiene. This paper provides a case of Anton's syndrome and puts the works...
Gómez Fröde, Carina
The subject of eugenics is as old as humanity itself, but since World War II it has been related almost automatically with the policies and practices implemented by the National Socialist regime. This happened despite the fact that these despicable practices were inspired by legislation in place in the United Sates since the 19th century and which, in some cases, were modified until the 1970's. Today, some state governments are still paying compensation to victims of these policies.
McCabe, Linda L; McCabe, Edward R B
Experts agree that coercion by insurance companies or governmental authorities to limit reproductive choice constitutes a eugenic practice. We discuss discrimination against families of children with Down syndrome who chose not to have prenatal testing or chose to continue a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. We argue that this discrimination represents economic and social coercion to limit reproductive choice, and we present examples of governmental rhetoric and policies condoning eugenics and commercial policies meeting criteria established by experts for eugenics. Our purpose is to sensitize the clinical genetics community to these issues as we attempt to provide the most neutral nondirective prenatal genetic counseling we can, and as we provide postnatal care and counseling to children with Down syndrome and their families. We are concerned that if eugenic policies and practices targeting individuals with Down syndrome and their families are tolerated by clinical geneticists and the broader citizenry, then we increase the probability of eugenics directed toward other individuals and communities.
A series of recent scientific results suggest that, in the not-too-distant future, it will be possible to create viable human gametes from human stem cells. This paper discusses the potential of this technology to make possible what I call 'in vitro eugenics': the deliberate breeding of human beings in vitro by fusing sperm and egg derived from different stem-cell lines to create an embryo and then deriving new gametes from stem cells derived from that embryo. Repeated iterations of this process would allow scientists to proceed through multiple human generations in the laboratory. In vitro eugenics might be used to study the heredity of genetic disorders and to produce cell lines of a desired character for medical applications. More controversially, it might also function as a powerful technology of 'human enhancement' by allowing researchers to use all the techniques of selective breeding to produce individuals with a desired genotype. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Allen, Garland E
Eugenics in most western countries in the first four decades of the 20th century was based on the idea that genes control most human phenotypic traits, everything from physical features such as polydactyly and eye colour to physiological conditions such as the A-B-O blood groups to mental and personality traits such as "feeblemindedness," alcoholism and pauperism. In assessing the development of the eugenics movement-its rise and decline between 1900 and 1950-it is important to recognise that its naïve assumptions and often flawed methodologies were openly criticised at the time by scientists and nonscientists alike. This paper will present a brief overview of the critiques launched against eugenicists' claims, particularly criticisms of the American school led by Charles B. Davenport. Davenport's approach to eugenics will be contrasted to his British counterpart, Karl Pearson, founder and first editor of the Annals of Eugenics. It was not the case that nearly everyone in the early 20th century accepted eugenic conclusions as the latest, cutting-edge science. There are lessons from this historical approach for dealing with similar naïve claims about genetics today. © 2011 The Author Annals of Human Genetics © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.
Winzer, Margaret; O'Connor, Anne
The history of the eugenics movement is reviewed. The authors conclude that, despite changed terminology and a shifting emphasis, advocacy of eugenics and its discrimination against poor and mentally retarded persons still persists today. (MC)
Provides historical information on the science of eugenics beginning in ancient Greece. Discusses the use of "racial hygiene" by the Nazis' Third Reich and its effect on eugenics. Addresses the pros and cons of eugenics and genetic engineering. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)
Hartlep, Nicholas D.
For many people an esoteric educational topic is eugenics. This brief text analysis will provide a textual as well as contextual analysis of Dr. Ann Gibson Winfield's book (2007) Eugenics and Education in America: Institutionalized Racism and the Implications of History, Ideology, and Memory. Winfield objectively critiques eugenic apologetics.…
Selgelid, Michael J
Though the reputation of eugenics has been tarnished by history, eugenics per se is not necessarily a bad thing. Many advocate a liberal new eugenics--where individuals are free to choose whether or not to employ genetic technologies for reproductive purposes. Though genetic interventions aimed at the prevention of severe genetic disorders may be morally and socially acceptable, reproductive liberty in the context of enhancement may conflict with equality. Enhancement could also have adverse effects on utility. The enhancement debate requires a shift in focus. What the equality and/or utility costs of enhancement will be is an empirical question. Rather than philosophical speculation, more social science research is needed to address it. Philosophers, meanwhile, should address head-on the question of how to strike a balance between liberty, equality, and utility in cases of conflict (in the context of genetics).
In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether "eugenics talk", in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people's critical-rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical-rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics.
Berson, Michael J.; Cruz, Barbara
Provides background information about the eugenics movement. Focuses on eugenics in the United States detailing the case, Buck v. Bell, and eugenics in Germany. Explores the present eugenic movement, focusing on "The Bell Curve," China's one child policy, and the use of eugenic sterilizations in the United States and Canada. Includes…
Eugenics was defined by Galton as 'the science which deals with all influences that improve the inborn qualities of a race'. In Peru, eugenics was related to social medicine and mental hygiene, in accordance with the neo-Lamarckian orientation, that predominated in Latin America. Peruvian eugenists assumed the mission of fighting hereditary and infectious diseases, malnutrition, alcoholism, drug addiction, prostitution, criminality and everything that threatened the future of the 'Peruvian race'. There were some enthusiastic advocates of 'hard' eugenic measures, such as forced sterilization and eugenic abortion, but these were never officially implemented in Peru (except for the compulsory sterilization campaign during the 1995-2000 period). Eugenics dominated scientific discourse during the first half of the twentieth century, but eugenic discourse did not disappear completely until the 1970s.
Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven
This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.
Kohlman, Michael J.
This article examines the history of the American Eugenics movement's penetration into the formal and popular educational milieu during the first half of the 20th Century, and includes a review of some recent scholarly research on eugenic themes in education and popular culture. Apologists have dismissed the American Eugenics movement as a…
Wehmeyer, Michael L.
Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)
Examines ideas about heredity, racism, and the development of the eugenics movement, which influenced curriculum thinkers in the period of the "naturalistic mind" and progressivism; the eugenics movement's influence upon education for the gifted; and continuing similar attitudes as to the limited effect of environment on individuals…
Not only was Sir Francis Galton a famous geographer and statistician, he also invented "eugenics" in 1883. Eugenics, defined as the science of improving racial stock, was developed from a new heredity theory, conceived by Galton himself, and from the evolution theory of Charles Darwin, transposed to human society by Herbert Spencer. Galton's eugenics was a program to artificially produce a better human race through regulating marriage and thus procreation. Galton put particular emphasis on "positive eugenics", aimed at encouraging the physically and mentally superior members of the population to choose partners with similar traits. In 1904, he presented his ideas in front of a vast audience of physicians and scientists in London. His widely-publicized lecture served as the starting point for the development of eugenics groups in Europe and the United States during the first half of the 20th century.
Güvercin, C H; Arda, B
All prospective studies and purposes to improve cure and create a race that would be exempt of various diseases and disabilities are generally defined as eugenic procedures. They aim to create the "perfect" and "higher" human being by eliminating the "unhealthy" prospective persons. All of the supporting actions taken in order to enable the desired properties are called positive eugenic actions; the elimination of undesired properties are defined as negative eugenics. In addition, if such applications and approaches target the public as a whole, they are defined as macro-eugenics. On the other hand, if they only aim at individuals and/or families, they are called micro-eugenics. As generally acknowledged, Galton re-introduced eugenic proposals, but their roots stretch as far back as Plato. Eugenic thoughts and developments were widely accepted in many different countries beginning with the end of the 19th to the first half of the 20th centuries. Initially, the view of negative eugenics that included compulsory sterilizations of handicapped, diseased and "lower" classes, resulted in tens of thousands being exterminated especially in the period of Nazi Germany. In the 1930s, the type of micro positive eugenics movement found a place within the pro-natalist policies of a number of countries. However, it was unsuccessful since the policy was not able to become effective enough and totally disappeared in the 1960s. It was no longer a fashionable movement and left a deep impression on public opinion after the long years of war. However, developments in genetics and its related fields have now enabled eugenic thoughts to reappear under the spotlight and this is creating new moral dilemmas from an ethical perspective.
This article investigates the exhibit of the Third International Congress of Eugenics, which was organized by Harry Hamilton Laughlin and showcased at the American Museum of Natural History in 1932. It argues that the exhibit's displays shaped popular eugenic ideology by connecting particular eugenic principles to specific visual representations that were experienced in relation to binaries such as the artistically traditional and the modern, the classical and the grotesque, and the scientific and the spectacle (or the "freak" and the medical specimen). These dichotomies were, in turn, experienced within the context of the exhibit's overall theme of eugenics as anchored in the past and the future and concern over the differential birthrate. The exhibit to the Third Congress provides insight into growing tensions within the eugenics movement of the 1930s, the importance of positive eugenics, the aesthetics of heredity, and how the "scientific truths" of a given era are publicized and perpetuated.
Baker, Graham J.
Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of ‘orthodox’ theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over ‘mainline’ versus ‘reform’ eugenics. PMID:24778464
Baker, Graham J
Historians have regularly acknowledged the significance of religious faith to the eugenics movement in Britain and the USA. However, much of this scholarship suggests a polarised relationship of either conflict or consensus. Where Christian believers participated in the eugenics movement this has been represented as an abandonment of 'orthodox' theology, and the impression has been created that eugenics was a secularising force. In contrast, this article explores the impact of religious values on two eugenics organisations: the British Eugenics Education Society, and the American Eugenics Society. It is demonstrated that concerns over religion resulted in both these organisations modifying and tempering the public work that they undertook. This act of concealing and minimising the visibly controversial aspects of eugenics is offered as an addition to the debate over 'mainline' versus 'reform' eugenics.
Assumptions about genetic differences in human mental characteristics can be traced in large part to the eugenic movement, ascendant at the turn of the 20th century. This paper offers historical case studies, of 'innate general cognitive ability' and 'psychiatric genetics', in order to appraise the eugenic legacy in current psychology and psychiatry. Reviewing the work of representatives, Cyril Burt, Franz Kallmann and Eliot Slater, along with their research networks, it is argued that eugenics remains a quiet but powerful background influence in modern-day psychology and psychiatry. At the turn of the 21st century, eugenics remains an important area of inquiry, reflection and education for those in the inter-disciplinary field of social psychiatry.
Pernick, M S
Supporters of eugenics, the powerful early 20th-century movement for improving human heredity, often attacked that era's dramatic improvements in public health and medicine for preserving the lives of people they considered hereditarily unfit. Eugenics and public health also battled over whether heredity played a significant role in infectious diseases. However, American public health and eugenics had much in common as well. Eugenic methods often were modeled on the infection control techniques of public health. The goals, values, and concepts of disease of these two movements also often overlapped. This paper sketches some of the key similarities and differences between eugenics and public health in the United States, and it examines how their relationship was shaped by the interaction of science and culture. The results demonstrate that eugenics was not an isolated movement whose significance is confined to the histories of genetics and pseudoscience, but was instead an important and cautionary part of past public health and a general medical history as well.
Reilly, Philip R
In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.
Burke, Chloe S; Castaneda, Christopher J
Inspired by our experience addressing the legacy of eugenics at California State University, Sacramento, this special issue presents an array of articles representative of diverse approaches to the historical investigation of eugenics. This article provides an introduction to the history of eugenics and explores the ways in which public history is particularly well suited to shape the historical memory of eugenics and encourage dialogue about contemporary biotechnologies.
This paper starts from a premise relating to the act of fictional writing about eugenics and the way it may be understood as the embodiment and enactment of social imaginaries. It proposes that literature (in the sense of fiction) frequently, if not habitually, expresses the underside of what is expressed in public discourse. That is, far from being the implement of state policy or intervention, it acts in counterpoint to the state, constituting a type of social fantasy in that it explores through the realm of the imagination what might happen. It becomes the arena for contestation, exploration, and nuancing as it essays how ideas from public, 'real' life, might transform when acted out. The paper considers two sorts of literary case. First it looks at that of 'naïve' literature, harnessed unashamedly to a specific sociological discourse of eugenics. Then, using primarily Ibsen, it considers a subset, the case of literature that does not set out to be explicitly in the service of the cause of eugenics, but is appropriated and disseminated from a platform of eugenics. Lastly, taking the example of Unamuno's Amor y pedagogía (1902) the paper considers literature that exists in a quite different sphere of public awareness. It shows awareness of the arguments and precepts of eugenics and related beliefs and practices, but acts as a transitional space (in the terms of Winnicott) to enable such ideas to be entertained and thought about, without a requirement of acceptance or belief.
Contends that eugenics is an example of normalization. Outlines an aspect of this process by analyzing: (1) the popular eugenic knowledge exhibited at U.S. state fairs; and (2) the mainstream eugenic knowledge found in the work of Leta S. Hollingworth who was an early leader in gifted education. (CMK)
Scholarship on Alberta's Sexual Sterilization Act (1928-1972) has focused on the high-level politics behind the legislation, its main administrative body, the Eugenics Board, and its legal legacy, overlooking the largely female-dominated professions that were responsible for operating the program outside of the provincial mental health institutions. This paper investigates the relationship between eugenics and the professions of teaching, public health nursing, and social work. It argues that the Canadian mental hygiene and eugenics movements, which were fundamentally connected, provided these professions with an opportunity to maintain and extend their professional authority.
Singh, Jerome Amir
It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.
Eugene Jolas, the first-time publisher of James Joyce's Finnegans Wake (1939 / 2012), started his career as a translingual journalist and poet. A French-German bilingual, Jolas acquired English in adolescence, crossing the Atlantic to refashion himself as an American man of letters. A "Man from Babel," as he styles himself in his…
Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy's work related to andragogy is insufficiently discussed in adult pedagogical literature, although most of his work deals with this field, if we employ his own definition of andragogy. This paper makes visible his role as an andragogical pioneer, and clarifies his understanding of andragogy and basic perspectives in his…
Schoenl, William; Peck, Danielle
Over the last several decades historians have shown that the eugenics movement appealed to an extraordinarily wide constituency. Far from being the brainchild of the members of any one particular political ideology, eugenics made sense to a diverse range of Americans and was promoted by professionals ranging from geneticists and physicians to politicians and economists.(1) Seduced by promises of permanent fixes to national problems, and attracted to the idea of a scientifically legitimate form of social activism, eugenics quickly grew in popularity during the first decades of the twentieth century. Charles M. Goethe, the land developer, entrepreneur, conservationist and skilled advertiser who founded the Eugenics Society of Northern California, exemplifies the broad appeal of the eugenics movement. Goethe played an active role within the American eugenics movement at its peak in the 1920s. The last president of the Eugenics Research Association,(2) he also campaigned hard against Mexican immigration to the US and he continued open support for the Nazi regime's eugenic practices into the later 1930s.(3) This article examines Goethe's eugenic vision and, drawing on his correspondence with the leading geneticist Charles Davenport, explores the relationship between academic and non-academic advocates of eugenics in America. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Chung, Yuehtsen Juliette
This essay explores the variegated roles played by racial, eugenic, and Social Darwinist discourse in China over roughly the last century. Using Japan as a parallel for comparison, it analyzes the introduction of the term "eugenics" into Japanese and Chinese. It then locates the deployment of eugenics and Social Darwinism as counterimperial discourse in East Asia. It offers a brief history of eugenics thinking in China across the twentieth century, focusing on the Chinese eugenicist Pan Guangdan, who used race as a category of analysis yet without any sense of hierarchy. He was critically aware of the scientific basis of eugenics and helped craft the study of eugenics in China, from biology to sociology, from economics to ethnology.
Galton, D J
Eugenics was first debated by the ancient Greeks, particularly Plato and Aristotle, developed in the nineteenth century by Francis Galton and Charles Darwin, and then abused in the twentieth century by right-wing politicians. With the new methods of assisted conception combined with the use of genetic markers, all the old problems of eugenics have resurfaced. Gender selection, embryo selection, preimplantation genetic diagnosis of common disease, and gene replacement techniques (somatic cells) have added greatly to the power of the modern eugenicist. How are these procedures to be monitored and regulated? What is the role of the State compared with individual families for the implementation of the new methodologies? Some of these issues will be discussed.
Tommy Douglas is an icon of Canadian 20th Century political history and is considered by many as the "Father" of Medicare, a key component of our national identity. Throughout his career, he was associated at both the provincial and federal levels with progressive causes concerning disadvantaged populations. In his sociology Master's thesis written in the early 1930's, Douglas endorsed eugenic oriented solutions such as segregation and sterilization to address what was perceived to be an endemic and biologically determined problem. At first glance, this endorsement of eugenics appears to be paradoxical, but careful analysis revealed that this paradox has multiple roots in religion, political belief, historical exposure and our own desire to view our collective history in a favourable light.
Dalzell, Thomas G
On the 150th anniversary of Eugen Bleuler's birth, this article examines his reception of Sigmund Freud and his use of Freudian theory to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to earlier interpretations of Bleuler's relationship with Freud in terms of an eventual personal and theoretical incompatibility, the article demonstrates that, although Bleuler did distance himself from the psychoanalytic movement, he remained consistent in his views on Freud's theories.
Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E
The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.
... materials, removing vegetation including danger trees, and revegetating areas disturbed by construction... implement the Proposed Action Alternative, based on the Albany-Eugene Transmission Line Rebuild Project (DOE...
The following essay is a review of the literature about the American eugenics movement produced by scholars over the last fifty years. The essay provides an explanation for today's renewed interest in the subject and for why the science of eugenics remains relevant to contemporary society. The essay examines the catalyst to re-examine the eugenics movement, the influence of Darwinian thought upon its development, the political and institutional support for its growth, the relationship between eugenics, sterilization, and sex, and how the twentieth-century promises of the science of better breeding was a precursor to the twenty-first-century promise of genetic engineering.
Luzia Aurelia Castañeda
Full Text Available Analisaremos algumas estratégias eugênicas para melhoramento da raça baseadas no controle de matrimônios. Para tanto, vamos buscar no contexto da Inglaterra vitoriana a preocupação com o casamento; tanto na obra de Thomas Malthus, quando interessado no crescimento populacional, como na de Francis Galton, quando propõe a eugenia como uma ciência do melhoramento das qualidades inatas da raça. Discutiremos também como tal medida de controle de matrimônios se deu no movimento eugênico brasileiro e sua influência na elaboração do Código Civil.This analysis of some eugenic strategies for "improving the race" through the control of marriages explores Victorian England's concern with matrimony as expressed in the works of Thomas Malthus, who was interested in population growth, and of Francis Galton, who proposed that eugenics be used as a science to "improve" the innate qualities of the race. The article also discusses how this matrimonial means of control was expressed within the Brazilian eugenics movement and how it influenced the drafting of the Brazilian Civil Code.
Hanson, F A
One concern regarding developments in genetics is that, when techniques such as genetic engineering become safe and affordable, people will use them for positive eugenics: to "improve" their offspring by enpowering them with exceptional qualities. Another is whether new reproductive technologies are being used to improve the condition of women or as the tools of a patriarchal system that appropriates female functions to itself and exploits women to further its own ends. Donor insemination is relevant to both of these issues. The degree to which people have used donor insemination in the past for positive eugenic purposes may give some insight into the likelihood of developing technologies being so used in the future. Donor insemination provides women with the opportunity to reproduce with only the most remote involvement of a man. To what degree do women take advantage of this to liberate themselves from male dominance? Through questionnaires and interviews, women who have used donor insemination disclosed their criteria for selecting sperm donors. The results are analyzed for the prevalence of positive eugenic criteria in the selection process and women's attitudes toward minimizing the male role in reproduction.
Dunkl, Charles F.
Dr. Eugene R. Tomer passed away on 2 July 2007 at his home in San Francisco, California. The cause of death was cancer. Tomer was a consulting applied mathematician with a wide range of interests in dynamical astronomy, electromagnetic theory for use in communications, and computational methods of applied mathematics. He was a member of AAS, and the Society for Applied and Industrial Mathematics [SIAM]. With K. H. Prendergast, he co-wrote the influential paper "Self-consistent Models of Elliptical Galaxies," published in the Astronomical Journal 75 (1970), 674-679. This paper has been cited over eighty times. Tomer was born on 13 June 1932. He earned the Ph.D. in Mathematics at the University of California-Berkeley in 1978 (title of dissertation: On the C*-algebra of the Hermite Operator). In 1996 he and A. F. Peterson wrote "Meeting the Challenges Presented by Computational Electromagnetics," a publication of the Naval Postgraduate School at Monterey, California. This writer met Eugene at the 1992 Annual SIAM meeting in Los Angeles in connection with the Activity Group on Orthogonal Polynomials and Special Functions, which the writer chaired at the time. Eugene volunteered to edit the Newsletter of the group, which he did from July 1992 to July 1995. Thanks to his skills and efforts, the Newsletter became a carefully edited, professional publication. Eugene not only organized a Problems Column, attracting questions in pure and applied mathematics, but he also designed the logo for the group. He gave much time and effort to this service, in an era when copy had to be physically assembled and mailed to SIAM Headquarters. Eventually he felt he had done what he could for the Activity Group. He told me that he hoped the Group would get seriously involved with applications such as in astronomy, physics, and sciences that use special function solutions of differential equations. During Tomer's editorship, we communicated mostly by e-mail, our homes being far apart. He
Against the background of degeneration and the perceived threat to the nation's health and stock, family politics came to constitute an important site for eugenic discourses and interventions. Eugenic regulation of reproductive sexuality and marriage was not only pursued through 'negative' eugenics but also through educational policies targeted at young adults and youth. Switzerland serves as a useful case to explore a general idea, namely the limitations for eugenicists of exploiting the concept of a rational subject in order to achieve their ends. Practices of 'positive eugenics' crucially hinged on the utilitarian principle of rationality underpinning positive eugenics which this paper seeks to elaborate. Eugenicists devised tools to deal efficiently with social problems on a collective as well as an individual basis by deploying technologies of government which conceived individuals to be members of a population who were each held responsible for the generation of healthy future generations. As a form of 'sustaining, multiplying and ordering life' eugenics thus relied on the premise that its ideas would be adopted through an appeal to rationality and, where this was insufficient, through a series of coercive measures. Relying on conviction and education about the merits of eugenics, however, posed particular problems to positive eugenic thinking and practice.
Ray, L. J.
Eugenics was not exclusively the concern of conservatives; it also appealed to certain socialists, particularly those whose middle class status was dependent upon their expert services and who believed that social problems could be resolved scientifically. Reasons for the appeal of eugenics to this group are discussed. (IS)
The eugenicists of the 1920s and 1930s aggressively pursued media attention and sought policy change for their cause of improving the human race by selective breeding. Eugenics gained momentum in the United States when the American Eugenics Society (AES) was organized in 1921. Policy formation and information dissemination were central to the…
Baum, Ewa; Musielak, Michał
The work presents the ideas and assumptions of eugenics, a social philosophy established in 1883 by Francis Galton, which affected the social policies of numerous European countries in the first half of the 20th century. The work shows the effect of eugenics on the literary standards of European prose in the previous century. Two outstanding dystopian novels of the 20th century, The Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, situate eugenics as a permanent element of the literary plot of dystopia. Apart from the typical features of this type of novel, for example: personal narration with a trace of irony, a totalitarian state and Newspeak, eugenics is an important element of the literary plot with is aim to exclude and marginalise certain social groups. Eugenics is also one of the main social ideas criticised by both the writers.
María de las Mercedes O´Lery
Full Text Available Until now, the parameters that distinguish the current eugenic practices form those encased in classic eugenics have been the private, individual and therapeutic characteristics of the first as opposed to the collective, coercive and improvement nature of the second. However, the present ethical debate over biotechnologies (particularly, criticism of liberal eugenics by such authors as Jürgen Habermas has given rise to the need to consider, in the future, genetic treatment as an object of the redistribution in order to avoid the discrimination implied in the impossibility of access to such treatment. The present paper attempts to show that this pretension would lead to the future dissolution of those very characteristics of current eugenics that distinguish it from the classic form. we therefore propose an epistemological analysis of present and/or future scientific practices in order to redefine those parameters that prevent their identification with the eugenic movement of the past century.
Luis Miguel LÁZARO LORENTE
Full Text Available By comparison with the historiography of other European and Anglo-Saxon countries, the study of the origins and spread of Eugenics in Spain has not received much attention. Even less research has been done on the degree of acceptance of eugenic thought in the pedagogical domain or on the role teachers may have in the diffusion of eugenics. This paper attempts to explore the subject while focusing the analysis on the relations that were established among Medicine, Pedagogy and Eugenics in Spain during the first third of the 20th century. We will take as a point of reference and guiding line of thought the figure of the Asturian teacher Luis Huerta Naves, who was the driving force and tireless advocate of the eugenics movement in our country.
Full Text Available This paper's main issue is linked to what can be foreseen as the increasing capability of medical genetics to modify the genetic composition of the human species through direct interventions in the human genome for medical and non-medical purposes, i.e., the 'risk' of a resurgence of eugenics. In current discussions on the topic (briefly presented in the first section, the 'phantom of eugenics' is raised several times, but there is a great deal of confusion on what counts as eugenics, partly because of broad conceptual disagreement over the notion itself. Furthermore, according to some scholars there is no hope of overcoming this unsatisfactory conceptual uncertainty. Partly challenging this opinion, the second and third sections of this paper attempt to identify some basic features which could be seen as intrinsically linked to the notion of eugenics, with the aim of reducing the range of conceptual disagreement as a preliminary step in bringing into focus what exactly is wrong with practicing eugenics. The subsequent sections deal with the substantive issue of whether or not to practice eugenics from the point of view of the interest of future generations in the human species' genetic composition. The main moral arguments for and against eugenics are examined from the point of view of our obligations towards future generations, and the conclusion is in favor of a cautious 'open-door' position.
In bioethical discussions of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and prenatal screening, accusations of eugenics are commonplace, as are counter-claims that talk of eugenics is misleading and unhelpful. This paper asks whether “eugenics talk”, in this context, is legitimate and useful or something to be avoided. It also looks at the extent to which this linguistic question can be answered without first answering relevant substantive moral questions. Its main conclusion is that the best and most non-partisan argument for avoiding eugenics talk is the Autonomy Argument. According to this, eugenics talk per se is not wrong, but there is something wrong with using its emotive power as a means of circumventing people’s critical–rational faculties. The Autonomy Argument does not, however, tell against eugenics talk when such language is used to shock people into critical–rational thought. These conclusions do not depend on unique features of eugenics: similar considerations apply to emotive language throughout bioethics. PMID:18511622
Full Text Available This paper's main issue is linked to what can be foreseen as the increasing capability of medical genetics to modify the genetic composition of the human species through direct interventions in the human genome for medical and non-medical purposes, i.e., the 'risk' of a resurgence of eugenics. In current discussions on the topic (briefly presented in the first section, the 'phantom of eugenics' is raised several times, but there is a great deal of confusion on what counts as eugenics, partly because of broad conceptual disagreement over the notion itself. Furthermore, according to some scholars there is no hope of overcoming this unsatisfactory conceptual uncertainty. Partly challenging this opinion, the second and third sections of this paper attempt to identify some basic features which could be seen as intrinsically linked to the notion of eugenics, with the aim of reducing the range of conceptual disagreement as a preliminary step in bringing into focus what exactly is wrong with practicing eugenics. The subsequent sections deal with the substantive issue of whether or not to practice eugenics from the point of view of the interest of future generations in the human species' genetic composition. The main moral arguments for and against eugenics are examined from the point of view of our obligations towards future generations, and the conclusion is in favor of a cautious 'open-door' position.
Ballesteros Llompart, Jesús
Throughout history there have been attempts to overcome human limitations by means of technique. The novelty of the 20th century has been to try to extirpate all the faults, the suffering, the disease, and even the death. This power has been attributed successively to machines (the futurism), to the genetic information (the eugenism) and to the electronic information (the posthumanism). In all cases, it's unknown the distinction between inevitable faults, ontological deficiencies, as the reality of death, and avoidable ones, sociological deficiencies, as the deaths due to circumstances as lack of drinkable water, of medicaments, wars or any other type of violence. The due way of confronting the human faults is to try to eradicate their avoidable causes and at the same time to understand the sense of those that cannot be avoided, as occasion of the self-overcoming and the opening to the Transcendence.
Dr. Weinberg reviews Wigner's contributions in each of the fields to which he contributed: designs for fast breeders and thermal breeders and some of the earliest calculations on water moderated cooling systems; Clinton Laboratories, 1946-47, The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR); gas-cooled reactors; the Nautilus; Savannah River Reactors, Project Hope; a chemical plant that would reprocess spent fuel at an affordable cost in a full-fledged breeder; reactor physics and general engineering; microscopic reactor theory; spherical harmonics method; correction to the sphericized cell calculation, the fast effect; macroscopic reactor theory; two-group theory; perturbation theory; control rod theory (statics); kinetics; pile oscillator; shielding; fission products; temperature effects; The Wigner-Wilkins Distribution; solid state physics; the Wigner Disease; neutron diffraction; and general energy policy. Eugene Wigner was one of the early contributors to the debate on the role of nuclear power
Current historiography has considered eugenics to be an emanation from state structures or a movement which sought to appeal to the state in order to implement eugenic reform. This paper examines the limitations of that view and argues that it is necessary to expand our horizons to consider particularly working-class eugenics movements that were based on the dissemination of knowledge about sex and which did not aspire to positions of political power. The paper argues that anarchism, with its contradictory practice afforded by the convulsive social situation of the Civil War in Spain, allows us to assess critically the parameters of the social action of eugenics, its many alliances, and its struggle for existence in changing political circumstances not of its own making.
Richard Mark Cleminson
Full Text Available Abstract This article assesses critically the participation of Portuguese eugenicists in “Latin eugenics” and traces the continuities and discontinuities with respect to this model. In particular, it focuses on a number of examples of more “Germanic” eugenics in contrast and in comparison to Latin versions of eugenics. In the former category, Eusébio Tamagnini, José Ayres de Azevedo and Leopoldina Ferreira de Paulo are considered; in the latter category, especially the work of Almerindo Lessa on “racial mixing” is considered. The conclusions suggest that we should seek diversity in both Latin and northern European eugenic models while at the same time placing Portugal within the array of possible versions of eugenics during the first half of the twentieth century.
Ricci, Mariella Lombardi
The article below is intended to reflect on whether or not a eugenic tendency constitutes an intrinsic element of human fertilization in vitro. The author outlines ideas and circumstances which characterized the foundation and propagation of eugenics between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A brief discussion follows on some of the standard procedures of in vitro fertilization, and in particular, those which manifest a trace or hint of eugenics--heterologous fertilization and sperm banking, preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and embryo selection--practices which, nonetheless, are used on a large scale and shed light on both the essence of procreative medicine and on the current cultural environment. The objective of the article is to explore whether it is possible to eliminate the eugenic connotations without foregoing the benefits of technical and scientific progress.
Otsubo, S; Bartholomew, J R
Japanese eugenic discourse and institution building contrast sharply with comparable movements elsewhere. As a social-intellectual phenomenon, Anglo-American eugenics considered the Japanese racially inferior to Western peoples; yet eugenic ideals and policies achieved a remarkable popularity in Japan. Most of mainstream Japanese genetics was derived from orthodox Mendelian roots in Germany and (to a lesser degree) the United States. But French-style Lamarckian notions of the inheritability of acquired characters held surprising popularity among enthusiasts of eugenics. Japanese eugenicists could condemn the actions of foreign eugenicists like Charles Davenport in the United States for their efforts to forbid Japanese immigration in the 1920s, yet appeal to these same eugenicists as a source of legitimacy in Japan. These paradoxes can partly be explained against a background of relative isolation in a period of profound social change. Few Japanese eugenicists had close personal contact with foreign eugenicists, and most of their knowledge was acquired through reading rather than direct exposure. The eugenic ideal of ethnic purity was attractive to a society long accustomed to monoracial self-imagery. The need to defend national independence in an era of high imperialism seemed to require the most up-to-date policies and ideas. And Japan's own acquisition of an overseas empire seemed to demand a population management philosophy ostensibly based on scientific principles. These and other forces supported the implementation of eugenic policies and prescriptions among the Japanese people in the first half of the twentieth century.
Paul, Diane B
By the 1950s, eugenics had lost its scientific status; it now belonged to the context rather than to the content of science. Interest in the subject was also at low ebb. But that situation would soon change dramatically. Indeed, in an essay-review published in 1993, Philip Pauly commented that a "eugenics industry" had come to rival the "Darwin industry" in importance, although the former seemed less integrated than the latter. Since then, the pace of publication on eugenics, including American eugenics, has only accelerated, while the field has become even more fractured, moving in multiple and even contradictory directions. This essay explores the trajectory of work on the history of American eugenics since interest in the subject revived in the 1960s, noting trends and also fractures. The latter are seen to result partly from the fact that professional historians no longer own the subject, which has attracted the interest of scholars in several other disciplines as well as scientists, political activists, and journalists, and also from the fact that the history of eugenics has almost always been policy-oriented. Historians' desire to be policy-relevant and at the same time attentive to context, complexity, and contingency has generated tensions at several levels: within individuals, among historians, and between professional historians and others who also engage with the history of eugenics. That these tensions are resolved differently by different authors and even by the same authors at different times helps explain why the fragmentation that Pauly noted is not likely to be overcome anytime soon.
Allen, G E
Eugenics, the attempt to improve the human species socially through better breeding was a widespread and popular movement in the United States and Europe between 1910 and 1940. Eugenics was an attempt to use science (the newly discovered Mendelian laws of heredity) to solve social problems (crime, alcoholism, prostitution, rebelliousness), using trained experts. Eugenics gained much support from progressive reform thinkers, who sought to plan social development using expert knowledge in both the social and natural sciences. In eugenics, progressive reformers saw the opportunity to attack social problems efficiently by treating the cause (bad heredity) rather than the effect. Much of the impetus for social and economic reform came from class conflict in the period 1880-1930, resulting from industrialization, unemployment, working conditions, periodic depressions, and unionization. In response, the industrialist class adopted firmer measures of economic control (abandonment of laissez-faire principles), the principles of government regulation (interstate commerce, labor), and the cult of industrial efficiency. Eugenics was only one aspect of progressive reform, but as a scientific claim to explain the cause of social problems, it was a particularly powerful weapon in the arsenal of class conflict at the time.
Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel
This paper attempts to discuss eugenics in education and how this eugenic legacy continues to haunt American schooling and nonwhite students. Eugenic praxes and pedagogy continue to proliferate inside the American school systems' teachers may be unaware that they are teaching in such a way that maintains this ethos. This paper and seminar's…
This paper focuses on the relations between a liberal group of sex reformers, consisting of writers and literary critics, and physicians from the Polish Eugenics Society in interwar Poland. It illustrates the paradoxes of the mutual co-operation between these two groups during the 1930s and analyses the reason why compulsory sterilisation was rejected by politicians. From the early 1930s two movements began to forge an alliance in Poland: the sexual reform movement which advocated freedom of the individual, and eugenics, which called for limiting the freedom of the individual for the collective good. This paper draws attention to several issues which emerged as part of this collaboration: population politics, the relationship between reformers, eugenicists and state institutions, and the question of how both movements--eugenics and sexual reform--perceived the question of sexuality, birth control and abortion. It will also focus on those aspects of their thinking that led to mutual co-operation.
