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Sample records for ulf schmitz introduction

  1. O corpo em mira: entrevista com Hermann Schmitz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo de Souza Dias

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Em meados da década de 1970, a artista plástica Mira Schendel toma conhecimento da fenomenologia de Hermann Schmitz, que influencia sobretudo seu último período de criação. As formulações de Schmitz negam tanto o dualismo platônico, que dividiu o ser humano em corpo e alma, como o entendimento positivista da ciência. Na entrevista transcrita abaixo, o filósofo apresenta os aspectos de seu pensamento que mais se aproximam da obra da artista.During the 1970's, artist Mira Schendel gets to know Hermann Schmitz' phenomenology, which becomes an important reference to her work. Schmitz' formulations deny not only platonic dualism, which divided the human being in body and soul, but also the Positivism in his understanding of science. In the following interview, he presents aspects of his thought that contribute to the understanding of Schendel's work.

  2. ULF waves in the foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Le, G.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    We review our current knowledge of ULF waves in planetary foreshocks. Most of this knowledge comes from observations taken within a few Earth radii of the terrestrial bow shock. Terrestrial foreshock ULF waves can be divided into three types, large amplitude low frequency waves (approximately 30-s period), upstream propagating whistlers (1-Hz waves), and 3-s waves. The 30-s waves are apparently generated by back-streaming ion beams, while the 1-Hz waves are generated at the bow shock. The source of the 3-s waves has yet to be determined. In addition to issues concerning the source of ULF waves in the foreshock, the waves present a number of challenges, both in terms of data acquisition, and comparison with theory. The various waves have different coherence scales, from approximately 100 km to approximately 1 Earth radius. Thus multi-spacecraft separation strategies must be tailored to the phenomenon of interest. From a theoretical point of view, the ULF waves are observed in a plasma in which the thermal pressure is comparable to the magnetic pressure, and the rest-frame wave frequency can be moderate fraction of the proton gyro-frequency. This requires the use of kinetic plasma wave dispersion relations, rather than multi-fluid MHD. Lastly, and perhaps most significantly, ULF waves are used to probe the ambient plasma, with inferences being drawn concerning the types of energetic ion distributions within the foreshock. However, since most of the data were acquired close to the bow shock, the properties of the more distant foreshock have to be deduced mainly through extrapolation of the near-shock results. A general understanding of the wave and plasma populations within the foreshock, their interrelation, and evolution, requires additional data from the more distant foreshock.

  3. ULF Generation by Modulated Ionospheric Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Labenski, J.; Wallace, T.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2013-12-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating experiments designed to generate ULF waves using the HAARP heater have been conducted since 2007. Artificial ULF waves in the Pc1 frequency range were observed from space and by ground induction magnetometers located in the vicinity of the heater as well as at long distances. Two distinct generation mechanisms of artificial ULF waves were identified. The first was electroject modulation under geomagnetically disturbed conditions. The second was pressure modulation in the E and F regions of the ionosphere under quiet conditions. Ground detections of ULF waves near the heater included both Shear Alfven waves and Magnetosonic waves generated by electrojet and/or pressure modulations. Distant ULF detections involved Magnetosonic wave propagation in the Alfvenic duct with pressure modulation as the most likely source. Summary of our observations and theoretical interpretations will be presented at the meeting. We would like to acknowledge the support provided by the staff at the HAARP facility during our ULF experiments.

  4. Palaearctic Abaristophora (Diptera: Phoridae): first female of A. arctophila Schmitz, 1927 and a new species from N. W. Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Thomas; Ulefors, Sven-Olof; Disney, R Henry L

    2013-01-01

    Abaristophora arctophila Schmitz, 1927 is confirmed from Europe through a series of males and females collected in boreal Sweden. The male of A. arctophila is documented and separated from A. sachalinensis Michailovskaya, 1988 and Abaristophora kolaensis Disney n. sp., which is described from a single male from N.W. Russia. A lectotype is designated for A. arctophila and the female is described for the first time.

  5. ULF fluctuations at Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meloni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available ULF geomagnetic field measurements in Antarctica are a very important tool for better understanding the dynamics of the Earth’s magnetosphere and its response to the variable solar wind conditions. We review the results obtained in the last few years at the Italian observatory at Terra Nova Bay

  6. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Lund, Henrik; Remmen, Arne

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to the book "Environmental planning and management : tools for a sustainable development".......The chapter gives an introduction to the book "Environmental planning and management : tools for a sustainable development"....

  7. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to South Korean architecture gives an overall view of the architecture done in the country in historic times as well as a general introduction to the culture of the country.......This introduction to South Korean architecture gives an overall view of the architecture done in the country in historic times as well as a general introduction to the culture of the country....

  8. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Thybo; Moran, Dermot

    2012-01-01

    An introduction to a special issue of Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences dedicated to empathy and the direct perception approach to other minds......An introduction to a special issue of Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences dedicated to empathy and the direct perception approach to other minds...

  9. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction to anthology which provides the theoretical basis of an Erasmus+ project involving marginalised young people, practitioners, students and academics in co-creating a teaching module for the social professions.......Introduction to anthology which provides the theoretical basis of an Erasmus+ project involving marginalised young people, practitioners, students and academics in co-creating a teaching module for the social professions....

  10. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirov, A.Kh.; Khaydarov, K.Kh.; Giyosov, A.Sh.

    2000-01-01

    In the introduction authors describe book in general and in particular describe the ways and methods of direct synthesis on the base of different derivatives of cholanic acids and receiving of line of corresponding ethers which have practical properties

  11. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Anna; Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the concept of responsibility, the discourse about responsibility, and the attribution of responsibility in an interdisciplinary context.......An introduction is presented in which the authors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the concept of responsibility, the discourse about responsibility, and the attribution of responsibility in an interdisciplinary context....

  12. MEASUREMENTS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ULF FIELD ONBOARD THE MAGION-4 SATELLITE: ULF EXPERIMENT

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tříska, Pavel; Vojta, Jaroslav; Czapek, Alexandr; Chum, Jaroslav; Teodosiev, D.; Galev, G.; Shibaev, I.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2003), s. 47-53 ISSN 0861-1432 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : Satellite * measurement * electromagnetic field * ULF Subject RIV: JV - Space Technology http://www.space.bas.bg/astro/eng.html

  13. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward; Dumbrell, John

    2017-01-01

    The introduction sets a framework for subsequent chapters by considering theories of change and the extent to which there was consequential change during the Obama years. It draws upon earlier scholarship to suggest that although there certainly was no “transformation” (when new interests secure...... Congress. Nonetheless, although recent literature within historical institutionalism has stressed the importance of incrementalism, it is vulnerable to rollback. Against this background, the introduction sets questions about the character of change that are addressed in the case studies included...

  14. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Thusgaard Pedersen, Janni

    2013-01-01

    An introduction is presented in which the editors discuss various reports within the issue on topics including the shared value concept in the education and business, the role of corporate foundations in establishing cross-sector partnerships, and the mechanisms of governance in the cross...

  15. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Alistar, Mirela; Stuart, Elena

    2015-01-01

    This chapter presents an introduction to the microfluidics field and microfluidic biochips. We discuss the main fluid propulsion principles used by modern microfluidic platforms, with a focus on “digital” microfluidic biochips, which are the topic of this book. Digital microfluidic biochips...

  16. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barwell, Richard; Clarkson, Philip; Halai, Anjum

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides the introduction to this ICMI Study 21 volume. It includes: a discussion of the place of this study and its topic within ICME; a discussion of what is meant by the study title; and a brief historical account of research on this topic in mathematics education. The chapter also...

  17. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Berg, Torsten Rødel

    2012-01-01

    The chapter includes a discussion about the play by Henrik Ibsen from 1879, A Doll's House, how it still proves to be relevant today to gender relations not only in Denmark but in Nepal as well. The introduction explains how Ibsen's play inspired two theater directors from Denmark and Nepal...

  18. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raeder, J.

    1975-01-01

    The introduction to this monography gives a brief survey of the history of the MHD generator, outlines the fundamental questioning of the research concerned and then deals with the combustion gas MHD generator research programme of the working society MPI for plasma physics (IPP)/Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nuernberg AG (M.A.N.). (GG/LH) [de

  19. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieci, R.; He, X.-Z.; Hommes, C.; Dieci, R.; He, X.-Z.; Hommes, C.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction summarises the main contributions of 18 chapters in this book, in addition to two articles (Part I) reflecting Carl's view on a broad range of research-related issues originally published in Italian. The contributed chapters cover the latest developments in Nonlinear Economic

  20. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doreian, Patrick; Stokman, Frans N.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to: The proceedings of a conference that was held on the analysis of repeated cross sections at the University of Nijmegen on June 15±16, 2000. This two-days meeting was attended by 75 participants from seven different countries (AUS, B, F, GER, NL, USA, UK) and from a wide array of

  1. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.; Salverda, W.; Nolan, B.; Checchi, D.; Marx, I.; McKnight, A.; Tóth, I.G.; van de Werfhorst, H.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides the introduction to a collection of 11 comparative chapters and a concluding chapter which, based on 30 country studies (25 European, USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, Korea; reported in the companion volume Nolan et al. 2013), look at the evolution of inequalities, their social

  2. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger; Sandbeck, Lars; Solten, Therese Bering

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to the Special Issue of Literature and Theology publishing articles based on selected papers from the international conference of the International Society for Religion, Literature and Culture (ISRLC) conference held at the Theological Faculty of the University of Copenhagen 19...

  3. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas; Janeja, Manpreet Kaur

    2018-01-01

    This introduction foregrounds waiting as a central analytical category to make way for ethnographic attention to uncertain interplays between doubting and hoping. Using a range of focused ethnographies which explore the centrality of waiting in social life, it offers a critical lens...

  4. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Rasiah, Rajah

    2010-01-01

    This is a very interesting book. It is topical and is one of the few volumes that attempts to treat Southeast Asia as an integrated whole. The editors are methodologically ambitious, and they skillfully integrate a very large amount of diverse material in their introduction. I imagine that the bo...... working on the economics and development of Southeast Asia....

  5. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquinot, J.

    1997-01-01

    An introduction to the symposium on nuclear fusion and the CEA researches on magnetic confinement, is presented, with a review of the future energy capacities that fusion could deliver, the technological developments on superconductors, robots, etc. that will assist fusion development, and the european and international cooperation programs on the subject

  6. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Walle, E.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction to the annual report 2006 of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN highlights the reorganisation of SCK-CEN that became effective in 2006. An overview is given of the principal activities of Institute for Nuclear Materials Science, the Institute for Advanced Nuclear Systems, the Institute for Environment, Health and Safety and the Institute for Communication, Services and Administration

  7. Teología de la Evolución (II: La Llamada Creadora Trinitaria. Karl Schmitz-Moormann, 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García Doncel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuamos presentando la tríada de intuiciones valiosas para elaborar una teología de la «creación en evolución» [ver PENSAMIENTO, vol. 63 (2007, pp. 605-636]. Presentamos la intuición del biólogo y teólogo católico alemán Karl Schmitz-Moormann, publicada póstumamente en 1997. Inspirado por Teilhard y su metafísica de la unión, introduce su concepto de «uni-totalidad», y observa tales uni-totalidades a lo largo del progreso evolutivo, desde las partículas subatómicas hasta las agrupaciones humanas. Observa la diversidad de unión, explicada por interacción nuclear o por amor interpersonal. Ve por analogía nuestro Dios tri-uno como la Uni-totalidad suprema unida por amor, a la que se acercan las uni-totalidades creadas, como auténticos «vestigios trinitarios». Y en el centro de su intuición ve la creación continua evolutiva como la respuesta a una «llamada creadora», una llamada del Creador tri-uno que invita a la nada (absoluta o relativa a acercarse hacia su riqueza de ser, sin forzar a nadie, sólo invitando a unirse a los elementos próximos de cada nivel. Esta acción, no imperativa, sino amorosa por la que está llegando a ser toda la creación nos descubre un Creador que está también realizándose en suprema unión amorosa, según habría de describirse en una metafísica de lllegar-a-ser. La creación progresiva de información acerca también a la omnisciencia divina, y la de la libertad posibilita responder amorosamente a la invitación de la llamada creadora. Ofrecemos los textos más auténticos de Schmitz-Moormann e investigamos su origen. Esta intuición sobre la «llamada creadora» enriquece teológicamente la de Karl Rahner sobre la acción trascendental que sostiene la«autotrascendencia activa», y será ulteriormente enriquecida por la de Denis Edwards, que la ve como «acción propia del Espíritu» dentro de una ontología relacional.

  8. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    states, the Introduction emphasizes the continued relevance of focusing on a repoliticized MENA reality. The Middle East is still on the move away from the established image of unshakeable authoritarianism attributed to the region, which made the upgrading authoritarianism paradigm seem forever relevant......The Introduction briefly presents the ideas behind this collection of articles, namely to analyze popular mobilization and the role of civil society, political parties, and regional organizations in relation to the developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) over the last years......, and to discuss theoretical approaches and paradigms of relevance for the analysis of these new regional dynamics. The MENA region experienced, in connection with and following the Arab uprisings, a hitherto unseen popular mobilization. Despite the recent highly problematic situation in several Middle Eastern...

  9. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubart, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    This special issue of the journal Refractory explores identity in the Penny Dreadful.The introduction introduces the show, themes and the six articles. In Season Two of television horror-drama, Penny Dreadful (Showtime/Sky, 2014-16), Ethan Chandler (Josh Hartnett), American sharpshooter and werew......This special issue of the journal Refractory explores identity in the Penny Dreadful.The introduction introduces the show, themes and the six articles. In Season Two of television horror-drama, Penny Dreadful (Showtime/Sky, 2014-16), Ethan Chandler (Josh Hartnett), American sharpshooter...... and werewolf, asks Vanessa Ives (Eva Green), a British heiress with supernatural powers and a troubled past, what happens when the monsters inside of them are released? She says: “We’re most who we are. Unrestrained. Ourselves.” Summing up a central concern of the series, she confirms the view of its creator...

  10. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Brake, Laurel; Mussell, James

    2013-01-01

    When W. T. Stead died on the Titanic he was the most famous Englishman on board. A mass of contradictions and a crucial figure in the history of the British press, Stead was a towering presence in the cultural life of late-Victorian and Edwardian society. In this introduction, we consider Stead as a ‘mass of contradictions’ and offer a few ways in which his prodigious output and activity might be understood.

  11. Resonant ULF absorption in storm time conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badin V.I.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with ULF radar observations of the high-latitude ionosphere. Doppler data from the Norwegian STARE instrument are analyzed for the moderate magnetic storm observed on December 31, 1999 – January 01, 2000. Upon averaging the Doppler signals along radar beams, the spectral power of signals is determined for each beam as a function of frequency ranging from 1 to 10 mHz. Sharp drops (about 10 dB of spectral powers with frequency are found for all radar beams. A variational analysis of spectral powers is carried out by least squares, with power drops being modeled by stepwise profiles constructed of mean spectral powers preceding and succeeding the drops. Using this variational analysis, the frequency of the power drop is determined for each radar beam. Being averaged over all beams, this frequency is 4.8±0.5 mHz. The results obtained are interpreted as resonant absorption of ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves occurring on eigenfrequencies of magnetic field lines over wave propagation from the magnetopause deep into the magnetosphere.

  12. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel Brake

    2013-04-01

    mso-fareast-language:JA;} When W. T. Stead died on the 'Titanic' he was the most famous Englishman on board. A mass of contradictions and a crucial figure in the history of the British press, Stead was a towering presence in the cultural life of late-Victorian and Edwardian society. In this introduction, we consider Stead as a ‘mass of contradictions’ and offer a few ways in which his prodigious output and activity might be understood.

  13. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion and theme of market-based fisheries management. The introduction of market mechanisms to distribute and manage fishing quota has internationally occurred since the 1980s but is increasingly on the political agenda. As privatization and transferability are promoted...... internationally, and by big players, it becomes even more crucial to understand its social and environmental implications. This chapter looks at the broader lines in the fisheries research and discusses the diverging views on market-based fisheries management. On one side market mechanisms are promoted...... for efficiency and fleet adaptation, and on the other, quota markets are accused of causing concentration and disturbing social relations....

  14. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, L.M.; Ianko, L.

    1998-01-01

    As a result of the popularity of the Agencies report 'Neutron Irradiation Embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels' of 1975, it was decided that another report on this broad subject would be of use. In the introduction the historic context is established, spanning a bow from the first sustained fission reactor in 1942 to contemporary developments. The subjects 'Irradiation Effects on Mechanical Properties', 'Neutron Fluence', 'Irradiation Effect Trends', 'Empirical Modelling of Irradiation Effects' and 'Mechanical Modelling' are addressed. There are also some remarks about the current state of the art, the migration of irradiation effects and about international programmes

  15. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peder Pedersen, Claus; Dehs, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to When Architects and Designers Write / Draw / Build / ? This anthology highlights the potentials and challenges for research in architecture and design. The included essays are based on papers given at a symposium held at the Aarhus School of Architecture in 2011 and contain a number...... of topical positions ranging from the activist and academic to practice-based and artistically-based research by international and Danish researchers. The anthology is aimed at architects and designers, as well as others with an interest in the discussion of the concept of research in the fields...

  16. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Goede, Marieke; Leander, Anna; Sullivan, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    This articles introduces the special issue on ‘The Politics of the List.’ We observe that lists proliferate as a technique of governance across multiple domains, including health, security, and commerce. We argue that it is important to take seriously the form and technique of the list itself...... and engage the knowledge practices, governance effects and ways of ordering the world that the list format enables. In other words, the special issue seeks to ‘remain in the register of the list,’ to unpack its technological arrangements and juridical power. This introduction sets out the key themes...

  17. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Introduction a brief review on application of high-current electron beams (HEB) and powerful pulse ion beams (PPB) is given. It is noted that at present the following principal trends on HEB and PPB application in technologies are formed: production of super-dense plasma for controlled thermonuclear synthesis; implantation and annealing of semiconductors; modification of metals and alloys properties: strength, tribo-technical and anticorrosion ones; synthesis of new composite materials, including metastable phases and compounds; manufacture of thin films and coverings with preset structure and properties by means of ablation plasma deposition; cleaning, polishing and glancing of surfaces; synthesis of ultra-disperse and nano-sized powders; destruction and cutting of solid materials

  18. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.

    2018-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies are excellent laboratories of chemical evolution. Many dwarf galaxies have simple star formation histories with very low average star formation rates. These conditions simplify models of chemical evolution and facilitate the identification of sites of nucleosynthesis. Dwarf galaxies also host extremely metal-poor stars, which sample the ejecta of the first generations of supernovae in the universe. This meeting-in-a-meeting, "Stellar Abundances in Dwarf Galasxies," will recognize the importance of dwarf galaxies in learning about the creation and evolution of the elements. Topics include: * the most metal-poor stars * the connection between dwarf galaxies and the Milky Way halo * dwarf galaxies as the paragons of r-process nucleosynthesis * modern techniques in stellar abundance measurements * recent advances in chemical evolution modelingI will give a very brief introduction to set the stage for the meeting.

  19. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the Introduction a common data about the monograph are presented. It is noted that results of α-particles elastic and inelastic scattering angular distribution with energies 40.0 and 50.1 MeV on 90,94 Zr carried out on the Kazakhstan isochronous cyclotron U-150M. A new data on total reaction cross sections at α-particles energies 96(1) MeV and 3 He ions 95(1) MeV on 90 Zr isotope, obtained on the Kiev isochronous cyclotron U-240 are given. Within framework of unified approach the experimental data analysis for α-particles quasi-elastic scattering with energies 35.4, 40.0 and 50.1, 65.0 MeV on odd zirconium isotopes as well as their reaction total cross sections is carried out. With use of α-particles scattering at low and middle energies the excited states transitions isospin character for odd tin isotopes is studied in detail with application of up-to date analysis methods. The monograph consists of introduction, four chapters and Conclussion. The chapters are as follows: (1) Experimental measurement methods of differential and total reaction cross sections with complicated particles at low and middle energies; (2) Macroscopic and semi-microscopic optical-potential approaches; (3) Peculiarities of experimental angular distribution of alpha particles at energies up to 12.5 MeV/nucleon, total reaction cross sections and results their optical potential analysis; (4) Structure characteristics of odd-odd nuclei and their comparative analysis

  20. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toropila, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this introduction to The Third Radiobiological Conference author give a short retrospective review of reactor accidents (26 th April 1986, Chernobyl NPP, 1979 in Three Mile Island). In former Czechoslovakia an attention has been paid to the questions of the effects of radiation on organism from the 1950's. After discharge of Commonwealth the Radiobiological Association. that facilitated interchange of the results of research work among various national and foreign institutions. was also abolished. After establishment of the autonomous Slovak Republic the University of Veterinary Medicine (UVM) in Kosice in collaboration with Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice linked to tradition of radiobiology and organized the the First Radiobiological Conference in Slovakia. At this conference 37 lectures of home and 9 of Czech authors were presented. At the end of conference the agreement was made to held this conference every second year. The 2 nd Radiobiological Conference was held in 2004 at the occasion of the 55 st anniversary of the UVM establishment in Kosice. The 3 rd Conference held on 25 tb May 2006 in UVM in Kosice was inscribed to the 20 th anniversary of Chernobyl disaster. Selected articles dealing with this problem create contents of Supplement inscribed to the 50 th anniversary of the scientific journal Folia Veterinaria

  1. Variations of ULF wave power throughout the Halloween 2003 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Mann, I.

    2013-09-01

    Focused on the exceptional 2003 Halloween geospace magnetic storm, when Dst reached a minimum of -383 nT, we examine data from topside ionosphere and two magnetospheric missions (CHAMP, Cluster, and Geotail) for signatures of ULF waves. We present the overall ULF wave activity through the six-day interval from 27 October to 1 November 2003 as observed by the three spacecraft and by the Andenes ground magnetic station of the IMAGE magnetometerer array in terms of time variations of the ULF wave power. The ULF wave activity is divided upon Pc3 and Pc5 wave power. Thus, we provide different ULF wave activity indices according to the wave frequency (Pc3 and Pc5) and location of observation (Earth’s magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and surface). We also look at three specific intervals during different phases of the storm when at least two of the satellites are in good local time (LT) conjunction and examine separately Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF wave activity and its concurrence in the different regions of the magnetosphere and down to the topside ionosphere and on the ground. This work has received support from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.

  2. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Carson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: Written as Carson & Miller, collaborative artists who explore narrative and the places where narrative intersects with material culture and everyday experience, this introduction presents the stakes of the larger project that entails the exhibition The Story of Things (2009, the conference The Story of Things: reading narrative in the visual (2010 and the double issue of Image (& Narrative. It mainly focuses on the interdisciplinary approaches to the relationship between object and storytelling.

     

    Résumé: Portant la double signature de Carson & Miller, un duo d'artistes avec un intérêt particulier pour la narration et les rapports entre les interaction entre culture ordinaire et  manières de raconter, cette introduction présente les enjeux du projet plus large qui regroupe une exposition

  3. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Garcia-Agudo, E.; Ritchie, J.C.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Soil erosion and associated sedimentation are natural processes caused by water, wind and ice. Several of man's activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, changes in land use, and non-sustainable farming practices tend to accelerate soil erosion. Soil erosion and sedimentation cause not only on-site degradation of a non-renewable natural resource, but also off-site problems such as downstream sediment deposition in fields, floodplains and water streams. These problems and concern over the degradation of the landscape by erosion, and their impacts on soil fertility and crop productivity in agricultural land, water pollution, and sedimentation in lakes, reservoirs, and floodplains are well documented. Global estimates of economic damage from soil erosion and sedimentation have also been made. Recent focus on sustainability issues has resulted in increased attention on soil-degradation problems, in particular soil erosion and sedimentation. In view of increasing water scarcity and limited land resources to feed an ever-growing world population, there is an urgent need to obtain reliable quantitative data on the extent and rates of soil erosion worldwide to provide a more comprehensive assessment of the problem and to underpin the selection of effective soil-conservation technologies and sedimentation remediation strategies, including assessment of their economic and environmental impacts. This chapter describes the use of fallout 137 Cs as a tracer for measuring soil erosion and sedimentation, and the potential use of other radionuclides such as 210 Pb, and 7 Be for these studies. It provides an overview of the 137 Cs technique describing key assumptions and requirements, and advantages and limitations of the technique. Also, applications, recent developments, and future trends of the technique are covered. The chapter is completed with an introduction to the handbook and a list of selected references

  4. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuparna Mukherjee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The city as a mosaic of anarchic diversity and messy contradictions has always been a rich source of inspiration for practitioners of creative arts. Writers, painters, planners, photographers, performers have deemed the city as the loci of their desire, conflict, passion and memory to chart the minutes of quotidian life in various intricate forms and configurations. “The city came into being when a surplus of food allowed a diversity of tasks”, Lehan asserts in his introduction to The City in Literature. “Diversity is a key to urban beginnings and continuities, and diversity is also the snake in the urban garden, challenging systems of order and encouraging disorder and chaos” (8. As an eclectic site of cultural friction and contamination that simultaneously oscillates between polarities of belonging and non-belonging, order and chaos, the city unlocks myriad windows to the chroniclers of urban realities. The cities in their perpetual making and dismantling, bear an impression of what Amit Chaudhuri terms in a recent talk as the “unfinished-ness” in the context of modern cities[1]. The “unfinished” is a slippery term as Chaudhuri explains, while it may suggest the Modernist artists’ proclivity towards dereliction, ruin or fragmentation in metropolitan landscape, it also speaks of the “half-made”[2], the backward, or the liminal spaces within an urban conurbation. However, this “unfinished-ness” or the fact that “cities are not finished products” as Chaudhuri posits, is also indicative of their “radical openness” and their inexhaustible potentials for reinventing themselves.

  5. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Abbate Badin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The introduction to the monographic section Italy-Ireland: Cultural Inter-Relations, gives a brief account of how this part of the journal tries to fill a gap in transcultural studies by investigating the hitherto relatively underexplored relationship of Ireland with Italy. The editors argue that the topic deserves special attention because throughout the centuries, owing to a shared religion and Ireland’s colonial and postcolonial status, a special relationship was established. Without neglecting the many contributions published on this topic over the past thirty years, the papers collected in this first issue of SIJIS offer an overall view of the relations between Italy and Ireland from the Middle Ages to the present day demonstrating this special relationship. The opening essay, drawing an ample and interdisciplinary panorama of the representations of Ireland in Italy over the centuries, and  the concluding one, introducing new issues and suggestions for further investigations, frame seven papers organized thematically in subsections.  The translation studies section highlights some specific problems presented to the translator because of the Irish nature of the translated texts. Exploration of the links between some major figures and Italy opens up new perspectives even regarding much studied figures such as Joyce while  the time-honoured comparative method of studying influences yields ground-breaking insights as in the study of links between Commedia dell’Arte and Clarke or Mahon and Pasolini. Representations of Italy and  the presence of Italian settings and characters acquire  a specific Irish edge in the writings of Synge, Lady Morgan and Edward Maturin especially when both countries were still in search  of their identities.

  6. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    Since the Atoms for Peace program in 1950s, peaceful applications of nuclear technology has been at the forefront of the development of many countries. In Malaysia, the development of nuclear technology began in earnest with the setting-up of Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) in 1972, then known as CRANE. More than thirty years later, today, the technology has gained footing and made impact to the development of the country. Her role in regional and international scenes in nuclear-related matters and nuclear technology was noticed and being given due attention. It is time to take stock of this development and assess its impact upon which further developments can be planned and strategized. That was the genesis of this study. This chapter presents a review of the status and development of nuclear technology globally and in Malaysia to provide a background for the report and the study. This is followed by an introduction to the study: its objectives, scope, methods of research, total population, sampling frame, selection procedures, target groups and data analysis. The chapter concludes with a guide to the organization of this report. The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the impact and contribution of nuclear technology to socio-economic development of the country. It is also expected to identify issues and challenges faced by users of this technology. Even though the applications of nuclear technology encompass diverse human endeavors, this study focuses only in industrial, medical and agriculture sectors. The applications of nuclear technology in both public agencies and private companies in those sectors are considered. This is the first time such a study is being undertaken in Malaysia, and as a starting point, the three year period spanning 2006-2008 are taken as the time frame for discerning trends of nuclear technology development in the country. This study was also in an indirect sense motivated by similar studies conducted in the USA

  7. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, E. G. D.

    deduced for irreversible processes (C. Jarzynski). The survey of non-equilibrium steady states in statistical mechanics of classical and quantum systems employs heat bath models and the random matrix theory input. The quantum heat bath analysis and derivation of fluctuation-dissipation theorems is performed by means of the influence functional technique adopted to solve quantum master equations (D. Kusnezov). Chapter II deals with an issue of relaxation and its dynamical theory in both classical and quantum contexts. Pollicott-Ruelle resonance background for the exponential decay scenario is discussed for irreversible processes of diffusion in the Lorentz gas and multibaker models (P. Gaspard). The Pollicott-Ruelle theory reappears as a major inspiration in the survey of the behaviour of ensembles of chaotic systems, with a focus on model systems for which no rigorous results concerning the exponential decay of correlations in time is available (S. Fishman). The observation, that non-equilibrium transport processes in simple classical chaotic systems can be described in terms of fractal structures developing in the system phase space, links their formation and properties with the entropy production in the course of diffusion processes displaying a low dimensional deterministic (chaotic) origin (J. R. Dorfman). Chapter III offers an introduction to the theory of dynamical semigroups. Asymptotic properties of Markov operators and Markov semigroups acting in the set of probability densities (statistical ensemble notion is implicit) are analyzed. Ergodicity, mixing, strong (complete) mixing and sweeping are discussed in the familiar setting of "noise, chaos and fractals" (R. Rudnicki). The next step comprises a passage to quantum dynamical semigroups and completely positive dynamical maps, with an ultimate goal to introduce a consistent framework for the analysis of irreversible phenomena in open quantum systems, where dissipation and decoherence are crucial concepts (R

  8. On the generation mechanism of ULF seismogenic electromagnetic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, O. A.; Hayakawa, M.

    Microfracturing electrification is suggested as a possible mechanism for explaining ULF electromagnetic emissions observed before and after the earthquakes. This effect appears as fast fluctuation of microcracks and leads to the origination of wideband electromagnetic noise. This noise dissipates outside the source region and produces ULF emissions on the ground surface with an upper cutoff frequency ˜1 Hz due to the skin depth attenuation. Each microcurrent results from charge relaxation during microcrack opening and depends on the time of opening and conductivity of the rock medium. The normal size distribution of microcracks, their fast opening and healing (intermittence), and average size progression due to stress corrosion are assumed. Using this model, it is possible to compare these theoretical explanations with the observational results with reference to the intensity, frequency spectrum and temporal development of ULF magnetic field variations.

  9. Determining the VLF/ULF source height using phase measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, A.; Kotik, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    Generation of ULF/VLF waves in the ionosphere using powerful RF facilities has been studied for the last 40 years, both theoretically and experimentally. During this time, it was proposed several mechanisms for explaining the experimental results: modulation of ionospheric currents based on thermal nonlinearity, ponderomotive mechanisms for generation both VLF and ULF signals, cubic nonlinearity, etc. According mentioned above mechanisms the VLF/ULF signal source could be located in the lower or upper ionosphere. The group velocity of signal propagation in the ionosphere is significantly smaller than speed of light. As a result the appreciable time delay of the received signals will occur at the earth surface. This time delay could be determine by measuring the phase difference between received and reference signals, which are GPS synchronized. The experiment on determining the time delay of ULF signal propagation from the ionospheric source was carried out at SURA facility in 2012 and the results are presented in this paper. The comparison with numerical simulation of the time delay using the adjusted IRI model and ionosonde data shows well agreement with the experimental observations. The work was supported by RFBR grant 11-02-00419-a and RF Ministry of education and science by state contract 16.518.11.7066.

  10. Ground and Satellite Observations of ULF Waves Artificially Produced by HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Labenski, J.; Shroff, H.; Doxas, I.; Papadopoulos, D.; Milikh, G.; Parrot, M.

    2008-12-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating at ULF frequencies using the HAARP heater was performed from April 28 to May 3, 2008 (http://www.haarp.alaska.edu). Simultaneous ground-based ULF measurements were made locally at Gakona, AK and at Lake Ozette, WA that is 2000 km away. The ground-based results showed that ULF amplitudes measured at Gakona are mostly proportional to the electrojet strength above HAARP, indicating electrojet modulation to be the source of the local ULF waves. However, the timing of ULF events recorded at Lake Ozette did not correlated with the electrojet strength at Gakona, indicating that modulation of F region pressure is the more likely source for distant ULF waves. These observations are consistent with the theoretical understanding that ULF waves generated by current modulation are shear Alfven waves propagating along the magnetic field line, thus at high latitude their observations are limited to the vicinity of the heated spot. On the other hand, propagation of ULF waves at significant lateral distances requires generation of magnetosonic waves since they are the only mode that propagates isotropically and can thus couple efficiently in the Alfvenic duct. In addition to ground-based observations, the DEMETER satellite also provided space measurements of the heating effects during its passes over HAARP. The DEMETER results showed direct detection of HAARP ULF waves at 0.1 Hz. Moreover, density dips were observed every time HAARP was operated at CW mode, which provides clear evidence of duct formation by direct HF heating at F peak. Details of these results will be presented at the meeting. We would like to acknowledge the support provided by the HAARP facility during our ULF experiments.

  11. ULF magnetic emissions connected with under sea bottom earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Ismaguilov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of ULF electromagnetic disturbances were carried out in Japan before and during a seismic active period (1 February 2000 to 26 July 2000. A network consists of two groups of magnetic stations spaced apart at a distance of ≈140 km. Every group consists of three, 3-component high sensitive magnetic stations arranged in a triangle and spaced apart at a distance of 4–7 km. The results of the ULF magnetic field variation analysis in a frequency range of F = 0.002–0.5 Hz in connection with nearby earth-quakes are presented. Traditional Z/G ratios (Z is the vertical component, G is the total horizontal component, magnetic gradient vectors and phase velocities of ULF waves propagating along the Earth’s surface were constructed in several frequency bands. It was shown that variations of the R(F = Z/G parameter have a different character in three frequency ranges: F1 = 0.1 ± 0.005, F2 = 0.01 ± 0.005 and F3 = 0.005 ± 0.003 Hz. Ratio R(F3/R(F1 sharply increases 1–3 days before strong seismic shocks. Defined in a frequency range of F2 = 0.01 ± 0.005 Hz during nighttime intervals (00:00–06:00 LT, the amplitudes of Z and G component variations and the Z/G ratio started to increase ≈ 1.5 months before the period of the seismic activity. The ULF emissions of higher frequency ranges sharply increased just after the seismic activity start. The magnetic gradient vectors (∇ B ≈ 1 – 5 pT/km, determined using horizontal component data (G ≈ 0.03 – 0.06 nT of the magnetic stations of every group in the frequency range F = 0.05 ± 0.005 Hz, started to point to the future center of the seismic activity just before the seismoactive period; furthermore they continued following space displacements of the seismic activity center. The phase velocity vectors (V ≈ 20 km/s for F = 0.0067 Hz, determined using horizontal component data, were directed from the seismic activity center. Gradient vectors of the vertical component pointed to

  12. Quasiperiodic ULF-pulsations in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kleindienst

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent magnetic field investigations made onboard the Cassini spacecraft in the magnetosphere of Saturn show the existence of a variety of ultra low frequency plasma waves. Their frequencies suggest that they are presumably not eigenoscillations of the entire magnetospheric system, but excitations confined to selected regions of the magnetosphere. While the main magnetic field of Saturn shows a distinct large scale modulation of approximately 2 nT with a periodicity close to Saturn's rotation period, these ULF pulsations are less obvious superimposed oscillations with an amplitude generally not larger than 3 nT and show a package-like structure. We have analyzed these wave packages and found that they are correlated to a certain extent with the large scale modulation of the main magnetic field. The spatial localization of the ULF wave activity is represented with respect to local time and Kronographic coordinates. For this purpose we introduce a method to correct the Kronographic longitude with respect to a rotation period different from its IAU definition. The observed wave packages occur in all magnetospheric regions independent of local time, elevation, or radial distance. Independent of the longitude correction applied the wave packages do not occur in an accentuated Kronographic longitude range, which implies that the waves are not excited or confined in the same selected longitude ranges at all times or that their lifetime leads to a variable phase with respect to the longitudes where they have been exited.

  13. The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhotelov, D.; Rae, I.J.; Mann, I.R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF) oscillations in the Pc 4-5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind-IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996-2004) of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature), plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling.

  14. The influence of solar wind variability on magnetospheric ULF wave power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pokhotelov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetospheric ultra-low frequency (ULF oscillations in the Pc 4–5 frequency range play an important role in the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts, both by enhancing the radial diffusion through incoherent interactions and through the coherent drift-resonant interactions with trapped radiation belt electrons. The statistical distributions of magnetospheric ULF wave power are known to be strongly dependent on solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF orientation. Statistical characterisation of ULF wave power in the magnetosphere traditionally relies on average solar wind–IMF conditions over a specific time period. In this brief report, we perform an alternative characterisation of the solar wind influence on magnetospheric ULF wave activity through the characterisation of the solar wind driver by its variability using the standard deviation of solar wind parameters rather than a simple time average. We present a statistical study of nearly one solar cycle (1996–2004 of geosynchronous observations of magnetic ULF wave power and find that there is significant variation in ULF wave powers as a function of the dynamic properties of the solar wind. In particular, we find that the variability in IMF vector, rather than variabilities in other parameters (solar wind density, bulk velocity and ion temperature, plays the strongest role in controlling geosynchronous ULF power. We conclude that, although time-averaged bulk properties of the solar wind are a key factor in driving ULF powers in the magnetosphere, the solar wind variability can be an important contributor as well. This highlights the potential importance of including solar wind variability especially in studies of ULF wave dynamics in order to assess the efficiency of solar wind–magnetosphere coupling.

  15. Investigation of the ULF electromagnetic phenomena related to earthquakes. Contemporary achievements and the perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopytenko, Y.; Ismagilov, V. [SPbF Izmiran, St. Petersbourg (Russian Federation); Hayakawa, M [The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo (Japan); Smirnova, N.; Troyan, V. [St. Petersbourg Univ., St Petersbourg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physics; Peterson, T. [TFPLAB, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2001-04-01

    The results of ULF electromagnetic signal observations in seismoactive regions prior to earthquakes are presented and discussed. The new differential measurement technique developed in SPbF IZMIRAN for location of the ULF emission sources of space and lithosphere origin is described. The MVC-2DS geohphysical instrumentation is introduced as a promising tool for registration of ULF signals related to earthquakes (both seismic and electromagnetic ones). Methods are proposed for ULF data processing to investigate the preparation processes in the earthquake source regions and to distinguish seismogenic signals. on the background of space pulsations. Some examples of application of those methods for study of the earthquake precursory signatures are presented. Perspectives of seismo-electromagnetic tomography experiments in seismoactive regions, using MVC-2DS technique, are discussed in relation to the development of earthquake prediction methods.

  16. Tänavune Chelsea täht / Ulf Nordfjell ; intervjueerinud Merilen Mentaal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nordfjell, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    Maailma nimekaimal aiandusfestivalil Chelsea Flower Show 2009 pälvis kuldmedali ja võidu rootsi maastikuarhitekti Ulf Nordfjelli kujundatud The Daily Telegraph Garden. Ka uuematest suundadest ja tähelepanekutest aiakujunduses festivalil Chelsea 2009

  17. ULF wave activity during the 2003 Halloween superstorm: multipoint observations from CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine data from a topside ionosphere and two magnetospheric missions (CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail for signatures of ultra low frequency (ULF waves during the exceptional 2003 Halloween geospace magnetic storm, when Dst reached ~−380 nT. We use a suite of wavelet-based algorithms, which are a subset of a tool that is being developed for the analysis of multi-instrument multi-satellite and ground-based observations to identify ULF waves and investigate their properties. Starting from the region of topside ionosphere, we first present three clear and strong signatures of Pc3 ULF wave activity (frequency 15–100 mHz in CHAMP tracks. We then expand these three time intervals for purposes of comparison between CHAMP, Cluster and Geotail Pc3 observations but also to be able to search for Pc4–5 wave signatures (frequency 1–10 mHz into Cluster and Geotail measurements in order to have a more complete picture of the ULF wave occurrence during the storm. Due to the fast motion through field lines in a low Earth orbit (LEO we are able to reliably detect Pc3 (but not Pc4–5 waves from CHAMP. This is the first time, to our knowledge, that ULF wave observations from a topside ionosphere mission are compared to ULF wave observations from magnetospheric missions. Our study provides evidence for the occurrence of a number of prominent ULF wave events in the Pc3 and Pc4–5 bands during the storm and offers a platform to study the wave evolution from high altitudes to LEO. The ULF wave analysis methods presented here can be applied to observations from the upcoming Swarm multi-satellite mission of ESA, which is anticipated to enable joint studies with the Cluster mission.

