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Sample records for ukcndl-82 chemical nuclear

  1. Nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Geon Jae; Shin, Young Jun

    1989-08-01

    The contents of this book are introduction of chemical engineering and related chemistry on an atomic reactor, foundation of the chemistry nuclear chemical engineering, theory on nuclear engineering, the cycle of uranium and nuclear fuel, a product of nuclear division, nuclear reprocessing, management of spent fuel separation of radioisotope, materials of an atomic reactor, technology and chemistry related water in atomic reactors and utilization of radioisotope and radiation. This book has the exercises and reference books for the each chapter.

  2. Nuclear and chemical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Regge, P.

    1978-12-15

    The neutron fission yield and other nuclear and chemical data of interest to the nuclear applications of mass spectrometry (mainly in the field of burnup determination) are examined. The performance of those determinations and the achievable accuracy should match the needs of the users of the data produced. 3 figures, 2 tables. (RWR)

  3. Chemical effects of nuclear transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbulian, S

    1982-06-01

    A brief survey of the present state of knowledge on the chemical effects of nuclear transformations is presented. The recoil energy produced by these transformations in the nuclide is often sufficiently high to disrupt the chemical ligands between these particular atoms affected by the nuclear transformations, while the rest of their molecules. It also contains a discussion of the different annealing processes that produce the cancellation of the chemical change produced by the nuclear transformation.

  4. Chemical consequences of nuclear transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.H.; Lancas, F.M.; Andrade, J.C. de; Collins, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    The recombination processes of chemical bonds in liquid phase, after being split by nuclear transformations, include hot and diffuse reactions. Both processes probably occur by different mechanisms. The direct substitution process as well as processes which involve atoms, ions or other fragments retained in 'cages' formed by surrounding molecules, are processes not sensitive to the presence of a sequestering agent. The diffuse reactions whose fragments escaped from the 'cage' involve reactions with any reactive species found in the medium. (Author) [pt

  5. Chemical sensors for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanasekaran, K.I.

    2012-01-01

    Development of chemical sensors for detection of gases at trace levels for applications in nuclear industry will be highlighted. The sensors have to be highly sensitive, reliable and rugged with long term stability to operate in harsh industrial environment. Semiconductor and solid electrolyte based electrochemical sensors satisfy the requirements. Physico-chemical aspects underlying the development of H 2 sensors in sodium and in cover gas circuit of the Fast breeder reactors for its smooth functioning, NH 3 and H 2 S sensors for use in Heavy water production industries and NO x sensors for spent fuel reprocessing plants will be presented. Development of oxygen sensors to monitor the oxygen level in the reactor containments and sodium sensors for detection of sodium leakages will also be discussed. The talk will focus the general aspects of identification of the sensing material for the respective analyte species, development of suitable chemical route for preparing them as fine powders, the need for configuring them in thick film or thin film geometries and their performance. Pulsed laser deposition method, an elegant technique to prepare the high quality thin films of multicomponent oxides is demonstrated for preparation of nanostructured thin films of complex oxides and its use in tailoring the morphology of the complex sensing material in the desired form by optimizing the in-situ growth conditions. (author)

  6. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    As chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in many areas of nuclear industry, the chemical engineer has a vital role to play in its growth and development. An account of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field is given with view of impressing upon the faculty members of the Indian universities the need for taking appropriate steps to prepare chemical engineers suitable for nuclear industry. Some of the major achievements of the Indian chemical engineers in this field are : (1) separation of useful minerals from beach sand, (2) preparation of thorium nitrate of nuclear purity from monazite, (3) processing of zircon sand to obtain nuclear grade zirconium and its separation from hafnium to obtain zirconium metal sponge, (4) recovery of uranium from copper tailings, (5) economic recovery of nuclear grade uranium from low grade uranium ores found in India, (6) fuel reprocessing, (7) chemical processing of both low and high level radioactive wastes. (M.G.B.)

  7. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee: progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    Studies of the basic nuclear data for commercial and industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC). Such data are defined on the basis of chemical methods of analysis, and include half-lives, decay parameters and fission yields. Work undertaken within this area is described in this document for information. (author)

  8. Thermodynamics of nuclear track chemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    This is a brief paper with new and useful scientific information on nuclear track chemical etching. Nuclear track etching is described here by using basic concepts of thermodynamics. Enthalpy, entropy and free energy parameters are considered for the nuclear track etching. The free energy of etching is determined using etching experiments of fission fragment tracks in CR-39. Relationship between the free energy and the etching temperature is explored and is found to be approximately linear. The above relationship is discussed. A simple enthalpy-entropy model of chemical etching is presented. Experimental and computational results presented here are of fundamental interest in nuclear track detection methodology.

  9. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  10. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basic nuclear data requirements for industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC), covering half-lives, decay data, fission yields and the content of computerised data files. While the UKCNDC Request list was reviewed at the end of 1989 to reveal new and continued requirements, funding problems have increased during the year. Difficulties in the UK nuclear power industry are reflected in the decline in experimental studies, although evaluation efforts have been maintained. (author)

  11. Nuclear activated cw chemical laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    A cw chemical laser which uses processed radioactive waste to produce active atoms from a chemically inactive gas before being mixed with another molecule such as hydrogen or deuterium is disclosed. This laser uses no toxic or corrosive fuels and does not require any electrical or other type of auxiliary power supply. The energy released by the radioactive material is used to produce the active atoms such as fluorine. This is accomplished by using the radiation products from processed radioactive waste to dissociate the inert gas in the plenum of the laser. The radioactive material is held in the passageway walls of a device similar to a heat exchanger. The exchanger device may be located in the gas generator section of a chemical laser. The inactive gas is passed through the exchanger device and while passing through it the radiation from the radioactive material dissociates the gas, producing a concentration of free active atoms. This active atom generator then feeds the nozzle bank or mixing section of a laser to produce a lasing action

  12. Inherently safe technologies-chemical and nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessments show an inverse relationship between the likelihood and the consequences of nuclear and chemical plant accidents, but the Bhopal accident has change public complacency about the safety of chemical plants to such an extent that public confidence is now at the same low level as with nuclear plants. The nuclear industry's response was to strengthen its institutions and improve its technologies, but the public may not be convinced. One solution is to develop reactors which do not depend upon the active intervention of humans of electromechanical devices to deal with emergencies, but which have physical properties that limit the possible temperature and power of a reactor. The Process Inherent Ultimately Safe and the modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactors are two possibilities. the chemical industry needs to develop its own inherently safe design precepts that incorporate smallness, safe processes, and hardening against sabotage. 5 references

  13. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Park, Y. J.; Song, B. C.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Pyo, H. Y.

    2002-01-01

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system

  14. Chemical analysis by nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, S. C.; Kim, W. H.; Park, Y. J.; Song, B. C.; Jeon, Y. S.; Jee, K. Y.; Pyo, H. Y

    2002-01-01

    This state art report consists of four parts, production of micro-particles, analysis of boron, alpha tracking method and development of neutron induced prompt gamma ray spectroscopy (NIPS) system. The various methods for the production of micro-paticles such as mechanical method, electrolysis method, chemical method, spray method were described in the first part. The second part contains sample treatment, separation and concentration, analytical method, and application of boron analysis. The third part contains characteristics of alpha track, track dectectors, pretreatment of sample, neutron irradiation, etching conditions for various detectors, observation of track on the detector, etc. The last part contains basic theory, neutron source, collimator, neutron shields, calibration of NIPS, and application of NIPS system.

  15. Chemical engineering side of nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.F.

    1976-10-01

    It is widely recognized that chemical engineering has important roles to play in the development of national and world wide energy resources through optimal utilization of fossil fuel reserves. It is much less appreciated that there are crucial chemical engineering problems in the development of energy production from other sources. In particular the successful development of nuclear fusion power generating systems will require the solution of many problems that are uniquely suited to chemical engineers. This article presents a brief overview of the fusion development program and an identification of the major technological problems remaining to be solved

  16. Chemical aspects of nuclear fuel fabrication processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naylor, A; Ellis, J F; Watson, R H

    1986-04-01

    Processes used by British Nuclear Fuels plc for the conversion of uranium ore concentrates to uranium metal and uranium hexafluoride, are reviewed. Means of converting the latter compound, after enrichment, to sintered UO/sub 2/ fuel bodies are also described. An overview is given of the associated chemical engineering technology.

  17. Survey of Nuclear Methods in Chemical Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1966-01-01

    An attempt is made to classify nuclear methods on a logical basis to facilitate assimilation by the technologist. The three main groups are: (I) Tracer methods, (II) Methods based on the influence of absorbers on radiations to be measured, and (III) Radiation chemical methods. The variants of the first two groups are discussed in some detail, and typical examples are given. Group I can be subdivided into (1) Indicator methods, (2) Emanation methods, (3) Radioreagent methods, and (4) Isotope dilution methods, Group II into (5) Activation methods, (6) Absorption methods, (7) Induced Nuclear Reaction methods, (8) Scattering methods, and (9) Fluorescence methods. While the economic benefits due to nuclear methods already run into hundreds of millions of dollars annually, owing to radiation protection problems radiochemical methods in the strict sense are not widely used in actual production. It is suggested that more use should be made of pilot plant tracer studies of chemical processes as used in industry. (author)

  18. Chemical analysis by nuclear methods. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfassi, Z.B.

    1998-01-01

    'Chemical analysis by Nuclear Methods' is an effort of some renowned authors in field of nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry which is compiled by Alfassi, Z.B. and translated into Farsi version collected in two volumes. The second volume consists of the following chapters: Detecting ion recoil scattering and elastic scattering are dealt in the eleventh chapter, the twelfth chapter is devoted to nuclear reaction analysis using charged particles, X-ray emission is discussed at thirteenth chapter, the fourteenth chapter is about using ion microprobes, X-ray fluorescence analysis is discussed in the fifteenth chapter, alpha, beta and gamma ray scattering in chemical analysis are dealt in chapter sixteen, Moessbauer spectroscopy and positron annihilation are discussed in chapter seventeen and eighteen; The last two chapters are about isotope dilution analysis and radioimmunoassay

  19. Chemical history with a nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, C.J.; Benjamin, T.M.; Burnett, D.S.; Hyde, P.J.; Rogers, P.S.Z.; Srinivasan, S.; Tesmer, T.; Woolum, D.S.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe cannot give direct information on the chemical state of an element, but the spatial distribution of elements in a specimen is often determined by the chemical history of the sample. Fuel cells and minerals are examples of complex systems whose elemental distributions are determined by past chemical history. The distribution of catalyst in used fuel cell electrodes provides direct information on the chemical stability of dispersed catalysts under operating conditions. The authors have used spatially resolved Rutherford backscattering to measure the migration of platinum and vanadium from intermetallic catalysts and to determine their suitability for use under the extreme operating conditions found in phosphoric acid fuel cells. Geologic materials are complex, heterogeneous samples with small mineral grains. The trace element distribution within the individual mineral grains and between different mineral phases is sensitive to the details of the mineral formation and history. The spatial resolution and sub-100-ppm sensitivity available with a nuclear microprobe open up several new classes of experiments to the geochemist. Geochemistry and electrochemistry are two areas proving particularly fruitful for application of the nuclear microprobe

  20. Nuclear industry - challenges in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Sunder Rajan, N.S.; Balu, K.; Garg, R.K.; Murthy, L.G.K.; Ramani, M.P.S.; Rao, M.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Venkat Raj, V.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical engineering processes and operations are closely involved in every step of the nuclear fuel cycle. Starting from mining and milling of the ore through the production of fuel and other materials and their use in nuclear reactors, fuel reprocessing, fissile material recycle and treatment and disposal of fission product wastes, each step presents a challenge to the chemical engineer to evolve and innovate processes and techniques for more efficient utilization of the energy in the atom. The requirement of high recovery of the desired components at high purity levels is in itself a challenge. ''Nuclear Grade'' specifications for materials put a requirement which very few industries can satisfy. Recovery of uranium and thorium from low grade ores, of heavy water from raw water, etc. are examples. Economical and large scale separation of isotopes particularly those of heavy elements is a task for which processess are under various stages of development. Further design of chemical plants such as fuel reprocessing plants and high level waste treatment plants, which are to be operated and maintained remotely due to the high levels of radio-activity call for engineering skills which are being continually evolved. In the reactor, analysis of the fluid mechanics and optimum design of heat removal system are other examples where a chemical engineer can play a useful role. In addition to the above, the activities in the nuclear industry cover a very wide range of chemical engineering applications, such as desalination and other energy intensive processes, radioisotope and radiation applications in industry, medicine and agriculture. (auth.)

  1. Some radiation chemical aspects of nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.; Kabakchi, S.A.; Egorov, G.F.

    1988-01-01

    Some radiation chemical aspects of nuclear engineering are discussed (predominantly on the base of the works performed in the Soviet Union). The data on the influence of temperature within the range of 0-300 0 C on the yields of water radiolysis products are considered. The results obtained from the study of reactivity of actinide ions towards inorganic free radicals in acid aqueous solutions are summarized. The information on composition and properties of the products of radiolytic transformations of different extragents and diluents and on their influence on the behaviour of extraction systems during processing of irradiated nuclear fuel is presented. (author)

  2. Nuclear techniques in coal and chemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbern, A.W.; Leal, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The use of nuclear techniques for the determination of important parameters in industrial installations is exemplified; advantages of these techniques over other methods conventionally used are pointed out. The use of radiotracers in the study of physical and chemical phenomena occurring in the chemical industry is discussed. It is also shown that, using certain radioisotopes, it is possible to construct devices which enable, for example, the determination of the ash content in coal samples. These devices are economical and easy to be installed for the on-line control during coal transportation. (C.L.B.) [pt

  3. Chemical characterization of nuclear materials: recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Amrit; Nandi, C.; Patil, A.B.; Khan, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical chemistry plays a very important role for nuclear fuel activities be it fuel fabrication, waste management or reprocessing. Nuclear fuels are selected based on the type of reactor. The nuclear fuel has to conform to stringent chemical specifications like boron, cadmium, rare earths, hydrogen, oxygen to metal ratio, total gas, heavy metal content, chlorine and fluorine etc. Selection of technique is very important to evaluate the true specification. This is important particularly when the analyses have to perform inside leak tight enclosure. The present paper describes the details of advanced analytical techniques being developed and used in chemical characterization of nuclear materials specially fuels during their fabrication. Nuclear fuels comprise of fuels based on UO 2 , PUO 2 , ThO 2 and combination of (U+Pu)O 2 , (Th+U)O 2 , (Th+Pu)O 2 , (U+Pu)C, (U+Pu)N etc depending on the type of reactors chosen Viz. Pressurized Heavy water Reactor (PHWR), Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), Fast Breeder Test Reactor and Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). Chemical characterization of these fuels is very important for performance of fuel in the reactor. It provides means to ascertain that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the chemical specifications for the fuel laid down by the designer. The batches of sintered/degassed pellets are subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. Chemical Quality Control of fuel is carried out at different stages of manufacture namely feed materials, sintering, vacuum degassing and fuel element welding. Advanced analytical technique based on titrimetry, spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, XRF and XRD have largely been used for this purpose. Since they have to be handled inside special enclosures, extreme care are being taken during handling. Instruments are being developed/modified for ease of handling and maintenance. The method should be fast to reduce

  4. Natural radiation, nuclear wastes and chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, T.; Ehdwall, H.; Stranden, E.

    1990-01-01

    Doses from natural radiation to the population in the Nordic Countries are summarized and man made modifications of the natural radiation environment are discussed. An account is given of the radiological consequences of energy conservation by reduced ventilation. Risks from possible future releases of radioactivity from final repositories of spent nuclear fuel are compared to the risks from present natural radioactivity in the environment. The possibilities for comparison between chemical and radiological risks are discussed. (author) 13 refs

  5. Safety criteria for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, P.W.; Curtis, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    Safety measures have always been required to limit the hazards due to accidental release of radioactive substances from nuclear power plants and chemical plants. The risk associated with the discharge of radioactive substances during normal operation has also to be kept acceptably low. BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels Ltd.) are developing risk criteria as targets for safe plant design and operation. The numerical values derived are compared with these criteria to see if plants are 'acceptably safe'. However, the criteria are not mandatory and may be exceeded if this can be justified. The risk assessments are subject to independent review and audit. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate also has to pass the plants as safe. The assessment principles it uses are stated. The development of risk criteria for a multiplant site (nuclear chemical plants tend to be sited with many others which are related functionally) is discussed. This covers individual members of the general public, societal risks, risks to the workforce and external hazards. (U.K.)

  6. Aerosol simulation including chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwil, E.S.; Lemmon, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The numerical simulation of aerosol transport, including the effects of chemical and nuclear reactions presents a challenging dynamic accounting problem. Particles of different sizes agglomerate and settle out due to various mechanisms, such as diffusion, diffusiophoresis, thermophoresis, gravitational settling, turbulent acceleration, and centrifugal acceleration. Particles also change size, due to the condensation and evaporation of materials on the particle. Heterogeneous chemical reactions occur at the interface between a particle and the suspending medium, or a surface and the gas in the aerosol. Homogeneous chemical reactions occur within the aersol suspending medium, within a particle, and on a surface. These reactions may include a phase change. Nuclear reactions occur in all locations. These spontaneous transmutations from one element form to another occur at greatly varying rates and may result in phase or chemical changes which complicate the accounting process. This paper presents an approach for inclusion of these effects on the transport of aerosols. The accounting system is very complex and results in a large set of stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The techniques for numerical solution of these ODEs require special attention to achieve their solution in an efficient and affordable manner. 4 refs

  7. Chemical characterization of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakumar, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    India is fabricating nuclear fuels for various types of reactors, for example, (U-Pu) MOX fuel of varying Pu content for boiling water reactors (BWRs), pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs), prototype fast breeder reactors (PFBRs), (U-Pu) carbide fuel fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), and U-based fuels for research reactors. Nuclear fuel being the heart of the reactor, its chemical and physical characterisation is an important component of this design. Both the fuel materials and finished fuel products are to be characterised for this purpose. Quality control (both chemical and physical) provides a means to ensure that the quality of the fabricated fuel conforms to the specifications for the fuel laid down by the fuel designer. Chemical specifications are worked out for the major and minor constituents which affect the fuel properties and hence its performance under conditions prevailing in an operating reactor. Each fuel batch has to be subjected to comprehensive chemical quality control for trace constituents, stoichiometry and isotopic composition. A number of advanced process and quality control steps are required to ensure the quality of the fuels. Further more, in the case of Pu-based fuels, it is necessary to extract maximum quality data by employing different evaluation techniques which would result in minimum scrap/waste generation of valuable plutonium. The task of quality control during fabrication of nuclear fuels of various types is both challenging and difficult. The underlying philosophy is total quality control of the fuel by proper mix of process and quality control steps at various stages of fuel manufacture starting from the feed materials. It is also desirable to adapt more than one analytical technique to increase the confidence and reliability of the quality data generated. This is all the most required when certified reference materials are not available. In addition, the adaptation of non-destructive techniques in the chemical quality

  8. Chemical aspects of nuclear waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    The chemical aspects of the treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes are discussed in overview. The role of chemistry and the chemical reactions in waste treatment are emphasized. Waste treatment methods encompass the chemistry of radioactive elements from every group of the periodic table. In most streams, the radioactive elements are present in relatively low concentrations and are often associated with moderately large amounts of process reagents, or materials. In general, it is desirable that waste treatment methods are based on chemistry that is selective for the concentration of radionuclides and does not require the addition of reagents that contribute significantly to the volume of the treated waste. Solvent extraction, ion exchange, and sorbent chemistry play a major role in waste treatment because of the high selectivity provided for many radionuclides. This paper deals with the chemistry of the onsite treatment methods that is typically used at nuclear installations and is not concerned with the chemistry of the various alternative materials proposed for long-term storage of nuclear wastes. The chemical aspects are discussed from a generic point of view in which the chemistry of important radionuclides is emphasized

  9. Nuclear and chemical data for life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumita Maiti; Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand

    2013-01-01

    Use of reactor produced radionuclides is popular in life sciences. However, cyclotron production of proton rich radionuclides are being more focused in recent times. These radionuclides have already gained attention in various fields, including life sciences, provided they are obtained in pure form. This article is a representative brief of our contributions in generating nuclear data for the production of proton rich radionuclides of terbium, astatine, technetium, ruthenium, cadmium, niobium, zirconium, rhenium, etc., which may have application in clinical, biological, agriculture studies or in basic research. The chemical data required to separate the product isotopes from the corresponding target matrix have been presented along with a few propositions of radiopharmaceuticals. It also emphasizes on the development of simple empirical technique, based on the nuclear reaction model analysis, to generate reliable nuclear data for the estimation of yield and angular distribution of emitted neutrons and light charged particles from light as well as heavy ion induced reactions on thick stopping targets. These data bear utmost important in radiation dosimetry. (author)

  10. Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Chemical Surety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... It has been revised to update responsibilities, Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) procedures, transportation policies, chemical event notification, chemical accident or incident response and assistance (CAIRA...