WonPat-Borja, Ahtoy J; Yang, Lawrence H; Link, Bruce G; Phelan, Jo C
The increasing interest in the genetic causes of mental disorders may exacerbate existing stigma if negative beliefs about a genetic illness are generally accepted. China's history of policy-level eugenics and genetic discrimination in the workplace suggests that Chinese communities will view genetic mental illness less favorably than mental illness with non-genetic causes. The aim of this study is to identify differences between Chinese Americans and European Americans in eugenic beliefs and stigma toward people with genetic mental illness. We utilized data from a 2003 national telephone survey designed to measure how public perceptions of mental illness differ if the illness is described as genetic. The Chinese American (n = 42) and European American (n = 428) subsamples were analyzed to compare their support of eugenic belief items and measures of stigma. Chinese Americans endorsed all four eugenic statements more strongly than European Americans. Ethnicity significantly moderated the relationship between genetic attribution and three out of five stigma outcomes; however, genetic attribution actually appeared to be de-stigmatizing for Chinese Americans while it increased stigma or made no difference for European Americans. Our findings show that while Chinese Americans hold more eugenic beliefs than European Americans, these attributions do not have the same effect on stigma as they do in Western cultures. These results suggest that future anti-stigma efforts must focus on eugenic attitudes as well as cultural beliefs for Chinese Americans, and that the effects of genetic attributions for mental illness should be examined relative to other social, moral, and religious attributions common in Chinese culture.
Kathleen L. Sheppard
Full Text Available William Matthew Flinders Petrie is considered the father of scientific archaeology and is credited with developing a chronology of Ancient Egypt using the nondescript artefacts that other archaeologists had ignored. He occupied the first chair of Egyptology in England, and was also well-known for the museum built around his personal collection of Egyptian artifacts at University College London. Petrie's archaeological work has been studied by scholars, from various disciplines, for its scholarly, cultural, and historical value, while Petrie's life and career outside of archaeology have been the subject of relatively little study. Petrie himself wrote two life stories: the first, 'Ten Years Digging in Egypt, 1881–1891' (1892, detailed the years before his professorship at UCL; in 1932 he published his second, more complete autobiography, 'Seventy Years in Archaeology'. After he died in 1942 there were various obituaries and memorials that outlined his life and major achievements in archaeology. There was very little written about Petrie the man until 1985, when Margaret Drower's 'Flinders Petrie: A Life in Archaeology' was published; it remains the most comprehensive work on Petrie's life. A thin volume of the correspondence of Hilda and Flinders Petrie also allows a glimpse into life on excavation. In short, much of what is known about Petrie focuses on his excavations in Egypt, his time as Professor of Egyptology at University College London, or the museum that bears his name. Subsequently, as a historical matter, Petrie's work in the discipline of eugenics has rarely been discussed as part of his career.
Woosaeng, meaning "eugenic" in Korean, was a bulletin published by the Korean Eugenics Association in 1934. With detailed review of the contributors to Woosaeng, its publication background and the contents, the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and its historical implications of public health are studied. Intellectuals, especially some medical doctors educated abroad, played the pivotal role in publishing Woosaeng and leading the eugenic movement in 1930's. Lee Gabsoo, a medical doctor educated in Germany, is identified as the key person in the whole process. Most of contributors including Lee considered medical science, especially genetics, as the foundation of eugenics and had strong confidence in their belief. A variety of eugenic movements and activities, including enactment of the national eugenic law around the world. was introduced to the Korean society through Woosaeng and it reinforced the eugenic activities in Korea. Although colonial Korea at the time was being heavily imposed with Japan's culture, the eugenic activities were also influenced by Germany and the US through the contributors educated oversea. The overall content and tone of Woosaeng, revealed its 'soft' characteristics, yet it also implied its vulnerability to 'hard' eugenics. Korea's eugenic movement around Woosaeng faces turnover right before 'The Go Fast Imperialism' period. The high class intellectuals tamed by Japanese colonial paradigm in eugenics took the lead and ended up having a significant influence upon the activities around Woosaeng. And even after Koreans' liberation from Japan's annexation, they were able to retain their influence in public health area in the Korean society. In summary, Woosaeng guided us to understand the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and the historical context of public health in Korea. Moreover, Woosaeng provided a large amount of information about the eugenic movements around the world as well as in Korea. It
Raz, Aviad E
The impetus for this review is the intriguing realisation that eugenics, viewed as dystopian and authoritarian in most of the 20th century, is in the process of being reinterpreted today--in the context of reproductive genetics--as utopian and liberal. This review offers an analytical framework for mapping the growing literature on this subject in order to provide a summary for both teaching and research in medical sociology. Recent works are subsumed and explored in three areas: historical criticism of the 'old eugenics'; the continuation of this stream in the form of criticism of reprogenetics as a new, 'backdoor' eugenic regime of bio-governmentality--an area which also includes the application of Foucauldian and feminist perspectives; and the recent enthusiasm regarding 'liberal eugenics,' claiming that reprogenetic decisions should be left to individual consumers thus enhancing their options in the health market. The review concludes by discussing and illustrating potential research directions in this field, with a focus on the social and ethical aspects of 'community genetics' and its emerging networks of individuals genetically at risk.
Review of the work of Goddard, Terman, and Thorndike and the role of eugenics and the intelligence quotient in testing points out dangers to be avoided in the current testing climate, such as use of the business model, single-number scores, and tracking. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)
Hasian, Marouf, Jr.; Croasmun, Earl
Investigates the possibility that judicial policymaking is responsive to the situational exigencies created in part through public discourse. Investigates the elite and public perspectives regarding the eugenics controversy in the 1920s to explore the emergent relationship between the public and technical spheres of argument. (SR)
Paul, Diane B.
Although it is often taken for granted that eugenics is odious, exactly what makes it so is far from obvious. The existence of considerable interpretative flexibility is evident in the disparate policy lessons for contemporary reproductive genetics (or "reprogenetics") that have been derived from essentially the same set of historical…
Eugenic Theories are clearly alive and well in present-day society--or this is at least true of those theories relating to the passing on of abilities and talents from one generation to the next. This depressing thought was prompted by a reading of Chris Woodhead's latest book "A Desolation of Learning."
Greenwald, Brian H.
Historian Brian Greenwald offers a revisionist interpretation of Bell. He reviews Bell's role and influence within the American eugenics movement and shows that Bell had the respect of the most prominent American eugenicists. His intimate knowledge of deafness, from personal experience with his mother and wife and from his studies of deaf people…
Smith, J. David
The 1994 publication of "The Bell Curve" by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray is compared to other examples of eugenic principles, including the sterilization of "feebleminded" Carrie Buck, family degeneracy studies focusing on lower class Caucasian families, and other works that view the poorest and least educated members of society…
Dr. Lucian CHIŞU
Full Text Available The article presents the life and activity of one of the greatest contemporary Romanian literary critics. President of the Romanian Academy, member of the French Academy of Art s, Eugen Simion approached the work of classical and contemporary Romanian writers as well as that of international writers such as E. Ionescu, E. Cioran, M. Eliade, P. Popescu.
Cooke, Kathy J
This paper assesses ideas about moral and reproductive duty in American eugenics during the early twentieth century. While extreme eugenicists, including Charles Davenport and Paul Popenoe, argued that social leaders and biologists must work to prevent individuals who were "unfit" from reproducing, moderates, especially Edwin G. Conklin, presented a different view. Although he was sympathetic to eugenic goals and participated in eugenic organizations throughout his life, Conklin realized that eugenic ideas rarely could meet strict hereditary measures. Relying on his experience as an embryologist, Conklin instead attempted to balance more extreme eugenic claims - that emphasized the absolute limits posed by heredity - with his own view of "the possibilities of development." Through his critique he argued that most human beings never even begin to approach their hereditary potential; he moderated his own eugenic rhetoric so that it preserved individual opportunity and responsibility, or what has often been labeled the American Dream.
In October 1913, The American Magazine published an article by Arnold Gesell that portrayed Alma, Wisconsin (his hometown) as overflowing with the mentally and morally unfit. In "The Village of a Thousand Souls", Gesell called for the observation and segregation of the unfit as a eugenic measure. This article explores the reasons behind this infamous article by someone who became a famous developmental psychologist and pediatrician. Gesell's papers at the Library of Congress reveal his socialist views of poverty, injustice, and human development. The archives of his father's photography studio at the Wisconsin Historical Society reveal his manipulation of the photographic record to fit his negative view of Alma. Typical of the era, Gesell's Progressive vision combined social control and negative eugenics with egalitarianism and the benevolent engineering of the environment.
In discussions of 'religion-and-science', faith is usually emphasized more than works, scientists' beliefs more than their deeds. By reversing the priority, a lingering puzzle in the life of Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962), statistician, eugenicist and founder of the neo-Darwinian synthesis, can be solved. Scholars have struggled to find coherence in Fisher's simultaneous commitment to Darwinism, Anglican Christianity and eugenics. The problem is addressed by asking what practical mode of faith or faithful mode of practice lent unity to his life? Families, it is argued, with their myriad practical, emotional and intellectual challenges, rendered a mathematically-based eugenic Darwinian Christianity not just possible for Fisher, but vital.
Wigner, Eugene Paul
Eugene Wigner is one of the few giants of 20th-century physics His early work helped to shape quantum mechanics, he laid the foundations of nuclear physics and nuclear engineering, and he contributed significantly to solid-state physics His philosophical and political writings are widely known All his works will be reprinted in Eugene Paul Wigner's Collected Workstogether with descriptive annotations by outstanding scientists The present volume begins with a short biographical sketch followed by Wigner's papers on group theory, an extremely powerful tool he created for theoretical quantum physics They are presented in two parts The first, annotated by B Judd, covers applications to atomic and molecular spectra, term structure, time reversal and spin In the second, G Mackey introduces to the reader the mathematical papers, many of which are outstanding contributions to the theory of unitary representations of groups, including the famous paper on the Lorentz group
Li, Ya-Xuan; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Fei-Xiong; Hu, Ying-Kao; Yan, Yue-Ming; Cai, Min-Hua; Li, Xiao-Hui
Genetics and Eugenics is a cross-discipline between genetics and eugenics. It is a common curriculum in many Chinese universities. In order to increase the learning interest, we introduced case teaching method and got a better teaching effect. Based on our teaching practices, we summarized some experiences about this subject. In this article, the main problem of case-based method applied in Genetics and Eugenics teaching was discussed.
Mérida Donoso, Salvador
Over the past 25 years, the incidence of newborns with congenital defects in Spain has fallen by 56.7% primarily due to the practice of "fetal risk" abortion, after prenatal diagnosis. In some cases, such as people with Down syndrome, the strategy involves the removal of 80-90% of those affected in pregnancy. After presenting the techniques used today and statistical data, we will make a reflection about the ethical justification for prenatal diagnosis programs and practice of "eugenic" abortion.
Allen, Garland E.
Traces the growth of theories of eugenics during the twentieth century, focussing on the work of H. J. Muller. Concludes that "Muller's lasting contribution was to write the hereditarian attitudes associated with traditional eugenics and the environmentalist's viewpoint associated with modern sociology to obtain a humane and reasoned approach to…
This article reviews positions of scientists, educators and publicists who resisted eugenics and determinism. The nature nurture controversy is discussed, as well as the impact of eugenics on American classrooms. Specific attention is given to four resisters: Dewey, Bagley, Jennings, and Lippmann. (IAH)
Murray, Diane R.
This dissertation is a history of David Eugene Smith's collection of historical books, manuscripts, portraits, and instruments related to mathematics. The study analyzes surviving documents, images, objects, college announcements and catalogs, and secondary sources related to Smith's collection. David Eugene Smith (1860-1944) travelled…
Winfield, Ann Gibson
Eugenics has been variously described "as an ideal, as a doctrine, as a science (applied human genetics), as a set of practices (ranging from birth control to euthanasia), and as a social movement" (Paul 1998 p. 95). "Race Suicide" (Roosevelt 1905) and the ensuing national phobia regarding the "children of worm eaten stock" (Bobbitt 1909) prefaced an era of eugenic ideology whose influence on education has been largely ignored until recently. Using the concept of collective memory, I examine the eugenics movement, its progressive context, and its influence on the aims, policy and practice of education. Specifically, this study examines the ideology of eugenics as a specific category and set of distinctions, and the role of collective memory in providing the mechanism whereby eugenic ideology may shape and fashion interpretation and action in current educational practice. The formation of education as a distinct academic discipline, the eugenics movement, and the Progressive era coalesced during the first decades of the twentieth century to form what has turned out to be a lasting alliance. This alliance has had a profound impact on public perception of the role of schools, how students are classified and sorted, degrees and definitions of intelligence, attitudes and beliefs surrounding multiculturalism and a host of heretofore unexplored ramifications. My research is primarily historical and theoretical and uses those material and media cultural artifacts generated by the eugenics movement to explore the relationship between eugenic ideology and the institution of education.
Discusses the relationship between planned languages and specialized technical languages, with particular reference to Esperanto, and analyzes its significance for several aspects of Eugen Wuster's (the founder of terminology science) work. (Author/VWL)
Grodin, Michael A; Miller, Erin L; Kelly, Johnathan I
This article, in commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg, reflects on the Nazi eugenics and "euthanasia" programs and their relevance for today. The Nazi doctors used eugenic ideals to justify sterilizations, child and adult "euthanasia," and, ultimately, genocide. Contemporary euthanasia has experienced a progression from voluntary to nonvoluntary and from passive to active killing. Modern eugenics has included both positive and negative selective activities. The 70th anniversary of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg provides an important opportunity to reflect on the implications of the Nazi eugenics and "euthanasia" programs for contemporary health law, bioethics, and human rights. In this article, we will examine the role that health practitioners played in the promotion and implementation of State-sponsored eugenics and "euthanasia" in Nazi Germany, followed by an exploration of contemporary parallels and debates in modern bioethics. 1 .
This paper examines the intertwined relations between eugenics and medical genetics from a Swedish perspective in the 1940s and 1950s. The Swedish case shows that a rudimentary form of genetic counseling emerged within eugenic practices in the applications of the Swedish Sterilization Act of 1941, here analyzed from the phenomenon of "heredophobia" (ärftlighetsskräck). At the same time genetic counseling also existed outside eugenic practices, within the discipline of medical genetics. The paper argues that a demand for genetic counseling increased in the 1940s and 1950s in response to a sense of reproductive responsibility engendered by earlier eugenic discourse. The paper also questions the claim made by theoreticians of biopolitics that biological citizens have emerged only during the last decades, especially in neoliberal societies. From the Swedish case it is possible to argue that this had already happened earlier in relation to the proliferation of various aspects of eugenics to the public.
In 1947, Willis Eugene Lamb with Robert Retherford measured a gap between the 2 fine structure levels 2s(1/2) and 2p(1/2) of the hydrogen atom while the Dirac equations gave them the same energy. This discovery called 'Lamb shift' was a driving factor for the development of quantum electrodynamics after the second world war. Lamb has also contributed to various fields of quantum physics, he studied the ejection of electrons by metastable atoms and also the Bose-Einstein condensation. In 1939, he predicted nuclear transitions that led to the discovery of the Moessbauer effect 22 years later
Busch, Roland; Kjær, Klaus Wilbrandt
for an adopted daughter, the propositus was childless. His two affected brothers each had an affected child, and the father- to son transmission confirmed the hypothesis of autosomal dominant inheritance. The issue of nonpenetrance versus germinal mosaicism in ectrodactyly was debated by Auerbach [1956:Ann Hum......The family reported herein serves as a genetically and historically important vignette on the issues of nonpenetrance (versus germinal mosaicism) in nonsyndromic autosomal dominant ectrodactyly and the Eugenics Law of Germany of 14 July 1933, which was used to coerce the sterilization...
Rendon, Sara Navarro
Biopolitics has played an important role in fascist totalitarianism and the-Francoist regime was no exception. From the and with ultimate goal or regulating the population, measures were implemented to increase, care for and indoctrinate the population. This present study analyses the selection and promotion measures of some populations and the marginalisation of others proposed the Spanish Falangist Movement's official publication in the field of medicine, the journal Ser, Revista Medico-Social by the National Delegation of Health of the Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx of the Committees of the National Syndicalist Offensivie (F.E.T y de las J. O. N. S. 1942-1957). In this respect, the analysis of eugenic ideas and practice defended therein become especially interesting, claiming that, through indoctrination and health development, the race would be improved both physically and mentally. From the systematic analysis of the journals's contenets it has been demonstrated that this was one of the instruments used by the dictatorial regime to reconfigure eugenics in accordance with Catholic morals and national syndicalist politics.
This paper examines the available evidence on one of the most radical ideas in the history of eugenics and utopianism. In the mid-1920s, the zoology professor Ilia Ivanov submitted to the Soviet government a project for hybridizing humans and apes by means of artificial insemination. He received substantial financing and organized expeditions to Africa to catch apes for his experiments. His project caused an international sensation. The American Association for the Advancement of Atheism announced its fund-raising campaign to support Ivanov's project but gave it a scandalously racist interpretation. Ivanov's own motivation remained unclear, as did the motivation of those in the Bolshevik government who supported Ivanov until his arrest in 1930. This paper discusses three hypothetical reasons for Ivanov's adventure: first, hybridization between humans and apes, should it be successful, would support the atheist propaganda of the Bolsheviks; second, regardless of the success of hybridization, Ivanov would catch and bring to Russia apes, which were necessary for the rejuvenation programs that were fashionable among the Bolshevik elite; and third, hybridization, should it be successful, would pave the way to the New Socialist Man whose 'construction by scientific means' was the official purpose of the Bolsheviks. Ivanov's ideas were arguably important for the American proponent of reform eugenics, Herman Muller, and for the Soviet anthropologist Boris Porshnev.
The history of eugenic sterilization connotes draconian images of coerced and involuntary procedures robbing men and women of their reproductive health. While eugenics programs often fit this characterization, there is another, smaller, and less obvious legacy of eugenics that arguably contributed to a more empowering image of reproductive health. Sexual sterilization surgeries as a form of contraception began to gather momentum alongside eugenics programs in the middle of the 20th century and experiences among prairie women serve as an illustrative example. Alberta maintained its eugenics program from 1929 to 1972 and engaged in thousands of eugenic sterilizations, but by the 1940s middle-class married women pressured their Albertan physicians to provide them with sterilization surgeries to control fertility, as a matter of choice. The multiple meanings and motivations behind this surgery introduced a moral quandary for physicians, which encourages medical historians to revisit the history of eugenics and its relationship to the contemporaneous birth control movement.
This essay examines the ‘infiltration’ of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900–17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859–1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879–1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia’s and Iudin’s attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas. PMID:25498435
This essay examines the 'infiltration' of eugenics into Russian medical discourse during the formation of the eugenics movement in western Europe and North America in 1900-17. It describes the efforts of two Russian physicians, the bacteriologist and hygienist Nikolai Gamaleia (1859-1949) and the psychiatrist Tikhon Iudin (1879-1949), to introduce eugenics to the Russian medical community, analysing in detail what attracted these representatives of two different medical specialties to eugenic ideas, ideals, and policies advocated by their western colleagues. On the basis of a close examination of the similarities and differences in Gamaleia's and Iudin's attitudes to eugenics, the essay argues that lack of cohesiveness gave the early eugenics movement a unique strength. The loose mix of widely varying ideas, ideals, methods, policies, activities and proposals covered by the umbrella of eugenics offered to a variety of educated professionals in Russia and elsewhere the possibility of choosing, adopting and adapting particular elements to their own national, professional, institutional and disciplinary contexts, interests and agendas.
Building upon the work of Thomas Gieryn and Erving Goffman, this paper will explore how the concepts of stigma and boundary work can be usefully applied to history of population science. Having been closely aligned to eugenics in the early 20th century, from the 1930s both demographers and geneticists began to establish a boundary between their own disciplines and eugenic ideology. The eugenics movement responded to this process of stigmatization. Through strategies defined by Goffman as 'disclosure' and 'concealment', stigma was managed, and a limited space for eugenics was retained in science and policy. Yet by the 1960s, a revitalized eugenics movement was bringing leading social and biological scientists together through the study of the genetic demography of characteristics such as intelligence. The success of this programme of 'stigma transformation' resulted from its ability to allow geneticists and demographers to conceive of eugenic improvement in ways that seemed consistent with the ideals of individuality, diversity and liberty. In doing so, it provided them with an alternative, and a challenge, to more radical and controversial programmes to realize an optimal genotype and population. The processes of stigma attribution and management are, however, ongoing, and since the rise of the nature-nurture controversy in the 1970s, the use of eugenics as a 'stigma symbol' has prevailed.
Full Text Available Woosaeng, meaning "eugenic" in Korean, was a bulletin published by the Korean Eugenics Association in 1934. With detailed review of the contributors to Woosaeng, its publication background and the contents, the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and its historical implications of public health are studied. Intellectuals, especially some medical doctors educated abroad, played the pivotal role in publishing Woosaeng and leading the eugenic movement in 1930's. Lee Gabsoo, a medical doctor educated in Germany, is identified as the key person in the whole process. Most of contributors including Lee considered medical science, especially genetics, as the foundation of eugenics and had strong confidence in their belief. A variety of eugenic movements and activities, including enactment of the national eugenic law around the world, was introduced to the Korean society through Woosaeng and it reinforced the eugenic activities in Korea. Although colonial Korea at the time was being heavily imposed with Japan's culture, the eugenic activities were also influenced by Germany and the US through the contributors educated oversea. The overall content and tone of Woosaeng, revealed its 'soft' characteristics, yet it also implied its vulnerability to 'hard' eugenics. Korea's eugenic movement around Woosaeng faces turnover right before 'The Go Fast Imperialism' period. The high class intellectuals tamed by Japanese colonial paradigm in eugenics took the lead and ended up having a significant influence upon the activities around Woosaeng. And even after Koreans' liberation from Japan's annexation, they were able to retain their influence in public health area in the Korean society. In summary, Woosaeng guided us to understand the characteristics of Korea's eugenic movement in 1930's and the historical context of public health in Korea. Moreover, Woosaeng provided a large amount of information about the eugenic movements around the world as well
The history of human genetics has been a neglected topic in history of science and medicine for a long time. Only recently, have medical historians begun to pay more attention to the history of human heredity. An important research question deals with the interconnections between human genetics and eugenics. This paper addresses this question: By focusing on a Swiss case study, the investigation of the heredity of goiter, I will argue that there existed close but also ambiguous relations between heredity research and eugenics in the twentieth century. Studies on human heredity often produced evidence that challenged eugenic aims and ideas. Concurrently, however, these studies fostered visions of genetic improvement of human populations.
The eminent geneticist, Benno Muller-Hill, described eugenics as"explosive mixture between something we might call hard science, that is, human genetics, and the sphere of political action. On the one hand, geneticists needed politicians to implement their ideas. On the other hand, Hitler and the Nazis needed scientists who could say that anti-Semitism has scientific theoretical foundations." For some Polish eugenicists, the Third Reich was not the home of the Nuremberg Laws, but a country that "boldly embarked on racial hygiene." This enthusiastic attitude of Polish intellectual circles towards Nazi eugenic laws was characteristic of the status of pre-war science in Poland, which in many areas, such as anthropology and psychiatry, remained strongly influenced by the paradigm of German science. While the professional and scientific context of the day promoted eugenic and racist ideas within the framework of the academic milieu and the curriculum of the medical and scientific community, eugenicists in Poland tended to refrain from anti-Semitic and racist phraseology. Indeed, the Polish eugenic movement was class- rather than race-orientated. The hybrid language of eugenics, combining social sensitivity with repulsion and contempt for the sick and the weak, illustrated the ambiguous stance of the Polish eugenicists on politics and science in Nazi Germany, for the Third Reich provided the German eugenicists with what had always been an unfulfilled dream to the Polish eugenicists--political power and the ability to implement their ideas.
This study focuses on eugenics in Spain, and more specifically on the 'official' eugenics whose platform was the Primeras Jornadas Eugénicas Españolas (First Spanish Eugenic Days, FSED). The aim of this paper is to relate eugenics to 'governmentality' rather than to State politics alone and to 'Latin eugenics' rather than to 'mainline eugenics'. On the one hand, the FSED were largely centred on the development of a new sexual code which would set Catholic sexual morality aside. For this reason, sexual pedagogy was one of the most relevant topics during the FSED, personal responsibility becoming the first step to social change. The concern about making people play an active role in their own self-regulation is typical of governmentality. The latter refers to societies where power is decentered and where the objective is to structure the field of action of others (the conduct of conduct). On the other hand, the FSED emphasised preventive eugenics such as welfare programmes and health campaigns rather than negative eugenics such as the sterilisation of the unfit. The situation in Spain was mirrored in countries such as Brazil, Argentina and Mexico, which allows us to think about them in terms of 'Latin eugenics' rather than 'mainline eugenics' from countries such as Great Britain, Germany and the USA.
Alexandra Minna Stern
Full Text Available Abstract From the 1920s to the 1950s, California sterilized approximately 20,000 people in state homes and hospitals based on a eugenic law that authorized medical superintendents to perform reproductive surgeries on patients deemed unfit and “suffering from a mental affliction likely to be inherited.” Working with a unique resource – a dataset created from 19,000 sterilization recommendations – my team and I have reconstructed patterns and experiences of institutionalization of sterilizations. This article presents several of our important initial findings related to ethnic and gender bias in sterilization policies, and reflects on the relevance of the history for contemporary issues in genomics and social justice.
Inaccurate translations inadvertently misrepresent policy directives from China. Professional moralizers respond to the new laws with indignation. For example, an editorial in a US newspaper said that Americans objected to China's eugenic guidelines to prevent inferior quality infants. Yet, in the US and other developed countries, parents, and adult siblings do no allow their mentally retarded family members to procreate. Quiet abortions occur. In the US, deformed newborns are classified as stillborns. In the 1950s in the US, state governments allowed sterilization of handicapped people and even alcoholics. The moralizers expect China to accomplish in 10 years what developed countries did in 100 years. China has a one-child policy to which many so-called human rights advocates object. Yet, China cannot sustain a population of 2 billion with the living standards to which it aspires. Granted, however, that China does create its own image problems. It needs to invest more in public relations, maybe employ image-building professionals from the US and Europe to circumvent the unintentional use of emotionally charged, historically loaded, or inappropriate terms and, therefore, to prevent the international media from overreacting. Nevertheless, moral dilemmas do exist with eugenics policies. Genetic markers can detect chromosomal abnormalities leading to mental retardation as well as later-life abnormalities; e.g., colon cancer. Markers may perhaps someday detect a propensity to criminal behavior, homosexuality, or alcoholism. Governments could forbid all genetic testing, resulting in families accepting whatever nature sends, but with the advancement of science, this is unrealistic. If it is banned in one country, people will go to a country where it is available. Since parents in both the US and China want healthy, good-looking and intelligent children US editorialists should not moralize about China while US couples have access to the most up-to-date genetic technology.
Weiss, Kenneth M; Lambert, Brian W
This journal began in 1925 as the Annals of Eugenics. Much has changed since then. The original Editors' primary eugenic objective was not achieved, and eugenics justifiably became notorious for racism and gross abuse of human rights. But one founding aim was to publish advances in statistical genetics, and that objective prospered in the journal's pages from its beginning to the present day. The online availability of the original issues will be useful to those interested in the history of both eugenics and human genetics and will provide a reminder of how the careless use of genetical concepts can go astray. © 2010 The Authors Annals of Human Genetics © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/University College London.
By examining the professional lives of two popularizers of eugenic thought from the 1910s to the 1940s, this study illustrates the broader change from "mainline" to "reform" eugenics in the United States. Roswell Hill Johnson's university teaching, laboratory research, and later marriage counseling work contrasted greatly with George Seibel's forays into eugenic theater moral reform, and mass physical fitness movements. Yet both men shifted from a strict position of mandating other people's behavior in the name of national health and racial integrity to a more therapeutic stance that cast individual decisions in the context of managed family life. This study shows that for some, the transformation of eugenics in the 1930s meant adapting the traditional focus on superiority, inferiority, and reproduction by design to the language of a commercial marketplace.
Volkov, Ike, 1951-
Näitus Eesti Arhitektuurimuuseumis 04. 12. 2009-07. 03. 2010. Eugen Habermannist ja Herbert Johansonist, nende tegevusest ja loomingust. Selle aja ja praegustest probleemidest ning lahendusvõimalustest
Lombardo, Paul A
James Ewing Mears (1838-1919) was a founding member of the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery. His 1910 book, The Problem of Race Betterment, laid the groundwork for later authors to explore the uses of surgical sterilization as a eugenic measure. Mears left $60,000 in his will to Harvard University to support the teaching of eugenics. Although numerous eugenic activists were on the Harvard faculty, and two of its Presidents were also associated with the eugenics movement, Harvard refused the Mears gift. The bequest was eventually awarded to Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. This article explains why Harvard turned its back on a donation that would have supported instruction in a popular subject. Harvard's decision illustrates the range of opinion that existed on the efficacy of eugenic sterilization at the time. The Mears case also highlights a powerful irony: the same week Harvard turned down the Mears legacy, the U.S. Supreme Court endorsed eugenic sterilization in the landmark case of Buck v. Bell. Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., graduate of Harvard and former member of its law faculty wrote the opinion in that case, including the famous conclusion: "Three generations of imbeciles are enough."
Jones, R L
In the period since Carol Bacchi introduced eugenics into Australian historiography in 1980, much has been written that has increased our understanding of the role eugenics played in the development of Australian society in the first half of this century. It is now generally recognised that eugenics developed after the first world war from a relatively simplistic scientific justification of racist and class-biased social Darwinism into a movement concerned with using environmental reforms to help a wide range of Australians reach their full potential. In the interwar years the reform eugenicists (as they have been named) were active in a wide range of environmental movements including health reforms, slum clearance and educational improvements. The corollary of reform eugenics was based on the belief that heredity was an impassable obstacle for some: mental deficients were not considered to be racially 'fit' or 'efficient' enough to benefit from the reforms. Whilst this side of reform eugenics is well known in other countries (sterilisation programmes in Germany, the United States and Scandinavia being examples), it is yet to receive much attention so far in the discussion about Australia in the interwar years. This article argues that the attempt of a group of influential reform eugenicists in Victoria in the interwar years to institute legislation aimed at denying a significant proportion of the population the most basic rights of citizenship (including the right to reproduce) redresses the imbalance in our understanding of reform eugenics in the interwar years.
This paper aimed to examine the advent of eugenics and its characteristics in republican China. Although eugenics was introduced into China as a discourse to preserve and improve race by the 1898 reformers such as Yan Fu (1854-1921) and Yi Nai (1875-?) in the late imperial period, it was not until the republican period that eugenics discourse started to combine with the discourse and movement related to social reform. The May 4th intellectuals put forward criticisms of Confucian patriarchy, propagating science and democracy. They pointed out that the large family system was a source of every social evil, and argued the need for a small family system based on monogamy. The aim of the small family system was to improve both the race and the environment. Such thinkers argued that freedom of love and the liberation of individuality were necessary for this end. Zhou Jianren (1888-1984), Lu Xun's youngest brother and representative eugenicist in the May 4th period, combined eugenics with freedom of love and the liberation of individuality. Pan Guangdan (1899-1967) and Zhou Jianren debated the eugenics controversy in the 1920s. They raised the freedom of love and the liberation of individuality as central issues related to the eugenics controversy. The eugenics debate was developed into the controversy between biological determinism and environmentalism in the late 1920s. However, these issues did not continue to be brought up in the 1930s. The main issues concerning the eugenics controversy in the 1930s were cultural identity and the population problem. Particularly in the 1930s, the scope of birth control as the solution to the population problem was extended from the individual person and family to nation and race. For eugenicists like Pan Guangdan, birth control violated the aim of eugenics and brought about the degeneration of the race. However, such theorists did not deny the value of birth control itself. The supporters of birth control thought that selecting
Sayyed Rahim Moosavinia
Full Text Available The present paper examines Eugene O’Neill’s three selected plays, Anna Christie, The Iceman Cometh and The Hairy Ape, in the light of cultural studies by focusing on finding the notion of the "other", here women, blacks and the working class. The chosen groups here are among the ones that have been "otherized" by the white, male, bourgeois society. In this study, through the elements of cultural studies, it is shown that the mentioned groups are treated as Others because of their gender, class or race which are considered as inferior ones by the Power. We are going to find out that thinking in terms of binary oppositions is not an acceptable point of view in cultural studies. Therefore, the boundary between the superiority of the Power and inferiority of the Other is broken in this approach. O’Neill’s view point in the selected plays is in line with the core ideas in cultural studies. His wide point of view toward the events of his country and his pluralistic and skeptical outlook does not let any simple categorization or generalization takes place in his works. He criticizes the dominant discourses of the society and makes room for other voices to be heard.
Full Text Available In 2013 the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to the American economists, Eugene Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert Shiller. The monetarists, Fama and Hansen, from the University of Chicago, and the Neo- Keynesian, Shiller, from the Yale University, according to the Swedish Royal Academy, won this prestigious prize for their research providing mathematical and economic models to determine (irregularities in the stock value trends at the stock exchanges. With his colleagues, in the 1960s Fama established that, in the short term, it is extremely difficult to forecast stock prices, given that new information gets embedded in the prices rather quickly. Shiller, however, determined that, although it is almost impossible to predict the stock prices for a period of few days, this is not true for a period of several years. He discovered that the stock prices fluctuate much more substantially than corporation dividents, and that the relationship between prices and dividends tends to decline when high, and to grow when low. This pattern does not apply only to stocks, but also to bonds and other forms of capital.
Delzell, Darcie A P; Poliak, Cathy D
The influence of personal opinions and biases on scientific conclusions is a threat to the advancement of knowledge. Expertise and experience does not render one immune to this temptation. In this work, one of the founding fathers of statistics, Karl Pearson, is used as an illustration of how even the most talented among us can produce misleading results when inferences are made without caution or reference to potential bias and other analysis limitations. A study performed by Pearson on British Jewish schoolchildren is examined in light of ethical and professional statistical practice. The methodology used and inferences made by Pearson and his coauthor are sometimes questionable and offer insight into how Pearson's support of eugenics and his own British nationalism could have potentially influenced his often careless and far-fetched inferences. A short background into Pearson's work and beliefs is provided, along with an in-depth examination of the authors' overall experimental design and statistical practices. In addition, portions of the study regarding intelligence and tuberculosis are discussed in more detail, along with historical reactions to their work.