  18. MESSENGER Observations of ULF Waves in Mercury's Foreshock Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guan; Chi, Peter J.; Bardsen, Scott; Blanco-Cano, Xochitl; Slavin, James A.; Korth, Haje

    2012-01-01

    The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth s is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury s bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury s foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury s foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the 1-Hz waves in the Earth s foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth s foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.

  19. ULF Wave Activity in the Magnetosphere: Resolving Solar Wind Interdependencies to Identify Driving Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S. N.; Watt, C. E. J.; Owens, M. J.; Rae, I. J.

    2018-04-01

    Ultralow frequency (ULF) waves in the magnetosphere are involved in the energization and transport of radiation belt particles and are strongly driven by the external solar wind. However, the interdependency of solar wind parameters and the variety of solar wind-magnetosphere coupling processes make it difficult to distinguish the effect of individual processes and to predict magnetospheric wave power using solar wind properties. We examine 15 years of dayside ground-based measurements at a single representative frequency (2.5 mHz) and a single magnetic latitude (corresponding to L ˜ 6.6RE). We determine the relative contribution to ULF wave power from instantaneous nonderived solar wind parameters, accounting for their interdependencies. The most influential parameters for ground-based ULF wave power are solar wind speed vsw, southward interplanetary magnetic field component Bzstill account for significant amounts of power. We suggest that these three parameters correspond to driving by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, formation, and/or propagation of flux transfer events and density perturbations from solar wind structures sweeping past the Earth. We anticipate that this new parameter reduction will aid comparisons of ULF generation mechanisms between magnetospheric sectors and will enable more sophisticated empirical models predicting magnetospheric ULF power using external solar wind driving parameters.

  20. ULF/ELF Waves in Near-Moon Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomoko

    2016-02-01

    The reflection of the solar wind protons is equivalent to a beam injection against the solar wind flow. It is expected to produce a ring beam with a 3D distribution function in many cases. The reflected protons are responsible for the generation of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves at ˜0.01 Hz and narrowband waves at ˜1 Hz in the extremely low frequency (ELF) range through resonant interaction with magnetohydrodynamic waves and whistler mode waves in the solar wind, respectively. This chapter discusses these commonly observed waves in the near-Moon space. The sinusoidal waveforms and sharp spectra of the monochromatic ELF waves are impressive, but commonly observed are non-monochromatic waves in the ELF range ˜0.03-10 Hz. Some of the solar wind protons reflected by the dayside lunar surface or crustal magnetic field gyrate around the solar wind magnetic field and can access the center of the wake owing to the large Larmour radius.

  1. Poloidal ULF oscillations in the dayside magnetosphere: a Cluster study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. I. Eriksson

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Three ULF wave events, all occurring in the dayside magnetopshere during magnetically quiet times, are studied using the Cluster satellites. The multi-point measurements obtained from Cluster are used to determine the azimuthal wave number for the events by means of the phase shift and the azimuthal separation between the satellites. Also, the polarisation of the electric and magnetic fields is examined in a field-aligned coordinate system, which, in turn, gives the mode of the oscillations. The large-inclination orbits of Cluster allow us to examine the phase relationship between the electric and magnetic fields along the field lines. The events studied have large azimuthal wave numbers (m~100, two of them have eastward propagation and all are in the poloidal mode, consistent with the large wave numbers. We also use particle data from geosynchronous satellites to look for signatures of proton injections, but none of the events show any sign of enhanced proton flux. Thus, the drift-bounce resonance instability seems unlikely to have played any part in the excitation of these pulsations. As for the drift-mirror instability we conclude that it would require an unreasonably high plasma pressure for the instability criterion to be satisfied.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Wave propagation – Magnetospheric physics (Plasma waves and instabilities; Instruments and techniques

  2. Ring Current He Ion Control by Bounce Resonant ULF Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyomin; Gerrard, Andrew J.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Soto-Chavez, Rualdo; Cohen, Ross J.; Manweiler, Jerry W.

    2017-12-01

    Ring current energy He ion (˜65 keV to ˜520 keV) differential flux data from the Radiation Belt Storm Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument aboard the Van Allan Probes spacecraft show considerable variability during quiet solar wind and geomagnetic time periods. Such variability is apparent from orbit to orbit (˜9 h) of the spacecraft and is observed to be ˜50-100% of the nominal flux. Using data from the Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument Suite and Integrated Science (EMFISIS) instrument, also aboard the Van Allen Probes spacecraft, we identify that a dominant source of this variability is from ULF waveforms with periods of tens of seconds. These periods correspond to the bounce resonant timescales of the ring current He ions being measured by RBSPICE. A statistical survey using the particle and field data for one full spacecraft precession period (approximately 2 years) shows that the wave and He ion flux variations are generally anticorrelated, suggesting the bounce resonant pitch angle scattering process as a major component in the scattering of He ions.

  3. Multisatellite and ground-based observations of transient ULF waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potemra, T.A.; Zanetti, L.J.; Takahashi, K.; Erlandson, R.E.; Luehr, H.; Marklund, G.T.; Block, L.P.; Blomberg, L.G.; Lepping, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    A unique alignment of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) CCE and Viking satellites with respect to the EISCAT Magnetometer Cross has provided an opportunity to study transient ULF pulsations associated with variations in solar wind plasma density observed by the IMP 8 satellite. These observations were acquired during a relatively quiet period on April 24, 1986, during the Polar Region and Outer Magnetosphere International Study (PROMIS) period. An isolated 4-mHz (4-min period) pulsation was detected on the ground which was associated with transverse magnetic field oscillations observed by Viking at a ∼ 2-R E altitude above the auroral zone and by CCE at ∼ 8-R E in the equatorial plane on nearly the same flux tube. CCE detected a compressional oscillation in the magnetic field with twice the period (∼ 10 min) of the transverse waves, and with a waveform nearly identical to an isolated oscillation in the solar wind plasma density measured by IMP 8. The authors conclude that the isolated 10-min oscillation in solar wind plasma density produced magnetic field compression oscillations inside the magnetosphere at the same frequency which also enhanced resonant oscillations at approximately twice the frequency that were already present. The ground magnetic field variations are due to ionospheric Hall currents driven by the electric field of the standing Alfven waves. The time delay between surface and satellite data acquired at different local times supports the conclusion that the periodic solar wind density variation excites a tailward traveling large-scale magnetosphere wave train which excites local field line resonant oscillations. They conclude that these transient magnetic field variations are not associated with magnetic field reconnection or flux transfer events

  4. Variability of ULF wave power at the magnetopause: a study at low latitude with Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Grison, B.; Belmont, G.; Rezeau, L.; Chanteur, G.; Robert, P.; Canu, P.

    2012-04-01

    Strong ULF wave activity has been observed at magnetopause crossings since a long time. Those turbulent-like waves are possible contributors to particle penetration from the Solar Wind to the Magnetosphere through the magnetopause. Statistical studies have been performed to understand under which conditions the ULF wave power is the most intense and thus the waves can be the most efficient for particle transport from one region to the other. Clearly the solar wind pressure organizes the data, the stronger the pressure, the higher the ULF power (Attié et al 2008). Double STAR-Cluster comparison has shown that ULF wave power is stronger at low latitude than at high latitude (Cornilleau-Wehrlin et al, 2008). The different studies performed have not, up to now, shown a stronger power in the vicinity of local noon. Nevertheless under identical activity conditions, the variability of this power, even at a given location in latitude and local time is very high. The present work intends at understanding this variability by means of the multi spacecraft mission Cluster. The data used are from spring 2008, while Cluster was crossing the magnetopause at low latitude, in particularly quite Solar Wind conditions. The first region of interest of this study is the sub-solar point vicinity where the long wavelength surface wave effects are most unlikely.

  5. An initial ULF wave index derived from 2 years of Swarm observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Giannakis, Omiros

    2018-03-01

    The ongoing Swarm satellite mission provides an opportunity for better knowledge of the near-Earth electromagnetic environment. Herein, we use a new methodological approach for the detection and classification of ultra low-frequency (ULF) wave events observed by Swarm based on an existing time-frequency analysis (TFA) tool and utilizing a state-of-the-art high-resolution magnetic field model and Swarm Level 2 products (i.e., field-aligned currents - FACs - and the Ionospheric Bubble Index - IBI). We present maps of the dependence of ULF wave power with magnetic latitude and magnetic local time (MLT) as well as geographic latitude and longitude from the three satellites at their different locations in low-Earth orbit (LEO) for a period spanning 2 years after the constellation's final configuration. We show that the inclusion of the Swarm single-spacecraft FAC product in our analysis eliminates all the wave activity at high altitudes, which is physically unrealistic. Moreover, we derive a Swarm orbit-by-orbit Pc3 wave (20-100 MHz) index for the topside ionosphere and compare its values with the corresponding variations of solar wind variables and geomagnetic activity indices. This is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to derive a ULF wave index from LEO satellite data. The technique can be potentially used to define a new Level 2 product from the mission, the Swarm ULF wave index, which would be suitable for space weather applications.

  6. ULF Narrowband Emissions Analysis in the Terrestrial Polar Cusps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Pisa, D.

    2013-05-01

    Polar cusps are known to be a key region for transfer of mass and momentum between the adjacent magnetosheath and the magnetosphere. The 4 spacecraft of the Cluster ESA mission crossed the polar cusps in their most distant part to the Earth in the early years of the mission (2000-2004) because of their highly eccentric orbit. The ULF wave activity in the cusp region has been linked with the magnetosheath plasma penetration since HEOS observations (D'Angelo et al., 1974). Wave and particle interaction play an important role in this colisionless plasma. The observed wave activity certainly results from both distant and local generation mechanisms. From Cluster case studies we propose to focus on one aspect for each of this place of generation. Concerning the distant generation, the possibility of a wave generation at the magnetopause itself is investigated. For this purpose we compare the propagation of the emissions on each side of the magnetopasue, i.e. in the cusp and in the magnetosheath. Concerning the local generation, the presence of locally generated waves above the local proton gyrofrequency that display a left hand polarization has been reported in Polar and Cluster studies (Le et al., 2001; Nykyri et al., 2003 ). The Doppler shift was not large enough to explain the observed frequency. We propose here to combine various techniques (k-filtering analysis, WHAMP simulations) to achieve a precise wave vector estimation and to explain these observations. References: D'Angelo, N., A. Bahnsen, and H. Rosenbauer (1974), Wave and particle measurements at the polar cusp, J. Geophys. Res., 79( 22), 3129-3134, doi:10.1029/JA079i022p03129. Le, G., X. Blanco-Cano, C. T. Russell, X.-W. Zhou, F. Mozer, K. J. Trattner, S. A. Fuselier, and B. J. Anderson (2001), Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in the high-altitude cusp: Polar observations, J. Geophys. Res., 106(A9), 19067-19079, doi:10.1029/2000JA900163. Nykyri, K., P. J. Cargill, E. A. Lucek, T. S. Horbury, A. Balogh

  7. Signal discrimination of ULF electromagnetic data with using singular spectrum analysis – an attempt to detect train noise

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, S.; Kaida, D.; Hattori, K.; Febriani, F.; Yoshino, C.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena associated with crustal activities have been reported in a wide frequency range (DC-HF). In particular, ULF electromagnetic phenomena are the most promising among them because of the deeper skin depth. However, ULF geoelctromagnetic data are a superposition of signals of different origins. They originated from interactions between the geomagnetic field and the solar wind, leak current by a DC-driven train (train noise), precipitation, and so on. In general, the inten...

  8. ULF wave effects on high frequency signal propagation through the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. Waters

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the total electron content (TEC of the ionosphere alter the propagation characteristics of EM radiation for frequencies above a few megahertz (MHz. Spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere TEC influence highly sensitive, ground based spatial measurements such as those used in radio astronomy and Global Positioning System (GPS applications. In this paper we estimate the magnitudes of the changes in TEC and the time delays of high frequency signals introduced by variations in the ionosphere electron density caused by the natural spectrum of ultra-low frequency (ULF wave activity that originates in near-Earth space. The time delays and associated phase shifts depend on the frequency, spatial structure and amplitude of the ULF waves.

  9. Ion temperature and ∇B effects on ULF fluctuations at the magnetopause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we present an extension of the work by Lakhina, Shukla and Stenflo (Geophys. Res. Lett. 20, 2419 1993) on the generation of ultralow frequency (ULF) fluctuations at the earth's magnetopause. A high beta model for the generation of these short wavelength fluctuations is described. In this model, drifts due to density and magnetic field gradients, present at the magnetopause, act as free energy sources for the excitation of the ULF waves. The model also considers both warm electrons and ions and is based on the SS equations (Shukla and Stenflo. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 57, 692 1993) for low-frequency EM waves in non-uniform high beta magnetoplasmas. Using fluid theory the associated dispersion relation is first established, then numerically solved for unstable modes in different regions of parameter space. (orig.)

  10. Vortex, ULF wave and Aurora Observation after Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Here we will summarize our recent study and show some new results on the Magnetosphere and Ionosphere Response to Dynamic Pressure Change/disturbances in the Solar Wind and foreshock regions. We study the step function type solar wind dynamic pressure change (increase/decrease) interaction with the magnetosphere using THEMIS satellites at both dayside and nightside in different geocentric distances. Vortices generated by the dynamic pressure change passing along the magnetopause are found and compared with model predictions. ULF waves and vortices are excited in the dayside and nightside plasma sheet when dynamic pressure change hit the magnetotail. The related ionospheric responses, such as aurora and TCVs, are also investigated. We compare Global MHD simulations with the observations. We will also show some new results that dayside magnetospheric FLRs might be caused by foreshock structures.Shi, Q. Q. et al. (2013), THEMIS observations of ULF wave excitation in the nightside plasma sheet during sudden impulse events, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 118, doi:10.1029/2012JA017984. Shi, Q. Q. et al. (2014), Solar wind pressure pulse-driven magnetospheric vortices and their global consequences, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JA019551. Tian, A.M. et al.(2016), Dayside magnetospheric and ionospheric responses to solar wind pressure increase: Multispacecraft and ground observations, J. Geophys. Res., 121, doi:10.1002/2016JA022459. Shen, X.C. et al.(2015), Magnetospheric ULF waves with increasing amplitude related to solar wind dynamic pressure changes: THEMIS observations, J. Geophys. Res., 120, doi:10.1002/2014JA020913Zhao, H. Y. et al. (2016), Magnetospheric vortices and their global effect after a solar wind dynamic pressure decrease, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 121, doi:10.1002/2015JA021646. Shen, X. C., et al. (2017), Dayside magnetospheric ULF wave frequency modulated by a solar wind dynamic pressure negative impulse, J. Geophys. Res

  11. Propagation of ULF waves through the ionosphere: Inductive effect for oblique magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Sciffer

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Solutions for ultra-low frequency (ULF wave fields in the frequency range 1–100mHz that interact with the Earth's ionosphere in the presence of oblique background magnetic fields are described. Analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic wave fields in the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere are derived within the context of an inductive ionosphere. The inductive shielding effect (ISE arises from the generation of an "inductive" rotational current by the induced part of the divergent electric field in the ionosphere which reduces the wave amplitude detected on the ground. The inductive response of the ionosphere is described by Faraday's law and the ISE depends on the horizontal scale size of the ULF disturbance, its frequency and the ionosphere conductivities. The ISE for ULF waves in a vertical background magnetic field is limited in application to high latitudes. In this paper we examine the ISE within the context of oblique background magnetic fields, extending studies of an inductive ionosphere and the associated shielding of ULF waves to lower latitudes. It is found that the dip angle of the background magnetic field has a significant effect on signals detected at the ground. For incident shear Alfvén mode waves and oblique background magnetic fields, the horizontal component of the field-aligned current contributes to the signal detected at the ground. At low latitudes, the ISE is larger at smaller conductivity values compared with high latitudes.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; electric fields and currents; wave propagation

  12. Determining magnetospheric ULF wave activity from external drivers using the most influential solar wind parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S.; Watt, C.; Owens, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves in the magnetosphere are involved in the energisation and transport of radiation belt particles and are predominantly driven by the external solar wind. By systematically examining the instantaneous relative contribution of non-derived solar wind parameters and accounting for their interdependencies using fifteen years of ground-based measurements (CANOPUS) at a single frequency and magnetic latitude, we conclude that the dominant causal parameters for ground-based ULF wave power are solar wind speed v, interplanetary magnetic field component Bz and summed power in number density perturbations δNp. We suggest that these correspond to driving by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, flux transfer events and direct perturbations from solar wind structures sweeping past. We will also extend our analysis to a stochastic wave model at multiple magnetic latitudes that will be used in future to predict background ULF wave power across the radiation belts in different magnetic local time sectors, and to examine the relative contribution of the parameters v, Bz and var(Np) in these sectors.

  13. The properties of ULF/VLF signals generated by the SURA facility without ionospheric currents modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, D. S.; Raybov, A. V.; Ermakova, E. N.

    2012-12-01

    During the last three years the comprehensive study of ionospheric generation of the artificial signals in ULF/VLF band was carried out at SURA facility. This research was stimulated by successive HAARP experiments on detection the low frequency signals genreated due the action of the ponderomotive forces. Two experimental campaigns under different ionospheric, geomagnetic and facility operation mode conditions was undertaken every year from 2010 to 2012. Here we are summarizing the main features of the artificial ULF/VLF signals observed in vicinity the SURA site. The signals in the 2-20 Hz band were observed in the small area around the facility with the radius approximately 15 km. It was not signal detection at the 30 km distance. The maximum of the amplitude was detected in the nearest receiving point about 3 km away from the transmitting array. The amplitude increased about 3 times when the beam was inclined on16 degrees to the south so the footprint of the geomagnetic field line comes close to the point of observation. The ULF signals increased slightly when the SURA operating frequency overlaps the critical foF2 frequency. As a rule the daytime signals are smaller then nighttime one. No any correlation was observed with geomagnetic disturbances. The time delay of the ionospheric ULF signals measured by phase method was estimated as 300-400 ms. Polarization of the ULF signals has a pronounced elliptical character. Sometimes it was linear. The part of measurements in June 2012 was coincide with magnetic storm (June 16-18, Kp=6). It was observed broadening of the signal line at frequencies of 11 and 17 Hz up to 0.2 Hz at the recovery stage of the storm at June 18 (see the figure). This fact can be interpreted as the result of the signal interaction with the radiation belt protons appeared over there during the storm time. In 2012 campaigns it was firstly observed at SURA signals on frequencies of several kilohertz at nightime which could not be explained by

  14. Effect of Upstream ULF Waves on the Energetic Ion Diffusion at the Earth's Foreshock. I. Theory and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Fumiko; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Kis, Arpad; Nakanishi, Kento; Hada, Tohru

    2018-02-01

    Field-aligned diffusion of energetic ions in the Earth’s foreshock is investigated by using the quasi-linear theory (QLT) and test particle simulation. Non-propagating MHD turbulence in the solar wind rest frame is assumed to be purely transverse with respect to the background field. We use a turbulence model based on a multi-power-law spectrum including an intense peak that corresponds to upstream ULF waves resonantly generated by the field-aligned beam (FAB). The presence of the ULF peak produces a concave shape of the diffusion coefficient when it is plotted versus the ion energy. The QLT including the effect of the ULF wave explains the simulation result well, when the energy density of the turbulent magnetic field is 1% of that of the background magnetic field and the power-law index of the wave spectrum is less than 2. The numerically obtained e-folding distances from 10 to 32 keV ions match with the observational values in the event discussed in the companion paper, which contains an intense ULF peak in the spectra generated by the FAB. Evolution of the power spectrum of the ULF waves when approaching the shock significantly affects the energy dependence of the e-folding distance.

  15. Ulf waves in the auroral zone ionosphere and associated electron precipitation variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petelski, E.F.; Fahleson, U.; Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-12-01

    On four rocket flights, ULF electric fields were observed in the nighttime auroral oval and in the polar cleft. They had periods between 0.5 and 3 sec, amplitudes from 2 to 30 mV/m, and exhibited left- and right-hand elliptical polarization. Intensifications of these fields often coincided with bursts of energetic electron precipitation which were on occasion modulated with nearly the same period as the fields. The events in the auroral oval were associated with substorms and visual auroral activity. The spectral and polarization properties of the ULF fields suggest that they represented the electric components of Pcl or Pil micropulsations. To model these waves and the concurrent electron flux variations, different mechanisms for wave excitation, electron acceleration, and wave-particle interaction are considered. One likely interpretation attributes the micropulsations to Birkeland current chopping by an unstable double layer located at approximately equal to 1 R(sub)E altitude. It is suggested that the double layer also accelerates the observed electrons, the electron flux variations being due either to the intrinsic variations of the double layer or to its interaction with the micropulsations. Due to the sparcity of parameters measured so far, the models are provisional. A follow-up experiment is proposed to further investigate the problem. (author)

  16. A new ULF wave analysis for Seismo-Electromagnetics using CPMN/MAGDAS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, K.; Ikemoto, S.; Cardinal, M. G.; Hayakawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Liu, J. Y.; Saroso, S.; Ruhimat, M.; Husni, M.; Widarto, D.; Ramos, E.; McNamara, D.; Otadoy, R. E.; Yumul, G.; Ebora, R.; Servando, N.

    The Space Environment Research Center of Kyushu University has obtained geomagnetic data in the Circum-pan Pacific Magnetometer Network (CPMN) region for over 10 years, and has recently deployed a new real-time Magnetic Data Acquisition System (MAGDAS) in the CPMN region and an FM-CW radar network along the 210° magnetic meridian (MM) for space weather research and applications. This project intends to get the MAGDAS network fully operational and provide data for studies on space and lithosphere weather. In connection with this project, we propose a new ultra-low frequency (ULF) wave analysis method to study ULF anomalies associated with large earthquakes using magnetic data. From a case study of the 1999/05/12 Kushiro earthquake with magnitude M = 6.4, we found a peculiar increase of H-component power ratio AR/ AM of Pc 3 magnetic pulsations a few weeks before the earthquake, where AR is the power obtained at Rikubetsu station ( r = 61 km) near the epicenter and AM is the power obtained at a remote reference station, Moshiri ( r = 205 km). It is also found that the H-component power ratio AD/ AY of Pc 3 increased three times just a few weeks before the earthquake and after one week decreased to the normal level, where AD is one-day power at Rikubetsu station and AY is the one-year-average power.

  17. On the excitation of ULF waves by solar wind pressure enhancements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. I. Eriksson

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the onset and development of an ultra low frequency (ULF pulsation excited by a storm sudden commencement. On 30 August 2001, 14:10 UT, the Cluster spacecraft are located in the dayside magnetosphere and observe the excitation of a ULF pulsation by a threefold enhancement in the solar wind dynamic pressure. Two different harmonics are observed by Cluster, one at 6.8 mHz and another at 27 mHz. We observe a compressional wave and the development of a toroidal and poloidal standing wave mode. The toroidal mode is observed over a narrow range of L-shells whereas the poloidal mode is observed to have a much larger radial extent. By looking at the phase difference between the electric and magnetic fields we see that for the first two wave periods both the poloidal and toroidal mode are travelling waves and then suddenly change into standing waves. We estimate the azimuthal wave number for the 6.8 mHz to be m=10±3. For the 27 mHz wave, m seems to be several times larger and we discuss the implications of this. We conclude that the enhancement in solar wind pressure excites eigenmodes of the geomagnetic cavity/waveguide that propagate tailward and that these eigenmodes in turn couple to toroidal and poloidal mode waves. Thus our observations give firm support to the magnetospheric waveguide theory.

  18. Enhanced ULF radiation observed by DEMETER two months around the strong 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Athanasiou

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves that were recorded by the satellite DEMETER, during its passing over Haiti before and after a destructive earthquake. This earthquake occurred on 12 January 2010, at geographic Latitude 18.46° and Longitude 287.47°, with Magnitude 7.0 R. Specifically, we are focusing on the variations of energy of Ez-electric field component concerning a time period of 100 days before and 50 days after the strong earthquake. In order to study these variations, we have developed a novel method that can be divided in two stages: first we filter the signal, keeping only the ultra low frequencies and afterwards we eliminate its trend using techniques of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA, combined with a third-degree polynomial filter. As it is shown, a significant increase in energy is observed for the time interval of 30 days before the earthquake. This result clearly indicates that the change in the energy of ULF electromagnetic waves could be related to strong precursory earthquake phenomena. Moreover, changes in energy associated with strong aftershock activity were also observed 25 days after the earthquake. Finally, we present results concerning the comparison between changes in energy during night and day passes of the satellite over Haiti, which showed differences in the mean energy values, but similar results as far as the rate of the energy change is concerned.

  19. A precursory ULF signature for the Chi-Chi earthquake in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Akinaga

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ULF emission data at Lunping (epicentral distance, 120 km have been analysed for the Chi-Chi earthquake (with magnitude 7.6 and depth of 11 km in Taiwan which occurred on 21 September 1999. Simple intensity analyses have not yielded any significant results but we have found, based on the analysis of polarization (the ratio of vertical magnetic field component Z to the horizontal component G, that the polarization (Z/G showed a significant enhancement for two months before the earthquake. This kind of temporal evolution of polarization seems to be very similar to previous results, so that it is highly likely that this phenomenon may be associated with the Chi-Chi earthquake. Also, the comparison of the results of polarization analyses, by changing the signal threshold, has given us an approximate intensity of the seismogenic emission of the order of the monthly mean value.

  20. A study of the coherence length of ULF waves in the earth's foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, G.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    High-time-resolution magnetic-field data for different separations of ISEE 1 and 2 in the earth's ion foreshock region are examined to study the coherence length of upstream ULF waves. Examining the correlation coefficients of the low-frequency waves as a function of separation distance shows that the correlation coefficient depends mainly on the separation distance of ISEE 1 and 2 transverse to the solar-wind flow. It drops to about 0.5 when the transverse separation is about 1 earth radius, a distance much larger than the proton thermal gyroradius in the solar wind. Thus the coherence length of the low-frequency waves is about one earth radius, which is of the order of the wavelength, and is consistent with that estimated from the bandwidth of the waves.

  1. Volcano Popocatepetl, Mexico: ULF geomagnetic anomalies observed at Tlamacas station during March–July, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kotsarenko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the first results of ULF (Ultra Low Frequency geomagnetic anomalies observed at Tlamacas station (Long. 261.37, Lat. 19.07 located at 4 km near the volcano Popocatepetl (active volcano, Long. 261.37, Lat. 19.02 for the period March–July, 2005 and their analysis are presented. The geomagnetic data were collected with a 3-axial fluxgate magnetometer designed at UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles, 1 Hz sampling rate frequency, GPS. Our analysis reveals some anomalies which are suspected to be generated by local volcanic origin: the EM background in the vicinity of the volcano is significantly noisier than in other reference stations; the sporadic strong noise-like geomagnetic activity observed in the H-component; locally generated geomagnetic pulsations (without preferred polarization are detected only at Tlamacas station.

  2. On precursory ULF/ELF electromagnetic signatures for the Kobe earthquake on April 12, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schekotov, A.; Izutsu, J.; Hayakawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (EQ), there have been numerous aftershocks in the eastern and Pacific Ocean of Japan, but EQs are still rare in the western part of Japan. In this situation a relatively large (magnitude (M) ∼ 6) EQ happened on April 12 (UT), 2013 at a place close to the 1995 Kobe EQ (M ∼ 7), so we have tried to find whether there existed any electromagnetic precursors to this EQ. Two precursory signatures are detected: one is the depression of ULF (ultra-low-frequency, 0.01-0.02 Hz) geomagnetic variations on April 9, and the second is wideband ELF (extremely low frequency) electromagnetic radiation on April 11. These results for the 2013 Kobe EQ are compared with the corresponding results for the former 1995 Kobe EQ.

  3. Signal discrimination of ULF electromagnetic data with using singular spectrum analysis – an attempt to detect train noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic phenomena associated with crustal activities have been reported in a wide frequency range (DC-HF. In particular, ULF electromagnetic phenomena are the most promising among them because of the deeper skin depth. However, ULF geoelctromagnetic data are a superposition of signals of different origins. They originated from interactions between the geomagnetic field and the solar wind, leak current by a DC-driven train (train noise, precipitation, and so on. In general, the intensity of electromagnetic signals associated with crustal activity is smaller than the above variations. Therefore, in order to detect a smaller signal, signal discrimination such as noise reduction or identification of noises is very important. In this paper, the singular spectrum analysis (SSA has been performed to detect the DC-driven train noise in geoelectric potential difference data. The aim of this paper is to develop an effective algorithm for the DC-driven train noise detection.

  4. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster observations of EMIC waves, ULF pulsations, and an electron flux dropout

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; MacDowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; Carr, C.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 3 (2016), s. 1990-2008 ISSN 2169-9380 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP1401 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : EMIC waves * ULF pulsations * electron flux dropouts * Dst effect * magnetopause shadowing * Van Allen Probes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014JA020877/full

  5. Sensory trigeminal ULF-TENS stimulation reduces HRV response to experimentally induced arithmetic stress: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Annalisa; Cattaneo, Ruggero; Ortu, Eleonora; Constantinescu, Marian Vladimir; Pietropaoli, Davide

    2017-05-01

    Ultra Low Frequency Transcutaneous Electric Nervous Stimulation (ULF-TENS) is extensively used for pain relief and for the diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). In addition to its local effects, ULF-TENS acts on the autonomic nervous system (ANS), with particular reference to the periaqueductal gray (PAG), promoting the release of endogenous opioids and modulating descending pain systems. It has been suggested that the PAG participates in the coupling between the emotional stimulus and the appropriate behavioral autonomic response. This function is successfully investigated by HRV. Therefore, our goal is to investigate the effects of trigeminal ULF-TENS stimulation on autonomic behavior in terms of HRV and respiratory parameters during an experimentally-induced arithmetic stress test in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women between 25 and 35years of age were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the control (TENS stimulation off) or test group (TENS stimulation on). Heart (HR, LF, HF, LF/HF ratio, DET, RMSSD, PNN50, RR) and respiratory (BR) rate were evaluated under basal, T1 (TENS off/on), and stress (mathematical task) conditions. Results showed that HRV parameters and BR significantly changed during the arithmetic stress paradigm (pTENS and control group could be discriminated only by non-linear HRV data, namely RR and DET (p=0.038 and p=0.027, respectively). During the arithmetic task, LF/HF ratio was the most sensitive parameter to discriminate between groups (p=0.019). Our data suggest that trigeminal sensory ULF-TENS reduces the autonomic response in terms of HRV and BR during acute mental stress in healthy subjects. Future directions of our work aim at applying the HRV and BR analysis, with and without TENS stimulation, to individuals with dysfunctional ANS among those with TMD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel ST-MUSIC-based spectral analysis for detection of ULF geomagnetic signals anomalies associated with seismic events in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Chavez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the analysis of ultra-low-frequency (ULF geomagnetic signals in order to detect seismic anomalies has been reported in several works. Yet, they, although having promising results, present problems for their detection since these anomalies are generally too much weak and embedded in high noise levels. In this work, a short-time multiple signal classification (ST-MUSIC, which is a technique with high-frequency resolution and noise immunity, is proposed for the detection of seismic anomalies in the ULF geomagnetic signals. Besides, the energy (E of geomagnetic signals processed by ST-MUSIC is also presented as a complementary parameter to measure the fluctuations between seismic activity and seismic calm period. The usefulness and effectiveness of the proposal are demonstrated through the analysis of a synthetic signal and five real signals with earthquakes. The analysed ULF geomagnetic signals have been obtained using a tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer at the Juriquilla station, which is localized in Queretaro, Mexico (geographic coordinates: longitude 100.45° E and latitude 20.70° N. The results obtained show the detection of seismic perturbations before, during, and after the main shock, making the proposal a suitable tool for detecting seismic precursors.

  7. Fractal analysis of the ULF geomagnetic data obtained at Izu Peninsula, Japan in relation to the nearby earthquake swarm of June–August 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Gotoh

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In our recent papers we applied fractal methods to extract the earthquake precursory signatures from scaling characteristics of the ULF geomagnetic data, obtained in a seismic active region of Guam Island during the large earthquake of 8 August 1993. We found specific dynamics of their fractal characteristics (spectral exponents and fractal dimensions before the earthquake: appearance of the flicker-noise signatures and increase of the time series fractal dimension. Here we analyze ULF geomagnetic data obtained in a seismic active region of Izu Peninsula, Japan during a swarm of the strong nearby earthquakes of June–August 2000 and compare the results obtained in both regions. We apply the same methodology of data processing using the FFT procedure, Higuchi method and Burlaga-Klein approach to calculate the spectral exponents and fractal dimensions of the ULF time series. We found the common features and specific peculiarities in the behavior of fractal characteristics of the ULF time series before Izu and Guam earthquakes. As a common feature, we obtained the same increase of the ULF time series fractal dimension before the earthquakes, and as specific peculiarity – this increase appears to be sharp for Izu earthquake in comparison with gradual increase of the ULF time series fractal dimension for Guam earthquake. The results obtained in both regions are discussed on the basis of the SOC (self-organized criticality concept taking into account the differences in the depths of the earthquake focuses. On the basis of the peculiarities revealed, we advance methodology for extraction of the earthquake precursory signatures. As an adjacent step, we suggest the combined analysis of the ULF time series in the parametric space polarization ratio – fractal dimension. We reason also upon the advantage of the multifractal approach with respect to the mono-fractal analysis for study of the earthquake preparation dynamics.

  8. ULF-NMR system using HTS-SQUID and permanent magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Shohei, E-mail: hatukade@ens.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tsunaki, Shingo; Chigasaki, Takumi; Hatsukade, Yoshimi; Tanaka, Saburo [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► A permanent magnet was introduced into a ULF SQUID-NMR system for polarization. ► An instrument to transfer a sample in the magnet to under a SQUID was implemented. ► An AC pulse coil was also introduced to apply a π/2 pulse to obtain an NMR signal. ► A {sup 1}H NMR signal was measured while applying a static field of 45 μT. ► The signal to noise ratio of the {sup 1}H NMR signal was about 100. -- Abstract: We have constructed an ultra-low field (ULF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system using an HTS-rf-SQUID and room-temperature electromagnets in a magnetically shielded room (MSR). In this study, in order to improve the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the system, we introduced a permanent magnet instead of the electromagnet for pre-polarizing the sample to enhance the pre-polarizing field (B{sub p}). The cylindrical permanent magnet of 270 mT was used to magnetize a water sample for several seconds outside the MSR and about 1.5 m away from the SQUID. We constructed an instrument to transfer the magnetized sample from the permanent magnet to under the SQUID in 0.5 s. Since the non-adiabatic condition cannot be kept in such sample transfer scheme, an AC pulse coil to apply an AC pulse field B{sub AC} to rotate the magnetization moments for π/2 was introduced to measure a free induction decay (FID) signal from the sample. By this system, we obtained an NMR signal from the water sample of 10 ml while applying a static field of 45 μT and π/2 pulse after the transfer. The S/N of the NMR spectrum was about 100 by a single shot, which was 10 times larger than that obtained with the electromagnet of 32 mT. In addition, we demonstrated the measurements of the longitudinal relaxation time (T{sub 1}) and the spin echo signal of the water sample by the system.

  9. ULF Waves in the Ionospheric Alfven Resonator: Modeling of MICA Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Tulegenov, B.

    2017-12-01

    We present results from a numerical study of physical processes responsible for the generation of small-scale, intense electromagnetic structures in the ultra-low-frequency range frequently observed in the close vicinity of bright discrete auroral arcs. In particular, our research is focused on the role of the ionosphere in generating these structures. A significant body of observations demonstrate that small-scale electromagnetic waves with frequencies below 1 Hz are detected at high latitudes where the large-scale, downward magnetic field-aligned current (FAC) interact with the ionosphere. Some theoretical studies suggest that these waves can be generated by the ionospheric feedback instability (IFI) inside the ionospheric Alfven resonator (IAR). The IAR is the region in the low-altitude magnetosphere bounded by the strong gradient in the Alfven speed at high altitude and the conducting bottom of the ionosphere (ionospheric E-region) at low altitude. To study ULF waves in this region we use a numerical model developed from reduced two fluid MHD equations describing shear Alfven waves in the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the earth. The active ionospheric feedback on structure and amplitude of magnetic FACs that interact with the ionosphere is implemented through the ionospheric boundary conditions that link the parallel current density with the plasma density and the perpendicular electric field in the ionosphere. Our numerical results are compared with the in situ measurements performed by the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfven Resonator (MICA) sounding rocket, launched on February 19, 2012 from Poker Flat Research Range in Alaska to measure fields and particles during a passage through a discreet auroral arc. Parameters of the simulations are chosen to match actual MICA parameters, allowing the comparison in the most precise and rigorous way. Waves generated in the numerical model have frequencies between 0.30 and 0.45 Hz, while MICA measured

  10. Letter to the editor: The ionospheric response during an interval of Pc5 ULF wave activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lester

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary analysis of Pc5, ULF wave activity observed with the IMAGE magnetometer array and the EISCAT UHF radar in the post midnight sector indicates that such waves can be caused by the modulation of the ionospheric conductivity as well as the wave electric field. An observed Pc5 pulsation is divided into three separate intervals based upon the EISCAT data. In the first and third, the Pc5 waves are observed only in the measured electron density between 90 and 112 km and maxima in the electron density at these altitudes are attributed to pulsed precipitation of electrons with energies up to 40 keV which result in the height integrated Hall conductivity being pulsed between 10 and 50 S. In the second interval, the Pc5 wave is observed in the F-region ion temperature, electron density and electron temperature but not in the D and E region electron densities. The analysis suggests that the wave during this interval is a coupled Alfven and compressional mode.Key words: Ionosphere (electric fields and currents - Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction; MHD waves and instabilities

  11. Effects of Heavy Ions on ULF Wave Resonances Near the Equatorial Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.-H.; Johnson, J.R.; Kim, K.; Kim, K.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Pc1-2 ULF waves are strongly associated with the presence of various ions in the magnetosphere. We investigate the role of heavy ion resonances in nonuniform plasmas near the equatorial region. By adopting the invariant imbedding method, the coupled plasma wave equations are solved in an exact manner to calculate the resonant absorption at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Our results show that irreversible mode conversion occurs at the resonance, which absorbs the fast wave energy. It is found that waves near the resonances appear with linear polarization, and their amplitude and frequency are sensitive to the properties of the heavy ion plasma composition. We examine how these resonances occur for various H+ - He+ populations in detail by performing an accurate calculation of the mode conversion efficiency. Because the multi-ion hybrid resonance locations in cold plasmas are determined by simple parameters such as the fraction of the ion number density of each species and the magnetic field, we suggest that it is possible to monitor heavy ion composition by examining the peak frequencies of linearly polarized wave events in either electric field or magnetic field spectral data

  12. ULF waves and plasma stability in different regions of the magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Jan; Escoubet, C. Philippe; Grison, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    We present a statistical study of the occurrence and properties of ultra low frequency waves in the magnetosheath and interpret the results in terms of the competition of mirror and Alfvén-ion-cyclotron (AIC) instabilities. Both mirror and AIC waves are generated in high beta plasma of the magnetosheath when ion temperature anisotropy exceeds the threshold of the respective instabilities. These waves are frequently observed in the terrestrial and planetary magnetosheaths, but their distribution within the magnetosheath is inhomogeneous and their character varies as a function of location, local and upstream plasma parameters. We studied the spatial distribution of the two wave modes in the magnetosheath together with the local plasma parameters important for the stability of ULF waves. This analysis was performed on a dataset of all magnetosheath crossings observed by Cluster spacecraft over two years. For each observation we used bow shock, magnetopause and magnetosheath flow models to identify the relative position of the spacecraft with respect to magnetosheath boundaries and local properties of the upstream shock crossing. A strong dependence of parameters characterizing plasma stability and mirror/AIC wave occurrence on upstream ΘBn and MA is identified. The occurrence of mirror and AIC modes was compared against the respective instability thresholds and it was observed that AIC waves occurred nearly exclusively under mirror stable conditions. This is interpreted in terms of the different character of non-linear saturation of the two modes.

  13. Effects of Heavy Ions on ULF Wave Resonances Near the Equatorial Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.-H.Lee, J.R. Johnson, K. Kim and K.-S.Kim

    2008-11-20

    Pc1-2 ULF waves are strongly associated with the presence of various ions in the magnetosphere. We investigate the role of heavy ion resonances in nonuniform plasmas near the equatorial region. By adopting the invariant imbedding method, the coupled plasma wave equations are solved in an exact manner to calculate the resonant absorption at the ion-ion hybrid resonance. Our results show that irreversible mode conversion occurs at the resonance, which absorbs the fast wave energy. It is found that waves near the resonances appear with linear polarization, and their amplitude and frequency are sensitive to the properties of the heavy ion plasma composition. We examine how these resonances occur for various H+ - He+ populations in detail by performing an accurate calculation of the mode conversion effciency. Because the multi-ion hybrid resonance locations in cold plasmas are determined by simple parameters such as the fraction of the ion number density of each species and the magnetic field, we suggest that it is possible to monitor heavy ion composition by examining the peak frequencies of linearly polarized wave events in either electric field or magnetic field spectral data.