  11. American Chemical Society. Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The meeting of the 201st American Chemical Society Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was comprised from a variety of topics in this field including: nuclear chemistry, nuclear physics, and nuclear techniques for environmental studies. Particular emphasis was given to fundamental research concerning nuclear structure (seven of the nineteen symposia) and studies of airborne particle monitoring and transport (five symposia). 105 papers were presented

  12. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee request list - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-03-01

    The 1986 UK request list for chemical nuclear data has been reviewed in detail by members of the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee. New requirements for data measurements and evaluations have been identified, and specific requests have been withdrawn. A new UK request list has evolved, and is given in the form of tabulations covering measurements and evaluations. (author)

  13. The nuclear terrorist, radiological, biological, chemical threat. Medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gourmelon, P.; Vidal, D.; Renaudeau, C.

    2005-01-01

    This book illustrates the cooperation of the civil and the military experts in the domain of the NBRC (nuclear, biological, radiological and chemical threat). The different aspects bond to the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, are discussed. Al topics of each domains (NRBC) are presented: historical and fundamental aspects, diagnostic, therapeutic and prevention. (A.L.B.)

  14. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately.

  15. Advances in chemical engineering in nuclear and process industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Symposium on Advances in Chemical Engineering in Nuclear and Process Industries dealt with a wide spectrum of areas encompassing various industries such as nuclear, fertilizer, petrochemical, refinery and cement. The topics covered in the symposium dealt with the advancements in the existing fields of science and technologies as well as in some of the emerging technologies such as membrane technology, bio-chemical and photo-chemical engineering etc. with a special emphasis on nuclear related aspects. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  16. Factors influencing chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Bates, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    A short summary is given of our studies on the major factors that affect the chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses. These factors include glass composition, solution composition, SA/V (ratio of glass surface area to the volume of solution), radiation, and colloidal formation. These investigations have enabled us to gain a better understanding of the chemical durability of nuclear waste glasses and to accumulate.a data base for modeling the long-term durability of waste glass, which will be used in the risk assessment of nuclear waste disposal. This knowledge gained also enhances our ability to formulate optimal waste glass compositions

  17. Dismantlement and destruction of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, N.T.

    1997-01-01

    The safe destruction and dismantling of chemical, nuclear and conventional weapons is of fundamental importance to the security of all countries represented in this volume. Expertise in the field is not confined to one country or organisation: all can benefit from each other. There is an ever present danger of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction: approximately two dozen countries have ongoing programmes to develop or acquire such weapons, and many are also gaining the capability to build air-surface delivery systems. But much can be done to prevent proliferation by reducing leakage of materials and know-how and by solving the problems of the destruction of surplus weapons systems, which has now come to be a key issue. In 13 sessions of the workshop attention was paid to (1) Dismantlement and Destruction of Chemical, Nuclear and Conventional Weapons; (2) Status of Implementation of Arms Control Treaties and Voluntary Commitments; (3) National Perspectives on Cooperation in Disarmament; (4) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Chemical Weapons; (5) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Nuclear Weapons; (6) Stocktaking of National and Bilateral Disposal/Destruction Programmes: Conventional Weapons. Session; (7) Experience with Currently Employed Chemical Destruction Technologies; (8) Alternative Chemical Destruction Technologies; (9) Deactivation, Dismantlement and Destruction of Delivery Systems and Infrastructure for Nuclear Weapons; (10) Storage, Safeguarding and Disposition of Fissile Materials; (11) Technologies for Conversion and Civil Use of Demilitarized Materials; (12) International Organizations; and (13) Environmental Challenges Posed by Chemical and Nuclear Disarmament

  18. Management of risks in the chemical and nuclear areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venuti, G.C.; Frullani, S.; Pocchiari, F.; Rogani, A.; Silano, V.; Tabet, E.; Zapponi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative overview is provided of some major aspects concerning assessment and management of chemical and nuclear risks arising as a consequence of accidents. Statutory procedures for constructing and running nuclear and chemical plants in Italy are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to the major changes that are likely to occur after the adoption of the EEC Council Directive 82/501, designed to prevent major accidents which might result from certain industrial activities and to limit their consequences for humans and their environment. Present status and future trends of accident analysis and risk assessment are also dealt with, and special emphasis is placed on aspects common to both nuclear and chemical plants. Lastly, managerial aspects of contingency planning for, and response to, emergencies and accidents involving toxic chemical and/or ionizing radiations are examined with the aim of identifying more critical steps. (author)

  19. Cutaneous reactions in nuclear, biological and chemical warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Sandeep

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare have in recent times been responsible for an increasing number of otherwise rare dermatoses. Many nations are now maintaining overt and clandestine stockpiles of such arsenal. With increasing terrorist threats, these agents of mass destruction pose a risk to the civilian population. Nuclear and chemical attacks manifest immediately while biological attacks manifest later. Chemical and biological attacks pose a significant risk to the attending medical personnel. The large scale of anticipated casualties in the event of such an occurrence would need the expertise of all physicians, including dermatologists, both military and civilian. Dermatologists are uniquely qualified in this respect. This article aims at presenting a review of the cutaneous manifestations in nuclear, chemical and biological warfare and their management.

  20. Stainless steel forgings for nuclear chemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This Specification covers detailed requirements for the supply of austenitic stainless steel forgings used in radioactive and corrosive areas within the Nuclear Industry. With the exception of 316S51 the materials specified are all suitable for contact with nitric acid, 316S51 being included as suitable for use in contact with sodium and other alkali metals at elevated temperatures. (author)

  1. Chemical aspects of nuclear fusion: New developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ache, H.J.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH

    1990-01-01

    Managing thermally controlled nuclear fusion will certainly be regarded one day as one of the most successful accomplishments in nuclear physics. At the same time, however, it will represent a technical achievement unparalleled in the history of science and engineering. This in turn would mean, in retrospect, that decisive contributions had to come from a number of disciplines as diverse as materials and engineering sciences and classical chemistry, and that the same collaboration will have to continue in the future in order to reach the ultimate goal, to construct a reactor capable of producing energy from almost inexhaustible source materials (fuels), such as deuterium and lithium. What is the chemist's role in this development. Similarly as in the development of fission reactors, i.e., the nuclear power plants currently in operation, chemists will have to ensure the existence of a reliable fuel cycle - starting from the availability, storage and reprocessing of the fuel through to the provision for safe storage of the waste. In this review article an attempt will be made to outline the problems associated with these tasks and the approaches to be made by the chemist in solving them. (orig.)

  2. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  3. Taking into account chemical safety for French basic nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabard, Laurence; Conte, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Among nuclear installations, some fuel cycle facilities present a high level of chemical hazards. In France, the TSN law of the 13 June 2006 requires taking into account all the risks generated by a basic nuclear installation (BNI). But, as most of the implementing regulatory texts are under development at this time, part of the previous regulation settled down in the 1990's is still applying: the order of the 31 December 1999 concerning technical regulation in order to prevent and to limit hazards generated by nuclear facilities; the decree of the 4 May 1995 and the order of the 26 November 1999 that deal with BNI discharges. Moreover, some parts of BNI or of nuclear sites can be submitted to the general regulation concerning chemical hazards, which is part of the environment code. As a result, even if the TSN law and its implementing decree Nr 2007-1557 of the 2 November 2007 settle clearly that safety of BNI is not only radiological, but must take into account chemical hazards, the latter aspects are still under development. Moreover the application of the existing regulation, even if complex, has helped to assess chemical risks inside BNI and nuclear sites. (authors)

  4. The chemical industry - a danger to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigtsberger, P.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power stations could contaminate large areas with radioactivity when destroyed by strong external influences. In Germany, authorities try to cope with this danger firstly by making certain demands on the strength of the reactor shell and secondly by imposing strict safety regulations on dangerous industrial plants in the surroundings of the reactor. In the case of chemical industry, this means: If a chemical plant and a nuclear reactor lie closely together, special stress is given to explosion pretection measures in the form of primary explosion protection, e.g. strong sealing of inflammable gases and liquids handled in the immediate neighbourhood of the reactor. (orig.) [de

  5. Chemical decontamination method in nuclear facility system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryota; Sakai, Hitoshi; Oka, Shigehiro.

    1996-01-01

    Pumps and valves in a closed recycling loop system incorporating materials to be chemically decontaminated are decomposed, a guide plate having the decomposed parts as an exit/inlet of a decontaminating liquid is formed, and a decontaminating liquid recycling loop comprising a recycling pump and a heater is connected to the guide plate. Decontaminating liquid from a decontaminating liquid storage tank is supplied to the decontaminating liquid recycling loop. With such constitutions, the decontaminating liquid is filled in the recycling closed loop system incorporating materials to be decontaminated, and the materials to be decontaminated are chemically decontaminated. The decontaminating liquid after the decontamination is discharged and flows, if necessary, in a recycling system channel for repeating supply and discharge. After the decontamination, the guide plate is removed and returned to the original recycling loop. When pipelines of a reactor recycling system are decontaminated, the amount of decontaminations can be decreased, and reforming construction for assembling the recycling loop again, which requires cutting for pipelines in the system is no more necessary. Accordingly, the amount of wastes can be decreased, and therefore, the decontamination operation is facilitated and radiation dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  6. Chemical digestion of low level nuclear solid waste material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, C.R.; Lerch, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A chemical digestion for treatment of low level combustible nuclear solid waste material is provided and comprises reacting the solid waste material with concentrated sulfuric acid at a temperature within the range of 230 0 --300 0 C and simultaneously and/or thereafter contacting the reacting mixture with concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide. In a special embodiment spent ion exchange resins are converted by this chemical digestion to noncombustible gases and a low volume noncombustible residue. 6 claims, no drawings

  7. System for chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor primary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlonski, J.S.; McGiure, M.F.; Corpora, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of chemically decontaminating a nuclear reactor primary system, having a residual heat removal system with one or more residual heat removal heat exchangers, each having an upstream and a downstream side, at or above ambient pressure. It comprises: injecting decontamination chemicals using an injection means; circulating the injected decontamination chemicals throughout the primary system; directing the circulated decontamination chemicals and process fluids to a means for removing suspended solids and dissolved materials after the circulated chemicals and process fluids have passed through the residual heat removal heat exchanger; decontaminating the process fluids; and feeding the decontaminated process fluids to the injection means. This patent also describes a chemical decontamination system for use at, or above, ambient pressure in a nuclear reactor primary system having a residual heat removal system. It comprises: means for injecting decontamination chemicals into the primary system; means for removing dissolved and suspended materials and decontamination chemicals from the primary system; one or more residual heat removal pumps; means located downstream of one of the residual heat removal heat exchangers; and a return line connecting the means

  8. Chemical cleaning of nuclear (PWR) steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, C.S. Jr.; Mundis, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports on a significant research program sponsored by a group of utilities (the Steam Generator Owners Group), which was undertaken to develop a process to chemically remove corrosion product deposits from the secondary side of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant steam generators. Results of this work have defined a process (solvent system and application methods) that is capable of removing sludge and tube-to-tube support plate crevice corrosion products generated during operation with all-volatile treatment (AVT) water chemistry. Considers a plant-specific test program that includes all materials in the steam generator to be cleaned and accounts for the physical locations (proximity and contact) of those materials. Points out that prior to applying the process in an operational unit, the utility, with the participation of the NSSR vendor, must define allowable total corrosion to the materials of construction of the unit

  9. Variational methods for chemical and nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, O.H.

    1977-01-01

    All the variational functionals are derived which satisfy certain criteria of suitability for molecular and nuclear scattering, below the threshold energy for three-body breakup. The existence and uniqueness of solutions are proven. The most general suitable functional is specialized, by particular values of its parameters, to Kohn's taneta, Kato's cot(eta-theta), the inverse Kohn coeta, Kohn's S matrix, our S matrix, Lane and Robson's functional, and several new functionals, an infinite number of which are contained in the general expression. Four general ways of deriving algebraic methods from a given functional are discussed, and illustrated with specific algebraic results. These include equations of Lane and Robson and of Kohn, the fundamental R matrix relation, and new equations. The relative configuration space is divided as in the Wigner R matrix theory, and trial wavefunctions are needed for only the region where all the particles are interacting. In addition, a version of the general functional is presented which does not require any division of space

  10. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.)

  11. Delayed effects of nuclear and chemical weapons in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dienstbier, Z.

    1984-01-01

    Delayed radiation effects are discussed of the use of nuclear and chemical weapons (defoliants and herbicides). Attention is drawn to the development of delayed malignities in exposed subjects and their pathophysiologic causes are explained. The only prevention of these effects is to prohibit the use of weapons of mass destruction. (author)

  12. Evaluation of thorium based nuclear fuel. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konings, R.J.M.; Blankenvoorde, P.J.A.M.; Cordfunke, E.H.P.; Bakker, K.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the chemical aspects of a thorium-based fuel cycle. It is part of a series devoted to the study of thorium-based fuel as a means to achieve a considerable reduction of the radiotoxicity of the waste from nuclear power production. Therefore special emphasis is placed on fuel (re-)fabrication and fuel reprocessing in the present work. (orig.).

  13. A portable system for nuclear, chemical agent, and explosives identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.E.; Buckley, W.M.; Kreek, S.A.; Mauger, G.J.; Lavietes, A.D.; Dougan, A.D.; Caffrey, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The FRIS/PINS hybrid integrates the LLNL-developed Field Radionuclide Identification System (FRIS) with the INEEL-developed Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) chemical assay system to yield a combined general radioisotope, special nuclear material, and chemical weapons/explosives detection and identification system. The PINS system uses a neutron source and a high-purity germanium γ-ray detector. The FRIS system uses an electromechanically cooled germanium detector and its own analysis software to detect and identify special nuclear material and other radioisotopes. The FRIS/PINS combined system also uses the electromechanically-cooled germanium detector. There is no other currently available integrated technology that can combine a prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis capability for CWE with a passive radioisotope measurement and identification capability for special nuclear material

  14. A Portable System for Nuclear, Chemical Agent and Explosives Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.E.; Buckley, W.M.; Kreek, S.A.; Caffrey, A.J.; Mauger, G.J.; Lavietes, A.D.; Dougan, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    The FRIS/PINS hybrid integrates the LLNL-developed Field Radionuclide Identification System (FRIS) with the INEEL-developed Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy (PINS) chemical assay system to yield a combined general radioisotope, special nuclear material, and chemical weapons/explosives detection and identification system. The PINS system uses a neutron source and a high-purity germanium γ-ray detector. The FRIS system uses an electrochemically cooled germanium detector and its own analysis software to detect and identify special nuclear material and other radioisotopes. The FRIS/PINS combined system also uses the electromechanically-cooled germanium detector. There is no other currently available integrated technology that can combine an active neutron interrogation and analysis capability for CWE with a passive radioisotope measurement and identification capability for special nuclear material

  15. Chemical process measurements in PWR-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to achieve high levels of availability of nuclear power plants equipped with pressurized water reactors, strict standards have to be applied to the purity of coolant and of other media. Chemical process measurements can meet these requirements only if programmes are established giving maximum information with minimum expenditure and if these programmes are realized with effective analytical methods. Analysis programmes known from literature are proved for their usefulness, and hints are given for establishing rational programmes. Analytical techniques are compared with each other taking into consideration both methods which have already been introduced into nuclear power plant practice and methods not yet generally used in practice, such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, etc. Finally, based on the state of the art of chemical process measurements in nuclear power plants, the trends of future development are pointed out. (author)

  16. Chemical metrology, strategic job for the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, Nuri; Munoz, Luis; Cortes, Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    The National Standardization Institute's (INN) Metrology unit prepared a study in 1996 to evaluate the impact of metrological activity in Chile. This study was based on a survey of the supply and demand of metrological services and on studies of the behavior of the production system and technological services in Chile during the period 1990-1996. With the information obtained in this study the economic impact resulting from the lack of a national metrology system could be evaluated. This impact was estimated to be a 5% loss in gross national product equal to 125-500 million dollars because of direct product rejection in the mining, fisheries, agricultural and manufacturing sectors. Chemical measurements are responsible for 50% of these losses. In response to this need and coordinated by the INN, a metrological network of reference laboratories began to operate in 1997 for the principal physical magnitudes (mass, temperature, longitude and force) and a CORFO-FDI project began in 2001 that includes the chemical magnitudes. The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, aware of the problem's importance and the amount of economic damage that the country may suffer, as a result of these deficiencies, has formed a Chemical Metrology Unit to provide technical support. It aims to raise the standards of local analytical laboratories by providing international recognition to the export sector. Nuclear analytical techniques are used as reference methods. This work describes the laboratories that are included in this Chemical Metrology Unit and the historical contribution to the development of local analytical chemistry. The national and international projects are described together with the publications they have generated. The quality assurance program applied to the laboratories is described as well, which has led to the accreditation of the analytical chemical assays. The procedures used for validation and calculation of uncertain nuclear methodologies are described together with

  17. A review of chemical decontamination systems for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    With the downsizing of the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, many of its buildings and facilities will be decommissioned and dismantled. As part of this decommissioning, some form of decontamination will be required. To develop an appropriate technology for in situ chemical decontamination of equipment interiors in the decommissioning of DOE nuclear facilities, knowledge of the existing chemical decontamination methods is needed. This paper attempts to give an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. This survey revealed that aqueous systems are the most widely used for the decontamination and cleaning of metal surfaces. We have subdivided the aqueous systems by types of chemical solvent: acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and proprietary. Two other systems, electropolishing and foams and gels, are also described in this paper

  18. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, Th. de; Gourmelon, P.; Vidal, D.; Renaudeau, C.