Echarte Alonso, Luis E
In this paper I present similarities and connections between Transhumanism and Eliminative Materialism. Concretely, I study the arguments with which in both positions it is defended a merely instrumental idea of human body and, because of that, one infinitely mouldable. First, I show the social relevance of this idea and its projections in phenomena as medicalization of human condition and, especially, cosmetic psychopharmacology. Besides, I denounce that such influences are caused by illegitimate transference of authority between philosophical and scientific forums. Second, according to my analysis, these new postmodern fashions of chemical sentimentalism (related with radical changes on personal identity and human nature) drive to new eugenic forms what I name autoeugenics. Finally, I call attention to the important role of utopian speeches about the science of tomorrow and super-human civilization in a Carpe Diem society. In my conclusions, I claim that historical reasoning or warnings about what is coming are not efficient strategies to control neither new psychopharmacological habits nor passivity generated by them. Returning social confidence in the power of reason to achieve reality (and other human beings) is, in my opinion, the best way to rehabilitate a more and more devalued human action.
Gaille, Marie; Viot, Géraldine
Today, French public debate and bioethics research reflect an ongoing controversy about eugenics. The field of reproductive medicine is often targeted as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), prenatal diagnosis, and prenatal detection are accused of drifting towards eugenics or being driven by eugenics considerations. This article aims at understanding why the charge against eugenics came at the forefront of the ethical debate. Above all, it aims at showing that the charge against prenatal diagnosis is groundless. The point of view presented in this article has been elaborated jointly by a geneticist and a philosopher. Besides a survey of the medical, bioethical, philosophical and social sciences literature on the topic, the methodology is founded on a joint analysis of geneticist's various consults. Evidence from office visits demonstrated that prenatal diagnosis leads to case-by-case decisions. As we have suggested, this conclusion does not mean that prenatal diagnosis is devoid of ethical issues, and we have identified at least two. The first is related to the evaluation of a decision to abort. The second line of ethical questions arises from the fact that the claim for "normality" hardly hides normative and ambiguous views about disability. As a conclusion, ethical dilemmas keep being noticeable in the field of reproductive medicine and genetic counselling, but an enquiry about eugenic tendencies probably does not allow us to understand them in the proper way.
The relationship between biological and social scientists as regards the study of human traits and behavior has often been perceived in terms of mutual distrust, even antipathy. In the interwar period, population study seemed an area that might allow for closer relations between them-united as they were by a concern to improve the eugenic quality of populations. Yet these relations were in tension: by the early post-war era, social demographers were denigrating the contributions of biologists to the study of population problems as embodying the elitist ideology of eugenics. In response to this loss of credibility, the eugenics movement pursued a simultaneous program of withdrawal and expansion: its leaders helped focus concern with biological quality onto the developing field of medical genetics, while at the same moment, extended their scope to improving the social quality of populations through birth control policies, guided by demography. While this approach maintained boundaries between the social and the biological, in the 1960s, a revitalized American Eugenics Society helped reunite leading demographers and geneticists. This paper will assess the reasons for this period of influence for eugenics, and explore its implications for the social and biological study of human populations.
This essay offers an overview of the three distinct periods in the development of Russian eugenics: Imperial (1900-1917), Bolshevik (1917-1929), and Stalinist (1930-1939). Began during the Imperial era as a particular discourse on the issues of human heredity, diversity, and evolution, in the early years of the Bolshevik rule eugenics was quickly institutionalized as a scientific discipline--complete with societies, research establishments, and periodicals--that aspired an extensive grassroots following, generated lively public debates, and exerted considerable influence on a range of medical, public health, and social policies. In the late 1920s, in the wake of Joseph Stalin's 'Great Break', eugenics came under intense critique as a 'bourgeois' science and its proponents quickly reconstituted their enterprise as 'medical genetics'. Yet, after a brief period of rapid growth during the early 1930s, medical genetics was dismantled as a 'fascist science' towards the end of the decade. Based on published and original research, this essay examines the factors that account for such an unusual--as compared to the development of eugenics in other locales during the same period--historical trajectory of Russian eugenics.
An Alberta woman recently won a lawsuit against the government of Alberta for wrongful sterilization that took place when she was a 14-year-old ward at the Provincial Training School for Mental Defectives. It was the first time the province has been held accountable for actions taken under the Sexual Sterilization Act, a 1927 law that promoted the theory of eugenics and led to the sterilization of more than 2800 people. It has since been repealed. A physician who served on the province's Eugenics Board said the decisions were based on the best scientific advice and medical techniques available at the time. Today, she added, eugenics is being practised in a different way through prenatal diagnosis and therapeutic abortion.
The paper discusses the scope and influence of eugenics in defining the scientific programme of statistics and the impact of the evolution of biology on social scientists. It argues that eugenics was instrumental in providing a bridge between sciences, and therefore created both the impulse and the institutions necessary for the birth of modern statistics in its applications first to biology and then to the social sciences. Looking at the question from the point of view of the history of statistics and the social sciences, and mostly concentrating on evidence from the British debates, the paper discusses how these disciplines became emancipated from eugenics precisely because of the inspiration of biology. It also relates how social scientists were fascinated and perplexed by the innovations taking place in statistical theory and practice.
A polemical response to Krzysztof Kawalec's article 'Dispute over Eugenics in 1918-1939', published in 'Medycyna Nowizytna' ['Modern Medicine'], 2000, vol. 7, fascicle 2. In his article Krzysztof Kawalec overlooks the issue of race, which had been at the centre of the eugenic ideology, and then erroneously situates eugenicists on the political spectrum. The eugenicists were not radicals or totalitarians but constituted a group of leftist-liberal intellectuals. Their views were rejected by the Polish government circles in power at that time, not without the deterring influence of Nazi racism and the opposition of the Catholic Church. The main reason why eugenic notions suffered a defeat in pre-war Poland was the isolation and political weakness of eugenic circles. Therefore, issues relating to Polish eugenics during the two decades between the two World Wars should be consigned to a much greater degree to the realm of learning and social movements rather than to the political sphere.
Leonardo Dallacqua de Carvalho
Full Text Available Overall, the period after World War II is characterized as a turning point or discontinuance of racial theories and debate about racial identity, especially when referring to the history of eugenics. From the analysis of medical work of eugenicist Renato Kehl, the aim of this study is to investigate the continuities and discontinuities of eugenic through this author, trying to understand the way that eugenic ideas gained in the post-World War II. The continuity of Kehl publications on eugenics in the 1940s to 1960s allows us to observe the development of this debate in a context of contestation to the Eugenics theories.
The article deals with the role the physicians played in organization and functioning of the Community of Saint Eugene in St. Petersburg in 1882-1918. The typography production of the Community being of interest for history of medicine is examined.
Two responses to Hollander (EC 220 057) and the author's counter-response note similarities between "mercy killing" of people with mental retardation and deliberate abortion of the unborn, misuse of the history of eugenics, and a defense of the author's historical scholarship. (DB)
This article argues that the eugenics movement has had three major influences on education in the United States, and reveals how these influences have had an impact on visual arts education in particular. The first influence began with a debate between John Dewey and David Snedden that resulted in a two-tiered tracking system that separated…
Ennis, William Thomas, III
For the past two centuries deaf people in the United States have faced more or less intense skepticism about their marriages to each other, largely due to fears of inherited deafness. These fears, while always present, have waxed and waned over time, becoming most prominent during the eugenics era of the late nineteenth and early twentieth…
This article explores the impact of the mapping work of the Human Genome Project on individuals with mental retardation and the negative effects of genetic testing. The potential to identify disabilities and the concept of eugenics are discussed, along with ethical issues surrounding potential genetic therapies. (Contains references.) (CR)
Smith, J. David
This article addresses the moral and ethical issues of mental retardation and a continuing legacy of belief in eugenics. It discusses the involuntary sterilization of Carrie Buck in 1927, support for legalized killing of subnormal infants by 47% of respondents to a Mensa survey, and implications of the Human Genome Project for the field of mental…
Presents an essay review of three recent books on eugenics, a once popular quasiscientific and politically conservative social movement devoted to the improvement of humankind through programs of selective breeding and marriage restriction. States that educators must study and come to grips with the meaning of this movement in order to appreciate…
Examines influence of Francis Galton and the Eugenics Education Society in the intelligence testing movement in England (early 1900s). For eugenicists, the central issue confronting society was the problem of racial deterioration. They responded with modification of the Binet-Simon tests and developed tests to examine the whole ability range.…
Smith, J. David
Reviews the impact of eugenics on people with disabilities and the danger that they will be further devalued in a world of increasing genetic manipulation. Margaret Mead's concept of providing opportunities for all people to learn how to participate wholly in society and the need for an ethical revolution are discussed. (CR)
Salgirli, Sanem Güvenç
This article aims to add a new dimension to the analysis of the relationship between medicine and eugenics via a discussion of the community of Turkish physicians in the period between the two World Wars. It argues that even though the relationship between the two fields has been discussed before in terms of the professional ideology of doctors, the medical community itself has not come under scrutiny by scholars. It is the purpose of this article to show eugenics as the main unifying edifice of that community and argue that eugenics is to be found in the patterns of social reproduction of the doctors as part of the professional middle class in addition to being those who transfer knowledge of medicine. As can be seen in Turkey in the 1930s, the doctors, in their efforts to construct themselves as the pioneers of modern scientific medicine, as well as the new ruling class of the country, used eugenics extensively both as a means of self-identification, and as a way to build a professional class "fit" to rule the country. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Examines issues of sameness, difference, equality, and democracy in present public school systems, focusing on the question of (dis)ability and implications of rethinking (dis)ability as an ontological issue before its inscription as an educational one concerning the politics of inclusion. The paper analyzes old and new discourses of eugenics as…
John Harris and Julian Savulescu, leading figures in the "new' eugenics, argue that parents are morally obligated to use genetic and other technologies to enhance their children. But the argument they give leads to conclusions even more radical than they acknowledge. Ultimately, the world it would lead to is not all that different from that championed by eugenicists one hundred years ago.
A revolution in genetics is occurring, but when looking ahead, we must not romanticize the past. The social history of genetics, and American education's association with eugenics, make it necessary that we understand that both education and science are informed by social attitudes. (MT)
I read with a great pleasure the heated dialogue on Dialogic Pedagogy between Eugene Matusov and Kiyotaka Miyazaki. It provided me with one of those rare occasions where I could both witness, and also join, the workings of two minds as they struggled with and against each other to construct, de-construct, and reconstruct their visions of dialogic…
Full Text Available Eugene Wigner pointed out very interesting consequences of quantum physics in elegant gedanken experiments. As a result of technical progress, these gedanken experiments have become real experiments and contribute to the development of novel concepts in quantum information science, often called the second quantum revolution.
Full Text Available In this paper I argue that, though many ethical systems recognizesacrifice as moral action, the utilitarian appropriation of Neo-Darwinian theory especially as it justifies eugenics as a “winnowing of the human stock” is in Girardian terms analogous to the sacrificial scapegoating of innocents. This argument is accomplished in four steps. (1 I show that within some ethical systems sacrifice is recognized as moral behavior driven by a specific axiology (or theory of value (2 I discuss some of the meta-ethical problems connected with Neo-Darwinian naturalism and naturalism, in general. (3 I show how modern varieties of naturalism and Darwinian naturalism, inparticular are especially inclined to lead to a moral justification of eugenic scapegoating and how Girardian theory is helpful in identifying the moral disorder connected with eugenics. (4 Finally, I conclude by arguing that Darwin’s thought is susceptible to another kind of interpretation, one that need not lead to the valorization of eugenics.
Lonsdale, Carol; Soifer, Tom
Harding Eugene Smith Junior, or Gene, as he was known to family, friends, and colleagues, passed away after an automobile accident in Encinitas, California, on 16 August 2007. He was 60 years old. Gene had recently retired from UCSD after thirty years of service. A memorial service was held at Quail Botanical Gardens in Encinitas, California, on 23 August 2007. A web page is dedicated to his memory at http://harding.smith.muchloved.com, where contributions of memories are invited. Gene was born in San Jose, California in 1947, to Harding Eugene Smith Senior, and Bernice Smith (nee Smith). Harding Smith Senior was an air-force navigator; therefore Gene spent his childhood moving from one air-force base to another. Although an only child, Gene was very close to his cousin Meg, whom he lived nearby to in Gilroy for a time, and the two were like brother and sister. The elder Harding Smith was lost in action over Cambodia in the mid-sixties. Gene was a dedicated student, a boy scout, and a Presidential Scholar. He majored in Physics at Caltech, where he also took a lively interest in the football team and the Glee Club, and was elected a House Officer. To his close friends, he was known at Caltech as Smitty, and the closest of them was Rob Drew, who gave a glimpse into that period of Gene's life at the memorial: "Gene arrived early at campus his first year, in response to an invitation to join the football team. Gene's size and features reminded the head coach of a long-forgotten player named 'Johnson.' After a few days of confusion, Gene simply replaced the name on his helmet. 'Johnson!' coach would yell, 'get in there!' If Johnson was going to get to play, Gene was going to be the best Johnson available!" Gene spent the summer of 1966 working at Kitt Peak, where his lifetime love of observing with ground-based telescopes began, though he learned some things the hard way, such as the fact that trying to squeeze 40,000 numbers onto a computer that stored only 32
Jack H. Usher; Daniel B. Jones; A. R. Stage; Benjamin A. Roach; Gilbert B. Schubert; Darrell W. Crawford; Gilbert H. Schubert; Walter Fox; Edward A. Smith; Richard E. Lowrey Sofes; Richard F. Watt
The 1976 National Silviculture Workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, on October 13-15, 1976. The objectives were to discuss second growth management of individual stands, with particular emphasis on the control of stand density.
Künnap, Ago, 1941-
Raamatust: Helimski, Eugen, Kahrs, Urlike. Nordselkupisches Wörterbuch von F. G. Mal'cev (1903). Hamburg, 2001. (Hamburger Sibirische und Finnisch-Ugrische Materialen / Habent Sua Fata Manuscripts; 1)
Ruge, Eugen, 1954-
Intervjuu kirjandusfestivalil "Prima vista" esineva saksa kirjaniku Eugen Rugega tema romaanides "Kahaneva valguse aegu" ("In Zeiten des abnehmenden Lichts") ja "Cabo de Gata" ning käsil olevast teosest
Freitas, Riva Sobrado De; Zilio, Daniela
This article intends to analyze the liberal eugenics from the understanding of Jürgen Habermas in the composition The Future of Human Nature, mainly with respect to the possibilities that the subject exposed to genetic manipulation procedures may have hurt its right to self-understanding and, consequently, its personal dignity. The purpose consists in investigating the idea introduced by the author about the liberal eugenics and its possible consequences in relation to the rights of the subje...
Throughout the last century the wellbeing of those with disability has been threatened by the idea of eugenics. The most notable and extreme example of this could be considered to have been carried out during World WarTwo, within Nazi eugenic programmes. These resulted in the sterilisation and killing of hundreds of thousands of disabled people. Through research of a wide range of sources it has been established that much of the inspiration and encouragement for this rapidly progressing movement in Germany initially came from America, most notably from California. American eugenicists expressed interest, and at times jealousy, at the speed of the progression in German eugenics. German Sterilisation laws were drafted following careful study of American experiments and research, while financial support from a number of American individuals encouraged further German research. Correspondence between influential leaders, including Hitler, Grant and Whitney, Verschuer and Popenoe, on both sides also added to the developing relationship. In conclusion, although there are a number of vital differences between the progress of the eugenics programme in America and in pre-war Nazi Germany, and eugenics in America never produced the massive genocide that occurred in Germany, it is clear that the research, encouragement and enthusiasm from America had a profound influence on the rapidly growing Nazi eugenics movement.
Lombardo, Paul A
An extensive literature describes the legal impact of America's eugenics movement, and the laws mandating sterilization, restriction of marriage by race, and ethnic bans on immigration. But little scholarship focuses on the laws adopted in more than 40 states that were commonly referred to as "eugenic marriage laws." Those laws conditioned marriage licenses on medical examinations and were designed to save innocent women from lives of misery, prevent stillbirth or premature death in children, and save future generations from the myriad afflictions that accompanied "venereal infection." Medical journals, legal journals, and every kind of public press outlet explained the "eugenic marriage laws" and the controversies they spawned. They were inextricably bound up in reform movements that attempted to eradicate prostitution, stamp out STIs, and reform America's sexual mores in the first third of the 20th century. This article will explain the pedigree of the eugenic marriage laws, highlight the trajectory of Wisconsin's 1913 eugenic enactment, and explore how the Wisconsin Supreme Court case upholding the law paved the way for the majority of states to regulate marriage on eugenic grounds.
Baynton, Douglas C
At the turn of the twentieth century, social attitudes toward disability turned sharply negative. An international eugenics movement brought about restrictive immigration laws in the United States and other immigrant nations. One cause was the changing understanding of time, both historical and quotidian, that accompanied the advent of evolutionary theory and a competitive industrial economy. As analogies of competition became culturally ubiquitous, new words to talk about disability such as 'handicapped', 'retarded', 'abnormal', 'degenerate', and 'defective', came into everyday use, all of them explicitly or implicitly rooted in new ways of thinking about time. The intense fear of disability that characterised the eugenics movement grew, in good part, from this new and unsettling vision of time.
Having coined the word 'eugenics' and inspired leading biologists and statisticians of the early twentieth century, Francis Galton is often studied for his contributions to modern statistical biology. However, whilst documenting this part of his work, historians have frequently neglected crucial aspects of what motivated Galton to establish his eugenics research programme. Arguing that his work was shaped more by social than by biological science, this paper addresses these oversights by tracing the development of Galton's programme, from its roots in a debate about political economy to his appeals for it to be taken up by sociologists. In so doing, the paper not only returns Galton's ideas to their original context but also provides a reason to reflect on the place of the social sciences in history-of-science scholarship.
Three arguments of Habermas against "liberal eugenics" -- the arguments from consent, responsibility, and instrumentalization -- are critically evaluated and explicated in the light of his discourse ethics and social theory. It is argued that these arguments move partly at a too deep level and are in part too individualistic and psychological to sufficiently counter the liberal position that he sets out to criticize. This is also due to limitations that prevent discourse ethics from connecting effectively to the moral and political domains, e.g., through a discussion of justice. In spite of these weaknesses, Habermas's thesis is of major relevance and brings up neglected issues in the discussion about eugenic reproductive practices. This relevance has not been duly recognized in bioethics, largely because of the depth of his speculations of philosophical anthropology. It is argued that Habermas's notion of the colonization of the lifeworld could provide the analytical tool needed to build that bridge to the moral and political domain.
César Ortega Esquembre
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the Jürgen Habermas´s vision of genetic manipulation; in particular, it will be addressed critically his assumption that the genetically engineered person would loose his awareness of authorship. In the author´s view, positive genetic intervention —one that is to genetically enhance the subject— would eliminate the awareness of authorship of that subject, as well as his self-understanding as moral agent. Two aspects of the question will be approached: firstly, the correctness or incorrectness of Habermas´s thesis. Secondly, the relevance of the thesis to oppose positive eugenics. Could be other arguments considered within Habermas´s conceptual framework to oppose positive eugenics?
Robert Eugene Marshak (1916-92) devoted much of his life to helping other people carry out scientific research and gather to discuss their work. In addition to his scientific statesmanship, he was an extraordinarily gifted research scientist, and many of his scientific contributions have been prophetic. This book pays homage to his creativity and continuing work, with contributions from many of the people whose lives have been influenced by him.
Seth Jacobowitz, in his paper "Hellenism, Hebraism, and the Eugenics of Culture in E.M. Forster's Howards End," explores how the culturalist principles of Hellenism and Hebraism theorized by Matthew Arnold as the basis of Englishness in Culture and Anarchy (1869) were incorporated into the text of E.M. Forster's Howards End (1910) to show the close institutional and conceptual linkages Forster shared with Arnold. Further, Jacobowitz seeks to bring Howards End into dialog with Forster's only m...
The concept of eugenics played a significant role in the pre-war birth control movement. Some favored birth control from the standpoint of an individual's right to happiness, while others were against it from the standpoint of preservation of good stock for the nation. Yamamoto, Nobuharu (1889-1929), who translated Margaret Sanger's speech and her book in 1922, advocated birth control purely from a biologist's point of view. Birth control is necessary for the survival of strong healthy human beings capable of overcoming all the difficulties in their lives. Birth control is a form of natural selection consciously done to avoid overburdening and wasting individual lives. Nagai, Sen (1876-1957) was opposed to birth control from eugenicc' point of view. He became the 1st president of Japan Racial Hygiene Society in 1930 and founded Eugenics/Marriage Counseling Clinic in 1933. In his book on eugenics published in 1936 he stressed the importance of continuation of race by protecting good stock and eliminating poor stock by sterilization. Birth control was opposed because it will shorten the life of an ethnic group or a race. Furuya, Yoshio (1890-1974), also a racial hygiene major, supported population policies based on eugenics. He studied a trend in childbirth among women of different professions and geographical areas. Educated and cultured urban upper-middle class women showed a sudden decline in childbirth in their later years of marriage, suggesting the prevalence of birth control among them, while less educated low-income women continued to reproduce. He opposed to birth control but was in favor of sterilization for eliminating poor stock.
Campbell, John Y.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for 2013 was awarded to Eugene Fama, Lars Peter Hansen, and Robert Shiller for their contributions to the empirical study of asset pricing. Some observers have found it hard to understand the common elements of the laureates research, preferring to highlight areas of disagreement among them. This paper argues that empirical asset pricing is a coherent enterprise, which owes much to the laureates seminal contributions, and that important themes in ...
Price, Gregory N; Darity, William A
Theoretical justifications for state-sanctioned sterilization of individuals provided by Irving Fisher rationalized its racialization on grounds that certain non-white racial groups, particularly blacks due to their dysgenic biological and behavioral traits, retarded economic growth and should be bred out of existence. Fisher's rationale suggests that national or state level eugenic policies that sterilized the so-called biological and genetically unfit could have been racist in both design and effect by disproportionately targeting black Americans. We empirically explore this with data on eugenic sterilizations in the State of North Carolina between 1958 and 1968. Count data parameter estimates from a cross-county population allocation model of sterilization reveal that the probability of non-institutional and total sterilizations increased with a county's black population share-an effect not found for any other racial group in the population. Our results suggest that in North Carolina, eugenic sterilization policies were racially biased and genocidal. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Late disclosure of the large scale of sterilization practices in the Nordic countries created an outburst of scandal: did these policies rely on coercion? To what extent? Who in the end was responsible? Sterilization practices targeted underprivileged people first. The mentally retarded and women were their first victims. Operations were very frequently determined by other people's manipulative or coercive influences. Should the blame be put on the Social-Democrats in power throughout the period (except in Finland and Estonia)? Apart from Denmark, perhaps, local physicians and local services, more than governments, seemed to have strongly supported sterilization practices. Teetotalers and feminists shared responsibilities. How can one explain that eugenics finally declined? Based on a sound application of the Hardy-Weinberg law, the science of the eugenicists was correct. Was it politics? But uncovering of the Nazi crimes had only a very small impact on eugenics. Some authors underline the fact that the Nordic scientific institutions were particularly suited to liberal values. Others point to the devastating effect on eugenics once hereditarist psychiatry fell from favor in the middle of the sixties.
Rodríguez Martín, Esteban
The wide implantation of strategies of sifted or prenatal selection close to laws that protect the destruction of the human life before the childbirth in the whole world, they are giving place to an increasing number of eugenic abortions. In Spain, the law 2/2010 of the sexual and reproductive health and voluntary interruption of pregnancy there has supposed the liberalization of the eugenic abortion without term limit. In we make concrete, the sanitary national and international policies of prenatal selection of Down's Syndrome, which they chase to facilitate the total or partial destruction before the childbirth of this human group, submitting it to a few particular conditions of existence during his prenatal life in those who will be an object of a series of technologies of selection, they might be qualified of genocidal policies if we consider the definition of genocide given by United Nations. In consequence, the sanitary agent who takes part without objection in the above mentioned programs promoted by the principal agents, meets turned into a necessary cooperator of the abortion who justifies itself in the supposition of "foetal risk". We can conclude that we are present at an eugenic drift of the prenatal diagnosis that is opposite to the ethical beginning of the medical profession.
Free, Jennifer L.
To date, studies of eugenics artificially confine their focus to the movement's application to race, socio-economic status, and the forced sterilization of the so-called feebleminded. However, the segregationist aspect of the eugenics design in the United States brought with it damaging policies toward individuals with physical and mental…
Baker, Graham J
The eugenics movement attracted a wide range of supporters. This article explores this theme with relation to literature about the charitable work of the Salvation Army in Britain and Canada c.1890-1921, with a focus upon the emigration scheme outlined in William Booth's book In Darkest England and the Way Out. These writings indicate the widespread dispersal of eugenic ideology, and demonstrate the flexibility with which these theories were interpreted in this period. It will be shown that the Salvation Army adopted elements of both hereditarian and environmentalist views regarding racial health. These arguments were unified by the claim that the work of the organization made a worthy contribution to public health, both in the present and in the future. This case study sheds new light upon the history of a prominent evangelical Christian organization and upon the development of the international eugenics movement.
Kenny, Michael G
In 1974 a British biologist, John Randal Baker (1900-1984), published a large and controversial book simply entitled Race that reiterated persistent eugenicist themes concerning the relation between race, intelligence, and progress. The history of Baker's book is a case study in the politics of scientific publishing, and his ideas influenced scholars associated with later works such as The Bell Curve. Baker, a student of Julian Huxley, was a longtime participant in the British eugenics movement and opponent of what he took to be a facile belief in human equality. In 1942, together with Michael Polanyi, he founded the Society for Freedom in Science to oppose those who advocated the central planning of scientific research. Baker's eugenics, political activities, and views on race express an elitist individualism, associated with the conservative wing of the eugenics movement, that this paper explores in the context of his career as a whole.
Juan Vianey Tovar Mosquera
Full Text Available Introducción. La Eugenesia es un acontecimiento histórico que logró mover, una vez más, los fundamentos éticos tradicionales de la humanidad, cuestionando nuestra concepción de lo humano, haciendo de la diferencia, la debilidad o la enfermad una amenaza tangible urgente de normalizar o exterminar. Objetivo. Estudiar la forma como se desarrolló el movimiento eugenésico en Latinoamérica, en países como Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, México y Perú. Materiales y métodos. Artículo de revisión de corte histórico; se seleccionó bibliografía que permitiera 1 brindar acercamiento al origen y principios de la Eugenesia; 2 investigaciones y artículos publicados en los países en mención que dan cuenta del desarrollo del movimiento eugenésico y de las políticas e instituciones con ocasión del mismo; 3 documentos históricos de intelectuales, políticos y educadores colombianos de la primera mitad del siglo XX para evaluar su adhesión al darwinismo social y al paradigma degeneracionista; 4 revisión de la legislación de la primera mitad del siglo XX en Colombia para analizar la materialización de principios eugenésicos y finalmente 5 se abordaron documentos que permiten consolidar una reflexión en torno a los graves problemas éticos y sociales que implicó la Eugenesia como un paradigma determinista biológica y socialmente. Resultados y discusión. Se evidencia que el movimiento eugenésico permeó el contexto latinoamericano definiendo, en la primera mitad del siglo XX, la política pública de los diferentes estados en materia educativa, médica, económica y migratoria, entre otras; generando graves problemas de estigmatización racial y moral.
An Alberta woman recently won a lawsuit against the government of Alberta for wrongful sterilization that took place when she was a 14-year-old ward at the Provincial Training School for Mental Defectives. It was the first time the province has been held accountable for actions taken under the Sexual Sterilization Act, a 1927 law that promoted the theory of eugenics and led to the sterilization of more than 2800 people. It has since been repealed. A physician who served on the province's Euge...
This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.
Among Europe's greatest scientists who fled to Britain and America in the 1930s, Eugene P. Wigner made instrumental advances in reactor physics, reactor design and technology, and spent nuclear fuel processing for both purposes of developing atomic weapons during world-war II and nuclear power afterwards. Wigner who had training in chemical engineering and self-education in physics first gained recognition for his remarkable articles and books on applications of Group theory to Quantum mechanics, Solid state physics and other topics that opened new branches of Physics.
Full Text Available Among Europe’s greatest scientists who fled to Britain and America in the 1930s, Eugene P. Wigner made instrumental advances in reactor physics, reactor design and technology, and spent nuclear fuel processing for both purposes of developing atomic weapons during world-war II and nuclear power afterwards. Wigner who had training in chemical engineering and self-education in physics first gained recognition for his remarkable articles and books on applications of Group theory to Quantum mechanics, Solid state physics and other topics that opened new branches of Physics.
Nonconsensual sterilization is usually seen as the by-product of a classist and racist society; disability is ignored. This article examines the 1973 sterilization of two young black girls from Alabama and other precedent-setting court cases involving the sterilization of "mentally retarded" white women to make disability more central to the historical analysis of sterilization. It analyzes the concept of mental retardation and the appeal of a surgical solution to birth control, assesses judicial deliberations over the "right to choose" contraceptive sterilization when the capacity to consent is in doubt, and reflects on the shadow of eugenics that hung over the sterilization debate in the 1970s and 1980s.
Juan Vianey Tovar Mosquera
Introducción. La Eugenesia es un acontecimiento histórico que logró mover, una vez más, los fundamentos éticos tradicionales de la humanidad, cuestionando nuestra concepción de lo humano, haciendo de la diferencia, la debilidad o la enfermad una amenaza tangible urgente de normalizar o exterminar. Objetivo. Estudiar la forma como se desarrolló el movimiento eugenésico en Latinoamérica, en países como Argentina, Brasil, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, México y Perú. Materiales y métodos. Artículo de re...
Perhaps best known for providing age-related norms in early development, norms that are still used as a basis for measures of developmental maturity, Arnold Gesell was a key figure in developmental psychology from the 1920s through the 1950s. After examining Gesell's reputation and status in the field, we explore Gesell's changing relationship to eugenics, both in terms of Gesell's often contradictory attitudes about the role of hereditary and environmental influences in development, and in terms of the broader relationship between the eugenics movement and science.
Karl M. Lorenz
Full Text Available From 1870 to 1930, physicians, writers, anthropologists and educators discussed therelationship between education and the less-privileged segments of the Brazilianpopulation. Among ideas circulating in the late nineteenth century were precepts of SchoolHygiene, such as physical exercise could promote personal health and, in a broader sense,the total development of the child. In discussions of eugenic themes in the early decades ofthe twentieth century, Physical Education was further promoted as a corrective measure forthe negative effects of miscegenation; that is, the physical, intellectual and moral debilitiesof the poor and non-white segments of the Brazilian population. This paper examines thenature and effects of the school discipline Physical Education on the less-favored childrenof Brazil by first introducing its role in School Hygiene and then by focusing on itsextended role from the eugenic perspective. In this latter discussion, the racial ideas ofFernando de Azevedo regarding the regenerating effect of Physical Education on the“Brazilian Race” are explored.
This article describes the relationship between Polish geneticist Stanisław Skowron's views on eugenics during the interwar period, his experiences in Nazi concentration camps during World War II, and his response to Trofim D. Lysenko's ban on genetic research in Soviet-allied states after 1948. Skowron was educated at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow and received funding from the Rockefeller Foundation to study in the United States, Italy, Denmark, and Great Britain from 1924 to 1926. His exposure to research being conducted outside of Poland made him an important figure in Polish genetics. During this time Skowron also began to believe that an understanding of biological principles of heredity could play an important role in improving Polish society and became a supporter of eugenics. In 1939 he was arrested along with other faculty members at the Jagiellonian and sent to Sachsenhausen and Dachau. In 1947 he published the first book updating Polish biologists on recent developments in genetics; however, after learning of the outcome of the 1948 session of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Moscow, Skowron emerged as on of the most vocal advocates for Michurinism. I argue that Skowron's conversion to Lysenkoism was motivated by more than fear or opportunism, and is better understood as the product of his need to rationalize his own support for a theory he could not possibly have believed was correct.
Joel Vargas Domínguez
Full Text Available Objective: this paper shows the configuration of research conducted by the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW, in Jamaica and Yucatan, about basal metabolism on the onset of the twentieth century. I argue that this physiological research, conducted outside the usual laboratory spaces, used and articulated eugenics and racialized notions about the bodies under examination.Content: from the standpoint of the history of science I have analyzed the publications, reports and correspondence of the members of the Carnegie Institution expeditions. Conclusions: I show that basal metabolism was a measure constructed and used in the first half of the twentieth century with a strong eugenic and racial bias. Francis G. Benedict, Charles B. Davenport and Morris Steggerda from the CIW conducted these expeditions not only from the medical but also from the anthropological standpoint, in order to answer the question whether there was a climatic or racial effect on the body of the subjects analyzed. The results of the research were incorporated to the formulas used to evaluate the nutritional status of populations, fact that might have consequences nowadays on the way we understand metabolic “normality”.
Sharav, Vera Hassner
The implementation of a recommendation by the President's New Freedom Commission (NFC) to screen the entire United States population--children first--for presumed, undetected, mental illness is an ill-conceived policy destined for disastrous consequences. The "pseudoscientific" methods used to screen for mental and behavioral abnormalities are a legacy from the discredited ideology of eugenics. Both eugenics and psychiatry suffer from a common philosophical fallacy that undermines the validity of their theories and prescriptions. Both are wed to a faith-based ideological assumption that mental and behavioral manifestations are biologically determined, and are, therefore, ameliorated by biological interventions. NFC promoted the Texas Medication Algorithm Project (TMAP) as a "model" medication treatment plan. The impact of TMAP is evident in the skyrocketing increase in psychotropic drug prescriptions for children and adults, and in the disproportionate expenditure for psychotropic drugs. The New Freedom Commission's screening for mental illness initiative is, therefore, but the first step toward prescribing drugs. The escalating expenditure for psychotropic drugs since TMAP leaves little doubt about who the beneficiaries of TMAP are. Screening for mental illness will increase their use.
Full Text Available Hugo von Hofmannsthal was one of the Austrian poets and intellectuals who took an active part in the historical-political events of 1914. He expected from the war a new vitality of public life and an end of the cultural crisis. In his early years he had advocated closer bonds between poesy and life. Now he encountered a situation that gave him the chance to strengthen his ties with reality. He worried about the existence of Austria, in which he was rooted, and tried to conjure up the Hapsburg spirit of the past for his contemporaries and to explain Austria's national history and right to exist to a large public. My study discusses his essay on Prince Eugene and Maria Theresa in the context of collective memory (or cultural memory and propaganda. Is there really a collective memory? Was there a collective memory, in which the great commander and the empress lived on, or did the author wish to create this memory from history? Should his essays be considered war propaganda? Self-assertion of Austria opposite the German ally appeared almost equally important. The change in emphasis from Prince Eugene as the greatest Austrian to the peace-loving empress mirrors the events of the war. Both contribute to an Austrian anthropology, which for the author lived on beyond the end of the Empire.