  14. Analysis of the ULF electromagnetic emission related to seismic activity, Teoloyucan geomagnetic station, 1998-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kotsarenko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of ULF geomagnetic measurements at station Teoloyucan (Central Mexico, 99.11'35.735''W, 19.44'45.100''N, 2280m height in relation to seismic activity in the period 1998-2001 and their analysis are presented. Variations of spectral densities for horizontal and vertical components, polarization densities and spectrograms of magnetic field, their derivatives are analyzed as a part of traditional analysis in this study. Values of spectral density were calculated for 6 fixed frequencies f=1, 3, 10, 30, 100 and 300mHz. Fractal characteristics of spectra were analyzed in the conception of SOC (Self-Organized Criticality. 2 nighttime intervals, 0-3 and 3-6h by local time have been used to decrease the noise interference in row data. In order to exclude the intervals with a high geomagnetic activity from analysis we referred to Ap indices, calculated for corresponding time intervals. The contribution of seismic events to geomagnetic emission was estimated by seismic index ks=100.75Ms/10D, where Ms is the amplitude of the earthquake and D is the distance from its epicenter to the station.

  15. Rethinking earthquake-related DC-ULF electromagnetic phenomena: towards a physics-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Huang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous electromagnetic changes possibly related with earthquakes have been independently reported and have even been attempted to apply to short-term prediction of earthquakes. However, there are active debates on the above issue because the seismogenic process is rather complicated and the studies have been mainly empirical (i.e. a kind of experience-based approach. Thus, a physics-based study would be helpful for understanding earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena and strengthening their applications. As a potential physics-based approach, I present an integrated research scheme, taking into account the interaction among observation, methodology, and physical model. For simplicity, this work focuses only on the earthquake-related DC-ULF electromagnetic phenomena. The main approach includes the following key problems: (1 how to perform a reliable and appropriate observation with some clear physical quantities; (2 how to develop a robust methodology to reveal weak earthquake-related electromagnetic signals from noisy background; and (3 how to develop plausible physical models based on theoretical analyses and/or laboratory experiments for the explanation of the earthquake-related electromagnetic signals observed in the field conditions.

  16. Video, LMA and ULF observations of a negative gigantic jet in North Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, E. C.; Cummer, S.; Palivec, K.; Lyons, W. A.; Chmielewski, V.; MacGorman, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    On 8 September 2016 at 0125:38 UTC video of a negative gigantic jet was captured from Hawley, TX. VHF Lightning Mapping Arrays in West Texas and Oklahoma also observed the parent flash (duration of about 1 s) and, for the first time, mapped dozens of points along ascending negative leaders, lasting about 50 ms, which extended well above cloud top to about 35 km MSL altitude. A few well-located VHF sources were also detected near 50 km. Together, the video and VHF observations provide additional confirmation of the altitude at which the leader-to-streamer transition takes place in gigantic jet discharges. ULF magnetic field data from the Duke iCMC network show a current excursion associated with the onset of the upward movement of negative charge and leaders in the VHF. As the gigantic jet reached its full height, current spiked to 80 kA, followed by several hundred milliseconds of continuing current of 10-20 kA. Total charge moment change was about 6000 C km. The storm complex produced predominantly negative large charge moment change events, which is characteristic of storms that produce negative gigantic jets.

  17. Correspondence between the ULF wave power spatial distribution and auroral oval boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyreva O.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide spatial distribution of the wave power in the Pc5 band during magnetic storms has been compared with auroral oval boundaries. The poleward and equatorward auroral oval boundaries are estimated using either the British Antarctic Survey database containing IMAGE satellite UV observations of the aurora or the OVATION model based on the DMSP particle data. The “epicenter” of the spectral power of broadband Pc5 fluctuations during the storm growth phase is mapped inside the auroral oval. During the storm recovery phase, the spectral power of narrowband Pc5 waves, both in the dawn and dusk sectors, is mapped inside the auroral oval or around its equatorward boundary. This observational result confirms previously reported effects: the spatial/temporal variations of the Pc5 wave power in the morning/pre-noon sector are closely related to the dynamics of the auroral electrojet and magnetospheric field-aligned currents. At the same time, narrowband Pc5 waves demonstrate typical resonant features in the amplitude-phase latitudinal structure. Thus, the location of the auroral oval or its equatorward boundary is the preferred latitude for magnetospheric field-line Alfven resonator excitation. This effect is not taken into account by modern theories of ULF Pc5 waves, but it could be significant for the development of more adequate models.

  18. Effect of upstream ULF waves on the energetic ion diffusion at the earth's foreshock: Theory, Simulation, and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, F.; Matsukiyo, S.; Kis, A.; Hada, T.

    2017-12-01

    Spatial diffusion of energetic particles is an important problem not only from a fundamental physics point of view but also for its application to particle acceleration processes at astrophysical shocks. Quasi-linear theory can provide the spatial diffusion coefficient as a function of the wave turbulence spectrum. By assuming a simple power-law spectrum for the turbulence, the theory has been successfully applied to diffusion and acceleration of cosmic rays in the interplanetary and interstellar medium. Near the earth's foreshock, however, the wave spectrum often has an intense peak, presumably corresponding to the upstream ULF waves generated by the field-aligned beam (FAB). In this presentation, we numerically and theoretically discuss how the intense ULF peak in the wave spectrum modifies the spatial parallel diffusion of energetic ions. The turbulence is given as a superposition of non-propagating transverse MHD waves in the solar wind rest frame, and its spectrum is composed of a piecewise power-law spectrum with different power-law indices. The diffusion coefficients are then estimated by using the quasi-linear theory and test particle simulations. We find that the presence of the ULF peak produces a concave shape of the diffusion coefficient when it is plotted versus the ion energy. The results above are used to discuss the Cluster observations of the diffuse ions at the Earth's foreshock. Using the density gradients of the energetic ions detected by the Cluster spacecraft, we determine the e-folding distances, equivalently, the spatial diffusion coefficients, of ions with their energies from 10 to 32 keV. The observed e-folding distances are significantly smaller than those estimated in the past statistical studies. This suggests that the particle acceleration at the foreshock can be more efficient than considered before. Our test particle simulation explains well the small estimate of the e-folding distances, by using the observed wave turbulence spectrum

  19. Development of Search-Coil Magnetometer for Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) Wave Observations at Jang Bogo Station in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. K.; Shin, J.; Kim, K. H.; Jin, H.; Kim, H.; Kwon, J.; Lee, S.; Jee, G.; Lessard, M.

    2016-12-01

    A ground-based bi-axial search-coil magnetometer (SCM) has been devloped for observation of time-varying magnetic fields (dB/dt) in the Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) range (a few mHz up to 5 Hz) to understand magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes. The SCM consists of magnetic sensors, analog electronics, cables and data acquisition system (DAQ). The bi-axial magnetic sensor has coils of wire wound around a mu-metal cores, each of which measures magnetic field pulsations in the horizontal components, geomagnetic north-south and east-west, respectively. The analog electronics is designed to control the cut-off frequency of the instrument and to amplify detected signals. The DAQ has a 16 bit analog to digital converter (ADC) at the user defined rate of 10 Hz. It is also equipped with the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Network Time Protocol (NTP) for time synchronization and accuracy. We have carried out in-lab performance tests (e.g., frequency response, noise level, etc) using a magnetically shielded case and a field-test in a magnetically quiet location in South Korea. During the field test, a ULF Pi 2 event has been observed clearly. We also confirmed that it was a substorm activity from a fluxgate magnetometer data at Mineyama (35°57.3'N, 135°05'E, geographic). The SCM will be installed and operated at Jang Bogo Antarctic Research Station (74°37.4'S, 164°13.7'E, geographic) on Dec. 2016. The geomagnetic latitude of the station is similar to that of the US McMurdo station (77°51'S, 166°40'E, geographic), both of which are typically near the cusp region. Thus, we expect that the SCM can provide useful information to understand ULF wave propagation characteristics.

  20. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  1. Detection of ULF geomagnetic signals associated with seismic events in Central Mexico using Discrete Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chavez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The geomagnetic observatory of Juriquilla Mexico, located at longitude –100.45° and latitude 20.70°, and 1946 m a.s.l., has been operational since June 2004 compiling geomagnetic field measurements with a three component fluxgate magnetometer. In this paper, the results of the analysis of these measurements in relation to important seismic activity in the period of 2007 to 2009 are presented. For this purpose, we used superposed epochs of Discrete Wavelet Transform of filtered signals for the three components of the geomagnetic field during relative seismic calm, and it was compared with seismic events of magnitudes greater than Ms > 5.5, which have occurred in Mexico. The analysed epochs consisted of 18 h of observations for a dataset corresponding to 18 different earthquakes (EQs. The time series were processed for a period of 9 h prior to and 9 h after each seismic event. This data processing was compared with the same number of observations during a seismic calm. The proposed methodology proved to be an efficient tool to detect signals associated with seismic activity, especially when the seismic events occur in a distance (D from the observatory to the EQ, such that the ratio D/ρ < 1.8 where ρ is the earthquake radius preparation zone. The methodology presented herein shows important anomalies in the Ultra Low Frequency Range (ULF; 0.005–1 Hz, primarily for 0.25 to 0.5 Hz. Furthermore, the time variance (σ2 increases prior to, during and after the seismic event in relation to the coefficient D1 obtained, principally in the Bx (N-S and By (E-W geomagnetic components. Therefore, this paper proposes and develops a new methodology to extract the abnormal signals of the geomagnetic anomalies related to different stages of the EQs.

  2. Radial energy transport by magnetospheric ULF waves: Effects of magnetic curvature and plasma pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouznetsov, Igor; Lotko, William

    1995-01-01

    The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the

  3. Direct Determination of Wavenumbers of ULF Waves Using the Cluster Multipoint and Multicomponent Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; Escoubet, C.; Santolik, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2013-12-01

    The wavenumber is a key parameter to understand the physics of the interactions between the electromagnetic waves and the ionized particles in space plasmas. Search-coil magnetometers and electric antennas measure time series of both magnetic and electric field fluctuations, respectively. The fleet of four Cluster spacecraft made possible to determine the full wave vector and even to differentiate the waves present at the same frequency in the spacecraft frame through various techniques: k-filtering analysis, wave telescope, phase differentiating method. However the fleet configuration (inter-spacecraft separation, tetrahedron elongation and planarity) limit the possibilities to use these techniques. From single spacecraft measurements, assumptions concerning the wave mode -and thus, concerning the physical processes- are usually required to derive the corresponding wavenumber. Using three orthogonal magnetic components and two electric antennas, it is possible to estimate n/Z where n is the refractive index and Z the transfer function of the interface between the plasma and the electric antennas. For ULF waves we assume Z=1 and we thus obtain the wavenumber. We test this hypothesis on a case where the spacecraft are in a close configuration in the distant cusp region and where we are able to apply the k-filtering analysis, too. The results obtained by multispacecraft and multicomponents analysis are close to each other and permit us to precise the value of Z. We test this procedure on several events (in various regions of the magnetosphere) in order to get more precise wave number measurements from the single spacecraft analysis. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2010-1) under grant agreement n. 284520 (MAARBLE).

  4. Modelling formation of new radiation belts and response to ULF oscillations following March 24, 1991 SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.K.; Kotelnikov, A.D.; Li, X.; Lyon, J.G.; Roth, I.; Temerin, M.; Wygant, J.R.; Blake, J.B.; Gussenhoven, M.S.; Yumoto, K.; Shiokawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    The rapid formation of a new proton radiation belt at L≅2.5 following the March 24, 1991 Storm Sudden Commencement (SSC) observed at the CRRES satellite is modelled using a relativistic guiding center test particle code. The new radiation belt formed on a time scale shorter than the drift period of eg. 20 MeV protons. The SSC is modelled by a bipolar electric field and associated compression and relaxation in the magnetic field, superimposed on a background dipole magnetic field. The source population consists of solar protons that populated the outer magnetosphere during the solar proton event that preceeded the SSC and trapped inner zone protons. The simulations show that both populations contribute to drift echoes in the 20 endash 80 MeV range measured by the Aerospace instrument and in lower energy channels of the Protel instrument on CRRES, while primary contribution to the newly trapped population is from solar protons. Proton acceleration by the SSC differs from electron acceleration in two notable ways: different source populations contribute and nonrelativistic conservation of the first adiabatic invariant leads to greater energization of protons for a given decrease in L than for relativistic electrons. Model drift echoes, energy spectra and flux distribution in L at the time of injection compare well with CRRES observations. On the outbound pass, ∼2 hours after the SSC, the broad spectral peak of the new radiation belt extends to higher energies (20 endash 40 MeV) than immediately after formation. Electron flux oscillations observed at this later time are attributed to post-SSC impulses evident in ground magnetograms, while two minute period ULF oscillations also evident in CRRES field data appear to be cavity modes in the inner magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. The role of the ionosphere in coupling upstream ULF wave power into the dayside magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engebretson, M.J.; Cahill, L.J. Jr.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Anderson, B.J.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Carpenter, D.L.; Inan, U.S.; Eather, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A series of recent studies of Pc 3 magnetic pulsations in the dayside outer magnetosphere has given new insights into the possible mechanisms of entry of ULF wave power into the magnetosphere from a bow shock related upstream source. In this paper, the authors first review many of these new observational results by presenting a comparison of data from two 10-hour intervals on successive days in April 1986 and then present a possible model for transmission of pulsation signals from the magnetosheath into the dayside magnetosphere. Simultaneous multi-instrument observations at South Pole Station, located below the cusp/cleft ionosphere near local noon, magnetic field observations by the AMPTE CCE satellite in the dayside outer magnetosphere, and upstream magnetic field observations by the IMP 8 satellite show clear interplanetary magnetic field field magnitude control of dayside resonant harmonic pulsations and band-limited very high latitude pulsations, as well as pulsation-modulated precipitation of what appear to be magnetosheath/boundary layer electrons. They believe that this modulated precipitation may be responsible for the propagation of upstream wave power in the Pc 3 frequency band into the high-latitude ionosphere, from whence it may be transported throughout the dayside outer magnetosphere by means of an ionospheric transistor. In this model, modulations in ionospheric conductivity caused by cusp/cleft precipitation cause varying ionospheric currents with frequency spectra determined by the upstream waves; these modulations will be superimposed on the Birkeland currents, which close via these ionospheric currents. Modulated region 2 Birkeland currents will in turn provide a narrow-band source of wave energy to a wide range of dayside local times in the outer magnetosphere

  6. ADAMS - Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Cheol Gi

    2003-06-01

    This book introduces ADAMS, which is composed of 20 modules ; stamping mechanism, ADAMS introduction, GUI overview failing stone project motion one DOF pendulum inclined plane lift mechanism I mechanism II mechanism III suspension subsystem suspension-steering system spring-damper I spring-damper II hatchback I hatchback II hatchback III cam-rocker-valve target practice recommended practice and switch mechanism workshop.

  7. Introduction; Vvedenie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, V I

    1961-07-01

    Introduction describes the present book. Its includes seven chapters. First four from them touch with glycerin of acetylene line-their receiving, studying their oxidation reactions, transformations under the influence of dehydrating methods. Last three chapters dedicated to glycerin of ethylen line-synthesis, their cyclization into substituted dihydropyran.

  8. Multi-point ground-based ULF magnetic field observations in Europe during seismic active periods in 2004 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Prattes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of ground-based Ultra Low Frequency (ULF magnetic field measurements observed from June to August 2004 during the Bovec earthquake on 12 July 2004. Further we give information about the seismic activity in the local observatory region for an extended time span 2004 and 2005. ULF magnetic field data are provided by the South European Geomagnetic Array (SEGMA where the experience and heritage from the CHInese MAGnetometer (CHIMAG fluxgate magnetometer comes to application. The intensities of the horizontal H and vertical Z magnetic field and the polarization ratio R of the vertical and horizontal magnetic field intensity are analyzed taking into consideration three SEGMA observatories located at different close distances and directions from the earthquake epicenter. We observed a significant increase of high polarization ratios during strong seismic activity at the observatory nearest to the Bovec earthquake epicenter. Apart from indirect ionospheric effects electromagnetic noise could be emitted in the lithosphere due to tectonic effects in the earthquake focus region causing anomalies of the vertical magnetic field intensity. Assuming that the measured vertical magnetic field intensities are of lithospheric origin, we roughly estimate the amplitude of electromagnetic noise in the Earths crust considering an average electrical conductivity of <σ>=10−3 S/m and a certain distance of the observatory to the earthquake epicenter.

  9. Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    We present an analysis of "boomerang-shaped" pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on June 7th, 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90º pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180º, and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy gain with the modified ULF wave field reproduce the observed boomerang stripes and modulations in the electron energy spectrogram. The study of boomerang stripes and their relationship to drift-resonance taking place at a location different from the observation point adds new understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

  10. Relativistic electron dynamics produced by azimuthally localized poloidal mode ULF waves: Boomerang-shaped pitch angle evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y. X.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X. R.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present an analysis of “boomerang-shaped” pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on 7 June 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90° pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180° and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy gain with the modified ULF wavefield reproduce the observed boomerang stripes and modulations in the electron energy spectrogram. The study of boomerang stripes and their relationship to drift resonance taking place at a location different from the observation point adds new understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.

  11. ULF fluctuations of the geomagnetic field and ionospheric sounding measurements at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of ULF geomagnetic field fluctuations at low latitudes during the first CAWSES campaign (29 March-3 April 2004. During the whole campaign, mainly in the prenoon sector, a moderate Pc3-4 pulsation activity is observed, clearly related to interplanetary upstream waves. On 3 April, in correspondence to the Earth's arrival of a coronal mass ejection, two SIs are observed whose waveforms are indicative of a contribution of the high-latitude ionospheric currents to the low-latitude ground field. During the following geomagnetic storm, low frequency (Pc5 waves are observed at discrete frequencies. Their correspondence with the same frequencies detected in the radial components of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind speed suggests that Alfvénic solar wind fluctuations may act as direct drivers of magnetospheric fluctuations. A cross-phase analysis, using different pairs of stations, is also presented for identifying field line resonant frequencies and monitoring changes in plasmaspheric mass density. Lastly, an analysis of ionospheric vertical soundings, measured at the Rome ionosonde station (41.8° N, 12.5° E, and vertical TEC measurements deduced from GPS signals within an European network shows the relation between the ULF resonances in the inner magnetosphere and thermal plasma density variations during geomagnetically quiet conditions, in contrast to various storm phases at the end of the CAWSES campaign.

  12. An extraordinary ULF wave episode during the 2003 Halloween superstorm revealed by wavelet transforms of multipoint observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Georgiou, M.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Mann, I.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate a rare concurrent observation of an ultra low frequency (ULF) wave event in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and surface employing a time-frequency analysis technique. We have examined the ULF wave activity in the Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) frequency bands within a short time interval during the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm, when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft, and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into a higher regime within the Pc3 range. Our study offers insights into the energy transfer traced all the way from the solar wind through the magnetosphere and ionosphere to the ground. This work has received support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 284520 for the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project.

  13. ULF geomagnetic activity effects on tropospheric temperature, specific humidity, and cloud cover in Antarctica, during 2003-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regi, Mauro; Redaelli, Gianluca; Francia, Patrizia; De Lauretis, Marcello

    2017-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible relationship between the ULF geomagnetic activity and the variations of several atmospheric parameters. In particular, we compared the ULF activity in the Pc1-2 frequency band (100 mHz-5 Hz), computed from geomagnetic field measurements at Terra Nova Bay in Antarctica, with the tropospheric temperature T, specific humidity Q, and cloud cover (high cloud cover, medium cloud cover, and low cloud cover) obtained from reanalysis data set. The statistical analysis was conducted during the years 2003-2010, using correlation and Superposed Epoch Analysis approaches. The results show that the atmospheric parameters significantly change following the increase of geomagnetic activity within 2 days. These changes are evident in particular when the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component is oriented southward (Bz0). We suggest that both the precipitation of electrons induced by Pc1-2 activity and the intensification of the polar cap potential difference, modulating the microphysical processes in the clouds, can affect the atmosphere conditions.

  14. Fusion: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decreton, M.

    2006-01-01

    The article gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's research programme on fusion. The decision to construct the ITER international nuclear fusion experiment in Cadarache is highlighted. A summary of the Belgian contributions to fusion research is given with particular emphasis on studies of radiation effects on diagnostics systems, radiation effects on remote handling sensing systems, fusion waste management and socio-economic studies

  15. HF doppler sounder measurements of the ionospheric signatures of small scale ULF waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An HF Doppler sounder, DOPE (DOppler Pulsation Experiment with three azimuthally-separated propagation paths is used to provide the first statistical examination of small scale-sized, high m waves where a direct measurement of the azimuthal wavenumber m, is made in the ionosphere. The study presents 27 events, predominantly in the post-noon sector. The majority of events are Pc4 waves with azimuthal m numbers ranging from –100 to –200, representing some of the smallest scale waves ever observed in the ionosphere. 4 Pc5 waves are observed in the post-noon sector. The fact that measurements for the wave azimuthal m number and the wave angular frequency are available allows the drift-bounce resonance condition to be used to hypothesise potential particle populations which could drive the waves through either a drift or drift-bounce resonance interaction mechanism. These results are compared with the statistical study presented by Baddeley et al. (2004 which investigated the statistical likelihood of such driving particle populations occurring in the magnetospheric ring current. The combination of these two studies indicates that any wave which requires a possible drift resonance interaction with particles of energies >60 keV, is statistically unlikely to be generated by such a mechanism. The evidence presented in this paper therefore suggests that in the pre-noon sector the drift-bounce resonance mechanism is statistically more likely implying an anti-symmetric standing wave structure while in the post-noon sector both a drift or drift-bounce resonance interaction is statistically possible, indicating both symmetric and anti-symmetric standing mode structures. A case study is also presented investigating simultaneous observations of a ULF wave in ground magnetometer and DOPE data. The event is in the lower m range of the statistical study and displays giant pulsation (Pg characteristics.

    Keywords

  16. HF doppler sounder measurements of the ionospheric signatures of small scale ULF waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available An HF Doppler sounder, DOPE (DOppler Pulsation Experiment with three azimuthally-separated propagation paths is used to provide the first statistical examination of small scale-sized, high m waves where a direct measurement of the azimuthal wavenumber m, is made in the ionosphere. The study presents 27 events, predominantly in the post-noon sector. The majority of events are Pc4 waves with azimuthal m numbers ranging from –100 to –200, representing some of the smallest scale waves ever observed in the ionosphere. 4 Pc5 waves are observed in the post-noon sector. The fact that measurements for the wave azimuthal m number and the wave angular frequency are available allows the drift-bounce resonance condition to be used to hypothesise potential particle populations which could drive the waves through either a drift or drift-bounce resonance interaction mechanism. These results are compared with the statistical study presented by Baddeley et al. (2004 which investigated the statistical likelihood of such driving particle populations occurring in the magnetospheric ring current. The combination of these two studies indicates that any wave which requires a possible drift resonance interaction with particles of energies >60 keV, is statistically unlikely to be generated by such a mechanism. The evidence presented in this paper therefore suggests that in the pre-noon sector the drift-bounce resonance mechanism is statistically more likely implying an anti-symmetric standing wave structure while in the post-noon sector both a drift or drift-bounce resonance interaction is statistically possible, indicating both symmetric and anti-symmetric standing mode structures. A case study is also presented investigating simultaneous observations of a ULF wave in ground magnetometer and DOPE data. The event is in the lower m range of the statistical study and displays giant pulsation (Pg characteristics. Keywords. Ionosphere (Ionosphere

  17. Alfvén ship waves: high-m ULF pulsations in the magnetosphere generated by a moving plasma inhomogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Klimushkin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a high-m Alfvén wave by substorm injected energetic particles in the magnetosphere is studied. The wave is supposed to be emitted by an alternating current created by the drifting particle cloud or ring current inhomogeneity. It is shown that the wave appears in some azimuthal location simultaneously with the particle cloud arrival at the same spot. The value of the azimuthal wave number is determined as m~ω/ωd, where ω is the eigenfrequency of the standing Alfvén wave and ωd is the particle drift frequency. The wave propagates westward, in the direction of the proton drift. Under the reasonable assumption about the density of the energetic particles, the amplitude of the generated wave is close to the observed amplitudes of poloidal ULF pulsations.

  18. On the man-made contamination on ULF measurements: evidence for disturbances related to an electrified DC railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villante, U.; Piancatelli, A.; Palangio, P.

    2014-09-01

    An analysis of measurements performed at L'Aquila (Italy) during a deep minimum of solar and magnetospheric activity (2008-2010) allowed for the evaluation of possible contamination of the ultralow-frequency (ULF) spectrum (f ≈ 1-500 mHz) from artificial disturbances, practically in absence of natural signals. In addition, the city evacuation and the interruption of all industrial and social activities after the strong earthquake of 6 April 2009 allowed also for the examination of possible changes of the contamination level under remarkably changed environmental conditions. Our analysis reveals a persistent, season-independent, artificial signal, with the same characteristics in the H and Z components, that affects during daytime hours the entire spectrum; such contamination persists after the city evacuation. We speculate that the DC electrified railway (located ≈ 33 km from the Geomagnetic Observatory of L'Aquila, it maintained the same train traffic after the earthquake) is responsible for the observed disturbances.

  19. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC Waves, ULF Pulsations, and an Electron Flux Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; Macdowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12-14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12-13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13-14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dst<100 nT. At the start of the recovery phase, both the 0.8 and 2.0 MeV electron fluxes finally returned to near prestorm values, possibly in response to strong ultralow frequency (ULF) waves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

  20. Survey of Pc3-5 ULF velocity oscillations in SuperDARN THEMIS-mode data: Occurrence statistics and driving mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Baker, J. B.; Lin, D.; Bland, E. C.; Hartinger, M.; Scales, W.

    2017-12-01

    Ultra-low frequency (ULF: 1 mHz-10 Hz) waves are believed to play an important role in the energization and transport of plasma within the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, as well as the transfer of energy from the solar wind. Most previous statistical studies of ionospheric ULF waves using Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN) data have been constrained to the Pc5 band ( 1-7 mHz) and/or one or two radars covering a limited range of latitudes. This is partially due to lack of a database cataloging high time resolution data and an efficient way to identify wave events. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive survey of ULF wave signatures in the Pc3-5 band using 6 s resolution data from all SuperDARN radars in the northern hemisphere operating in THEMIS-mode from 2010 to 2016. Numerical experiments were conducted to derive dynamic thresholds for automated detection of ULF waves at different frequencies using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram technique. The spatial occurrence distribution, frequency characteristics, seasonal effects, solar wind condition and geomagnetic activity level dependence have been studied. We found Pc5 events dominate at high latitudes with a most probable frequency of 2 mHz while Pc3-4 are relatively more common at mid-latitudes on the nightside with a most probable frequency of 11 mHz. At high latitudes the occurrence rate of poloidal Pc3-5 peaks in the dusk sector and in winter while at mid-latitudes the poloidal Pc3-4 occurrence rate peaks at pre-midnight. This pre-midnight occurrence peak becomes more prominent with increasing AE index value, in equinox and during southward IMF, which suggests many of these events are most likely Pi2 pulsations associated with magnetotail dynamics during active geomagnetic intervals.

  1. Optimal duration of ultra low frequency-transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) therapy for muscular relaxation in neuromuscular occlusion: A preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, Rémi; Rumerio, Anaïs; Monsarrat, Paul; Combadazou, Jean Claude; Champion, Jean; Destruhaut, Florent; Ghrenassia, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this work was to determine the duration of ultra-low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) application necessary to achieve sufficient relaxation of the masticatory muscles. A secondary aim was to analyze the influence of stimulation on muscle relaxation in pathological subjects and determine whether ULF-TENS has a noteworthy impact on muscle relaxation. Sixteen adult subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and muscle pain and a group of four control subjects were included in this study. ULF-TENS was applied, and muscular activities of the masseter, temporal, and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) were recorded for 60 min. Significant relaxation was achieved in the TMD group from 20, 40, and 60 min for the temporal, masseter, and SCM muscles (p TENS application would last 40 min to obtain sufficient muscle relaxation both in patients with masticatory system disorders and healthy subjects, a time constraint that is consistent with everyday clinical practice.

  2. Introduction pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu E. Sestras

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Pages and Table of Contents Research ArticlesInsulin Requirements in Relation to Insulin Pump Indications in Type 1 DiabetesPDFGabriela GHIMPEŢEANU,\tSilvia Ş. IANCU,\tGabriela ROMAN,\tAnca M. ALIONESCU259-263Comparative Antibacterial Efficacy of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Butter Tree Extracts Against Some Clinical Bacterial IsolatesPDFKamoldeen Abiodun AJIJOLAKEWU,\tFola Jose AWARUN264-268A Murine Effort Model for Studying the Influence of Trichinella on Muscular Activity of MicePDFIonut MARIAN,\tCălin Mircea GHERMAN,\tAndrei Daniel MIHALCA269-271Prevalence and Antibiogram of Generic Extended-Spectrum β-Lactam-Resistant Enterobacteria in Healthy PigsPDFIfeoma Chinyere UGWU,\tMadubuike Umunna ANYANWU,\tChidozie Clifford UGWU,\tOgbonna Wilfred UGWUANYI272-280Index of Relative Importance of the Dietary Proportions of Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus in Semi-Arid RegionPDFTana P. MEWADA281-288Bioaccumulation Potentials of Momordica charantia L. Medicinal Plant Grown in Lead Polluted Soil under Organic Fertilizer AmendmentPDFOjo Michael OSENI,\tOmotola Esther DADA,\tAdekunle Ajayi ADELUSI289-294Induced Chitinase and Chitosanase Activities in Turmeric Plants by Application of β-D-Glucan NanoparticlesPDFSathiyanarayanan ANUSUYA,\tMuthukrishnan SATHIYABAMA295-298Present or Absent? About a Threatened Fern, Asplenium adulterinum Milde, in South-Eastern Carpathians (RomaniaPDFAttila BARTÓK,\tIrina IRIMIA299-307Comparative Root and Stem Anatomy of Four Rare Onobrychis Mill. (Fabaceae Taxa Endemic in TurkeyPDFMehmet TEKİN,\tGülden YILMAZ308-312Propagation of Threatened Nepenthes khasiana: Methods and PrecautionsPDFJibankumar S. KHURAIJAM,\tRup K. ROY313-315Alleviate Seed Ageing Effects in Silybum marianum by Application of Hormone Seed PrimingPDFSeyed Ata SIADAT,\tSeyed Amir MOOSAVI,\tMehran SHARAFIZADEH316-321The Effect of Halopriming and Salicylic Acid on the Germination of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum under Different Cadmium

  3. High-latitude observations of impulse-driven ULF pulsations in the ionosphere and on the ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. W. Menk

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the simultaneous observation of 1.6–1.7 mHz pulsations in the ionospheric F-region with the CUTLASS bistatic HF radar and an HF Doppler sounder, on the ground with the IMAGE and SAMNET magnetometer arrays, and in the upstream solar wind. CUTLASS was at the time being operated in a special mode optimized for high resolution studies of ULF waves. A novel use is made of the ground returns to detect the ionospheric signature of ULF waves. The pulsations were initiated by a strong, sharp decrease in solar wind dynamic pressure near 09:28 UT on 23 February 1996, and persisted for some hours. They were observed with the magnetometers over 20° in latitude, coupling to a field line resonance near 72° magnetic latitude. The magnetic pulsations had azimuthal m numbers ~ -2, consistent with propagation away from the noon sector. The radars show transient high velocity flows in the cusp and auroral zones, poleward of the field line resonance, and small amplitude 1.6–1.7 mHz F-region oscillations across widely spaced regions at lower latitudes. The latter were detected in the radar ground scatter returns and also with the vertical incidence Doppler sounder. Their amplitude is of the order of ± 10 ms-1. A similar perturbation frequency was present in the solar wind pressure recorded by the WIND spacecraft. The initial solar wind pressure decrease was also associated with a decrease in cosmic noise absorption on an imaging riometer near 66° magnetic latitude. The observations suggest that perturbations in the solar wind pressure or IMF result in fast compressional mode waves that propagate through the magnetosphere and drive forced and resonant oscillations of geomagnetic field lines. The compressional wave field may also stimulate ionospheric perturbations. The observations demonstrate that HF radar ground scatter may contain important information on small-amplitude features, extending the scope and capability of these radars to track

  4. Magnetosheath plasma stability and ULF wave occurrence as a function of location in the magnetosheath and upstream bow shock parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, Jan; Escoubet, C. Philippe; Grison, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of a statistical study of the distribution of mirror and Alfvén-ion cyclotron (AIC) waves in the magnetosheath together with plasma parameters important for the stability of ULF waves, specifically ion temperature anisotropy and ion beta. Magnetosheath crossings registered by Cluster spacecraft over the course of 2 years served as a basis for the statistics. For each observation we used bow shock, magnetopause, and magnetosheath flow models to identify the relative position of the spacecraft with respect to magnetosheath boundaries and local properties of the upstream shock crossing. A strong dependence of both plasma parameters and mirror/AIC wave occurrence on upstream ΘBn and MA is identified. We analyzed a joint dependence of the same parameters on ΘBn and fractional distance between shock and magnetopause, zenith angle, and length of the flow line. Finally, the occurrence of mirror and AIC modes was compared against the respective instability thresholds. We noted that AIC waves occurred nearly exclusively under mirror stable conditions. This is interpreted in terms of different characters of nonlinear saturation of the two modes.

  5. The Effects of High Frequency ULF Wave Activity on the Spectral Characteristics of Coherent HF Radar Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. M.; Yeoman, T. K.; Woodfield, E. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is now a common practice to employ ground-based radars in order to distinguish between those regions of the Earth's upper atmosphere which are magnetically conjugate to open and closed field lines. Radar returns from ionospheric irregularities inside the polar cap and cusp regions generally exhibit large spectral widths in contrast to those which exist on closed field lines at lower latitudes. It has been suggested that the so-called Spectral Width Boundary (SWB) might act as a proxy for the open-closed field line boundary (OCFLB), which would then be an invaluable tool for investigating reconnection rates in the magnetosphere. The exact cause of the increased spectral widths observed at very high latitudes is still subject to considerable debate. Several mechanisms have been proposed. This paper compares a dusk-sector interval of coherent HF radar data with measurements made by an induction coil magnetometer located at Tromso, Norway (66° N geomagnetic). On this occasion, a series of transient regions of radar backscatter exhibiting large spectral widths are accompanied by increases in spectral power of ULF waves in the Pc1-2 frequency band. These observations would then, seem to support the possibility that high frequency magnetospheric wave activity at least contribute to the observed spectral characteristics and that such wave activity might play a significant role in the cusp and polar cap ionospheres.

  6. On the man-made contamination on ULF measurements: evidence for disturbances related to an electrified DC railway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Villante

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of measurements performed at L'Aquila (Italy during a deep minimum of solar and magnetospheric activity (2008–2010 allowed for the evaluation of possible contamination of the ultralow-frequency (ULF spectrum (f ≈ 1–500 mHz from artificial disturbances, practically in absence of natural signals. In addition, the city evacuation and the interruption of all industrial and social activities after the strong earthquake of 6 April 2009 allowed also for the examination of possible changes of the contamination level under remarkably changed environmental conditions. Our analysis reveals a persistent, season-independent, artificial signal, with the same characteristics in the H and Z components, that affects during daytime hours the entire spectrum; such contamination persists after the city evacuation. We speculate that the DC electrified railway (located ≈ 33 km from the Geomagnetic Observatory of L'Aquila, it maintained the same train traffic after the earthquake is responsible for the observed disturbances.

  7. Possible seismogenic origin of changes in the ULF EM resonant structure observed at Teoloyucan geomagnetic station, Mexico, 1999-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kotsarenko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the ULF resonant structure observed at Teoloyucan geomagnetic station has been provisionally studied in a possible relation with seismic activity in Mexico in the period 1999-2001. Two resonant lines were observed in the H-component (linear polarization in the frequency bands fR2=10.2–11.1 mHz and fR2=13.6–14.5 mHz, sometimes accompanied by other harmonics. The source of the observed resonances is possibly related with the geomagnetic location of the station (geomagnetic latitude λ=29.1° and its proximity to the equatorial electrojet (λ~30°. An enhancement of the carrier frequency of both resonances in the period 1 month–2 weeks was found before the strongest EQs. Also, a depression of the resonant structure just a few days before and a few days after some EQs seems to be correlated with seismic activity.

  8. Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, and Cluster Observations of EMIC Waves, ULF Pulsations, and an Electron Flux Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsbee, K.; Kletzing, C. A.; Smith, C. W.; Macdowall, R.; Spence, H.; Reeves, G.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Green, J. C.; Singer, H. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We examined an electron flux dropout during the 12-14 November 2012 geomagnetic storm using observations from seven spacecraft: the two Van Allen Probes, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS)-A (P5), Cluster 2, and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) 13, 14, and 15. The electron fluxes for energies greater than 2.0 MeV observed by GOES 13, 14, and 15 at geosynchronous orbit and by the Van Allen Probes remained at or near instrumental background levels for more than 24 h from 12 to 14 November. For energies of 0.8 MeV, the GOES satellites observed two shorter intervals of reduced electron fluxes. The first interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 12-13 November was associated with an interplanetary shock and a sudden impulse. Cluster, THEMIS, and GOES observed intense He+ electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves from just inside geosynchronous orbit out to the magnetopause across the dayside to the dusk flank. The second interval of reduced 0.8 MeV electron fluxes on 13-14 November was associated with a solar sector boundary crossing and development of a geomagnetic storm with Dstwaves observed by the Van Allen Probes near dawn. A combination of adiabatic effects, losses to the magnetopause, scattering by EMIC waves, and acceleration by ULF waves can explain the observed electron behavior.

  9. Morning sector drift-bounce resonance driven ULF waves observed in artificially-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    Full Text Available HF radar backscatter, which has been artificially-induced by a high power RF facility such as the EISCAT heater at Tromsø, has provided coherent radar ionospheric electric field data of unprecedented temporal resolution and accuracy. Here such data are used to investigate ULF wave processes observed by both the CUTLASS HF radars and the EISCAT UHF radar. Data from the SP-UK-OUCH experiment have revealed small-scale (high azimuthal wave number, m -45 waves, predominantly in the morning sector, thought to be brought about by the drift-bounce resonance processes. Conjugate observations from the Polar CAM-MICE instrument indicate the presence of a non-Maxwellian ion distribution function. Further statistical analysis has been undertaken, using the Polar TIMAS instrument, to reveal the prevalence and magnitude of the non-Maxwellian energetic particle populations thought to be responsible for generating these wave types.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  10. Morning sector drift-bounce resonance driven ULF waves observed in artificially-induced HF radar backscatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Baddeley

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available HF radar backscatter, which has been artificially-induced by a high power RF facility such as the EISCAT heater at Tromsø, has provided coherent radar ionospheric electric field data of unprecedented temporal resolution and accuracy. Here such data are used to investigate ULF wave processes observed by both the CUTLASS HF radars and the EISCAT UHF radar. Data from the SP-UK-OUCH experiment have revealed small-scale (high azimuthal wave number, m -45 waves, predominantly in the morning sector, thought to be brought about by the drift-bounce resonance processes. Conjugate observations from the Polar CAM-MICE instrument indicate the presence of a non-Maxwellian ion distribution function. Further statistical analysis has been undertaken, using the Polar TIMAS instrument, to reveal the prevalence and magnitude of the non-Maxwellian energetic particle populations thought to be responsible for generating these wave types.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; wave-particle interactions Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  11. Creating a gold standard surgical device: scientific discoveries leading to TVT and beyond: Ulf Ulmsten Memorial Lecture 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The discovery of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) began in 1986 with two unrelated observations: pressure applied unilaterally at the midurethra controlled urine loss on coughing; implanted Teflon tape caused a collagenous tissue reaction. In 1987, Mersilene tape was implanted retropubically in 13 large dogs, with the aim of creating an artificial collagenous pubourethral neoligament. Extensive testing showed that the operation was safe and effective. In 1988-1989, human testing was carried out (n = 30). Mersilene tape cured 100 % of stress and mixed incontinence with a sling in situ; however, there was simultaneous recurrence of the two symptoms in 50 % on sling removal. X-rays showed no elevation of the bladder neck. In 1990-1993, collaboration with Ulf Ulmsten took place: a permanently implanted tape was required. Polypropylene was the ideal material. In 2003, the neoligament principle was applied as an adjustable "micro" sling to the arcus tendineus fasciae pelvis (ATFP), cardinal, uterosacral ligaments, and perineal body for cure of cystocele, rectocele, and apical prolapse. It was found that symptoms such as urgency, nocturia, chronic pelvic pain, obstructive defecation syndrome (ODS), and fecal incontinence were frequently cured or improved. The lecture concluded with advice to younger members. Without new paradigms, there are no randomized controlled trials, no meta-analyses, Cochrane. Indeed, no progress. Be open to new concepts. Read Kuhn's "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" to understand the discovery process. Examine the relationship among symptoms, ATFP, cardinal, uterosacral ligaments, and the perineal body. This is the next paradigm. Don't disregard anomalies. Pursue them. They are the pathway to discovery. Innovation is born from challenge, not conformity. Persist, even when meeting resistance. Resistance is a sign that your discovery is important.