    2005-01-01

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  19. Three Mile Island Nuclear Station steam generator chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Three Mile Island-1 steam generators were chemically cleaned in 1991 by the B and W Nuclear Service Co. (BWNS). This secondary side cleaning was accomplished through application of the EPRI/SGOG (Electric Power Research Institute - Steam Generator Owners Group) chemical cleaning iron removal process, followed by sludge lancing. BWNS also performed on-line corrosion monitoring. Corrosion of key steam generator materials was low, and well within established limits. Liquid waste, subsequently processed by BWNS was less than expected. 7 tabs

  20. Instrumentation for chemical and radiochemical monitoring in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, F.; Ballard, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the instrumentation implemented in French nuclear power plants for the monitoring of chemical and radiochemical effluents with the aim of limiting their environmental impact. It describes the controls performed with chemical automata for the search for drifts, anomalies or pollution in a given circuit. The operation principles of the different types of chemical automata are explained as well as the manual controls performed on samples manually collected. Content: 1 - general considerations; 2 - objectives of the chemical monitoring: usefulness of continuous monitoring with automata, transmission to control rooms and related actions, redundancy of automata; 3 - instrumentation and explanations for the main circuits: principle of chemical automata monitoring, instrumentation of the main primary circuit, instrumentation of the main secondary circuit, instrumentation of the tertiary circuit, preparation of water makeup (demineralized water), other loops, instrumentation for effluents and environment monitoring, measurement principles of chemical automata, control and maintenance of chemical automata; 4 - manual controls after sampling; 5 - radiochemical monitoring: automatized radiochemical measurements, manual radiochemical measurements; 6 - conclusion

  1. Probabilistic safety assessment in the chemical and nuclear industries

    CERN Document Server

    Fullwood, Ralph R

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) determines the probability and consequences of accidents, hence, the risk. This subject concerns policy makers, regulators, designers, educators and engineers working to achieve maximum safety with operational efficiency. Risk is analyzed using methods for achieving reliability in the space program. The first major application was to the nuclear power industry, followed by applications to the chemical industry. It has also been applied to space, aviation, defense, ground, and water transportation. This book is unique in its treatment of chemical and nuclear risk. Problems are included at the end of many chapters, and answers are in the back of the book. Computer files are provided (via the internet), containing reliability data, a calculator that determines failure rate and uncertainty based on field experience, pipe break calculator, event tree calculator, FTAP and associated programs for fault tree analysis, and a units conversion code. It contains 540 references and many...

  2. Differences in coupling between chemical and nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    The teleseismic amplitude resulting from an underground explosion is proportional to the asymptotic value of the reduced displacement potential (φ∞) or, in physical terms, to the permanent change in volume measured anywhere beyond the range at which the outgoing wave has become elastic. φ∞ decreases with increasing initial cavity size (r o ) until the cavity is large enough to preclude inelastic behavior in the surrounding rock, at which point no further decrease occurs. With nuclear explosions, φ∞ can also be reduced by decreasing the initial cavity size over a certain range. This occurs because, in this range of r 0 W -1/3 (where W is the yield) the thermal pressure in the surrounding medium increases much more slowly than does the thermal energy. With chemical explosions, by contrast, r 0 W -1/3 cannot be decreased below the fully tamped limit because the energy density is bounded above. Moreover, for the most of the cavity expansion period the ratio of specific heats of the chemical explosion products is substantially higher than the equivalent ratio in a nuclear explosion, so that the cavity pressure in the former case is higher as well and this further amplifies the differences between the two. Calculations show that the teleseismic amplitude could be as much as 50% higher for an equivalent tamped chemical explosion in salt than was observed in the SALMON nuclear event

  3. Development of Chemical Technology in Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Kwang Yong; Kim, W. H.; Kim, J. S.

    2007-06-01

    This project mainly concentrates on the development of technologies related to elemental analysis for the mass balance of pyro-chemical process, on the development of in-line measurement system for high temperature molten salt, and on the development of radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD system to evaluate the integrity of nuclear fuel. Chemical analysis methods for the quantitative determination of fissile elements, minor actinide elements, fission products, chemical additive and corrosion products in Uranium Metal Ingots are established. It will be applied to the evaluation of mass balance in electrolytic reduction process for the optimization of the process. Optical fiber based UV-VIS spectrophotometer combined with reaction cell was developed for the measurement of reactions in high temperature molten salt. This system is applicable to in-line monitoring of electro-refining process and contribute to clarify the chemical reactions. Radiation shielded LA-ICP-MS and micro-XRD systems are planned to be used for the analysis of isotopic distribution and structural changes from core to rim of spent nuclear fuel pellet, respectively. The developed techniques can contribute to produce database needed for authorization and practical use of ultra high burn-up fuel. In addition, it can be applicable to the other industries such as microelectronics, nano material science and semiconductor to analyze micro region

  4. Chemical Plant Accidents in a Nuclear Hydrogen Generation Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature nuclear reactor (HTR) could be used to drive a steam reformation plant, a coal gasification facility, an electrolysis plant, or a thermochemical hydrogen production cycle. Most thermochemical cycles are purely thermodynamic, and thus achieve high thermodynamic efficiency. HTRs produce large amounts of heat at high temperature (1100 K). Helium-cooled HTRs have many passive, or inherent, safety characteristics. This inherent safety is due to the high design basis limit of the maximum fuel temperature. Due to the severity of a potential release, containment of fission products is the single most important safety issue in any nuclear reactor facility. A HTR coupled to a chemical plant presents a complex system, due primarily to the interactive nature of both plants. Since the chemical plant acts as the heat sink for the nuclear reactor, it important to understand the interaction and feedback between the two systems. Process heat plants and HTRs are generally very different. Some of the major differences include: time constants of plants, safety standards, failure probability, and transient response. While both the chemical plant and the HTR are at advanced stages of testing individually, no serious effort has been made to understand the operation of the integrated system, especially during accident events that are initiated in the chemical plant. There is a significant lack of knowledge base regarding scaling and system integration for large scale process heat plants coupled to HTRs. Consideration of feedback between the two plants during time-dependent scenarios is absent from literature. Additionally, no conceptual studies of the accidents that could occur in either plant and impact the entire coupled system are present in literature

  5. Method for the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels, in particular nuclear fuels containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the chemical processing of irradiated uranium-containing nuclear fuels which are hydrolyzed with aqueous nitric acid, a suggestion is made to use as quaternary ammonium nitrate trialkyl-methyl ammonium nitrates as extracting agent, in which the sum of C atoms is greater than 16. In the illustrated examples, tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, trilaurylmethylammonium nitrate and tridecylmethylammonium nitrate are named. (HPH/LH) [de

  6. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Designing new nuclear chemical processing plants for safeguards accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    New nuclear chemical processing plants will be required to develop material accountability control limits from measurement error propagation analysis rather than historical inventory difference data as performed in the past. In order for measurement error propagation methods to be viable alternatives, process designers must ensure that two nondimensional accountability parameters are maintained below 0.1. These parameters are ratios between the material holdup increase and the variance in inventory difference measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty data for use in error propagation analysis is generally available in the open literature or readily derived from instrument calibration data. However, nuclear material holdup data has not been adequately developed for use in the material accountability design process. Long duration development testing on isolated unit operations is required to generate this necessary information

  8. Determination of air pollutants by nuclear chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesny, J.; Toelgyessy, J.

    1975-01-01

    Nuclear analytical methods are discussed with a view to their applicability in the determination of air pollutants. It is shown that some methods (use of radioactive kryptonates in automatic analyzers, application of activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence methods) are developed in theory and proven in practice in such an extent to be widely used in the near future in the control of the environment. Many other methods are becoming increasingly important for the solution of specific problems of environmental protection (such as the control of sudden environmental contamination in the proximity of chemical plants and industrial centers). (author)

  9. The main chemical safety problems in main process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengli; Zhao Shangui; Liu Xinhua; Zhang Chunlong; Lu Dan; Liu Yuntao; Yang Xiaowei; Wang Shijun

    2014-01-01

    There are many chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The reaction conditions and the products are different so that the chemical safety problems are different. In the paper the chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing are described and the main chemical safety problems are analyzed. The reference is offered to the design and accident analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance in pulse radiolysis. Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, A.D.; Johnson, K.W.; Lowers, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance and chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) were applied to the study of pulse radiolysis. Samples were irradiated with a 3-MeV electron beam from the Argonne Van de Graaff accelerator in an EPR magnet (approximately 4000 G) which had axial holes for beam access. A fast flow system transferred the irradiated solution to the rotating 5-mm NMR sample tube. The NMR spectra of mixtures of sodium acetate and methanol were presented to demonstrate the features of the CIDNP in pulse radiolysis

  11. Full system chemical decontamination used in nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, George; Rottner, Bernard; Braehler, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear power stations at the end of the operational period of electricity generation offers technical challenges in the safe dismantling of the facility and the minimization of radioactive waste arising from the decommissioning activities. These challenges have been successfully overcome as demonstrated by decommissioning of the first generation of nuclear power plants. One of the techniques used in decommissioning is that of chemical decontamination which has a number of functions and advantages as given here: 1. Removal of contamination from metal surfaces in the reactors cooling systems. 2. Reduction of radioactive exposure to decommissioning workers 3. Minimization of metal waste by decontamination and recycling of metal components 4. Control of contamination when dismantling reactor and waste systems 5. Reduction in costs due to lower radiation fields, lower contamination levels and minimal metal waste volume for disposal. One such chemical decontamination technology was developed for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) by Bradtec (Bradtec is an ONET Technologies subsidiary) and is known as the EPRI DFD system. This paper gives a description of the EPRI DFD system, and highlights the experience using the system. (orig.)

  12. Chemical effects of nuclear transformations symposium in Prague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-01-15

    The Symposium on Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transformations showed that interest in the subject matter is far from being exclusively academic. Though a large number of the papers dealt with theoretical aspects, it was felt that hot atom reactions provided a valuable means by which a large number of radioactive isotopes and labelled compounds could be prepared practically free from their inactive counterparts. Such so-called carrier-free preparations are in great demand for industrial, medical and scientific applications. Discussions showed that a detailed knowledge o: the characteristics of radiation damage was essential to the successful development of nuclear power Nuclear transformations in solids provide a method of generating such damage and at the same time leave radioactive products that permit the study of the subsequent repair. This technique permits studies a' levels of damage much below those that are necessary with the less sensitive purely physical procedures. A number of papers emphasized the theoretical importance of the insight which hot atom chemistry gives into the mechanism of reactions occurring at abnormal temperatures.

  13. Disposal and handling of nuclear steam generator chemical cleaning wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larrick, A.P.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1978-01-01

    A large number of pressurized water nuclear reactor electrical generating plants have experienced a corrosion-related problem with their steam generators known as denting. Denting is a mechanical deformation of the steam generator tubes that occurs at the tube support plates. Corrosion of the tube support plates occurs within the annuli through which the tubes pass and the resulting corrosion oxides, which are larger in volume than the original metal, compress and deform the tubes. In some cases, the induced stresses have been severe enough to cause tube and/or support cracking. The problem was so severe at the Turkey Point and Surrey plants that the tubing is being replaced. For less severe cases, chemical cleaning of the oxides, and other materials which deposit in the annuli from the water, is being considered. A Department of Energy-sponsored program was conducted by Consolidated Edison Co. of New York which identified several suitable cleaning solvents and led to in-plant chemical cleaning pilot demonstrations in the Indian Point Unit 1 steam generators. Current programs to improve the technology are being conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute, and the three PWR NSSS vendors with the assistance of numerous consultants, vendors, and laboratories. These programs are expected to result in more effective, less corrosive solvents. However, after a chemical cleaning is conducted, a large problem still remains- that of disposing of the spent wastes. The paper summarizes some of the methods currently available for handling and disposal of the wastes

  14. Chemical durability of simulated nuclear glasses containing water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, H.; Tomozawa, M.

    1995-04-01

    The chemical durability of simulated nuclear waste glasses having different water contents was studied. Results from the product consistency test (PCT) showed that glass dissolution increased with water content in the glass. This trend was not observed during MCC-1 testing. This difference was attributed to the differences in reactions between glass and water. In the PCT, the glass network dissolution controlled the elemental releases, and water in the glass accelerated the reaction rate. On the other hand, alkali ion exchange with hydronium played an important role in the MCC-1. For the latter, the amount of water introduced into a leached layer from ion-exchange was found to be much greater than that of initially incorporated water in the glass. Hence, the initial water content has no effect on glass dissolution as measured by the MCC-1 test

  15. Aum Shinrikyo’s Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Development Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Nehorayoff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article details the terrorist activities of the Japanese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, from the perspective of its complex engineering efforts aimed at producing nuclear and chemical weapons. The experience of this millenarian organization illustrates that even violent non-state actors with considerable wealth and resources at their disposal face numerous obstacles to realizing their destructive aspirations. Specifically, Aum’s attempts at complex engineering were stymied by a combination of unchecked fantastical thinking, self-imposed ideological constraints, and a capricious leadership. The chapter highlights each of these mechanisms, as well as the specific ways in which they constrained the decision-making process and the implementation of the complex engineering tasks associated with their unconventional weapons development.

  16. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genung, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DOD), and other federal agencies already face profound challenges in finding strategies that manage budgets and priorities while bringing their sites and facilities into compliance with current statues and regulations and with agency policies and orders. While it is often agreed that current technology can be used to address most waste management and environmental restoration needs, it is also argued by many that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise

  17. Bioprocessing applications in the management of nuclear and chemical wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genung, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The projected requirements for waste management and environmental restoration activities within the United States will probably cost tens of billions of dollars annually during the next two decades. Expenditures of this magnitude clearly have the potential to affect the international competitiveness of many US industries and the continued operation of many federal facilities. It is argued that the costs of implementing current technology will be too high unless the standards and schedules for compliance are relaxed. Since this is socially unacceptable, efforts to improve the efficiency of existing technologies and to develop new technologies should be pursued. A sizable research, development, and demonstration effort can be easily justified if the potential for reducing costs can be shown. Bioprocessing systems for the treatment of nuclear and chemically hazardous wastes offer such promise. 11 refs

  18. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO{sub 2} based pyrochlores. ZrO{sub 2} - Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellets

  19. Pyrochlore as nuclear waste form. Actinide uptake and chemical stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkeldei, Sarah Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste is generated by many different technical and scientific applications. For the past decades, different waste disposal strategies have been considered. Several questions on the waste disposal strategy remain unanswered, particularly regarding the long-term radiotoxicity of minor actinides (Am, Cm, Np), plutonium and uranium. These radionuclides mainly arise from high level nuclear waste (HLW), specific waste streams or dismantled nuclear weapons. Although many countries have opted for the direct disposal of spent fuel, from a scientific and technical point of view it is imperative to pursue alternative waste management strategies. Apart from the vitrification, especially for trivalent actinides and Pu, crystalline ceramic waste forms are considered. In contrast to glasses, crystalline waste forms, which are chemically and physically highly stable, allow the retention of radionuclides on well-defined lattice positions within the crystal structure. Besides polyphase ceramics such as SYNROC, single phase ceramics are considered as tailor made host phases to embed a specific radionuclide or a specific group. Among oxidic single phase ceramics pyrochlores are known to have a high potential for this application. This work examines ZrO 2 based pyrochlores as potential nuclear waste forms, which are known to show a high aqueous stability and a high tolerance towards radiation damage. This work contributes to (1) understand the phase stability field of pyrochlore and consequences of non-stoichiometry which leads to pyrochlores with mixed cationic sites. Mixed cationic occupancies are likely to occur in actinide-bearing pyrochlores. (2) The structural uptake of radionuclides themselves was studied. (3) The chemical stability and the effect of phase transition from pyrochlore to defect fluorite were probed. This phase transition is important, as it is the result of radiation damage in ZrO 2 based pyrochlores. ZrO 2 - Nd 2 O 3 pellets with pyrochlore and defect

  20. Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Regional Centres of Excellence Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bril, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    This series of slides presents the initiative launched in May 2010 by the European Union to develop at national and regional levels the necessary institutional capacity to fight against the CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear) risk. The origin of the risk can be: -) criminal (proliferation, theft, sabotage and illicit traffics), -) accidental (industrial catastrophes, transport accidents...) and -) natural (mainly pandemics). The initiative consists in the creation of Centres of Excellence for providing assistance and cooperation in the field of CBRN risk and the creation of experts networks for sharing best practices, reviewing laws and regulation, developing technical capacities in order to mitigate the CBRN risk. The initiative is complementary to the instrument for nuclear safety cooperation. Regional Centres of Excellence are being set up in 6 regions: South East Europe, South East Asia, North Africa, West Africa, Middle East, and Central Asia covering nearly 40 countries. A global budget of 100 million Euros will be dedicated to this initiative for the 2009-2013 period. (A.C.)

  1. Nuclear, biological and chemical contamination survivability of Army material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Army Regulation (AR) 70-71, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability of Army Material, published during 1984, establishes Army policy and procedures for the development and acquisition of material to ensure its survivablility and sustainability on the NBC-contaminated battlefield. This regulation defines NBC contamination as a term that includes both the individual and collective effects of residual radiological, biological, and chemical contamination. AR 70-71 applies to all mission-essential equipment within the Army. NBC contamination survivability is the capability of a system and its crew to withstand an NBC-contaminated environment, including decontamination, without losing the ability to accomplish the assigned mission. Characteristics of NBC contamination survivability are decontaminability, hardness, and compatability. These characteristics are engineering design criteria which are intended for use only in a developmental setting. To comply with AR 70-71, each mission-essential item must address all three criteria. The Department of Defense (DOD) has published a draft instruction addressing acquisition of NBC contamination survivable systems. This instruction will apply throughout DOD to those programs, systems and subsystems designated by the Secretary of Defense as major systems acquisition programs and to those non-major systems that have potential impact on critical functions

  2. Stable Chemical Dosimeters for Partial Reconstruction of Nuclear Accident Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornik, I.; Zec, U.; Baric, M.; Razem, D. [Ruder Boskovic Nuclear Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1969-10-15

    The application of chemical dosimeters, tissue equivalent with respect to gamma rays and neutrons, is proposed for dosimetric topography of the space around nuclear devices in case of accidents. The dosimeters in the form of sealed glass ampoules have sufficient sensitivity and long-term stability and are evaluated or checked directly by conventional spectrophotometry. The sensitivity, expressed as yield per rad, is approximately equal for gamma rays and neutrons. The resolution in both cases is about one rad, and the range is up to several thousand rads. The precision of dosimetry is {+-} 1 rad or {+-} 2%, whichever is higher. In free space and unshielded the dosimeter measures the total rad-absorbed dose delivered by gamma rays and neutrons, i.e. the first collision gamma plus neutron dose. If used on- or in-phantom, especially if several dosimeters are disposed within and around the same phantom, it can give important data about the amount of the neutron component of the dose and about the effective mean energy of incident neutrons. The neutron component of the dose can be directly measured if the gamma dosimeter is used together with the chemical dosimeter. The experiments giving the change of optical density per rad and the radiation chemical yield with respect to the absorbed dose delivered by 14-MeV neutrons are described in detail. The possibility is also mentioned of applying the dosimeter as a very sensitive monitor for thermal neutrons, which is due to the chlorine content of 4.73% and activation to {sup 38}Cl. The opinion is expressed that this dosimeter deserves some attention as a part of future planning and development work on area and personnel accidental dosimetry systems. (author)

  3. Development of chemical technology in nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Ho; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. G.

    2004-04-01

    The objectives of this study are to develop the technology for both chemical analysis of fissile materials and fission products and chemical characterization in dry process, and also to compose LA/ICP-MS and micro-XRD systems. Chemical techniques for quantitative analysis of Cs, Tc, Np, Am, Cm in LiCl molten salts and Am, Cm, Tc, 3 H, 14 C in oxidized PWR spent fuel powders were developed for the evaluation of its material balance in the dry process. In particular, the rate of uranium oxide reduction was measured by the determination of concentrations of lithium metal and lithium oxide in LiCl molten salts. The solubility data of the reactants in LiCl molten salt were acquired, the oxide ion selective electrode to determine the oxide contents in the medium being fabricated, and a chronoamperometric technique applicable to in-line and real time monitoring of lithium metal reduction process was developed. On the other side, the electrochemical reduction of uranium oxides was studied, which has contributed to better understand the reduction behavior and thus lead to modify processes involved. Laser ablation ICP-MS system was developed by coupling laser ablation system with ICP-MS system, which was supposed to measure the isotope distribution from core to rim of irradiated fuel. The micro-XRD was developed with a micro beam, two hundreds times as narrow as conventional XRD, to measure structural changes of solid samples by 50μm interval in the radial direction. The performance of the two systems developed was confirmed by means of the examinations on precision, spatial resolution, and reproducibility. The development of LA/ICP-MS and micro-XRD system led to an establishment of techniques for the evaluation of its long-term integrity of high burn-up spent nuclear fuel and these techniques will be applied to the development of new nuclear fuels. Especially, the micro-XRD system will be useful to develop new materials and to control the quality in the various industrial

  4. Chemical immobilization of fission products reactive with nuclear reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Kaznoff, A.I.; Clukey, H.V.