Donoso S, Enrique; Carvajal C, Jorge A
Cuba and Chile have the lower infant mortality rates of Latin America. Infant mortality rate in Cuba is similar to that of developed countries. Chilean infant mortality rate is slightly higher than that of Cuba. To investigate if the lower infant mortality rate in Cuba, compared to Chile, could be explained by eugenic abortion, considering that abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile. We compared total and congenital abnormalities related infant mortality in Cuba and Chile during 2008, based on vital statistics of both countries. In 2008, infant mortality rates in Chile were significantly higher than those of Cuba (7.8 vs. 4.7 per 1,000 live born respectively, odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95% confidence intervals (Cl) 1.52-1.83). Congenital abnormalities accounted for 33.8 and 19.2% of infant deaths in Chile and Cuba, respectively. Discarding infant deaths related to congenital abnormalities, infant mortality rate continued to be higher in Chile than in Cuba (5.19 vs. 3.82 per 1000 live born respectively, OR 1.36; 95%CI 1.221.52). Considering that antenatal diagnosis is widely available in both countries, but abortion is legal in Cuba but not in Chile, we conclude that eugenic abortion may partially explain the lower infant mortality rate observed in Cuba compared to that observed in Chile.
The term eugenics was first coined by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, in 1883. The eugenic movement gained public popularity across Europe and North America at the end of the Victorian era, fuelled by the concept of 'social Darwinism' and public fear of a decline in the number of ideal citizens. The origins of eugenic legislation can be found in the USA's immigration acts of the early 1880's. Indiana was the first state to pass sterilisation laws, in 1907. The laws that followed were used as templates by the Nazis, thirty years later. In Britain the Wood Committee (1924) and the Brock Committee (1931) both put pressure on parliament to introduce eugenic laws but were defeated. The anti-eugenics movement was stronger than in other protestant European countries and eugenics fell out of favour as the 1930's progressed. In the USA however, support remained strong, leading one activist to comment in 1934, 'The Germans are beating us at our own game'. There appears to have been little emphasis on eugenics in the Weimar Parliament, but the Nazi's legislation, on coming to power in 1933, surpassed anything conceived on either side of the Atlantic at the outbreak of war in 1939.
Seoses Eesti Draamateatri suvelavastusega "Pikk päevatee kaob öösse" (autor Eugene O'Neill ja lavastaja Merle Karusoo) räägib Lääne-Tallinna Keskhaigla Sõltuvusravikeskuse psühhiaater Ellu Eik sõltuvuse tagamaadest ja mõjudest
... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLORE00000 L63500000.DO0000.LXSS021H0000.HAG11-0203] Notice of Intent to prepare a Resource Management Plan for the West Eugene Wetlands Planning... Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Intent. SUMMARY: In compliance with the National Environmental Policy...
Clark Row; Charles Palmer; Robert M. Randall; Tom Ortman; James P. Merzenich; Gary Manning; George Howe; Jim McDivitt; Chris Hansen; Willard R. Fey; Vernon L. Robinson; K. E. Sleavin; K. N. Johnson; Roger D. Fight; L. O. (Pete) Stanger; Lee Medema; Christopher D. Risbrudt; Richard W. Guldin; Richard Greenhalgh; Mike Skinner; John Fiske; Thomas J. Mills; John H. Beuter
The 1983 Silviculture Workshop was held in Eugene, Oregon, and the Willamette National Forest. The purpose of the workshop was to review and discuss the requirements by laws, regulations, and Forest Service policy of the need for and uses of economic analyses in silvicultural program planning and development.
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Murray, Diane R.
A history is given of the Educational Museum of Teachers College, which began in 1886, and David Eugene Smith's extensive collection of mathematical tools used in the Museum's exhibits is discussed. Historic mathematical instruments including, the astrolabe, abacus and counting rods, and the slide rule are examined. The author uses digitized…
Fischer, Bernard A
Prejudice and stigma against people with mental illness can be seen throughout history. The worst instance of this prejudice was connected to the rise of the eugenics movement in the early 20th century. Although the Nazi German T-4 program of killing people with mental illness was the most egregious culmination of this philosophy, the United States has its own dark eugenics history-nearing a slippery slope all too similar to that of the Nazis. Mental health care clinicians need to examine this period to honor the memory of the victims of eugenics and to guarantee that nothing like this will ever happen again.
In addition to being a prominent political figure in equal rights legislation, Emily Murphy was a vital contributor to programs which sought to improve the human race through forced sterilization. These negative aspects of this period in feminist history tend to be described as outside of the women's sphere, representing instead the patriarchal realm of men. However, both eugenics and the first-wave feminist ambitions for equal political rights were connected through an agrarian construction of "mothers of the race." As "mothers of the race," women in Alberta were responsible for the physical and moral betterment of the nation, and were directly engaged in concepts of intelligent motherhood, healthy childhood, and an overarching moral philosophy that was politically driven.
Rudling, Per Anders
The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden.
Zeidman, Lawrence A
The Nazi regime in Germany from 1933 to 1945 waged a veritable war throughout Europe to eliminate neurologic disease from the gene pool. Fueled by eugenic policies on racial hygiene, the Nazis first undertook a sterilization campaign against "mental defectives," which included neurologic patients with epilepsy and other disorders, as well as psychiatric patients. From 1939-41 the Nazis instead resorted to "euthanasia" of many of the same patients. Some neuroscientists were collaborators in this program, using patients for research, or using extracted brains following their murder. Other reviews have focused on Hallervorden, Spatz, Schaltenbrand, Scherer, and Gross, but in this review the focus is on neuroscientists not well described in the neurology literature, including Scholz, Ostertag, Schneider, Nachtsheim, and von Weizsäcker. Only by understanding the actions of neuroscientists during this dark period can we learn from the slippery slope down which they traveled, and prevent history from repeating itself.
Full Text Available The paper focuses on Ivo Gattin and Eugen Feller as prominent figures in the so-called “radical Enformel”, an artistic trend in Croatian painting during the late 1950s and early 1960s. Besides them, the representatives of radical Enformel include Vlado Kristl, Marijan Javšovar, and Đuro Seder, who likewise participated in the exhibition Informel 1956-1962 at Nova Gallery in 1977. The theoretical platform for this trend in painting was found in hypotheses presented in the influential text “Materia, tecnica e storia nell’informale” (1959 by the Italian artcritic Giulio Carlo Argan, which were adapted to the specific Croatian circumstances and examples.
Éamonn Ó Ciardha
Full Text Available As well as producing a rich body of novels, novellas, short-stories and plays spanning throughout seventy years of the century of partition, Eugene McCabe charts the broad trajectory of Irish history and politics from the Elizabethan Conquest and Ulster Plantation of the 16th and 17th centuries to the recent 'Troubles' which spanned the thirty years between the beginnings of the Civil Rights Movement (1968 and the signing of the Belfast/Good Friday Agreement (1998. They positively seethe with gruesome assassinations, indiscriminate bombings and deliberate shootings, while resonating with a veritable cacophony of deep-seeded ethnic rivalries and genocidal, religious hatreds, which are interlaced with poverty, social deprivation and dis-function, migration and emigration.
Full Text Available The tale of how Edmund Wilson quarreled with Vladimir Nabokov over the latter’s 1964 translation of Eugene Onegin can be instructively read as a politically charged event, specifically a “high culture” allegory of the Cold War. Dissemination of anti-Communist ideals (often in liberal and literary guises was the mandate of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, whose funding and editorial initiatives included the publication of both pre-Revolution Russian literature and, more notoriously, the journal Encounter (1953-1990, where Nabokov’s fiery “Reply” to Wilson appeared. This essay outlines the propaganda value of the Onegin debate within and to Cold War mythology.
A. I. Lobanov
Full Text Available The analysis of the achievements and scientific heritage of a prominent scientist in the field of forest science, forestry, agroforest amelioration, and protective afforestation, the veteran of the Great Patriotic War, doctor of agricultural sciences, professor, the honored worker of forestry and hunting of Mongolia – Eugene Nikolaevich Savin is given. He made a significant contribution to the development of the scientific basis for agroforestry and protective afforestation, to substantiate the main directions of forest management in different zones and groups of forest types in the Russian Federation and in Mongolia, to develop a master plan for the integrated use of forest resources in Mongolia, to determine the nature of cuttings and the age of final felling for the main forest-forming species, the development of methods of cultivation and the creation of the first industrial forest crops of the Siberian larch and Scotch pine, the creation of a handbook for the inventory of Mongolia forests (2012. In doing so, he revealed the main aspects of the nature of the forest, its functioning, provided information on the composition of tree species, types of stands, methods of restoration and care. Due attention is paid to the water protection and soil protection role of forests. The results of Eugene Nikolaevich Savin research are of current importance for silvicultural, forest crop and agroforest amelioration works. They are included in the normative documents approved at the federal level. The list of his main scientific publications is presented, which just gives an idea of the subject of research, their geography and significance.
griffin jaye epstein
Full Text Available Child psychologist and Nazi concentration camp survivor Bruno Bettelheim’s influential theories of autism reveal a startling connection between Jewish identity, the medicalization of disability, colonial eugenics and race-making practices over the 20th century in North America. Using Bettelheim’s life and work as a case-study, this paper explores Ashkenazi Jewish immigrant complicity in a whitened colonial landscape through the lens of Disability Studies. It asks the question: can we be more accountable to our disabled identities – and to those disabled people who have come before us – if we learn how our families, our identities, our very selves have been complicit in medicalization and violence? Keywords: madness, race, whiteness, Jewish identity, eugenics, psychiatry
Huijnen, Pim; Laan, Fons; de Rijke, Maarten; Pieters, Toine
Comparative historical research on the the intensity, diversity and fluidity of public discourses has been severely hampered by the extraordinary task of manually gathering and processing large sets of opinionated data in news media in different countries. At most 50,000 documents have been systematically studied in a single comparative historical project in the subject area of heredity and eugenics. Digital techniques, like the text mining tools WAHSP and BILAND we have developed in two succ...
Riva Sobrado De Freitas
Full Text Available This article intends to analyze the liberal eugenics from the understanding of Jürgen Habermas in the composition The Future of Human Nature, mainly with respect to the possibilities that the subject exposed to genetic manipulation procedures may have hurt its right to self-understanding and, consequently, its personal dignity. The purpose consists in investigating the idea introduced by the author about the liberal eugenics and its possible consequences in relation to the rights of the subject exposed to that practice. Therefore, it was done an exploratory and explanatory bibliographical research, qualitative, using the hypothetical-deductive method. The results achieved with the research are related to the study of the theme through a philosophical perspective, also verifying, that, in the authors point of view, the deliberate use of genetic manipulation techniques is dangerous, by the possibility of hurting the subjects rights, who is the object of this manipulation. The conclusion is that, surely, despite the several contributions brought to the humanity by the genetic engineering, there are issues to be thought and, in the specific issue of the liberal eugenics, the subjects right of self-understanding could, somehow, have been broken in case of intervention in its genetic material, mainly in relation to the selection of the desired characteristics. The contribution achieved with this study is guided in clearing an important theme, and while so polemic, and precisely for this reason needs to be analyzed, by the philosophys point of view, mainly by Jürgen Habermas knowledge.
This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.
Fujita, Misao; Yashiro, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Mika
Sparrow highlights three potential applications of in vitro eugenics, that is, (a) research into the heredity of genetic disorders, (b) production of cell lines with specific genotypes, and (c) breeding better babies, and points to the need for researchers to discuss in advance the potential ethical problems that may emerge if the realization of this technology occurs in the near future. In this commentary, we pose a question for the sake of discussion. Is it, in fact, appropriate to label all three applications raised by Sparrow as eugenics? By doing so, an unnecessary level of concern might be borne among the public, and as a result, the sound development of this specialized technology would be affected. If the label of eugenics is to be applied to all three of these applications, then Sparrow must justify how he perceives (a) and (b) as not inherently different from (c). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Yang Chao Buwei, the first Chinese translator of Margaret Sanger's What Every Girl Should Know, was the first female gynecologist to open up a birth control clinic in China. By the 1930s, other female gynecologists, like Guo Taihua, had internalized and combined national and eugenic concerns of race regeneration to focus on the control of women's reproduction. This symbiosis between racial regeneration and birth control is best seen in Yang Chongrui's integration of birth control into her national hygiene program. This article traces the efforts of pioneer gynecologists in giving contraceptive advice at their birth control clinics, which they framed as a humanitarian effort to ease the reproductive burden of working-class women. It also examines their connections with Sanger's international birth control movement, and their advocacy of contraception as practitioners, translators, and educators. The author argues that these Chinese female gynecologists not only borrowed, but adapted, Western scientific knowledge to Chinese social conditions through their writings and translations and in their clinical work.
This article discusses the contribution to evolutionary theory of Leonard Darwin (1850-1943), the eighth child of Charles Darwin. By analysing the correspondence Leonard Darwin maintained with Ronald Aylmer Fisher in conjunction with an assessment of his books and other written works between the 1910s and 1930s, this article argues for a more prominent role played by him than the previously recognised in the literature as an informal mentor of Fisher. The paper discusses Leonard's efforts to amalgamate Mendelism with both Eugenics and Darwinism in order for the first to base their policies on new scientific developments and to help the second in finding a target for natural selection. Without a formal qualification in biological sciences and as such mistrusted by some "formal" scientists, Leonard Darwin engaged with key themes of Darwinism such as mimicry, the role of mutations on speciation and the process of genetic variability, arriving at important conclusions concerning the usefulness of Mendelian genetics for his father's theory.
Zhang, Di; Ng, Vincent H; Wang, Zhaochen; Zhai, Xiaomei; Lie, Reidar K
The application of genetic technologies in China, especially in the area of prenatal genetic testing, is rapidly increasing in China. In the wealthy regions of China, prenatal genetic testing is already very widely adopted. We argue that the government should actively promote prenatal genetic testing to the poor areas of the country. In fact, the government should prioritize resources first to make prenatal genetic testing a standard routine care with an opt-out model in these area. Healthcare professions would be required to inform pregnant women about the availability of genetic testing and provide free testing on a routine basis unless the parents choose not to do so. We argue that this proposal will allow parents to make a more informed decision about their reproductive choices. Secondarily, this proposal will attract more healthcare professionals and other healthcare resources to improve the healthcare infrastructures in the less-developed regions of the country. This will help to reduce the inequity of accessing healthcare services between in different regions of China. We further argue that this policy proposal is not practicing eugenics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Both the advocates and critics of what has been called "the new imperial history," which may be characterized by its focus on how colonies were not simply influenced by but also exercised an influence on a dominating foreign state, have inspired this article. The article addresses the production and dissemination of medical knowledge in its examination of psychiatric research conducted in the 1930s in Japan's unofficial colony of Manchukuo. It highlights the political dimension of studies of psychosomatic disorders, syphilis, and alcoholism among colonists by placing it in the context of contending theories of racial improvement and growing official support for mass migration, especially to northeast China. Moreover, it inquires into restrictions on the flow of ideas from the colonies by examining how these studies were received in Japan. While interest in the colonies ensured that psychiatrists in Manchukuo were able to publish their research in leading Japanese medical journals, their findings jeopardized too many political and professional interests to become more public. In much-publicized debates stimulated by the impeding establishment of eugenic sterilization legislation, their colleagues in Japan in the late 1930s who championed the argument of environment over heredity were conspicuously silent about conditions among Japanese colonists, using instead examples of European and North American colonists to make their case.
Moskowitz, Andrew; Heim, Gerhard
On the 100th anniversary of the publication of Eugen Bleuler's Dementia Praecox or the Group of Schizophrenias, his teachings on schizophrenia from that seminal book are reviewed and reassessed, and implications for the current revision of the category of schizophrenia, with its emphasis on psychotic symptoms, drawn. Bleuler's methods are contrasted with Kraepelin's, and 4 myths about his concept of schizophrenia addressed. We demonstrate that (1) Bleuler's concept of schizophrenia has close ties to historical and contemporary concepts of dissociation and as such the public interpretation of schizophrenia as split personality has some historical basis; (2) Bleuler's concept of loosening of associations does not refer narrowly to a disorder of thought but broadly to a core organically based psychological deficit which underlies the other symptoms of schizophrenia; (3) the “4 A's,” for association, affect, ambivalence, and autism, do not adequately summarize Bleuler's teachings on schizophrenia and marginalize the central role of splitting in his conception; and (4) Bleuler's ideas were more powerfully influenced by Pierre Janet, particularly with regard to his diagnostic category Psychasthenia, than by Sigmund Freud. We conclude that Bleuler's ideas on schizophrenia warrant reexamination in the light of current criticism of the emphasis on psychotic symptoms in the schizophrenia diagnosis and argue for the recognition of the dissociative roots of this most important psychiatric category. PMID:21505113
Full Text Available This paper presents a Lacanian reading of Eugene O’Neill’s Long Day’s Journey into Night (1941 by drawing on the psychic orders the well-known French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan has propounded. He holds that human psyche is formed of three orders (the Imaginary, the Symbolic and the Real which mold the unconscious mind and motivate human actions and reactions. He also argues that the Other has an immense impact on the formation of psychic orders, especially the Symbolic, and hence on one’s identity. The present article attempts to investigate the three orders of the characters O’Neill has portrayed in Long Day’s Journey into Night, besides the role of the Other in the formation of those orders. The reactions of these characters to the outside world are regarded here as the outer presentation of their troubled mind. It is also discussed that the mental and physical problems and disorders of these characters, such as their addiction to alcohol and drugs, are the outcome of their repressed desires which have remained unfulfilled because of the rules defined and imposed on them by the Other – hence the frustrating sense of lack observed in all four characters.
Full Text Available Analisa o diálogo do eugenista Renato Kehl com um grupo de psiquiatras brasileiros que, no início da década de 1930, aproximaram-se da chamada eugenia negativa. Entusiasmados com as pesquisas e a aplicação de medidas eugênicas em países como os EUA e a Alemanha, autores como Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani e Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva elegeram a religião católica como empecilho para que o Brasil pudesse seguir caminho semelhante, especialmente quanto à resistência à implantação da esterilização dos ditos 'degenerados' que passara a vigorar na Alemanha em 1934. O artigo mapeia as diferentes estratégias propostas pelos autores para dialogar com a Igreja católica.The article analyzes the dialogue between eugenicist Renato Kehl and a group of Brazilian psychiatrists who turned their interest to so-called negative eugenics in the early 1930s. Enthused about research into eugenics and the application of eugenic methods in countries such as the United States and Germany, authors like Ernani Lopes, Ignácio da Cunha Lopes, Alberto Farani, and Antonio Carlos Pacheco e Silva blamed Catholicism for impeding Brazil from moving in a similar direction, especially the church's resistance to the sterilization of 'degenerates', which entered into effect in Germany in 1934. The article charts the various strategies these authors proposed for engaging in dialogue with the Catholic Church.
Koester, C Elizabeth
In 1917, the Ontario government appointed the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Mentally Defective and Feeble-Minded, headed by Justice Frank Hodgins. Its final report made wide-ranging recommendations regarding the segregation of feeble-minded individuals, restrictions on marriage, the improvement of psychiatric facilities, and the reform of the court system, all matters of great concern to the eugenics movement. At the same time, however, it refrained from using explicitly eugenic vocabulary and ignored the question of sterilization. This article explores the role the commission played in the trajectory of eugenics in Ontario (including the province's failure to pass sterilization legislation) and considers why its recommendations were disregarded.
Wu, Li-Wei; Lin, Wen-Jie; Hsu, Yu-Feng
Abstract The Tailed Punch, Dodona eugenes, is widely distributed in East Asia with seven subspecies currently recognized. However, two of them, namely ssp. formosana and ssp. esakii found in Taiwan, are hard to distinguish from each other due to ambiguous diagnostic characters. In this study, their taxonomic status is clarified by comparing genitalia characters and phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial sequences, COI and COII (total 2211 bps). Our results show that there is no reliable feature to separate these two subspecies. Surprisingly we found that Dodona in Taiwan is more closely related to the Orange Punch, D. egeon, than to other subspecies of D. eugenes. Therefore, the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Dodona eugenes formosana is revised to specific status as Dodona formosana Matsumura, 1919, stat. rev, and ssp. esakii is sunk to a junior synonym of Dodona formosana syn. n. PMID:29674868
Full Text Available The Tailed Punch, Dodona eugenes, is widely distributed in East Asia with seven subspecies currently recognized. However, two of them, namely ssp. formosana and ssp. esakii found in Taiwan, are hard to distinguish from each other due to ambiguous diagnostic characters. In this study, their taxonomic status is clarified by comparing genitalia characters and phylogenetic relationships based on mitochondrial sequences, COI and COII (total 2211 bps. Our results show that there is no reliable feature to separate these two subspecies. Surprisingly we found that Dodona in Taiwan is more closely related to the Orange Punch, D. egeon, than to other subspecies of D. eugenes. Therefore, the following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Dodona eugenes formosana is revised to specific status as Dodona formosana Matsumura, 1919, stat. rev, and ssp. esakii is sunk to a junior synonym of Dodona formosana syn. n.
Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being. In this article, I argue that germline intervention will be necessary merely to sustain the levels of genetic health that we presently enjoy for future generations-a goal that should appeal to bioliberals and bioconservatives alike. This is due to the population-genetic consequences of relaxed selection pressures in human populations caused by the increasing efficacy and availability of conventional medicine. This heterodox conclusion, which I present as a problem of intergenerational justice, has been overlooked in medicine and bioethics due to certain misconceptions about human evolution, which I attempt to rectify, as well as the sordid history of Darwinian approaches to medicine and social policy, which I distinguish from the present argument. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Moog, Jaime Carrizosa
With the Theory of Evolution, eugenics had its beginnings during the last decades of the 19th century. Academics discussed the results obtained from their observations, and progressively had influence on the promulgation of laws and norms related to ethnic hygiene and improvement of race. Such principles were the fundamentals to order eugenic and discriminatory laws. Colombia was not outside that discussion and developed immigration laws congruent to that thinking during the first half of the 20th century. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
The conduct of American military physicians in prisoner of war (POW) camps has been called into question by the abuse scandals at Abu Ghraib and Guantánamo Bay. This essay explores the experiences of the first U.S. military physicians to confront POW patients in large numbers-events that occurred during the American Civil War. While POWs received sub-standard care in camps north and south, the war also saw the issuance of the first document to outline the rights of POWs. This ambivalence toward the proper care and treatment of the POW is evident in the career of Dr. Eugene Sanger, the first Union surgeon at the prison camp in Elmira, New York. Sanger demonstrated both concern about the sanitary condition of the camp and pride in the deaths of POWs as furthering the overall war aims. His cruelty attracted some censure, but Sanger never faced disciplinary action. He was honorably discharged and went on to become the Surgeon General of his home state. This article places his actions at Elmira in the context of medical ethics, Army orders, and Northern opinion in 1864, and it will argue that the lack of Federal response to Eugene Sanger's poor record while serving at the prison set a precedent for inferior medical care of POWs by American military physicians.
Miller, Paul Steven; Levine, Rebecca Leah
The relationship between the medical and disability communities is complex and is influenced by historical, social, and cultural factors. Although clinicians, health-care researchers, and people with disabilities all work from the standpoint of the best interest of disabled individuals, the notion of what actually is "best" is often understood quite differently among these constituencies. Eugenics campaigns, legal restrictions on reproductive and other freedoms, and prenatal testing recommendations predicated on the lesser worth of persons with disabilities have all contributed toward the historic trauma experienced by the disability community, particularly with respect to medical genetics. One premise of personalized medicine is that different individuals require different solutions. Disabled persons' experiences are a reminder that these solutions can be best realized by maintaining awareness and sensitivity in a complex ethical and moral terrain. Geneticists should recognize that their research may have implications for those with disabilities; they should recognize the impact of the historical trauma of the eugenics movement, and seek to involve people with disabilities in discussions about policies that affect them. Dialogue can be messy and uncomfortable, but it is the only way to avoid the mistakes of the past and to ensure a more equitable, and healthful, future.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to determine the reception’s specifics of the Antique text and to observe its role in historiosophy and esthetics of Eugen Malaniuk. Using contact and comparative methods we analyzed his lyrics and elucidated that the author had put in the basis of his poetic historiosophy his comprehension of concepts “Hellas” and “Rome”. In Malaniuk’s interpretation these concepts became the metaphors of past and future of Ukraine (“Polittia”, “Variaz′ka vesna”, “Liuds′ke”, “Epiloh”, “Uryvok”, etc.. Its present he comprehend transforming the antique maxim “world – theatre” (“Teatr, Doba”, “Odyn vechir”, “V maіbutnie”, “Pobachennia”, etc.. This comprehension resulted into quotations in epigraphs and text (“Tertia vigilia”, “Сampus Martius”, “Ars poetica”, “Ave, Caesar…”, “Post scriptum”, etc., reminiscence and allusions of antique plots and motives (“Martivs′ki idy”, “Osinnii Stiks”, “Muza”, “Bezkrovna Muza…”, “Perykl”, etc., explicit (“Prysviatni strofy”, “Doba”, “Bezsonnia”, “Tak dovho buv dvolykyi i dvoiakyi…”, “Nostal′hiia” and implicit (“Proloh” embodiment of “text in text” structure and transformation of the lyrical hero into images of the prototext’s characters (Odysseus, Theseus, Aeneas. The research revealed that transplantation of the antique text by the poet caused the uprise of the “Prague” interpretation variant, distinctive features of which are synthesis of neoclassic and neoromantic perception of the Classic tradition, focus on the Baroque experience of its reception, reading through the historisophical prism. The study “Malaniuk and Antiqity” creates a perspective of separating and researching masculine, Rome’s rationality oriented, with Apollo’s principles domineering (Ol′zhych, Klen; and feminine, with Dionysus’ element prevalence in dialogue with emotional
Atherton, H. L.; Steels, S. L.
Knowledge and understanding of how eugenics has historically affected the lives of people with intellectual disabilities is vital if professionals are to mount an effective defence against its contemporary influences. An online survey of European providers of health, social care and pedagogical education and training courses was undertaken to find…
Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-
Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013
The 'Eugene Wigner' training Course for Reactor Physics Experiments has been supported by the 5th Framework Programme of the European Commission, and it has been integrated in the ENEN (European Nuclear Engineering Network) program. This project has been prepared for the future European Nuclear Education schemes and degrees. Starting from a general presentation of the course this paper presents my opinion as a former student about the course impact. In this paper is written my opinion about the following: The content of theoretical courses; The usefulness of the textbook; The content of the practical experiments; The usefulness of the textbook for the practical experiments, and evaluations. Moreover, parts of this course were implemented to my seminars. Results, expectations and conclusions about the usefulness of the course are presented. (author)
Reis, J R
Created in the early 1920s, at a moment when the country's psychiatric field was embracing the preventive outlook, the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental included within its members the elite of Brazilian psychiatry, along with a number of physicians and intellectuals. The article discusses the institution's proposals for intervention among children. The league ended up incorporating into its theoretical arsenal the basic themes of mental hygiene and eugenics as part of its general goal of collaborating in Brazil's process of "racial sanitation". With this objective in mind, and viewing the child as a "pre-citizen" who is a "fundamental part within the man of the future", league members included the children's issue in their projects and saw an imperative need for mental health care from early ages on.
Friedrich, Björn; Weyrich, Peter; Stancáková, Alena
gene (SGK) variations and insulin secretion traits. The German TUEF project provided the screening population (N = 725), and four tagging SNPs (rs1763527, rs1743966, rs1057293, rs9402571) were investigated. EUGENE2 (N = 827) served as a replication cohort for the detected associations. Finally...... secretion only remained significant in lean TUEF participants (BMIEUGENE2 rs9402571 minor allele carriers, who had a significantly higher AUC(Ins)/AUC(Glc) (TT: 226+/-7, XG: 246+/-9; p = 0.019). Accordingly, the METSIM trial revealed a lower prevalence of type...... 2 diabetes (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.71-1.01; p = 0.065, dominant model) in rs9402571 minor allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: The rs9402571 SGK genotype associates with increased insulin secretion in lean non-diabetic TUEF/EUGENE2 participants and with lower diabetes prevalence in METSIM. Our study in three...
Manuel Durán Sandoval
Full Text Available Este artículo aborda la conformación de un discurso eugenésico positivo heredero de las teorías higienistas ambientalistas y raciales de finales del siglo XIX. Esta tendencia se consolidó entre 1925 a 1938 con la conformación de una estructura institucional y programas de corte social con fuertes matices eugenésicos positivos, considerando el cuerpo y el “carácter” de la juventud como amalgama de la nación.En este contexto se desarrollaron desde fines del siglo XIX tentativas por constituir una medicina pública que propulsara un programa de educación y preservación de la juventud. Estas iniciativas de corte ambientalista pretendían potenciar las aptitudes física y morales de los jóvenes mediante planes de alimentación, higiene y gimnasia
Anvelt, Kärt, 1973-
2012. aastal jõuab ekraanile 12-osaline ajalooline telesari tööpealkirjaga "Siber", mis tähistab 70 aasta möödumist eestlaste esimesest küüditamisest 14. juunil 1941. Sarja lavastaja Merle Karusoo, stsenaristid Merle Karusoo ja Katrin Saukas. Võtterühma peagi algavast sõidust Siberisse Tomski oblastisse, reisist valmib dokumentaalfilm. Kommenteerivad kunstnik Eugen Tamberg ja helirežissöör Urmas Voolpriit
Atherton, H L; Steels, S L
Knowledge and understanding of how eugenics has historically affected the lives of people with intellectual disabilities is vital if professionals are to mount an effective defence against its contemporary influences. An online survey of European providers of health, social care and pedagogical education and training courses was undertaken to find out how the history of eugenics is taught to those wishing to work in services for people with intellectual disabilities. Two hundred and six educational providers were contacted with a response rate of 35.9% (n = 74). Findings showed that the majority of educational providers recognize the importance of including the history of eugenics in their courses, although fewer feel confident that it is sufficiently well covered to prepare future professionals for their role as protector. Course content differs on both the emphasis given to the different components of this history, time dedicated to its delivery and the extent to which it is used to inform legal and ethical debate. Specific recommendations for developing the way in which this subject area is taught are outlined. © The Author(s) 2015.
Luis Miguel LÁZARO LORENTE
Full Text Available En contraste con lo observable en la historiografía de otros países europeos y anglosajones, el estudio de la introducción y difusión de los principios y prácticas de la Eugenesia, como tema de investigación, no ha contado en España con muchos cultivadores. Menos todavía han sido objeto de estudio las relaciones del pensamiento eugénico con el ámbito pedagógico para indagar la recepción que tiene entre el Magisterio, y conocer el conjunto de reacciones que provoca, así como la participación de los maestros en la potencial difusión de sus planteamientos. Se aborda aquí una aproximación a ese tema centrando el análisis en las relaciones que en la España del primer tercio del siglo XX se establecen entre Medicina, Pedagogía y Eugenesia. Para ello tomamos como referente e hilo conductor la figura y el pensamiento del maestro asturiano Luis Huerta Naves, decidido impulsor y propagandista incansable de la Eugenesia en nuestro país.By comparison with the historiography of other European and Anglo-Saxon countries, the study of the origins and spread of Eugenics in Spain has not received much attention. Even less research has been done on the degree of acceptance of eugenic thought in the pedagogical domain or on the role teachers may have in the diffusion of eugenics. This paper attempts to explore the subject while focusing the analysis on the relations that were established among Medicine, Pedagogy and Eugenics in Spain during the first third of the 20th century. We will take as a point of reference and guiding line of thought the figure of the Asturian teacher Luis Huerta Naves, who was the driving force and tireless advocate of the eugenics movement in our country.
Full Text Available This paper's main issue is linked to what can be foreseen as the increasing capability of medical genetics to modify the genetic composition of the human species through direct interventions in the human genome for medical and non-medical purposes, i.e., the 'risk' of a resurgence of eugenics. In current discussions on the topic (briefly presented in the first section, the 'phantom of eugenics' is raised several times, but there is a great deal of confusion on what counts as eugenics, partly because of broad conceptual disagreement over the notion itself. Furthermore, according to some scholars there is no hope of overcoming this unsatisfactory conceptual uncertainty. Partly challenging this opinion, the second and third sections of this paper attempt to identify some basic features which could be seen as intrinsically linked to the notion of eugenics, with the aim of reducing the range of conceptual disagreement as a preliminary step in bringing into focus what exactly is wrong with practicing eugenics. The subsequent sections deal with the substantive issue of whether or not to practice eugenics from the point of view of the interest of future generations in the human species' genetic composition. The main moral arguments for and against eugenics are examined from the point of view of our obligations towards future generations, and the conclusion is in favor of a cautious 'open-door' position.O ponto principal desse artigo está vinculado ao que pode ser antevisto como a crescente capacidade da genética médica de modificar a espécie humana por meio de intervenções diretas no genoma humano com propósitos médicos e não médicos, isto é, o risco do ressurgimento da eugenia. Nas atuais discussões sobre o tópico, o fantasma da eugenia é levantado diversas vezes, mas há grande confusão no que se refere ao que é considerado como eugenia, particularmente em razão da ampla discordância sobre a noção em si. Procura-se identificar
Full Text Available The aim of this article is the investigation of the extent to which Eugene O’Neill, in his drama "The Dreamy Kid", (reconstructs, or employs, the black macho myth, which negatively images black men as marginalized and violent. This undertaking questions O’Neill’s self-proclaimed progressive racial attitudes and stated focus on the universal nature of human existence, which he professed to express through drama. Moreover, the article challenges the mainstream view of "The Dreamy Kid" as progressive. Although the play focalizes the experience of a marginalized black man, which could be interpreted as the playwright’s concern with the unjust racial and class stratification of American society, O’Neill’s production, unfortunately, contains a number of pervasive stereotypes relative to black people’s alleged moral degeneracy, primitiveness, and violent behavior, which threatens the white dominated constructed order. In terms of gendered racial politics, in the article attention is given to O’Neill’s presentation of black male negotiations with the white patriarchal power structure, embodied by the police forces, and with black matriarchy, represented by O’Neill’s stereotypical character portrayal of a dominant elderly black woman. Lastly, an overall analysis is performed in light of the call for an autonomous black art, which emerged among black artists in opposition to the demeaning, unrealistic, stereotypical portrayals of black victims of oppression by white American writers.