  12. Satellite and Ground Signatures of Kinetic and Inertial Scale ULF Alfven Waves Propagating in Warm Plasma in Earth's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, R.; Sydorenko, D.

    2015-12-01

    Results from a 3D global numerical model of Alfven wave propagation in a warm multi-species plasma in Earth's magnetosphere are presented. The model uses spherical coordinates, accounts for a non-dipole magnetic field, vertical structure of the ionosphere, and an air gap below the ionosphere. A realistic density model is used. Below the exobase altitude (2000 km) the densities and the temperatures of electrons, ions, and neutrals are obtained from the IRI and MSIS models. Above the exobase, ballistic (originating from the ionosphere and returning to ionosphere) and trapped (bouncing between two reflection points above the ionosphere) electron populations are considered similar to [Pierrard and Stegen (2008), JGR, v.113, A10209]. Plasma parameters at the exobase provided by the IRI are the boundary conditions for the ballistic electrons while the [Carpenter and Anderson (1992), JGR, v.97, p.1097] model of equatorial electron density defines parameters of the trapped electron population. In the simulations that are presented, Alfven waves with frequencies from 1 Hz to 0.01 Hz and finite azimuthal wavenumbers are excited in the magnetosphere and compared with Van Allen Probes data and ground-based observations from the CARISMA array of ground magnetometers. When short perpendicular scale waves reflect form the ionosphere, compressional Alfven waves are observed to propagate across the geomagnetic field in the ionospheric waveguide [e.g., Lysak (1999), JGR, v.104, p.10017]. Signals produced by the waves on the ground are discussed. The wave model is also applied to interpret recent Van Allen Probes observations of kinetic scale ULF waves that are associated with radiation belt electron dynamics and energetic particle injections.

  13. Introduction to IBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Day Art of IBS Gallery Contact Us Search Introduction to IBS Details What is IBS? Last Updated: ... tax-deductible donation. Make Donation What is IBS? Introduction to IBS Symptoms of IBS What Causes IBS? ...

  14. Magnetospheric ULF wave studies in the frame of Swarm mission: new advanced tools for automated detection of pulsations in magnetic and electric field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Georgiou, Marina; Giamini, Sigiava A.; Sandberg, Ingmar; Haagmans, Roger

    2014-05-01

    The rekindling of the interest in space science in the last 15 years has led to many successful satellite missions in the Earth's magnetosphere and topside ionosphere, which were able to provide the scientific community with high-quality data on the magnetic and electric fields surrounding our planet. This data pool will be further enriched by the measurements of ESA's Swarm mission, a constellation of three satellites in different polar orbits, flying at altitudes from 400 to 550 km, which was launched on the 22nd of November 2013. Aiming at the best scientific exploitation of this corpus of accumulated data, we have developed a set of analysis tools that can cope with measurements of various spacecraft, at various regions of the magnetosphere and in the topside ionosphere. Our algorithms are based on a combination of wavelet spectral methods and artificial neural network techniques and are suited for the detection of waves and wave-like disturbances as well as the extraction of several physical parameters. Our recent work demonstrates the applicability of our developed analysis tools, both for individual case studies and statistical analysis of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves. We provide evidence for a rare simultaneous observation of a ULF wave event in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere and surface: we have found a specific time interval during the Halloween 2003 magnetic storm, when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction, and have examined the ULF wave activity in the Pc3 (22-100 mHz), Pc4 (7-22 mHz) and Pc5 (1-7 mHz) bands using data from the Geotail, Cluster and CHAMP missions, as well as the CARISMA, GIMA and IMAGE magnetometer networks. Our study shows that the same wave event, characterized by increased activity in the high end of the Pc3 band, was simultaneously observed by all three satellite missions and by certain stations of ground networks. This observation provides a strong argument in favour of the

  15. Introduction to graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    1994-01-01

    Preface1. Pure Mathematics Introduction; Euclidean Geometry as Pure Mathematics; Games; Why Study Pure Mathematics?; What's Coming; Suggested Reading2. Graphs Introduction; Sets; Paradox; Graphs; Graph diagrams; Cautions; Common Graphs; Discovery; Complements and Subgraphs; Isomorphism; Recognizing Isomorphic Graphs; Semantics The Number of Graphs Having a Given nu; Exercises; Suggested Reading3. Planar Graphs Introduction; UG, K subscript 5, and the Jordan Curve Theorem; Are there More Nonplanar Graphs?; Expansions; Kuratowski's Theorem; Determining Whether a Graph is Planar or

  16. Bayesian Networks An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Koski, Timo

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian Networks: An Introduction provides a self-contained introduction to the theory and applications of Bayesian networks, a topic of interest and importance for statisticians, computer scientists and those involved in modelling complex data sets. The material has been extensively tested in classroom teaching and assumes a basic knowledge of probability, statistics and mathematics. All notions are carefully explained and feature exercises throughout. Features include:.: An introduction to Dirichlet Distribution, Exponential Families and their applications.; A detailed description of learni

  17. Introduction to imprecise probabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Augustin, Thomas; de Cooman, Gert; Troffaes, Matthias C M

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the theory has become widely accepted and has been further developed, but a detailed introduction is needed in order to make the material available and accessible to a wide audience. This will be the first book providing such an introduction, covering core theory and recent developments which can be applied to many application areas. All authors of individual chapters are leading researchers on the specific topics, assuring high quality and up-to-date contents. An Introduction to Imprecise Probabilities provides a comprehensive introduction to imprecise probabilities, includin

  18. Introduction to clinical nutrition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sardesai, Vishwanath M

    2012-01-01

    .... Introduction to Clinical Nutrition, Third edition discusses the physiologic and metabolic interrelationships of all nutrients and their roles in health maintenance and the prevention of various...

  19. Parameters of 1-4 mHz (Pc5/Pi3) ULF pulsations during the intervals preceding non-triggered substorms at high geomagnetic latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosikova, Nataliya; Yagova, Nadezda; Baddeley, Lisa; Kozyreva, Olga; Lorentzen, Dag; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav

    2017-04-01

    One of the important questions for understanding substorm generation is the possible existence of specific pre-substorm variations of plasma, particles and electromagnetic field parameters. In this case analyzing of isolated non-triggered substorms (i.e. substorms that occur under quiet geomagnetic conditions without any visible triggers in IMF or SW) gives benefits for investigation of processes of substorm preparation. It was shown in previous studies that during a few hours preceding a non-triggered isolated substorm, coherent geomagnetic and aurroral luminosity pulsations are observed. Moreover, PSD, amplitudes of geomagnetic fluctuations in Pc5/Pi3 (1-4 mHz) frequency range and some spectral parameters differ from those registered on days without substorms. In present work this sort of pulsations has been studied in details. Features of longitudinal and latitudinal profiles are presented. Possible correlation with ULF disturbances in IMF and SW as well as in the magnetotail/magnetosheath are discussed.

  20. Application of polarization ellipse technique for analysis of ULF magnetic fields from two distant stations in Koyna-Warna seismoactive region, West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dudkin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to find the source azimuth of the ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM signals believed to be emanating from well defined seismic zone. The method is test applied on magnetic data procured from the seismoactive region of Koyna-Warna, known for prolonged reservoir triggered seismicity. Extremely low-noise, high-sensitivity LEMI-30 search coil magnetometers were used to measure simultaneously the vector magnetic field in the frequency range 0.001–32 Hz at two stations, the one located within and another ~100 km away from the seismic active zone. During the observation campaign extending from 15 March to 30 June 2006 two earthquakes (EQs of magnitude (ML>4 occurred, which are searched for the presence of precursory EM signals.

    Comparison of polarization ellipses (PE parameters formed by the magnetic field components at the measurement stations, in select frequency bands, allows discrimination of seismo-EM signals from the natural background ULF signals of magnetospheric/ionospheric origin. The magnetic field components corresponding to spectral bands dominated by seismo-EM fields define the PE plane which at any instant contains the source of the EM fields. Intersection lines of such defined PE planes for distant observation stations clutter in to the source region. Approximating the magnetic-dipole configuration for the source, the magnetic field components along the intersection lines suggest that azimuth of the EM source align in the NNW-SSE direction. This direction well coincides with the orientation of nodal plane of normal fault plane mechanism for the two largest EQs recorded during the campaign. More significantly the correspondence of this direction with the tectonic controlled trend in local seismicity, it has been surmised that high pressure fluid flow along the fault that facilitate EQs in the region may also be the source mechanism for EM fields by electrokinetic effect.

  1. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, G.; Daglis, I. A.; Mann, I. R.; Papadimitriou, C.; Zesta, E.; Georgiou, M.; Haagmans, R.; Tsinganos, K.

    2015-10-01

    We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22-100 mHz) and Pc4-5 (1-22 mHz) ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time-frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT) conjunction near the dayside noon-midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT) onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  2. Multi-satellite study of the excitation of Pc3 and Pc4-5 ULF waves and their penetration across the plasmapause during the 2003 Halloween superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balasis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We use multi-satellite and ground-based magnetic data to investigate the concurrent characteristics of Pc3 (22–100 mHz and Pc4-5 (1–22 mHz ultra-low-frequency (ULF waves on the 31 October 2003 during the Halloween magnetic superstorm. ULF waves are seen in the Earth's magnetosphere, topside ionosphere, and Earth's surface, enabling an examination of their propagation characteristics. We employ a time–frequency analysis technique and examine data from when the Cluster and CHAMP spacecraft were in good local time (LT conjunction near the dayside noon–midnight meridian. We find clear evidence of the excitation of both Pc3 and Pc4-5 waves, but more significantly we find a clear separation in the L shell of occurrence of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere, separated by the density gradients at the plasmapause boundary layer. A key finding of the wavelet spectral analysis of data collected from the Geotail, Cluster, and CHAMP spacecraft and the CARISMA and GIMA magnetometer networks was a remarkably clear transition of the waves' frequency into dominance in a higher-frequency regime within the Pc3 range. Analysis of the local field line resonance frequency suggests that the separation of the Pc4-5 and Pc3 emissions across the plasmapause is consistent with the structure of the inhomogeneous field line resonance Alfvén continuum. The Pc4-5 waves are consistent with direct excitation by the solar wind in the plasma trough, as well as Pc3 wave absorption in the plasmasphere following excitation by upstream waves originating at the bow shock in the local noon sector. However, despite good solar wind coverage, our study was not able to unambiguously identify a clear explanation for the sharp universal time (UT onset of the discrete frequency and large-amplitude Pc3 wave power.

  3. Introduction to surveillance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, JK

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & OverviewIntroduction Brief History of Surveillance Technologies & TechniquesOptical SurveillanceAerial Surveillance Audio Surveillance Radio-Wave SurveillanceGlobal Positioning Systems Sensors Computers & the Internet Data Cards Biochemical Surveillance Animal Surveillance Biometrics Genetics Practical ConsiderationsPrevalence of Surveillance Effectiveness of Surveillance Freedom & Privacy IssuesConstitutional Freedoms Privacy Safeguards & Intrusions ResourcesReferences Glossary Index

  4. Introduction to Part 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2015-01-01

    A brief contextualising discussion of Western Music History and its relations to Theological Aesthetical Thought since Carolingian Times as an introduction to 3 music articles in Part 3 of the volume.......A brief contextualising discussion of Western Music History and its relations to Theological Aesthetical Thought since Carolingian Times as an introduction to 3 music articles in Part 3 of the volume....

  5. Environmental Psychology: An Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, L.; Berg, van den A.E.; Groot, de J.I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental Psychology: An Introduction offers a research-based introduction to the psychological relationship between humans and their built and natural environments and discusses how sustainable environments can be created to the benefit of both people and nature •Explores the environment's

  6. Introduction to renewable energy

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Vaughn C

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEnergy and SocietyTypes of EnergyRenewable EnergyAdvantages/DisadvantagesEconomicsGlobal WarmingOrder of Magnitude EstimatesGrowth (Exponential)SolutionsEnergyIntroductionDefinition of Energy and PowerHeatThermodynamicsEnergy Dilemma in Light of the Laws of ThermodynamicsUse of Fossil FuelsNuclearFinite ResourceSummarySunSolar PowerElectromagnetic SpectrumEnergy Balance of the EarthEarth-Sun MotionInsolationSolar ResourceGreenhouse EffectHeat Transfer and StorageIntroductionConductionConvectionRadiationThermal MassSeasonal Heating or CoolingThermal ComfortSolar Heating and CoolingB

  7. Introduction to quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, A C

    2003-01-01

    Introduction to Quantum Mechanics is an introduction to the power and elegance of quantum mechanics. Assuming little in the way of prior knowledge, quantum concepts are carefully and precisely presented, and explored through numerous applications and problems. Some of the more challenging aspects that are essential for a modern appreciation of the subject have been included, but are introduced and developed in the simplest way possible.Undergraduates taking a first course on quantum mechanics will find this text an invaluable introduction to the field and help prepare them for more adv

  8. Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is a disease where there is scarring ... of pulmonary fibrosis. Learn more How Is Pulmonary Fibrosis Diagnosed? Pulmonary fibrosis can be difficult to diagnose, so it ...

  9. MOOC Introduction to Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hollander, Franciscus; Piersma, Kristien

    Interview met Margriet Hidding, Birgit Lijmbach en Jeroen van Engen, medewerkers van het Talencentrum en de makers van de Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Introduction to Dutch over het grote succes van deze cursus

  10. Radiation Protection: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, M.

    2005-01-01

    The abstract gives an overview and introduction to the activities of SCK-CEN's Radiation Protection department. Main strategic developments and achievements in the field of life sciences, policy supports and medical applications are summarised

  11. Introduction: Ideologies of Youth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    2011-12-01

    Dec 1, 2011 ... target all age groups in their youth-oriented programmes. If the donor- ... van Dijk, de Bruijn, Cardoso, Butter: Introduction – Ideologies of Youth ...... Toward a Theory of Vital Conjunctures', American Anthropologist, vol. 104,.

  12. Complex Systems: An Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 9. Complex Systems: An Introduction - Anthropic Principle, Terrestrial Complexity, Complex Materials. V K Wadhawan. General Article Volume 14 Issue 9 September 2009 pp 894-906 ...

  13. Introduction: perspectives on Porter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Relevance of Strategy research: focus on Michael Porter's contributions Strategy is a fascinating field of enquiry, both for managers looking for a sustainable competitive advantage and for academic researchers looking for the reasons behind superior firm performance.

  14. Introduction to graph theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Robin J

    1985-01-01

    Graph Theory has recently emerged as a subject in its own right, as well as being an important mathematical tool in such diverse subjects as operational research, chemistry, sociology and genetics. This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject.

  15. Introduction to numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrand, F B

    1987-01-01

    Well-known, respected introduction, updated to integrate concepts and procedures associated with computers. Computation, approximation, interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, smoothing of data, other topics in lucid presentation. Includes 150 additional problems in this edition. Bibliography.

  16. General introduction to glucosinolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Barbara Ann

    2016-01-01

    will be presented a general introduction to glucosinolates ranging from the evolution of glucosinolates to the many roles glucosinolates have for humans as well as an overview of the current knowledge on the orchestration of the glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. The latter includes an introduction to the genes...... to the plasma membrane. Examples of how the knowledge gained from basic research has been translated into applied glucosinolate research through pathway and transport engineering will be presented....

  17. Stochastic processes an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Peter Watts

    2009-01-01

    Some Background on ProbabilityIntroduction Probability Conditional probability and independence Discrete random variables Continuous random variables Mean and variance Some standard discrete probability distributions Some standard continuous probability distributions Generating functions Conditional expectationSome Gambling ProblemsGambler's ruin Probability of ruin Some numerical simulations Duration of the game Some variations of gambler's ruinRandom WalksIntroduction Unrestricted random walks The probability distribution after n steps First returns of the symmetric random walkMarkov ChainsS

  18. Introduction to elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, David J

    2008-01-01

    This is the first quantitative treatment of elementary particle theory that is accessible to undergraduates. Using a lively, informal writing style, the author strikes a balance between quantitative rigor and intuitive understanding. The first chapter provides a detailed historical introduction to the subject. Subsequent chapters offer a consistent and modern presentation, covering the quark model, Feynman diagrams, quantum electrodynamics, and gauge theories. A clear introduction to the Feynman rules, using a simple model, helps readers learn the calculational techniques without the complicat

  19. Introduction to Geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.

    1997-05-01

    Introduction to Geostatistics presents practical techniques for engineers and earth scientists who routinely encounter interpolation and estimation problems when analyzing data from field observations. Requiring no background in statistics, and with a unique approach that synthesizes classic and geostatistical methods, this book offers linear estimation methods for practitioners and advanced students. Well illustrated with exercises and worked examples, Introduction to Geostatistics is designed for graduate-level courses in earth sciences and environmental engineering.

  20. Introduction to remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    2007-01-01

    Addressing the need for updated information in remote sensing, Introduction to Remote Sensing, Second Edition provides a full and authoritative introduction for scientists who need to know the scope, potential, and limitations in the field. The authors discuss the physical principles of common remote sensing systems and examine the processing, interpretation, and applications of data. This new edition features updated and expanded material, including greater coverage of applications from across earth, environmental, atmospheric, and oceanographic sciences. Illustrated with remotely sensed colo

  1. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  2. Review of unprecedented ULF electromagnetic anomalous emissions possibly related to the Wenchuan MS = 8.0 earthquake, on 12 May 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents ground based ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic field measurements in the frequency range 0.1–10 Hz from January 2007 to December 2008. In this time period a strong earthquake series hits the Wenchuan region with a main shock of magnitude MS = 8.0 on 12 May 2008. The Hebei ULF electromagnetic observation network includes eight observation stations in north China and the observation system named E-EM is employed to record the electric potential difference between two electrodes with an analog automatic real-time continuous pen recorder. First, weak electric signals appeared on 11 October 2007 at Ningjin station, most of which are with relative long periods ~0.4–3 s and unequal amplitudes ~0.5–20 mm. Then, similar signals appeared at Gaobeidian station at the end of October. Abnormal behavior with various time intervals appeared randomly and not every day. At the beginning of April 2008, one and a half months before the Wenchuan MS = 8.0 earthquake, the anomalies were gradually subject to an intensive increase mainly in Gaobeidian SN direction and Ningjin EW direction. The abnormal behavior appeared almost every day and the amplitudes of electric signals, with short periods of ~0.1–0.3 s, enhanced to ~3–30 mm. Qingxian station started to record marginally high frequency signals in SN and EW components in the middle of April. On 9 May, 3 days before the main shock, the amplitude of high frequency information increased sharply at the same time in two components at Gaobeidian station and the maximum amplitude was up to 70 mm, i.e. 1.3 mV m−1 for the electric field. This situation did not stop until 17 May, 5 days after the main event. However, this kind of climax phenomena did not happen at Ningjin station and Qingxian station. Then weak anomalous information lasted about four months again, and strong signals appeared again for a short time before several powerful aftershocks. It is the first time that an

  3. Biophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cotteril, Rodney

    2002-01-01

    Biophysics: An Introduction, is a concise balanced introduction to this subject. Written in an accessible and readable style, the book takes a fresh, modern approach with the author successfully combining key concepts and theory with relevant applications and examples drawn from the field as a whole. Beginning with a brief introduction to the origins of biophysics, the book takes the reader through successive levels of complexity, from atoms to molecules, structures, systems and ultimately to the behaviour of organisms. The book also includes extensive coverage of biopolymers, biomembranes, biological energy, and nervous systems. The text not only explores basic ideas, but also discusses recent developments, such as protein folding, DNA/RNA conformations, molecular motors, optical tweezers and the biological origins of consciousness and intelligence.

  4. Introduction to magnetochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Earnshaw, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Magnetochemistry provides an introduction to the more important aspects of magnetochemistry. The measurement of magnetic moment has been one of the most consistently useful to coordination chemists. For teaching purposes it provides a simple method of illustrating the ideas of electronic structure, and in research it can provide fundamental information about the bonding and stereochemistry of complexes. The book contains six chapters covering topics such as free atoms and ions, transition metal complexes, crystal field theory, second and third row transition metal complexes, a

  5. An Introduction to Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2007-01-01

    These notes intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defences against malware are discussed.......These notes intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defences against malware are discussed....

  6. An Introduction to Malware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    2017-01-01

    These notes, intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security, give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed.......These notes, intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security, give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed....

  7. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  8. Introduction to quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade there has been an extemely rapid growth in the interest and development of quantum group theory.This book provides students and researchers with a practical introduction to the principal ideas of quantum groups theory and its applications to quantum mechanical and modern field theory problems. It begins with a review of, and introduction to, the mathematical aspects of quantum deformation of classical groups, Lie algebras and related objects (algebras of functions on spaces, differential and integral calculi). In the subsequent chapters the richness of mathematical structure

  9. Applied energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mohammad Omar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Applied EnergyGeneral IntroductionEnergy and Power BasicsEnergy EquationEnergy Generation SystemsEnergy Storage and MethodsEnergy Efficiencies and LossesEnergy industry and Energy Applications in Small -Medium Enterprises (SME) industriesEnergy IndustryEnergy-Intensive industryEnergy Applications in SME Energy industriesEnergy Sources and SupplyEnergy SourcesEnergy Supply and Energy DemandEnergy Flow Visualization and Sankey DiagramEnergy Management and AnalysisEnergy AuditsEnergy Use and Fuel Consumption StudyEnergy Life-Cycle AnalysisEnergy and EnvironmentEnergy Pollutants, S

  10. Introduction to nonimaging optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Nonimaging Optics covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded Second Edition: Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging opticsAdds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixingIncorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, int

  11. Introduction to fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Guanrong

    2005-01-01

    Introduction to Fuzzy Systems provides students with a self-contained introduction that requires no preliminary knowledge of fuzzy mathematics and fuzzy control systems theory. Simplified and readily accessible, it encourages both classroom and self-directed learners to build a solid foundation in fuzzy systems. After introducing the subject, the authors move directly into presenting real-world applications of fuzzy logic, revealing its practical flavor. This practicality is then followed by basic fuzzy systems theory. The book also offers a tutorial on fuzzy control theory, based mainly on th

  12. Introduction to information processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dietel, Harvey M

    2014-01-01

    An Introduction to Information Processing provides an informal introduction to the computer field. This book introduces computer hardware, which is the actual computing equipment.Organized into three parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the evolution of personal computing and includes detailed case studies on two of the most essential personal computers for the 1980s, namely, the IBM Personal Computer and Apple's Macintosh. This text then traces the evolution of modern computing systems from the earliest mechanical calculating devices to microchips. Other chapte

  13. Game theory an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, E N

    2013-01-01

    An exciting new edition of the popular introduction to game theory and its applications The thoroughly expanded Second Edition presents a unique, hands-on approach to game theory. While most books on the subject are too abstract or too basic for mathematicians, Game Theory: An Introduction, Second Edition offers a blend of theory and applications, allowing readers to use theory and software to create and analyze real-world decision-making models. With a rigorous, yet accessible, treatment of mathematics, the book focuses on results that can be used to

  14. Acoustics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuttruff, Heinrich

    2006-01-01

    This definitive textbook provides students with a comprehensive introduction to acoustics. Beginning with the basic physical ideas, Acoustics balances the fundamentals with engineering aspects, applications and electroacoustics, also covering music, speech and the properties of human hearing. The concepts of acoustics are exposed and applied in:room acousticssound insulation in buildingsnoise controlunderwater sound and ultrasoundScientifically thorough, but with mathematics kept to a minimum, Acoustics is the perfect introduction to acoustics for students at any level of mechanical, electrical or civil engineering courses and an accessible resource for architects, musicians or sound engineers requiring a technical understanding of acoustics and their applications.

  15. Introduction to nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchler, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction to nuclear reaction phenomena is aimed primarily but not exclusively at readers at the undergraduate student level. An overview of the subject is presented in the first two chapters entitled - Some background information and Introduction to nuclear reactions. The third chapter reviews scattering theory with emphasis on the underlying physical ideas and also provides schematic entrees to the more advanced topics. The physical models which have been developed to account for the various aspects of nuclear phenomena are described in more detail in chapter 4. References and exercises are appended to each chapter. (U.K.)

  16. Introduction to the Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two ...... important qualifications for the understanding of the contributions and results established in the project.......In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two...

  17. Introduction to UAV systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlstrom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been widely adopted in the military world over the last decade and the success of these military applications is increasingly driving efforts to establish unmanned aircraft in non-military roles. Introduction to UAV Systems, 4th edition provides a comprehensive introduction to all of the elements of a complete Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS). It addresses the air vehicle, mission planning and control, several types of mission payloads, data links and how they interact with mission performance, and launch and recovery concepts. This

  18. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  19. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  20. Introduction to quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Marco A.R.

    1994-01-01

    An elementary introduction to quantum groups is presented. The example of Universal Enveloping Algebra of deformed SU(2) is analysed in detail. It is also discussed systems made up of bosonic q-oscillators at finite temperature within the formalism of Thermo-Field Dynamics. (author). 39 refs

  1. Introduction to nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.

    1975-01-01

    After a short introduction on stellar evolution, the physical foundations of nucleosynthesis are exposed: H, He, C and O fusion, Si burning and the equilibrium process. The effect of neutrinos in the last stages of stellar evolution and Supernova explosions are treated too. Afterwards the neutron capture process, fast and slow, are considerated concluding with cosmic nucleogenesis and nucleosynthesis in overmasive objects. (author)

  2. Russian: An Active Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Nina

    The Active Introduction is one of the modules in an array of materials used in Russian training for beginners at the Foreign Service Institute. It is essentially a catalog of sentences relating to typical daily activities which can be combined to form different communication sequences in dialog form. Students learn to speak Russian through…

  3. Introduction to the Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two...... important qualifications for the understanding of the contributions and results established in the project....

  4. Introduction to LCA Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2018-01-01

    In order to offer the reader an overview of the LCA methodology in the preparation of the more detailed description of its different phases, a brief introduction is given to the methodological framework according to the ISO 14040 standard and the main elements of each of its phases. Emphasis...

  5. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  6. Introduction: Adapting Idols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction book Adapting Idols Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production

  7. Introduction to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Bert

    1990-01-01

    Highly regarded for its exceptional clarity, imaginative and instructive exercises, and fine writing style, this concise book offers an ideal introduction to the fundamentals of topology. It provides a simple, thorough survey of elementary topics, starting with set theory and advancing to metric and topological spaces, connectedness, and compactness. 1975 edition.

  8. Introduction to statistics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The three lectures will present an introduction to statistical methods as used in High Energy Physics. As the time will be very limited, the course will seek mainly to define the important issues and to introduce the most wide used tools. Topics will include the interpretation and use of probability, estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses.

  9. Introduction to Statistics course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The four lectures will present an introduction to statistical methods as used in High Energy Physics. As the time will be very limited, the course will seek mainly to define the important issues and to introduce the most wide used tools. Topics will include the interpretation and use of probability, estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses.

  10. Introduction: The Transparency Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teurlings, J.; Stauff, M.

    2014-01-01

    Besides giving an overview on the individual contributions, this introduction to the special issue on transparency delineates a conceptual context for a critical analysis of the contemporary discourse on transparency and the media mechanisms related to it. It focuses on three ambivalences inherent

  11. Introduction to International Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crummett, Dan M.; Crummett, Jerrie

    This set of student and teacher guides is intended for use in a course to prepare students for entry-level employment in such occupational areas in international trade as business/finance, communications, logistics, and marketing. The following topics are covered in the course's five instructional units: introduction to careers in international…

  12. Introduction to association schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The present paper gives an introduction to the theory of association schemes, following Bose-Mesner (1959), Biggs (1974), Delsarte (1973), Bannai-Ito (1984) and Brouwer-Cohen-Neumaier (1989). Apart from definitions and many examples, also several proofs and some problems are included. The paragraphs

  13. An introduction to radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nias, A.H.W.; Dimbleby, R.

    1990-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to quantitative radiobiology with emphasis on practical aspects of the subject. Among the topics considered are reparable damage, densely ionizing radiation, normal and malignant cells, and whole body regulation. These and other aspects of radiation biology are described in detail

  14. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of…

  15. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented

  16. Introduction to HACCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to HACCP Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit USDA-Agricultural Research Service Russell Research Center Athens, GA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov HACCP is an acronym for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point and was initially developed by the Pillsbury Company a...

  17. An Introduction to Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, Robin

    2017-01-01

    These notes, intended for use in DTU course 02233 on Network Security, give a short introduction to the topic of malware. The most important types of malware are described, together with their basic principles of operation and dissemination, and defenses against malware are discussed.

  18. Introduction to statistics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The three lectures will present an introduction to statistical methods as used in High Energy Physics. As the time will be very limited, the course will seek mainly to define the important issues and to introduce the most wide used tools. Topics will include the interpretation and use of probability, estimation of parameters and testing of hypotheses.

  19. Introduction to ROC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, C.A.; Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    An elementary introduction to ROC analysis illustrates how ROC curves depend on observer threshold levels and discusses the relation between ROC curve parameters and other measures of observer performance including accuracy sensitivity specificity true positive fraction, true negative fraction, false positive fraction and false negative fraction

  20. Introduction and fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    This introduction discusses advances in the fundamental sciences which underlie the applied science of health physics and radiation protection. Risk assessments in nuclear medicine are made by defining the conditions of exposure, identification of adverse effects, relating exposure with effect, and estimation of the overall risk for ionizing radiations

  1. Labour and Passion. : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Joke Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this introduction to the themed section on ‘Labour and passion’, it is argued that work has bled into all areas of life. Political economists and media production researchers have shown how both paid and unpaid labour are singularly important and build upon one another. The set of

  2. Diophantine geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hindry, Marc

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.

  3. Introduction to superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaku, M.

    1988-01-01

    This tutorial introduces the development of, and current trends in, superstring theory, a significant and still controversial attempt to unify general relatively and quantum field theory. Stressing current areas of research activity, Introduction to Superstrings addresses topics including string field theory, multi-loops and Teichmuller spaces, conformal field theory, and four-dimensional superstrings

  4. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  5. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  6. Introduction to Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gary

    There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

  7. Introduction to Film Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E.

    This booklet is intended for teachers who are now teaching units in film production as part of a program in communication or who wish to begin work with filmmaking in such a program. The first section is intended to serve as a brief introduction to film theory, while a major portion of the rest of the booklet is devoted to film projects which may…

  8. Introduction to particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitoun, R.

    2000-01-01

    This book proposes an introduction to particle physics that requires only a high-school level mathematical knowledge. Elementary particles (leptons, quarks, bosons) are presented according to a modern view taking into account of their symmetries and interactions. The author shows how physicists have elaborated the standard model and what are its implications in cosmology. (J.S.)

  9. Introduction to risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper gives an introduction to risk assessment. It discusses the basic concepts of risk assessment, nuclear risk assessment process and products, the role of risk assessment products in nuclear safety assurance, the relationship between risk assessment and other safety analysis and risk assessment and safe operating envelope

  10. Successful introduction of innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoots, K.; Jeeninga, H.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of new technology is sometimes troubled by discontinuity in incentive schemes. By making prior assessments of the necessary means, the real time span for the incentive scheme and by maintaining this scheme until the technology is mature enough to enter the market, the success of innovation trajectories can be increased significantly. [mk] [nl

  11. Successful introduction of innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoots, K.; Jeeninga, H.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of new technology sometimes proceeds sluggishly due to discontinuity in incentive schemes. Estimating in advance which means are required, what a realistic time span is for the incentive scheme and continuing this scheme until the technology is marketable can significantly increase the success of innovation trajectories. [mk] [nl

  12. Chemical Safety – Introduction

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    A course of "Chemical Safety – Introduction" will be held in English on 29 May 2009, 9:30-12:00. There are some places left. If you are interested in participating, please register on the Training Catalogue. You will then receive an invitation by email.

  13. ULF hydromagnetic oscillations with the discrete spectrum as eigenmodes of MHD-resonator in the near-Earth part of the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mazur

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A new concept is proposed for the emergence of ULF geomagnetic oscillations with a discrete spectrum of frequencies (0.8, 1.3, 1.9, 2.6 ...mHz registered in the magnetosphere's midnight-morning sector. The concept relies on the assumption that these oscillations are MHD-resonator eigenmodes in the near-Earth plasma sheet. This magnetospheric area is where conditions are met for fast magnetosonic waves to be confined. The confinement is a result of the velocity values of fast magnetosonic waves in the near-Earth plasma sheet which differ greatly from those in the magnetotail lobes, leading to turning points forming in the tailward direction for the waves under study. To compute the eigenfrequency spectrum of such a resonator, we used a model magnetosphere with parabolic geometry. The fundamental harmonics of this resonator's eigenfrequencies are shown to be capable of being clustered into groups with average frequencies matching, with good accuracy, the frequencies of the observed oscillations. A possible explanation for the stability of the observed oscillation frequencies is that such a resonator might only form when the magnetosphere is in a certain unperturbed state.

  14. ULF-ELF Electromagnetic Emissions Over the Fault in Kangra Valley of India and their Relation With Radon Emanation (Intercosmos 24 Satellite Data)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, Yu.M.; Mikhailova, G.A.; Kapustina, O.V.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental investigations of space and spectral characteristics of the electric component of the electromagnetic waves in the outer ionosphere in the ULF (f < 30 Hz) and ELF (f < 1 kHz) ranges were carried out over north fault of the India - Australian plate. Records of the 10 narrow band filters in the frequency range from 8 to 970 Hz with NVK-receiver mounting on Intercosmos 24 satellite were used. In the day-time at sensitivity level near 2 μV/m emissions couldn't observe. In the night-time emissions, localized exactly in space above the fault, was observed in mentioned full frequency range. In spectral distribution of emission maximum in frequency range from 150 to 623 Hz allocated. In those days, when anomalous bursts of radon concentration in underground waters in Kangra Valley was observed the simultaneous amplification of electric component of field at frequency 8 Hz more on the factor more than ten and in frequency range from 150 to 623 Hz, where usually was maximum, on the factor two or three also was observed. This fact ensures statement, that the noises are generated by the lightning discharges, but amplification of their intensity on satellite heights was related with decreasing of ELF waves attenuation in the time of their penetration through lower ionosphere, modified by electric field in preparing phase of the earthquakes. (author)

  15. ULF hydromagnetic oscillations with the discrete spectrum as eigenmodes of MHD-resonator in the near-Earth part of the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mazur

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A new concept is proposed for the emergence of ULF geomagnetic oscillations with a discrete spectrum of frequencies (0.8, 1.3, 1.9, 2.6 ...mHz registered in the magnetosphere's midnight-morning sector. The concept relies on the assumption that these oscillations are MHD-resonator eigenmodes in the near-Earth plasma sheet. This magnetospheric area is where conditions are met for fast magnetosonic waves to be confined. The confinement is a result of the velocity values of fast magnetosonic waves in the near-Earth plasma sheet which differ greatly from those in the magnetotail lobes, leading to turning points forming in the tailward direction for the waves under study. To compute the eigenfrequency spectrum of such a resonator, we used a model magnetosphere with parabolic geometry. The fundamental harmonics of this resonator's eigenfrequencies are shown to be capable of being clustered into groups with average frequencies matching, with good accuracy, the frequencies of the observed oscillations. A possible explanation for the stability of the observed oscillation frequencies is that such a resonator might only form when the magnetosphere is in a certain unperturbed state.

  16. Introduction to modern magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Galtier, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of ordinary matter in the Universe is in the form of ionized fluids, or plasmas. The study of the magnetic properties of such electrically conducting fluids, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), has become a central theory in astrophysics, as well as in areas such as engineering and geophysics. This textbook offers a comprehensive introduction to MHD and its recent applications, in nature and in laboratory plasmas; from the machinery of the Sun and galaxies, to the cooling of nuclear reactors and the geodynamo. It exposes advanced undergraduate and graduate students to both classical and modern concepts, making them aware of current research and the ever-widening scope of MHD. Rigorous derivations within the text, supplemented by over 100 illustrations and followed by exercises and worked solutions at the end of each chapter, provide an engaging and practical introduction to the subject and an accessible route into this wide-ranging field.

  17. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L

    2013-01-01

    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  18. Introduction to Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    1993-01-01

    The book represents an introduction to the theory of abelian varieties with a view to arithmetic. The aim is to introduce some of the basics of the theory as well as some recent arithmetic applications to graduate students and researchers in other fields. The first part contains proofs of the Abel-Jacobi theorem, Riemann's relations and the Lefschetz theorem on projective embeddings over the complex numbers in the spirit of S. Lang's book Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. Then the Jacobians of Fermat curves as well as some modular curves are discussed. Finally, as an application, Faltings' proof of the Mordell conjecture and its intermediate steps, the Tate conjecture and the Shafarevich conjecture, are sketched. - H. Lange for MathSciNet.

  19. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  20. Introduction to computer networking

    CERN Document Server

    Robertazzi, Thomas G

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a broad look at both fundamental networking technology and new areas that support it and use it. It is a concise introduction to the most prominent, recent technological topics in computer networking. Topics include network technology such as wired and wireless networks, enabling technologies such as data centers, software defined networking, cloud and grid computing and applications such as networks on chips, space networking and network security. The accessible writing style and non-mathematical treatment makes this a useful book for the student, network and communications engineer, computer scientist and IT professional. • Features a concise, accessible treatment of computer networking, focusing on new technological topics; • Provides non-mathematical introduction to networks in their most common forms today;< • Includes new developments in switching, optical networks, WiFi, Bluetooth, LTE, 5G, and quantum cryptography.

  1. Mind a brief introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    2004-01-01

    "The philosophy of mind is unique among contemporary philosophical subjects," writes John Searle, "in that all of the most famous and influential theories are false." One of the world's most eminent thinkers, Searle dismantles these theories as he presents a vividly written, comprehensive introduction to the mind. He begins with a look at the twelve problems of philosophy of mind--which he calls "Descartes and Other Disasters"--problems which he returns to throughout the volume, as he illuminates such topics as materialism, consciousness, the mind-body problem, intentionality, mental causation, free will, and the self. The book offers a refreshingly direct and engaging introduction to one of the most intriguing areas of philosophy.

  2. Guest Editor's Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This introductory article’s point of departure is the transformation processes that have taken place in theMiddle East since 2011. It presents perspectives in the academic discussions following the surprising events in a post-‘Arab Spring’ scenario. The Introduction emphasizes that it is the ambi......This introductory article’s point of departure is the transformation processes that have taken place in theMiddle East since 2011. It presents perspectives in the academic discussions following the surprising events in a post-‘Arab Spring’ scenario. The Introduction emphasizes...... that it is the ambition of this collection of articles to discuss and make sense of the significant differences in the developments,where newgeopolitical dynamics reshape theMENA-region’s post-‘Arab Spring’ reality....

  3. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2015-01-01

    The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.

  4. Introduction to group theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canals B.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This chapter is a concise mathematical introduction into the algebra of groups. It is build up in the way that definitions are followed by propositions and proofs. The concepts and the terminology introduced here will serve as a basis for the following chapters that deal with group theory in the stricter sense and its application to problems in physics. The mathematical prerequisites are at the bachelor level.1

  5. Introduction to superstring theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS 5 x S5. (author)

  6. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  7. Introduction to contact mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2000-01-01

    Contact mechanics deals with the elastic or plastic contact between two solid objects, and is thus intimately connected with such topics as fracture, hardness, and elasticity.This text, intended for advanced undergraduates, begins with an introduction to the mechanical properties of materials, general fracture mechanics, and fractures in brittle solids.This is followed by a detailed discussion of stresses and the nature of elastic and elastic-plastic contact.