    1975-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of immobilizing deleterious fission products produced in nuclear fuel materials during nuclear fission chain reactions through the use of additives. The additives are disposed with the nuclear fuel materials in controlled quantities to form new compositions preventing attack of reactor components, especially nuclear fuel cld, by the deleterious fission products. (Patent Office Record)

  5. Transformation of highly toxic chemicals factory for Fuqing nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hongkai; Gao Yuan; Li Hua

    2014-01-01

    For the iodine adsorption tests of current M310 nuclear power plant, dimethyl sulfate is one of highly toxic chemical of national strict standard management, and the nation make strict control over toxic chemicals procurement, transportation, storage, management requirements. Since the appropriate toxic chemicals storage place was not considered in the design of M310 nuclear power plant, Fuqing nuclear power sites for storage of dimethyl sulfate implement technical transformation to meet and regulate the storage requirements for highly toxic chemical. This will lay the foundation for carrying out smoothly the relevant tests of nuclear power plant, and provide the reference for the use and construction of toxic chemicals reactor in the same type nuclear power plant. (authors)

  6. chemical determination of burnup ratio in nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guereli, L.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the extent of fission are important to determine the irradiation performance of a nuclear fuel. The energy released per unit mass of uranium (burnup) can be determined from measurement of the percent of heavy atoms that have fissioned during irradiation.The preferred method for this determination is choosing a suitable fission monitor (usually ''1''4''8Nd) and its determination after separation from the fuel matrix. In thermal reactor fuels where the only heavy element in the starting material is uranium, uranium depletion can be used for burnup determination. ''2''3''5U depletion method requires measurement of uranium isotopic ratios of both irradiated and unirradiated fuel. Isotopic ratios can be determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometer following separation of uranium from the fuel matrix. Separation procedures include solvent extraction, ion exchange and anion exchange chromatography. Another fission monitor used is ''1''3''9La determination by HPLC. Because La is monoisotopic (''1''3''9La) in the fuel, it can be determined by chemical analysis techniques

  7. Chemical characterization of materials relevant to nuclear technology using neutron and proton based nuclear analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear analytical techniques (NATs), utilizing neutron and proton based nuclear reactions and subsequent measurement of gamma rays, are capable of chemical characterization of various materials at major to trace concentration levels. The present article deals with the recent developments and applications of conventional and k0-based internal monostandard (i) neutron activation analysis (NAA) and (ii) prompt gamma ray NAA (PGNAA) methods as well as (iii) in situ current normalized particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE). The materials that have been analyzed by NAA and PGNAA include (i) nuclear reactor structural materials like zircaloys, stainless steels, Ni alloys, high purity aluminium and graphite and (ii) uranium oxide, U-Th mixed oxides, uranium ores and minerals. Internal monostandard NAA (IM-NAA) method with in situ detection efficiency was used to analyze large and non-standard geometry samples and standard-less compositional characterization was carried out for zircaloys and stainless steels. PIGE methods using proton beams were standardized for quantification of low Z elements (Li to Ti) and applied for compositional analysis of borosilicate glass and lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) samples and quantification of total B and its isotopic composition of B ( 10 B/ 11 B) in boron based neutron absorbers like B 4 C. (author)

  8. Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Consequences Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-02

    protective measures associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are not considered to be chemical warfare agents...control. Procedures to avoid, reduce, remove, or render harmless (temporarily or permanently) nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical...destroying, neutralizing, making harmless , or removing chemical or biological agents, or by removing radioactive material clinging to or around it. (JP 1

  9. Chemical and nuclear emergencies: Interchanging lessons learned from planning and accident experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, V.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.

    1989-01-01

    Because the goal of emergency preparedness for both chemical and nuclear hazards is to reduce human exposure to hazardous materials, this paper examines the interchange of lessons learned from emergency planning and accident experience in both industries. While the concerns are slightly different, sufficient similarity is found for each to draw implications from the others experience. Principally the chemical industry can learn from the dominant planning experience associated with nuclear power plants, while the nuclear industry can chiefly learn from the chemical industry's accident experience. 23 refs

  10. The plutonium: brief presentation of its nuclear, physical and chemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.

    1993-01-01

    In this text we give a brief presentation of the nuclear properties (isotopes, isotopic composition of spent fuels, decay), of the physical properties (phase diagrams, alloys) and of the chemical properties (complexes, solvent extraction) of the plutonium

  11. Leader Development in Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Defense: Trained and Ready

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van

    2001-01-01

    .... Careful and deliberate preparation and emphasis on leader development now will obviate the devastating role of WMD in the future and ensure that the Army is nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) trained and ready...

  12. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  13. Laser-enhanced chemical reactions and the liquid state. II. Possible applications to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePoorter, G.L.; Rofer-DePoorter, C.K.

    1976-01-01

    Laser photochemistry is surveyed as a possible improvement upon the Purex process for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel. Most of the components of spent nuclear fuel are photochemically active, and lasers can be used to selectively excite individual chemical species. The great variety of chemical species present and the degree of separation that must be achieved present difficulties in reprocessing. Lasers may be able to improve the necessary separations by photochemical reaction or effects on rates and equilibria of reactions

  14. High temperature nuclear process heat systems for chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiacoletti, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    The development planning and status of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor as a source of industrial process heat is presented. The dwindling domestic reserves of petroleum and natural gas dictate major increases in the utilization of coal and nuclear sources to meet the national energy demand. The nuclear process heat system offers a unique combination of the two that is environmentally and economically attractive and technically sound. Conceptual studies of several energy-intensive processes coupled to a nuclear heat source are presented

  15. UK chemical nuclear data committee progress report: data studies during 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basic nuclear data requirements for industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC), covering half-lives, decay data, fission yields and the content of computerised data files. While the UKCNDC Request List was reviewed at the end of 1989 to reveal new and continued requirements, funding problems have increased during the year. Difficulties in the UK nuclear power industry are reflected in the decline in experimental studies, although evaluation efforts have been maintained. (author)

  16. Transport of chemically bonded nuclear energy in a closed cycle with special consideration to energy disconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossami, S.

    1976-01-01

    The article describes the utilisation of nuclear energy in the form of 'nuclear long-distance energy'. Heat produced by nuclear fission is bonded to a reversible chemical reaction (cracking gas) which release the heat again at the place of comsumption by catalytic transformation. The article deals in particular with the process of methane cracking/methanisation, the disconnection of the energy (heat) by the methanisation process and the decisive role of the methanisation catalyzers. (orig.) [de

  17. Proceedings of 26. annual academic conference of China Chemical Society--modern nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    26. annual academic conference of China Chemical Society was held in Tianjing, 13-16 July, 2008. This proceedings is about modern nuclear chemistry and radiochemistry, the contents include: new elements and new nuclides; advanced nuclear chemistry; radiochemistry and national security; new radiopharmaceutical chemistry; modern radiological analytical chemistry and large scientific facilities; radiological environmental chemistry and nuclear radioactive waste; actinide chemistry and transactinide chemistry; radiochemistry and cross discipline, etc.

  18. Ion exchange and adsorption in nuclear chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, W.W.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Godbee, H.; Mallory, C.W.; Burney, G.A.; Wallace, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear industry involves a number of operations. Uranium ore must first be mined and the uranium recovered from the ore, purified, and concentrated. After the uranium has been enriched and fabricated into fuel elements, it is placed in nuclear reactors where it produces energy, fission products, and transmutation products. Finally, if the fuel cycle is completed, the uranium and useful transmutation products are recovered and separated from each other as well as from the fission products. The uranium may be recycled or used elsewhere, while most of the fission products become waste. Ion exchange finds use in nearly every part of the nuclear fuel cycle; these uses are the subject of this paper

  19. Cluster dynamics transcending chemical dynamics toward nuclear fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidenreich, Andreas; Jortner, Joshua; Last, Isidore

    2006-07-11

    Ultrafast cluster dynamics encompasses femtosecond nuclear dynamics, attosecond electron dynamics, and electron-nuclear dynamics in ultraintense laser fields (peak intensities 10(15)-10(20) W.cm(-2)). Extreme cluster multielectron ionization produces highly charged cluster ions, e.g., (C(4+)(D(+))(4))(n) and (D(+)I(22+))(n) at I(M) = 10(18) W.cm(-2), that undergo Coulomb explosion (CE) with the production of high-energy (5 keV to 1 MeV) ions, which can trigger nuclear reactions in an assembly of exploding clusters. The laser intensity and the cluster size dependence of the dynamics and energetics of CE of (D(2))(n), (HT)(n), (CD(4))(n), (DI)(n), (CD(3)I)(n), and (CH(3)I)(n) clusters were explored by electrostatic models and molecular dynamics simulations, quantifying energetic driving effects, and kinematic run-over effects. The optimization of table-top dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of deuterium containing heteroclusters is realized for light-heavy heteroclusters of the largest size, which allows for the prevalence of cluster vertical ionization at the highest intensity of the laser field. We demonstrate a 7-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the yield of dd nuclear fusion driven by CE of light-heavy heteroclusters as compared with (D(2))(n) clusters of the same size. Prospective applications for the attainment of table-top nucleosynthesis reactions, e.g., (12)C(P,gamma)(13)N driven by CE of (CH(3)I)(n) clusters, were explored.

  20. From SRAFAP to SISAK - rapid chemical separations in nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, G.

    1988-10-01

    The author gives an overview of rapid radiochemical separations, starting from the early experiments done by Rutherford up to the very sophisticated recoil fragment separations by fast on-line methods as an attempt to produce superheavy elements. Main emphasis is given to developments during the last decades and the extensive work performed by collaborators of the Nuclear Chemistry Institute at the University of Mainz. (RB)

  1. 2011 Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Survivability Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    Army – Europe (USAREUR) and Seventh Army as a Unit Commander responsible for Nuclear Surety on a NATO Nike Hercules AD Missile Site. In 1985, BG...International Corporation, Inc . (SAIC), McLean , Virginia Supported in the Pentagon (2004-2006) the Office of the DASD(NM), providing Staff and technical...Entry AIE II  Automated Installation Entry Increment 2 AVA  Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed BAIS  Battlefield Anti-Intrusion System Bioscavenger Inc

  2. Will nuclear blasts reverberate in the CPI chemical process industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopey, N P

    1968-03-11

    Fully contained nuclear explosions result in a rubble- filled chimney having fractures up to 4 times the radius of the cavity itself. For natural gas stimulation, Project Gasbuggy boosters hope the explosion-produced network of fractures will provide a more-effective drainage of the gas reservoir. An expanded well bore should allow higher sustained rates of production, and the void space should afford an effective storage area for a high delivery rate over a short period of time. Nuclear stimulation should pay for itself best in deep, thick, low-permeability gas fields such as those located in the Rocky Mt. region. Copper producers foresee the use of nuclear blasts to create a chimney of broken low-grade ore that would be economically unworkable by ordinary means. For shale oil production, the blast would form a chimney of shale chunks that would likewise be treated in situ, by a new technique in which the material would be distilled or decomposed by heat. All these possibilites are still at preliminary exploratory stages, and much more work is needed to see if they are practical.

  3. Chemical, physical and isotopic characterization of U3Si2, for nuclear forensics purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Daniele Scarpim

    2011-01-01

    In the early 1990's, the first illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials was observed mainly in Europe. A decade marked by numerous cases of seizures of these materials. As a result, these events have become the subject of criminal forensic investigations and develop from there, nuclear forensics. In Brazil there are no illicit trafficking official records of nuclear material, however, is widely known the extraction and illegal transportation of radioactive geological materials, and the materials pieces attachment used as shielding for radioactive sources. One of the main tools used in nuclear forensics is the nuclear materials databases establishment. These documents must contain the most information as possible about the physical, chemical and nuclear material seized, allowing the identification of their origin, manufacturing process or age. Thus, it sets characteristic composition standards of each material, called 'chemical signatures' (chemical finger print). In this work nuclear forensic protocol was adopted as well as the three stages of assessment suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in identifying the origin of uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ). Assays were performed in order to make physical, chemical and isotopic characterization of the studied materials and compared the data with those obtained for other uranium compounds (Uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 ; uranium oxide, UO 2 and U 3 O 8 ; Yellow cake) by establishing a characteristic signature for each one. Through the assays the uranium compounds were classify by origin groups, as far as they are from different manufactured process and/ or origin. It was also possible to show the importance of a nuclear forensic database during an investigation of a nuclear forensic event. (author)

  4. Investigations on the optimum design of chemical addition system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Byong Hoon [Junior College of Inchon, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chang Kyu; Choi, Han Rim; Kim, Eun Kee; Ro, Tae Sun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Mixing characteristics of the chemical additives in the chemical injection tank of the chemical and volume control system(CVCS) were investigated for the Yonggwang Nuclear units 5 and 6. Numerical calculations were performed with a low-Reynolds number turbulence model. Studies were also conducted for the injection tank with a disk located at 1/4H, 2/4H, and 3/4H from the inlet in order to see the effect in the enhancement of chemical mixing. Results show that the optimum arrangement is to locate a disk close to the inlet. 10 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  5. Investigations on the optimum design of chemical addition system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Byong Hoon [Junior College of Inchon, Inchon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Chang Kyu; Choi, Han Rim; Kim, Eun Kee; Ro, Tae Sun [Korea Power Engineering Company, Inc. Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Mixing characteristics of the chemical additives in the chemical injection tank of the chemical and volume control system(CVCS) were investigated for the Yonggwang Nuclear units 5 and 6. Numerical calculations were performed with a low-Reynolds number turbulence model. Studies were also conducted for the injection tank with a disk located at 1/4H, 2/4H, and 3/4H from the inlet in order to see the effect in the enhancement of chemical mixing. Results show that the optimum arrangement is to locate a disk close to the inlet. 10 refs., 4 figs. (Author)

  6. The application of nuclear energy to the Canadian chemical process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, R.F.S.

    1976-03-01

    A study has been made to determine what role nuclear energy, either electrical or thermal, could play in the Canadian chemical process industry. The study was restricted to current-scale CANDU type power reactors. It is concluded that the scale of operation of the chemical industry is rarely large enough to use blocks of electrical power (e) of 500 MW or thermal power (t) of 1500 MW. Thus, with a few predictable exceptions, the role of nuclear energy in the Canadian chemical industry will be as a general thermal/electrical utility supplier, serving a variety of customers in a particular geographic area. This picture would change if nuclear steam generators of 20 to 50 MW(t) become available and are economically competitive. (author)

  7. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  8. Nuclear hyperfine interactions and chemical bonding in high TC superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danon, J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear quadrupole resonances of Cu 63 and Fe 57 Moessbauer spectroscopy of the high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-γ e described together with synchrotron radiation studies of the copper oxidation states in this material. The Moessbauer spectra of 57 Fe in the two distinct crystallographic sites of the Cu atoms in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-γ are very similar from the quadrupole coupling point of view although exhibiting markedly different values for the isomer shift. The role of oxygen vacancies in the hyperfine interactions is discussed. (author) [pt

  9. High-risk facilities. Emergency management in nuclear, chemical and hazardous waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The book on emergency management in high-risk facilities covers the following topics: Change in the nuclear policy, risk management of high-risk facilities as a constitutional problem - emergency management in nuclear facilities, operational mechanisms of risk control in nuclear facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for nuclear facilities, operational mechanism of the risk control in chemical plants, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for chemical facilities, operational mechanisms of the risk control in hazardous waste facilities, regulatory surveillance responsibilities for hazardous waste facilities, civil law consequences in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, criminal prosecution in case of accidents in high-risk facilities, safety margins as site risk for emission protection facilities, national emergency management - strategic emergency management structures, warning and self-protection of the public in case of CBRN hazards including aspects of the psych-social emergency management.

  10. Production of radionuclides and preparation of labelled compounds. Nuclear chemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A general review is presented of methods of producing radionuclide preparations and labelled compounds, such as their production from natural raw materials, from a nuclear reactor, a particle accelerator, and using radioisotope generators. Also described are the fundamental kinetic relations of nuclear reactions. Basic methods are surveyed of obtaining labelled compounds by chemical synthesis, biosynthesis, exchange reactions, recoil reactions, by the Wilzbach method and the Szillard-Chalmers reaction. (L.K.)

  11. Allocation of fossil and nuclear fuels. Heat production from chemically and physically bound energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, U.

    2008-01-01

    The first part of the book presents the broad field of allocation, transformation, transport and distribution of the most important energy carriers in the modern power industry. The following chapters cover solid fossil fuel, liquid fuel, gaseous fuel and nuclear fuel. The final chapters concern the heat production from chemically and physically bound energy, including elementary analysis, combustion calculations, energy balance considerations in fossil fuel fired systems, and fundamentals of nuclear physics

  12. Probabilistic risk criteria and their application to nuclear chemical plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, T.; Barnes, D.S.; Brown, M.L.; Taig, A.R.; Johnston, B.D.; Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A nuclear chemical plant safety strategy is presented. The use of risk criteria in design is demonstrated by reference to a particular area of the plant. This involves the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques. Computer programs developed by the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at its Safety and Reliability Directorate (SRD) are used toe valuate and analyze the resultant fault trees. the magnitude of releases are estimated and individual and societal risks determined. The paper concludes that the application of PRA to a nuclear chemical plant can be structured in such a way as to allow a designer to work to quantitative risk targets

  13. Qualification test of chemical cleaning for secondary side of steam generator in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mengqin; Zhang Shufeng; Yu Jinghua; Hou Shufeng

    1997-07-01

    The chemical cleaning technique for removing sludge on the secondary side in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant has been qualified. The chemical cleaning process will carry out during shutdown refuelling. The qualification test has studied the effect of chemical cleaning agent component, cleaning time on dissolution effectiveness of sludge (Fe 3 O 4 ) and to evaluate corrosion situation of main materials of SG in the cleaning process. The main component of cleaning agent is EDTA. The cleaning temperature is 20∼30 degree C. It is determined that allowable remains amount of cleaning agent (EDTA). The technique of cleaning, rinse, passivation for the chemical cleaning in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant has been made. The qualification test shown that the technique can dissolve Fe 3 O 4 >1 g/L, the corrosion of materials is in allowable value, the allowable remains of EDTA is <0.01%. The technique character is static, ambient temperature. (9 refs., 12 tabs.)