Kuhar, Martin; Fatović-Ferencić, Stella
Fran Gundrum (1856-1919) was a Croatian physician, encyclopedist, and an advocate of medical enlightenment and healthy lifestyle. In order to identify and analyze Gundrum's ideas about the problems of prostitution and criminality, we studied all of his books, booklets, and articles published between 1905 and 1914. We showed that Gundrum's theories of heredity, morality, and sexual hygiene incorporated many of the important discussions of his time, especially those related to the Darwinian paradigm. Gundrum's project of collecting statistics on prostitutes was the first such study published on the territory of today's Croatia. Although he rejected the notions of born prostitutes and born criminals, defended by Italian criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, he still regarded eugenics as a convenient method of dealing with the ills of society. He believed that criminals were degenerate individuals representing a violent threat to the society and that it was legitimate to use radical means, such as sterilization and deportation, to deal with this problem. Organicistic view of the society prevented him from seeing the individual rights as important as that of the society to protect itself. Nevertheless, this view led to many humanistic ideas, such as the binomial illness/poverty in case of prostitution, which influenced many prominent works of social medicine movement.
Bornmann, Lutz; Haunschild, Robin; Hug, Sven E
During Eugene Garfield's (EG's) lengthy career as information scientist, he published about 1500 papers. In this study, we use the impressive oeuvre of EG to introduce a new type of bibliometric networks: keyword co-occurrences networks based on the context of citations, which are referenced in a certain paper set (here: the papers published by EG). The citation context is defined by the words which are located around a specific citation. We retrieved the citation context from Microsoft Academic. To interpret and compare the results of the new network type, we generated two further networks: co-occurrence networks which are based on title and abstract keywords from (1) EG's papers and (2) the papers citing EG's publications. The comparison of the three networks suggests that papers of EG and citation contexts of papers citing EG are semantically more closely related to each other than to titles and abstracts of papers citing EG. This result accords with the use of citations in research evaluation that is based on the premise that citations reflect the cognitive influence of the cited on the citing publication.
Lilian Denise Mai
Full Text Available A prática da eugenia constitui importante tema de debate associado aos atuais avanços biogenéticos. Considerando que a centralidade da eugenia é a preocupação com a saúde e constituição das futuras gerações, e que a utilização de meios e conhecimentos científicos em prol do nascimento de uma criança física e mentalmente saudável pode ser considerada uma ação eugênica, pretende-se, nesse texto, analisar significados e contradições das ações eugenistas negativas e positivas, construídos concomitantes aos avanços técnico-científicos do século XX. Conclui-se que os significados transitam, respectivamente, em torno de limitar ou estimular a reprodução humana, no início do século, até prevenir doenças ou melhorar características físicas e mentais, na atualidade. Implementando ações, produziram-se contradições, como a discriminação e eliminação de muitas pessoas frente a um ideal de homem, à biologização de fatores eminentemente sociais, à defesa da pretensa neutralidade científica e ao uso indiscriminado do direito de escolha reprodutiva.La práctica de la eugenesia es un importante tema de debate, ligado a los avances biogenéticos actuales. Considerando que la cuestión central de la eugenesia es la preocupación con la salud y la constitución de las futuras generaciones y que la utilización de medios y conocimientos científicos en función del nacimiento de un niño física y mentalmente saludable puede ser considerada una acción eugenésica, en este texto se pretende analizar los significados y contradicciones de las acciones eugenésicas negativas y positivas, construidos concomitantes a los avances técnico-científicos del siglo XX. Se concluye que los significados giran, respectivamente, en torno de limitar o estimular la reproducción humana, al comienzo del siglo, hasta prevenir enfermedades o mejorar características físicas y mentales, en la actualidad. Implementando acciones, se
Pow, Stephen; Stahnisch, Frank W
Biological psychiatry in the early twentieth century was based on interrelated disciplines, such as neurology and experimental biology. Neuropsychiatrist Franz Josef Kallmann (1897-1965) was a product of this interdisciplinary background who showed an ability to adapt to different scientific contexts, first in the field of neuromorphology in Berlin, and later in New York. Nonetheless, having innovative ideas, as Kallmann did, could be an ambiguous advantage, since they could lead to incommensurable scientific views and marginalization in existing research programs. Kallmann followed his Dr. Med. degree (1919) with training periods at the Charité Medical School in Berlin under psychiatrist Karl Bonhoeffer (1868-1948). Subsequently, he collaborated with Ernst Ruedin (1874-1952), investigating sibling inheritance of schizophrenia and becoming a protagonist of genetic research on psychiatric conditions. In 1936, Kallmann was forced to immigrate to the USA where he published The Genetics of Schizophrenia (1938), based on data he had gathered from the district pathological institutes of Berlin's public health department. Kallmann resumed his role as an international player in biological psychiatry and genetics, becoming president (1952) of the American Society of Human Genetics and Director of the New York State Psychiatric Institute in 1955. While his work was well received by geneticists, the idea of genetic differences barely took hold in American psychiatry, largely because of émigré psychoanalysts who dominated American clinical psychiatry until the 1960s and established a philosophical direction in which genetics played no significant role, being regarded as dangerous in light of Nazi medical atrocities. After all, medical scientists in Nazi Germany had been among the social protagonists of racial hygiene which, under the aegis of Nazi philosophies, replaced medical genetics as the basis for the ideals and application of eugenics.
Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Alban
Full Text Available Following the teachings of the “Law in the Literature” movement, as well as the method of the Phemenological Hermeneutics, the present essay intends to discuss the eugenics content present in the abstract criteria for donating genetic material in Brazil. In order to present this problem clearly for the reader, the novel Brave New World, from Aldous Huxley, will be used as an example. Opportunely, it will deal with the recent situation regarding the investigation of the London Sperm Bank donators’ politics, in which important debates related to the genetic selection aiming for avoiding congenital diseases appear.
The Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics (MPIMG) in Berlin-Dahlem dates its establishment to 1964. Its homepage makes no mention of its predecessor institutes, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Genetics and Eugenics (KWIA) and the subsequent MPI for Comparative Genetics and Hereditary Pathology (MPIVEE). This article traces the two critical phases of transition regarding the constellations of academic staff, institutional and epistemic ruptures and continuities specific to the era. Only one of the five department heads from the final war years, Hans Nachtsheim, remained a researcher within the Max Planck Society (MPG); he nevertheless continued to advocate the pre-war and wartime eugenic agenda in the life sciences and social policy. The generational change of 1959/60 became a massive struggle within the institute, in which microbial genetics (with Fritz Kaudewitz) was pitted against human genetics (with Friedrich Vogel) and managed to establish itself after a fresh change in personnel in 1964/65. For the Dahlem institute, this involved a far-reaching reorientation of its research, but for the genetically oriented life sciences in the Max Planck Society as a whole it only meant that molecular biology, which was already being pursued in the West German institutes, gained an additional facility. With this realignment of research traditions, the Society was able to draw a line under the Nazi past without having to address it head-on.
Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus
In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin's seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin's 1922-1925 study on the inheritance of "manic-depressive insanity" was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses).
Kösters, Gundula; Steinberg, Holger; Kirkby, Kenneth Clifford; Himmerich, Hubertus
In the early 20th century, there were few therapeutic options for mental illness and asylum numbers were rising. This pessimistic outlook favoured the rise of the eugenics movement. Heredity was assumed to be the principal cause of mental illness. Politicians, scientists and clinicians in North America and Europe called for compulsory sterilisation of the mentally ill. Psychiatric genetic research aimed to prove a Mendelian mode of inheritance as a scientific justification for these measures. Ernst Rüdin’s seminal 1916 epidemiological study on inheritance of dementia praecox featured large, systematically ascertained samples and statistical analyses. Rüdin’s 1922–1925 study on the inheritance of “manic-depressive insanity” was completed in manuscript form, but never published. It failed to prove a pattern of Mendelian inheritance, counter to the tenets of eugenics of which Rüdin was a prominent proponent. It appears he withheld the study from publication, unable to reconcile this contradiction, thus subordinating his carefully derived scientific findings to his ideological preoccupations. Instead, Rüdin continued to promote prevention of assumed hereditary mental illnesses by prohibition of marriage or sterilisation and was influential in the introduction by the National Socialist regime of the 1933 “Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring” (Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses). PMID:26544949
Fabiola Villela Cortés
Full Text Available La eugenesia es un tema abordado, entre otros, por historiadores, filósofos, médicos, bioeticistas, por distintas razones. La idea de mejorar la raza humana siempre ha estado presente en la historia de la civilización, también han sido objeto de comentarios el intento de consolidarla como una ciencia, la presencia de movimientos eugenésicos en varios países del mundo, el holocausto nazi y, finalmente, el resurgimiento de la eugenesia a raíz de la decodificación del genoma humano. Nuestro objetivo es dar un repaso por los movimientos eugenésicos que tuvieron lugar a mediados del siglo XX, el resurgimiento de la eugenesia y los adelantos con los que contamos actualmente.A eugenia é um tema abordado, entre outros, por historiadores, filósofos, médicos, bioeticistas, e por diferentes razões. A ideia de melhorar a raça humana sempre tem estado presente na história da civilização. Também tem sido objeto de comentários a intenção de consolidá-la como uma ciência a presença de movimentos eugênicos em vários países do mundo, o holocausto nazista e, finalmente, o ressurgimento da eugenia na raíz da decodificação do genoma humano. Nosso objetivo é dar um repasso pelos movimentos eugênicos que tiveram lugar em meados do século XX, o ressurgimento da eugenia e os avanços com os quais contamos atualmente.Eugenics is a topic treated for several reasons by, among others, historians, philosophers, physicians, bioethicists. The idea to improve human race always has been present in the history of civilization, to try to consolidate it as a science also has been the object of commentaries, the presence of eugenic organizations in several countries, the nazi holocaust and finally, the eugenic resurgence since the human genome sequencing. Our objective is to review eugenic movements in the mid twentieth century, eugenic resurgence and current advancements.
8 Apr 2016 ... is 'n prentjie wat Hollywood gereeld aan ons opdis. Die waarheid is dat die mense wat namens die staat afskuwelike dade pleeg, heel normaal en soms selfs vervelig voorkom. Dit staan in sterk kon- tras met hul vergrype, wat definitief nie normaal of vervelig voorkom nie maar daadwerklik immoreel was.
[[On a bright, sunny day in late May 1980, commencement exercises were underway at Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee. More than 250 physicians, dentists, nurses, candidates in health administration, dental hygienists, and medical technicians prepared to receive their certifications from the second-oldest historically black medical school in the country. Wearing a brown gabardine suit, Dr. Beadie Eugene Conner prepared to be called up to the podium along with some former classmates of Meharry’s class of 1930 to receive a plaque commemorating fifty years of public service. As he made his way up to the podium, tears began to well up in his eyes as he thought about his mother who would be so proud of him, his deceased wife, Willie Ruel, their daughter, Georgia, and the many years that had passed since he received his medical degree. The event contributed to the retired doctor’s desire to write an autobiography. Though never completed, rough drafts of the manuscript’s early chapters (along with other existing personal documents) provide an invaluable window into the interesting life of an important African American physician in twentieth-century Texas.1 The Conner family’s emphasis on education started long before Beadie was born. The earliest relatives of Dr. Conner so far identified are William Conner and Rachel Sterling Conner of Blount County, in eastern Tennessee. Family records indicate that William was born a slave in Knox County, Tennessee, sometime in 1814. He had already purchased his freedom by 1843 when he married Rachel Sterling, a woman born in 1829 into a free black family. William and Rachel lived on a Blount County farm through the Civil War years, raising six boys and one girl. Beadie Conner’s father, David Alexander Conner, was the fourth oldest son, born in 1859. After William died in 1866, Rachel moved the family to Louisville (a community in Blount County not to be confused with the city in Kentucky), where she kept house
In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stahnisch, Frank W
French-Austrian psychiatrist Bénédict Augustin Morel's (1809-1873) Traits des dégénérescences physiques, intellectuelles et morales de l'espèce humaine (1857) was fully dedicated to the social problem of "degeneration" and it became very attractive to German-speaking psychiatrists during the latter half of the 19th century. Auguste Forel (1848-1931) and Constantin von Monakow (1853-1930) in Zurich integrated Morel's approach and searched for the somatic and morphological alterations in the human brain; a perspective of research that Ernst Ruedin (1874-1952) at Munich further prolonged into a thorough analysis of hereditary influences on mental health. This paper investigates the continuities and major differences within some early eugenic traditions of the emerging field of psychiatry in the German-speaking countries and North America.
Amy, Jean-Jacques; Rowlands, Sam
In the late 19th century, eugenics, a pseudo-scientific doctrine based on an erroneous interpretation of the laws of heredity, swept across the industrialised world. Academics and other influential figures who promoted it convinced political stakeholders to enact laws authorising the sterilisation of people seen as 'social misfits'. The earliest sterilisation Act was enforced in Indiana, in 1907; most states in the USA followed suit and so did several countries, with dissimilar political regimes. The end of the Second World War saw the suspension of Nazi legislation in Germany, including that regulating coerced sterilisation. The year 1945 should have been the endpoint of these inhuman practices but, in the early post-war period, the existing sterilisation Acts were suspended solely in Germany and Austria. Only much later did certain countries concerned - not Japan so far - officially acknowledge the human rights violations committed, issue apologies and develop reparation schemes for the victims' benefit.
Full Text Available Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, a Fundação Rockefeller atuou de modo decisivo na implementação de ações voltadas para a saúde pública no Brasil, especialmente naquilo denominado de movimento sanitarista. Nesse mesmo período, a eugenia brasileira era equivalente ao sanitarismo, onde defendia-se a máxima de que "sanear era eugenizar". Vários trabalhos discutem o movimento sanitário, a questão da saúde pública no Brasil, a Fundação Rockefeller, a eugenia e seus ativistas. Entretanto, é escassa a discussão a respeito da Rockefeller e o movimento eugenista brasileiro. É necessário alertar que embora nos deparemos com questões ligadas à raça, teorias sobre genética ou evolução, este trabalho não tem como objetivo analisar tais assuntos com profundidade. O que buscamos construir foi o cenário no qual a eugenia de maneira geral, e a brasileira, especificamente, se desenrolou trazendo à tona as posturas de alguns eugenistas brasileiros.In the first decades of the twentieth century, the work of the Rockefeller Foundation was decisive for the implementation of public health initiatives in Brazil, especially in the so-called public health movement. At that time, Brazilian eugenics was the same as public health, as expressed in the maxim "to sanitize is to eugenize". There are several studies discussing the public health movement, the issue of public health in Brazil, the Rockefeller Foundation, eugenics and its supporters. However, there is little discussion on the relationship between the Rockefeller Foundation and the Brazilian eugenics movement. It is worth to mention that although there are issues related to race, and theories on genetics and evolution, this work does not intend to examine these issues in depth. The aim was to recreate the scenario in which eugenics in general, and particularly in the Brazilian case, was developed, exposing the positions of some of the Brazilian eugenicists.
This article examines the discourse about physical disability led by the German 'Krüppelfürsorge'. It deals with the exhibition GeSoLei (Gesundheitspflege, soziale Fürsorge and Leibesübungen), which took place in Düsseldorf in 1926. The GeSoLei was one of the most popular platforms of the healthy and aesthetic body in the 1920s. It stood in the context of the German 'national recovery' after World War I and collected all types of medical, social and athletic professionals to expose their work to a broader audience. Also representatives of the so called 'Krüppelfürsorge' presented themselves and at the same time their perspective on people with physical disabilities on this exhibition. The article points out the ambivalent character of their perspective and shows the mixture of including and excluding people with physical disabilities, which was typical for the view of the 'Krüppelfürsorge'. It demonstrates that the 'Krüppelfürsorger' on the one hand were quite progressive towards people with disabilities, but on the other hand showed a striking openness towards eugenic values.
Full Text Available The text aims to bring attention of the Czech readers to Petrie's contributions to the eugenics movement in Great Britain. It describes his close association with Francis Galton and his resulting pronounced views on eugenics and shows how Petrie's racist opinions and involvement in eugenics influenced hi s work as an archaeologist and historian. An attempt is made to understand Petrie's views in the context ofhis times instead of condemning him for hi s appalling conclusions motivated by his racism and eugenics beliefs. The text offers a perspective which enables the readers to consider Petrie's thoughts in relation to the eugenic movement which was not on ly favoured by many ofhis contemporaries, but also had many supporters Jong after Petrie's death. Any consideration of the influence of past ideologies and context on Petrie's thinking and research also brings forward an unanswerable question ofhow much each one of u s is influenced by the ideologies and the context(s prevalent in present times and culture.
Vanderlei Sebastião de Souza
Full Text Available Apresenta um conjunto de fontes documentais que integram o Arquivo de Antropologia Física, de responsabilidade do Setor de Antropologia Biológica do Museu Nacional/UFRJ. O arquivo contém importante documentação sobre o Primeiro Congresso Brasileiro de Eugenia, realizado em 1929, no Rio de Janeiro, em comemoração ao centenário da Academia Nacional de Medicina. Além de originais dos trabalhos apresentados no evento - alguns inéditos -, constam também nesse arquivo documentos reunidos pela secretaria do Congresso, como convocações para a sua realização, ficha dos inscritos, correspondências, recortes de jornais e revistas com artigos sobre eugenia, bem como moções, relatórios e atas finais, constituindo acervo fundamental para a compreensão da história da eugenia no Brasil.The article presents a set of documental sources that are part of the physical anthropology archive administered by the National Museum's biological anthropology sector (UFRJ. The archive holds important documentation on the first Brazilian congress of eugenics, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1929, in celebration of the National Academy of Medicine centennial. In addition to the originals of papers presented at the event (some unpublished, the archive also contains a series of documents compiled by the congress organizers, including announcements of the event, attendee registrations, correspondence, newspaper and magazine clippings of articles on eugenics, as well as motions, reports, and final minutes, all of which makes this collection invaluable in understanding the history of eugenics in Brazil.
Allen, G E
Eugenics, the attempt to improve the genetic quality of the human species by 'better breeding', developed as a worldwide movement between 1900 and 1940. It was particularly prominent in the United States, Britain and Germany, and in those countries was based on the then-new science of Mendelian genetics. Eugenicists developed research programs to determine the degree in which traits such as Huntington's chorea, blindness, deafness, mental retardation (feeblemindedness), intelligence, alcoholism, schizophrenia, manic depression, rebelliousness, nomadism, prostitution and feeble inhibition were genetically determined. Eugenicists were also active in the political arena, lobbying in the United States for immigration restriction and compulsory sterilization laws for those deemed genetically unfit; in Britain they lobbied for incarceration of genetically unfit and in Germany for sterilization and eventually euthanasia. In all these countries one of the major arguments was that of efficiency: that it was inefficient to allow genetic defects to be multiplied and then have to try and deal with the consequences of state care for the offspring. National socialists called genetically defective individuals 'useless eaters' and argued for sterilization or euthanasia on economic grounds. Similar arguments appeared in the United States and Britain as well. At the present time (1997) much research and publicity is being given to claims about a genetic basis for all the same behaviors (alcoholism, manic depression, etc.), again in an economic context--care for people with such diseases is costing too much. There is an important lesson to learn from the past: genetic arguments are put forward to mask the true--social and economic--causes of human behavioral defects.
Lederer, S. M.; Hickson, P.; Cowardin, H. M.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Alliss, R.
In June 2015, the construction of the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope was completed and MCAT saw the light of the stars for the first time. In 2017, MCAT was newly dedicated as the Eugene Stansbery-MCAT telescope by NASA’s Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO), in honour of his inspiration and dedication to this newest optical member of the NASA ODPO. Since that time, MCAT has viewed the skies with one engineering camera and two scientific cameras, and the ODPO optical team has begun the process of vetting the entire system. The full system vetting includes verification and validation of: (1) the hardware comprising the system (e.g. the telescopes and its instruments, the dome, weather systems, all-sky camera, FLIR cloud infrared camera, etc.), (2) the custom-written Observatory Control System (OCS) master software designed to autonomously control this complex system of instruments, each with its own control software, and (3) the custom written Orbital Debris Processing software for post-processing the data. ES-MCAT is now capable of autonomous observing to include Geosyncronous survey, TLE (Two-line element) tracking of individual catalogued debris at all orbital regimes (Low-Earth Orbit all the way to Geosynchronous (GEO) orbit), tracking at specified non-sidereal rates, as well as sidereal rates for proper calibration with standard stars. Ultimately, the data will be used for validation of NASA’s Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM, which aids in engineering designs of spacecraft that require knowledge of the orbital debris environment and long-term risks for collisions with Resident Space Objects (RSOs).
Lederer, S. M.; Hickson, P.; Cowardin, H. M.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Alliss, R.
In June 2015, the construction of the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope was completed and MCAT saw the light of the stars for the first time. In 2017, MCAT was newly dedicated as the Eugene Stansbery-MCAT telescope by NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO), in honor of his inspiration and dedication to this newest optical member of the NASA ODPO. Since that time, MCAT has viewed the skies with one engineering camera and two scientific cameras, and the ODPO optical team has begun the process of vetting the entire system. The full system vetting includes verification and validation of: (1) the hardware comprising the system (e.g. the telescopes and its instruments, the dome, weather systems, all-sky camera, FLIR cloud infrared camera, etc.), (2) the custom-written Observatory Control System (OCS) master software designed to autonomously control this complex system of instruments, each with its own control software, and (3) the custom written Orbital Debris Processing software for post-processing the data. ES-MCAT is now capable of autonomous observing to include Geosynchronous survey, TLE (Two-line element) tracking of individual catalogued debris at all orbital regimes (Low-Earth Orbit all the way to Geosynchronous (GEO) orbit), tracking at specified non-sidereal rates, as well as sidereal rates for proper calibration with standard stars. Ultimately, the data will be used for validation of NASA's Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM, which aids in engineering designs of spacecraft that require knowledge of the orbital debris environment and long-term risks for collisions with Resident Space Objects (RSOs).
Maria Helena Cabral de Almeida Cardoso
Full Text Available Com os constantes avanços das técnicas de manipulação genética, o campo da saúde coletiva passou a lidar com a possibilidade de surgimento de uma ênfase genômica reducionista, para além das influências sócio-culturais. Nestas circunstâncias, o foco principal das intervenções em saúde coletiva voltar-se-ia para a abordagem genômica de "indivíduos" e suas "famílias" em detrimento de seu consagrado objeto - "populações". Assim, seria deslocada a prioridade central dos esforços (e recursos para reduzir o adoecimento em função das desigualdades sócio-econômicas. Ao lado dos benefícios dos conhecimentos genéticos, há a possibilidade de surgimento de novas práticas eugênicas a partir da disponibilização de testagens genéticas no mercado, com vistas à aquisição pelos indivíduos interessados, desde que estes sejam capazes de atuarem como respectivos agentes de consumo.Due to constant advances in genetic manipulation, the field of public health is faced with the possible emergence of a reductionist genomic emphasis, beyond socio-cultural influences. Under such circumstances, the main focus of public health interventions would shift towards a genomic approach to "individuals" and their "families", to the detriment of their consecrated object - "populations", thereby moving away from the current central priority of efforts (and resources aimed at reducing ill-health due to socioeconomic inequalities. Even admitting the benefits of genetic knowledge, a new eugenic practice may emerge from the availability of genetic tests on the marketplace aimed at individuals that can afford to consume them.
Professor Eugen Cerkovnikov, PhD (Kamenska, Russia, 1904- Rijeka, Croatia 1985) graduated in chemical technology from the Faculty of Engineering in Zagreb in 1929. His first job was at the School of Medicine in Paris in 1930, and then he moved to Zagreb to the Department of Organic Chemistry of the Faculty of Engineering run by our Nobel Prize winner Vladimir Prelog (1935-1938). There he took his PhD degree with a dissertation on piperidine gamma derivatives. From 1938 to 1947 he was a research associate at an institute established by the pharmaceutical company Kastel (later Pliva). This is when he became a lecturer at the Faculty of Pharmacy in Zagreb and the first director of the Institute of Organic Chemistry, established in 1946/47. In 1948 he became reader, and in 1956 (full) professor. In 1957 he moved to the newly established School of Medicine in Rijeka, and set up the Institute of Chemistry and Biochemistry. He ran the Institute until retirement in 1975. He was the second dean of the Rijeka University School of Medicine and a pioneer of quantum chemistry and medical cybernetics in undergraduate and (post)graduate courses. His scientific work consists of over 200 papers published at home and abroad, 60 professional papers, 20 book reviews, three works of translation, and 27 volumes of lecture notes. In 1958, professor Cerkovnikov established the Croatian Chemical Society and the Rijeka and Istria branches of the nation's Association of Chemists and Chemical Engineers, chairing them until 1974. In addition, he was one of the founding fathers, and the first chair of the Health Culture Studies Association in Rijeka (that preceded today's Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture), established in 1965.
Educar para regenerar e selecionar. Convergências entre os ideários eugênico e educacional no Brasil Educating to regenerate and select. Convergences between the eugenic and educational principles in Brazil
Regina Cândida Ellero Gualtieri
Full Text Available O artigo discute algumas convergências entre o pensamento eugenista e o pensamento pedagógico brasileiro do início do século 20. O ideário eugênico incluía a convicção de que diferenças individuais eram biologicamente determinadas e isso foi considerado um avanço por educadores como Fernando de Azevedo (1894-1974, membro da Sociedade Eugênica de São Paulo (1918-1919, pois, nessa perspectiva, todo indivíduo teria o direito a ser educado e regenerado até onde suas “aptidões permitissem”. A educação deixaria de ser privilégio de condição social para constituir “direito biológico”, propiciando a seleção “dos mais bem-sucedidos” e a construção da “hierarquia das capacidades”. Esse entendimento evoca o que Michel Foucault denominou “biopoder” – um modo de tratar os fenômenos coletivos como problema biológico e político – para cuidar do “homem-espécie” e não apenas do indivíduo, garantindo normas capazes de distribuir os indivíduos em um “domínio de valor e utilidade” e instalando mecanismos para qualificar e hierarquizar populações. Muitas dessas questões permanecem no debate educacional contemporâneo. Palavras-chave: Eugenia. Biopoder. Seleção. Regeneração. Educação eugênica. This article discusses convergences between eugenics and the Brazilian pedagogic educational principles in the beginning of the 20th century. The eugenical ideal stated that individual differences were biologically determined and this conception was considered a progressive idea by educators like Fernando de Azevedo (1894-1974 who belonged to the Eugenics Society of Sao Paulo (1918-1919. In this perspective, every individual was entitled to being educated as well as regenerated according to his abilities and this meant that education wouldn’t be treated as a privilege of the social high classes anymore. Such understanding evokes what Michel Foucault named “biopower” – a way to control an
Full Text Available Discutem-se os processos de inovação envolvidos, desde a luta empreendedora de Eugene Garfield e do ISI Institute for Scientific Information nos últimos 40 anos até meados dos anos 90, e as mudanças que a entrada do Google Scholar tem provocado com o seu modelo de negócio baseado num mecanismo de inovação disruptiva. Os processos de inovação envolvidos são discutidos com base em modelos sociais de inovação empresarial. Apresenta‑se evidência empírica comparando resultados de procuras no ISI/WoS e no Google Scholar, que mostram o efeito de legacy da arquitectura de dados do ISI/WoS e que mostram que nenhum deles é perfeito. Ambos subestimam o número real de citações, e, para os casos apresentados, as citações únicas das duas origens são dominantes. Discute-se o significado das actuais “guerras das citações” como uma continuação das anteriores “guerras das ciências” e como uma continuação da permanente procura do significado e fundamento para o conhecimento científico e para a actividade académica. Argumentamos que o modelo aberto e dinâmico do Google Scholar é muito mais coerente com a realidade, e permite uma visão mais completa dos múltiplos processos envolvidos na actividade científica e académica – algo que tem importantes implicações sobre as políticas para o sector.During last forty years scholarly information services developed from near non existence to a significant business with deep implications in the management of science and academic institutions. We discuss the innovative business struggle of Eugene Garfield and ISI Institute for Scientific Information until mid 90's, and the changes after the Google Scholar entered the market with an highly disruptive business model. The processes are discussed in the context of social frameworks for business innovation. Changes in the market during last decade are analysed and the implications for future are explored. Empirical data is
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Ilmunud ka: Lääne Elu 10. jaan. lk. 2, Kuulutaja 11. jaan. lk. 4, Koit 12. jaan. lk. 6, Võrumaa Teataja 15. jaan. lk. 2, Valgamaalane, Tartu Ekspress 17. jaan. lk. 2,6. Autori sõnul võib kollektiivne tarbimise vähenemine olla üpris mõjus hoob põhjendamatu kiirusega hindade kasvu peatamiseks
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Ilmunud ka:: Sakala 16. juuli lk. 2, Oma Saar 29. juuli lk. 5. . Autor selgitab sisemajanduse kogutoodangu ning elanike ostujõu mõistete erinevust ja põhjendab, miks neid kahte näitajat ei saa omavahel võrrelda, samuti kritiseerib poliitikute suhtumist SKP-sse kui üksnes kvantitatiivsesse näitajasse
Full Text Available Resumo Em O Futuro da Natureza Humana, Jürgen Habermas afirma que os avanços recentes no campo das biotecnologias constituem um desafio para a ética do discurso nas Ciências Sociais. Por trás de sua crítica aos defensores da eugenia liberal reside o reconhecimento de que o Diagnóstico Genético Pré-Implantação potencialmente põe em cheque o papel exercido pela razão comunicativa na constituição de uma ética individual de auto-compreensão. A ‘ética da espécie’ proposta por Habermas como contraposição a esse fenômeno se nos apresenta como moralmente reativa, na medida em que sua crítica não alcança abarcar os aspectos metafísicos que estão no núcleo do discurso da eugenia liberal. O artigo é dividido em dois momentos: perceber como a recente intervenção de Habermas ecoa o motivo da alegada colonização do mundo-da-vida pela razão tecnológica, e demonstrar como a concepção de técnica que embasa seu relato o impede de divisar a crítica dos aspectos metafísicos da cultura genética contemporânea. Palavras-chave Jürgen Habermas; cultura genética; sociedade da informação; ciência e mundo-da-vida; ética do discurso Abstract In The Future of Human Nature, Jürgen Habermas recognizes that current advances in biotechnology are challenging discourse ethics in Social Sciences. Behind his fear of the possibility of liberal eugenics, lies the recognition that pre-implanted genetic diagnosis potentially puts into question the role played by communicative reason in the constitution of the individual’s ethics of self-understanding. The ethics of species proposed by Habermas sounds morally reactive, insofar as his critique does not manage to encompass the metaphysical features which are at the core of liberal eugenics discourse. This paper is divided into two moments: the current echoing in Habermas’ work of the motif of the alleged colonization of the lifeworld by technological reason, and a demonstration of
Discutem-se os processos de inovação envolvidos, desde a luta empreendedora de Eugene Garfield e do ISI Institute for Scientific Information nos últimos 40 anos até meados dos anos 90, e as mudanças que a entrada do Google Scholar tem provocado com o seu modelo de negócio baseado num mecanismo de inovação disruptiva. Os processos de inovação envolvidos são discutidos com base em modelos sociais de inovação empresarial. Apresenta‑se evidência empírica comparando resultados de procuras no ISI/WoS e no Google Scholar, que mostram o efeito de legacy da arquitectura de dados do ISI/WoS e que mostram que nenhum deles é perfeito. Ambos subestimam o número real de citações, e, para os casos apresentados, as citações únicas das duas origens são dominantes. Discute-se o significado das actuais “guerras das citações” como uma continuação das anteriores “guerras das ciências” e como uma continuação da permanente procura do significado e fundamento para o conhecimento científico e para a actividade académica. Argumentamos que o modelo aberto e dinâmico do Google Scholar é muito mais coerente com a realidade, e permite uma visão mais completa dos múltiplos processos envolvidos na actividade científica e académica – algo que tem importantes implicações sobre as políticas para o sector.
Full Text Available Dans sa théorie du capitalisme, Joseph Alois Schumpeter mobilise l’eugénique, notamment les travaux de Francis Galton. Ce dernier a élaboré une vision hiérarchisée et héréditariste des hommes. Il l’a notamment appliquée à la question de la pauvreté en reprenant les données empiriques de Charles Booth. Schumpeter reprend ces éléments comme socle de l’explication de l’inégalité sociale et dans la construction de sa théorie de l’entrepreneuriat. Les entrepreneurs constituent une élite se démarquant de la masse, en engendrant l’évolution de la société du fait de leurs talents innés. Le capitalisme ne peut déboucher sur la disparition totale de la pauvreté. En effet, les individus biologiquement moins « dotés » sont condamnés à rester au bas de l’échelle sociale.In his theory about capitalism, Joseph Alois Schumpeter uses eugenics, and especially Francis Galton’s work. The former has conceived a hierarchized vision of society, and a hereditary vision of the transmission of talents. He notably applied it to the question of poverty by using Charles Booth’s empirical data. Schumpeter uses these elements both as an explanation of social inequality and as a basis of his theory of entrepreneurship. To him, the entrepreneurs are an elite standing out against the masses since they have the innate talents to generate evolution. Capitalism cannot totally eradicate poverty. Indeed, the least biologically gifted are bound to remain at the bottom of the social ladder.
MacConnell, D. Jack
In the course of developing his arguments against making genetic enhancements to one's children, Habermas assumes that a clear line can be drawn between the natural and the manufactured. But given the current state of medical science, this is precisely what we can no longer take for granted.
O ne of our last surviving links w ith the period of the creation .... interpretation and epistem ology raised by the standard interpretation ofquantum ... In the particular case of rotational sym m etry, the general ... T his is a very deep and subtle result,and a brief explanation w ould not be .... H e says: `I like to recall his question.
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Autori hinnangul tuleks tervishoiu rahastamise aluseid muuta. Maksumäära langetamine koos omavastutusega mõjuks hinna ja kvaliteedi suhtele, muudaks teenindaja ja teenindatava suhted mõistetavamaks ning patsiendile vastuvõetavamaks
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, Meie Maa 3. sept. lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 4. sept., lk. 2, Koit 4. sept. lk. 6, Harju Ekspress 5. sept. lk. 6, Võrumaa Teataja 6. sept. lk. 2, Vooremaa 11. sept., lk. 2, Lõunaleht 11. sept. lk. 4. Autori nägemus riigi eelarvepoliitika kujundamisest
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Ilmunud ka: Vooremaa 12. aug., lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 12. aug., lk. 2, Koit 12. aug., lk. 6, Valgamaalane 12. aug. lk. 2, Põhjarannik 14. aug. lk. 4, Sakala 15. aug. lk. 2, Järva Teataja 21. aug. lk. 2, Harju Ekspress 22. aug. lk. 4, Nädaline 26. aug., lk. 4, Võrumaa Teataja 26. aug. lk. 2, Lääne Elu 4. sept. lk. 2. Autori sõnul parandab rahvale kõrgeima võimu andmine liigselt pingestunud inimsuhteid, muudab väärastunud väärtushinnanguid ning ta on veendunud, et praegune valimisseadus ja erakonnaseadus nullivad igasuguse demokraatia
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Ilmunud ka: Sakala 24. sept. lk. 2, Nädaline 25. sept. lk. 4. Autori sõnul seisavad Eesti parteid rahvast kaugel, muuta tuleks erakondade rahastamissüsteemi ning rahvas peaks avalikult rääkima ühiskonnakorralduse puudustest
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Autori sõnul seostub haldusreform eelkõige omavalitsusüksuste arvu vähendamisega, seda, et reformimist vajab riigi haldusstruktuur tervikuna, teadvustatakse vähem. Ilmunud ka Meie Maa 7. okt. lk. 2; Lääne Elu 9. okt. lk. 2; Harju Ekspress 10. okt. lk. 6; Nädaline 14. okt. lk. 4; Põhjarannik 15. okt. lk. 2; Kuulutaja 17. okt. lk. 4; Võrumaa Teataja 21. okt. lk. 2
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Maamaksu kehtestamisest. Ilmunud ka Põhjarannik 17. aprill 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: kodudelt maamaksu kogumine tuleb lõpetada ; Harju Ekspress 25. aprill 2008, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: maamaksust...