  8. Introduction to minimax

    CERN Document Server

    Dem'yanov, V F; Louvish, D

    2014-01-01

    This user-friendly text offers a thorough introduction to the part of optimization theory that lies between approximation theory and mathematical programming, both linear and nonlinear. Written by two distinguished mathematicians, the expert treatment covers the essentials, incorporating important background materials, examples, and extensive notes.Geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematical programming, the text explores best approximation by algebraic polynomials in both discrete and continuous cases; the discrete problem, with and without constraints; the gene

  9. Introduction to Feynman diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bilenky, Samoil Mikhelevich

    1974-01-01

    Introduction to Feynman Diagrams provides Feynman diagram techniques and methods for calculating quantities measured experimentally. The book discusses topics Feynman diagrams intended for experimental physicists. Topics presented include methods for calculating the matrix elements (by perturbation theory) and the basic rules for constructing Feynman diagrams; techniques for calculating cross sections and polarizations; processes in which both leptons and hadrons take part; and the electromagnetic and weak form factors of nucleons. Experimental physicists and graduate students of physics will

  10. Combinatorics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Faticoni, Theodore G

    2014-01-01

    Bridges combinatorics and probability and uniquely includes detailed formulas and proofs to promote mathematical thinking Combinatorics: An Introduction introduces readers to counting combinatorics, offers examples that feature unique approaches and ideas, and presents case-by-case methods for solving problems. Detailing how combinatorial problems arise in many areas of pure mathematics, most notably in algebra, probability theory, topology, and geometry, this book provides discussion on logic and paradoxes; sets and set notations; power sets and their cardinality; Venn diagrams; the multip

  11. Introduction to Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2010-04-29

    Extra dimensions provide a very useful tool in addressing a number of the fundamental problems faced by the Standard Model. The following provides a very basic introduction to this very broad subject area as given at the VIII School of the Gravitational and Mathematical Physics Division of the Mexican Physical Society in December 2009. Some prospects for extra dimensional searches at the 7 TeV LHC with {approx}1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity are provided.

  12. Introduction to superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Carmen [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: carmen@iafe.uba.ar

    2009-07-01

    This is a very basic introduction to the AdS/CFT correspondence. The first lecture motivates the duality between gauge theories and gravity/string theories. The next two lectures introduce the bosonic and supersymmetric string theories. The fourth lecture is devoted to study Dp-branes and finally, in the fifth lecture I discuss the two worlds: N=4 SYM in 3+1 flat dimensions and type IIB superstrings in AdS{sub 5} x S5. (author)

  13. Introduction to nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamil Selvan, Subramanian

    2016-01-01

    This book offers readers an introduction to the current status of nanoparticles and other nanomaterials that have potential applications in theranostics. Above all, it highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of metallic (e.g. Au, Ag), semiconducting quantum dots (e.g. CdSe, CdTe), magnetic (e.g. Fe3O4, FePt, Co), and multifunctional (combination of two or three) nanoparticles. .

  14. Introduction to biomechatronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brooker, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Introduction to Biomechatronics provides fundamental knowledge of mechanical and electronic (mechatronic) components and systems and their interaction with human biology to assist or replace limbs, senses, and even organs damaged by trauma, birth defects, or disease. The first half of the book provides the engineering background to understand all the components of a biomechatronic system: the human subject, stimulus or actuation, transducers and sensors, signal conditioning elements, recording and display, and feedback elements.

  15. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Korneff, Theodore

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Electronics focuses on the study of electronics and electronic devices. Composed of 14 chapters, the book starts with discussions on dc circuits, including resistance, voltmeter, ammeter, galvanometer, internal resistance, and positive and negative currents. This topic is followed by discussions on ac circuits, particularly addressing voltage and current, average power, resistive load, complex plane, and parallel circuits. Discussions also focus on filters and tuned circuits, diodes, and power supplies. Particularly given attention are the processes, diagrams, and analyses

  16. Introduction to Accelerators Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variola, A.

    2007-01-01

    This short course aims at giving to high energy physics students a preliminary introduction to accelerators basics. The arguments and the style were selected in this perspective. Consequently, topics such as the definition of beam parameters and luminosity were preferred to much more technical aspects. The calculation details were neglected to allow more important highlights on concepts and definitions. Some examples and exercises were suggested to summarize the different topics of the lessons

  17. Introduction to parallel programming

    CERN Document Server

    Brawer, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Introduction to Parallel Programming focuses on the techniques, processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in parallel programming. The book first offers information on Fortran, hardware and operating system models, and processes, shared memory, and simple parallel programs. Discussions focus on processes and processors, joining processes, shared memory, time-sharing with multiple processors, hardware, loops, passing arguments in function/subroutine calls, program structure, and arithmetic expressions. The text then elaborates on basic parallel programming techniques, barriers and race

  18. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  19. Introduction to neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, W E [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    We give here an introduction to the theoretical principles of neutron scattering. The relationship between scattering- and correlation-functions is particularly emphasized. Within the framework of linear response theory (justified by the weakness of the basic interaction) the relation between fluctuation and dissipation is discussed. This general framework explains the particular power of neutron scattering as an experimental method. (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  1. Introduction to heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    SUNDÉN, B

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the basic mechanisms for transfer of heat, Introduction to Heat Transfer gives a deeper and more comprehensive view than existing titles on the subject. Derivation and presentation of analytical and empirical methods are provided for calculation of heat transfer rates and temperature fields as well as pressure drop. The book covers thermal conduction, forced and natural laminar and turbulent convective heat transfer, thermal radiation including participating media, condensation, evaporation and heat exchangers.

  2. Accounting Applications---Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Ronen

    1980-01-01

    Introduction to special issue on accounting applications. By publishing these papers together in one issue of Management Science we wish to accomplish the dual purpose of exposing management scientists to the application of their discipline to important accounting problems and of allowing management scientists and accountants to interact in areas of research and problem-solving, thus stimulating the interest of readers who are concerned with the problems of accounting.

  3. Introduction: Righting Feminism

    OpenAIRE

    Farris, Sara R.

    2017-01-01

    This is the introduction to a special issue on Righting Feminism. In recent years, we have witnessed the multifarious ways in which feminism as an emancipatory project dedicated to women's liberation has increasingly “converged” with non-emancipatory/racist, conservative, and neo-liberal economic and political agendas. Today, feminist themes are not only being "mainstreamed" but are also increasingly being mobilized to bolster existing power hierarchies as well as neo-liberal and right-wing x...

  4. Introduction: Persistent Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This introduction to 'Persistent Modelling – an extended role for architectural representation' identifies how the book probes the relationship between representation and the represented, in an architectural context. It discusses how the book presents an examination and discussion of historical......, familiar contemporary and, perhaps, not so familiar emerging manifestations of this relation. What persists from this probing, fully intact, is that representation and the represented remain inextricably related in our contemporary and emerging practices. What comes into focus is that the nature...

  5. Ion implantation - an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ion implantation is a widely used technique with a literature that covers semiconductor production, surface treatments of steels, corrosion resistance, catalysis and integrated optics. This brief introduction outlines advantages of the technique, some aspects of the underlying physics and examples of current applications. Ion implantation is already an essential part of semiconductor technology while in many other areas it is still in an early stage of development. The future scope of the subject is discussed. (author)

  6. Introduction to analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gamalath, KAILW

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTICAL MECHANICS is an attempt to introduce the modern treatment of classical mechanics so that transition to many fields in physics can be made with the least difficulty. This book deal with the formulation of Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian dynamics, conservation laws relating to symmetries, Hamiltonian dynamics Hamilton's principle, Poisson brackets, canonical transformations which are invaluable in formulating the quantum mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi equation which provides the transition to wave mechanics.

  7. Introduction to QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Skands, Peter

    2012-01-01

    These lectures were originally given at TASI and are directed at a level suitable for graduate students in High Energy Physics. They are intended to give an introduction to the theory and phenomenology of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), focusing on collider physics applications. The aim is to bring the reader to a level where informed decisions can be made concerning different approaches and their uncertainties. The material is divided into five main areas: 1) fundamentals, 2) fixed-order pertu...

  8. Introduction to Q

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, M.; Minor, M.M.; Shlaer, S.; Spencer, N.; Thomas, R.F. Jr.; van der Beken, H.

    1978-06-01

    This manual presents an overview of the Q data-acquisition system. Its purposes are to assist an experimenter in determining whether the system is suited to his needs and to provide an introduction to the more detailed manuals. This system employs a powerful technique for dealing with multiprocessor systems by generating code and communication protocol for two processors from a single source program in a high-level language. Some details of experimental event buffering and distribution are discussed

  9. Introduction to abstract algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, W Keith

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition ". . . an expository masterpiece of the highest didactic value that has gained additional attractivity through the various improvements . . ."-Zentralblatt MATH The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Abstract Algebra continues to provide an accessible approach to the basic structures of abstract algebra: groups, rings, and fields. The book's unique presentation helps readers advance to abstract theory by presenting concrete examples of induction, number theory, integers modulo n, and permutations before the abstract structures are defined. Readers can immediately be

  10. Introduction to microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Franssila, Sami

    2005-01-01

    Microfabrication is the key technology behind integrated circuits, microsensors, photonic crystals, ink jet printers, solar cells and flat panel displays. Microsystems can be complex, but the basic microstructures and processes of microfabrication are fairly simple. Introduction to Microfabrication shows how the common microfabrication concepts can be applied over and over again to create devices with a wide variety of structures and functions.Featuring:* A comprehensive presentation of basic fabrication processes* An emphasis on materials and microstructures, rather than devic

  11. Befolkningens hälsa och samhällets kostnader för vård och produktionsbortfall - resultat från ULF-studien 1996 och 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Public health and health care consumption is permanently of current interest as research field and an object for many studies. In this study the results from the National Living Survey, ULF, are used for the years 1996/97 and 2004/05. The choice of years is done regarding to the circumstances that these years have more questions in depth concerning health and health care consumption. Of a total of 18 940 respondents 8 600 can be counted to the years 2004 and 2005. The first part of this study...

  12. Investigation of ULF magnetic pulsations, air conductivity changes, and infra red signatures associated with the 30 October Alum Rock M5.4 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bleier

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Several electromagnetic signal types were observed prior to and immediately after 30 October 2007 (Local Time M5.4 earthquake at Alum Rock, Ca with an epicenter ~15 km NE of San Jose Ca. The area where this event occurred had been monitored since November 2005 by a QuakeFinder magnetometer site, unit 609, 2 km from the epicenter. This instrument is one of 53 stations of the QuakeFinder (QF California Magnetometer Network-CalMagNet. This station included an ultra low frequency (ULF 3-axis induction magnetometer, a simple air conductivity sensor to measure relative airborne ion concentrations, and a geophone to identify the arrival of the P-wave from an earthquake. Similar in frequency content to the increased ULF activity reported two weeks prior to the Loma Prieta M7.0 quake in 1989 (Fraser-Smith, 1990, 1991, the QF station detected activity in the 0.01–12 Hz bands, but it consisted of an increasing number of short duration (1 to 30 s duration pulsations. The pulsations peaked around 13 days prior to the event. The amplitudes of the pulses were strong, (3–20 nT, compared to the average ambient noise at the site, (10–250 pT, which included a component arising from the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART operations. The QF station also detected different pulse shapes, e.g. negative or positive only polarity, with some pulses including a combination of positive and negative. Typical pulse counts over the previous year ranged from 0–15 per day, while the count rose to 176 (east-west channel on 17 October, 13 days prior to the quake. The air conductivity sensor saturated for over 14 h during the night and morning prior to the quake, which occurred at 20:29 LT. Anomalous IR signatures were also observed in the general area, within 50 km of the epicenter, during the 2 weeks prior to the quake. These three simultaneous EM phenomena were compared with data collected over a 1–2-year period at the site. The data was also compared against accounts of air

  13. Introduction to the ROOT System

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Introduction to the ROOT data handling system. ROOT is used in some for or another by all LHC experiments and will be used by all for final data analysis. The introduction gives an overview of the system. Prerequisite knowledge: C++

  14. Introduction to Artificial Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    1999-01-01

    The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks.......The note addresses introduction to signal analysis and classification based on artificial feed-forward neural networks....

  15. Human drug metabolism: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael D

    2010-01-01

    Human Drug Metabolism, An Introduction, Second Edition provides an accessible introduction to the subject and will be particularly invaluable to those who already have some understanding of the life sciences...

  16. Introduction to laser technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C Breck; Hecht, Jeff; Hitz, C Breck; John Wiley & Sons

    2001-01-01

    Electrical Engineering Introduction to Laser Technology , Third Edition. Would you like to know how a laser works, and how it can be modified for your own specific tasks? This intuitive third edition-previously published as Understanding Laser Technology , First and Second Editions-introduces engineers, scientists, technicians, and novices alike to the world of modern lasers, without delving into the mathematical details of quantum electronics. It is the only introductory text on the market today that explains the underlying physics and engineering applicable to all lasers. A unique combinatio.

  17. Introduction to applied thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o

  18. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Roos, Matts

    2003-01-01

    The Third Edition of the hugely successful Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, general relativity, black holes, cosmological models, particles and symmetries, and phase transitions. Extensively revised, this latest edition includes broader and updated coverage of distance measures, gravitational lensing and waves, dark energy and quintessence, the thermal history of the Universe, inflation,

  19. Introduction to real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    This text forms a bridge between courses in calculus and real analysis. It focuses on the construction of mathematical proofs as well as their final content. Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students of real analysis, it also provides a vital reference book for advanced courses in mathematics.The four-part treatment begins with an introduction to basic logical structures and techniques of proof, including discussions of the cardinality concept and the algebraic and order structures of the real and rational number systems. Part Two presents in-depth examinations of the compl

  20. Fourier analysis an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2003-01-01

    This first volume, a three-part introduction to the subject, is intended for students with a beginning knowledge of mathematical analysis who are motivated to discover the ideas that shape Fourier analysis. It begins with the simple conviction that Fourier arrived at in the early nineteenth century when studying problems in the physical sciences--that an arbitrary function can be written as an infinite sum of the most basic trigonometric functions.The first part implements this idea in terms of notions of convergence and summability of Fourier series, while highlighting applications such as th

  1. Introduction to dynamic programming

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Leon; Rodin, E Y

    1981-01-01

    Introduction to Dynamic Programming provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of dynamic programming. This book considers problems that can be quantitatively formulated and deals with mathematical models of situations or phenomena that exists in the real world.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the fundamental components of any mathematical optimization model. This text then presents the details of the application of dynamic programming to variational problems. Other chapters consider the application of dynamic programming to inventory theory, Mark

  2. Introduction to modern cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition:""This book is a comprehensive, rigorous introduction to what the authors name 'modern' cryptography. … a novel approach to how cryptography is taught, replacing the older, construction-based approach. … The concepts are clearly stated, both in an intuitive fashion and formally. … I would heartily recommend this book to anyone who is interested in cryptography. … The exercises are challenging and interesting, and can benefit readers of all academic levels.""-IACR Book Reviews, January 2010""Over the past 30 years, cryptography has been transformed from a mysterious

  3. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  4. An introduction to optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Chong, Edwin K P

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "". . . guides and leads the reader through the learning path . . . [e]xamples are stated very clearly and the results are presented with attention to detail.""  -MAA Reviews  Fully updated to reflect new developments in the field, the Fourth Edition of Introduction to Optimization fills the need for accessible treatment of optimization theory and methods with an emphasis on engineering design. Basic definitions and notations are provided in addition to the related fundamental background for linear algebra, geometry, and calculus.  This new

  5. Introduction to continuum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, W Michael; Rubin, David

    1996-01-01

    Introduction to Continuum Mechanics is a recently updated and revised text which is perfect for either introductory courses in an undergraduate engineering curriculum or for a beginning graduate course.Continuum Mechanics studies the response of materials to different loading conditions. The concept of tensors is introduced through the idea of linear transformation in a self-contained chapter, and the interrelation of direct notation, indicial notation, and matrix operations is clearly presented. A wide range of idealized materials are considered through simple static and dynamic problems, a

  6. Cartesian tensors an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, G

    2004-01-01

    This undergraduate text provides an introduction to the theory of Cartesian tensors, defining tensors as multilinear functions of direction, and simplifying many theorems in a manner that lends unity to the subject. The author notes the importance of the analysis of the structure of tensors in terms of spectral sets of projection operators as part of the very substance of quantum theory. He therefore provides an elementary discussion of the subject, in addition to a view of isotropic tensors and spinor analysis within the confines of Euclidean space. The text concludes with an examination of t

  7. Introduction to cluster dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhard, Paul-Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Clusters as mesoscopic particles represent an intermediate state of matter between single atoms and solid material. The tendency to miniaturise technical objects requires knowledge about systems which contain a ""small"" number of atoms or molecules only. This is all the more true for dynamical aspects, particularly in relation to the qick development of laser technology and femtosecond spectroscopy. Here, for the first time is a highly qualitative introduction to cluster physics. With its emphasis on cluster dynamics, this will be vital to everyone involved in this interdisciplinary subje

  8. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Rose-Innes, A C

    1978-01-01

    Introduction to Superconductivity differs from the first edition chiefly in Chapter 11, which has been almost completely rewritten to give a more physically-based picture of the effects arising from the long-range coherence of the electron-waves in superconductors and the operation of quantum interference devices. In this revised second edition, some further modifications have been made to the text and an extra chapter dealing with """"high-temperature"""" superconductors has been added. A vast amount of research has been carried out on these since their discovery in 1986 but the results, both

  9. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced un

  10. Introduction to Econophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantegna, Rosario N.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2007-08-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Efficient market hypothesis; 3. Random walk; 4. Lévy stochastic processes and limit theorems; 5. Scales in financial data; 6. Stationarity and time correlation; 7. Time correlation in financial time series; 8. Stochastic models of price dynamics; 9. Scaling and its breakdown; 10. ARCH and GARCH processes; 11. Financial markets and turbulence; 12. Correlation and anti-correlation between stocks; 13. Taxonomy of a stock portfolio; 14. Options in idealized markets; 15. Options in real markets; Appendix A: notation guide; Appendix B: martingales; References; Index.

  11. Theoretical astrophysics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A concise yet comprehensive introduction to the central theoretical concepts of modern astrophysics, presenting hydrodynamics, radiation, and stellar dynamics all in one textbook. Adopting a modular structure, the author illustrates a small number of fundamental physical methods and principles, which are sufficient to describe and understand a wide range of seemingly very diverse astrophysical phenomena and processes. For example, the formulae that define the macroscopic behavior of stellar systems are all derived in the same way from the microscopic distribution function. This function it

  12. Introduction to spectral theory

    CERN Document Server

    Levitan, B M

    1975-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the spectral theory of the Sturm- Liouville operator and to the spectral theory of the Dirac system. In addition, some results are given for nth order ordinary differential operators. Those parts of this book which concern nth order operators can serve as simply an introduction to this domain, which at the present time has already had time to become very broad. For the convenience of the reader who is not familar with abstract spectral theory, the authors have inserted a chapter (Chapter 13) in which they discuss this theory, concisely and in the main without proofs, and indicate various connections with the spectral theory of differential operators.

  13. Introduction to mathematical logic

    CERN Document Server

    Mendelson, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    The new edition of this classic textbook, Introduction to Mathematical Logic, Sixth Edition explores the principal topics of mathematical logic. It covers propositional logic, first-order logic, first-order number theory, axiomatic set theory, and the theory of computability. The text also discusses the major results of Gödel, Church, Kleene, Rosser, and Turing.The sixth edition incorporates recent work on Gödel's second incompleteness theorem as well as restoring an appendix on consistency proofs for first-order arithmetic. This appendix last appeared in the first edition. It is offered in th

  14. An introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu

    2002-01-01

    The third edition of this successful textbook is fully updated and includes important recent developments in cosmology. It begins with an introduction to cosmology and general relativity, and goes on to cover the mathematical models of standard cosmology. The physical aspects of cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the astroparticle physics of inflation, and the current ideas on structure formation are discussed. Alternative models of cosmology are reviewed, including the model of Quasi-Steady State Cosmology, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to Big Bang Cosmology.

  15. Introduction to cardinal arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Holz, M; Weitz, E

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction into modern cardinal arithmetic in the frame of the axioms of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory together with the axiom of choice (ZFC). A first part describes the classical theory developed by Bernstein, Cantor, Hausdorff, König and Tarski between 1870 and 1930. Next, the development in the 1970s led by Galvin, Hajnal and Silver is characterized. The third part presents the fundamental investigations in pcf theory which have been worked out by Shelah to answer the questions left open in the 1970s.Reviews:'The authors aim their text at beginners in set theory. They start

  16. Introduction to EMC

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, John

    1997-01-01

    This is the clear guide for non-specialists to electromagnetic compatability (EMC), the effects of electromagnetic radiation and the European EMC Directive which is now in force. This book helps by explaining the basic principles of EMC, how it may be controlled in practice through filtering, shielding, appropriate printed circuit board design, and other means. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) and surge protection are discussed. The growing concern about the effects of electromagnetic waves and fields on health are examined in detail.This introduction provides beginners, technical and

  17. Introduction to superconductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The lecture series will address physicists, such as particle and nuclear physicists, familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics but not with solid state physics. The aim of this introduction to low temperature superconductivity is to give sufficient bases to the student for him/her to be able to access the scientific literature on this field. The five lectures will cover the following topics : 1. Normal metals, free electron gas, chambers equation. 2. Cooper pairs, the BCS ground state, quasi particle excitations. 3. DC superconductivity, Meissner state, dirty superconductors.4. Self consistent approach, Ginsburg Landau equations, Abrikosov fluxon lattice. 5. Josephson effects, high temperature superconductivity.

  18. Introduction to combinatorial designs

    CERN Document Server

    Wallis, WD

    2007-01-01

    Combinatorial theory is one of the fastest growing areas of modern mathematics. Focusing on a major part of this subject, Introduction to Combinatorial Designs, Second Edition provides a solid foundation in the classical areas of design theory as well as in more contemporary designs based on applications in a variety of fields. After an overview of basic concepts, the text introduces balanced designs and finite geometries. The author then delves into balanced incomplete block designs, covering difference methods, residual and derived designs, and resolvability. Following a chapter on the e

  19. Statistics a biomedical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Byron Wm

    2009-01-01

    CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1 CHAPTER 2: Elementary Rules of Probability 13 CHAPTER 3: Populations, Samples, and the Distribution of the Sample Mean 37 1. Populations and Distributions 38 2. Sampling from Finite Populations 64 3. The Distribution of the Sample Mean 72 CHAPTER 4: Analysis of Matched Pairs Using Sample Means 85 1. A Confidence Interval for the Treatment Effect 86 2. A Hypothesis Test for the Treatment Effect 96 3. Determining the Sample Size 102 CHAPTER 5: Analysis of the Two-Sample Location Problem Using Sample Means 109 1. A Confidence Interval for the Diffe

  20. Game Theory An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, E N

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental introduction to modern game theory from a mathematical viewpoint. Game theory arises in almost every fact of human and inhuman interaction since oftentimes during these communications objectives are opposed or cooperation is viewed as an option. From economics and finance to biology and computer science, researchers and practitioners are often put in complex decision-making scenarios, whether they are interacting with each other or working with evolving technology and artificial intelligence. Acknowledging the role of mathematics in making logical and advantageous decisions, Game

  1. Introduction to laser technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hitz, C Breck; Hecht, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    The only introductory text on the market today that explains the underlying physics and engineering applicable to all lasersAlthough lasers are becoming increasingly important in our high-tech environment, many of the technicians and engineers who install, operate, and maintain them have had little, if any, formal training in the field of electro-optics. This can result in less efficient usage of these important tools. Introduction to Laser Technology, Fourth Edition provides readers with a good understanding of what a laser is and what it can and cannot do. The book explains what types of las.

  2. Introduction to differentiable manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Auslander, Louis

    2009-01-01

    The first book to treat manifold theory at an introductory level, this text surveys basic concepts in the modern approach to differential geometry. The first six chapters define and illustrate differentiable manifolds, and the final four chapters investigate the roles of differential structures in a variety of situations.Starting with an introduction to differentiable manifolds and their tangent spaces, the text examines Euclidean spaces, their submanifolds, and abstract manifolds. Succeeding chapters explore the tangent bundle and vector fields and discuss their association with ordinary diff

  3. Introduction: Mirrors of Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge; Willerslev, Rane

    How is death, time, and materiality interconnected? How to approach an understanding of the world of the dead? In this introduction, we seek to understand how the experience of material decay, of the death of those around us, makes us aware of the passing of time. Through the literary lens of Neil...... Gaiman’s The Graveyard Book, we explore how the world of the dead and the world of the living can intersect; how time and materiality shifts and changes depending on who experiences it. These revelations, based on fiction, provide a mirror through which the reader can experience the varied chapters...

  4. Introduction to functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faddeev, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The functional integral is considered in relation to Feynman diagrams and phase space. The holomorphic form of the functional integral is then discussed. The main problem of the lectures, viz. the construction of the S-matrix by means of the functional integral, is considered. The functional methods described explicitly take into account the Bose statistics of the fields involved. The different procedure used to treat fermions is discussed. An introduction to the problem of quantization of gauge fields is given. (B.R.H.)

  5. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures

  6. Introduction to Waste Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management as introduced in Chapter 1.1 builds in many ways on engineering. Waste engineering here means the skills and ability to understand quantitatively how a waste management system works in such a detail that waste management can be planned, facilities can be designed and sited......) regional plans for waste management, including (3) the selection of main management technologies and siting of facilities, (4) the design of individual technological units and, for example, (5) the operation of recycling schemes within a municipality. This chapter gives an introduction to waste engineering...

  7. Quantum chemistry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Chemistry: An Introduction provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. This book presents the theory of partial differentiation equations by using the classical theory of vibrations as a means of developing physical insight into this essential branch of mathematics.Organized into five parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how quantum mechanical deductions are made. This text then describes the achievements and limitations of the application of quantum mechanics to chemical problems. Other chapters provide a brief survey

  8. Introduction to information science

    CERN Document Server

    Bawden, David

    2012-01-01

    This landmark textbook takes a whole subject approach to Information Science as a discipline. Introduced by leading international scholars and offering a global perspective on the discipline, this is designed to be the standard text for students worldwide. The authors' expert narrative guides you through each of the essential building blocks of information science offering a concise introduction and expertly chosen further reading and resources.Critical topics covered include:foundations: concepts, theories and historical perspectivesorganising and retrieving Information information behaviour,

  9. Introduction to data technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Murrell, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Providing key information on how to work with research data, Introduction to Data Technologies presents ideas and techniques for performing critical, behind-the-scenes tasks that take up so much time and effort yet typically receive little attention in formal education. With a focus on computational tools, the book shows readers how to improve their awareness of what tasks can be achieved and describes the correct approach to perform these tasks. Practical examples demonstrate the most important pointsThe author first discusses how to write computer code using HTML as a concrete example. He th

  10. Introduction to plasma engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author has begun writing a textbook entitled Introduction to Plasma Engineering, which is intended for upper division undergraduates or professionals who are entering the field. This paper features a detailed topical outline of all 20 chapters of the book. The text is organized so that the first five chapters cover plasma physics and basic principles; the next 13 chapters cover the most important engineering applications of plasmas, in order of increasing plasma energy/number density; and two final chapters cover plasma diagnostics and magnetic coil design

  11. Theoretical Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann

    2004-01-01

    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researche

  12. History as Modernity. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Schiera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction starts from the exhaustion of modernity, drawing the fundamental lines of its development inside Western historical experience. The end of the political nexus between theology and politics, the evanescence of nation-state sovereignty, the check of great historical interpretations reveal the necessity of new categories and new organizational models, able to make us answer to the violence that the ongoing processes are liberating. Schiera underlines in particular the relevance of the administrative apparatus because of its capacity to link the global government with global organization, human rights and the commons.

  13. An investigation of the field-aligned currents associated with a large-scale ULF wave using data from CUTLASS and FAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Scoffield

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available On 14 December 1999, a large-scale ULF wave event was observed by the Hankasalmi radar of the SuperDARN chain. Simultaneously, the FAST satellite passed through the Hankasalmi field-of-view, measuring the magnetic field oscillations of the wave at around 2000km altitude, along with the precipitating ion and electron populations associated with these fields. A simple field line resonance model of the wave has been created and scaled using the wave's spatial and temporal characteristics inferred from SuperDARN and IMAGE magnetometer data. Here the model calculated field-aligned current is compared with field-aligned currents derived from the FAST energetic particle spectra and magnetic field measurements. This comparison reveals the small-scale structuring and energies of the current carriers in a large-scale Alfvén wave, a topic, which at present, is of considerable theoretical interest. When FAST traverses a region of the wave involving low upward field-aligned current densities, the current appears to be carried by unstructured downgoing electrons of energies less than 30eV. A downward current region appears to be carried partially by upgoing electrons below the FAST energy detection threshold, but also consists of a mixture of hotter downgoing magnetospheric electrons and upgoing ionospheric electrons of energies <30eV, with the hotter upgoing electrons presumably representing those upgoing electrons which have been accelerated by the wave field above the low energy detection threshold of FAST. A stronger interval of upward current shows that small-scale structuring of scale ~50km has been imposed on the current carriers, which are downgoing magnetospheric electrons of energy 0-500eV.

  14. Radiation Measured with Different Dosimeters for ISS-Expedition 18-19/ULF2 on Board International Space Station during Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Gaza, R.; Roed, Y.; Semones, E.; Lee, K.; Steenburgh, R.; Johnson, S.; Flanders, J.; Zapp, N.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation field of particles in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). GCR are modulated by solar activity, at the period of solar minimum activity, GCR intensity is at maximum and the main contributor for space radiation is GCR. At present for space radiation measurements conducted by JSC (Johnson Space Center) SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group), the preferred active dosimeter sensitive to all LET (Linear Energy Transfer) is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC); the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. For the method using passive dosimeters, radiation quantities for all LET can be obtained by combining radiation results measured with TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs. TEPC, TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 detectors were used to measure the radiation field for the ISS (International Space Station) - Expedition 18-19/ULF2 space mission which was conducted from 15 November 2008 to 31 July 2009 - near the period of the recent solar minimum activity. LET spectra (differential and integral fluence, absorbed dose and dose equivalent) and radiation quantities were measured for positions TEPC, TESS (Temporary Sleeping Station, inside the polyethylene lined sleep station), SM-P 327 and 442 (Service Module - Panel 327 and 442). This paper presents radiation LET spectra measured with TEPC and CR-39 PNTDs and radiation dose measured with TLDs/OSLDs as well as the radiation quantities combined from results measured with passive dosimeters.

  15. Introduction to bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field mainly involving molecular biology and genetics, computer science, mathematics, and statistics. Data intensive, large-scale biological problems are addressed from a computational point of view. The most common problems are modeling biological processes at the molecular level and making inferences from collected data. A bioinformatics solution usually involves the following steps: Collect statistics from biological data. Build a computational model. Solve a computational modeling problem. Test and evaluate a computational algorithm. This chapter gives a brief introduction to bioinformatics by first providing an introduction to biological terminology and then discussing some classical bioinformatics problems organized by the types of data sources. Sequence analysis is the analysis of DNA and protein sequences for clues regarding function and includes subproblems such as identification of homologs, multiple sequence alignment, searching sequence patterns, and evolutionary analyses. Protein structures are three-dimensional data and the associated problems are structure prediction (secondary and tertiary), analysis of protein structures for clues regarding function, and structural alignment. Gene expression data is usually represented as matrices and analysis of microarray data mostly involves statistics analysis, classification, and clustering approaches. Biological networks such as gene regulatory networks, metabolic pathways, and protein-protein interaction networks are usually modeled as graphs and graph theoretic approaches are used to solve associated problems such as construction and analysis of large-scale networks.

  16. Introduction to nonlinear acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnø, Leif

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of the basic principles of fluid mechanics needed for development of linear and nonlinear ultrasonic concepts will be given. The fundamental equations of nonlinear ultrasonics will be derived and their physical properties explained. It will be shown how an originally monochromatic finite-amplitude ultrasonic wave, due to nonlinear effects, will distort during its propagation in time and space to form higher harmonics to its fundamental frequency. The concepts of shock formation will be presented. The material nonlinearity, described by the nonlinearity parameter B/A of the material, and the convective nonlinearity, described by the ultrasonic Mach Number, will be explained. Two procedures for determination of B/A will briefly be described and some B/A-values characterizing biological materials will be presented. Shock formation, described by use of the Goldberg Number,and Ultrasonic Saturation will be discussed.. An introduction to focused ultrasonic fields will be given and it will be shown how the ultrasonic intensity will vary axially and laterally in and near the focal region and how the field parameters of interest to biomedical applications may be described by use of the KZK-Model. Finally, an introduction will be given to the parametric acoustic array formed by mixing and interaction of two monochromatic, finite-amplitude ultrasonic waves in a liquid and the potentials of this mixing process in biomedical ultrasound will briefly be mentioned.

  17. Introduction to Computational Plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, P

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the book on computational plasticity embodies techniques of relevance not only to academic researchers, but also of interest to industrialists engaged in the production of components using bulk or sheet forming processes. Of particular interest is the guidance on how to create modules for use with the commercial system Abaqus for specific types of material behaviour. The book is in two parts, the first of which contains six chapters, starting with microplasticity, but predominantly on continuum plasticity. The first chapter on microplasticty gives a brief description of the grain structure of metals and the existence of slip systems within the grains. This provides an introduction to the concept of incompressibility during plastic deformation, the nature of plastic yield and the importance of the critically resolved shear stress on the slip planes (Schmid's law). Some knowledge of the notation commonly used to describe slip systems is assumed, which will be familiar to students of metallurgy, but anyone with a more general engineering background may need to undertake additional reading to understand the various descriptions. Chapter two introduces one of several yield criteria, that normally attributed to von Mises (though historians of mechanics might argue over who was first to develop the theory of yielding associated with strain energy density), and its two or three-dimensional representation as a yield surface. The expansion of the yield surface during plastic deformation, its translation due to kinematic hardening and the Bauschinger effect in reversed loading are described with a direct link to the material stress-strain curve. The assumption, that the increment of strain is normal to the yield surface, the normality principle, is introduced. Uniaxial loading of an elastic-plastic material is used as an example in which to develop expressions to describe increments in stress and strain. The full presentation of numerous expressions, tensors and

  18. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D. de Vries

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.

  19. Nuclear reactors. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiron, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the 'nuclear reactors' volume of the Engineers Techniques collection. It gives a general presentation of the different articles of the volume which deal with: the physical basis (neutron physics and ionizing radiations-matter interactions, neutron moderation and diffusion), the basic concepts and functioning of nuclear reactors (possible fuel-moderator-coolant-structure combinations, research and materials testing reactors, reactors theory and neutron characteristics, neutron calculations for reactor cores, thermo-hydraulics, fluid-structure interactions and thermomechanical behaviour of fuels in PWRs and fast breeder reactors, thermal and mechanical effects on reactors structure), the industrial reactors (light water, pressurized water, boiling water, graphite moderated, fast breeder, high temperature and heavy water reactors), and the technology of PWRs (conceiving and building rules, nuclear parks and safety, reactor components and site selection). (J.S.)

  20. Introduction and Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    The author introduces a collection of papers by US scientists concerned with the need for a regime to control global warming. The papers were prepared in the interest of stimulating the widest possible consideration of the choices that may be faced at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in June of 1992. Several papers present the argument that a climate regime will take the form of a general framework convention followed by implementing protocols, following the model of the Vienna convention and its subsequent Montreal protocol. Subsequent papers shift the focus from the form of specific agreements to the continuing process of which treaties are a part. The author follows this introduction with her own viewpoint of strategies for a regime to control greenhouse warming

  1. Introduction to dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This concise textbook for students preferably of a postgraduate level, but also for engineers in practice, contains the basic kinematical and kinetic structures of dynamics together with carefully selected applications. The book is a condensed introduction to the fundamental laws of kinematics and kinetics, on the most important principles of mechanics and presents the equations of motion in the form of Lagrange and Newton-Euler. Selected problems of linear and nonlinear dynamics are treated, as well as problems of vibration formation. The presented selection of topics gives a useful basis for stepping into more advanced problems of dynamics. The contents of this book represent the result of a regularly revised course, which has been and still is given for masters students at the Technische Universität München. .

  2. Introduction to computer ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Dragana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is becoming one of the most often used but also misinter­preted words. It is often taken as an additional, corrective parameter to the policies and strategies that has to be adopted in the area of political works, environment, business, and medicine. Computer ethics thus makes the latest ethical discipline in the scientific sky. But its roots, as it was the case with environmental ethics, ranging decades; only the speech and the use of the same, as well as discussions on the postulates of computer ethics, are the results of rapid IT development in the last decade or two. In this paper, according to the title, will be shown introduction to computer ethics-its basis, the most important representatives, as well as the most important succession.

  3. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  4. An introduction to superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Etheridge, Alison M

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the study of superprocesses has expanded into a major industry and can now be regarded as a central theme in modern probability theory. This book is intended as a rapid introduction to the subject, geared toward graduate students and researchers in stochastic analysis. A variety of different approaches to the superprocesses emerged over the last ten years. Yet no one approach superseded any others. In this book, readers are exposed to a number of different ways of thinking about the processes, and each is used to motivate some key results. The emphasis is on why results are true rather than on rigorous proof. Specific results are given, including extensive references to current literature for their general form.

  5. Superconductivity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiner, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The third edition of this proven text has been developed further in both scope and scale to reflect the potential for superconductivity in power engineering to increase efficiency in electricity transmission or engines. The landmark reference remains a comprehensive introduction to the field, covering every aspect from fundamentals to applications, and presenting the latest developments in organic superconductors, superconducting interfaces, quantum coherence, and applications in medicine and industry. Due to its precise language and numerous explanatory illustrations, it is suitable as an introductory textbook, with the level rising smoothly from chapter to chapter, such that readers can build on their newly acquired knowledge. The authors cover basic properties of superconductors and discuss stability and different material groups with reference to the latest and most promising applications, devoting the last third of the book to applications in power engineering, medicine, and low temperature physics. An e...

  6. Semiconductor physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Seeger, Karlheinz

    1999-01-01

    Semiconductor Physics - An Introduction - is suitable for the senior undergraduate or new graduate student majoring in electrical engineering or physics. It will also be useful to solid-state scientists and device engineers involved in semiconductor design and technology. The text provides a lucid account of charge transport, energy transport and optical processes, and a detailed description of many devices. It includes sections on superlattices and quantum well structures, the effects of deep-level impurities on transport, the quantum Hall effect and the calculation of the influence of a magnetic field on the carrier distribution function. This 6th edition has been revised and corrected, and new sections have been added to different chapters.

  7. Introduction to thermoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmid, H Julian

    2016-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of thermoelectric energy conversion. It covers both theory and practice. The book is timely as it refers to the many improvements that have come about in the last few years through the use of nanostructures. The concept of semiconductor thermoelements led to major advances during the second half of the twentieth century, making Peltier refrigeration a widely used technique. The latest materials herald thermoelectric generation as the preferred technique for exploiting low-grade heat. The book shows how progress has been made by increasing the thermal resistivity of the lattice until it is almost as large as it is for glass. It points the way towards the attainment of similar improvements in the electronic parameters. It does not neglect practical considerations, such as the desirability of making thermocouples from inexpensive and environmentally acceptable materials. The second edition was extended to also include recent advances in thermoelectric ener...

  8. Introduction to biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Nikhil; Jolly, Pawan; Formisano, Nello; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-06-30

    Biosensors are nowadays ubiquitous in biomedical diagnosis as well as a wide range of other areas such as point-of-care monitoring of treatment and disease progression, environmental monitoring, food control, drug discovery, forensics and biomedical research. A wide range of techniques can be used for the development of biosensors. Their coupling with high-affinity biomolecules allows the sensitive and selective detection of a range of analytes. We give a general introduction to biosensors and biosensing technologies, including a brief historical overview, introducing key developments in the field and illustrating the breadth of biomolecular sensing strategies and the expansion of nanotechnological approaches that are now available. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  9. Introduction to morphogenetic computing

    CERN Document Server

    Resconi, Germano; Xu, Guanglin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to morphogenetic computing, showing that its use makes global and local relations, defects in crystal non-Euclidean geometry databases with source and sink, genetic algorithms, and neural networks more stable and efficient. It also presents applications to database, language, nanotechnology with defects, biological genetic structure, electrical circuit, and big data structure. In Turing machines, input and output states form a system – when the system is in one state, the input is transformed into output. This computation is always deterministic and without any possible contradiction or defects. In natural computation there are defects and contradictions that have to be solved to give a coherent and effective computation. The new computation generates the morphology of the system that assumes different forms in time. Genetic process is the prototype of the morphogenetic computing. At the Boolean logic truth value, we substitute a set of truth (active sets) values with...

  10. Introduction to bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, E.

    2003-01-01

    This is a pedagogical introduction to the general technique of bosonization of one-dimensional systems starting from scratch and assuming very little besides basic quantum mechanics and second quantization. The formalism is developed in a self-contained fashion and applied to the spinless and spin-1/2 Luttinger models, working out both single and two particle correlation functions. The implications of these results for the specific cases of the (anisotropic) Heisenberg and the Hubbard models are discussed. Although everything in these notes can be found in the published literature, detailed and explicit calculations of most of the results are given, which may prove useful to beginning graduate students or researchers in this area. (author)

  11. Introduction to complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Horing, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates. (orig.)