  14. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-01-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  15. Chemical effects of nuclear transformations in metal permanganates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Hun; Kim, Bong Whan

    1986-01-01

    The chemical effects resulting from the capture of the thermal neutrons by manganese in different crystalline permanganates, that is, potassium permanganate,sodium permanganate, silver permanganate, barium permanganate and ammonium permanganate, have been investigated. The distribution of radioactive manganese formed has been determined by using different absorbents and ion-exchangers, that is,manganese dioxide, alumina, Zeolite A-3, Kaolinite and Dowex-50. The distribution of radioactive manganese in various adsorbents and ion-exchangers has almost similar result for each permanganate. The affinity for radioactive manganous ion is greatest for Dewex-50. A significant increase of retention is shown through the thermal annealing and the retention depends on the first ionization potential of metal ion in permanganates. (Author)

  16. Chemical and nuclear properties of Rutherfordium (Element 104)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacher, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical-properties of rutherfordium (Rf) and its group 4 homologs were studied by sorption on glass support surfaces coated with cobalt(II)ferrocyanide and by solvent extraction with tributylphosphate (TBP) and triisooctylamine (TIOA). The surface studies showed that the hydrolysis trend in the group 4 elements and the pseudogroup 4 element, lb, decreases in the order Rf>Zr∼Hf>Th. This trend was attributed to relativistic effects which predicted that Rf would be more prone to having a coordination number of 6 than 8 in most aqueous solutions due to a destabilization of the 6d 5/2 shell and a stabilization of the 7p l/2 shell. This hydrolysis trend was confirmed in the TBP/HBr solvent extraction studies which showed that the extraction trend decreased in the order Zr>Hf>Rf?Ti for HBr, showing that Rf and Ti did not extract as well because they hydrolyzed more easily than Zr and Hf. The TIOA/HF solvent extraction studies showed that the extraction trend for the group 4 elements decreased in the order Ti>Zr∼Hf>Rf, in inverse order from the trend of ionic radii Rf>Zr∼Hf>Ti. An attempt was made to produce 263 Rf (a) via the 248 Cm( 22 Ne, α3n) reaction employing thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) solvent extraction chemistry and (b) via the 249 Bk( 18 O,4n) reaction employing the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus (ARCA). In the TTA studies, 16 fissions were observed but were all attributed to 256 Fm. No alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. A 0.2 nb upper limit production cross section for the 248 Cm( 22 Ne, α3n) 263 Rf reaction was calculated assuming the 500-sec half-life reported previously by Czerwinski et al. [CZE92A

  17. The American Chemical Society's Division of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology's summer schools in nuclear and radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This successful educational program in nuclear and radiochemistry for advanced undergraduate students is described. Funding from the U.S. Department of Energy supports 24 fellowships for participants in the intensive six-week programs at San Jose State University (CA) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (NY). Students are provided transportation to and from the school site, room and board, books, lab supplies, and six units of college credit. The instructional program consists of lectures and laboratory exercises that cover the fundamentals of nuclear theory, radiochemistry, nuclear instrumentation, radiological safety, and applications in research, medicine, and industry. Guest lectures and field trips broaden the students' exposure to nuclear science. Assistance is provided in the following year to those students who wish to join a research project at a university or national laboratory, and thereafter, in their applications to graduate or professional school. (author)

  18. Chemical and nuclear properties of Rutherfordium (Element 104)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacher, Christian D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-10-30

    The chemical-properties of rutherfordium (Rf) and its group 4 homologs were studied by sorption on glass support surfaces coated with cobalt(II)ferrocyanide and by solvent extraction with tributylphosphate (TBP) and triisooctylamine (TIOA). The surface studies showed that the hydrolysis trend in the group 4 elements and the pseudogroup 4 element, lb, decreases in the order Rf>Zr≈Hf>Th. This trend was attributed to relativistic effects which predicted that Rf would be more prone to having a coordination number of 6 than 8 in most aqueous solutions due to a destabilization of the 6d5/2 shell and a stabilization of the 7pI/2 shell. This hydrolysis trend was confirmed in the TBP/HBr solvent extraction studies which showed that the extraction trend decreased in the order Zr>Hf>Rf?Ti for HBr, showing that Rf and Ti did not extract as well because they hydrolyzed more easily than Zr and Hf. The TIOA/HF solvent extraction studies showed that the extraction trend for the group 4 elements decreased in the order Ti>Zr≈Hf>Rf, in inverse order from the trend of ionic radii Rf>Zr≈Hf>Ti. An attempt was made to produce 263Rf (a) via the 248Cm(22Ne, α3n) reaction employing thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) solvent extraction chemistry and (b) via the 249Bk(18O,4n) reaction employing the Automated Rapid Chemistry Apparatus (ARCA). In the TTA studies, 16 fissions were observed but were all attributed to 256Fm. No alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. A 0.2 nb upper limit production cross section for the 248Cm(22Ne, α3n)263Rf reaction was calculated assuming the 500-sec half-life reported previously by Czerwinski et al. [CZE92A].

  19. Weapons of mass destruction: Overview of the CBRNEs (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prockop, Leon D

    2006-11-01

    The events of September 11, 2001, made citizens of the world acutely aware of disasters consequent to present-day terrorism. This is a war being waged for reasons obscure to many of its potential victims. The term "NBCs" was coined in reference to terrorist weapons of mass destruction, i.e., nuclear, biological and chemical. The currently accepted acronym is "CBRNE" which includes Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive weapons. Non-nuclear explosives are the most common terrorist weapon now in use. Nuclear and radiological weapons are beyond the scope of this publication, which focuses on the "CBEs", i.e. chemical, biological and explosive weapons. Although neurologists will not be the first responders to CBEs, they must know about the neurological effects in order to provide diagnosis and treatment to survivors. Neurological complications of chemical, biological and explosive weapons which have or may be used by terrorists are reviewed by international experts in this publication. Management and treatment profiles are outlined.

  20. Overview of chemical modeling of nuclear waste glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1991-02-01

    Glass dissolution takes place through metal leaching and hydration of the glass surface accompanied by development of alternation layers of varying crystallinity. The reaction which controls the long-term glass dissolution rate appears to be surface layer dissolution. This reaction is reversible because the buildup of dissolved species in solution slows the dissolution rate due to a decreased dissolution affinity. Glass dissolution rates are therefore highly dependent on silica concentrations in solution because silica is the major component of the alteration layer. Chemical modeling of glass dissolution using reaction path computer codes has successfully been applied to short term experimental tests and used to predict long-term repository performance. Current problems and limitations of the models include a poorly defined long-term glass dissolution mechanism, the use of model parameters determined from the same experiments that the model is used to predict, and the lack of sufficient validation of key assumptions in the modeling approach. Work is in progress that addresses these issues. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Efficiency factor of a chemical nuclear reactor with gamma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguis T, C.

    1975-01-01

    A chemonuclear reactor is simulated in order to calculate the efficiency factor of molecular species in chemical reactions induced by gamma radiation, with the purpose to obtain information for its design and consider the electromagnetic energy as a possible solution to the present problem of energy. The research is based on a mathematical model of succesive Compton processes applied to spherical and cylindrical geometry and corroborated through the absorbed dose and the experimental date of the increase factor, for the radioisotopic sources Co-60 and Cs-137 relating the quantity of energy deposited into various cylinders with the G value, the relation radius/height of the reactor is optimized according to the molecular production. This is illustrated with the radiolysis of a solution of CH 3 OH/H 2 O which forms H 2 and with the obtainment of C 2 H 5 Br that represents and industrial process induced radioactively. The results show a greater energy deposition with Cs-137 but a larger production of H 2 /hr with Co-60, and besides we can find high production values of C 2 H 5 Br. The cylinder with more advantages is that whose relation R/H is of 0.5. It can be concluded that the final selection of the reactor should be made after a more intense study of the used isotope and the source activity. The efficiency factor of H 2 can be increased selecting the appropriate type and concentration of solute of the irradiated aqueous solutions

  2. Identification of the chemical inventory of different paint types applied in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabrina Tietze; Foreman, M.R.St.J.; Ekberg, CH.H.; Chalmers University of Technology, Chemical and Biological Engineering, Goeteborg; Dongen van, B.E.

    2013-01-01

    The floors, concrete walls and many of the metal surfaces in nuclear power plant containments are coated with zinc primers or paint films to preserve the metal surfaces and simplify decontamination in the containment after the occurrence of a severe nuclear incident or accident. A chemical examination of paint films from different nuclear installations out of operation, as well as current operating ones, reveals that different types of paints are used whose composition can vary significantly. Results obtained for one type of paint at a certain nuclear site are in most cases unlikely to be comparable with sites painted with another type of paint. During normal operation and particularly during nuclear accidents, the paints will degrade under the high temperature, steam and irradiation influence. As paint and its degradation products can act as sources and depots for volatile iodine compounds, the type and aging conditions of the paint films will have a significant impact on the source term of the volatile fission product iodine. Thus, great care should be taken when extrapolating any results obtained for the interaction of radioactive iodine with one paint product to a different paint product. The main focus of the study is a comparison of the chemical profile of paint films applied in Swedish nuclear power plants. Teknopox Aqua V A, an epoxy paint recently used at Ringhals 2, and an emulsion paint used in the scrubber buildings of Ringhals 1-4 are compared with a paint film from Barsebaeck nuclear power plant unit 1 that had been aged under real reactor conditions for 20 years. In addition, two paint films, an emulsion and a gloss paint, used in an international nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, are compared with the paints from the Swedish nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Chemically vapor deposited coatings for multibarrier containment of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusin, J.M.; Shade, J.W.; Kidd, R.W.; Browning, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was selected as a feasible method to coat ceramic cores, since the technology has previously been demonstrated for high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) fuel particles. CVD coatings, including SiC, PyC (pyrolytic carbon), SiO 2 , and Al 2 O 3 were studied. This paper will discuss the development and characterization of PyC and Al 2 O 3 CVD coatings on supercalcine cores. Coatings were applied to 2 mm particles in either fluidized or vibrating beds. The PyC coating was deposited in a fluidized bed with ZrO 2 diluent from C 2 H 2 at temperatures between 1100 and 1200 0 C. The Al 2 O 3 coatings were deposited in a vibrated bed by a two-stage process to minimize loss of PyC during the overcoating operation. This process involved applying 10 μm of Al 2 O 3 using water vapor hydrolysis of AlCl 3 and then switching to the more surface-controlled hydrolysis via the H 2 + CO 2 reaction (3CO 2 + 3H 2 + 2AlCl 3 = Al 2 O 3 + 6HCl + 3CO). Typically, 50 to 80 μm Al 2 O 3 coatings were applied over 30 to 40 μm PyC coatings. The coatings were evaluated by metallographic examination, PyC oxidation tests, and leach resistance. After air oxidation for 100 hours at 750 0 C, the duplex PyC/Al 2 O 3 coated particles exhibited a weight loss of 0.01 percent. Leach resistance is being determined for temperatures from 50 to 150 0 C in various solutions. Typical results are given for selected ions. The leach resistance of supercalcine cores is significantly improved by the application of PyC and/or Al 2 O 3 coatings

  4. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anguis T, C.

    1975-01-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  5. Recent studies of nuclear and chemical properties of elements 103, 104 and 105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-08-01

    Information obtained since 1983 on the nuclear and chemical properties of element 103, the last on the actinide series, and elements 104 and 105, at the beginning of the transactinide series, is reviewed. Their chemical properties are compared with their lanthanide and lighter group 4 and 5 homologs and evidence for possible relativistic effects is discussed. The current knowledge of the nuclear properties of these elements and how these affect of the study of chemical properties is discussed. Some of the challenges involved in the study of short-lived isotopes which can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' at an appropriate accelerator and the prognosis for future studies of these and still heavier elements are considered. 40 refs., 4 figs

  6. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  7. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Determination of Uranium 7 Specific Gravity by Pycnometry 15-20 Free Acid by Oxalate Complexation 21-27 Determination of Thorium 28 Determination of Chromium 29 Determination of Molybdenum 30 Halogens Separation by Steam Distillation 31-35 Fluoride by Specific Ion Electrode 36-42 Halogen Distillate Analysis: Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 43 Determination of Chloride and Bromide 44 Determination of Sulfur by X-Ray Fluorescence 45 Sulfate Sulfur by (Photometric) Turbidimetry 46 Phosphorus by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 54-61 Silicon by the Molybdenum Blue (Photometric) Method 62-69 Carbon by Persulfate Oxidation-Acid Titrimetry 70 Conversion to U3O8 71-74 Boron by ...

  8. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium nitrate solutions to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Free Acid by Titration in an Oxalate Solution 8 to 15 Free Acid by Iodate Precipitation-Potentiometric Titration Test Method 16 to 22 Uranium by Arsenazo I Spectrophotometric Test Method 23 to 33 Thorium by Thorin Spectrophotometric Test Method 34 to 42 Iron by 1,10-Phenanthroline Spectrophotometric Test Method 43 to 50 Impurities by ICP-AES Chloride by Thiocyanate Spectrophotometric Test Method 51 to 58 Fluoride by Distillation-Spectrophotometric Test Method 59 to 66 Sulfate by Barium Sulfate Turbidimetric Test Method 67 to 74 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrom...

  9. Chemical modeling of irreversible reactions in nuclear waste-water-rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolery, T.J.

    1981-02-01

    Chemical models of aqueous geochemical systems are usually built on the concept of thermodynamic equilibrium. Though many elementary reactions in a geochemical system may be close to equilibrium, others may not be. Chemical models of aqueous fluids should take into account that many aqueous redox reactions are among the latter. The behavior of redox reactions may critically affect migration of certain radionuclides, especially the actinides. In addition, the progress of reaction in geochemical systems requires thermodynamic driving forces associated with elementary reactions not at equilibrium, which are termed irreversible reactions. Both static chemical models of fluids and dynamic models of reacting systems have been applied to a wide spectrum of problems in water-rock interactions. Potential applications in nuclear waste disposal range from problems in geochemical aspects of site evaluation to those of waste-water-rock interactions. However, much further work in the laboratory and the field will be required to develop and verify such applications of chemical modeling

  10. Rapid, portable detection of endocrine disrupting chemicals through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J Porter; Schinn, Song-Min; Jones, Matthew D; Bundy, Bradley C

    2017-12-04

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are structurally diverse compounds that can interact with nuclear hormone receptors, posing significant risk to human and ecological health. Unfortunately, many conventional biosensors have been too structure-specific, labor-intensive or laboratory-oriented to detect broad ranges of EDC effectively. Recently, several technological advances are providing more rapid, portable, and affordable detection of endocrine-disrupting activity through ligand-nuclear hormone receptor interactions. Here, we overview these recent advances applied to EDC biosensors - including cell lyophilization, cell immobilization, cell-free systems, smartphone-based signal detection, and improved competitive binding assays.

  11. Composition models for the viscosity and chemical durability of West Valley related nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Saad, E.E.; Freeborn, W.P.; Macedo, P.B.; Pegg, I.L.; Sassoon, R.E.; Barkatt, A.; Finger, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    There are two important criteria that must be satisfied by a nuclear waste glass durability and processability. The chemical composition of the glass must be such that it does not dissolve or erode appreciably faster than the decay of the radioactive materials embedded in it. The second criterion, processability, means that the glass must melt with ease, must be easily pourable, and must not crystallize appreciably. This paper summarizes the development of simple models for predicting the durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses from their composition

  12. Terrorist threat, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear medical approach; Menace terroriste, approche medicale nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, Th. de [Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, 92 - Clamart (France); Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), 92 - Clamart (France); Vidal, D. [Centre de Recherche du Service de Sante des Armees, 38 - La Tronche (France); Renaudeau, C. [Ecole du Val de Grace, 92 - Clamart (France)

    2005-07-01

    The different aspects linked to the use of nuclear, radiological, biological and or chemical weapons are gathered in this work. They concern history, fundamental aspect, diagnosis, therapy and prevention. The part devoted to the nuclear aspect concern the accidents in relation with ionizing radiations, the radiation syndrome, the contribution and limits of dosimetry, the treatment of medullary aplasia, the evaluation and treatment of an internal contamination, new perspectives on the use of cytokine for the treatment of accidental irradiated persons, alternative to the blood transfusion. (N.C.)

  13. Chemical Reactivity Testing for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. Quality Assurance Project Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsom, H.C.

    1999-01-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) summarizes requirements used by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Incorporated (LMES) Development Division at Y-12 for conducting chemical reactivity testing of Department of Energy (DOE) owned spent nuclear fuel, sponsored by the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). The requirements are based on the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 (Statement of Work for Laboratory Determination of Uranium Hydride Oxidation Reaction Kinetics.) This QAPjP will utilize the quality assurance program at Y-12, QA-101PD, revision 1, and existing implementing procedures for the most part in meeting the NSNFP Statement of Work PRO-007 requirements, exceptions will be noted

  14. EDF's approach to determine specifications for nuclear power plant bulk chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, Alix; Dijoux, Michel; Le-Calvar, Marc; Gressier, Frederic; Mole, Didier

    2012-09-01

    Chemical impurities in the primary, secondary and auxiliary nuclear power plants circuits generate risks of corrosion of the fuel cladding, steel and nickel based alloys. The PMUC (Products and Materials Used in plants) organization established by EDF intends to limit this risk by specifying maximum levels of impurities in products and materials used for the operation and maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Bulk chemicals specifications, applied on primary and secondary circuit chemicals and hydrogen and nitrogen gases, are particularly important to prevent chemical species to be involved in the corrosion of the NPPs materials. The application of EDF specifications should lead to reasonably exclude any risk of degradation of the first and second containment barriers and auxiliary circuits Important to Safety (IPS) by limiting the concentrations of chlorides, fluorides, sulfates... The risk of metal embrittlement by elements with low melting point (mercury, lead...) is also included. For the primary circuit, the specifications intend to exclude the risk of activation of impurities introduced by the bulk chemicals. For the first containment barrier, to reduce the risk of deposits like zeolites, PMUC products specifications set limit values for calcium, magnesium, aluminum and silica. EDF's approach for establishing specifications for bulk chemicals is taking also into account the capacity of industrial production, as well as costs, limitations of analytical control methods (detection limits) and environmental releases issues. This paper aims to explain EDF's approach relative to specifications of impurities in bulk chemicals. Also presented are the various parameters taken into account to determine the maximum pollution levels in the chemicals, the theoretical hypothesis to set the specifications and the calculation method used to verify that the specifications are suitable. (authors)

  15. Analysis of chemical factors affecting marine ecosystem around nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Kwan Sik; Choi, Yoon Dong; Chun, Ki Jeong; Kim, Jin Kyu; Jung, Kyeong Chai; Lee, Yeong Keun; Park, Hyo Kook

    1994-06-01

    The ecological data of the coastal area of Youngkwang nuclear power plant from 1987 to 1993 were comprehensively analyzed, and various physical and chemical properties of sea water and sediments were measured. Major factors affecting phytoplankton standing crops were suspended substances, nitrate, and silicate. The contents of iron, chromium, copper, and sulfur in sediments sampled from the discharge channel were slightly higher than those in the other areas. In order to qantify the chemical impacts on marine ecosystem, it is desirable that a systematic survey be made through the whole year cycle to assure the consistency and confidence of the related data. (Author)

  16. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R.

    1959-01-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [fr

  17. Chemical cleaning the service water system at a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brice, T.O.; Glover, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical cleaning a large cooling water system in a nuclear power plant presented many unique problems. The selection, qualification, and performance of the cleaning process were done using a phased approach. The piping was inspected to determine the extent of the problem. Deposit samples were removed from the service water system pipe and tested in the laboratory to determine the most effective cleaning solvent for deposit removal. An engineering study was performed to define the design parameters required to implement the system-wide chemical cleaning

  18. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  19. NUMATH: a nuclear-material-holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program, NUMATH (Nuclear Material Holdup Estimator), has been developed to permit inventory estimation in vessels involved in unit operations and chemical processes. This program has been implemented in an operating nuclear fuel processing plant. NUMATH's purpose is to provide steady-state composition estimates for material residing in process vessels until representative samples can be obtained and chemical analyses can be performed. Since these compositions are used for inventory estimation, the results are determined for and cataloged in container-oriented files. The estimated compositions represent material collected in applicable vessels-including consideration for material previously acknowledged in these vessels. The program utilizes process measurements and simple material balance models to estimate material holdups and distribution within unit operations. During simulated run testing, NUMATH-estimated inventories typically produced material balances within 7% of the associated measured material balances for uranium and within 16% of the associated, measured material balance for thorium during steady-state process operation

  20. Diffusion, Thermal Properties and Chemical Compatibilities of Select MAX Phases with Materials For Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsoum, Michel [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bentzel, Grady [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tallman, Darin J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sindelar, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Garcia-Diaz, Brenda [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hoffman, Elizabeth [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-04

    The demands of Gen IV nuclear power plants for long service life under neutron irradiation at high temperature are severe. Advanced materials that would withstand high temperatures (up to 1000+ ºC) to high doses in a neutron field would be ideal for reactor internal structures and would add to the long service life and reliability of the reactors. The objective of this work is to investigate the chemical compatibility of select MAX with potential materials that are important for nuclear energy, as well as to measure the thermal transport properties as a function of neutron irradiation. The chemical counterparts chosen for this work are: pyrolytic carbon, SiC, U, Pd, FLiBe, Pb-Bi and Na, the latter 3 in the molten state. The thermal conductivities and heat capacities of non-irradiated MAX phases will be measured.