Baird, Stephen L.
"Designer babies" is a term used by journalists and commentators--not by scientists--to describe several different reproductive technologies. These technologies have one thing in common: they give parents more control over what their offspring will be like. Designer babies are made possible by progress in three fields: (1) Advanced…
, w hen a tall, slender young m an entered the dining room , looked at ..... an approxim ate,not an exact,consequence ofquantum m echanics;so departures .... w ith the SU (4) superm ultiplet theory to system atize the low -lying energy levels.
Frankenstein e cyborgs: pistas no caminho da ciência indicam o "novo eugenismo" Frankenstein and cyborgs: indications of new eugenism through the science Frankestein y cyborgs: huellas en el camino de la ciência que enseñan el nuevo eugenesismo
Full Text Available Este estudo analisa as atuais possibilidades de intervenções no corpo em busca de ampliá-lo, tornando-o mais bem adaptado às condições contemporâneas. Através das lentes da Eugenia do final do século XIX e início do XX, propomos buscar elementos que nos ajudem a pensar nossa atmosfera. De posse de reportagens coletadas em jornais e revistas de grande circulação e atentos aos dois períodos, identificamos muitas das novas tecnologias do corpo carreadoras de permanências daquilo que foi a busca pelo corpo melhorado. Denominadas “novo eugenismo”, as atuais introjeções tecnológicas assumem características próprias do nosso tempo, ao passo que guardam semelhanças profundas com aquilo que se chamou Eugenia. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: eugenia – ciência – adaptações do corpoF This study analyzes the current possibilities of interventions in the body that try enlarge it, turning it better adapted to contemporary conditions. Inspired in Eugenics of the end of the century XIX and beginning of the XX, we intend to look for us elements that help us to think our atmosphere. Through reports collected in newspapers and magazines of great circulation and attentive to the two periods, we identified that new technologies of the body carry permanences of that wel born science: Eugenics. Denominated “new eugenism”, the current body technologies assume own characteristics of our time, as well as keep deep similarities with science called Eugenia. KEY-WORDS: eugenics – science – body’s adaptations Este estudio analiza las posibilidades actuales de intervenciones en el cuerpo las cuales intentan extenderlo y de ahí haciéndolo mucho más adaptado a las condiciones contemporáneas. A través de las lentes de la Eugenesia del final del siglo XIX y comienzo del XX nos proponemos buscar elementos que nos ayuden a pensar nuestra atmósfera. Teniendo en las manos unos reportajes recolectados de periódicos y revistas de gran circulación y
Francisco Javier Lázaro Sebastián
Full Text Available A la hora de hablar de la renovación en la fotografía española a mediados del siglo XX, hay que tener en cuenta una pauta estética determinante para su consecución y que se deriva de la aplicación de posiciones realistas al arte. Frente al pictorialismo idealizador, el fotorreportaje se erige en crónica descarnada, no evitando una función crítica, de la situación actual, como ejemplifica el trabajo de Eugene Smith sobre el pueblo extremeño de Deleitosa. Entre los objetivos principales que se pretendía desarrollar, destacamos el dar a conocer algunos de los condicionantes históricos, ideológicos y estéticos de la fotografía desarrollada en España a mediados del siglo XX. La metodología de trabajo se ha basado en la consideración de los textos y las imágenes originales del reportaje citado, la bibliografía existente sobre el tema; comprender las reacciones surgidas en la prensa especializada del momento, y la relación con otras obras que también resultaron polémicas por su grado de realismo y de crítica social, por ejemplo, con algunas películas de Luis Buñuel.When we speak about the renovation of Spanish photography in the middle of the 20th century, it is necessary to bear in mind a concrete guideline which stems from idealized pictorialism to the realistic and even critical photographic chronicle. Certainly, it is a widespread phenomenon extended to other artistic manifestations like literature or the cinema. Inside the photographic plot, the photographic article constitutes the principal way to take it to effect. This emaciated chronicle which bears a critical function of the current situation is exemplified perfectly in the work of the North American Eugene Smith about Deleitosa.
Fome, eugenia e constituição do campo da nutrição em Pernambuco: uma análise de Gilberto Freyre, Josué de Castro e Nelson Chaves Starvation, eugenics and the development of nutrition in Pernambuco according to Gilberto Freire's, Josué de Castro's and Nelson Chaves' analyses
Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos
Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é examinar a contribuição dos estudos de Gilberto Freyre, Josué de Castro e Nelson Chaves, produzidos nas décadas de 1930 e 1940, para o processo de constituição do campo da nutrição em Pernambuco. O estudo procura demonstrar que as temáticas fome e eugenia constituem as categorias centrais que expressam os pontos de tensão e de comunhão das abordagens desses autores pernambucanos, pelo estatuto científico nesse campo do conhecimento.The purpose of this article is to examine the contribution of the studies Gilberto Freyre, Josué de Castro and Nelson Chaves produced for the development of the Pernambuco nutrition field, from 1930 to 1940. The article attempts to demonstrate that both subjects - starvation and eugenics - are the central categories that express tension and communion in these three authors' approaches to this field of knowledge.
Michaelis, M. M.; Forbes, A.; Bingham, R.; Kellett, B. J.; Mathye, A.
A variety of laser applications in space, past, present, future and far future are reviewed together with the contributions of some of the scientists and engineers involved, especially those that happen to have South African connections. Historically, two of the earliest laser applications in space, were atmospheric LIDAR and lunar ranging. These applications involved atmospheric physicists, several astronauts and many of the staff recruited into the Soviet and North American lunar exploration programmes. There is a strong interest in South Africa in both LIDAR and lunar ranging. Shortly after the birth of the laser (and even just prior) theoretical work on photonic propulsion and space propulsion by laser ablation was initiated by Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz and Eugen Saenger. Present or near future experimental programs are developing in the following fields: laser ablation propulsion, possibly coupled with rail gun or gas gun propulsion; interplanetary laser transmission; laser altimetry; gravity wave detection by space based Michelson interferometry; the de-orbiting of space debris by high power lasers; atom laser interferometry in space. Far future applications of laser-photonic space-propulsion were also pioneered by Carl Sagan and Robert Forward. They envisaged means of putting Saenger's ideas into practice. Forward also invented a laser based method for manufacturing solid antimatter or SANTIM, well before the ongoing experiments at CERN with anti-hydrogen production and laser-trapping. SANTIM would be an ideal propellant for interstellar missions if it could be manufactured in sufficient quantities. It would be equally useful as a power source for the transmission of information over light year distances. We briefly mention military lasers. Last but not least, we address naturally occurring lasers in space and pose the question: "did the Big Bang lase?"
"De pequenino é que se torce o pepino": a infância nos programas eugênicos da Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental "As the twig is bent, so is the tree inclined": children and the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental’s eugenic programs
José Roberto Franco Reis
Full Text Available Este artigo propõe-se a discutir as propostas de intervenção na problemática infantil apresentadas pela Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental (LBHM, instituição criada no começo da década de 1920 que reunia a elite da psiquiatria brasileira, mas também alguns médicos e intelectuais em geral. Fundada num momento de afirmação, no campo psiquiátrico, da perspectiva preventiva, a LBHM vai incorporar ao seu arsenal teórico os temas básicos da higiene mental e da eugenia, tendo em vista o seu objetivo maior de colaborar no "saneamento racial" brasileiro. Assim, é a partir desse objetivo e vendo na criança um "pré-cidadão", "peça fundamental do homem do futuro", que os psiquiatras da liga incluem a questão infantil nos seus projetos, passando a considerar imperiosa a necessidade de cuidados desde a mais tenra idade.Created in the early 1920s, at a moment when the country’s psychiatric field was embracing the preventive outlook, the Liga Brasileira de Higiene Mental included within its members the elite of Brazilian psychiatry, along with a number of physicians and intellectuals. The article discusses the institution’s proposals for intervention among children. The league ended up incorporating into its theoretical arsenal the basic themes of mental hygiene and eugenics as part of its general goal of collaborating in Brazil’s process of "racial sanitation". With this objective in mind, and viewing the child as a "pre-citizen" who is a "fundamental part within the man of the future", league members included the children’s issue in their projects and saw an imperative need for mental health care from early ages on.
This is both a biography of the man, his family, early career and social life and of his work. From 1947 this was at AERE Harwell. Even after his retirement in 1971 he continued as a consultant until shortly before his death. The scope of his research at AERE was considerable. It is recounted under the following headings: general radiochemistry including plutonium production, general chemistry and the work of the fission product technology group including radioactive waste disposal, high temperature gas-cooled reactors and isotope migration through fissured rock. Glueckauf's reputation in the outside world rested largely on the open publication of scientific research arising mainly from his work at Harwell. Three areas in particular are mentioned: chromatography, solvent extraction and concentrated electrolyte theory and membrane science. There is a list of his published papers, a partial list of AERE internal reports which he wrote and a list of patents granted to him. (U.K.)
Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study o...
Several objections against the morality of researching or employing mitochondrial replacement techniques have been advanced recently. In this paper, I examine three of these objections and show that they are found wanting. First I examine whether mitochondrial replacement techniques, research and clinical practice, should not be carried out because of possible harms to egg donors. Next I assess whether mitochondrial replacement techniques should be banned because they could affect the study of genealogical ancestry. Finally, I examine the claim that mitochondrial replacement techniques are not transferring mitochondrial DNA but nuclear DNA, and that this should be prohibited on ethical grounds.
Full Text Available Abstract The hypothesis that anatomically modern homo sapiens could have undergone changes akin to those observed in domesticated animals has been contemplated in the biological sciences for at least 150 years. The idea had already plagued philosophers such as Rousseau, who considered the civilisation of man as going against human nature, and eventually "sparked over" to the medical sciences in the late 19th and early 20th century. At that time, human "self-domestication" appealed to psychiatry, because it served as a causal explanation for the alleged degeneration of the "erbgut" (genetic material of entire populations and the presumed increase of mental disorders. Consequently, Social Darwinists emphasised preventing procreation by people of "lower genetic value" and positively selecting favourable traits in others. Both tendencies culminated in euthanasia and breeding programs ("Lebensborn" during the Nazi regime in Germany. Whether or not domestication actually plays a role in some anatomical changes since the late Pleistocene period is, from a biological standpoint, contentious, and the currently resurrected debate depends, in part, on the definitional criteria applied. However, the example of human self-domestication may illustrate that scientific ideas, especially when dealing with human biology, are prone to misuse, particularly if "is" is confused with "ought", i.e., if moral principles are deduced from biological facts. Although such naturalistic fallacies appear to be banned, modern genetics may, at least in theory, pose similar ethical problems to medicine, including psychiatry. In times during which studies into the genetics of psychiatric disorders are scientifically more valued than studies into environmental causation of disorders (which is currently the case, the prospects of genetic therapy may be tempting to alter the human genome in patients, probably at costs that no-one can foresee. In the case of "self-domestication", it is proposed that human characteristics resembling domesticated traits in animals should be labelled "domestication-like", or better, objectively described as genuine adaptations to sedentism.
Savulescu, Julian; Hemsley, Melanie; Newson, Ainsley; Foddy, Bennett
Criminal behaviour is but one behavioural tendency for which a genetic influence has been suggested. Whilst this research certainly raises difficult ethical questions and is subject to scientific criticism, one recent research project suggests that for some families, criminal tendency might be predicted by genetics. In this paper, supposing this research is valid, we consider whether intervening in the criminal tendency of future children is ethically justifiable. We argue that, if avoidance of harm is a paramount consideration, such an intervention is acceptable when genetic selection is employed instead of genetic enhancement. Moreover, other moral problems in avoiding having children with a tendency to criminal behaviour, such as the prospect of social discrimination, can also be overcome.
Dit boek verkent het concept 'recht'. Hoe dit concept een rol heeft gespeeld in het veroorzaken van onenigheid en misvatting tussen bewegingen van gehandicapte mensen en vrouwen met betrekking tot de kwestie van selectieve abortus in Japan. Tegelijkertijd, probeert de schrijfster om het concept van
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Maksukoormus Eestis on tegelikult kõrgem kui statistika näitab, kuna maksukoormuse hindamisel pole lisaks tavapärastele maksudele arvestatud ka nn. varjatud makse. Autor leiab, et varjatud maksud Eestis on riigilõivud, vaktsineerimise tasud, trahvid. Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 28. okt. lk. 2; Lääne Elu 28. okt. lk. 2; Meie Maa 1. nov. lk. 2; Koit 6. nov. lk. 6; Vooremaa 11. nov. lk. 2; Harju Ekspress 14. nov. lk. 6; Kuulutaja 21. nov. lk. 4; Äripäev 26. nov. lk. 23
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Uue töölepingu seaduse eelnõust. Ilmunud ka Tartu Ekspress 14. veeb. 2008, lk. 6, pealkiri kujul: Veel kord uuest töölepinguseaduse eelnõust ; Valgamaalane 19. veeb. 2008, lk. 2 ; Kuulutaja 29. veeb. 2008, lk. 4, pealkiri kujul: Töölepinguseadus nõuab selgeltnägemist
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Autori hinnangul on riigieelarve üle käivate arutelude ebaefektiivsuse põhjuseks strateegia kokkulepitud üldpõhimõtete ja väärtushinnangute puudumine. Eesti riik vajab haldusstruktuuri muutmist odavamaks ja efektiivsemaks
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Endine ettevõtja on seisukohal, et majanduskasvu saavutamine ei ole eesmärk omaette, rõõmu tuleks tunda üleüldisest ja tasakaalustatud arengust, riigi valitsemises tuleks abstraktsete näitajate kõrval näha ka inimest
Veglia, Geremia; And Others
The purpose of this investigation was to measure the attitudes of college students across the United States concerning the possible use of genetic manipulation, especially in terms of enhancing human physical and intellectual characteristics. The instrument used was divided into three general areas of inquiry: the first, designed to measure the…
Epidemiologists and geneticists claim that genetics has an increasing role to play in public health policies and programs in the future. Within this perspective, genetic testing and screening are instrumental in avoiding the birth of children with serious, costly or untreatable disorders. This paper
This article discusses the ethics of the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent the birth of children with intersex conditions/disorders of sex development (DSDs), such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). While pediatric surgeries performed on children with ambiguous genitalia have been the topic of intense bioethical controversy, there has been almost no discussion to date of the ethics of the use of PGD to reduce the prevalence of these conditions. I suggest that PGD for those conditions that involve serious medical risks for those born with them is morally permissible and that PGD for other "cosmetic" variations in sexual anatomy is more defensible than might first appear. However, importantly, the arguments that establish the latter claim have radical and disturbing implications for our attitude toward diversity more generally.
Novel assisted reproductive technologies (ART) are poised to present our society with strange new ethical questions, such as whether lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) couples should be allowed to produce children biologically related to both parents, or whether trans-women who want to experience childbirth should be allowed to receive uterine transplants. Clinicians opposed to offering such technologies to LGBT couples on moral grounds are likely to seek legal shelter through the conscience clauses enshrined in U.S. law. This paper begins by briefly discussing some novel ART on the horizon and noting that it is unclear whether current conscience clauses will permit fertility clinics to deny such services to LGBT individuals. A compromise approach to conscience is any view that sees the value of respecting conscience claims within limits. I describe and critique the constraints proposed in the recent work of Wicclair, NeJaime and Siegel as ultimately begging the question. My purpose is to strengthen their arguments by suggesting that in the controversial situations that elicit claims of conscience, bioethicists should engage with the metaphysical claims in play. I argue that conscience claims against LGBT individuals ought to be constrained because the underlying metaphysic-that God has decreed the LGBT lifestyle to be sinful-is highly implausible from the perspective of a naturalized metaphysic, which ought to be the lens through which we evaluate conscience claims. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... physically worn and structurally unsound in places. The wood transmission poles have lasted beyond the... access roads, developing staging areas for storage of materials, removing and replacing existing wood... construction activities. The existing structures would be replaced with structures of similar design within or...
According to Ayodele and Alabi (2011), the causes of project abandonment includes;. • Inconsistency in government policies,. • Persistent community interference. • lack of proper project development timing and. • Inappropriate allocation of project finance. In a developing country such as Nigeria, different regimes come up ...
Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, Wigner’s humane attitude is overviewed based on the author’s personal impressions and on selected quotations from Wigner and his contemporaries. The second part briefly summarizes Wigner’s contribution to the development of nuclear science and technology.
Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.
Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.
O'Brien, Gerald V
In the United States, genetic research, as well as policy and practice innovations based on this research, has expanded greatly over the past few decades. This expansion is indicated, for example, by the mapping of the human genome, an expansion of genetic counseling, and other biogenetic research. Also, a disability rights movement that in many ways parallels other "minority" rights campaigns has expanded. The coexistence of these developments poses intriguing challenges for social work that the profession has yet to address in a meaningful way. These issues are especially pertinent for social work professionals in the crucial role as advocates for marginalized populations. This article describes some ofthe concerns of disability rights activists relative to genetic innovations and goals as well as the instrumental role of the social work community in this important debate.
U članku se prikazuje segment opusa osječkog tiskara i grafičkog dizajnera Eugena Seklera koji dosad nije bio prepoznat u osječkoj likovnoj sredini, a tako ni kao relevantan akter hrvatskoga grafičkog dizajna, koji se obrazovanjem u Beču i Leipzigu uklapa u modernističke oblikovne trendove dvadesetih i tridesetih godina 20. stoljeća. Zastupljenost na međunarodnim izložbama primijenjenih umjetnosti ide u prilog potrebi visokoga autorskog pozicioniranja unutar povijesti hrvatskoga grafičkog diz...
Boeck, H.; Villa, M.; Matejka, K.; Sklenka, L.; Miglierini, M.; Sukods, C.
Initiated by the 5th Framework Program of the European Commission, the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN) is preparing the future European Nuclear Education schemes, degrees and requirements. To fully utilize the benefits of international cooperation and to promote the knowledge of students in nuclear engineering a 2.5 weeks course has been held, both in spring 2003 and 2004. The main emphasis of the course is to perform reactor physics and kinetics experiments on three different research- and training reactors in three different locations (Vienna, Prague, Budapest). The experimental work is preceded by theoretical lectures aiming to prepare the students for the experiments (Bratislava). The students' work will be evaluated, and upon success the students will get a certificate. The finally accepted credit (ECTS) value will be determined by the students' home university. The ENEN-recommended value is between 6 and 8 ECTS. The more detailed description of the course will be given in the full paper. (author)
Wigner, Eugene Paul
Not only was EP Wigner one of the most active creators of 20th century physics, he was also always interested in expressing his opinion in philosophical, political or sociological matters This volume of his collected works covers a wide selection of his essays about science and society, about himself and his colleagues Annotated by J Mehra, this volume will become an important source of reference for historians of science, and it will be pleasant reading for every physicist interested in forming ideas in modern physics
... Trading March 15, 2012. It appears to the Securities and Exchange Commission that there is a lack of... the public interest and the protection of investors require a suspension of trading in the securities... Exchange Act of 1934, that trading in the securities of the above-listed company is suspended for the...
....regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know your identity or... Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact... material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly...
23 ill.; fotod: Andres Teiss; autorid: H. Johanson, E. Habermann, saaliavade ja aknapõskede kujundamisel oli abiks J. Koort; 1935. a. rajati A. Kotli projekti järgi lossi lõunatiib; valge saal rekonstrueeriti 1936. a. A. Perna ja J. Ostrati kavandite järgi; Eesti taasiseseisvumise järel on hoonet M. Kalmu, L. Pärtelpoja, M. ja K. Kurismaa ning Ü. Saare juhendamisel renoveeritud; Riigikogu esimehe kabineti vaiba (1938) kavandas Adamson-Eric, kontorimööbli kujundasid 1997. a. EKA sisearhitektuuri üliõpilased L. Pärtelpoja juhendamisel
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Ilmunud ka: Lääne Elu 17. mai lk. 2, Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 22. mai lk. 4, Kuulutaja 30. mai lk. 4, Meie Maa 31. mai lk. 2, Vooremaa 3. juuni lk. 2, Järva Teataja 5. juuni lk. 2. Eesti ettevõtjail on ees raske aeg, ettevõtete tulusus langeb. Autori sõnul tuleb riigi tulubaasi suurendamiseks kehtestada uusi makse või suurendada seniseid maksulaekumisi. Haldusreform on möödapääsmatu
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Autor leiab, et rahvuslikku jõukust ja tervishoiu korraldust (vähene ennetusele orienteeritus) arvestades on kulutused raviteenustele põhjendamatult suured. Tervishoidu lisaraha taotlemise asemel tuleks rõhuasetust muuta, teha pööre kvantiteedilt kvaliteedile
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Ilmunud ka: Nädaline ja Koit 8. juuli lk. 4 ja 6, Valgamaalane 17. juuli lk. 2. Autor kirjutab, et Eesti madalast maksukoormusest rääkides on võrreldamatute näitajate võrdlemine viinud valede järeldusteni
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Ilmunud ka: Lääne Elu 26. veebr. lk. 2, Harju Ekspress, Põhjarannik 29. veebr. lk. 6,2, Meie Maa 3. märts lk. 2, Vooremaa 8. märts lk. 2, Koit 13. märts lk. 6. Autori sõnul ei esinda Riigikogu viimased koosseisud enam rahvast, poliitikute ülbe suhtumine kodanikesse ületab paljude taluvuse piiri ning toob näite keskerakondlase Ain Seppiku väljaütlemistest
The Nobel Prize winning scientist James Watson was vilified when his views on the supposedly inherent deficiencies of black people became public. The scientific establishment, mainstream media and politicians joined a chorus of disapproval that would seem to evidence a widespread rejection of the old myths of racially ordered intelligence.…
Appel, Jacob M
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis offers the possibility of screening and terminating embryos with severe and life-threatening disabilities. This article argues that under certain conditions, the use of this technology is not merely desirable as a means to reduce human suffering but also an ethically required duty of a parent to a potential child.
Focussing on the leading staff of the psychiatric universitiy clinic of Waldau/Bern, the author sketches the reception of psychoanalysis in Switzerland around 1940. It ranged from outright rejection (Ernst Grünthal) via various forms of skepticism based on superficial (Jakob Klaesi) or thorough familiarity with Freud's writings (Jakob Wyrsch, Arnold Weber) to the discipleship of an analysand of Freud (Ernst Blum).
This paper examines the short-lived flirtation between psychoanalysis and academia and psychiatry in Europe and the reasons for, and consequences of, the fact that their paths diverged. It is argued that Bleuler's break with the psychoanalytic movement is a crucial and, until now, largely underestimated turning point. Bleuler's separation from the psychoanalytic movement was probably more important for the course it has since taken than those of Adler, Stekel, or even Jung. Bleuler's analysis by correspondence by Freud, and its failure, was of paramount importance for the future relationship between Freud and Bleuler, and for Bleuler's assessment of psychoanalysis.
O'Brien, Gerald V.
In the United States, genetic research, as well as policy and practice innovations based on this research, has expanded greatly over the past few decades. This expansion is indicated, for example, by the mapping of the human genome, an expansion of genetic counseling, and other biogenetic research. Also, a disability rights movement that in many…
A president of a university in the state of Arkansas would benefit from researching the roots of the educational system within the state. Even though the state now has a number of universities that have evolved and are on the cutting-edge of advanced technology, Arkansas was slow in growth and development. Since Arkansas was slow to expand public…
Barcena, Homar; Chen, Peishan
Students are introduced to spectrophotometry in comparing the antioxidant activity of pure eugenol and oil of cloves from a commercial source using a modified ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The extraction of the essential oil from dried cloves is demonstrated to facilitate discussions on green chemistry. The anesthetic properties…
Moskowitz, Andrew; Heim, Gerhard
, than by Sigmund Freud. We conclude that Bleuler’s ideas on schizophrenia warrant reexamination in the light of current criticism of the emphasis on psychotic symptoms in the schizophrenia diagnosis and argue for the recognition of the dissociative roots of this most important psychiatric category....
... doctor-patient relationship and a legitimate medical need for the prescription) and directed the employee... practitioner must establish a bona fide doctor-patient relationship in order to act `in the usual course of... patient relationship''; (2) Respondent ``engaged in indiscriminate or excessive prescribing, dispensing or...
Full Text Available During the inter - war period it consolidate in Argentina a tendency to pathologize the modern city, understood like an ill organism that produced and was consequence phisical and moral decadency
of its habitants. The interruption of external inmigration contributed with new information for a strategy of regeneration that tried to establish from eugenesics directed to articulate the populationism with the territorial distribution, in the certainty that counteracted country the evils that generated the life modern. The work reviews the impact of this ideology in the different spheres and the way in which has integrated the cultural politic of the fascism and taked part of the corpus with which the biotipology looked to give scientific legitimacy.
Durante el período de entreguerras se consolidó en Argentina una tendencia a patologizar la ciudad moderna, entendida como un organismo enfermo que producía y a su vez era consecuencia de la decadencia física y moral de sus habitantes. La interrupción de la inmigración externa aportó nuevos datos para una estrategia de regeneración que pugnó por establecer, desde la eugenesia, medidas dirigidas a articular el poblacionismo con la distribución territorial, en la certeza de que el campo contrarrestaría los males que generaba la vida moderna. El trabajo repasa el impacto de esta ideología en distintas esferas y el modo en que ella se recepcionó junto a la política cultural del fascismo y formó parte del corpus con el que la biotipología buscó darle legitimidad científica.
The link between science and society is examined by studying the application of evolution theories and genetics to human affairs. Described are the ways in which biological theories have been applied to social issues. (KR)
Huijnen, P.; Laan, F.; de Rijke, M.; Pieters, T.; Nadamoto, A.; Jatowt, A.; Wierzbicki, A.; Leidner, J.L.
Comparative historical research on the the intensity, diversity and fluidity of public discourses has been severely hampered by the extraordinary task of manually gathering and processing large sets of opinionated data in news media in different countries. At most 50,000 documents have been
Huijnen, Pim; Laan, Fons; de Rijke, Maarten; Pieters, Toine
Comparative historical research on the the intensity, diversity and fluidity of public discourses has been severely hampered by the extraordinary task of manually gathering and processing large sets of opinionated data in news media in different countries. At most 50,000 documents have been
Oldewage, Heinz Eugene
The opening decade of the 21st century has seen a marked expansion in the influence of digital technology on virtually all fields of human endeavour. Nowhere else is the vitality of this new digital world more apparent than in its influence on human communication and social interaction – a reality lucidly reflected in the rise of so-called digital social networks over the last decade. Known to many in the form of popular Internet based services like the social media platforms F...
Ilmunud ka: The Baltic Course 2007 Winter (nr. 24) lk. 38-39. ELi energiaturg ning Baltimaade energeetika probleemid. Võimalikud lahendused. Alternatiivne energeetika. Tabel: Gaasi ja elektrienergia hinnad Euroopas
Lithakong, Koetlisi Eugene
Most companies are competing in the diverse global markets, and competitive advantage through human capital is becoming very important. Employee development for high productivity and the use of effective tools to measure their performance are therefore paramount. One such tool is the 360-degree performance appraisal system. The study on the effectiveness of the 360-degree performance appraisal was conducted on a selected steel organisation. The primary objective of the research...
The development of monoclonal antibodies for use as in vivo carriers of radioactivity for diagnosis and therapy of malignant neoplasms is proceeding rapidly within academic and commercial sectors. The author and his colleagues studied anticancer antibodies formed against tumors of both somatic and hematopoietic origins. Several general principles have been established with the work with somatic tumors, including the following: Improved tumor-to-normal-tissue ratios can be achieved with Fab fragments as opposed to whole IgG; each antitumor antibody has a characteristic biodistribution in humans that cannot be readily predicted from tissue or small animal studies; and for many antibodies, there is a strong dependency of tumor uptake on total mass amount of antibody administered (greater uptake with greater mass dose). Initial work with iodine-131 labeled Fab fragments of the antimelanoma antibodies, 96.5 and 48-7, documented that tumor uptake was broadly proportional to antigen content of the tumors and that under optimal conditions, some tumors were sufficiently loaded with radiolabeled antibody to serve as radiation therapy. The antitumor antibody B-72.3, as IgG, has been particularly promising when administered intraperitoneally. In ten patients who were administered I-131 B-72.3 via a Tenkhoff catheter, the sensitivity and specificity of tumor location were excellent for peritoneal implants, and in three of these patients, surgically confirmed tumor was seen with the radiolabeled antibody technique when abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance studies were negative
Veges, Eugen, 1955-
Autori sõnul sel ajal, kui arstid rõhutavad oma ameti olulisust, kõrget haridust ja rasket tööd, on paljud nende teenuse tarbijad rahulolematud sellega, kuidas neid koheldakse ja peavad selle teenuse pakkujaid ületasustatuteks ja ebakompetentseteks
... winter day emissions from point sources, residential wood combustion, road dust, and motor vehicle exhaust, brake and tire wear. The emissions inventory includes an inventory of point sources of PM 10... State's submittal. Emissions estimates for road dust and motor vehicle exhaust, brake wear, and tire...
... planning area that lead the BLM to focus management on threatened and endangered species, including the... golden paintbrush: The scarcity of the listed species and their habitat, the importance of the planning... planning area. Because the current management approach was not developed in an RMP, there are no land use...
Goellner, Silvana Vilodre; Votre, Sebastiao Josue; Pinheiro, Maria Claudia Brandao
Based on post-structural feminist and gender studies, the present article analyses the importance given to the practice of physical education, sports and exercise as part of the national policy to strengthen the Caucasian-Brazilian population at the beginning of the twentieth century, emphasising the priority made of the White female body as the…
Full Text Available In this era of ever-increasing emphasis on personal responsibility the 'obesity epidemic', officialised in global health warnings, threatens to swamp the West with the consequences of overindulgence. With childhood obesity identified as a particular threat, maternal feeding behaviour from conception onwards has come under scrutiny for its obesogenic potential. Epigenetic research now suggests that the mother's poor diet and excessive intake of calories can permanently damage not only the fetus itself but the genetic coding it carries, thus (recreating a narrative of degeneration which performs complex cultural and social functions. While mothers have always been associated with the weakening and/or poisoning of children and the national body, the new narrative of degenerative uterine toxicity focuses attention on poor maternal choice as productive of a 'bio-underclass', and thus diverts attention from the many structural and socioeconomic associations of obesity with poverty, and particularly inequality. As government and child protection agencies in the UK and US attempt to discipline parents through surveillance and prosecution and the austerity agenda lends moral weight to discourses of 'waste' and necessary 'belt-tightening', the contradictions and implications of obesity as a 'disease' of 'overindulgence' in consumer cultures founded on 'indulgence' are too easily avoided by political and scientific focus on the abject body of the obesogenic 'underclass' mother.
Amy, Jean-Jacques; Rowlands, Sam
This article deals with the nine European nations which legalised non-consensual sterilisation during the interwar years, thus completing the review, the first part of which was published in an earlier issue of this Journal. Like we did for North America, Japan and Mexico, countries concerned are addressed in chronological order, as practices in one of these influenced policies in others, involved later. For each, we assess the continuum of events up to the present time. The Swiss canton of Vaud was the first political entity in Europe to introduce a law on compulsory sterilisation of people with intellectual disability, in 1928. Vaud's sterilisation Act aimed at safeguarding against the abusive performance of these procedures. The purpose of the laws enforced later in eight other European countries (all five Nordic countries; Germany and, after its annexation by the latter, Austria; Estonia) was, on the contrary, to effect the sterilisation of large numbers of people considered a burden to society. Between 1933 and 1939, from 36,000 to 400,000 residents (two-thirds of whom were women) were compulsorily sterilised in Nazi Germany. In Sweden, some 32,000 sterilisations carried out between 1935 and 1975 were involuntary. It might have been expected that after the Second World War ended and Nazi legislation was suspended in Germany and Austria, including that regulating coerced sterilisation, these inhuman practices would have been discontinued in all nations concerned; but this happened only decades later. More time still went by before the authorities in certain countries officially acknowledged the human rights violations committed, issued apologies and developed reparation schemes for the victims' benefit.
... the closing of the Eugene Post Office's University Station in Eugene, Oregon, has been filed. It... the Eugene Post Office's University Station located in Eugene, Oregon. The petition, which was filed.... Categories of issues apparently raised. The categories of issues raised include: Failure to follow the post...
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Small Business.
This is a congressional hearing to acquire testimony and information about women in business or about unusual problems that have been found. Testimony includes statements from individuals representing Big Bear Shopper, Inc.; United States Business and Professional Women (BPW/USA); Rural Small Business Programs, Lane Community College;…
Roč. 42, č. 3 (2007), s. 237-239 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : distribution atlas * vascular plants * Germany Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant science s, botany Impact factor: 1.133, year: 2007
Staiger, Harald; Stancáková, Alena; Zilinskaite, Jone
OBJECTIVE: In recent genome-wide association studies, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the HHEX locus were shown to be more frequent in type 2 diabetic patients than in control subjects. Based on HHEX's function during embryonic development of the ventral pancreas in mice, we inves...
Laakso, M; Zilinskaite, J; Hansen, T
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We examined the phenotype of individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with regard to insulin release and insulin resistance. METHODS: Non-diabetic offspring (n=874; mean age 40+/-10.4 years; BMI 26.6+/-4.9 kg/m(2)) of type 2 diabetic...
Boesgaard, Trine Welløv; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Grarup, Niels
BACKROUND: A meta-analysis combining results from three genome-wide association studies and followed by large-scale replication identified six novel type 2 diabetes loci. Subsequent studies of the effect of these variants on estimates of the beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity have been in...
Wilson, Philip K
American eugenists in the early 20th century distinguished "degenerates," including syphilitics, prostitutes, alcoholics and criminals, from the "normal" population by their particular bad habits. From eugenists' viewpoint, these bad habits were derived from bad character, a flaw that stemmed from an individual's bad genes. This essay explores how eugenists during this period characterized syphilitics and those with associated character "defects" in terms of heredity. Additionally, it examines the methods eugenists most frequently advocated to rectify these bad habits. These methods included marriage restriction, immigration control and reproductive sterilization. Overall, eugenists directed their efforts not so much at the "degenerate" as at his or her germ line.