  12. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  13. Introduction to biomedical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Enderle, John D; Blanchard, Susan M

    2005-01-01

    Under the direction of John Enderle, Susan Blanchard and Joe Bronzino, leaders in the field have contributed chapters on the most relevant subjects for biomedical engineering students. These chapters coincide with courses offered in all biomedical engineering programs so that it can be used at different levels for a variety of courses of this evolving field. Introduction to Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition provides a historical perspective of the major developments in the biomedical field. Also contained within are the fundamental principles underlying biomedical engineering design, analysis, and modeling procedures. The numerous examples, drill problems and exercises are used to reinforce concepts and develop problem-solving skills making this book an invaluable tool for all biomedical students and engineers. New to this edition: Computational Biology, Medical Imaging, Genomics and Bioinformatics. * 60% update from first edition to reflect the developing field of biomedical engineering * New chapters o...

  14. I-Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this report, each sector starts with an introduction presenting the state of each sector in Lebanon, followed by the methodology adopted in order to compute emissions of greenhouse gases by sources and removals by sinks, in accordance with IPCC guidelines, complemented by experts' assumptions in estimating greenhouse gases and finally accompanied by the IPCC sectoral tables which present the result obtained in each sector. The report ends with an 'Appendices' chapter which includes all worksheets, showing the computations made resulting in emitted or removed greenhouse gas quantities. This executive summary described in the IPCC summary presents the main results obtained in each sector. In the last paragraph, the global warming potential of the greenhouse gases emitted in Lebanon in 1994 is provided for three calculated time horizons, based on the '1995 IPCC technical summary of working group I' report. (au)

  15. Introduction to Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Solid waste management is as old as human civilization, although only considered an engineering discipline for about one century. The change from the previous focus on public cleansing of the cities to modern waste management was primarily driven by industrialization, which introduced new materials...... and chemicals, dramatically changing the types and composition of waste, and by urbanization making waste management in urban areas a complicated and costly logistic operation. This book focuses on waste that commonly appears in the municipal waste management system. This chapter gives an introduction to modern...... waste management, including issues as waste definition, problems associated with waste, waste management criteria and approaches to waste management. Later chapters introduce aspects of engineering (Chapter 1.2), economics (Chapter 1.3) and regulation (Chapter 1.4)....

  16. Photonics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Reider, Georg A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction into photonics, from the electrodynamic and quantum mechanic fundamentals to the level of photonic components and building blocks such as lasers, amplifiers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors. The book will serve both as textbook and as a reference work for the advanced student or scientist. Theoretical results are derived from basic principles with convenient, yet state-of-the-art mathematical tools, providing not only deeper understanding but also familiarization with formalisms used in the relevant technical literature and research articles. Among the subject matters treated are polarization optics, pulse and beam propagation, waveguides, light–matter interaction, stationary and transient behavior of lasers, semiconductor optics and lasers (including low-dimensional systems such as quantum wells), detector technology, photometry, and colorimetry. Nonlinear optics are elaborated comprehensively. The book is intended for both students of physics and elect...

  17. Introduction to transonic aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vos, Roelof

    2015-01-01

    Written to teach students the nature of transonic flow and its mathematical foundation, this book offers a much-needed introduction to transonic aerodynamics. The authors present a quantitative and qualitative assessment of subsonic, supersonic, and transonic flow around bodies in two and three dimensions. The book reviews the governing equations and explores their applications and limitations as employed in modeling and computational fluid dynamics.  Some concepts, such as shock and expansion theory, are examined from a numerical perspective. Others, including shock-boundary-layer interaction, are discussed from a qualitative point of view. The book includes 60 examples and more than 200 practice problems. The authors also offer analytical methods such as Method of Characteristics (MOC) that allow readers to practice with the subject matter.  The result is a wealth of insight into transonic flow phenomena and their impact on aircraft design, including compressibility effects, shock and expansion waves, sho...

  18. Introduction to representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Etingof, Pavel; Hensel, Sebastian; Liu, Tiankai; Schwendner, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Very roughly speaking, representation theory studies symmetry in linear spaces. It is a beautiful mathematical subject which has many applications, ranging from number theory and combinatorics to geometry, probability theory, quantum mechanics, and quantum field theory. The goal of this book is to give a "holistic" introduction to representation theory, presenting it as a unified subject which studies representations of associative algebras and treating the representation theories of groups, Lie algebras, and quivers as special cases. Using this approach, the book covers a number of standard topics in the representation theories of these structures. Theoretical material in the book is supplemented by many problems and exercises which touch upon a lot of additional topics; the more difficult exercises are provided with hints. The book is designed as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. It should be accessible to students with a strong background in linear algebra and a basic k...

  19. Introduction to cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Ryden, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.

  20. Introduction to supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tanii, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book is a pedagogical introduction to supergravity, a gravitational field theory that includes supersymmetry (symmetry between bosons and fermions) and is a generalization of Einstein's general relativity. Supergravity provides a low-energy effective theory of superstring theory, which has attracted much attention as a candidate for the unified theory of fundamental particles, and it is a useful tool for studying non-perturbative properties of superstring theory such as D-branes and string duality. This work considers classical supergravities in four and higher spacetime dimensions with their applications to superstring theory in mind. More concretely, it discusses classical Lagrangians (or field equations) and symmetry properties of supergravities. Besides local symmetries, supergravities often have global non-compact symmetries, which play a crucial role in their applications to superstring theory. One of the main features of this book is its detailed discussion of these non-compact symmetries. The aim...

  1. History and General Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In the domain of analytical mass spectrometry (MS), FT-ICR's place is established as combining particular advantages of extraordinary mass resolution and accuracy, a wide array of sample-ionization techniques, and a uniquely wide range of methods for structure characterization of the primary sample ions. Costs are already attractive compared with other high-performance alternatives, and as both magnets and computers (which comprise much of the expense of FT-ICR hardware) become cheaper and more powerful, the performance/cost ratio for the technique will continue to improve. This paper will provide an introduction to those who have little previous knowledge of the technique; provide an overview of the technique's outstanding areas of scientific and analytical application; and provide some historical perspective on how we reached the present state of the art

  2. Superconductivity an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mangin, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    This book proposes a thorough introduction for a varied audience. The reader will master London theory and the Pippard equations, and go on to understand type I and type II superconductors (their thermodynamics, magnetic properties, vortex dynamics, current transport…), Cooper pairs and the results of BCS theory. By studying coherence and flux quantization he or she will be lead to the Josephson effect which, with the SQUID, is a good example of the applications. The reader can make up for any gaps in his knowledge with the use of the appendices, follow the logic behind each model, and assimilate completely the underlying concepts. Approximately 250 illustrations help in developing a thorough understanding. This volume is aimed towards masters and doctoral students, as well as advanced undergraduates, teachers and researchers at all levels coming from a broad range of subjects (chemistry, physics, mechanical and electrical engineering, materials science…). Engineers working in industry will have a useful ...

  3. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  4. Introduction to thermoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmid, H Julian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Thermoelectricity is the latest work by Professor Julian Goldsmid drawing on his 55 years experience in the field. The theory of the thermoelectric and related phenomena is presented in sufficient detail to enable researchers to understand their observations and develop improved thermoelectric materials. The methods for the selection of materials and their improvement are discussed. Thermoelectric materials for use in refrigeration and electrical generation are reviewed. Experimental techniques for the measurement of properties and for the production of thermoelements are described. Special emphasis is placed on nanotechnology which promises to yield great improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Chapters are also devoted to transverse thermoelectric effects and thermionic energy conversion, both techniques offering the promise of important applications in the future.

  5. Introduction to general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarthy, R

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO GENERAL RELATIVITY begins with a description of the geometry of curved space, explaining geodesics, parallel transport, covariant differentiation, geodesic deviation and spacetime symmetry by killing vectors. It then introduces Einstein's theory of gravitation followed by Schwarzschild solution with its relevance to Positive Mass theorem. The three tests for Einstein's gravity are explained. Other exact solutions such as Vaidya, Kerr and Reisner - Nordstrom metric are included. In the Chapter on cosmological solutions, a detailed description of Godel metric is provided. It then introduces five dimensional spacetime of Kaluza showing the unification of gravity with electromagnetism. This is extended to include non-Abelian gauge theory by invoking compact extra dimensions. Explicit expressions in this case for Christoffel connections and ricci tensor are derived and the higher dimensional gravity action is shown to compactification are given.

  6. Introduction to sympersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, O.A. de.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, supersymmetry is motivated via the Coleman-Mandula Theorem. Next, we build SUSY' algebra and representations (particularly, field representation). We then introduce the conceots of superspace and superfield, as well as supermultiplets and their invariants. Our next step is to examine simple models, in order to study auxiliary fields and the off-shell representations, to calculate the super-current and to show with super-graphs the loops cancelation (Wess-Zumino) and SUSY breaking (O'Raifeartaigh). Next, we obtain the supersymetric extension of the QED Lagrangean in to different ways, and them we are able to investigate symmetry breaking in supersymmetric gauge theories, and the appearance of Goldstone fermions. Finally, we study n-extended SUSY and the role of central charges, and examine SUSY in d > 4 dimensions and dimensional reduction. We end up with an introduction to Lie groups. (author) [pt

  7. Introduction to variance estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Wolter, Kirk M

    2007-01-01

    We live in the information age. Statistical surveys are used every day to determine or evaluate public policy and to make important business decisions. Correct methods for computing the precision of the survey data and for making inferences to the target population are absolutely essential to sound decision making. Now in its second edition, Introduction to Variance Estimation has for more than twenty years provided the definitive account of the theory and methods for correct precision calculations and inference, including examples of modern, complex surveys in which the methods have been used successfully. The book provides instruction on the methods that are vital to data-driven decision making in business, government, and academe. It will appeal to survey statisticians and other scientists engaged in the planning and conduct of survey research, and to those analyzing survey data and charged with extracting compelling information from such data. It will appeal to graduate students and university faculty who...

  8. Introduction to special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rindler, W.

    1982-01-01

    This is intended as a text for an introductory course on special relativity; it assumes no prior knowledge of relativity. It is intended for the upper undergraduate level and upwards. The first three chapters take a three-dimensional viewpoint for a simple introduction to topics such as the relativity of simultaneity, length contraction, time dilation, the twin paradox and the appearance of moving objects. For the remaining chapters the strongest possible use is made of four-dimensional techniques. Chapter four deals with space-time, chapters five and six with mechanics and electromagnetism. In these a purely synthetic four-tensor approach is adopted. Pure tensor theory is covered in an appendix. The last chapter is on the mechanics of continua. (U.K.)

  9. Introduction to information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Christopher D; Schütze, Hinrich

    2008-01-01

    Class-tested and coherent, this textbook teaches classical and web information retrieval, including web search and the related areas of text classification and text clustering from basic concepts. It gives an up-to-date treatment of all aspects of the design and implementation of systems for gathering, indexing, and searching documents; methods for evaluating systems; and an introduction to the use of machine learning methods on text collections. All the important ideas are explained using examples and figures, making it perfect for introductory courses in information retrieval for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in computer science. Based on feedback from extensive classroom experience, the book has been carefully structured in order to make teaching more natural and effective. Slides and additional exercises (with solutions for lecturers) are also available through the book's supporting website to help course instructors prepare their lectures.

  10. Introduction to singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Shihoko

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to singularities for graduate students and researchers. It is said that algebraic geometry originated in the seventeenth century with the famous work Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire sa raison, et chercher la vérité dans les sciences by Descartes. In that book he introduced coordinates to the study of geometry. After its publication, research on algebraic varieties developed steadily. Many beautiful results emerged in mathematicians’ works. Most of them were about non-singular varieties. Singularities were considered “bad” objects that interfered with knowledge of the structure of an algebraic variety. In the past three decades, however, it has become clear that singularities are necessary for us to have a good description of the framework of varieties. For example, it is impossible to formulate minimal model theory for higher-dimensional cases without singularities. Another example is that the moduli spaces of varieties have natural compactification, the boundar...

  11. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  12. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegl, B.

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyper-parameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  13. Introduction to generalized linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Dobson, Annette J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Background Scope Notation Distributions Related to the Normal Distribution Quadratic Forms Estimation Model Fitting Introduction Examples Some Principles of Statistical Modeling Notation and Coding for Explanatory Variables Exponential Family and Generalized Linear Models Introduction Exponential Family of Distributions Properties of Distributions in the Exponential Family Generalized Linear Models Examples Estimation Introduction Example: Failure Times for Pressure Vessels Maximum Likelihood Estimation Poisson Regression Example Inference Introduction Sampling Distribution for Score Statistics Taylor Series Approximations Sampling Distribution for MLEs Log-Likelihood Ratio Statistic Sampling Distribution for the Deviance Hypothesis Testing Normal Linear Models Introduction Basic Results Multiple Linear Regression Analysis of Variance Analysis of Covariance General Linear Models Binary Variables and Logistic Regression Probability Distributions ...

  14. Statistical theory a concise introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Abramovich, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Preamble Likelihood Sufficiency Minimal sufficiency Completeness Exponential family of distributionsPoint Estimation Introduction Maximum likelihood estimation Method of moments Method of least squares Goodness-of-estimation. Mean squared error. Unbiased estimationConfidence Intervals, Bounds, and Regions Introduction Quoting the estimation error Confidence intervalsConfidence bounds Confidence regionsHypothesis Testing Introduction Simple hypothesesComposite hypothesesHypothesis testing and confidence intervals Sequential testingAsymptotic Analysis Introduction Convergence and consistency in MSE Convergence and consistency in probability Convergence in distribution The central limit theorem Asymptotically normal consistency Asymptotic confidence intervals Asymptotic normality of the MLE Multiparameter case Asymptotic distribution of the GLRT. Wilks' theorem.Bayesian Inference Introduction Choice of priors Point estimation Interval estimation. Credible sets. Hypothesis testingElements of Statisti...

  15. Introduction: The Power of Example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Lars; Bandak, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    It is the contention of this introduction that examples are important prisms through which both reality and anthropological analysis are thought and, equally importantly, reconfigured. The aim of the introduction is to redress the theoretical disregard for exemplification by exploring the persuas....... The introduction further proposes that the example serves to confuse ontological divides, such as the one between theory and ethnography, and also draws attention to the fact that theory is as much suggestive as descriptive....

  16. Analysis of ULF Waves During Substorms Observed in the Ionosphere from the Dayside Ground Magnetometer and in the Solar Wind from the Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Alimaganbetov, M.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetospheric substorm is one of the most interesting and complicated phenomena of solar-terrestrial interactions. Despite numerous theoretical and experimental studies conducted during last 50 years, its several important phenomena are not completely understood yet. One of them are intense, ultra-low-frequency (from 0.5 mHz to 100 mHz), electromagnetic pulsations which are always observed during the substorms with the ground-based magnetometers and radars at high latitudes. These waves have the largest amplitudes in the power spectral densities during substorms. Hence, they are the most effective drivers of such mechanisms as high-latitude ionosphere energization, ion outflow production, formation of plasma density cavities, etc. In our study, we focus on the waves with frequencies 0.5-1.0 mHz, which is the lowest part of the frequency spectra observed during the substorm. The questions of what phenomena cause these oscillations and what are their spatiotemporal properties are among the most important ones about the physics of the substorm. To answer these questions, we analyzed disturbances of the magnetic field obtained from the two sources for the period from October 2015 to November 2016 during several substorms. One source is the fluxgate magnetometer in Poker Flat, Alaska. Another is the NASA Advanced Composite Explorer satellite in the Lagrangian L1 point that detects most of the solar wind from the Sun. The goal of our project is to find correlations between the disturbances observed from these sources, which will be a strong argument that the solar wind has a strong influence on the electromagnetic coupling between the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth during the substorms. We observed 48 substorms during the abovementioned period. Our findings show that 1) the dominant frequency of the large-amplitude ULF waves observed during the substorms is 1 mHz or less; and 2) the same frequencies are frequently observed in the waves detected from the both

  17. Introduction to anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1986-01-01

    These lectures are dedicated to the study of the recent progress and implications of anomalies in quantum field theory. In this introduction the author recapitulates some of the highlights in the history of the subject. The outline of these lectures is as follows: Section II contains a quick review of spinors in Euclidean and Minkowski space, some other group theory results relevant for the computation of anomalies in various dimensions, and an exposition of the index theorem. Section III starts the analysis of fermion determinants and chiral effective actions by deriving the non-Abelian anomaly from index theory. Using the results of Section II, the anomaly cancellation recently discovered by Green and Schwarz will be presented in Section IV as well as the connection of these results of Section III with the descent equations and the Wess-Zumino-Witten Lagrangians. Section V contains the generalization of anomalies to σ-models and some of its application in string theory. Section VI will deal with the anomalies from the Hamiltonian point of view. An exact formula for the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in the presence of arbitrary external gauge and gravitational fields will be derived in Section VII, and used in Section VIII for the study of global anomalies. 85 references

  18. Supraconductivité introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mangin, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    La supraconductivité fait rêver, surtout depuis la découverte de son existence à des températures relativement accessibles. Ses applications sont déjà notables (Imagerie par Résonance Magnétique, futur ITER, NEUROSPIN, SQUID...) et des projets plus futuristes se développent (transport de courant, train en lévitation, moteurs). Le présent ouvrage propose une introduction solide, pour un public assez large. Le lecteur pourra s'initier à la théorie de London et aux équations de Pippard, puis étudier les supraconducteurs de type I et de type II (thermodynamique, magnétisme, dynamique de vortex, transport de courant...), les paires de Cooper et les résultats de la théorie BCS. L'étude de la cohérence et de la quantification du flux conduit à l'effet Josephson qui, avec le SQUID. est un bon exemple d'application. Le lecteur pourra combler certaines de ses lacunes grâce aux compléments, suivre le cheminement d'un modèle et s'approprier les concepts. Environ 250 illustrations en facilitent la...

  19. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-09-01

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  20. Chief Editors’ Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Carrington

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been a great year for the journal:  our most successful ever. This edition marks three years of publication of the International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy. In 2015 the journal was selected for inclusion into Scopus and Web of Science data bases. This is a terrific success story and testimony to the high quality of the articles, the editorship, the reviewing and the international readership of the journal. We are grateful as ever to our distinguished International Editorial Board and all our reviewers who are anonymous to readers and authors due to the norms of blind peer reviewing. We also thank the out-going foundational co-editor-in-chief Reece Walters for his efforts in making this journal the success it is. The journal has now surpassed 150,000 abstract views and 100,000 full PDF downloads. This journal is one of only a few in the world of criminology to support fully on-line free-to-download articles, and to promote creative commons copyright: that is, authors’ rights to reproduce their own material. We support the democratisation of knowledge and are delighted to be leaders in high quality international journal publishing.Download the PDF file here for the Chief Editors’ introduction to this issue and be motivated by the eclectic and impressive range of topics offered by our contributors to read further.

  1. Introduction to supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, G.U.

    1987-09-01

    The Dirac equation as a relativistic quantum mechanical equation describing spin-half particles in higher-dimensional space-time is discussed. Clifford algebra in d-dimensional space-time is considered. Also discussed are the discrete symmetries of the Dirac equation, namely: charge conjunction, time reversal and parity or reflection symmetry. The Majorana and Weyl conditions which require the particle wavefunctions to be invariant under particle ↔ antiparticle exchange and left-handed particle ↔ right-handed antiparticle exchange respectively, are investigated. The Poincare group, consisting of the Lorentz group of space rotations, Lorentz boosts and the group of space-time translations, is examined, along with its irreducible representations. The concept of supersymmetry arises out of the generalisation of Lie algebras. An introduction to supersymmetry, as well as the immediate consequences of supersymmetry algebra, is given. Finally, the superspace-superfield approach is introduced. Superspace is a mathematical object which allows a simplification of the formulation of supersymmetry. The advantage of this formulation is that now supersymmetry becomes manifest: it arises naturally just like the Poincare symmetry arises naturally in four-dimensional Minkowski space. 46 refs., 9 figs., 23 tabs

  2. Chemical thermodynamics. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keszei, Ernoe [Budapest Univ. (Hungary). Dept. of Physical Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Eminently suitable as a required textbook comprising complete material for or an undergraduate chemistry major course in chemical thermodynamics. Clearly explains details of formal derivations that students can easily follow and so master applied mathematical operations. Offers problems and solutions at the end of each chapter for self-test and self- or group study. This course-derived undergraduate textbook provides a concise explanation of the key concepts and calculations of chemical thermodynamics. Instead of the usual 'classical' introduction, this text adopts a straightforward postulatory approach that introduces thermodynamic potentials such as entropy and energy more directly and transparently. Structured around several features to assist students' understanding, Chemical Thermodynamics: - Develops applications and methods for the ready treatment of equilibria on a sound quantitative basis. - Requires minimal background in calculus to understand the text and presents formal derivations to the student in a detailed but understandable way. - Offers end-of-chapter problems (and answers) for self-testing and review and reinforcement, of use for self- or group study. This book is suitable as essential reading for courses in a bachelor and master chemistry program and is also valuable as a reference or textbook for students of physics, biochemistry and materials science.

  3. Introduction to safety theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyna, A.

    1982-01-01

    After a general introduction to safety theory, safety characteristics are defined and quantified. This is followed by a calculation of the safety characteristics of simple, safety-relevant systems in general and in consideration of common-mode errors. The qualitative and quantitative role of human errors is discussed for various models, and a simple man-machine model is developed for investigation of common-mode errors and human error. The main part of the paper deals with safety analysis in complex systems. After a general review, the common inductive and deductive methods of analysis are presented and commented on and their fields of application discussed. Analytical and simulation codes are presented as methods of evaluation for big, complex event trees - i.e. ''hazard trees in the sense of safety engineering (as a subset of safety relevance). After a basic classification and mathematical formulation of Markovian processes, the author shows that these may be used successfully for calculation of safety characteristics if transition rates are constant and if the number of system states is limited. (orig./RW) [de

  4. Introduction to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    For the first topic in this book, more on introduction to nondestructive testing, also a little bit on another technique such as magnetic testing, liquid penetrated, ultrasonic testing and others. This book mentions more on radiographic testing and for that, more details on this topic such as history, definition and devices that use in this technique. This radiography testing firstly started with the discovering of x-ray by Wilhelm Roentgen (1895). So, on 1913, David Coolidge successfully invented and developed x-ray tube that could made x-ray more intensified and produced highly penetration forces. Radiography in Malaysia firstly started two years after the discovery made by Wilhelm Roentgen when one hospital here used the x-ray machine for medical purposes. Besides using x-ray, radiography also used gamma rays, and for these purpose, they used Co-60 and Ir-192. Now, more company based on NDT established to provide a service on inspection pipe and others. For filled these requirement, radiographer must take an exam to make them expert and trained well to work in this field. There is no advantage using this technique or other technique. So that's why this book was published to make people understand what is radiographic testing truly.

  5. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  6. Introduction to Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Contact Us Share Introduction to Indoor Air Quality Health Effects Primary Causes Identifying Problems Improving IAQ ...

  7. Introduction: Victorian Theatricalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dobson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available After a barrage of manipulative fan-letters from Sir Merton and Annie Russell-Cotes, Sir Henry Irving, titan of the Victorian stage and the first actor to be knighted, eventually came to stay, briefly, at East Cliff Hall in Bournemouth. A peculiar but attractive compound of Scots baronial castle, Italian villa, French château and Bournemouth seaside bungalow, complete with lavish Art Nouveau interiors and a fountain in the entrance lobby, the house was always designed in and of itself as a dramatic location and was also intended as a magnet for theatrical celebrities. Sir Merton and Annie amply stuffed it with nineteenth-century British paintings, miscellaneous sculptures, and souvenirs of their extensive overseas holidays. Today the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery and Museum remains the late Victorian treasure house par excellence, and I can imagine few more vivid short-cuts into the culture and mindset of the late nineteenth-century haute bourgeoisie than an afternoon spent marvelling at the tons of accumulated trophies and bibelots cluttering its rooms or the acres of tastefully-exposed nipples adorning its walls. What the Russell-Cotes Museum also makes clear, even at its gloomiest, is the key place of drama in the Victorian imagination. After Irving's death in 1905, the Russell-Cotes bought many of Irving's personal effects at auction. Adding these to their existing collection of Irving memorabilia and other theatrical paintings and souvenirs, they converted the bedroom in which Irving had stayed into a permanent shrine to his memory. The Henry Irving Room would make an ideal introduction to most of the contents of this volume.

  8. Advanced Introduction to Private Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In this Advanced Introduction, the reader is taken on an intellectual journey through the different facets and dimensions of private law, from the family home to Kuta Beach and from Thomas Piketty to Nina Hagen. This concise book provides an accessible and fresh introduction to private law,

  9. Bestseller and Blockbuster Culture. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    In cultural communication, the bestseller concept has become a ubiquitous factor – often unnoticed, but ever present. The corresponding concept in feature films is the blockbustster. Introduction to the whole volume.......In cultural communication, the bestseller concept has become a ubiquitous factor – often unnoticed, but ever present. The corresponding concept in feature films is the blockbustster. Introduction to the whole volume....

  10. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2014-03-01

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and

  11. INTRODUCTION: GRADUATE STUDENT SCHOLARSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laverne Jacobs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice is proud to publish issue 32 (1. This issue features a special section highlighting the scholarship of graduate students. While it is always a pleasure to read promising work by newer scholars in the fields of law and social justice, we are certain that this collection of articles represents some of the finest and thought-provoking scholarship stemming from current graduate students in law. The articles stem from a graduate student essay contest that WYAJ held in 2013 and for which we received many submissions. The collection of selected papers offers a view of legal and interdisciplinary research examining issues that are topically diverse but which are all of deep, long-term importance to the world of access to justice. A reader of the special section on Graduate Student Scholarship will find explorations of access to justice from the perspectives of equality rights, discretion, adjudication and methods of legal service delivery, to name a few. A prize was offered to two papers judged to be of exceptional quality. I am very pleased to announce that the winners of those two prizes are Andrew Pilliar, for his article “Exploring a Law Firm Business Model to Improve Access to Justice” and Blair A. Major, for his contribution, “Religion and Law in R v NS: Finding Space to Re-think the Balancing Analysis”. The Editorial Board thanks all those who submitted papers to the contest and to this final special issue of the Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice. Another notable feature of this issue is the introduction of a section called Research Notes. The Yearbook will periodically publish peer-reviewed research notes that present the findings of empirical (quantitative, qualitative or mixed method research studies. This section aims to contribute to the growing and important body of empirical scholarship within the realm of access to justice socio-legal research. We hope that you enjoy

  12. Nuclear reactions. An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Modern, self-contained introduction to the subject matter. Emphasizes the interplay between theory and experiment. Course-tested tutorial style, contains many derivations. Nuclei and nuclear reactions offer a unique setting for investigating three (and in some cases even all four) of the fundamental forces in nature. Nuclei have been shown - mainly by performing scattering experiments with electrons, muons, and neutrinos - to be extended objects with complex internal structures: constituent quarks; gluons, whose exchange binds the quarks together; sea-quarks, the ubiquitous virtual quark-antiquark pairs and, last but not least, clouds of virtual mesons, surrounding an inner nuclear region, their exchange being the source of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The interplay between the (mostly attractive) hadronic nucleon-nucleon interaction and the repulsive Coulomb force is responsible for the existence of nuclei; their degree of stability, expressed in the details and limits of the chart of nuclides; their rich structure and the variety of their interactions. Despite the impressive successes of the classical nuclear models and of ab-initio approaches, there is clearly no end in sight for either theoretical or experimental developments as shown e.g. by the recent need to introduce more sophisticated three-body interactions to account for an improved picture of nuclear structure and reactions. Yet, it turns out that the internal structure of the nucleons has comparatively little influence on the behavior of the nucleons in nuclei, and nuclear physics - especially nuclear structure and reactions - is thus a field of science in its own right, without much recourse to subnuclear degrees of freedom. This book collects essential material that was presented in the form of lectures notes in nuclear physics courses for graduate students at the University of Cologne. It follows the course's approach, conveying the subject matter by combining experimental facts and experimental

  13. An introduction to real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Derek G

    1973-01-01

    An Introduction to Real Analysis presents the concepts of real analysis and highlights the problems which necessitate the introduction of these concepts. Topics range from sets, relations, and functions to numbers, sequences, series, derivatives, and the Riemann integral. This volume begins with an introduction to some of the problems which are met in the use of numbers for measuring, and which provide motivation for the creation of real analysis. Attention then turns to real numbers that are built up from natural numbers, with emphasis on integers, rationals, and irrationals. The chapters tha

  14. An introduction to gas discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Howatson, A M

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to Gas Discharges: Second Edition aims to provide a compact introduction to the subject of gas discharges, which continues to make both scientific and industrial progress. In this second edition, the author has made minor corrections, rewritten and expanded some sections, used SI units and modernized notions, in hopes of making the book more up to date. Included in the book is a short history of the subject, an introduction that enumerates the types of gas discharges, the fundamental processes, and then moves on to the more specific areas such as the breakdown, the self-sustai

  15. Heuristic introduction to gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, V.D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a rough and somewhat heuristic theoretical background and introduction to gravitational radiation, its generation, and its detection based on Einstein's general theory of relativity

  16. Elementary introduction to relativistic kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper includes the most important results and applications of the theory of special relativity to high energy phenomena; it provides an analysis of the kinematics of particle decays and reactions as well as an introduction to the Lorentz group

  17. Introduction to wind turbine aerodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffarczyk, Alois Peter

    2014-01-01

    Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.

  18. An introduction to electrooptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan P

    1974-01-01

    An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices aims to present an introduction to the electrooptic effect and to summarize work on devices employing the electrooptic effect. The book provides the necessary background in classical crystal optics. The text then discusses topics including crystal symmetry, the tensor description of linear dielectric properties, propagation in anisotropic media, and passive crystal optic devices. The book also describes the phenomenological description of tensor nonlinear dielectric properties of crystals, with emphasis on the electrooptic effect; device design and appli

  19. Introduction to ordinary differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Rabenstein, Albert L

    1966-01-01

    Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations is a 12-chapter text that describes useful elementary methods of finding solutions using ordinary differential equations. This book starts with an introduction to the properties and complex variable of linear differential equations. Considerable chapters covered topics that are of particular interest in applications, including Laplace transforms, eigenvalue problems, special functions, Fourier series, and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics. Other chapters are devoted to some topics that are not directly concerned with finding solutio

  20. An introduction to gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, J.

    1977-01-01

    The CERN-JINR School of Physics is meant to give young experimental physicists an introduction to the theoretical aspects of recent advances in elementary particle physics. This paper presents an introduction to gauge theories: the systematics of Yang-Mills theories, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and Higgs mechanism. The treatment is simple, stressing the general principles rather than detailed calculations. The author presents the Weinberg-Salam model as an example of a renormalizable theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions of leptons, and it is shown that the extension of these ideas into the hadronic world requires the introduction of charm and colour. Finally, an attempt is made to include strong interactions into the scheme, guided by the experimental results of deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering. The Callan-Symanzik equation, and the concepts of asymptotic freedom and quark confinement are introduced. (Auth.)

  1. Introduction to computers: Reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligon, F.V.

    1995-04-01

    The ``Introduction to Computers`` program establishes formal partnerships with local school districts and community-based organizations, introduces computer literacy to precollege students and their parents, and encourages students to pursue Scientific, Mathematical, Engineering, and Technical careers (SET). Hands-on assignments are given in each class, reinforcing the lesson taught. In addition, the program is designed to broaden the knowledge base of teachers in scientific/technical concepts, and Brookhaven National Laboratory continues to act as a liaison, offering educational outreach to diverse community organizations and groups. This manual contains the teacher`s lesson plans and the student documentation to this introduction to computer course.

  2. Introduction to applied algebraic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Norman R

    2009-01-01

    This upper-level undergraduate textbook provides a modern view of algebra with an eye to new applications that have arisen in recent years. A rigorous introduction to basic number theory, rings, fields, polynomial theory, groups, algebraic geometry and elliptic curves prepares students for exploring their practical applications related to storing, securing, retrieving and communicating information in the electronic world. It will serve as a textbook for an undergraduate course in algebra with a strong emphasis on applications. The book offers a brief introduction to elementary number theory as

  3. Introduction to biomedical engineering technology

    CERN Document Server

    Street, Laurence J

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Medical DevicesThe Role of Biomedical Engineering Technologists in Health CareCharacteristics of Human Anatomy and Physiology That Relate to Medical DevicesSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part OnePhysiological Monitoring SystemsThe HeartSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part TwoCirculatory System and BloodRespiratory SystemNervous SystemSummaryQuestionsDiagnostic Devices: Part ThreeDigestive SystemSensory OrgansReproductionSkin, Bone, Muscle, MiscellaneousChapter SummaryQuestionsDiagnostic ImagingIntroductionX-RaysMagnetic Resonance Imaging ScannersPositron Emissio

  4. An introduction to fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Drysdale, Dougal

    2011-01-01

    "Drysdale's book is by far the most comprehensive - everyone in the office has a copy...now including me. It holds just about everything you need to know about fire science."(Review of An Introduction to Fire Dynamics, 2nd Edition) After 25 years as a bestseller, Dougal Drysdale's classic introduction has been brought up-to-date and expanded to incorporate the latest research and experimental data.  Homework problems are included, with solutions, and others are available on the accompanying website at www.wiley.com/go/drysdale. Essential reading for all involved in the field from undergraduate

  5. Solid state physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Philip

    2015-01-01

    A must-have textbook for any undergraduate studying solid state physics. This successful brief course in solid state physics is now in its second edition. The clear and concise introduction not only describes all the basic phenomena and concepts, but also such advanced issues as magnetism and superconductivity. Each section starts with a gentle introduction, covering basic principles, progressing to a more advanced level in order to present a comprehensive overview of the subject. The book is providing qualitative discussions that help undergraduates understand concepts even if they can?t foll

  6. An Introduction to TTCN-3

    CERN Document Server

    Willcock, Colin; Tobies, Stephan; Keil, Stefan; Engler, Federico; Schulz, Stephan; Wiles, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This unique book provides a fully revised and up-to-date treatment of the TTCN-3 language TTCN-3 is an internationally standardised test language with a powerful textual syntax which has established itself as a global, universal testing language. Application of TTCN-3 has been widened beyond telecommunication systems to areas such as the automotive industry, internet protocols, railway signalling, medical systems, and avionics.An Introduction to TTCN-3 gives a solid introduction to the TTCN-3 language and its uses, guiding readers though the TTCN-3 standards, methodologies and tools with examp

  7. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Hauptmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past fifteen years most advanced education programmes within Schools of Architecture have been questioning the parameters and requirements of doctoral research both in terms of content and form. This double issue of Footprint was motivated by the question of where the field stands today. Footprint 10|11 presents nine contributions from both recently defended and developing PhD candidates from a variety of institutions. The diversity of their work, as well as the similarities found in the submissions, offers a partial view into research topics currently addressed in PhD programmes within Schools of Architecture. In addition to the nine papers by PhD researchers, we have included a paper by Andrew Leach that we believe provides an overview of the general state of contemporary architecture research. Leach makes an appeal to refrain from making all research operational. At a time when the application of research and its economic value seem to form the primary criteria for judging value, this appeal should not be taken lightly.

  8. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Kerr, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Introduktion til special issue om hvordan kunstneriske processer kan bidrage til udvikling af ledelse, management, læring og uddannelse......Introduktion til special issue om hvordan kunstneriske processer kan bidrage til udvikling af ledelse, management, læring og uddannelse...

  9. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne; Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Uncertainty often seems to be articulated as doubts about the interior make-up of things. Suspecting that persons, objects, institutions and ideologies are not what they seem, critical voices accuse them of emptiness and they are thus laid open to new investments of meaning and value. Ethnographi...

  10. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gisle; Hardt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades of research in linguistics have seen a shift towards empirical methods and an increased use of data from corpora as a basis for making claims about language (Sampson 2005). This trend has made its mark on research on the Nordic languages also, and the current special issue aims to ...

  11. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Gardetti, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    This special issue has chosen to zoom in on new business models as one component in promoting a more sustainable fashion industry. The business model concept has recently come to the fore as a new, popular metaphor for explaining how companies create, deliver and capture value (Osterwalder and Pi...

  12. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Newland

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Certain events divide moments in time into ‘before’ and‘after’. Hiroshima ushered in the age of the nuclearthreat; the fall of the Berlin Wall marked the end ofthe Cold War.

  13. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Hvid

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes six articles where we start off by Abrahamsson and Johansson, who give us a short but comprehensive presentation of how psychosocial work environment has been understood in research and policy over 100 years, with Sweden as the focal point. Short, because they write in the format of an article. Comprehensive, because the authors take a broad understanding of the psychosocial work environment comprising “health/illness,” where factors such as stress and burnout are central, “management and development,” where employee involvement, learning, and innovation are central, and “problematization,” which includes critically oriented research on the nature of work. The article not only provides an overview of the research that has been done in this area in the last 100 years but also relates research to policy and practice. The article thus provides a valuable perspective on today’s research and public debate on the works, with a Nordic perspective (...

  14. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekman, R.H.A.; Werff, H. van der; Nagel, S.; Breuer, C.; Breuer, C.; Hoekman, R.H.A.; Nagel, S.; Werff, H. van der

    2015-01-01

    Sport clubs have a long tradition in nearly all European countries. They play an important role in the sporting activities of the population, not only for elite and competitive sport but also for sport for all. During the period of over a century in which sport clubs have been existent in Europe,

  15. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Post, Hans Christian; Munteán, László

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian memorials to the Cambodian genocide between 1975 and 1979 can in numerous ways be termed monstrous. Not so much in that they deal with atrocities monstrous in scale and character, as in the monstrous visual means they employ and the imprecise, monster-ridden explanations they delive...

  16. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The methods of preparing and the chemical properties of different boron compounds including simple and complex boron halides, boron oxides and sulfides, boron organic compounds are briefly described. The main features of their crystal and molecular structure, as well as the effect of structure their properties and stability of boron compounds are discussed

  17. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooke, J.; Barberá, G.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Castillo, V.; Poesen, J.; Torri, D.; van Wesemael, B.; Hooke, J.; Sandercock, P.

    2017-01-01

    This book explains the methods and results of a major research project, RECONDES, that was undertaken to develop strategies of effective use of vegetation to combat desertification and land degradation by water. The research approach combined understanding of the processes of erosion and land

  18. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1972, Nuclear Fuels Divisions of Sumitomo and Furukawa Electric Industries merged and became a subsidiary of Sumitomo and Furukawa Industries which is now called Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd. We design and manufacture various kinds of nuclear fuels. As for research reactor fuel, we began our development activities in 1956. Since then we have spent over 2 million dollars for development of nuclear fuels and plant facilities including complete manufacturing and testing capabilities. Now we are the only supplier of the research reactor fuel in Japan. Our fabrication process starts with the melting, alloying, and casting of U-Al. The uranium billets are prepared by foreign fabricators. The uranium content varies from 13 to 22 wt % according to the purchaser's specifications. In making fuel plates, the picture frame method is applied. In this case, our original procedure is sufficiently effective in avoiding dogboning. The plates are finished by hot and cold roll milling and inspected dimensionally, metallurgically, and mechanically, and at the same time the blister test and X-ray radiographic tests are performed. Fuel elements are assembled by rolling flat or curved plates into side plate grooves and end-fit welding. Finished elements are tested dimensionally and hydraulically. Nominal losses during operation are less than 1% of the uranium metal. Our present capacity licensed by the Japanese Government is approximately 950 fuel elements a year. About 35 employees including engineers are engaged in development and manufacturing of fuels. Owing to the small limited demand of the research reactor fuels in Japan during the past 20 years (mostly in last 10 years), we processed only about 350 kg of highly enriched uranium and supplied approximately 1000 fuel elements to JAERI, Kyoto University, and others, and we have been suffering red-ink balance of budget every year

  19. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Shrank, C.; Bryson, A.

    2017-01-01

    These essays arose from a conference, organized as part of the "Early Modern Manuscript Poetry" project, which was funded by the U.K.'s Arts and Humanities Research Council and led by Steven W. May. From his 1968 PhD thesis—an edition of Henry Stanford's anthology, under the guidance of William A. Ringler Jr.—Steve has been in the forefront of early modern manuscript studies, as the author of numerous influential articles and books, including The Elizabethan Courtier Poets (1991), and as the ...