  1. Regulation of chemical safety at fuel cycle facilities by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    When the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was established in 1975, its regulations were based on radiation dose limits. Chemical hazards rarely influenced NRC regulations. After the Three Mile Island reactor accident in 1979, the NRC staff was directed to address emergency planning at non-reactor facilities. Several fuel cycle facilities were ordered to submit emergency plans consistent with reactor emergency plans because no other guidance was available. NRC published a notice that it was writing regulations to codify the requirements in the Orders and upgrade the emergency plans to address all hazards, including chemical hazards. The legal authority of NRC to regulate chemical safety was questioned. In 1986, an overfilled uranium hexafluoride cylinder ruptured and killed a worker. The NRC staff was directed to address emergency planning for hazardous chemicals in its regulations. The final rule included a requirement for fuel cycle facilities to certify compliance with legislation requiring local authorities to establish emergency plans for hazardous chemicals. As with emergency planning, NRC's authority to regulate chemical safety during routine operations was limited. NRC established memoranda of understanding (MOUs) with other regulatory agencies to encourage exchange of information between the agencies regarding occupational hazards. In 2000, NRC published new, performance-based, regulations for fuel cycle facilities. The new regulations required an integrated safety analysis (ISA) which used quantitative standards to assess chemical exposures. Some unique chemical exposure cases were addressed while implementing the new regulations. In addition, some gaps remain in the regulation of hazardous chemicals at fuel cycle facilities. The status of ongoing efforts to improve regulation of chemical safety at fuel cycle facilities is discussed. (authors)

  2. Study of kinetics and mechanism of diazo compound reactions using nuclear chemical polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gragerov, I.P.; Levit, A.F.; Kiprianova, L.A.; Buchachenko, A.L.; Sterleva, T.G.

    1975-01-01

    It has been established that at the rate-determining steps of the radical reactions in which aniline interacts with isoamyl nitrite and substituted diazo salts interact with sodium methylate, tertiary fatty amines, or phosphinic acid, no transfer of a single electron occurs. The processes of single electron transfer do not seem to play a decisive role in the kinetics of most transformations of diazo compounds. Chemical nuclear polarization is shown to be suitable for kinetic studies of fast radical processes

  3. Combining chemical and electric-nuclear propulsion for high speed flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, S.N.B.; Froning, H.D.

    1991-01-01

    In the development of propulsion for the high speed (greater than Mach 8) regime of a SSTO vehicle, an alternative to a combination of scramjets and conventional chemical rockets is a nuclear system such as the dense plasma fusion engine operated with aneutronic fuels. Several variants are then possible in the manner of energizing the working fluid. An attempt has been made to compare the effectiveness of nuclear and scramjet engines with respect to weights and utilization of energy availability. It is shown that nuclear engines can be as effective as the optimized combustion engines, and will yield a considerable reduction in GTOW in earth-based missions, and have a special use in other planetary atmospheres in which combustion may be difficult but collection and processing of working fluid is feasible. 9 refs

  4. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    CERN Document Server

    Fassbender, M; Heaton, R C; Jamriska, D J; Kitten, J J; Nortier, F M; Peterson, E J; Phillips, D R; Pitt, L R; Salazar, L L; Valdez, F O; 10.1524/ract.92.4.237.35596

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides /sup 68/Ge, /sup 82/Sr, /sup 109/Cd and /sup 88/Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40MBq to 75 GBq.

  5. Some nuclear chemical aspects of medical generator nuclide production at the Los Alamos hot cell facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, M.; Nortier, F.M.; Phillips, D.R.; Hamilton, V.T.; Heaton, R.C.; Jamriska, D.J.; Kitten, J.J.; Pitt, L.R.; Salazar, L.L.; Valdez, F.O.; Peterson, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    Generator nuclides constitute a convenient tool for applications in nuclear medicine. In this paper, some radiochemical aspects of generator nuclide parents regularly processed at Los Alamos are introduced. The bulk production of the parent nuclides 68 Ge, 82 Sr, 109 Cd and 88 Zr using charged particle beams is discussed. Production nuclear reactions for these radioisotopes, and chemical separation procedures are presented. Experimental processing yields correspond to 80%-98% of the theoretical thick target yield. Reaction cross sections are modeled using the code ALICE-IPPE; it is observed that the model largely disagrees with experimental values for the nuclear processes treated. Radionuclide production batches are prepared 1-6 times yearly for sales. Batch activities range from 40 MBq to 75 GBq. (orig.)

  6. Preventive acid chemical cleaning operation (PACCO) on steam generator in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traino, Jules; Ruiz Martinez, Jose Thomas; Rottner, Bernard; Vedova, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Steam Generators (SG) usually present important deposit loading and Tube Support Blockage, resulting from Secondary Side corrosion products. These phenomena modify SG behavior which can lead to safety, heat exchange performance and lifetime problems. In this context, a Chemical Cleaning Process (PACCO) was designed to solve the issue. After almost two years of intensive lab tests, pilot simulation and mock-ups, the chemical process was finally qualified by EDF. The aim of the work was firstly the development in laboratory of a chemical process that could eliminate partially the deposit loading, respecting the integrity of materials and gas emission limits. Secondly, the objective was the design and the implementation of the process on-site. The process has been applied successfully in 3 SG in Dampierre nuclear power plant in France on July 2013. The main results were: - Corrosion < 100 μm. - 40% of the initial deposit loading, removed by SG. (authors)

  7. Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear decontamination: Recent trends and future perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN decontamination is the removal of CBRN material from equipment or humans. The objective of the decontamination is to reduce radiation burden, salvage equipment, and materials, remove loose CBRN contaminants, and fix the remaining in place in preparation for protective storage or permanent disposal work activities. Decontamination may be carried out using chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical means. Like materials, humans may also be contaminated with CBRN contamination. Changes in cellular function can occur at lower radiation doses and exposure to chemicals. At high dose, cell death may take place. Therefore, decontamination of humans at the time of emergency while generating bare minimum waste is an enormous task requiring dedication of large number of personnel and large amount of time. General principles of CBRN decontamination are discussed in this review with emphasis on radiodecontamination.

  8. Chemical Effects of Nuclear Transformations Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Chemical Effects Associated with Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The study of the chemical changes consequent upon the nuclear transformation of an atom that is linked with other atoms in a molecule and surrounded by other similar or dissimilar molecules has intrigued chemists for a number of years. This interest is certainly not static but if anything is increasing. The main theme of this meeting was a discussion of the suggestions and theories that have been advanced to explain the wealth of experimental observations on the behaviour of atoms at energies and in situations not normally accessible in the laboratory. Though the subject has some practical implications in the preparation of radioisotopes, this was not an important consideration at this Symposium. The first Symposium on hot-atom chemistry organized by the Agency was held in Prague in October 1960. Comparison of the past and the present state of the subject shows that a greater variety and sophistication of techniques are now being applied as the simpler approaches used in the past have been shown to be inadequate. Progress has been made in the understanding of the simpler gas system, but in liquids and solids there is still much to clarify. It is also of interest that for the majority of the work reported in these Proceedings a reactor was the radiation source, and in this field much experimental work still remains to be done. The Symposium on Chemical Effects Associated with Nuclear Reactions and Radioactive Transformations was held from 7 to 11 December 1964 in Vienna, and was attended by 136 participants from 29 countries and 4 international organizations. It was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency in co-operation with the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity. The publication of these Proceedings makes the content of the papers and discussion available to a wider audience than was possible at the meeting in Vienna

  9. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Janeen Denise [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  10. Acquired experience resulting from transforming a chemical installation into a nuclear one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirache, M.; Stefan, L.; Bornea, A.; Stefanescu, I. [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICIT, Uzinei (Romania)

    2015-03-15

    ICIT-Valcea has developed an experimental pilot-scale installation for tritium and deuterium separation. The main objective of this pilot was to demonstrate the water detritiation technology and to transfer this technology to the CANDU reactors of the Cernavoda nuclear power plant. The pilot-scale installation was initiated in 1992. The initial design and construction were performed similarly to chemical plants as the separation of isotopes was focused on only hydrogen and deuterium to assess feasibility. In a second phase we have begun to transform it into a nuclear facility with the aim of separating tritium. Moving to tritium separation has imposed a lot of changes. Changes consisted mainly of: -) re-design of the technological systems for nuclear material processing, applying specific codes and standards (ASME, Romanian nuclear specific pressure boundary prescriptions for code classification); -) design and implementation of new systems, classified as safety systems; -) re-design and implementation of command and control systems, complying with the requirements of reliability and maintenance required for the project promoted; -) revaluation of auxiliary systems (utilities, power supply); -) implementing radiation protection systems, including secondary barriers; -) implementing and maintaining environment operational program specific to the new nuclear plant; -) developing and conducting safety analyzes; and -) the production of specific documentation to obtain the necessary permits for construction, commissioning and operation of the plant.

  11. Chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The standard covers analytical procedures to determine compliance of nuclear-grade uranyl nitrate solution to specifications. The following methods are described in detail: uranium by ferrous sulfate reduction-potassium dichromate titrimetry and by ignition gravimetry; specific gravity by pycnometry; free acid by oxalate complexation; thorium by the Arsenazo(III) (photometric) method; chromium by the diphenylcarbazide (photometric) method; molybdenum by the thiocyanate (photometric) method; halogens separation by steam distillation; fluorine by specific ion electrode; halogen distillate analysis: chloride, bromide and iodide by amperometric microtitrimetry; bromine by the fluorescein (photometric) method; sulfate sulfur by (photometric) turbidimetry; phosphorus by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; silicon by the molybdenum blue (photometric) method; carbon by persulfate oxidation-acid titrimetry; nonvolatile impurities by spectrography; volatile impurities by rotating-disk spark spectrography; boron by emission spectrography; impurity elements by spark source mass spectrography; isotopic composition by multiple filament surface-ionization mass spectrometry; uranium-232 by alpha spectrometry; total alpha activity by direct alpha counting; fission product activity by beta and gamma counting; entrained organic matter by infrared spectrophotometry

  12. Chemical and nuclear properties of lawrencium (element 103) and hahnium (element 105)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The chemical and nuclear properties of Lr and Ha have been studied, using 3-minute 260 Lr and 35-second 262 Ha. The crystal ionic radius of Lr 3+ was determined by comparing its elution position from a cation-exchange resin column with those of lanthanide elements having known ionic radii. Comparisons are made to the ionic radii of the heavy actinides, Am 3+ through Es 3+ , obtained by x-ray diffraction methods, and to Md 3+ and Fm 3+ which were determined in the same manner as Lr 3+ . The hydration enthalpy of -3622 kJ/mol was calculated from the crystal ionic radius using an empirical form of the Born equation. Comparisons to the spacings between the ionic radii of the heaviest members of the lanthanide series show that the 2Z spacing between Lr 3+ and Md 3+ is anomalously small, as the ionic radius of Lr 3+ of 0.0886 nm is significantly smaller than had been expected. The chemical properties of Ha were determined relative to the lighter homologs in group 5, Nb and Ta. Group 4 and group 5 tracer activities, as well as Ha, were absorbed onto glass surfaces as a first step toward the determination of the chemical properties of Ha. Ha was found to adsorb on surfaces, a chemical property unique to the group 5 elements, and as such demonstrates that Ha has the chemical properties of a group 5 element. A solvent extraction procedure was adapted for use as a micro-scale chemical procedure to examine whether or not Ha displays eka-Ta-like chemical under conditions where Ta will be extracted into the organic phase and Nb will not. Under the conditions of this experiment Ha did not extract, and does not show eka-Ta-like chemical properties

  13. The Department of Energy/American Chemical Society Summer School in Nuclear and Radiochemistry at San Jose State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinard, W.F.; Silber, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    A Summer School in Nuclear Chemistry sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy and the American Chemical Society has been held at San Jose State University for the past 20 years. The intent of the program is to introduce outstanding college students to the field of nuclear and radiochemistry with the goal that some of these students will consider careers on nuclear science. The program features radiochemistry experiments along with radiation safety training, guest lectures by well known nuclear scientists and field trips to nuclear chemistry facilities in the San Francisco area. (author)

  14. The approach to risk analysis in three industries: nuclear power, space systems, and chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The aerospace, nuclear power, and chemical processing industries are providing much of the incentive for the development and application of advanced risk analysis techniques to engineered systems. Risk analysis must answer three basic questions: What can go wrong? How likely is it? and What are the consequences? The result of such analyses is not only a quantitative answer to the question of 'What is the risk', but, more importantly, a framework for intelligent and visible risk management. Because of the societal importance of the subject industries and the amount of risk analysis activity involved in each, it is interesting to look for commonalities, differences, and, hopefully, a basis for some standardization. Each industry has its strengths: the solid experience base of the chemical industry, the extensive qualification and testing procedures of the space industry, and the integrative and quantitative risk and reliability methodologies developed for the nuclear power industry. In particular, most advances in data handling, systems interaction modeling, and uncertainty analysis have come from the probabilistic risk assessment work in the nuclear safety field. In the final analysis, all three industries would greatly benefit from a more deliberate technology exchange program in the rapidly evolving discipline of quantitative risk analysis. (author)

  15. Investigation of the chemical effects of nuclear transformations by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy proved to be a very successful method for the investigation of the effect of nuclear transformations in solid matrixes. This method makes possible the observation of the atoms to be investigated without the dissolution of the sample i.e. without interfering with the eventual intermediates or their environment, ensuring thus ''in situ'' analysis. The method besides the informations concerning the chemical state of the derivative gives data concerning its immediate environment and its site in the crystal lattice. Products having a very short lifetime can be observed, too. Though the method is suitable only for the investigation of such nucleogenetic nuclei which are at the same time also Moessbauer atoms, the method has several times given fundamental information on the chemical and crystal-structural effects of transformations in solid compounds. Isotopes from nuclear reactions are in general pushed back at a high kinetical energy during their formation, and the method makes possible to deduce the consequences of this push-back effect and of radioactive decays and nuclear reactions. A separate chapter summarizes the recent statements concerning the consequences of the electron capture in solid cobalt compounds, the consequences of the isomer transition of Sn-119 in solid tin compounds etc. (P.J.)

  16. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between molten aluminum and nuclear dispersion fuels with water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahani, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the possibility of rapid physical and chemical molten fuel-water interactions during a core melt accident in noncommercial or experimental reactors, it is important to understand the interactions that might occur if these materials were to contact water. An existing vertical 1-D shock tube facility was improved and a gas sampling device to measure the gaseous hydrogen in the upper chamber of the shock tube was designed and built to study the impact of a water column driven downward by a pressurized gas onto both molten aluminum (6061 alloy) and oxide and silicide depleted nuclear dispersion fuels in aluminum matrices. The experiments were carried out with melt temperatures initially at 750 to 1,000 C and water at room temperature and driving pressures of 0.5 and 1 MPa. Very high transient pressures, in many cases even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure of the water (∼ 20 MPa), were generated due to the interactions between the water and the crucible and its contents. The molten aluminum always reacted chemically with the water but the reaction did not increase consistently with increasing melt temperature. An aluminum ignition occurred when water at room temperature impacted 28.48 grams of molten aluminum at 980.3 C causing transient pressures greater than 69 MPa. No signs of aluminum ignition were observed in any of the experiments with the depleted nuclear dispersion fuels, U 3 O 8 -Al and U 3 Si 2 -Al. The greater was the molten aluminum-water chemical reaction, the finer was the debris recovered for a given set of initial conditions. Larger coolant velocities (larger driving pressures) resulted in more melt fragmentation but did not result in more molten aluminum-water chemical reaction. Decreasing the water temperature also resulted in more melt fragmentation and did not suppress the molten aluminum-water chemical reaction

  17. Chemical mining of primary copper ores by use of nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, A E [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Chemical mining of primary copper ores, with nuclear explosives to break the ore and in-situ hydrostatic pressure to accelerate dissolution of primary ore minerals, may be feasible. A contained nuclear explosion well below the water table would be used to provide a mass of broken ore in a flooded 'chimney'. The hydrostatic pressure in the chimney should increase the solubility of oxygen in a water-sulfuric acid system enough to allow primary copper minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite to be dissolved in an acceptably short time. Circulation and collection would be accomplished through drill holes. This method should be especially applicable to the deep portions of porphyry copper deposits that are not economical to mine by present techniques. (author)

  18. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-01-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  19. Nuclear spin relaxation due to chemical shift anisotropy of gas-phase 129Xe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Vaara, Juha

    2011-08-14

    Nuclear spin relaxation provides detailed dynamical information on molecular systems and materials. Here, first-principles modeling of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) relaxation time for the prototypic monoatomic (129)Xe gas is carried out, both complementing and predicting the results of NMR measurements. Our approach is based on molecular dynamics simulations combined with pre-parametrized ab initio binary nuclear shielding tensors, an "NMR force field". By using the Redfield relaxation formalism, the simulated CSA time correlation functions lead to spectral density functions that, for the first time, quantitatively determine the experimental spin-lattice relaxation times T(1). The quality requirements on both the Xe-Xe interaction potential and binary shielding tensor are investigated in the context of CSA T(1). Persistent dimers Xe(2) are found to be responsible for the CSA relaxation mechanism in the low-density limit of the gas, completely in line with the earlier experimental findings.

  20. Proceedings of chemical engineering in nuclear technology - national seminar on recent advances in fuel cycle technologies: book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Kalpakkam Regional Centre of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers is embarking on conducting a series of national seminars on Chemical Engineering in Nuclear Technology 2014. For CHEMENT-2014 the theme was Seminar on recent advances in fuel cycle technologies. The topics covered included research and development, modeling and simulation and equipment development. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Application study of nuclear technologies for integration chemical, biological and radiological technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Kon; Han, M. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Yang, J. E.; Jung, K. S.; Cha, H. K.; Moon, J.; La, K. H

    2001-02-01

    The projects are suggested the method to maximize the technology and research results which are being carried out by KAERI on the nuclear field. The study presents 1)the technology to rapidly and accurately determine and the nature of contamination, 2) the technology to predict the spread of contaminant and the magnitude of damage, and 3) the expert-aided decision making technology to identify the optimum counter-measures. And the solutions are also suggested the application to military technology in Chemical, Biological and Radiation field. In addition, I hope this kind of cooperation model come to be the good case of military civilian research harmony to improve the national competition capability.

  2. Project research on nuclear physical and chemical characteristics of actinide nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamana, Hajimu; Nakagome, Yoshihiro; Shibata, Seiichi; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Uehara, Akihiro; Shirai, Osamu; Moriyama, Hirotake; Nagai, Takayuki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke; Shinohara, Atsushi; Kurata, Masaki; Myochin, Munetaka; Nakamura, Shoji; Matsuura, Haruaki

    2008-01-01

    The chemical and nuclear physical characteristics of actinide elements have been investigated using the experimental methods and instruments of this laboratory. This laboratory has a facility in which the transuranium elements (TRU) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) can be dealt with. The utility of this facility has been expected. The investigation on the actinide elements and its fission products have been carried out as a project research from both view points of science and technology. The research reports during three years (2005-07) are described here. (M.H.)

  3. Impacts on health and safety from transfer/consolidation of nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, R.H.V.