Luis Miguel LÁZARO LORENTE
En contraste con lo observable en la historiografía de otros países europeos y anglosajones, el estudio de la introducción y difusión de los principios y prácticas de la Eugenesia, como tema de investigación, no ha contado en España con muchos cultivadores. Menos todavía han sido objeto de estudio las relaciones del pensamiento eugénico con el ámbito pedagógico para indagar la recepción que tiene entre el Magisterio, y conocer el conjunto de reacciones que provoca, así como la participación d...
Karlsch, R.; Petermann, H.
This book reveals a sensation: Under supervision of the SS German scientists tested 1944/45 nuclear bombs on Ruegen and in Thuringia. During this period several hundred prisoners of war and prisoners died. Besides proofs for nuclear weapon testing the author also found a draft for a patent on plutonium bombs and discovered the first functioning German atom reactor in the environs of Berlin. The succeeding book titled above enlarges the spectra of contributions from Saenger PLan to attack New York, researches on minimization of critical mass, the attempt to calculate TNT-equivalence as the presentation of important acteurs occuring during the researches. (GL)
Full Text Available This paper explores the potential of wood for improving environmental quality in interior spaces. In northern climate cities where overcast skies predominate, interior spaces may appear gloomy or dull, since natural light is white and uniform. Nevertheless it is observed that wooden surfaces tend to create warmer and brighter spaces under overcast sky conditions. The objectives of this research were twofold. The first was evaluating the quality of wooden spaces under two sky conditions in terms of color, brightness and contrast. The second objective was to investigate daylight quantity of wooden spaces under diffuse and clear sky conditions. The method involved on site-surveys using Photolux, a calibrated photoluminance meter. Data consist of calibrated digital images that were processed to analyze the quality of spaces based on brightness, contrast, and color. The Kruger Building, with its internal wooden architectural structure and decorative indoor panels, was chosen as a site study for this research. Conclusions suggest that knowing the effect of different sky conditions on wooden spaces can help architects and other professionals in designing more comfortable and efficient ambiances. More particularly, this research addresses issues related to the quantitative effects of wood on daylighting distribution, visual comfort and luminance diversity.
Boesgaard, T W; Zilinskaite, J; Vänttinen, M
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A recent genome-wide association study identified the SLC30A8 rs13266634 polymorphism encoding an Arg325Trp polymorphism in the zinc transporter protein member 8 (ZnT-8) to be associated with type 2 diabetes. Here, we investigate whether the polymorphism is related to altered ins...
Full Text Available As estatísticas relativas às condições de saúde de grupos humanos, classificados segundo um determinado recorte racial, são utilizadas para apoiar argumentos científicos que vinculam uma diferença fenotípica a uma essência biológica de raça. Os estudos epidemiológicos sobre hipertensão arterial ilustram a força das hipóteses genéticas na atribuição de um papel causal à raça. Tomando as explicações genéticas para a etiologia da hipertensão, busco, neste trabalho, apontar os pressupostos etiológicos que embasam os argumentos racializadores dessa patologia, as hipóteses alternativas presentes na literatura científica e os aspectos éticos implicados nesses estudos.Statistics on the health conditions of human groups have been classified according to racial group and then used to support scientific arguments linking a difference in phenotype to a biological essential of race. Epidemiological studies on high blood pressure illustrate the strength that genetic hypotheses can have in assigning a causative role to race. Taking these genetic explanations of the etiology of hypertension, I seek to identify: the etiological presuppositions grounding the arguments that racialize this pathology, the alternative hypotheses found in the scientific literature, and the ethical aspects implicit to such studies.
Eugene Matusov; Rupert Wegerif
This email dialogue that we record and report here between Eugene Matusov and Rupert Wegerif, exemplifies Internet mediated dialogic education. When Eugene emailed Rupert with his initial (mis)understanding of Rupert's position about dialogic pedagogy Rupert felt really motivated to reply. Rupert was not simply motivated to refute Eugene and assert his correctness, although Rupert is sure such elements enter into every dialogue, but also to explore and to try to resolve the issues ignited by ...
Full Text Available This works intends to reconstruct the Habermasian argumentative strategy concerning liberal eugenics, human cloning, research with embryos and genetic diagnostic main criticisms against it.
Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)......Book review of: Jonas Scherner & Eugene N. White (eds.), Paying for Hitler's War: The Consequenses of Nazi Hegemony for Europe (NY: Cambridge University Press, 2016)...
While Battlestar Galactica reinvigorated the science fiction genre by representing contemporary political problems in a complex, often radical fashion, the series also makes visible a new articulation of eugenic thinking. Postmodern eugenics repurposes turn-of-the 20th century ideas of racial
Stanovich, Keith E.
The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically…
Full Text Available Eugenics and indications - its reception in the Polish political thoughtThe term eugenics was introduced by Francis Galton in the 19th century. It is a system ofviews declaringthe possibility of improvinghereditary characteristics of human beings by creating conditions favouring the maintenance and development of advantageous features. The basis for the development of the movement was fear of the biological degeneration of mankind. The disadvantageous outbreak of social pathologies thatcould havebeen observed in a number of countries was allegedly the harbinger. So, the purpose of the movementwas to create a perfectsocietyby gradual elimination of sick and socially notadapted individuals. It was divided into two sub- categories: positive and negative eugenics. In case of the latter, the purpose was the limitation of the development of disabled persons and as it was defined euphemistically the "less valuable” ones. The most brutal method of restricting the birth ratewas the compulsory sterilization. In the article the following subjects have been presented inter alia:- beginning and development of eugenic thoughts on the Polish ground- reception of eugenic ideas in Poland- developmentof eugenics in the thirties of the 20th century Polish political thoughtversus German Sterilization Actof 1934Attitude of the Catholic Church to eugenics, inter alia the encyclical Casti connubi.
Alejandro Castillejo Cuéllar
Full Text Available In 1927, under the umbrella of the Kaiser Wilhelm Gesellschaft, the institution responsible for directing Germany's research policies, the Kaiser Wilhelm Institut für Anthropologie, Menschliche, Erblehre und Eugenic (Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity and Eugenics was founded. The institution represented the apex of the German eugenics movement that had developed in the previous decades, and the birth of oneof the intellectual centers where the Reich's ideology of social engineering was founded. This article discusses some of the historic elements that linked racial ideology, the bedrock of Nazi policy of extermination, and the social sciences during the Weimar period
Retraction notice to “Methylation of apoptosis related genes in the pathogenesis and prognosis of prostate cancer” [Cancer Lett. 242 (2) (2006) 222–230]. Makoto Suzuki, Hisayuki Shigematsu, Narayan Shivapurkar, Jyotsna Reddy, Kuniharu Miyajima, Takao Takahashi, Adi F. Gazdar, Eugene P. Frenke.
Available online . This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the first author, who accepts responsibility. Following an internal review at the UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, evidence has been found of improper manipulation and duplication of Figure 1 in this article.
TERAPIA GÉNICA: ¿TRATAMIENTO MÉDICO, EUGENESIA O HIGIENE DE LA HERENCIA? TERAPIA GÉNICA: TRATAMENTO MÉDICO, EUGENESIA OU HIGIENE DA HERANÇA? GENE THERAPY: MEDICAL TREATMENT, EUGENICS OR INHERITANCE’S HYGIENE?
Alfredo G Kohn Loncarica
Full Text Available El desarrollo de la genética molecular en las dos últimas décadas produjo grandes cambios en los conocimientos sobre la fisiopatología de las enfermedades, modificando los criterios de diagnóstico y de tratamiento, y enfrentando al médico con nuevos conceptos provenientes de una avalancha tecnológica que se incrementa día a día. Nuestro objetivo es exponer una posición bioética bastante difundida sobre algunos aspectos de la medicina genómica y, simultáneamente, hacer algunos comentarios críticos a esta posición, rescatando sus aportes. En primer lugar, presentamos y discutimos la definición de enfermedad genética propuesta por Closer, Culver y Gert, sus consecuencias y los criterios que se debe tener en cuenta para decidir realizar o no un diagnóstico genético. Luego, analizamos la propuesta de Berger en relación con la legitimidad de la terapia génica. Concluimos que la definición ofrecida es lo suficientemente amplia como para incluir alteraciones funcionales, psicológicas y aun sociales. Sin embargo, es fuertemente biologista al centrar el criterio de normalidad en lo biológico y estadístico. No tiene en cuenta la determinación cultural del concepto. Asimismo, en relación con la terapia génica, más que una objeción moral, lo que el autor propone es una moratoria que descansa en la insuficiencia de los conocimientos actuales y en que se fundamentan en una filosofía utilitarista. Sostenemos que será la comunidad la que tendrá que decidir hasta adonde está dispuesta a aceptar la “lotería genética” y, en consecuencia, los alcances y límites de la medicina genómicaO desenvolvimento da genética molecular nas últimas décadas produziu grandes mudanças nos conhecimentos sobre a fisiopatologia das doenças, modificando os critérios de diagnóstico e de tratamento, e enfrentando o médico com novos conceitos provenientes de uma avalanche tecnológica que é incrementada dia a dia. Nosso objetivo é expor uma posição bioética bastante difundida sobre alguns aspectos da medicina genómica e, simultaneamente, fazer alguns comentários críticos a esta posição, resgatando suas contribuições. Em primeiro lugar, apresentamos e discutimos a definição de doença genética proposta por Closer, Culver e Gert, suas conseqüências e os critérios que se deve levar em conta para decidir realizar ou não um diagnóstico genético. Em seguida, analisamos a proposta de Berger em relação à legitimidade da terapia génica. Concluímos que a definição oferecida é suficientemente ampla para incluir alterações funcionais, psicológicas e inclusive sociais. No en tanto, é fortemente biologista ao centrar o critério de normalidade no biológico e estatístico. Não levando em conta a determinação cultural do conceito. Assim mesmo, em relação à terapia génica, mais que uma objeção moral, o que o autor propõe é uma moratória que descansa na insuficiência dos conhecimentos atuais nos quais se fundamenta uma filosofia utilitarista. Sustentamos que a comunidade terá que decidir até onde esta disposta a aceitar a “loteria genética” e, em conseqüência, os alcances e limites da medicina genómicaThe development of molecular genetics in the last two decades brought about important changes in the knowledge of physiopathology of the diseases, modifying the criteria for diagnosis and treatment and presenting the physician with new concepts originated from the continuously growing array of technological changes. The purpose of our paper is to present a fairly common bioethical stand point about the gene therapy and, at the same time, to make some critical remarks about this outlook, without failing to point out its contributions to the subject. In the first place, we present and discuss the definition of genetic illness proposed by Closer, Culver and Gert, its consequences and the standards we have to take into account when we have to decide to carry out a genetic diagnosis or not. Afterwards, we analyze the proposal of Berger in connection with the legitimation of genetic therapy. We conclude that the definition offered has an advantage: it is broad enough to include functional, psychological and even social alterations. However, it is strongly biologistic in that its criterion of what is normal is centered upon biological and statistical aspects, and it does not take into account the fact that the concept is culturally influenced. Also, in connection with the gene therapy, more than a moral objection, what the author proposes is a moratorium which rests on the inadequacy of the current knowledge and that it is based on an utilitarian philosophy. We sustain that it will be the community who will have to decide about until where it is willing to accept the “genetic lottery” and, in consequence, the reaches and the limits of the genomic medicine
Freund, Paul A.
If the aim of new research is to improve the genetic inheritance of future generations, then decisions regarding who should decide what research should be done needs to be established. Positive and negative eugenics need to be considered thoroughly. (PS)
Roč. 62, č. 6 (2014), s. 847-861 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : bioconservatism * bioradicalism * liberal eugenics * transhumanism * enhancement Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion
Uute plaatide The Blacktonez "Flying High", Francie Valentine feat. mandingo "Merangada", Blak Beat Niks "Do You Want Me", East West Connection feat. eugene "Hideaway" Bridges "The More I Get" tutvustus
.... Bauer, Michael P. Berger, William D. Blosch, Michael Bohlen, Bradley N. Brown, Victor M. Brunner, Tom L..., Eugene G. Friedman, Edward L. Gilbert, Donald W. Hansen, Joseph S. Hernandez, Corrine J. Hoffman, Robert...
... training program was founded in 1965 at Duke University by Dr. Eugene Stead. Most programs require applicants ... year 2020. The first PA students were mostly military medics. They were able to expand on the ...
Künnap, Ago, 1941-
Juzhnoselkupskij slovar N. P. Grigorovskogo. Obrabotka i izdanie Jevgenija Helimskogo. Südselkupisches Wörterbuch von N. P. Grigorovski. Bearbeitet und herausgegeben von Eugen Helimski, Hamburg 2007. (Hamburger Sibirische Finnougrische Materialien. Habent Sua Fata Manuscripta. Band 4)
Joon, Silja, 1966-
Kontserdist "Fantasticus" (esinemas organist Ines Maidre ja viiuliduett Eugen ja Ingmar Simson-Valtin) 11. aug. Häädemeeste kirikus ja ameerika organisti James David Christie kontserdist 12. aug. Pärnu Eliisabeti kirikus
LISP is fundamentally a functional language inspired by the lambda ... of most programming languages in one form or another. ..... Java and C++ in significant ways. ... . Eugene Charniak, Christopher K Riesbeck, Drew V McDermott, and.
Palestiina pöördumisest Rahvusvahelisse Kriminaalkohtusse ja vaidlused Iisraeli asundustest läänekaldal. Palestiina ja Iisraeli piiriküsimused. Vastus Eugene Kontorovichi artiklile numbris 2013, 5
Strategy to improve the burden of gestational diabetes in African women: Rwandan perspective. Herbert T. Mapira, David K. Tumusiime, Kevin Yarasheski, Nadine Rujeni, Todd W. Cade, Eugene Mutimura ...
Ma, Lina; Cui, Peng; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Zhihua; Zhang, Zhang
by Yuan Yuan, Baylor College of Medicine; Han Liang, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (nominated by Dr Laura Landweber) Eugene Koonin, NCBI, NLM, NIH, United States of America Sandor Pongor, International Centre for Genetic Engineering
It is controversial whether the development of Fascist racism was influenced by earlier Italian eugenic research. Before the First International Eugenics Congress held in London in 1912, Italian eugenics was not characterized by a clear program of scientific research. With the advent of Fascism, however, the equality "number = strength" became the foundation of its program. This idea, according to which the improvement of a nation relies on the amplitude of its population, was conceived by statistician Corrado Gini (1884-1965) already in 1912. Focusing on the problem of the degeneration of the Italian race, Gini had a tremendous influence on Benito Mussolini's (1883-1945) political campaign, and shaped Italian social sciences for almost two decades. He was also a committed racist, as documented by a series of indisputable statements from the primary literature. All these findings place Gini in a linking position among early Italian eugenics, Fascism and official state racism.
... 17091 New York. Levine Seth A 09759 New York. Walsh John X 03979 New York. Palmieri Eugene D 02632 New.... Galik Jane M 10357 Philadelphia. D'Amico Lenore Anne 15093 Philadelphia. Frederick Ted D 10654...
Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.
Three astronauts named as the prime crew of the Apollo 10 space mission. Left to right, are Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot; John W. Young, command module pilot; and Thomas P. Stafford, commander.
Three astronauts inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Left to right are Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; John W. Young, command module pilot; and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot.
fashioned vocabulary and .... somewhat traditional translation in terms of translation theory. This ... the focus is to make the original meaning accessible to its readers. Eugene A. .... Old Testament translation and on the Nestle-Aland 25th edition of the.
Effectiveness of shortcourse quinine and singledose sulfadoxinepyrimethamine in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Eugene Athan, David N. Dürrheim, Karen Barnes, Nicros M. Mngomezulu, Aaron Mabuza, John Govere ...
Wacker, R. Fred
Discusses the philosophies of assimilationist liberalism and cultural pluralism as they emerged between 1900 and 1925 in opposition to social Darwinism and the immigration restriction, eugenics, and Americanization movements. (GC)
Chairperson Economic Development: Harold Tadlock Bill Benson Don Leonard Craig Wall Education & Training: Kent Sharples , Chairperson Dick Rosen Doug...Airport: Ralph Panzrino. Chairperson Mike Leahy Betty Martin Eugene Dorman, Chairperson Jessie Ward Donald Hardee Gene Stroman Bill Brown David
34MISCELLANEOUS" ACCOUNT CATEGORY WITHIN THE DOD INSTRUCTION 7220.29-H DEPOT LEVEL MAINTENANCE COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM by a. Steven Eugene Lehr CDecember 1984...PERFORMING ONG. REPORT NUMBER Maintenance Cost Accounting System 7. AUTHOR(&) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(@) Steven Eugene Lehr 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Availability Codes IS. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse *ids It necessary and Identify by block number) Dvi Special Uniform Cost Accounting System DoD
al and CB- 8 PLASMA-SHEATH STRUCTURE FOR AN t GM ELECTRODE CONTACTING AN ISOTHERMAL CA-17 SYNCHROTRON STUDIES OF COLLISION PLASMA: I. FORMULATION AND...77, 817 (1982). 25 S.2’ CA CA-17 Synchrotron Studies of Collision Induced Absorp- tion and Emission in 12 and IC. D. C. LORENTS, AND R. L. SHARPLESS...Aiken June 1954 Gardner, Milton Eugene June 1937 Huber, Elsa Louise June 1954 Bowls, Noodford Eugene Nov. 1937 Maunsell. Charles Dudley Jan. 1955 Chapman
The physician and sexologist Albert Moll, from Berlin, was one of the main protagonists within the German discourse on the opportunities and dangers of social engineering, by eugenic interventions into human life in general, as well as into reproductive hygiene and healthcare policy in particular. One of the main sexological topics that were discussed intensively during the late-Wilhelminian German Reich and the Weimar Republic was the question of the legalisation of voluntary and compulsory sterilisations on the basis of medical, social, eugenic, economic or criminological indications. As is clear from Moll's conservative principles of medical ethics, and his conviction that the genetic knowledge required for eugenically indicated sterilisations was not yet sufficiently elaborated, he had doubts and worries about colleagues who were exceedingly zealous about these surgical sterilisations--especially Gustav Boeters from Saxony.
Berry, W.; Grallert, H.
The paper presents a synthesis of the performance and technical feasibility assessment of 7 reusable launcher types, comprising 13 different vehicles, studied by European Industry for ESA in the ESA Winged Launcher Study in the period January 1988 to May 1994. The vehicles comprised single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) and two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO) vehicles, propelled by either air-breathing/rocket propulsion or entirely by rocket propulsion. The results showed that an SSTO vehicle of the HOTOL-type, propelled by subsonic combustion air-breathing/rocket engines could barely deliver the specified payload mass and was aerodynamically unstable; that a TSTO vehicle of the Saenger type, employing subsonic combustion airbreathing propulsion in its first stage and rocket propulsion in its second stage, could readily deliver the specified payload mass and was found to be technically feasible and versatile; that an SSTO vehicle of the NASP type, propelled by supersonic combustion airbreathing/rocket propulsion was able to deliver a reduced payload mass, was very complex and required very advanced technologies; that an air-launched rocket propelled vehicle of the Interim HOTOL type, although technically feasible, could deliver only a reduced payload mass, being constrained by the lifting capability of the carrier airplane; that three different, entirely rocket-propelled vehicles could deliver the specified payload mass, were technically feasible but required relatively advanced technologies.
Christian Baumann (Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen, Germany): Wilbrand's ideas of the visual cortex. Hermann Wilbrand (1851-1935) is considered one of the founders of neuro-opthalmology. He is best known for the monumental handbook, Die Neurologie des Auges (Wilbrand &Saenger, 1898-1922). Prior to this encyclopedic work, Wilbrand published three clinical monographs on the diagnosis of brain diseases with the help of ophthalmological examinations(Wilbrand 1881, 1884, 1890). But Wilbrand not only treated clinical aspects but also supplied evidence for the localization of the optical center in the calcarine fissure of the occipital cortex. Moreover, he worked out theories of the organization of the visual cortex that, as he postulated, must contain subdivisions corresponding to the qualities of visual sensation such as light, form, and color. Wilbrand also considered the binocular input of the visual cortex and put forward a detailed scheme of the projection of the two retinae to the occipital cortex that anticipated modern concepts of ocular dominance columns. His ideas are critically reviewed in the light of current opinions about his topics.
Francisco Martorell Campos
Full Text Available This paper analyses the project of moral improving of the human being through the eugenics from the utopian view, connecting current works on moral enhancement with theoretical and literary works written in the XIXth and at the beginning of the XXth centuries that expressed the conviction that humanity improves, even morally, as a result of science and technology. Our thesis emphasizes the differences and similarities between the two paradigms that this aim has originated and, at the same time, it underlines the negative impacts that in our opinion certain eugenic assumptions have caused in the utopia.
Resumen En la década de 1990, algunos estudios subrayaron la dominante presencia de la eugenesia positiva en la Argentina moderna. Enfatizaban en el lugar marginal que en los discursos eugenésicos tuvieron los violentos métodos de selección. En los últimos años esta perspectiva ha sido revisada, señalando la viscosidad conceptual de la eugenesia y la presencia de discursos eugenésicos negativos. Este artículo comenta estos avatares historiográficos y también se detiene en las narrativas que e...
Gailis , Janis
"Autism is more or less the same thing Freud called auto-eroticism" - this is what Paul Eugen Bleuler writes in his fundamental work "Dementia praecox or the group of schizophrenias". However, if we take a closer look at other definitions of autism, offered by Bleuler, works, on which he relied in his proceedings, as well as Sigmund Freud's texts, he wrote, to answer Paul Eugen Bleuler, we can find that this remark about substituting auto-eroticism with autism, avoiding any mention of sexuali...
Amidon, Kevin S
Throughout the nineteenth century, German medical, scientific and legal scholars found themselves puzzled and engaged by the diverse forms of human sexuality. Psychiatrists like Richard von Krafft-Ebing who were interested in explaining deviance encountered scientifically trained advocates for emancipation like Magnus Hirschfeld, and the result was the new--if unstable--discipline of sexual science. Because they based arguments for social intervention on knowledge of nature and the body, the field's proponents--like the advocates of eugenics and racial hygiene--argued that they were biologists. After 1900, this mutual biological engagement of sexual science and eugenics revealed itself in overlapping debates between the proponents of both fields.
Barrán, Juan Pedro
In this work are analyzed the deep relationships between biology, medicine and society that were settled down in the Uruguay along the XIX century as well as the process of «medicalization» and «biologization» of the social thought that take place along the first decades of the XX century, and the role that played the eugenic ideas and defenders of eugenics in that process.
En este trabajo se analizan las profundas relaciones entre biología, medicina y sociedad que se estab...
Zaichkowsky, Leonard D., Ed.; Sime, Wesley E., Ed.
Included in this volume are papers on stress management in athletics; eight of the ten papers are followed with a "Coach's Reaction": (1) "Competitive Athletic Stress Factors in Athletes and Coaches" (Walter Kroll); (2) "Mental Preparation for Peak Performance in Swimmers" (Eugene F. Gauron)--Coach's Reaction by Suzi…
May 20, 2011 ... alone. It is a worldwide phenomenon that women have had to grapple with in the last few .... hands of Eugene yet she never tells anyone. The only ... fast…the Eucharist fast mandated that the faithful not eat solid food an hour.
Aro, A R; Hakonen, A; Hietala, M
in favour of mandatory genetic testing than other respondents. Respondents with university education were more critical towards genetic testing and expressed their worry about eugenics more often than other education groups. In conclusion, there are age, education and gender related differences...
There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…
CONSTANCE, LINCOLN (Eugene, OR, USA, 16 February 1909 — Berkeley, CA, USA, 11 June 2001) Foremost expert on Umbelliferae/Apiaceae systematics. His long and distinguished career began as a graduate student with Willis Linn Jepson in the 1930s. He was Curator of Seed Plants in the University Herbarium
This paper examines the oppressive practice of Chimamanda Adichie's character – Eugene in Purple Hibiscus on members of his nuclear family. This oppression endangers normal familial relationship as the oppressed view their oppression as an infringement on their fundamental human rights. Therefore, they express ...
Dried fruit snacks. Dried or canned soups. Molasses, pancake syrup, corn or maple syrup. We would like to acknowledge Sisters Ann Toerien and. Rika van der Vyfer, and Bev Pepper for assistance with the trial, Mr J. M. Stokol at State Health Laboratories and. Bromor Foods for chemical analysis, and Professor Eugene.
... Tariff Schedule of the United States, that are alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair..., Eugene, OR; and Timber Products Company, Springfield, OR, combined as The Coalition for Fair Trade of... presentation at the conference. A nonparty who has testimony that may aid the Commission's deliberations may...
... an acceptance of what would soon be known as Afrikaans culture as no less worthy and civilised than that of the British and for the application of a radically adapted version of social Darwinism to conflicts between white and black South Africans. Key words: Balmforth, Darwin, Darwinism, eugenics, evolution, Kant, social
This paper aims at revealing the Human Genome Project (HGP) and human genetic issues arising from science and Islamic perspectives such as Darwin's evolutionary theory, human cloning and eugenics. Finally, issues arising from the applications of human genetic technology need to be addressed to the best possible ...
Weishan Ma duck (WS) is the eugenic endemic breed, one of the four famous ducks in China, as well Cherry Valley duck (CV) is the largest number of breeding variety. WS is egg strain and CV is meat type. The two duck lines mainly support the. Chinese waterfowl industry. In this study, MHC class Ⅰ genes of WS and CV ...
Gender-based violence is an issue that has become a part of modern society, cutting across cultures, race, ethnicity and status. In Adichie's Purple Hibiscus, gender-based violence manifests in the form of domestic violence, projected through the Eugene Achike family around whom the story, set in the eastern part of ...
Hersch, Joni; Stone, Joe A.
A comparison of data from a Eugene, Oregon, worker survey with data from the Quality of Employment Survey found that union job dissatisfaction arises from factors independent of wages and working conditions. Union perspectives of working conditions do not accurately reflect objective measures of conditions. The dissatisfaction expressed has real…
Upgrading your Quality Management System to ISO 9000 Standards · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Eugene Okolie, 73-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/lbsmr.v5i2.24448 ...
Clearly, the domination of women is the most fundamental form of female subjugation ..... As a widow and the single-parent of three, Ifeoma struggles to cater for ... Eugene's death, her dignity, freedom and security, and that of her children are ...
Tõnson, Margit, 1978-
Kolmest suvelavastusest: Tiit Palu dramatiseering Gustave Flaubert'i teosest "Madame Bovary" Endla teatris, Marcel Pagnoli "Tuulesaared", lavastaja Maria Peterson - Theatrum ja MTÜ Arhipelaag Hiiumaal Tahkuna tuletorni all ja Eugene O'Neilli "Iha jalakate all", lavastaja Roman Baskin, MTÜ Kell Kümme Kurgjal Jakobsoni talumuuseumis
Juske, Ants, 1956-2016
17. detsembril avatakse Tallinnas Rotermanni kvartalis Roseni t. 8 Urmas Sõõrumaa eragalerii US Art Gallery avanäitus, kus on väljas 75 teost. Eksponeeritud Peet Areni, Ann Audova, Eugen Gustav Dückeri, Franz Gebhardti, Johannes Võerahansu, Eduard Wiiralti, Richard Uutmaa jpt. tööd
Näitus Urmas Sõõrumaa kunstikogust pärit Eestimaaga seotud 19. sajandi kunstnike - Lorenz-Heinrich Petersen, Wilhelm Siegfried Stavenhagen, Eugen Gustav Dücker - graafikast, akvarellidest ja maalidest Kohila vallamajas 21. aprillist 22. juunini. Kuraator Marion Tupits
Rasmussen, Harriette Thurber
As facilitator, the author noted some trepidation in the room as the eight secondary principals from Eugene (Oregon.) School District 4J quietly discussed questions that surfaced through their hopes and fears exercise. Could the practice of visiting classrooms together help them to better lead instruction in their buildings? Would this process…
Aug 31, 2011 ... ... requirements were quickly established, schedules (for submission, peer ... and organizational culture. ... He probes the use of the three languages in both teaching and regular communications, questioning ... Eugene Nsanzabiga seems to share the same school of thoughts with his colleague Cyprien.
in Baghdad and Karbala during the Shia festival of Ashura in March of 2004.80 These attacks were preceded by the bombing of the Jordanian embassy...American contractors Nick Berg and Eugene Armstrong. Zarqawi released edited videos with music and logos detailing multiple suicide bombings against
Zallen, Doris T.
Considers the opportunities and ethical issues involved in genetic testing. Reviews the history of genetics from the first discoveries of Gregor Mendel, through the spurious pseudo-science of eugenics, and up to the discovery of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. Explains how genetic tests are done. (MJP)
Timson, David J.
Mutations can cause genetic diseases and the vast majority of these have no effective treatment. They raise some difficult questions on the boundaries of science and social science. Selective breeding to "improve" the human race (eugenics) is often regarded as a Victorian relic or Nazi fantasy. Yet, three fetuses with Down syndrome are…
Three computer programs have been written to preprocess digitized outputs of sensors during rocket-engine tests at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The programs apply exclusively to the SSC E test-stand complex and utilize the SSC file format. The programs are the following: Engineering Units Generator (EUGEN) converts sensor-output-measurement data to engineering units. The inputs to EUGEN are raw binary test-data files, which include the voltage data, a list identifying the data channels, and time codes. EUGEN effects conversion by use of a file that contains calibration coefficients for each channel. QUICKLOOK enables immediate viewing of a few selected channels of data, in contradistinction to viewing only after post-test processing (which can take 30 minutes to several hours depending on the number of channels and other test parameters) of data from all channels. QUICKLOOK converts the selected data into a form in which they can be plotted in engineering units by use of Winplot (a free graphing program written by Rick Paris). EUPLOT provides a quick means for looking at data files generated by EUGEN without the necessity of relying on the PV-WAVE based plotting software.
.... Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Prineville District, Prineville, OR and University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History, Eugene, OR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management, Prineville District has completed an inventory of human...
... literary giant at the Eugene O'Neill National Historical Site, California; and the artistic grace of a... that is not reasonably likely to attract a crowd or onlookers. This language is similar to the... the criteria of section 3(b)(2) requiring that all regulations be written in clear language and...
Egger, John B.
Briefly defines and provides some background on Eugen von Bohm-Bawerk's "marginal pairs" theory of pricing. Asserts that Bohm-Bawerk's theory is a good introduction to the Austrian school of economics and illustrates the differences between this approach and neoclassical economic theory. Includes several graphs and tables of data. (MJP)
Eugene Arter – Engineering Technician, US Army Garrison Hawaii (USAP-PTA/DPW) The Commander of ERDC was COL Bryan S. Green , and the Director was...fully demonstrate and validate the technology. ERDC-CERL TR-17-10 22 References Herzberg, Eric F., Norman T. O’Meara, and Rebecca F. Stroh
Full Text Available 103939 PoTR_594761 Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(127) 273 eugene3.66280001 1 ...1.00e-60 14.29 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Show 103939 Cluster ID 103939 Sequence ID PoTR_594761 Link to cluster seq
Infrastructure and development will depend on the ability of the intervening authorities and the host government to control inflation and finance ...Partner, Perkins Coie LLP Eugene Rosenfeld President, ForestLane Group Lenny Sands President & CEO, Alchemy Worldwide, LLC Michael J. Shockro
The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)
Elks, Martin A.
Historical discussions of the euthanasia or "lethal chamber" option in relation to people with mental retardation are presented. The paper concludes that eugenic beliefs in the primacy of heredity over environment and the positive role of natural selection may have condoned the poor conditions characteristic of large, segregated institutions and…
... evaluate grant applications. Place: The Ritz-Carlton, Washington DC, 1150 22nd Street, NW., Washington, DC... p.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: The Ritz-Carlton...Continental Hotel, 1401 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20004. Contact Person: Eugene Carstea, PhD...
...: September 27-28, 2012. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications. Place: Ritz Carlton Hotel, 1150 22nd Street NW., Washington, DC 20037. Contact Person: Eugene Carstea, Ph.D...
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Fulgham, Susan M.
Brian Lewis, International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) chief executive officer, is an education advocate and leader specializing in management and governance, policy, corporate communications, branding, and marketing. He provides leadership to ISTE's Washington, DC, and Eugene, Oregon, offices and directs organizational…
Casserly, Michael; Eugene, Michael
This paper draws upon the expertise of two leading educators, Michael Casserly, director of the Council of the Great City Schools, and Michael Eugene, chief operating officer of the Orange County Public Schools in Florida. They outline a set of key performance indicators that some urban districts use to benchmark the results of their operating…
Bruns, Dmitri, 1929-
Tallinna linnaehituse ajaline jaotus linnaarhitektide isikute kaudu. Eugen Habermann Tallinna linnaplaneerijana (1918-1923). 3 ill. Järg: nr. 10, lk. 74-76, nr. 11, lk. 74-76 "Arhitekt Anton Soansi valitsusaeg 1923-1928", nr. 12, lk. 49-51 "Tallinna linnaehituslik areng linnaarhitekt Soansi ajastul"
When an educator was invited by a Chinese university to teach a seminar in American drama, she used "family drama" as the organizing theme of her course because she was (and is) convinced that from Eugene O'Neill on, American playwrights have been obsessed with family disintegration and the failure of family harmony. This paper is an…
Ketterer, Kimberley; Giannone, Darby
Examines the uses of technology at Yujin Gakuen, a public elementary-level Japanese language immersion school located in Eugene, Oregon. Discusses goals that can be achieved through cooperative learning and instructional technology use, equipment and software, areas in which technology training and integration takes place, the role of educators,…
Putting the Teaching of American History and Civics Back in the Classroom. Hearing of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. One Hundred Eighth Congress, First Session on Examining S. 504, To Establish Academies for Teachers and Students of American History and Civics and a National Alliance of Teachers of American History and Civics (April 10, 2003).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.
Statements by the following individuals were given at this hearing and are presented in this document: Hon. Lamar Alexander; David McCullough; Hon. Robert Byrd; Bruce Cole; Eugene W. Hickok; James H. Billington; Diane Ravitch; Hon. Christopher J. Dodd; and Russell Berg accompanied by Peter Sullivan and Blanche Deaderick. Additional material…
This article explores how Dr. Emil Altman and the New York City Board of Education manipulated prevailing narratives of disability in a crusade to rid their city school system of "unfit" teachers during the late 1920s through to the early 1940s. Capitalising on fears of disability related to ideas about efficiency and eugenics, Altman…
Jensen, Niels Rosendal
explanation. The second part is a view into Danish and German history on eugenics since the early 1930'es. Different policy, different goals - but similar effect: the nonentities were excluded. In the second part two modern theoreticians are used to give a better understanding: Zygmunt Bauman as partner...