  20. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris

    2016-01-01

    referred to as “everyday life” provides a useful starting point for research into media use. It guides us towards a number of considerations, from how we structure our day through certain habits and patterns of media consumption; to the development of technology and the formation of new rituals...... century history. Indeed, a quick Google Scholar search of “everyday life” takes us on whirlwind interdisciplinary tour of academia, from sociology to cultural studies, psychology to political science, anthropology to economics. There is good reason for this, in that thinking through consistency and change...... – patterns and disruptions – across the passage of time forms the analytic foundation for much scientific research. But while “everyday life” adorns the cover of many a noted book (e.g. Goffman 1959; de Certeau 1984), a comparable term is almost nowhere to be found. “Everywhere life” not only draws...

  1. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aron

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En guise de préambule, nous voudrions cerner rapidement l’objet dont il sera question et proposer quelques pistes de réflexion.Brève histoire problématique de la biographieLa biographie est un genre ancien, même si le mot n’apparaît en France qu’à la fin du xviie siècle. Ce genre est consacré à retracer des vies authentiques, dans des récits dont le sujet et l’auteur ne se confondent pas. On peut appeler « biographique » l’ensemble des genres donnant des « récits de vie » (biographie mais aus...

  2. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Sippola, Eeva; Bakker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a semantics-driven lexical comparison of 20 creole languages and five European lexifier languages. Breaking new ground into understanding creole semantics, it utilizes insights from both cognitive semantics (in particular, the Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach) and phylog......This study presents a semantics-driven lexical comparison of 20 creole languages and five European lexifier languages. Breaking new ground into understanding creole semantics, it utilizes insights from both cognitive semantics (in particular, the Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach...

  3. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine; Jepsen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    and governments' policy responses have also been widening labour market inequalities between different groups within countries, the authors argue, as illustrated by the disproportionate growth of youth employment and their specific focus on gender inequality. Cross-national variations in the content and structure...

  4. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Tore; Sandøy, Helge

    2010-01-01

    1. Background: the laboratory As is well-known from the literature on language contact (e.g. Weinreich 1953; Thomason and Kaufman 1988) the factors and forces that are in play in close and longstanding contact between (speakers of ) two languages are both linguistic and social in nature......, and involve both quantitative and qualitative relationships. Indeed, the outcome of language contact is a question of numbers and frequencies in terms of use and users, of sameness vs. differencein terms of linguistic structure, of dominance vs. subordination in terms of socio-historical contexts, etc...... in Norway, the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland — eastwards in the case of Sweden and Swedish with a long history in Finland. And we may add the linguistic and socio-historical complexities that relate the Sami people in the far north to the southern majority populations of Norway, Sweden and Finland...

  5. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angathevar

    2013-01-01

    African countries, taken separately, or grouped together as a unit, still largely remain resource-based economies. The challenge is to change the resource-based economic structure into a science, technology, engineering and innovation driven knowledge based economic system. Taking this challenge...... head on means African countries have to organise their science, technology, engineering and innovation for a development agenda systematically, more in collaboration than in competition with one another. What appears to remain a deficit is the vast collaborative distance that still exists on matters...

  6. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    What if value is neither an intrinsic quality of an object, nor a reflection of a subjects preferencesbut rather something that is organized and brought into existence through mechanisms, technologies and practices of valuation? This edited book addresses the question of valuation theoretically a...

  7. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2012-01-01

    In this book about research on Facilities Management (FM) leading researchers from the Nordic countries present their ideas and findings: • Past: The historical development and current trends in FM research in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland. • Present: Ongoing FM research within the followin...

  8. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    Introduktion til Religion in the 21st Century, der indeholder bidrag fra den afsluttende konference i Københavns Universitets satsningsområde 2003-2007 om Religion i det 21. århundrede. Bidrag om 'Political and Intellectual Challenge', 'The Religion and Science Debate', 'Islam and State Politics......', 'Secularism and State Politics' of 'Denmark and the Cartoons'....

  9. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Allen E.

    1985-01-01

    Political science departments were surveyed to determine the extent of course offerings on any aspect of the Vietnam War or its legacy. Survey results are discussed. Provided is a chart indicating the name of the university, course title, professor(s) teaching course, level and enrollment, and when offered. (RM)

  10. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroetmann, C.

    1993-01-01

    Everybody who takes an interest in environmental policy knows about the difficulties involved at all levels in reaching the generally accepted goal of integrating environmental protection in other political fields - and the difficulties are even greater in a period of emerging economic recession, since many still mistakenly view environmental protection as an unnecessary extravagance. This holds true for policies not only et EC level but also at the national level. It has been clear now for some time that the task of protecting the natural environment largely transcends individual fields of policy. The cross-section clause in Article 130 r paragraph 2 s. 2 of the EEC Treaty, according to which the demands of environmental protection are an integral part of the other policies of the Community, is a genuine legal innovation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc; Herrmann, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    therefore continues to move the discourse of polar security beyond – but not excluding – the conventional debates of military capabilities and state sovereignty towards a more comprehensive definition of security, including its interacting environmental, economic, political, health and cultural dimensions....

  12. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagodic; Sandberg, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Addressing and conceptualizing the changing character of borders in contemporary Europe, this book examines developments occurring in the light of European integration processes and an on-going tightening of Europe's external borders. Moreover, the book suggests new ways of investigating the nature...... of European borders by looking at border practices in the light of the mobility turn, and thus as dynamic, multiple, diverse and best expressed in everyday experiences of people living at and with borders, rather than focusing on static territorial divisions between states and regions at geopolitical level...

  13. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzebski, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Laboratory of the Warsaw University is a 'User type' facility, providing heavy ion beams to a number of Polish and foreign research groups and, to limited extent, for its own research programme. In 2006 the Warsaw cyclotron has operated during about 2500 hours of beam on target. 18 experiments, all recommended by the Program Advisory Committee, have been performed by more than one hundred facility users. Their scientific achievements are presented in this Report. This year the publication harvest was slightly smaller as compared to previous years. However, the first Phys. Rev. Letters paper, based completely on the HIL data, should be noticed. The important part of the Laboratory team effort was devoted to educational and science popularization activities, described in details in the following pages of this report. Here, I would like to especially mention the Workshop on Heavy Ion Acceleration and its Application, devoted to physics students of Universities outside Warsaw. The 2006 Workshop was organized for the second time. We do hope, that this workshop will contribute to establishing in Poland more formal recognition for inter-university students and tutors exchange. This, as we hope, will benefit in the Ministry funding of this programme in the future. In 2006 the Laboratory equipment was further developed. The ICARE particle multidetector system was installed on the beam line D and was tested using 16 O beam. Work is in progress on improving its characteristics (signal processing and acquisition) and on expanding possible applications by adding the Time-of-Flight components. The project of a new gamma-ray spectrometer with up to 30 Ge detectors was prepared, discussed and preliminary accepted for realization, when necessary funds are available. In the mean time a new particle detector chamber was tested in coincidence with the OSIRIS II set-up, demonstrating a substantially higher efficiency and lower background in the Coulomb excited gamma-ray spectra. An irradiation facility for radiobiological studies described in details in the last year Annual Report was also presented in a recent publication. Finally, after many years of unsuccessful applications, 50% of funds necessary for the acquisition of a new ECR ion source were allocated by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education at the end of 2006. At present commercial offers are evaluated. Besides running of the U-200P cyclotron, educational activity, development of new experimental tools, and participation in experiments using local and European facilities, the Laboratory team is strongly involved in many new projects. Basing on funds allocated by the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, and the Ministry of Health, the project of the installation in the Laboratory building of a second p/d cyclotron for the production of PET radiopharmaceuticals is in progress. The short history and current situation of this project is presented in the following pages of this report. The Laboratory is also involved in the Polish Hadron-Therapy Consortium, contributing to the preparation of the project of the National Hadron-Therapy Center in Warsaw. European Structural Funds allocated to Poland for 2007-2013 open a possibility to acquire funds for realization of such an initiative. Basing on the same source of funding, plus the resources of 7FP, the Laboratory launched the idea of the preparatory program for constructing in Poland a demonstration facility for High Temperature Nuclear Reactor in synergy with coal. The Consortium of Polish Universities and industrial partners was organized. The project was accepted by Polish Government and placed in the first place of the list of Large Projects in the '' Innovative Economy Programme ''. It will be discussed with European Commission. More information on this project can be found on the Laboratory web pages. (author)

  14. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Cojocaru

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is more than 10 years since we have published our first special issue devoted to the Computer Algebra. For us it was a starting point for the development of Computer Algebra in Moldova. Looking back we can say that this was a period during which we have found our own place in this very important part of modern Computer Science. It was, of course, impossible without the help of our colleagues from other countries, without the financial support from INTAS and Swedish Academy of Science. In fact the most part of articles, published in this issue was supported by INTAS project Nr 05-104-7553 and we are very grateful for this important help.

  15. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Baumert, Nicolas; Guichard-Anguis, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Le séisme du 11 mars 2011 qui a frappé le Japon a provoqué une catastrophe majeure dont les images, largement diffusées dans les médias, ont rappelé par la violence de l’aléa (évalué à 9 sur l’échelle de Richter), la vulnérabilité des sociétés humaines face à l’enchainement des risques naturels et humains. À la succession de destructions ayant fait près de 20 000 victimes, et à l’accident nucléaire de la centrale de Fukushima n° 1 près d’Iwaki, s’est ajoutée une crise alimentaire sévère qui a...

  16. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graauw, T.

    2010-09-01

    As this editorial is written, we have seven antennas at the Chajnantor plateau, the "High Site". Seven antennas means twenty-one baselines, i.e. more than twice as many as we had only two months ago. As you know, the bonus we have in interferometry is that the the number of baselines increases roughly with the square of the available antennas. The image quality can be further enhanced, because the projection of a celestial source onto the existing baselines changes due to the rotation of the Earth. A large number of baselines is important but not sufficient to fulfill one important promise of ALMA, namely to provide crisp images. Unlike the sharp images from the Hubble Space Telescope, images from ground based optical or radio telescopes are blurred by the Earth's atmosphere. It is the Holy Grail of observing astronomy to overcome such atmospheric effects. Recently, ALMA has made a big step toward this goal by using Water Vapor Radiometers operating at 183 GHz to measure the amount of atmospheric water vapor at any instant in the line of sight of each antenna, and applying a corresponding correction to the astronomical data received. This not only improves the image quality, it is essential for using ALMA at its lowest wavelengths of around 0.3mm and at baselines exceeding several kilometers. Achieving this has a been a collaborative effort involving many parts of the project and there are all to be congratulated. JAO has now moved into our new Santiago Central Office in Vitacura next to the ESO premises, ending a phase of two years were Santiago based staff was distributed in two different buildings. This new ALMA office will also host the ALMA archive. Although ALMA users are normally not expected to come to Chile to observe, there will be office space for visitors, since ALMA has been and will always be a cooperation of people from many countries and many fields of science and engineering. This newsletter contains a list of workshops, schools and conferences dealing with ALMA, reflecting the interest of the astronomical community in our project. I invite everybody to join these events in order to discuss the exciting science made possible with ALMA, and to learn how to use this instrument in an efficient way. After all, the first call for ALMA observing proposals will be released very soon. After having served as ALMA Project Engineer since 2004, Rick Murowinski has decided to go back to Canada. We thank him for his important contributions to our project during very crucial years and wish him all the best for his future career.

  17. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Jeffrey; Fuchs, Christopher A.

    The great debate between Einstein and Bohr on the interpretation of quantum mechanics culminated with the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paper in 1935, "Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete?" (Einstein, Podolsky, & Rosen, 1935, and Bohr's reply, 1935). EPR showed that composite quantum systems, consisting of widely separated subsystems, could exist in certain quantum states that they thought spelled trouble for the Copenhagen interpretation. Specifically, they argued that for such states, the correlations between the outcomes of measurements on the subsystems were incompatible with the assumption that the quantum state was a complete description of the system. They concluded that quantum mechanics was an incomplete theory-that the quantum state could not be the whole story about a system.

  18. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter the implementation history of the of Inter-disciplinary research complex in the L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University is illuminated. The responsible institutes participating in the complex designing and it putting into operation are presented. It is noted, that the complex should be a principle facility for solution problems on chemistry, physics and a wide scale advanced technologies. It is suggested, that a nuclear membranes production in the heavy ion accelerator (the key facility of the complex) can be integrating factor of different disciplines and branches and would be a basis for both the nano-technologies and a knowledge intensive business

  19. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Applied Soil Ecology contains the Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on EarthwormEcology (ISEE-10), held in Athens, Georgia, USA in June of 2014. ISEE-10 was attended by 120+ delegates representing 24 nationalities (Fig. 1). The papers collected here represent only a small fraction of the more than 150 oral and poster...

  20. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spacing of 50 cm between the p ants and rows. The experimental field received. 94.3 kg/ha P20 6, 62.5 kg/ha K20 . The plot received 66 kg/ha of nitrogen at the time of tran,splanting, 3 weeks and 5 weeks after transplanting. The experiment consisted of three irrigation methods. viz. drip., micro-sprinkler and check-basin, ...

  1. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlikar, J. V.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2014-03-01

    The ICGC Meetings: 1987-2011 When India became an independent nation in 1947, the presence of Jawaharlal Nehru on the scene, as the Prime Minister was a fortunate circumstance. For, Nehru was a visionary, who believed that the future of the new nation should be guided by science and technology (S & T), and so with like-minded scientists like, Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar, Homi Bhabha, Meghnad Saha, and Daulatsingh Kothari in leading positions, Nehru set about creating an extensive infrastructure for S & T. The initiatives taken in and around 1947 began to yield dividends in a couple of decades, and by the late 60s and early 70s, major S & T organizations and associated trained human resources were making significant contributions to the country's development, both material and intellectual. Amongst these may be included, the creation of various scientific societies devoted to specific subjects. These came in response to the urge of scientists to meet as a group for discussions in their fields of research. So, it was in 1969, a number of research workers in the field of general relativity and gravitation (GRG), who had gathered for a workshop in Ahmedabad, resolved to form a society for GRG. The initiative was taken by P C Vaidya, who pointed out the advantages of forming such a recognized group, mentioning that the international community of workers in GRG had already formed such a society. The Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), thus, came up in 1969 with the veteran relativist V V Narlikar, as its first President. Some three years later, the astronomical community responding to a similar urge, formed the Astronomical Society of India (ASI), under the presidency of Vainu Bappu, the Founder Director of the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. Since the days of discovery of quasars in 1963, there has been an alliance between gravitation theorists and astrophysicists, resulting in the Texas Symposia, which are held once every two years. The International Society of GRG, referred above, also has a world congress (numbered GR-n) once in four years. The ASI and IAGRG have, naturally, many members in common, and over the years, these organizations have grown. Their national meets take place approximately once in two years. It is customary to invite overseas scientists to these meets, if they happen to be visiting India. In the early 80s, the scientific community in India felt more ambitious, and debated the possibility of hosting a truly international meet in India. Thus, in 1985 the astronomers successfully hosted the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union. The GRG members, likewise, were pressing for hosting a meeting in the GR-n series. Since the human resources and institutional base of relativists were not as wide and strong as of the astronomers, they were advised to proceed in stages. ''First successfully hold a miniature version of GR-n, and once your credibility and capability are established, bid for the big one.'' This was the advice of some international veterans. That is how the ICGC-series of conferences came about. The first ICGC As the name (International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology) implies, the conference sought to combine the interests of the Texas Symposia as well as of GR-n. The meetings were planned to be once in four years starting in mid-December 1987. (This was the blank year for the Texas Symposium.) To launch them in an impressive manner, the opening meeting was planned to be in the famous tourist resort state of Goa. As IAGRG lacked the infrastructure to organize such a conference, the main organizational responsibility had to be taken up by one of the research institutes; and the biggest amongst these was the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai. The TIFR, therefore, was approached, and agreed. As the 'most interested person" from TIFR, I was put in charge of the enterprise. Of course, I had the backing of my senior colleague Kumar (S.M.) Chitre and the younger one, Ajit Kembhavi, and the organizational infrastructure of TIFR. In particular, the then administrator dealing with scientific meetings, Parelkar enthusiastically joined me to set up the local boundary conditions in Goa. To get our priorities right, we first picked upon Hotel Mandovi in Panjim (Capital of Goa) as the nodal hotel for catering, accommodation, and arrangements of the academic sessions. We were expecting around 100 participants with 50% from abroad. Kamat, the Manager of Hotel Mandovi, promised all help including beds in nearby hotels to make up any shortfall. Regarding the quality of food, for which Hotel Mandovi was justly famous, its in-charge, Satish Prabhu took care of all our worries. Delegates may still recall the various Goan delicacies featured on the conference menus. Parelkar negotiated the basic deal with the hotels to extract the maximum benefits for the conference. But we were still rather vulnerable in lack of the local conditions. An unexpected helping hand came to make up for our lack of local knowledge. The amateur astronomer organization, called ''Friends of Astronomy in Goa'', led by their venerable President, Percival Noronha offered to run errands for us and play the role of local volunteer. Noronha had been associated with the state government of Goa, since the days when it was a Portuguese colony. His 'inside knowledge' came in useful, especially when he advised us to request the Chief Minister, Pratapsingh Rane to entertain the conference participants in the state catamaran. Somewhat hesitatingly, I wrote a request letter, and to my delightful surprise, the CM agreed. Indeed, the boat-ride followed by the CM's riverside banquet was the entertainment high point of the conference. The food, Goan drinks, and musical entertainment were well appreciated by the participants, and an uninitiated person might be forgiven for thinking that ICGC stood for ''International Conference on Goan Conviviality''. However, it was the academic menu of ICGC-1987 that took precedence over anything else. The Scientific Organizing Committee, consisting of Vishveshwara (Vishu, if your tongue is not up to pronouncing the full name) as the Chairman, and Ashtekar, Barrow, Bertotti, Brill, Carr, Hartle, Hu, Iyer, MacCallum, Narlikar, Novikov, Penrose, and Sciama reflected a nice international mix as well as a mix of active branches of Gravitation and Cosmology. Later meetings The original intention of meeting every four years in some part of India was honoured by the community, and accordingly, the ICGC met in Ahmedabad (1991), Pune (1995), Kharagpur (2000), Cochin (2004), and Pune (2007) before reconvening in Goa in 2011. These meetings were more modestly planned, and instead of trying to cover many fields, each meeting was limited to some specialized topics. Thus, the Kharagpur meeting had highlighted gravitational waves, while the Pune (1995) meeting had emphasized the Raychaudhuri equation and the singularity theorems. These conferences did help to put India firmly on the map of GR and Cosmology, to the extent that the GR-15 was held successfully in Pune with Naresh Dadhich from IUCAA playing the main coordinator's role. It has been a pleasure to see young blood being attracted to these areas of research. Two major developments are on the horizon at the time of writing this piece. The LIGO is planning to set up an extra detector of gravitational waves in India with local help, both in hardware and software. Likewise, steps are being taken for India to join the TMT mega-telescope project as an international partner. These heartening developments help us to bear the loss of old doyens like, V V Narlikar, P C Vaidya, and A K Raychaudhuri. Though 'small is beautiful' is a truism, the decision was taken to return to Goa with a wider and richer academic menu to recall and celebrate the first ICGC. This is how we all find ourselves in Goa and its pleasant surroundings. As they say: ''Your problem is simplified if you choose the right boundary conditions!'' J V Narlikar Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA) Post Bag 4, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007, India E-mail: jvn@iucaa.ernet.in

  2. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib; Hyams, Inger; Dinesen, Cort

    2017-01-01

    This book presents contributions of drawing and text along with their many relationalities from ontology to history and vice versa in a range of reflections on architecture, drawing and topology. We hope to thereby indicate the potential of the theme in understanding not only the architecture of ...

  3. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Feuerhake, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Bogen beskriver den særegne arkitektur, som kendetegner den sydchilenske øgruppe Chiloe Archipelago. Huse i træ udviklet i en lang tradition fra fiskerlandsbyernes Palafitos til et stort antal kirker, hvoraf 16 er på Unescos liste. Videreført i moderne arkitektur....

  4. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Effect of Fuel wood on the Quality of Smoked Freshwater Fish Species Sold in Tamale. Central Market, Northern ... refrigeration as means of preventing the fast ... species into good and bad smoking fuel wood ; ..... Fish processing: Food Cycle.

  5. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzebski, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The year 2003 was a consecutive period of a regular activity of the Heavy Ion Laboratory. The Cyclotron was delivering the heavy ion beams ranging from 11 B to 40 Ar to ten different experiments during more than 2000 hours. A few teams were able to finalize their previous years data collection by papers published in high-ranked journals. Other teams published in the proceedings of the international conferences their invited talks or oral contributions. Thirteen publication in ISI listed journals appeared last year basing on the data obtained using Warsaw machine. A similar number was published by the Laboratory staff using external facilities. The modest technical upgrades presented in this Report were achieved almost with no cost above the salaries. The 15 % decrease of the previous years running subvention from the Ministry of Science and Informatics accompanied by a consecutive refusal to fund the new ECR ion source makes the status of the Laboratory as the nuclear physics center in a very precarious position. The situation looks much more promising with the new project: the creation of an interdisciplinary Laboratory - the Warsaw Positron Emission Tomography Centre, launched by the Heavy Ion Laboratory and the Nuclear Medicine Department at the Clinical Hospital of the Warsaw Academy of Medicine in 2001. In 2003 the Warsaw Consortium for PET Collaboration (WCPC) was created and presently it takes an active role in the project preparation. The WCPC will dispose of a single radiopharmaceuticals production unit located at HIL and equipped with a commercial proton/deuteron cyclotron, chemical units and quality control laboratory. The PET CT, PET or adapted SPECT scanners will be successively located in the Warsaw hospital centers, starting with the medical unit closest (500 m) to the radiopharmaceutical production place. The participation in the WCPC of numerous University and Academy of Sciences units will promote the Warsaw Centre activity in research and education area. The planned purchase of the micro-PET, animal scanner will substantially help in this activity. In 2003 a proposal was submitted to the Technical Co-operation Programme of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for a partial support of the Warsaw PET Centre equipment purchase and activity. This proposal got a strong support and written promises of the local financial contribution from Ministry of Sciences and Informatics and Ministry of Health. It is hoped that the Warsaw PET Centre will begin its diagnostic, research and educational activity in 2006. Starting from this time the Laboratory with its well trained team will operate two cyclotrons, one for research, the another one for radioisotope production. (author)

  6. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    It would be hard to argue against the fact that Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) is a fast growing discipline within material science and engineering. A quick scan of the proceedings from conferences such as Aeromat, Material Science and Technology, and the TMS Annual Meeting clearly shows it. What began a few years ago as one symposium has grown into multiple ICME related symposia at each of these conferences. As encouraging as the number of symposia being offered is the attendance at the symposia. For example, one of the ICME symposia at MS&T 10, the symposium in which this book is based, had five sessions which culminated in a panel discussion that was standing room only. In addition to the large, annual materials science and engineering conferences, smaller 1 to 2-day conferences/workshops sponsored by government agencies (e.g. AFRL and NIST) on specific aspects of ICME and by universities promoting their ICME work are regularly offered. And arguably the most significant news with regards to ICME and conferences is the July 2011 First World Congress on ICME. This five day TMS sponsored conference, specifically focused on ICME with an international advisory board of ICME leaders, shows how far ICME has spread across the globe. Evidence for the growth of ICME can also be found in Academia. The University Materials Council (UMC) is composed of department heads for material science and engineering from major U.S. and Canadian universities. Meeting twice a year to share best practices in order to strengthen both the engineering content [1] and the educational process, the UMC s agenda for their Spring 2010 meeting was dedicated to ICME [2]. This meeting was held in response to the growing awareness that the universities play a major role in the success of ICME and therefore need to develop ICME curriculum in order to meet that need. To aid educators in the development of ICME courses, NSF is funding a "Summer School" on ICME to be held at the University of Michigan in 2011 [3]. Northwestern University recently announced a MS Certificate Program in ICME [4]. Course work for this certificate begins in the Fall of 2011. Other signs that ICME is growing comes from the formation of ICME initiatives from work that did not start off with ICME in mind. One of the committees in ASM International is the Materials Properties Database Committee (MPDC). In the 2010 meeting of the MPDC, based on a study by ASM, the committee decided that it would create an ICME sub-committee in order to determine how ASM can meet the growing needs of the ICME community [5]. In 1999, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) created a consortium, the Metals Affordability Initiative (MAI), with members from both industry and government with a goal of reducing the cost and time to market of producing metal parts for aerospace applications [6].

  7. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Hvid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this issue, four articles are published. Corin and Björk present a study of the psychosocial work environment among managers in public schools and in public elder care in Sweden. The study provides new insight into the working conditions of managers in the public sector, and at the same time, the study contributes to the development of research methods in the field. The study is based on Demerouti and Bakkers’ Job Demand-Resource model, which summarizes several well-known models for the studying of psychosocial work environment, primarily the Demand Control model of Karasek and Theorell and the Efford Reward model of Siegrist. The Job Demand-Resource model is most often used in survey studies, where employees assess their working conditions in a questionnaire. Corin and Björk, meanwhile, use the model as a basis for a qualitative study, which forms an external assessment of job demands and job resources. They use the ARIA method, based on the German ‘activity theory’. The study suggests that there is a strong imbalance between demands and resources in managers' work and the study illustrates how surveys and qualitative studies could be combined in a fruitful way (...

  8. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Helge Hvid

    2016-01-01

    In this issue, four articles are published. Corin and Björk present a study of the psychosocial work environment among managers in public schools and in public elder care in Sweden. The study provides new insight into the working conditions of managers in the public sector, and at the same time, the study contributes to the development of research methods in the field. The study is based on Demerouti and Bakkers’ Job Demand-Resource model, which summarizes several well-known models for th...

  9. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-01-01

    This section of the report describes the history of the tribology program of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) in the Office of Transportation Technologies (OTT). The mission of the Office of Transportation Technology is discussed. OTT`s research objectives focus on (1) automobiles and light-duty trucks and vans and (2) heavy duty trucks and buses. Even small gains in efficiency can produce large paybacks for the tax dollar. The mission of the Office of Transportation Materials is also described. Its research objective is to enable the development and engineering of energy-efficient transportation systems that will make possible the transition of the U.S. transportation sector from dependence on petroleum to alternative fuels and electricity. The mission of the Tibology Program is to provide the base technology to enable savings in annual U.S. energy consumption through tribological advances in the transportation sector. Current task areas are in the fields of advanced lubrication, engineered tribological interfaces, advanced tribomaterials and components, and project management.

  10. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attansi, E.D.; DeYoung, J.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the outlook for exploration depends on the economic health of the mining industry and, in turn, general economic conditions. It is too early to determine the overall impact of the cessation of hostilities in the Persian Gulf War. Its conclusion would allow funds to be redirected to individual country's economies. The rebuilding of the war-damaged countries will probably translate into net increases in demand for the minerals industry. A return to stability in energy costs will also benefit the mining industry. Alternatively, the capital requirements to rebuild war-torn countries could put some strain on capital markets and affect the funds available for private commercial investment. Along with increasing the cost of capital to mining operations, a capital shortage could stall recovery of western industrialized economies that are currently in recession

  11. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Damgaard, Bodil; Krogh, Andreas Hagedorn

    2015-01-01

    of collaborative innovation processes; 3) Leadership is important for promoting collaborative innovation; and 4) Collaborative public innovation is relevant at all levels of governance. On these grounds, the chapter concludes that a promising research field is emerging but is still in its infancy and further......Governments all over Northern Europe have placed public innovation high on the political agenda. European governance researchers are seeking to map the impact of efforts to promote public innovation with a particular focus on the role of collaborative forms of governance in achieving this...... presented in the book point to a number of important preliminary findings regarding the role of collaborative forms of governance in enhancing public innovation: 1) Collaborative public innovation transforms mindsets, role perceptions and work forms; 2) Design matters for the success and failure...

  12. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, Ralph

    Various types of diverse networks — communication networks, transport networks, global business networks, networks of friends, or the Internet — shape our daily life and the way we think and act. We depend on various social, economic, and technological networks that weave a tissue of businesses, governments, technologies and that contain us as citizens, users, or customers. We only become aware of our dependence if failures occur in these networks: when cities are plunged into darkness because of a breakdown of the power grid like happened recently in New York, when national economies collapse because of a failure of global financial systems like happened in the South-Asian banking crisis, or when computer viruses spread with mind-boggling speed over information networks destroying or, even worse, exposing sensitive data.

  13. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Gonzalez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For over a century and in modes ranging from hagiography to protest, popular music has been a prime theatre of observation and representation of the United States on record, in concert and more generally in the performing arts. Studying this field, with its senders—artists and their productions—and its receivers—gatekeepers and audiences—enables us to cast a different light on the USA as a source of inspiration, rejection and attraction for musicians on both sides of the Atlantic in order to ...

  14. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosser, Kate; McCarthy, Lauren; Kilgour, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    together academics, practitioners and policy-makers in what was perhaps the first wide-ranging discussion of the impacts of business with respect to gender relations and gender equality, in the context of research on corporate responsibility. The chapters in this volume were largely commissioned from......The idea for this book grew out of the work on gender and corporate social responsibility (CSR) undertaken at the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR), Nottingham University Business School (UK). Beginning in 2003, this research and teaching agenda expanded quite rapidly......, attracting Business School, external and ESRC funding and the attention of international scholars. In June 2013, the ICCSR held the International Symposium on Gender and Responsible Business, the first of its kind in the United Kingdom. One of the most valuable things about this event was that it brought...

  15. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Balding, David J.; Gastwirth, Joseph L.

    2003-01-01

    The word "statistics" derives from the collection and use of data to assist in the administration of a state (nation). The justice system is one of the fundamental pillars of a state, and is central to the political life of most countries. Ideas from probability and statistics have been used to try to model and improve methods of legal decision-making since the earliest days of our discipline in the 16th and 17th centuries. More recently, the debate over the Bayesian statistica...

  16. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman; Bjarnesen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Wars unsettle our commonsense understandings of movement and mobility. Simultaneously entropic and inertial, they conjure up images of rampant disorder and chaos as well as strained and crippled formations locked in negative tension. On the one hand, detrimental movement; on the other, deadly...... stalemate. Both mobility and immobility are, as such, associated with the iconography of warfare and conflicts. They may be presented as out of time through pictures of empty streets, ruins, trenches, and dead bodies frozen in contorted positions, yet, conversely, some of the most archetypical images of war...

  17. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Giuseppe; Hansen, Morten Balle; Johanson, Jan-Erik

    2016-01-01

    , Houlberg, and Bækgaard study the link between fiscal austerity and politicians’ use of performance information by using survey and documentary data from Danish municipalities. Grossi, Reichard, and Ruggiero examine the interest of politicians and public managers in the use of performance information......The five articles in this symposium examine the issues of comparative performance management and accountability in the age of austerity from different vantage points. Brusca and Montesinos carry out an international comparison of 17 countries studying key issues in the implementation of performance...... for decisionmaking and monitoring the budget cycle provided in the newly established performance budgets of municipalities in Germany and Italy. Poocharoen examines performance management in different types of interagency collaborations, presenting six case studies of management projects in the field of natural...

  18. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    environmental degradation; to influence the farmers, fuel-wood dealers and brick industrialists to be aware ... depth researches on the impact of human activities on the biodiversity of basins. ..... climate change. .... Eroded soil and silt cloud the.

  19. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uresk, V.A.; Rogers, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    A general description of ecosystem functioning introduces the need for comprehensive ecological studies as part of the overall waste management operations on the 200 Area plateau. A history of waste management operations and location of 200 Area facilities is provided. An estimate of inventories of radioactive materials in the 200 Area cribs, ponds, and ditches at the end of September 1976 is included

  20. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Jens

    2018-01-01

    The fact that French grand opera as a genre was closely connected to the institution of the Paris Opéra, and, more generally, to the contemporary urban context of Paris, has meant that scholars have often focussed specifically on understanding the phenomenon in relation to the original Parisian c...

  1. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Hvid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, we present seven quite different articles, all authored by researchers from Sweden. Three of the articles examine some general trends in working life: The first article examines the precariousness of the labor market, and two articles examine how increasing global competition affects the quality of work in the service sector in the Nordic countries. Four articles focus on mechanisms that create inequality in working life and the labor market: Gender inequality in the working environment is examined in two articles. In one article, it is examined how ethnic inequality is maintained in work organizations. And one article examines how stigmas from certain organizations are transferred to the employees of the organization (...

  2. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K. S.; Romero, Gustavo E.

    In the last 15 years, gamma-ray astronomy has evolved from a promis-ing but rather exotic branch of astronomical science to become a mature field of research with its own well-defined referents: cosmic gamma-ray sources. These sources include some of the most extraordinary objects known to human beings: pulsars, active galactic nuclei, accreting black holes, supernova remnants, and gamma-ray bursts. A significant com-ponent of our current knowledge of such objects is the direct result of astronomical measurements of the high-energy photons they produce. Satellite-borne instruments that can detect gamma-rays in the Earth's orbit or in deep space and atmospheric air shower detectors that re-construct the energy and direction of high-energy photons through the Cherenkov light generated in particle showers produced in the Earth's atmosphere have been the basic exploratory tools of gamma-ray astron-omy. For many years, however, cosmic gamma-ray sources defied all attempts at their detection.

  3. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodsite, Michael Evan; Møldrup, Mathilde; Hubbard, Emil Egerod

    2017-01-01

    The challenges of sustainability are becoming more apparent and changes need to take place in how we organise collectively. This book stems from and builds on a collaboration and collective learning between the military and the civilian world in order to facilitate discussion of the current state...

  4. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Jerez Novara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this text, we introduce the structure and logic of the monograph, which consists of five dialogues with activists of Podemos (Karpeta section and nine commentaries in the form of debate (A des/propósito section on the subject of this phenomenon realized by social researchers and media professionals. In the dialogues at the beginning of this issue of Teknokultura, we talk with some of the leaders of Podemos about their plan to confront the power of the establishments’politically, which has been intensified by the social and political discontent created by the crisis. The critical essays included in the second part, analyze this phenomenon drawing from two principal lines of discussion. The first is based on the technological and media dynamics which are part of the organization and its political project. The second responds to theoretical and political aspects, related to Podemos’ emergence and its capacity to intervene in a complex historical context, through the participatory and representative processes they have promoted.

  5. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abubakar Ali, A.; Van De Vijver, Fons J R

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, it was estimated that 41% of Africa’s population were children less than 15 years of age. Most of these children are exposed to multiple risk factors which may compromise their developmental outcomes. It is therefore important to develop intervention programs and strategies to address

  6. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We introduce this special issue of Medial Anthropology Quarterly on public health genomics by exploring both the unique contribution of ethnographic sensibility that medical anthropologists bring to the study of genomics and some of the key insights offered by the essays in this collection. As anthropologists, we are concerned with the power dynamics and larger cultural commitments embedded in practices associated with public health. We seek to understand, first, the broad significance of genomics as a cultural object and, second, the social action set into motion as researchers seek to translate genomic knowledge and technology into public health benefits. PMID:24214906

  7. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosvetsky, Yuli; Jayaprakash, K. R.; Hasan, Md. Arif; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    The study of mechanics of granular media dates back to the era of Coulomb. He was the first to postulate the yield condition for homogeneous solids and also conditions for failure in granular media [1-4]. In fact the ideal Coulomb material is the simplest granular material model wherein the shear stress along a plane is linearly proportional to the normal stress on that plane. This can be considered analogous to the Coulomb friction model in cohesion-free interfaces between solids. Initial research in this domain focused mainly on the statics of granular materials from a soil mechanics perspective. However, as the applications of granular materials broadened, the objectives of different research communities contradicted. For example, in geophysics or soil mechanics the objective is to regard granular media with properties of a solid in order to take considerable loads without yielding; on the other hand, in food grain or pharmaceutical industries the granular media is considered as fluids and their rheological properties are of interest. In fact granular media can exhibit both of these behaviors (and also the properties of a gas), and such unique features pave the way for their broad range applications...

  8. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.O.Box 33381 , e-mail: shimelisemire@yahoc.com. Fax: (+251-1) .... The seeds of eight Phaseolus vulgaris L varieties were used in this study and were .... Approximately 20 g of cooked beans were loaded on the specimen holder of the. LLOYD>K (Fig. 1) in a single layer and compressed with a compressing plate to the. 6 ...

  9. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Chartier, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    De Diderot à l’Encyclopédie et à l’Idéologie, de l’opposition janséniste au carnaval des fous, le sommaire de ce n° 25 offre un bon exemple de la richesse et de la diversité des objets qui nous occupent.Jean Sgard, d’abord, interroge l’image que les Nouvelles ecclésias­tiques ont donnée de Denis Diderot, cet incrédule qui a peut-être été un temps, au collège d’Harcourt, le disciple de maîtres jansénistes. Or on ne trouve que quelques rares mentions de celui qui fut sans conteste l’un des adve...

  10. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In the preface author presents the description of book in particular that this book consists from three parts. In the fist part of book author considered the basic conceptions, geologic history, morphology, ores mineral composition, the classification of minerals. Second part of book devoted to studying of volcano-gene, exogenous and meta morpho-gene deposits. Studying of articles carrying out with taking into account the existent literature on the example of known world deposits; special emphasis devote to deposits of Tajikistan and contiguous territories

  11. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, Rob

    In 2003 we started a new research programme at the Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies (CELSTEC) that was aiming to help people to further develop their professional competences by using the innovative powers of new media, mobile devices, and modern Internet services. The idea behind the programme was to contribute to one of the bigger challenges in our society: how to deal with the growing complexity, the growing quantity and the permanent changes in knowledge and technologies. For companies this question relates to the core of their business: how to become innovative and stay competitive. For the employees, the ‘professionals’, this question relates directly to their jobs: how to become and stay employable. In this book we will concentrate on the last group, the professionals and their question how to stay employable, how to keep up-to-date and how to develop professional competence during their careers. The professionals represent the human capital, the knowledge, the innovative power in our economy.

  12. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusek, K.

    2011-01-01

    This year was a year of hope for change. We attempted to become one of the laboratories of the '' Road Map of National Research Infrastructure '' of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (MNiSW) of Poland. At the beginning of the year we were informed by the MNiSW that we had passed the first selection with the suggestion that we prepare, as the next step, a joint project with the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Science (IFJ) in Cracow. On the 21 st of April the Rector of the University of Warsaw and the director of IFJ created the consortium '' National Cyclotron Laboratory '', signing an agreement between our two institutions. In this way the two largest nuclear physics institutes in Poland, with two operating cyclotrons (a proton cyclotron in Cracow and the heavy-ion cyclotron in Warsaw) and two others becoming operational within the next two years, united their efforts and prepared a common project devoted to fundamental research in nuclear physics and its medical applications. Unfortunately, our project was not selected for the '' Road Map '' - a decision of the MNiSW incomprehensible to us. Since such a document must be regularly updated we will continue our efforts to find a place on the national '' Road Map ''. Despite our lack of success in our own country, on the European level our laboratory was recognised by the Nuclear Physics European Collaboration Committee (NuPECC). This important international body released in December the '' NuPECC Long Range Plan 2010, Perspectives of Nuclear Physics in Europe ''. Our laboratory is listed among other European small scale facilities with the recommendation - '' These national and other university based facilities are needed for specific experimental programmes, development and testing of new instruments and to provide education of next-generation researchers from university groups ''. It was not an easy year for experimentalists. In the spring the new Supernanogan ECR ion source was installed and during the installation period beam from the cyclotron was not available for users. The source was commissioned in May but its coupling with the cyclotron requires some additional changes to the cyclotron injection system. These will be introduced in summer 2011 and accelerated beams from the new source should be available for experiments in the second half of 2011. Due to the installation of the new source, the spring experimental campaign was limited to a few weeks in June and the beginning of July. Nevertheless, we would like to welcome new users - a group of physicists from the University of loannina, Greece, led by Prof. Athena Pakou and an international team led by Dr. Marcus Scheck. In September, construction work on new buildings for the Faculties of Physics, Biology and Chemistry started in earnest in the immediate neighbourhood of our laboratory. This caused many unexpected cuts in the power and water supplies and, in addition, some flooding in the basement of our building. We were therefore forced to limit our activity and postpone a series of planned experiments to the first half of 2011. Fortunately, in October we were still able to run some simple experiments for the 6 th edition of the Polish Workshop on Acceleration and Applications of Heavy Ions, a one week event for undergraduate students from Polish universities. From 2011 onwards, this activity will be extended - we will organise an annual two-week workshop for students from abroad within the framework of the Erasmus - LLP Intensive Programme. This initiative has received the necessary funding from the Polish National Agency of Erasmus - the Foundation for the Development of the Educational System Lifelong Learning. Programme. The workshop will be organised jointly with the University of Sofia, Bulgaria, and the University of Huelva, Spain. It does not happen every year so I would like to mention that the Heavy Ion Laboratory co-organised an international conference, the 17 th Nuclear Physics Workshop '' Marie (and) Pierre Curie ''. The general subject was '' Symmetry and symmetry breaking in nuclear physics ''. The conference took place in Kazimierz Dolny, from 22 nd till 26 th of September and attracted about seventy scientists from various countries. Our PhD students are among the best at the University of Warsaw. Katarzyna Hadynska-Klek was awarded a prestigious research scholarship funded by the European Social Fund in the framework of the Human Capital Programme. The greatest news came at the end of the year - our project '' Purchase and installation of two HF generators for the Warsaw U-200P cyclotron '' obtained full funding from the MNiSW. Thus, by the end of 2013 we should have exchanged our very old and worn out generators by new ones. After almost twenty years of constant activity this message brings a new lease of life to our laboratory. (author)

  13. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Lai, Mei Kuin; Schildkamp, K.; Lai, M.K.; Earl, L.