    1994-11-01

    Environmental restoration plans at the US Department of Energy (USDOE) Hanford Site calls for transfer/consolidation of ''targets/threats,'' namely nuclear materials and hazardous chemicals. Reductions in the health and safety hazards will depend on the plans implemented. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) estimated these potential impacts, assuming implementation of the current reference plan and employing ongoing risk and safety analyses. The results indicated the potential for ''significant'' reductions in health and safety hazards in the long term (> 25 years) and a potentially ''noteworthy'' reduction in health hazard in the short term (≤ 25 years)

  4. Sampling and chemical analysis in environmental samples around Nuclear Power Plants and some environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Woo; Han, Man Jung; Cho, Seong Won; Cho, Hong Jun; Oh, Hyeon Kyun; Lee, Jeong Min; Chang, Jae Sook [KORTIC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-15

    Twelve kinds of environmental samples such as soil, seawater, underground water, etc. around Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs) were collected. Tritium chemical analysis was tried for the samples of rain water, pine-needle, air, seawater, underground water, chinese cabbage, a grain of rice and milk sampled around NPPs, and surface seawater and rain water sampled over the country. Strontium in the soil that sere sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were sampled at 60 point of district in Korea were analyzed. Tritium were analyzed in 21 samples of surface seawater around the Korea peninsular that were supplied from KFRDI(National Fisheries Research and Development Institute). Sampling and chemical analysis environmental samples around Kori, Woolsung, Youngkwang, Wooljin Npps and Taeduk science town for tritium and strontium analysis was managed according to plans. Succeed to KINS after all samples were tried.

  5. Quantitative analysis of chemical elements in single cells using nuclear microprobe and nano-probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deves, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    The study of the role of trace elements at cellular level requires the use of state-of-the-art analytical tools that could achieve enough sensitivity and spatial resolution. We developed a new methodology for the accurate quantification of chemical element distribution in single cells based on a combination of ion beam analysis techniques STIM, PIXE and RBS. The quantification procedure relies on the development of a STIM data analysis software (Paparamborde). Validity of this methodology and limits are discussed here. The method allows the quantification of trace elements (μg/g) with a 19.8 % uncertainty in cellular compartments with mass below 0.1 ng. The main limit of the method lies in the poor number of samples that can be analyzed, due to long irradiation times required and limited access to ion beam analysis facilities. This is the reason why we developed a database for cellular chemical composition capitalization (BDC4). BDC4 has been designed in order to use cellular chemical composition as a tracer for biological activities and is expected to provide in the future reference chemical compositions for any cellular type or compartment. Application of the STIM-PIXE-RBS methodology to the study of nuclear toxicology of cobalt compounds is presented here showing that STIM analysis is absolutely needed when organic mass loss appears during PIXE-RBS irradiation. (author)

  6. Design of chemical treatment unit for radioactive liquid wastes in Serpong nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimin, Z.; Walman, E.; Santoso, P.; Purnomo, S.; Sugito; Suwardiyono; Wintono

    1996-01-01

    The chemical treatment unit for radioactive liquid wastes arising from nuclear fuel fabrication, radioisotopes production and radiometallurgy facility has been designed. The design of chemical processing unit is based on the characteristics of liquid wastes containing fluors from uranium fluoride conversion process to ammonium uranyl carbonate on the fuel fabrication. The chemical treatment has the following process steps: coagulation-precipitation of fluoride ion by calcium hydroxide coagulant, separation of supernatant solution from sludge, coagulation of remaining fluoride on the supernatant solution by alum, separation of supernatant from sludge, and than precipitation of fluors on the supernatant by polymer resin WWS 116. The processing unit is composed of 3 storage tanks for raw liquid wastes (capacity 1 m 3 per tank), 5 storage tanks for chemicals (capacity 0.5 m 3 per tank), 2 mixing reactors (capacity 0.5 m 3 per reactor), 1 storage tank for supernatant solution (capacity 1 m 3 ), and 1 storage tank for sludge (capacity 1 m 3 )

  7. Several perspectives on water-chemical cycles for nuclear power stations equipped with type VVER and RBMK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamet, A.P.; Mamet, V.A.; Pashevich, V.I.; Nazarenko, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    Water-chemical cycles for loops I and II of VVER reactors are discussed. These cycles are mixed ammonia-sodium with a variable concentration of boric acid and ammonia hydrazine with a pH factor of 9.1 +/- 0.1. New water-chemical cycles are considered for use in both existing and new nuclear power plants. Application of these new water-chemical cycles showed produce a significant improvement in operating conditions of nuclear power plants. Upon accumulation of sufficient operating experience with these cycles, it should be possible to raise the issue of revising applicable standard documentation

  8. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R. [Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Holliday, K. S. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-05-21

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  9. Chemical speciation of U, Fe, and Pu in melt glass from nuclear weapons testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacold, J. I.; Lukens, W. W.; Booth, C. H.; Shuh, D. K.; Knight, K. B.; Eppich, G. R.; Holliday, K. S.

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing generates large volumes of glassy materials that influence the transport of dispersed actinides in the environment and may carry information on the composition of the detonated device. We determine the oxidation state of U and Fe (which is known to buffer the oxidation state of actinide elements and to affect the redox state of groundwater) in samples of melt glass collected from three U.S. nuclear weapons tests. For selected samples, we also determine the coordination geometry of U and Fe, and we report the oxidation state of Pu from one melt glass sample. We find significant variations among the melt glass samples and, in particular, find a clear deviation in one sample from the expected buffering effect of Fe(II)/Fe(III) on the oxidation state of uranium. In the first direct measurement of Pu oxidation state in a nuclear test melt glass, we obtain a result consistent with existing literature that proposes Pu is primarily present as Pu(IV) in post-detonation material. In addition, our measurements imply that highly mobile U(VI) may be produced in significant quantities when melt glass is quenched rapidly following a nuclear detonation, though these products may remain immobile in the vitrified matrices. The observed differences in chemical state among the three samples show that redox conditions can vary dramatically across different nuclear test conditions. The local soil composition, associated device materials, and the rate of quenching are all likely to affect the final redox state of the glass. The resulting variations in glass chemistry are significant for understanding and interpreting debris chemistry and the later environmental mobility of dispersed material.

  10. Effect of nuclear radiation on the electrical properties of chemical double layer capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.R.; Hammoud, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nuclear radiation on the electrical properties of chemical double layer capacitors are determined. The capacitors were irradiated in a 2-MW nuclear reactor to different fluence levels. The exposure rate was 2.2 x 10 10 n/cm 2 · s of thermal neutrons, 9.52 x 10 8 n/cm 2 · s of fast neutrons (> 2 MeV), and 1.47 x 10 6 rad/h of gamma radiation. The properties measured during and after irradiation included the capacitance, equivalent series resistance, and open-circuit voltage. The post-irradiation effect on the leakage current was also determined. It was found that while the capacitance increased during irradiation, the equivalent series resistance and the open-circuit voltage decreased slightly during irradiation. Changes in these properties were not permanent s was evident from post-irradiation measurements. The leakage current did not show any significant change with radiation. The results indicate that chemical double layer capacitors can be suitably used as backup power source in electronic equipment operating in a radiation environment with total fluences up to 4.05 x 10 14 n/cm 2

  11. Scientific and technical conference. Problems and horizons of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics. Collection of summaries of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    During scientific and technical conference on problems of development of chemical and radiochemical control in nuclear energetics following themes were considered: the problems of methodological and instrumental assurance of chemical and radiochemical control at working nuclear power plants and nuclear energetic units; modern conceptions of automation systems construction of chemical and radiochemical control on the basis of intellectual measuring channels; the ways of decision of generally system problems of organization and management of chemical and radiochemical control using computed technologies; the problems of certification of chemical and radiochemical methods of measuring in nuclear energetics [ru

  12. Synergies across verification regimes: Nuclear safeguards and chemical weapons convention compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadner, Steven P.; Turpen, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    In the implementation of all arms control agreements, accurate verification is essential. In setting a course for verifying compliance with a given treaty - whether the NPT or the CWC, one must make a technical comparison of existing information-gathering capabilities against the constraints in an agreement. Then it must be decided whether this level of verifiability is good enough. Generally, the policy standard of 'effective verification' includes the ability to detect significant violations, with high confidence, in sufficient time to respond effectively with policy adjustments or other responses, as needed. It is at this juncture where verification approaches have traditionally diverged. Nuclear safeguards requirements have taken one path while chemical verification methods have pursued another. However, recent technological advances have brought a number of changes affecting verification, and lately their pace has been accelerating. First, all verification regimes have more and better information as a result of new kinds of sensors, imagery, and other technologies. Second, the verification provisions in agreements have also advanced, to include on-site inspections, portal monitoring, data exchanges, and a variety of transparency, confidence-building, and other cooperative measures, Together these developments translate into a technological overlap of certain institutional verification measures such as the NPT's safeguards requirements and the IAEA and the CWC's verification visions and the OPCW. Hence, a priority of international treaty-implementing organizations is exploring the development of a synergistic and coordinated approach to WMD policy making that takes into account existing inter-linkages between nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons issues. Specific areas of coordination include harmonizing information systems and information exchanges and the shared application of scientific mechanisms, as well as collaboration on technological developments

  13. Conditionally controlling nuclear trafficking in yeast by chemical-induced protein dimerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Johnson, Cole A; Gestwicki, Jason E; Kumar, Anuj

    2010-11-01

    We present here a protocol to conditionally control the nuclear trafficking of target proteins in yeast. In this system, rapamycin is used to heterodimerize two chimeric proteins. One chimera consists of a FK506-binding protein (FKBP12) fused to a cellular 'address' (nuclear localization signal or nuclear export sequence). The second chimera consists of a target protein fused to a fluorescent protein and the FKBP12-rapamycin-binding (FRB) domain from FKBP-12-rapamycin associated protein 1 (FRAP1, also known as mTor). Rapamycin induces dimerization of the FKBP12- and FRB-containing chimeras; these interactions selectively place the target protein under control of the cell address, thereby directing the protein into or out of the nucleus. By chemical-induced dimerization, protein mislocalization is reversible and enables the identification of conditional loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenotypes, in contrast to other systems that require permanent modification of the targeted protein. Yeast strains for this analysis can be constructed in 1 week, and the technique allows protein mislocalization within 15 min after drug treatment.

  14. Structure and behavior as determinants: United States nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    US efforts to control chemical and biological warfare and nuclear testing are examined with the aim of explaining the paucity of US backed agreements in these areas. Two theoretical perspectives, the behavioral and structural approaches, are used to explore US arms control outcomes. In the behavioral approach, the effects of governmental organization and the bargaining dynamics of policy-making elites with different cognitive styles are posited as important influences on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes. The behavioral perspective accounts for the timing of all US failed and successful entries (with one exception) into nuclear test bans and chemical and biological warfare restraints. A shortcoming of the behavior approach, however, is that it tends to overemphasize the chances for successful US entry into nuclear test and chemical and biological warfare limitations. Analysis of the same events from the structural perspective helps to correct for expectations generated by behavioral variables for a higher success rate than ultimately resulted. In the structural approach, the focus is on the effect of the organization of international politics on US nuclear test ban and chemical and biological arms control policy outcomes

  15. Can nuclear energy support civilized society in the 21st century? From a civilization based on chemical reactions to a civilization based on nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji-Ie, Yoichi

    2006-01-01

    The United Nations passed and adopted 'Principles of Sustainable Development' in 1992, as a resolution on the sustainable development of mankind. It advocates maintaining the ecological system to support the earth, while presenting the ethical issue of 'impartiality within a generation', the reduction of absolute poverty and also 'impartiality between generations', in particular 'not leaving a negative legacy to the next generation'. The issue of the appropriate handling of waste is by nature an issue of safety and resources, but is also an ethical issue. Nuclear power generation is more likely to conserve the environment, if the comparison between radioactive waste and carbon dioxide is considered. The creation of hydrogen by nuclear energy resembles the ecological relationship between the sun and the earth in that it consists of the conversion of nuclear energy into chemical energy. Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, particle acceleration and lasers can all be found in the universe. It will be possible to find a future for nuclear energy by learning from and imitating nature. If the future of nuclear energy is seen from the viewpoint of sustainability, it can be expected that energy resources will be secured and the environment will be conserved by a system of nuclear energy, which will hopefully grow into a comprehensive nuclear science and technology that supports the civilization at its roots. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of correlations in some chemical impurities and isotope ratios for nuclear forensic purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, M.; Mayer, K.; Nicholl, A.; Horta, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU) has worked in the area of nuclear forensic science since 1992 when the first seized sample was analysed. From the beginning the analytical tools for seized materials were adapted from safeguards measurements and from materials science. Especially in the view of the origin determination the spectrum of parameters to be taken into account had to be widened. In addition to the development of a comprehensive database on nuclear materials for power reactor fuels, experimental investigations were started to identify characteristic parameters. These systematic investigations comprised the development of methodologies for age determination of Pu and highly enriched uranium, surface roughness determination of UO 2 pellets and n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) measurements in uranium oxides. However, a more profound understanding on the nature of the characteristic chemical impurities and their propagation throughout the entire process appeared necessary in particular for uranium materials. Therefore a systematic research programme was launched in order to better understand which chemical impurities might be considered as characteristic for the origin of the base material. On the other hand some impurities are introduced intentionally during the processing of the material. These impurities might be characteristic for the process used or for the plant where the material was processed. We carried out impurity measurements on uranium ores, on intermediate products (Ammoniumdiuranate or yellow cake) and on (natural) uranium oxides, hence 'vertically' throughout the process in individual facilities. n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) ratio measurements have been proven to provide useful additional information on the geographic origin of the materials. We therefore investigated the n( 18 O)/n( 16 O) isotope ratios in these different compounds, in order to obtain further experimental evidence for a consistent set of materials reportedly originating from the same

  17. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach; Menace terroriste nucleaire, radiologique, biologique, chimique - approche medicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S

    2005-07-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  18. Cumulative and competitive effects of chemical elements on nuclear glass alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, Helene

    2016-01-01

    This work takes place in the context of the long-term behavior of nuclear glasses under repository conditions. The main objective is to identify, understand and compare the effects of some chemical elements present in the glass composition and/or in the repository media (Zn, Mg, Ni, Co, Fe, Ca, Gd, Ce, K, Cs, Cr and Ag) on the processes involved in glass alteration by water. The cumulative or competitive nature of the effects of these chemical elements was determined. To reach this goal, a 6 oxides simple glass (ISG) has been altered for more than 500 days in a solution containing one or more of the chemical elements of interest. The results indicate that Zn, Mg, Ni, Co and Fe elements increase glass alteration forming secondary phases with the same structure and stoichiometry (tri-octahedral smectites). To form, these silicates consume chemical elements (Si, Al) from the environment and induce a pH decrease until a limiting value of pH. Beyond this pH the precipitation of secondary phases is inhibited and these chemical elements can be integrated into the gel, replacing Ca whose solubility increases at lower pH. As long as they form secondary phases, the effects of these elements are cumulative. Rare earths Gd and Ce also increase glass alteration forming secondary phases but their effects are lower as they contain less silicon. These elements are not integrated in the gel. Chromium increases glass alteration by precipitating with Ca and leading to a less protective gel, depleted in Ca. Silver precipitates as AgCl and has no effect on the alteration of the glass. The chemical elements K, Cs and Ca limit glass alteration by integrating into the gel and slowing down the transport phenomena therein. This integration is competitive: the order of integration (quantity and effectiveness glass alteration limitation) is the following Ca≥≥Cs≥K. Thus, the increase of glass alteration may be proportional to the quantity of elements promoting the precipitation of

  19. Pressure fluctuation analysis for charging pump of chemical and volume control system of nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Equipment Failure Root Cause Analysis (ERCA methodology is employed in this paper to investigate the root cause for charging pump’s pressure fluctuation of chemical and volume control system (RCV in pressurized water reactor (PWR nuclear power plant. RCA project task group has been set up at the beginning of the analysis process. The possible failure modes are listed according to the characteristics of charging pump’s actual pressure fluctuation and maintenance experience during the analysis process. And the failure modes are analysed in proper sequence by the evidence-collecting. It suggests that the gradually untightened and loosed shaft nut in service should be the root cause. And corresponding corrective actions are put forward in details.

  20. Evaluation study between the chemical and electrochemical etching for solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, S.; Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    Since there are several methods of etching in the solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) it is necessary to know which gives the best results for a specific problem. The purpose of this work is to analyze and compare both the chemical etching and the electrochemical etching. The SSNTD has a preferential response to certain kinds of particles and energies, according to the material used as detector. On the other hand the efficiency is a function of the incidence angle of the radiation and some other parameters such as temperature, concentration and type of solvent used in the etching process, and the method used for the etching. Therefore, it is necessary to extend as much as possible our knowledge of such parameters in order to choose the more efficient one for a specific problem

  1. Thermal-work strain in law enforcement personnel during chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M; Karis, A J; Tharion, W J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thermal safety standards for the use of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) ensembles have been established for various US occupations, but not for law enforcement personnel. Objectives: We examined thermal strain levels of 30 male US law enforcement personnel who participated in CBRN field training in Arizona, Florida, and Massachusetts. Methods: Physiological responses were examined using unobtrusive heart rate (HR) monitors and a simple thermoregulatory model to predict core temperature (Tc) using HR and environment. Results: Thermal strain levels varied by environments, activity levels, and type of CBRN ensemble. Arizona and Florida volunteers working in hot-dry and hot-humid environment indicated high heat strain (predicted max Tc>38.5°C). The cool environment of Massachusetts reduced thermal strain although thermal strains were occasionally moderate. Conclusions: The non-invasive method of using physiological monitoring and thermoregulatory modeling could improve law enforcement mission to reduce the risk of heat illness or injury. PMID:24999847

  2. Possible penetration of nuclear power in fuel and energy demand structure in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Three basic technologies based on methane steam reforming using nuclear heating were assessed with respect of a simplified diagram of a link between a high temperature reactor and chemical technology. They included the technologies of production of methanol, hydrogen and ammonia which differ in the gradually increasing exothermal character of the fission gas processing into the resulting synthesis gas (methanol, ammonia) or the gaseous product (hydrogen). In dependence on the degree of available power from the high temperature reactor for steam reforming, the efficiency of the cycle of the synthesis gas preparation, the power demand, and the balance of the associated electric power generation and the capacity of the production unit were evaluated. (author)

  3. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for subsampling and for chemical, mass spectrometric, spectrochemical, nuclear, and radiochemical analysis of uranium hexafluoride UF6. Most of these test methods are in routine use to determine conformance to UF6 specifications in the Enrichment and Conversion Facilities. 1.2 The analytical procedures in this document appear in the following order: Note 1—Subcommittee C26.05 will confer with C26.02 concerning the renumbered section in Test Methods C761 to determine how concerns with renumbering these sections, as analytical methods are replaced with stand-alone analytical methods, are best addressed in subsequent publications. Sections Subsampling of Uranium Hexafluoride 7 - 10 Gravimetric Determination of Uranium 11 - 19 Titrimetric Determination of Uranium 20 Preparation of High-Purity U3O 8 21 Isotopic Analysis 22 Isotopic Analysis by Double-Standard Mass-Spectrometer Method 23 - 29 Determination of Hydrocarbons, Chlorocarbons, and Partially Substitut...