Eugene Fama has repeatedly expressed his discontent with the notion of an irrational bubble. However, he has never publicly expressed his opinion on rational bubbles. This is peculiar since such bubbles build naturally from the rational efficient markets paradigm that Fama strongly adheres to...
Fallace, Thomas D.
The literature depicting educators' role in scientific racism and eugenics during the early 20th century has tended to approach the topic in dichotomous terms, as an ideology that one was either for or against. In this historical study, the author adds some nuance to this literature by tracing leading educators' inconsistent and evolving thoughts…
Madriaga, Manuel; Hanson, Katie; Kay, Helen; Walker, Ann
This article advocates for socially just pedagogies in higher education to challenge senses of normalcy that perpetuate elitist academic attitudes towards the inclusion of disabled students. Normalcy is equated here with an everyday eugenics, which heralds a non-disabled person without "defects", or impairments, as the ideal norm. This…
Ajmani, Nisha; Webster, Erica
From its inception in 1891 to present day, California's state youth corrections system has been mired in violence and abuse. In 1914, IQ testing and eugenics at state juvenile facilities resulted in the forced sterilization of poor, primarily non-white youth. In 1939, the suspicious suicide of a 13-year-old boy, the maltreatment of Latino youth,…
National Council on Disability, 2012
Despite a dark history marked by the eugenics movement, increasing numbers of people with disabilities are choosing to become parents. Recent research reveals that more than 4 million parents--6 percent of American mothers and fathers--are disabled. This number will unquestionably increase as more people with disabilities exercise a broader range…
Roman, Leslie G.; Brown, Sheena; Noble, Steven; Wainer, Rafael; Young, Alannah Earl
This article asks: How have disability, indigenous arts and cultural praxis transformed and challenged the historical sociological archival research into relationships among asylum-making, medicalized colonialism and eugenics in the Woodlands School, formerly the Victoria Lunatic Asylum, the Provincial Asylum for the Insane in Victoria, BC 1859-72…
Grigorenko, Elena L.; Dozier, Mary
The debate about the relevance of human genetics knowledge to everyday life has been marked by fluctuations of interest and enthusiasm. The negative impact of eugenics on the public consciousness suppressed dialogue between geneticists and the public for most of the second half of the 20th century (Ridley, 1999). For the most part, nongeneticists…
Bick, Rodger L
... and, for each condition covered, the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical and laboratory diagnosis and management are discussed where appropriate. Rodger Bick is Clinical Professor of Medicine and Pathology at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (Dallas, Texas, USA). Eugene Frenkel is Professor of Medicine at the Harold C. Simm...
This work approaches the eugenics’ role in Argentina from 1930, moment when the Italian biotipology –intimately linked with the Catholic Church– was consolidated in this country. That eugenics version canalized the elites’ reaction to a trend of the sexual free morality and it tried a disciplined obeisance to roles of gender.
Perkowitz, Sidney, Ed.
The papers contained in these proceedings from the 1996 Society for Literature and Science Conference are organized into sections based on theme. Some of these themes are: (1) Secularizing Enlightenment; (2) Eugenics and the Politics of Knowledge; (3) Reading the Discourses of Psychology; (4) Women and Medicine; (5) The Rhetoric of Public Health;…
predator, respectively, r is the position, t is the time and D is the diffusion coefficient ..... To overcome these difficulties, we consider a modified definition of the ...... Fisher R A 1937 The wave of advance of advantageous genes;. Ann. Eugenics 7 ...
Art McKee; Pamela. Druliner
The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest is a world renowned center for research and education about the ecology and management of forests and streams. Located about 50 miles (80 km) east of Eugene, Oregon, the Andrews Experimental Forest lies in the Blue River Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. Established in 1948, the Experimental Forest is administered...
The bulk of research on ‘illiberal policies’, including eugenic legislation, of the early and mid-20th century Europe and US holds that strong states and weak civil societies caused this legislation to be adopted. Similarly, civil society theory has held that ‘gardening’ states tend to encroach...
Marcinowski, Filip; Nasierowski, Tadeusz
In the interwar period the eugenic ideas gained the status of a scientific theory and become attractive to a wide range of physicians. Among them were doctors of Jewish origin who perceived eugenics as a tool in the fight for biological rebirth of the Jewish nation. Polish-Jewish psychiatrist Raphael Becker (1891-1939?), the author of dozens of scientific papers, was the most famous eugenist among Jewish psychiatrists, not only in Poland but also in Europe. After graduation in medicine at the University in Zurich and training in the psychiatry clinic Burghölzli under the guidance of Eugen Bleuler, Rafał Becker became interested in the question of epidemiology of mental disorders among the Jews. In the interwar period, dealing with the statistics of mental disorders among Polish Jews, and directing a psychiatric hospital "Zofiówka" in Otwock, he significantly contributed to the development of medical care for the mentally ill Jews in Poland. Becker's scientific ideas were greatly influenced by the work of Alfred Adler and Ernst Kretschmer. The article presents the life and scientific achievements of Becker, with particular emphasis on his views on eugenics.
Given that I share, mostly, Eugene Matusov's passionate concerns, picking on his vocabulary might appear pedantic. However, the issues involved in labeling political movements and, even more, political practices, can be fundamental and address the very grounds on which social analysis must stand. Briefly, I am concerned with the label…
Original Music: Alan Ari Lazar. Cast: Rapulana Seiphemo, Ronnie Nyakale, Jeffrey Zekele, Kenneth Nkosi, helley Meskin, Robert Hobbs, Eugene Khumbanyiwa, Jafta Mamabolo, Motlatsi Mahloko. Approx 120 min. Distributor: Next Video, Fountain Grove, 5 Second Street, Hyde Park. . Journal of the Musical Arts in Africa ...
procedures , and location. At that point, the government has many options available to deter a potential adversary. Depending on the nature of the...cannot discern which actor in a lineup is the computer. The most recent event was in 2014, when “Eugene Goostman,” a chat bot designed by Vladimir
Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.
The great International Expositions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries brought together the world's political, intellectual, and industrial leaders for the exchange of information and ideas. They also promoted specific cultural values and belief systems. In this book, Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr. looks specifically at the educational…
Young to old inflorescences of a colour variant of the pernicious weed Lantana camara. Freshly opened flowers are yellow and change gradu- ally to orange, scarlet and magenta. See p.1003. Eugene Paul Wigner. (1902–1995). ( Illustration: Subhankar Biswas ). Front Cover. Back Cover. 931. Classroom. An Easily Con-.
Cofell, Jeanne Lorraine
This study examined human goodness as lived through the life of Emerson Hynes with a focus on the college years. Emerson Hynes was an ethics and sociology professor at St. John's University during the 1940s and 50s before he became legislative assistant to Senator Eugene McCarthy. He cared deeply about ethics and was a leader in family life,…
... Transmission System. Hydro H-1 P-12107-005 Granite County, Montana. H-2 P-2496-222 Eugene Water and Electric... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Sunshine Act Meeting Notice October 14... Sunshine Act (Pub. L. 94-409), 5 U.S.C. 552b: Agency Holding Meeting: Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...
nebulous to accurately measure. It is of interest to note that if "degree of improved readiness" could be defined and quantified, 100 percent of the...Make the Turtle Run?" Government Executive, Vol 14: 18-21 (October 1982). 19. Kluter, Major Eugene E., USAF. Producing More For Less: A Guide For
Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Dijk, N.M.
It is over 30 years ago since D.J. White started his series of surveys on practical applications of Markov decision processes (MDP), over 20 years after the phenomenal book by Martin Puterman on the theory of MDP, and over 10 years since Eugene A. Feinberg and Adam Shwartz published their Handbook
...) is a supplier or downstream producer to a firm (or subdivision) that employed a group of workers who...-- (A) The workers' firm is a supplier and the component parts it supplied for the firm (or subdivision..., Los Alamitos, Texas; March 29, 2010. TA-W-80,130; Oak Patch Gifts, LLC, Eugene, Oregon: April 19, 2010...
One-to-one tutoring programs, such as peer and cross-age tutoring, can result in emotional and learning benefits for the tutor and the tutee. Peer tutoring involves two students of the same age. In cross-age tutoring, the tutor is older than the tutee. The Willamette High School Peer Tutoring Program in Eugene, Oregon; the Coca-Cola Valued Youth…
In his 1960 essay, Eugene Wigner raised the question of ‿the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in natural sciences‿. After several decades of security research, we are tempted to ask the opposite question: Are we not unreasonably ineffective? Why are we not more secure from all the security
Joly, Yann; So, Derek; Saulnier, Katie; Dyke, Stephanie O M
Emerging ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) scholarship in epigenetics has focused largely on hypothetical issues involving institutional racism, discrimination, and eugenics. To avoid an unwarranted backlash against this promising research field, we encourage a more balanced ELSI discussion conveying the full spectrum of issues faced by stakeholders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Martin Müller untersucht eingehend die Rolle der technischen und medialen Dimensionen der Lebenswissenschaften und führt so anhand von Eugene Thackers Begriff der Biomedien vor Augen, dass auch Dinge und Materialitäten handlungstheoretisch gefasst werden können.
..., LLC. 20110313 G News Corporation. G Wireless Generation, Inc. G Wireless Generation, Inc. 08-DEC-10.... G Exxon Mobil Corporation. G Mobile Eugene Island Pipeline Company. G Exxon Mobil Pipeline Company. G Mobil Oil Exploration & Producing Southeast Inc. 20110256 G Humana Inc. G Welsh, Carson, Anderson...
Partons and jets at the LHC. DAVISON E SOPER. Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403-5203, USA. Abstract. I review some issues related to short distance QCD and its relation to the experimental program of the large hadron collider (LHC) now under construction in Geneva. Keywords.
Grossman, Kathryn M.
Examines Victor Hugo's "Ninety-three," Charles Dickens'"Tale of Two Cities," and Eugene Zamiatin's "We" as examples of romantic satire, considering in each work the quest motif, the oedipal themes, the dystopian vision, and the role of love. (AYC)
Author Affiliations. Pier A Mello1 Eugene Kogan2. Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D. F., México; Department of Physics, Minerva Center and Jack and Pearl Resnick Institute of Advanced Technology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel ...
by Eugene Zakar and Madan Dubey Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, ARL Robert Burke General Technical Services, LLC, Wall, NJ...isopropyl alcohol . The metal thin films deposited on SiO2/Si substrates were not cleaned prior to graphene growth. After cleaning, the samples were
Full Text Available Apert syndrome is a genetic defect which was first described by Eugene Apert in 1906. it's incidence is approximately one in 50000 births. This syndrome is many abnormalities in your body and Central Nervous System. rehabilitation can increase children and their parent's quality of life.We report a case of Apert syndrome and his occupational therapy program.
Stamou, Anastasia G.
By drawing upon the dialogic theory of Bakhtin, I consider how register variation is represented in the children's books by the popular Greek writer Dr. Eugene Trivizas, with the aim to explore whether, and in what terms, it could be exploited for the raising of (critical) language awareness. Most sociolinguistic studies which have used literature…
Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.
THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT (Except for the Evaluation Summary Table): VERSION: 1.4E. PRODUCER: Earthware Computer Services, P.O. Box 30039, Eugene, OR 07403. EVALUATION COMPLETED: June 1982 by staff of NWREL and constituents of the Alaska Department of Education. COST: $49.50. ABILITY LEVEL: Secondary and College. SUBJECT:…
School of Business, 200E, BEB Decision Research University of Texas at Austin 1201 Oak Street Austin, Texas 78712 Eugene, Oregon 97401 Professor Norman ...Stephen M. Robinson Dept. of Industrial Engineering Dr. Richard D. Smallwood Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison Applied Decision Analysis, Inc. 1513 University
Craig, C.A.C., assigned to command Battery "B" Captain Oren A. Mulkey, Infantry, assigned to Headquarters Company Pacific Sec- tor; and Lieutenant Norman ...a blow to the pride of our :1ble corps of instructors. By Lieutenant Eugene C. Smallwood , C.A .C. JENROLL~vrENT for additional members in the C.c.c
Eesti arhitektuurimuuseumis eksponeeritava Herbert Johansoni (1884–1964) ja Eugen Habermanni (1884–1944) juubelinäituse taustal on kohane rääkida koolimajadest. Johansoni kontol on suur osa Tallinna sõdadevahelistest koolimajadest, kaks lasteaeda ja üks kutsekool
Full Text Available Theobroma cacao ... 2n=20 ... 2011 Sanger (WGS), Roche/454 , Illumina 26 Gb 326 Mb 16.7x... Newbler 4,792 25,912 EUGene following specific training for T. cacao 28,798 CIRAD; http://cocoagendb.cirad.fr Dec2010 Dec2010 10.1038/ng.736 21186351 ...
underrepresented in the factor-analytic and correlational studies done to date. One such process is what is commonly called encoding (the process REPFRM de...IL 61820 Eugene OR 97403 1 ERIC Facility-Acquisitions 1 Dr. Barbara Hayes-Roth 41833 Rugby Avenue The Rand Corporation Bethesda, VAD 20014 1700 Main
Bauer, Mary; Neimand, Hahn
This document is a teacher's guide to the historic buildings of Eugene, Oregon. Eighteen buildings in the Skinner's Butte Historical District are highlighted, including the U.S. Post Office, the Eagles Building, the Lane Hotel, the Oregon Electric Depot, the Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, and several houses. For each structure there is a brief…
May 6, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 2. Kenneth Raper, Elisha Mitchell and Dictyostelium. Eugene R Katz. Perspectives Volume 31 Issue 2 June 2006 pp 195-200. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/031/02/0195-0200 ...
An investigative analysis into anthropometrics, sterilization, eugenics, and other forms of scientific racism used to justify white supremacy and racial thought in the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States. The Tuskegee syphilis study, Darwinistic ideals, and neo-Lamarckian thoughts are critically analyzed as justifications for institutional racism.
Meijden, van der Ruud
H. Haeupler & T. Muer, Bildatlas der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands, Eugen Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart. 2000, 759 pag., >4000 kleurenfoto’s + detailtekeningen en -foto’s, ƒ 185, ISBN 3-8001-3364-4. Dit magistrale fotoboek overtreft de toch ook prachtige Flora Helvetica (zie Gorteria 22: 170).
Often, this debate is coloured by historical and political overtones. Shocked beyond belief by the atrocities committed during the Second World War in the name of eugenics, the world rejected the idea that we are what our genes are. It became politically incorrect to have any truck with the idea that genes are responsible for ...
the theory and practice of Bible translation at this stage are Eugene A. Nida and his colleagues of the ..... I've seen a black bear.” These qualities contribute to .... met a few boys sitting on the rock that had a small hole in it. They were milking the ...
...) Wesley J. Jenkins (IL) Francisco J. Jimenez (TX) Christopher J. Kane (VT) Kenneth C. Keil (CA) Melvin A. Kleman (OH) Michael Lafferty (ID) Roosevelt Lawson (AL) Eugene R. Lydick (VA) Emanuel N. Malone (VA.... Riendeau (ND) James A. Smith (WA) Clarence L. Swann, Jr. (AL) Michael G. Trueblood (IL) Donald A. Uplinger...
CP violating rate asymmetries in B decays. N G DESHPANDE. Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-5203, USA. Email: email@example.com. Abstract. We briefly discuss measurements of angles β and α of the unitarity triangle. We then review rate asymmetries using SU´3µ ...
Taylor, Carol M.
Proposes that a direct and authoritative challenge to the scientific racism of the late eighteenth and early twentieth centuries was urgently needed, and was one of the leading rhetorical contributions of W.E.B. DuBois. Specifically examines three issues: social Darwinism, the eugenics movement, and psychologists' measurement of intelligence.…
Appel, Stephen W.
Examines the construction of racial scientific discourse within the milieu of an extremely racially segregated society. Traces the influence of capitalism, racism, Social Darwinism, eugenics, and "racial science" on the pedagogy of modern apartheid in South Africa. Finds evidence of pervasive effects of "scientific" ideas on…
Smith, J. David
A review of secondary education and college biology textbooks published from 1900 through 1950 finds strong support for eugenics and Social Darwinism. These attitudes are related to effects of such recent books as "The Bell Curve" (by R. Herrnstein and C. Murray) for people with mental retardation. (DB)
M. S. SWAMINATHAN
Nov 24, 2017 ... considerable inbreeding prevailing in India among human communities, Haldane encouraged studies in the area of eugenics. His enthusiasm for scientific work was infectious and he gathered around him brilliant young geneticists like. K. Dronamraju. The last time I was with him was at the International.
music critic and wit, famous as a character no less than as a literary giant, .... environment, such changes are not handed on to their children. .... eugenic movement in so far as it leads its intelligent and healthy adherents to produce .... enormous development of two sciences which are nQw in their infancy, namely individual.
Full Text Available This email dialogue that we record and report here between Eugene Matusov and Rupert Wegerif, exemplifies Internet mediated dialogic education. When Eugene emailed Rupert with his initial (misunderstanding of Rupert's position about dialogic pedagogy Rupert felt really motivated to reply. Rupert was not simply motivated to refute Eugene and assert his correctness, although Rupert is sure such elements enter into every dialogue, but also to explore and to try to resolve the issues ignited by the talk in New Zealand. Through this extended dialogue Rupert's and Eugene's positions become more nuanced and focussed. Rupert brings out his concern with the long-term and collective nature of some dialogues claiming that the – "dialogue of humanity that education serves is bigger than the interests of particular students and particular teachers.…" – and so he argues that it is often reasonable to induct students into the dialogue so far so that they can participate fully. On the other hand, Eugene's view of dialogue seems more focussed on personal responsibility, particular individual desires, interests and positions, individual agency and answering the final ethical "damned questions" without an alibi-in-being. Rupert claims that dialogic education is education FOR dialogue and Eugene claims that dialogic education is education AS dialogue. Both believe in education THROUGH dialogue but education through dialogue is not in itself dialogic education. For Rupert dialogic education can include ‘scaffolding’ for full participation in dialogue as long as dialogue is the aim. For Eugene dialogic education has to be a genuine dialogue and this means that a curriculum goal cannot be specified in advance because learning in a dialogue is always emergent and unpredictable. Our dialogue-disagreement is a relational and discursive experiment to develop a new genre of academic critical dialogue. The dialogue itself called to us and motivated us and flowed
Phipps, Claude; Bohn, Willy; Lippert, Thomas; Sasoh, Akihiro; Schall, Wolfgang; Sinko, John
Laser Ablation Propulsion is a broad field with a wide range of applications. We review the 30-year history of laser ablation propulsion from the transition from earlier pure photon propulsion concepts of Oberth and Saenger through Kantrowitz's original laser ablation propulsion idea to the development of air-breathing 'Lightcraft' and advanced spacecraft propulsion engines. The polymers POM and GAP have played an important role in experiments and liquid ablation fuels show great promise. Some applications use a laser system which is distant from the propelled object, for example, on another spacecraft, the Earth or a planet. Others use a laser that is part of the spacecraft propulsion system on the spacecraft. Propulsion is produced when an intense laser beam strikes a condensed matter surface and produces a vapor or plasma jet. The advantages of this idea are that exhaust velocity of the propulsion engine covers a broader range than is available from chemistry, that it can be varied to meet the instantaneous demands of the particular mission, and that practical realizations give lower mass and greater simplicity for a payload delivery system. We review the underlying theory, buttressed by extensive experimental data. The primary problem in laser space propulsion theory has been the absence of a way to predict thrust and specific impulse over the transition from the vapor to the plasma regimes. We briefly discuss a method for combining two new vapor regime treatments with plasma regime theory, giving a smooth transition from one regime to the other. We conclude with a section on future directions.
Dooraghi, Michael R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sengupta, Manajit [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vignola, Frank [University of Oregon; Chiu, Chun-Yun [University of Oregon; Peterson, Josh [University of Oregon
A variety of sensors are studied on a one-axis tracking surface and a horizontal surface in Golden, Colorado, and Eugene, Oregon. This is the first year of a long-term study that will look at not only a comparison between the instruments but also the longer-term degradation in calibration and/or performance. Initially, results from each location will be analyzed, and then results will be compared and contrasted between the two locations. A quick comparison at Eugene indicates that reference solar cells seem to compare better against a secondary standard pyranometer on a one-axis tracker than photodiode-based pyranometers. More study is needed to characterize and confirm this finding.
González Salvat, Rosa María; González Labrador, Ignacio
El uso del diagnóstico prenatal en la práctica de la genética médica ha hecho que se recuerden teorías eugenésicas. Se realizó una revisión histórica de este término y se relacionó con el uso del diagnóstico prenatal (DPN) y el aborto selectivo a la luz de los conocimientos bioéticos actuales. The use of the prenatal diagnosis in the practice of medical genetics has led us to remember eugenic theories. A historical review of this term was made and it was connected with the use of prenatal ...
The 2015 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences was awarded to Eugene Fama, Lars Peter Hansen and Robert Shiller for their contributions to the empirical analysis of asset prices. Eugene Fama [J. Finance 25(2), 383 (1970)] is an advocate of the efficient market hypothesis. The efficient market hypothesis assumes that asset price is determined by using all available information and only reacts to new information not incorporated into the fundamentals. Thus, the movement of stock prices is unpredictable. Robert Shiller [ Irrational Exuberance (Princeton Univ. Press, 2015)] has been studying the existence of irrational bubbles, which are defined as the long term deviations of asset price from the fundamentals. This drives us to the unsettled question of how the market actually works. In this paper, I look back at the development of economics and consider the direction in which we should move in order to truly understand the workings of an economic society.
Esteban Rodríguez Martín
La amplia implantación de estrategias de cribado o selección prenatal junto a leyes que amparan la destrucción de la vida humana antes del parto en todo el mundo, están dando lugar a un número creciente de abortos eugenésicos. En España, la ley 2/2010 de salud sexual y reproductiva e interrupción voluntaria de embarazo ha supuesto la liberalización del aborto eugenésico sin plazo límite. En concreto, las políticas sanitarias nacionales e internacionales de selección prenatal de Síndrome de Do...
Full Text Available The paper examines the work of the acclaimed German opera and theatre director Peter Konwitschny at the Opera of the Slovak National Theatre. The authoress bases herself on an analysis of the productions of Eugen Onegin (2005 [Eugene Onegin], by Tchaikovsky, Puccini’s Madama Butterfly (2007 and Bohéma (2013 [La bohème], Janáček‘s Vec Makropulos (2015 [The Makropulos Affair], and Halévy‘s Židovka (2017 [La Juive], all of which, save for Janáček‘s opera, the Opera of the Slovak National Theatre has borrowed from foreign theatre scenes. The authoress makes a stocklist of the basic principles of Konwitschny’s direction signature and his contribution to theatre production, as well as to the artistic ensemble of the Bratislava Opera.
Barrán, Juan Pedro
Full Text Available In this work are analyzed the deep relationships between biology, medicine and society that were settled down in the Uruguay along the XIX century as well as the process of «medicalization» and «biologization» of the social thought that take place along the first decades of the XX century, and the role that played the eugenic ideas and defenders of eugenics in that process.
En este trabajo se analizan las profundas relaciones entre biología, medicina y sociedad que se establecieron en el Uruguay a lo largo del siglo XIX así como el proceso de medicalización y biologización del pensamiento social que se produce a lo largo de las primeras décadas del siglo XX, y el papel que jugaron en ese proceso las ideas eugénicas y los defensores de la eugenesia.
The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.
rights of all others. Additionally, the rights enjoyed by pirates must be balanced against concerns for the common good, mainly the safety of... worklife /08/27/woman.pirate/index.html (accessed 18 December 2011) . 27 Antony, 42. 28 Ibid., 44. 29 The British Navy engaged two notorious...http://edition.cnn.com/2007/LIVING/ worklife /08/27/woman.pirate/index.html (accessed 18 December 2011) . Kontorovich, Eugene. “A Guantanamo on the
Current proposed photon rocket designs include the Nuclear Photonic Rocket and the Antimatter Photonic Rocket (proposed by Eugen Sanger in the 1950s, as reported by Ref. 1). This paper examines the feasibility of improving the thrust of photon-driven ramjet propulsion by using DM rocket propulsion. The open question is: would a heavy WIMP, if converted to photons, upgrade the power (thrust) of a photon rocket drive, to make interstellar travel a feasible proposition?
At the 1964 National Shellfish Sanitation Workshop, Mr. Eugene Jensen presented a thought-provoking paper outlining the rationale for the depuration of shellfish. Mr. Jensen noted that "we are committed to the principal that shellfish must be as safe to eat as other ordinary food" and that "the problems of assuring the sanitary quality of coastal areas will increase rather than diminish. This is not the same as saying that pollution will increase" (Jensen, 1964). It is recognised that additio...
Eugene Shanholtz, Jian Yu, Rebecca L Walker, and John J Pittari III. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. vi INTENTIONALLY...with high transparency necessitate the use of aggressive densification techniques that result in very coarse microstructures (i.e., average grain sizes...windows. Glass coating (or glazing) is a common technique used to strengthen ceramics. The use of glazing as a strengthening technique , however, is
Full Text Available ): A tool to aid developers and decision makers Eugene Mabille The WASA Project Team SANEDI South African National Energy Development Institute • executing agency – contracting the implementing partners • coordination and dissemination UCT... to produce wind atlas for generalised surface conditions (uniform terrain and roughness). Files compatible with WAsP software. Used for the first WASA published in 2012. KAMM/WAsP method, numerically very cheap, gives good results underestimation...
João Carlos Caselli Messias; Vera Engler Cury
The article discusses the conceptual contributions of Eugene T. Gendlin to the development of the Person-Centered Approach theory, from Carl R. Rogers, with a special distinction to Experiencing. A brief biography of the first author is presented to the Portuguese reader as well as the developments of his Philosophy of the Implicit, a specific approach nowadays. The benefits that an experiential comprehension is able to offer to the Person-Centered Professionals are also analyzed.
Hilgendorf, Eric, 1960-
Viljastatud munaraku väljaspool inimorganismi kasvatamise karistusõiguslikest aspektidest. Käesolev tekst on jätk artiklile "Ektogenees ja karistusõigus" (Hilgendorf 1994). Tõlkeallikas: Der Wandel des Staates vor den Herausforderungen der Gegenwart: Festschrift für Winfried Brohm zum 70. Geburtstag. Hrsg. von Carl-Eugen Eberle, Martin Ibler, Dieter Lorenz, München: Beck, 2002, S. 387-404
Uuest telesarjast tööpealkirjaga "Siber", mis räägib 14. 06. 1941 Virumaalt küüditatud politseinike lastest, kes viidi Tomski oblastisse Vasjuganje piirkonda. Stsenarist Merle Karusoo, kunstnik Eugen Tamberg, tegevprodutsent Mart Saar. Dokumentaalfilm tööpealkirjaga "Memento" tutvustab telesarja tegelaste prototüüpe ja reaalseid tegevuskohti. ETV võttegrupi käigust Tomski oblastisse
17 Documents on German Foreign Policy 1918 -1945, 485. 18 Ronald D. Bachman and Eugene K. Keefe, Romania : A Country...Suffering What They Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II A Monograph by MAJ Edward M. Kaspar United States Army...Must: The Shifting Alliances of Romania and Finland in World War II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6
In 1961, Eugene Wigner presented a clever argument that in a world which is adequately described by quantum mechanics, self-reproducing systems in general, and perhaps life in particular, would be incredibly improbable. The problem and some attempts at its solution are examined, and a new solution is presented based on computability theory. In particular, it is shown that computability theory provides limits on what can be known about a system in addition to those which arise from quantum mechanics. (author)
Concerned with the theory of self-domestication, claiming that humans have morphological, anatomical, physiological, behavioural or psychological traits typical for domestic animals, this master's thesis attempts to describe how anthropological and biological stories speaks to people and how people are shaped by them. Has given rise to eugenics and racial hygiene, the idea implicit to this theory that the practice of animals domestication and cultivation can be applied to humans, is still rel...
Scholars in Disability history and Disability studies have produced a substantive corpus of works in the last two decades. The range of topics represent the diverse nature of this field. This essay is intended as an introductory historiography, and thus presents only a narrow sampling of books. It includes general works in both Disability history and Disability studies, focusing primarily on three topics in Disability history: representation, science/technology/eugenics, and memoirs.
Eugenics Society nearly 80 years ago describing a psychological phenomenon that still permeates current macroeconomic and foreign policy discourse...share of 26.23 percent and the 2013 share of 22.83 percent represents only a 3.4 percent decline but in constant 2010 currency this amounts to more...becoming more and more diffuse. The macroeconomic and geopolitical conditions that exist today are ill-suited to an “in your face” deep engagement
In The Snowstorm, Captain's daughter and Eugene Onegin (chapter V, The dream of Tatyana) Pushkin's heroes of adventurous or sentimental novels are becoming partly fairy tales heroes and their roads in lives are receiving national and historical meaning. First, the adventurous way for the hero is laid by the fairy nature. Acting like a storm reforming the world, nature is continued in history (the 1812 war), or tallies with history (Pugachev's rebellion). The storm joins a...
Analyse der Bahnbewegung des Mondes (E. W. BROWN, 1896) Polschwankung (SETH CARLO CHANDLER, 1885; KARL FRIEDRICH KOJSTNER, 1890; SIMON NEWCOMB, 1891, 1892...Photographic Zenith Tubes) wurden erstmals urn die Jahr- hundertwende von STOLZE (1893), RuNGE (1893), SCHNAUDER (1900) und SCHWARZSCHILD (1903) vor...Geburtstag, Eugen Kuntz zurn 70. Geburtstag, Herman MAilzer zumn 70. Geburtstag, Verbff Geod Inst U Karlsruhe, 23 5-241 SCHWARZSCHILD , K., 1903
Full Text Available (http://genome.imim.es/software/geneid/) applying dicot and A. thaliana specific matrices 32,670 (v1.0) JGI; http://www.phytozome.net/alyrata v1.0 v1.0 10.1038/ng.807 21478890 ... ...8.3x Arachne 1,309 ... Fgenesh package of ab initio and homology-based gene predictors, EuGene12, and GeneID13
and Management and Department of Psychology Dr. Larry Cummings College Park MD 20742 University of Wisconsin-Madison Graduate School of Business Dr. D...Graduate School of Management and Business University of Oregon Eugene OR 97403 Dr. James R. Terborg University of Houston Department of Psychology Houston...AD-A107 348 UNdITED STATES INTERNATIONAL UNIV SAN DIEGO CA FAMILY --ETC PIG 5/1l FAMILY ROLES IN TRANSITION IN A CHANGING MILITARY (U) JUN 81 E J
the Chief of Naval Operations, 1978. Derr, C.B. Managing marriage/ family issues across career stages: the case of the U.S. Naval officers. Unpublished...Jeffers-, Davis Highway University of Maryland Arlingtcn VA , #02 College of Business and Management and Department of Psychology Dr. Larry Cummings...Institution 801 N. Pitt Street, Suite 120 Alexandria VA 22314 Dr. Richard Steers Graduate School of Management and Business University of Oregon Eugene
Schizophrenia remains a major challenge for psychiatry. One hundred years after the publication of Eugen Bleuler’s monograph, we are still debating the nosology and mechanisms of schizophrenia. We have stalled in the development of more effective treatments, after success with the introduction of antipsychotic medication. Cure and prevention remain in the distance. This article reviews the importance of Bleuler’s monograph for the neuroscientific exploration of schizophrenia. While Bleuler as...
23. IX kõneleb Anu Allikvee teemal "Eestlane baltisaksa kunstnike vaatepiiris"; 24. IX tutvustab Mai Levin Eugen Dückeri maale, 25. IX Ene Lamp Konrad Mäge. Vt. ka lk. 24 Tähtede nädal 26. IX-2. X - kohtumisõhtutel esinevad Marika ja Heinz Valk, Jüri Kuuskemaa, Sirje Helme, Pekka Vapaavuori, Inge Teder, Rain Lõhmus
Percival S. Gabriel
Eugene Fama in his “Efficient Market Hypothesis” introduced the term newspaper-article-event. The aim of this paper is to find out if newspaper-article-events which are presented and discussed in newspaper articles and which could collage to create an atmosphere of investment, together with the indices of other stock markets (treated as other events) and the performance of the Philippine Peso against the US Dollar (considered as another event) could affect the closing Philippine Stock Market ...
MIRELA CRISTIANA NILĂ STRATONE
Full Text Available The main founders of the juridical sociology are considered to be Eugen Ehrlich, Max Weber, Theodor Geiger and Georges Gurvitch, The researches of juridical sociology from Romania are demonstrating the existence of a real tradition in this domain at a national standard. Some roumanian explores of formation jurists have practicated in the cognitive demarche a sociologycal abordation about the law, what have been fatal conduced to the fixing of the base of the juridical sociology in Romania.
A Japanese midwife offered firsthand information and personal observations concerning population problems from 1935 to the present time. In prewar Japan except for some upper class women birth control was not exercised among the ordinary public. At the beginning of World War II a woman who produced 12 children received an award. Birth control was not included in the curriculum for midwives at that time. Postwar baby boom reached its peak around 1948, when the government recognized the need and launched the Eugenic Protection Law. The Eugenic Protection Law was amended a year later and it approved of financial reasons for abortion. By 1952 eugenic counseling became a part of public health clinic duties, and abortion was legalized. 1,170,000 cases of abortion were performed in Japan around 1955. Since abortion is harmful for mothers, the government installed the program called "birth control instructor" as a part of amended eugenic protection law. A birth control instructor license was given to the trained midwives, public health nurses, and nurses. Not only the central government but also local governments allocated funds for the family planning campaign. Around 1965 during the accelerated economic growth the government tried to change its position on family planning to encourage births to supply labor for the growing industries. Japanese people continued to limit their family size voluntarily for a better standard of living. Maternal/child Health Law was passed in 1965, and qualified midwives and public health nurses advocated and instructed family planning at the time of expectant mothers' and newborns' regular visits.
This thesis examines the disintegration of the American family as depicted in selected plays by Eugene O’Neill, Arthur Miller, and Sam Shepard. Four plays are central: Long Day’s Journey into Night (1956), Death of a Salesman (1949), Buried Child (1978), and True West (1980). (Journey and Salesman constitute my major focus and serve to generate my thesis statement, while Buried Child and True West illuminate the thematic concerns of Journey and Salesman from quite a different perspective, and...
Randküla, Ell-Maaja, 1939-2016
Tallinnas Hiiul Vabaduse puiesteel asuva villa sisekujundus. 1940. aastatel valminud funkvilla on projekteerinud arhitekt Eugen Sacharias. Sisekujundaja: Juta Lember, kes kavandas ka põhiosa mööblist. Ehitaja: AS Eesti Ehitus. Sisustus: OÜ Disekt-ST, OÜ Estconde Interior. Vaibad: Peeter Kuutma. vitraažaken: Mare Lobjakas. Juta Lemberist, tema tähtsamad tööd. Ill.: 3 plaani, 13 värv. vaadet