    2013-01-01

    Data-based decision making continues to receive ample attention in education. In this book we brought together research on data use conducted in seven different countries: The United States, Canada, New Zealand, the Netherlands, England, Belgium, and South Africa. Different questions will be

  14. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Erne, Lukas Christian; Kidnie, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Introduces a collection of essays which brings together leading scholars to examine crucial questions regarding the theory and practice of editing Shakespeare's plays. In particular, the essays look at how best to engage editorially with evidence provided by historical research into the playhouse, author's study and printing house. How are editors of playscripts to mediate history, in its many forms, for modern users? Considering our knowledge of the past is partial (in the senses both of inc...

  15. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Siobhan; Shellard, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    This chapter introduces the topic of Shakespeare’s cultural capital and the marketplace, offering an overview of some of the different ways in which Shakespeare and his work have been marketed and had an economic and cultural impact in, and since, his own day in the UK and beyond. This includes addressing the emergence of Shakespeare as a cultural icon, the wider impact of Shakespeare in fields such as education, and the commercial use of Shakespeare as a brand in the advertising and tourist ...

  16. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Turner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces contributions to the Special Issue of Disability Studies Quarterly on Disability, Work and Representation. Despite the common equation of disability with inability to do paid labor, disabled people have always worked. Historical experiences of the workplace have varied and have been influenced by means of production, employer and co-worker attitudes and by welfare systems that have impacted negatively on disabled people's abilities to take on employment. Studying the relationship between disabiltiy and work from a range of disciplinary perspectives not only sheds new light not just on disabled people's experiences in the workplace in different societies and at different historical moments, but also raises questions about the meaning of work and the values that underpin it.

  17. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    This is the third iteration of the National Wildlife Health Center's (NWHC) field guide developed primarily to assist field managers and biologists address diseases they encounter. By itself, the first iteration, “Field Guide of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Migratory Birds,” was simply another addition to an increasing array of North American field guides and other publications focusing on disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Collectively, those publications were reflecting the ongoing transition in the convergence of wildlife management and wildlife disease as foundational components within the structure of wildlife conservation as a social enterprise serving the stewardship of our wildlife resources. For context, it is useful to consider those publications relative to a timeline of milestones involving the evolution of wildlife conservation in North America.

  18. [Introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Adrienne; van den Bogaard, Alberts

    2008-01-01

    Along with the international trends in history of computing, Dutch contributions over the past twenty years moved away from a focus on machinery to the broader scope of use of computers, appropriation of computing technologies in various traditions, labour relations and professionalisation issues, and, lately, software. It is only natural that an emerging field like computer science sets out to write its genealogy and canonise the important steps in its intellectual endeavour. It is fair to say that a historiography diverging from such "home" interest, started in 1987 with the work of Eda Kranakis--then active in The Netherlands--commissioned by the national bureau for technology assessment, and Gerard Alberts, turning a commemorative volume of the Mathematical Center into a history of the same institute. History of computing in The Netherlands made a major leap in the spring of 1994 when Dirk de Wit, Jan van den Ende and Ellen van Oost defended their dissertations, on the roads towards adoption of computing technology in banking, in science and engineering, and on the gender aspect in computing. Here, history of computing had already moved from machines to the use of computers. The three authors joined Gerard Alberts and Onno de Wit in preparing a volume on the rise of IT in The Netherlands, the sequel of which in now in preparation in a team lead by Adrienne van den Bogaard. Dutch research reflected the international attention for professionalisation issues (Ensmenger, Haigh) very early on in the dissertation by Ruud van Dael, Something to do with computers (2001) revealing how occupations dealing with computers typically escape the pattern of closure by professionalisation as expected by the, thus outdated, sociology of professions. History of computing not only takes use and users into consideration, but finally, as one may say, confronts the technological side of putting the machine to use, software, head on. The groundbreaking works of the 2000 Paderborn meeting and by Martin Campbell-Kelly resonate in work done in The Netherlands and recently in a major research project sponsored by the European Science Foundation: Software for Europe. The four contributions to this issue offer a true cross-section of ongoing history of computing in The Netherlands. Gerard Alberts and Huub de Beer return to the earliest computers at the Mathematical Center. As they do so under the perspective of using the machines, the result is, let us say, remarkable. Adrienne van den Bogaard compares the styles of software as practiced by Van der Poel and Dijkstra: so much had these two pioneers in common, so different the consequences they took. Frank Veraart treats us with an excerpt from his recent dissertation on the domestication of the micro computer technology: appropriation of computing technology is shown by the role of intermediate actors. Onno de Wit, finally, gives an account of the development, prior to internet, of a national data communication network among large scale users and its remarkable persistence under competition with new network technologies.

  19. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1948-01-01

    After the appearance of RUMPHIUS’S Herbarium Amboinense, the result of lifelong research into the botanical treasures of the Malaysian Archipelago, the first comprehensive work on the flora of these islands was begun by C. L. BLUME, the second Director of the Botanic Gardens at Buitenzorg. His

  20. Introduction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This type of study was initiated around 1834, with the discovery of decorated objects in the limestone caves and rock shelter deposits of the region when bones of mammoths, reindeer and horses were excavated. However, there was an uncertainty in dating these finds. Subsequently, in 1879, Altamira also provided ...

  1. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    This chapter illustrates the role of JAEA in conducting Research and Development on deep geological disposal of nuclear waste, on the reliability of the disposal technology and on safety assessment methods. Within this frame, the present study seeks a better understanding of the influence of the in-situ conditions on the sampling process through the analysis of sample damage. The correlation between sample damage and in-situ stress conditions provides a tool for correction of the laboratory test results and for predicting stresses and in-situ mechanical properties of the Toki granite at the MIU Construction Site (Mizunami, Gifu Pref., Japan). This study of the literature, sample conditions, available laboratory results and numerical models will lead to the proposal of a statistical method based on fractal geometry for quantifying cracking and fracturing in brittle rocks and describing its dependence on the level of stress. (author)

  2. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzebski, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Laboratory of the Warsaw University is the 'User type' facility, providing heavy ion beams to a number of Polish and foreign research groups and to limited extent for its own research programme. In 2005 the Warsaw cyclotron operated for close to 3000 hours of beam on target. 20 experiments, all recommended by the Program Advisory Committee, were performed by more than one hundred facility users. Their scientific achievements are presented in this Report. Here I would like to mention some highlights of the scientific projects with heavy-ion beams delivered by HIL cyclotron. Search for chirality in medium mass nuclei using OSIRIS-II set-up resulted in vivid discussion among nuclear spectroscopists, both theorists and experimentalists. Studies of the quasi-elastic barrier distributions revealed interesting phenomena, not yet fully explainable. Giant Dipole Resonance project with JANOSIK system yielded many new results. Coulomb Excitation investigation of shape coexistence in nuclei was progressing, providing data complementary to those from radioactive beams from CERN and GANIL. Also interesting results concerning optical-model potential in light nuclei interactions were obtained within Warsaw-Krakow-Kiev collaboration. Besides pure nuclear physics the cyclotron delivered beams for projects in solid-state physics, most notably connected to detector development as well as for biological studies. HIL remained an interdisciplinary user facility, keeping high profile of its scientific output, as can be judged from the list of publications contained in Part D of this Report. At the end of 2005 our experimental equipment started to be substantially enlarged. Thanks to the collaboration with the CNRS centre IRES in Strasbourg their excellent charged particle multidetector set-up ICARE was installed on the 'last-free' beam line of the Warsaw Cyclotron. After the well organized transportation and mechanical mounting by an experts team from IRES in collaboration with our mechanical workshop, this detector is now awaiting to receive the first heavy ion beam and to pass the operation tests. Besides the heavy ion machine, the Laboratory will soon be equipped with the second, low energy (16.5 MeV, p), high current proton - deuteron cyclotron for the production of short lived radiopharmaceuticals for the Positron Emission Tomography. As already presented in the last year Annual Report, this will allow the creation of an interdisciplinary laboratory, the Warsaw Positron Emission Tomography Centre. This project was launched by the Heavy Ion Laboratory and the Nuclear Medicine Department at the Clinical Hospital of the Medical University in Warsaw in 2001. In 2003 the Warsaw Consortium for PET Collaboration (WCPC) was created and presently it plays an active role in the project preparation. The WCPC will possess a single radiopharmaceuticals production unit located at HIL and will be equipped with a commercial proton/deuteron cyclotron, chemical units and a quality control laboratory. The PET CT, PET or adapted SPECT scanners will be successively located in the Warsaw hospital centers, starting with the medical unit closest (500 m) to the radiopharmaceuticals production place. The participation in the WCPC of numerous University and Polish Academy of Sciences units will promote the Warsaw PET Centre activity in research and educational area. The planned purchase of the micro - PET animal scanner will substantially help in this activity. After four years of efforts, in 2004 the Warsaw PET project obtained the financial support from the Ministry of Sciences and Informatization, which allocated 10 MPLN (about 2.4 MEUR) for the equipment of the Radiopharmaceuticals Production Department of the Warsaw PET Centre. At the end of the same year the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency accepted our project of Technical Cooperation with the Agency and allocated almost 0.9 MUS$ for this project. The same year, Ministry of Health reiterated its written engagement to supply in 2006 the Warsaw PET Centre with a PET CT scanner. In 2005 the IAEA launched a tender for a turn - key project of the Heavy Ion Laboratory building adaptation and the supply of PET radiopharmaceuticals production equipment (cyclotron, radiochemistry units, quality control). During the common IAEA and HIL experts meeting in November 2005 the tender offers were evaluated and the Company General Electric Healthcare was selected as a best bidder. The official announcement of the tender results was issued by Agency in February 2006 and the contract negotiations started soon after. In the beginning of 2006 we responded to two calls, asking for the detailed description of our centre to appear in the international surveys of worldwide nuclear or European user type facilities, respectively. The first one was issued by the IUPAP (International Union of Pure and Applied Physics) and the second one by the European Commission, evaluating the European Research Infrastructures. Both questionnaires are included at the end of this Annual Report. (author)

  3. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashtovoy, V.G.; Berkovsky, B.M.; Vislovich, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid development of magnetic fluid investigations, now an independent scientific trend, has been greatly promoted by the progress made in the field of mechanics and electrodynamics of continua and the physics of magnetic phenomena elucidated in monographs. The bibliography on magnetic fluids (MF) includes more than 1,500 references; among them more than 400 patents and Inventor's Certificates. Information on these studies is considered in surveys. Magnetic fluids are dealt with in monographs. Some survey papers are available. The proceedings of meetings, conferences and subject handbooks discussing the MF fluids are published. The MF studies may be related to one of the four sections. The particulars therein are the subject of this paper

  4. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Couderc

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Les articles qui suivent sont le fruit du colloque « Réécritures et livrets d’opéra dans le monde anglophone » tenu en novembre 2006 à l’Université de Caen et organisé par l’équipe de recherche « Littératures et Sociétés Anglophones » (LSA. Il s’inscrivait dans le cadre des axes de recherche développés par cette équipe qui s’intéresse aux enjeux non seulement esthétiques mais aussi sociaux de l’opéra, à la sociologie de la musique et aux pratiques culturelles impliquant la musique. Il faisai...

  5. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Meizoz

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Il suffit de lire la liste des entrées de deux dictionnaires parus la même année 2002, pour constater que les approches de sociologie historique de la littérature et l’analyse du discours de tradition française partagent un certain nombre de questions et de notions communes.Dans le Dictionnaire du littéraire les articles « Discours », « Pragmatique littéraire », « Contexte », « Enoncé et énonciation » abordent plusieurs notions de l’analyse du discours. Dans le Dictionnaire d’analyse du disco...

  6. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the Arab nation that prompted Mohammed to found Islam. He believed that he had .... simple reason that they would not eat pork. Eleazer could not .... to be noted that even though Islam forbids lying, "Lies are sins except when they are told for ...

  7. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    An account is given of the potential hazard associated with the sites of United Kingdom atomic weapon tests at Maralinga and Emu, between 1953 and 1963. Nine major nuclear trials involving atomic explosions and several hundred smaller scale experiments which dispersed radioactive materials, were performed at the two locations. Radioactive contamination on the ground has resulted from both the close-in fall-out and the action of the intense pulse of neutrons on elements in the soil and on residual device material. A brief enunciation of the main radiation surveys and clean-up operations is provided. 14 refs., 2 figs

  8. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hinnawi, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    The various components of the environment are described briefly, and the effect on these of the pollution or contamination arising from differing energy technologies (in particular from nuclear energy) is discussed. Several estimates of the growth of nuclear power by the year 2000 are tabulated. A summary is presented of the nuclear fuel cycle, including: types of reactors; the LWR fuel cycle; other fuel cycles. (U.K.)

  9. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur; Ion Wille, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    In the spring of 2013 students from the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Design and Malmö University were engaged in programs part of the EU project, Musical Experience Design. The EU project is seeking development of innovative experiences within the context of live classical music...... and products, as well as sustainable business models. The main concern of the two educational programs was to examine the live format of symphonic music and create visual and/or interaction design that in one way or the other would enrich the experience of the live concert. The key question of the program...... at Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Design was how one, as a designer, could contribute by creating meaningful interactions between classical music concerts and new visualization technologies....

  10. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Van Bruaene

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After 450 years the Beeldenstorm of 1566 still deserves our careful historical analysis because it was unquestionably a game changer in Netherlandish politics and culture. More generally, we believe that iconoclasm breaks open cultural codes and thereby helps us to understand past societies. While we must thank the previous generations of historians for taking the iconoclasts seriously, the historians and art historians in this issue go a step further by also taking seriously the targets of iconoclasts – lay Catholic devotion and religious material culture. This theme number analyses the dialectics between iconoclasts and the material objectsthey targeted, between those who attacked and those who actively or passively defended the traditional community, between those who destroyed and those who restored or reinvented the religious patrimony, and in doing so reveals what was at stake in the sixteenth-century Low Countries.  Na 450 jaar verdient de Beeldenstorm van 1566 nog steeds een grondige historische analyse, aangezien er weinig twijfel kan bestaan over de enorme impact op de politiek en cultuur van de Nederlanden. Meer algemeen beschouwen wij iconoclasme als een kraker van culturele codes die ons helpt samenlevingen uit het verleden te begrijpen. Vorige generaties historici hebben zich vooral verdiept in de motieven van de iconoclasten, deze groep historici en kunsthistorici gaat verderdoor ook de doelwitten van de iconoclasten – de katholieke lekendevotie en de religieuze materiële cultuur – tot object van studie te maken. Dit themanummer ontrafelt de dialectiek tussen iconoclasten en de materiële cultuur die ze viseerden, tussen mannen en vrouwen die de traditionele gemeenschap aanvielen en deze die haar actief of passief verdedigden, tussen zij die het religieuze patrimonium vernielden en zij die het herstelden of herijkten. Op die manier wordt duidelijk waar het om draaide in de zestiende-eeuwse Nederlanden.

  11. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan A; Ahern, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    of the heart beat, support a myriad of neuronal communication pathways, insulin secretion, and are central to the immune response, with more roles being discovered virtually everyday. Thus, ion channel function is a biophysical process that is central to biological life at many levels. And with over 500...

  12. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    String instruments are found in almost all musical cultures. Bowed string instruments form the backbone of symphony orchestras, and they are used widely as solo instruments and in chamber music as well. Guitars are used universally in pop music as well as in classical music. The piano is probably the most versatile of all musical instruments, used widely not only in ensemble with other musical instruments but also as a solo instrument and to accompany solo instruments and the human voice.

  13. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Chenetier

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This « concept » or « test » issue  of the European Journal of American Studies gathers a series of presentations on the state of and problems posed by American Studies in a variety of European countries. As we endeavored to take advantage of the potential new dimension that might be given American Studies in Europe thanks to the generous hospitality of the « revues.org » website, it seemed fit to give Americanists and all readers interested in American Studies a general sense of the situatio...

  14. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.3 No.1 2010. 1Department of ... Sustainability as a concept involves a number of different strands. Environmental ... Today, the Romanian hospitality industry ... strategies of sustainable development emphasize ..... practical reality in most cases, the impacts of.

  15. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González Díez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article starts from the remark that anthropology of religion and urban anthropology have been following different – and sometimes divergent – historical trajectories. Only in recent years the two perspectives started a dialogue and laid the foundations for a renewed study of religions in urban contexts. Against this background, the article claims the necessity for anthropological studies in which the approaches of anthropology of religion and of urban anthropology are put in contact. In order to answer to the problems that are at the basis of this special issue, we analyse the state of the art of the subject and describe the modalities and categories we propose for the study of religions in urban contexts and of the urban through the religious. Following this path, the article proposes that anthropology, due to its well established tradition of analysis both of religious and urban facts, is well positioned to propose new approaches and interpretative frames to keep together the religious dimension with other spheres in order to delineate an image of contemporary cities.

  16. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; Gillis, Carole

    2007-01-01

    The ntroduction contains a desctition of the conference event and of how during the conference a scientific need bacme evident: the need for an introdution to how to excavate archaeological textiles and how to proceed with the tranport, conservation and preservation of archaeological textiles....

  17. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana S. ROŠKER

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality plays a significant role in shaping the cohesion of communities, their values, and their structures across the globe. Various religious practices and ideational systems are particularly complex in Asia. Home to some of the world major spiritual traditions such as Hinduism and Buddhism, Daoism and Confucianism, as well as to a relevant number of practicing Christians, Muslims, and self-identified atheists and agnostics, Asia provides us with an intense and extraordinarily rich tapestry of different religious and spiritual practices...

  18. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne

    1987-01-01

    Introduces the articles in this special issue on social studies. Articles concern political socialization, economics, geography, a global perspective on social studies, ethnic studies, social change, thinking skills for citizenship training, and the integration of writing skills and social studies. (RH)

  19. Introduction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mambo, Julia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Risk and Vulnerability Atlas was conceived by the DST in 2008 as a flagship programme under the ‘Global Change Grand Challenge‘, which falls under one of the themes of the ‘Innovation Towards a Knowledge Economy’ plan. One of the themes.... The SARVA falls within this theme and was designed to ensure that existing knowledge on global change risks and vulnerability is made available for those who could benefit from its use. Three products have since been developed under the SARVA: the online...

  20. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Every year, an estimated 25,000 to 50,000 species go extinct on the Earth owing to changes caused by human activity. Many international organisations including the World Conservation Union (IUCN) consider biological invasions to be the second most important cause of biodiversity loss worldwide, coming just after habitat destruction. On small islands, where biodiversity is both exceptionally original and exceptionally vulnerable, it is the main cause of species extinction. The New Caledonian a...

  1. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Lecocq, Baz

    2015-01-01

    This special issue examines the impacts and legacies of the slave trade, domestic slavery, and slave emancipation on social, political, and culturally constructed inequalities in Africa from the late nineteenth to the early twenty-first century. Post-slavery usually refers to studies...... of the Americas and the Caribbean where slavery continued to have a deep impact on a variety of societies long after its legal abolition. Could this term be relevant to discuss the legacies of slavery on the African continent? American and African forms of slavery were certainly different and the translation...... of “post-slavery” from the American into the African context cannot be done uncritically. We address both the relevance of the notion of post-slavery as well as its limitations in African contexts through a number of empirically grounded contributions based on recent research.The terms post-slavery, post...

  2. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yackel, E.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.; Yackel, E.; Gravemeijer, K.P.E.; Sfard, A.

    2011-01-01

    The last quarter of the twentieth century has seen fundamental shifts in educational theories. These shifts were initiated by the research of Fullan and Pomfret (1977), which revealed fundamental flaws in the curriculum-innovation model of "research, development, and diffusion," known as the RDD

  3. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    to social networks, personal identities, and our relationship to the built environment. The omnipresence of mobilities within everyday life, high politics, technology, and tourism (to mention but a few) all point to a key insight harnessed by the ‘mobilities turn’. Namely that mobilities is much more than......The world is on the move. This is a widespread understanding by many inhabitants of contemporary society across the Globe. But what does it actually mean? During over one decade the ‘mobilities turn’ within the social sciences have provided a new set of insights into the repercussions of mobilities...... of mobilities will be included alongside issues of power, social exclusion, consumption, surveillance and mobilities history, to mention some of the many themes covered by this reference work of the best previously published material. The focus is on the academic contributions to this understanding by primarily...

  4. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eamets, Raul; Humal, Katrin; Beblavý, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    The balance of flexibility and security for labour market participants is a perennial challenge for policy-makers. In the late 1990s, the term ‘flexicurity’ seemed to offer a solution to this balancing act. Indeed, in the first decade of this century, ‘flexicurity’ became a dominant theme...... to further expose the uneven security afforded to different labour market groups. Young people tend to accumulate negative flexibility outcomes in that they have more limited contractual security, and a greater risk of working on non-standard contracts and of losing their jobs more quickly than...... the comparable adult population. At the same time, young people also have less job and income security because of their lower seniority and more limited employment histories. Furthermore, in most European countries, workers on non-standard contracts have more limited access to unemployment benefits than workers...

  5. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Day Sclater, S; Cook, R; Kaganas, F

    2003-01-01

    This is the post print version of the chapter - Copyright @ 2003 The editors This book is about surrogacy and, more specifically, surrogate motherhood. It is a collection of essays that aims to provide a contemporary and international picture of a practice, traceable to ancient times, devised to solve the problem of childlessness. The collection, which explores surrogacy from a variety of perspectives including law, policy, medicine and psychology, is timely. For although there is nothing ...

  6. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, K.; Pérez-Soba, M.; Tabbush, P.

    2008-01-01

    Land use is a key human activity, which, through the exploitation of natural resources, fosters socio-economic development and alters structures and processes in the environment. At the European level, the Sustainable Development Strategy stresses the need for real integration of economic,

  7. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César González Ochoa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La unam y la uba, Universidad de Buenos Aires, han estado ligadas por varias razones desde hace mucho tiempo; su historia, sus problemas, sus logros han sido paralelos; han tenido un continuo intercambio, sobre todo de profesores, aunque tal vez la unam ha sido más favorecida en este aspecto. La necesidad de iniciar esta presentación de Acta Poetica con esas alusiones a las dos universidades obedece a que este número es un esfuerzo conjunto de investigadores de ambas casas de estudio. Antes de hablar de los artículos que se publican, quisiéramos hacer un breve recorrido histórico de la uba para observar la similaridad con el camino que ha seguido nuestra universidad.

  8. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the book the radiation defects formation computerized simulation in solids at irradiation by different charged particles, and cascade probabilistic functions simulation peculiarities on a computer and radiation defects for ions and other particles and determination of relation between these functions with the Markov's processes are considered. It is shown, that processes of particles passing thought substance one can to considering as continuous by time Markov's processes and discrete one by collisions number. Finite expressions for the cascade probabilistic function, secondary particles N, defects concentrations C are presented in the form of sums, integrals and products of suitable arbitrary possibilities and norm coefficients depending on particles' type and energy, reaction channels, differential and integral interaction cross sections, energy losses, elementary act parameters, medium density, etc

  9. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Hook, Robert W.; SanFilipo, John R.; Warwick, Peter D.; Karlsen, Alexander K.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Valentine, Brett J.

    2011-01-01

    The National Coal Resource Assessment (NCRA) team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has assessed the quantity and quality of coal beds and zones that could be mined during the next 20 years or more. Geologic, geochemical, and resource information was collected and compiled for the five major coal-producing regions of the United States: the Appalachian Basin, Illinois Basin, Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, Colorado Plateau, and the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain, (Gulf Coast) (Figure 1). In particular, the NCRA assessed coal-quality information and characterized environmentally significant trace elements, such as arsenic and mercury, that are defined in and administered by 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). The results of various USGS coal assessment efforts may be found at: http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/coal/coal_assessments/index.html, and a summary of the results from all assessment areas can be found in Ruppert et al. (2002) and Dennen (2009).

  10. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Bozarslan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Peut-on parler de l’Irak avec la distance critique consistant à taire sa colère de citoyen par rapport à l’horreur d’aujourd’hui et celle d’hier ? Celle d’aujourd’hui, car comment ne pas constater qu’à un embargo de plus de dix ans et à une occupation autant arrogante qu’imprudente fait désormais suite une violence multiforme détruisant la société irakienne dans ses fondements mêmes ? Et celle d’hier, car comment ne pas se souvenir que le régime renversé laissa derrière lui un pays dévasté pa...

  11. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan O'Donnell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available C'est avec plaisir que nous vous présentons le second de nos deux numéros spéciaux sur les troubles de l'humeur et d'anxiété, fondés sur les résultats de l'Enquête sur les personnes ayant une maladie chronique au Canada − Composante des troubles de l'humeur et d'anxiété (EPMCC-THA. Le premier numéro, publié en décembre 2016, contenait trois articles brossant un portrait des adultes canadiens ayant déclaré avoir reçu un diagnostic de troubles de l'humeur ou d'anxiété, à savoir leurs caractéristiques sociodémographiques, leur état de santé, les limitations dans leurs activités ainsi que leur degré d'invalidité et enfin les facteurs associés à leur bien-être. Les trois articles publiés ici portent quant à eux sur des thèmes liés à la prise en charge de ces troubles. Globalement, ces articles explorent les facteurs sociodémographiques clés dont on sait qu'ils ont un impact sur les résultats de santé, et ils traitent également des stratégies visant à favoriser la guérison et le mieux-être des adultes canadiens ayant déclaré avoir reçu un diagnostic de troubles de l'humeur ou d'anxiété.

  12. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Anne Mette; Sandvik, Kjetil; Andersen, Tem Frank

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet and digital technologies has brought about a massive proliferation of communication services and platforms since the mid-1990s ( Helles, 2013), turning communication across media into a key perspective in media research. Much of this research has had its focus on media...... institutions and their communication strategies (Davidson, 2010; Erdal, 2009) and media environments (Madianou & Miller, 2012), whereas cross-media communication as a user strategy has received relatively less attention. For this reason, the focus of this issue of MedieKultur will be on the user perspective...

  13. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mintz, Joseph; Aagaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    We map out the objectives of the HANDS project, with its key focus on developing a suite of mobile apps (the HANDS toolkit) that could help young people with autism spectrum disorders to develop social and daily life skills. They outline the design of the HANDS system, including its innovative us...

  14. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2014-01-01

    building practice, the point of departure being an ecological approach to the creation of architecture. Ecology is here defined in its widest sense, which besides ecological systems found in nature includes environmental dimensions, the life cycle of resources, social organisation, and the longevity...

  15. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Parrotta; Toby Gardner; Valerie Kapos; Werner A. Kurz; Stephanie Mansourian; Constance L. McDermott; Bernardo B.N. Strassburg; Ian D. Thompson; Bhaskar Vira; Christoph. Wildburger

    2012-01-01

    The relationships between biodiversity, carbon, forests and people are complex and interdependent. Reducing the rates of global deforestation and forest degradation will yield substantial gains for climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation. Under appropriate conditions, it could also achieve significant social and economic gains. The degree to which these...

  16. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    (Kiunsi and Meadows 2006). According to ... were chosen to represent three habitat/landscape types in the area: a flat, .... African Journal of Ecology. Volume 30 no.4 pp 335-345. Global Environmental Facility (2009) Investing in Land Stewardship. GEFs efforts to combat land degradation and desertification globally.

  17. Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    1987-09-23

    Sep 23, 1987 ... analyzed the spatial patterns of healthcare facilities in Akwa Ibom ... words: Accessibility, Health Facilities, Akwa Ibom, Nigeria, Overview .... Descriptive statistics ... inequality in facilities distribution is of crucial .... the 50 sampled rural communities using six .... terms of employment and working conditions.

  18. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegati, Franco; Aracil, Javier; López, Víctor

    At the present time, optical transmission systems are capable of sending data over hundreds of wavelengths on a single fiber thanks to dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) technologies, reaching bit rates on the order of gigabits per second per wavelength and terabits per second per fiber. In the last decade the availability of such a huge bandwidth caused transport networks to be considered as having infinite capacity. The recent massive deployment of Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and broadband wireless access solutions, as well as the outburst of new multimedia network services (such as Skype, YouTube, Joost, etc.) caused a significant increase of end user traffic and bandwidth demands. Therefore, the apparently “infinite” capacity of optical networks appears much more “finite” today, despite the latest developments in photonic transmission.

  19. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.

    1993-01-01

    Another aspect that was addressed to a certain extent last night was the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Don't we believe the people who signed the Treaty? Yes, we do. However, even in the Treaty itself there are safeguards to insure the people who have signed the Treaty are abiding by its provisions. There are also a large number of countries that have not signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty. And some of these countries that have not signed are in areas of the world where neighboring countries are not very friendly with each other, and so the fact of non-signature and the world situation in that area makes it one of concern. The NPT also obligates nuclear weapons states to not discriminate against the non-nuclear weapons state to the extent possible. That is one of the reasons that, when we come up with a policy relating to the use of HEU in research reactors, we are attempting to apply this policy equally throughout the world. I guess I should say of those countries that have not signed the NPT, if you ask them why they have not signed, the primary reasons that you get is because the NPT discriminates against non-nuclear weapons states. The US has attempted, with the Special Session on Disarmament recently and the initiatives there, as Dick Lewis pointed out, to try to make an easy as possible the changes in the operation of research reactors that are being more or less pushed by the US. I guess I should say that the US is not alone in pushing for this type of policy and that there are many other countries in the world who also agree that this particular program should continue

  20. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sriramesh, K.; van Ruler, B.; Zerfass, A.; Zerfass, A.; van Ruler, B.; Sriramesh, K.

    2008-01-01

    One could make a reasonable argument that public relations is an ancient practice (going back millennia) although it has been popularly perceived as a 20th century phenomenon. Scholarship in public relations, however, is more recent in origin with a history of less than four decades. During these

  1. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Judith; Westerling, Allan; Sparrman, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to explore in ten empirical chapters how good parenthood is done in different contexts, by different agents. The introductory chapter outlines the theoretical implications of viewing parenthood as a series of practices and our interest in the enactment and negotiation...... of good parenthood. We argue that the doing of good parenthood should be studied empirically and in context. Therefore, the particularities of Denmark and Sweden as contexts are briefly introduced. Finally, we argue that parenthood is to be understood in relation to childhood, and the doing of good...... parenthood should be situated in relation to notions of children’s interests and rights. Therefore, the book is anchored in the research fields of both parenting studies and child studies....

  2. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adoni, Hanna; Peruško, Zrinjka; Nossek, Hillel

    2017-01-01

    and analytical challenges for news audience research arising from the rapid transformations in current media landscapes, notably the emergence of digital, mobile and social media. We briefly describe our theoretical indebtedness to Jürgen Habermas’s theory of the public sphere, and the recent attempts...... to redefine the classical notions of democratic citizenship towards the everyday lifeworld. The second part describes the project’s anchorage in media systems theory, according to which national mediascapes can be compared not just on a one-to-one basis, but in terms of their potential membership of one...

  3. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    This chapter summarizes a number of different ways in which to look at our multisensory perception of foods and its impact on behavior, liking, and even emotion. From the first moments we encounter a food during our childhood we develop associations and even preferences, with particular sensory

  4. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Caillet

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Nous sommes un petit groupe, à peine une dizaine, convaincus comme bien des ethnologues que le savoir s’élabore en relation avec un autre. Cet autre peut être un informateur, qui n’est pas un simple relais entre un fait qui serait réel et un ethnologue interprète, mais également un constructeur de théories, éventuellement un censeur d’élucubrations conceptuelles. Cet autre peut être un collègue français. Mais il est plus souvent japonais, car, spécialistes du Japon ou ayant affaire à des repr...

  5. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Tevatron project included the construction of three new synchrotrons, but common usage has attached that name to the superconducting ring. In the mid 70's the growing appreciation of the potential of hadron colliders added an additional function to the requirements for the superconducting ring. It should act as a storage ring as well. The main special design features of the superconducting accelerator are the magnets themselves and the cryogenics to cool them. But other systems are also required such as magnet power systems and vacuum systems. The Tevatron was commissioned in 1983. Over four years after its commissioning, the Tevatron is still very much a prototype accelerator, as much a research instrument in its own right as it is a high energy physics tool

  6. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Bohlinger, Sandra; Haake, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Research on adult, professional and vocational education in a global world is timely (Farrell & Fenwick, 2007). Globalisation and economic crises are the trends that most dramatically transform the social, political, economic and ecological spheres of our time and directly affect the everyday life......-based and ethical underpinnings. Work-related learning and the workplace as an arena of learning and education is, in Fenwick’s (2001) terms, a highly political space, in which the requirements of flexibility, specialisation, privatisation, and globalisation “change the nature and environment of work...

  7. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelgrove, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The other parts of our program in the near-term have to do with whole-core demonstrations, and the one that is really planned at this time is the Ford Nuclear Reactor at the University of Michigan. The primary purpose of this demonstration is to have a core in which we can investigate the physics and safety characteristics of <20%-enriched fuel and compare them with those of the 93%-enriched cores. We will also use the data for verification of our analytical methods, so that when these methods are applied in evaluating the potential of other reactors for use of reduced-enrichment fuel, one will have increased confidence in the methods. I point out, of course, that there have been other reactors run with 20%-enriched fuel. However, that fuel was used quite awhile ago, and it's difficult today to obtain the sort of data in which we are really interested. The measurements in the FNR are planned to look at detailed flux distributions in the core and reflectors and at the ends of beam ports. It is also planned to measure the typical sorts of reactor characteristics which are always necessary to show that you're meeting your technical specifications and safety requirements. The Ford Nuclear Reactor is an NRC licensed facility, and, as such, the University of Michigan will have to obtain licensing approval from NRC. We're hoping for the full cooperation of NRC, and we've been basically told that there will be forthcoming. We certainly don't anticipate that there are any new safety issues involved. We say the basis is there, and it's up to use, in cooperation with the University of Michigan, to demonstrate to the NRC that this is true. Out of this work will then come some documents that will be very useful as reference documents for any further near-term conversions using this type of fuel. I conclude my remarks here, and I will be happy to answer any questions

  8. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Youth Nuclear Congress 2000 was a unique, first-of-its-kind event organized by an international group of young people. IYNC 2000 brought together a new generation of nuclear scientists and engineers to discuss current and future issues in the nuclear field. In parallel to the establishment of this international network, a common message on nuclear issues was distilled out of these days of unique interaction and sent to the outside world in the form of 'Y-Notes.' Participants in IYNC 2000 included both the new generation of nuclear scientists and engineers, and established professionals in the various fields of nuclear science and technology. It was expected that all participants shared a desire to think 'outside the box' to consider innovative approaches to the issues facing the nuclear industry now and in the future. Active participation in IYNC 2001 was solicited from students, young professionals, and established professionals in the various fields of nuclear science and technology. A number of paper and poster presentations, plenary sessions, workshops, and informal discussions comprised the interaction from those who were excited about the future of nuclear science and technology

  9. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    The inevitable increase in demand and continuing depletion of accessible oil and gas resources during the 21st century will cause greater dependence on energy minerals such as coal, uranium, and unconventional sources of oil and natural gas to satisfy our increasing energy needs. The Energy Minerals Division (EMD) of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) is a membership-based technical interest group with goals to: (1) advance the science of geology, especially as it relates to exploration, discovery, and production of mineral resources and subsurface gas and liquids (other than conventional oil and gas) for energy-related purposes; (2) foster the spirit of scientific research; (3) disseminate information related to the geology of energy minerals and the associated technology of energy mineral resources extraction; and (4) advance the professional wellbeing of its members. This article contains a brief summary of some of the 2006 annual committee reports presented to the EMD Leadership. These reports are available to the EMD Membership at http://emd.aapg.org/members_only. This collection of short reports is presented here by the EMD as a service to the general geologic community and to simulate interest in the focus technical areas of EMD.

  10. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian S.; Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Council 2009; Steinberg et al. 2014). Indigenous and postcolonial identity was thus a paradiplomatic resource for Greenland, which had implications for the high politics of the region, but it remained contested as other actors challenged Greenland’s right to speak on behalf of the Inuit....

  11. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Why yet another dead French thinker'.' We already have Althusser. Foucault and Derrida. Docs International Relations (I R) really need Pierre Bourdieu! The short answer is yes. The slightly longer answer is that Bourdieu's sociology provides us with an opportunity to rethink international politics....... In short. Bourdieu helps us to take the discursive, visual and embodied practices in international politics more seriously....... in ways not offered by these other thinkers. Bourdieu helps us rediscover the everyday practices. symbolic structures and arenas of conflict that bring many other actors into perspective. rather than just focusing on nation slates that produce (what we call) international politics. All engagement with his...

  12. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    In this part of book present short information about this publication, in particular this publication includes the theoretical base which using for studying connections between environment and security, bulk analysis of political and economical situation in Central Asia, general situation and different problems groups and etc

  13. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Linda Duits; Prof. Dr. Stijn Reijnders; dr. Koos Zwaan

    2014-01-01

    Fans constitute a very special kind of audience. They have been marginalized, ridiculed and stigmatized, yet at the same time they seem to represent the vanguard of new relationships with and within the media. ‘Participatory culture’ has become the new normative standard. Concepts derived from early

  14. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sanne; Kuhn, Timothy; Lundholt, Marianne Wolff

    2017-01-01

    , narratives provide a sense of causality and order in what might otherwise appear to be a random series of events in our daily lives. Their prevalence and utility led MacIntyre (1984) to conclude that “Man [ sic ] is in his actions and practices, as well as in his fictions, essentially a storytelling animal...

  15. Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2010-01-01

    Forests can play a role in carbon sequestration and mitigating CO2 emissions. However, what course of action needed to meet issues concerning carbon management and other ecosystem services for specific situations is not always clear. The National Silviculture Workshop, held in Boise, Idaho on June 15-18, 2009, focused on scientific information and management...

  16. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, M.

    2008-01-01

    This year, on December 10, it will be exactly 60 years since the United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The Declaration's aim was togive all ‘members of the human family', regardless of sex, race, nationality, and class, legal protection

  17. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michèle Bokobza Kahan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Qu’est-ce qu’un auteur ?La question, d’une simplicité provocante (Foucault 1994 [1968], fait rebondir un débat que Barthes pensait clore en tuant l’auteur (Barthes 1984 [1967]. Les deux textes, on le sait, constituent le point d’orgue de la fameuse querelle qui déchire le champ littéraire du 20e siècle entre ceux qui attribuent à l’auteur la pleine maîtrise de son texte (les « intentionnalistes » dans le jargon de la critique américaine et ceux qui au contraire veulent penser la littératur...

  18. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Some sort of continuation to that meeting and also a continuation to the discussion that we have had here yesterday and today, we are planning to have a consultant's meeting in preparation of the program on research reactor core conversions to use low enriched uranium instead of highly enriched uranium. This exercise has been coordinated with INFCE and it is not the intention that work would be duplicating each other but rather all meeting at the end of November, early December, is something that we would like to look at concrete cases in mainly developing countries that are currently utilizing highly enriched uranium so that we would like to make some sort of a check list or technical evaluation of what must be done in certain country cases to prepare core conversions that would utilize the new fuel designs that have been discussed here yesterday and today. We also hope that during the meeting in about three weeks, we could discuss some demonstration projects or programs that could take place in certain research reactors and perhaps including a demonstration program in developing countries and here these exercises could be organized through the Agency. Perhaps as a coordinating research program, but this is still preliminary thinking and subject to further discussion

  19. Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gastineau, Bénédicte; Gubert, Flore; Robilliard, Anne-Sophie; Roubaud, François

    2013-01-01

    Située dans l’océan Indien, au sud-est des côtes africaines, Madagascar est, avec une superficie de 590 000 km2 et une population de près de 20 millions d’habitants, le cinquième plus grand État insulaire au monde. De par son relief, caractérisé par un ensemble de massifs montagneux coupant le territoire du Nord au Sud, Madagascar connaît une grande diversité de climats : équatorial et humide sur la côte est, sec et doux dans les grandes plaines de l’Ouest, et semi-désertique au Sud. Cette va...

  20. Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib; Wiegand, Frauke Katharina; Kristensen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Transvisuality—The Cultural Dimension of Visuality brings together leading scholars from all over the globe to examine what the visual means today. From art to new media, from branding to urban design, visual culture is a fundamental aspect our contemporary life, and the contributors here use...