  4. Current status of medical training for facing chemical, biological and nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Cepena, Eulises; Gell Labannino, Adia; Perez Perez, Aristides

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive, longitudinal and prospective study was conducted in 200 sixth year-medical students from the Faculty 2 of Medical University in Santiago de Cuba during 2011-2012, with the purpose of determining some of deficiencies affecting their performance during chemical, biological or nuclear disasters, for which an unstructured survey and an observation guide were applied. In the series demotivation of some students regarding the topic, poor theoretical knowledge of the topic, the ignorance of ways to access information and the little use of this topic in college scientific events were evidenced, which also involved the little systematization of the content on disasters and affected the objectives of medical training with comprehensive profile

  5. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2004-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade boron carbide powder and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Total Carbon by Combustion and Gravimetry 7-17 Total Boron by Titrimetry 18-28 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 29-38 Chloride and Fluoride Separation by Pyrohydrolysis 39-45 Chloride by Constant-Current Coulometry 46-54 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 55-63 Water by Constant-Voltage Coulometry 64-72 Impurities by Spectrochemical Analysis 73-81 Soluble Boron by Titrimetry 82-95 Soluble Carbon by a Manometric Measurement 96-105 Metallic Impurities by a Direct Reader Spectrometric Method 106-114

  6. Plutonium contents of broadleaf vegetable crops grown near a nuclear fuel chemical separations facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLeod, K W; Alberts, J J; Adriano, D C; Pinder, III, J E

    1984-02-01

    Among agricultural crops, broadleaf vegetables are particularly prone to intercept and retain aerially released contaminants. The plutonium concentration of four broadleaf crops (broccoli, cabbage, lettuce and turnip greens) was determined, when grown in close proximity to a nuclear-fuel chemical-separations facility. Concentrations varied among species, apparently influenced by the crop morphology, with Pu concentrations increasing in the sequence: cabbage < broccoli < turnip greens < lettuce. Washing of the crops significantly reduced the Pu concentration of lettuce, but had no effect on Pu concentration of broccoli and cabbage. The vast majority of Pu found in the crops was due to direct deposition of recently released Pu and resuspension of Pu-bearing soil particles, and was not due to root uptake. Resultant doses from consumption are small relative to the annual background dose.

  7. Simulation of the chemical environment of a nuclear explosion with exploding wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Walter; Block, Oliver U.J. [Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The chemical processes in an expanding underground cavity resulting from a nuclear explosion cannot be predicted or controlled as well as such physical characteristics as crater size, magnitude of the outgoing shock wave, or the extent of rock fracturing. However in most underground nuclear explosions it would be desirable to control the chemical and/or physical form and amount of radioactive fallout venting from the explosion. The high temperatures and corresponding high energy densities produced by exploding wires are sufficient to produce in the wire and material immediately surrounding it the temperature (a few thousand degrees) required to simulate the chemical environment of a nuclear explosion in the time interval just preceding the venting of the cavity. The economics and the size of exploding wire apparatus make this type of experiment readily applicable to laboratory study. Design of exploding wire circuits to obtain particular temperatures or energy densities can be completed using several different combinations of circuit and wire conditions. Since the circuit parameters, including charging voltage, capacitor bank capacitance and circuit inductance primarily determine the cost of the necessary laboratory equipment, these parameters should be selected by theoretical expressions while also considering economic factors. Wire parameters are then experimentally determined to produce the most energetic explosions with the selected circuit parameters. A theoretical method applicable to designing exploding wire circuits to produce the desired high temperatures and energy densities in the wire and surrounding sample material has been obtained. The method assumes that a thermal spike of energy is deposited in a low conductivity material (typical of the earth's crust) surrounding the wire. From the assumed temperature distribution in the surrounding sample material the energy which must be deposited in the thermal spike to produce the desired temperature and

  8. Panel report on coupled thermo-mechanical-hydro-chemical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Mangold, D.C.

    1984-07-01

    Four basic physical processes, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical, are likely to occur in 11 different types of coupling during the service life of an underground nuclear waste repository. A great number of coupled processes with various degrees of importance for geological repositories were identified and arranged into these 11 types. A qualitative description of these processes and a tentative evaluation of their significance and the degree of uncertainty in prediction is given. Suggestions for methods of investigation generally include, besides theoretical work, laboratory and large scale field testing. Great efforts of a multidisciplinary nature are needed to elucidate details of several coupled processes under different temperature conditions in different geological formations. It was suggested that by limiting the maximum temperature to 100 0 C in the backfill and in the host rock during the whole service life of the repository the uncertainties in prediction of long-term repository behavior might be considerably reduced

  9. Panel report on coupled thermo-mechanical-hydro-chemical processes associated with a nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, C.F.; Mangold, D.C. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Four basic physical processes, thermal, hydrological, mechanical and chemical, are likely to occur in 11 different types of coupling during the service life of an underground nuclear waste repository. A great number of coupled processes with various degrees of importance for geological repositories were identified and arranged into these 11 types. A qualitative description of these processes and a tentative evaluation of their significance and the degree of uncertainty in prediction is given. Suggestions for methods of investigation generally include, besides theoretical work, laboratory and large scale field testing. Great efforts of a multidisciplinary nature are needed to elucidate details of several coupled processes under different temperature conditions in different geological formations. It was suggested that by limiting the maximum temperature to 100{sup 0}C in the backfill and in the host rock during the whole service life of the repository the uncertainties in prediction of long-term repository behavior might be considerably reduced.

  10. Chemical effects associated to (n, γ) nuclear reactions in diluted aqueous solutions of liquid or frozen organic halogenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Rodriguez, I.M.

    1985-09-01

    Chemical effects associated to nuclear transformation 37 Cl (n, γ) 38 Cl or 127 I (n, γ) 128 I in solid or liquid aqueous solutions of ethyl iodide, trichloro-ethylene, thyroxine or DDT irradiated in a nuclear reactor are studied. The retention of radiohalogen under its initial chemical shape decrease with solute concentration in liquid phase but is almost constant with solute dilution in the solid phase. Potential applications in neutron activation analysis evidencing halogenated molecules in irradiated media are discussed. 57 refs [fr

  11. Advanced Ultrafast Spectroscopy for Chemical Detection of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa-Aleman, E.; Houk, A.; Spencer, W.

    2017-01-01

    The development of new signatures and observables from processes related to proliferation activities are often related to the development of technologies. In our physical world, the intensity of observables is linearly related to the input drivers (light, current, voltage, etc.). Ultrafast lasers with high peak energies, opens the door to a new regime where the intensity of the observables is not necessarily linear with the laser energy. Potential nonlinear spectroscopic applications include chemical detection via remote sensing through filament generation, material characterization and processing, chemical reaction specificity, surface phenomena modifications, X-ray production, nuclear fusion, etc. The National Security Directorate laser laboratory is currently working to develop new tools for nonproliferation research with femtosecond and picosecond lasers. Prior to this project, we could only achieve laser energies in the 5 nano-Joule range, preventing the study of nonlinear phenomena. To advance our nonproliferation research into the nonlinear regime we require laser pulses in the milli-Joule (mJ) energy range. We have procured and installed a 35 fs-7 mJ laser, operating at one-kilohertz repetition rate, to investigate elemental and molecular detection of materials in the laboratory with potential applications in remote sensing. Advanced, nonlinear Raman techniques will be used to study materials of interest that are in a matrix of many materials and currently with these nonlinear techniques we can achieve greater than three orders of magnitude signal enhancement. This work studying nuclear fuel cycle materials with nonlinear spectroscopies will advance SRNL research capabilities and grow a core capability within the DOE complex.

  12. Advanced Ultrafast Spectroscopy for Chemical Detection of Nuclear Fuel Cycle Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa-Aleman, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Houk, A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Spencer, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-29

    The development of new signatures and observables from processes related to proliferation activities are often related to the development of technologies. In our physical world, the intensity of observables is linearly related to the input drivers (light, current, voltage, etc.). Ultrafast lasers with high peak energies, opens the door to a new regime where the intensity of the observables is not necessarily linear with the laser energy. Potential nonlinear spectroscopic applications include chemical detection via remote sensing through filament generation, material characterization and processing, chemical reaction specificity, surface phenomena modifications, X-ray production, nuclear fusion, etc. The National Security Directorate laser laboratory is currently working to develop new tools for nonproliferation research with femtosecond and picosecond lasers. Prior to this project, we could only achieve laser energies in the 5 nano-Joule range, preventing the study of nonlinear phenomena. To advance our nonproliferation research into the nonlinear regime we require laser pulses in the milli-Joule (mJ) energy range. We have procured and installed a 35 fs-7 mJ laser, operating at one-kilohertz repetition rate, to investigate elemental and molecular detection of materials in the laboratory with potential applications in remote sensing. Advanced, nonlinear Raman techniques will be used to study materials of interest that are in a matrix of many materials and currently with these nonlinear techniques we can achieve greater than three orders of magnitude signal enhancement. This work studying nuclear fuel cycle materials with nonlinear spectroscopies will advance SRNL research capabilities and grow a core capability within the DOE complex.

  13. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Partial Contents: Medium Range Missiles, Rocket Engine, Nuclear Submarine, Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Inspection, Nuclear Weapons, Transfer Technology, Scud, Safety, Nuclear Power, Chernobyl Trial, ,CHemical Weapons...

  14. ARTIST process. A novel chemical process for treatment of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi

    2001-10-01

    A new chemical process, ARTIST process, is proposed for the treatment of spent nuclear fuel. The main concept of the ARTIST process is to recover and stock all actinides (Ans) as two groups, uranium (U) and a mixture of transuranics (TRU), to preserve their resource value and to dispose solely fission products (FPs). The process is composed of two main steps, an U exclusive isolation and a total recovery of TRU; which copes with the nuclear non-proliferation measures, and additionally of Pu separation process and soft N-donor process if requested, and optionally of processes for separation of long-lived FPs. These An products: U-product and TRU-product, are to be solidified by calcination and allowed to the interim stockpile for future utilization. These separations are achieved by use of amidic extractants in accord with the CHON principle. The technical feasibility of the ARTIST process was explained by the performance of both the branched alkyl monoamides in extracting U and suppressing the extraction of tetravalent Ans due to the steric effect and the diglycolic amide (TODGA) in thorough extraction of all TRU by tridentate fashion. When these TRU are requested to put into reactors, LWR or FBR, for power generation or the Accelerator - Driven System (ADS) for transmutation, Pu (Np) or Am-Cm (Np) are to be extracted from the TRU-product. (author)

  15. Chemical and mineralogical aspects of water-bentonite interaction in nuclear fuel disposal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, A.; Pitkaenen, P.

    1996-01-01

    In the field of nuclear fuel disposal, bentonite has been selected as the principal sealing and buffer material for placement around waste canisters, forming both a mechanical and chemical barrier between the radioactive waste and the surrounding ground water. Ion exchange and mineral alteration processes were investigated in a laboratory study of the long-term interaction between compacted Na-bentonite (Volclay MX-80) and ground water solutions, conducted under simulated nuclear fuel disposal conditions. The possible alteration of montmorillonite into illite has been a major object of the mineralogical study. However, no analytical evidence was found, that would indicate the formation of this non-expandable clay type. Apparently, the change of montmorillonite from Na- to Ca-rich was found to be the major alteration process in bentonite. In the water, a concentration decrease in Ca, Mg, and K, and an increase in Na, HCO 3 and SO 4 were recorded. The amount of calcium ions available in the water was considered insufficient to account for the recorded formation of Ca-montmorillonite. It is therefore assumed that the accessory Ca-bearing minerals in bentonite provide the fundamental source of these cations, which exchange with sodium during the alteration process. (38 refs.)

  16. Nuclear fuel reprocessing deactivation plan for the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.W.

    1994-10-01

    The decision was announced on April 28, 1992 to cease all United States Department of Energy (DOE) reprocessing of nuclear fuels. This decision leads to the deactivation of all fuels dissolution, solvent extraction, krypton gas recovery operations, and product denitration at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The reprocessing facilities will be converted to a safe and stable shutdown condition awaiting future alternate uses or decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D). This ICPP Deactivation Plan includes the scope of work, schedule, costs, and associated staffing levels necessary to achieve a safe and orderly deactivation of reprocessing activities and the Waste Calcining Facility (WCF). Deactivation activities primarily involve shutdown of operating systems and buildings, fissile and hazardous material removal, and related activities. A minimum required level of continued surveillance and maintenance is planned for each facility/process system to ensure necessary environmental, health, and safety margins are maintained and to support ongoing operations for ICPP facilities that are not being deactivated. Management of the ICPP was transferred from Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO) to Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) on October 1, 1994 as part of the INEL consolidated contract. This revision of the deactivation plan (formerly the Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Phaseout Plan for the ICPP) is being published during the consolidation of the INEL site-wide contract and the information presented here is current as of October 31, 1994. LITCO has adopted the existing plans for the deactivation of ICPP reprocessing facilities and the plans developed under WINCO are still being actively pursued, although the change in management may result in changes which have not yet been identified. Accordingly, the contents of this plan are subject to revision

  17. Chemical durability of borosilicate glasses containing simulated high-level nuclear wastes, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shigeo; Terai, Ryohei; Yamanaka, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    The Soxhlet-type leaching test apparatus has been developed to evaluate the chemical durability of some borosilicate glasses containing simulated High-Level nuclear Wastes, HLW. After the leaching over the temperature range of 50 0 -95 0 C, the weight loss of specimens with time was determined on both the samples of blocks and grains, and various components dissolved into water were analyzed by atomic absorption and colorimetry technique. It was found that Soxhlet-type test method was more useful than JIS test method, because the specimens in Soxhlet type apparatus were forced always to react with pure water and the mechanism of leaching could be evaluate accurately. The chemical durability of commercial glasses decreases generally with increasing of alkali contents in glasses. In the case of these borosilicate glasses containing HLW, however, the leachability was apparently independent on the alkali contents because of the complexity of these glass compositions. The variation of leaching rate with temperature suggests that dissolution mechanism changes with temperature. (author)

  18. Possible penetration of nuclear power in fuel and power demand structure in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are indicated of the technological applications of high temperature reactors in chemical operations. Nuclear heating may be applied to such processes whose temperature does not 850 degC and pressure is approximately equal to the pressure of helium in the primary circuit of the reactor. The following processes may be implemented: the production of ammonia and methanol, the reduction of iron ore, the implementation of the system of long-distance heat transmission in chemically bound form, etc. The diagram has been designed for the production of ammonia and methanol by steam reforming of methane. The natural gas which enters the process is distributed in the technological and power branches. In the technological branch it is preheated and desulphurized, then mixed with steam and entered the reactor.The outlet mixture of CO, CO 2 , H 2 and Csub(n)Hsub(m) is oxidized with air and following further catalyses a mixture is obtained of N 2 and H 2 in the 1:3 ratio. The power balances and variants are calculated of the distribution of reactor power and its effect on the basic parameters of the technology of the production of NH 3 . (M.D.)

  19. Recent advances in medical device triage technologies for chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Krystal; Scully, Christopher G; Galeotti, Loriano; Schwartz, Suzanne; Marcozzi, David; Strauss, David G

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland USA) created the Medical Countermeasures Initiative with the mission of development and promoting medical countermeasures that would be needed to protect the nation from identified, high-priority chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) threats and emerging infectious diseases. The aim of this review was to promote regulatory science research of medical devices and to analyze how the devices can be employed in different CBRN scenarios. Triage in CBRN scenarios presents unique challenges for first responders because the effects of CBRN agents and the clinical presentations of casualties at each triage stage can vary. The uniqueness of a CBRN event can render standard patient monitoring medical device and conventional triage algorithms ineffective. Despite the challenges, there have been recent advances in CBRN triage technology that include: novel technologies; mobile medical applications ("medical apps") for CBRN disasters; electronic triage tags, such as eTriage; diagnostic field devices, such as the Joint Biological Agent Identification System; and decision support systems, such as the Chemical Hazards Emergency Medical Management Intelligent Syndromes Tool (CHEMM-IST). Further research and medical device validation can help to advance prehospital triage technology for CBRN events.

  20. Characterization of Chemical Exchange Using Relaxation Dispersion of Hyperpolarized Nuclear Spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengxiao; Kim, Yaewon; Hilty, Christian

    2017-09-05

    Chemical exchange phenomena are ubiquitous in macromolecules, which undergo conformational change or ligand complexation. NMR relaxation dispersion (RD) spectroscopy based on a Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequence is widely applied to identify the exchange and measure the lifetime of intermediate states on the millisecond time scale. Advances in hyperpolarization methods improve the applicability of NMR spectroscopy when rapid acquisitions or low concentrations are required, through an increase in signal strength by several orders of magnitude. Here, we demonstrate the measurement of chemical exchange from a single aliquot of a ligand hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (D-DNP). Transverse relaxation rates are measured simultaneously at different pulsing delays by dual-channel 19 F NMR spectroscopy. This two-point measurement is shown to allow the determination of the exchange term in the relaxation rate expression. For the ligand 4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene-1-carboximidamide binding to the protein trypsin, the exchange term is found to be equal within error limits in neutral and acidic environments from D-DNP NMR spectroscopy, corresponding to a pre-equilibrium of trypsin deprotonation. This finding illustrates the capability for determination of binding mechanisms using D-DNP RD. Taking advantage of hyperpolarization, the ligand concentration in the exchange measurements can reach on the order of tens of μM and protein concentration can be below 1 μM, i.e., conditions typically accessible in drug discovery.

  1. The development of a nuclear chemical plant human reliability management approach: HRMS and JHEDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirwan, Barry

    1997-01-01

    -be-assessed, task or scenario. The extrapolation process therefore required a set of PSF profiles for a number of real and representative data-based scenarios, and empirically-derived rules to extrapolate to new but similar scenarios. Using existing nuclear chemical plant human error and other data, a PSF profiling and extrapolation system was developed, which could assess most HEPs required for nuclear chemical risk assessments. The two techniques were then employed in a major risk assessment, with HRMS being utilised for approximately twenty high risk scenarios, and JHEDI being used to calculate well over five hundred HEPs for a large range of tasks and scenarios, by a number of assessors

  2. Chemical aspects of actinides in the geosphere: towards a rational nuclear materials management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P; Sylwester, E

    2001-01-01

    A complete understanding of actinide interactions in the geosphere is paramount for developing a rational Nuclear and Environmental Materials Management Policy. One of the key challenges towards understanding the fate and transport of actinides is determining their speciation (i.e., oxidation state and structure). Since an element's speciation directly dictates physical properties such as toxicity and solubility, this information is critical for evaluating and controlling the evolution of an actinide element through the environment. Specific areas within nuclear and environmental management programs where speciation is important are (1) waste processing and separations; (2) wasteform materials for long-term disposition; and (3) aqueous geochemistry. The goal of this project was to develop Actinide X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy ( U S ) as a core capability at LLNL and integrate it with existing facilities, providing a multi-technique approach to actinide speciation. XAS is an element-specific structural probe which determines the oxidation state and structure for most atoms. XAS can be more incisive than other spectroscopies because it originates from an atomic process and the information is always attainable, regardless of an element's speciation. Despite the utility, XAS is relatively complex due to the need for synchrotron radiation and significant expertise with data acquisition and analysis. The coupling of these technical hurdles with the safe handling of actinides at a general user synchrotron facility such as the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRL) make such experiments even more difficult. As a result, XAS has been underutilized by programs that could benefit by its application. We achieved our project goals by implementing key state-of-the-art Actinide XAS instrumentation at SSRL (Ge detector and remote positioning equipment), and by determining the chemical speciation of actinides (Th, U, and Np) in aqueous solutions, wasteform cements, and

  3. Evolution of nuclear chemical industry in France; Evolution de l'industrie chimique nucleaire en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fould, M H [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The present characteristics can be summarized in one word: expansion. Impelled by the CEA, but also by such organisations as the Electricite de France and the Merchant Marine, the French nuclear effort for the years 1957-1961 reaches about 600 thousand millions francs; over half this sum will be spent by chemical industry on research, pilot installations, construction of plants and delivery. The aim is to work efficiently, quickly and profitably. This is achieved through close collaboration between the big state organisations and private industry. It is chiefly along the following lines that this large scale effort is carried on: - thorough chemical treatment of increasing tonnages of ores from the French Union, with the aim of producing pure, plentiful and cheap uranium. - careful preparation of nuclear fuels, economical and perfectly adapted to the various types of reactor in operation or under construction. - Further treatment of irradiated fuels to extract the plutonium completely, as well as the uranium and certain fission products. industrial manufacture of material of nuclear purity or corrosion resistant required by the technology of energy producing or research reactors. - Supply to the many foreign or French users of isotopes and radioactive tracers required by medicine, industry and agriculture in ever-increasing numbers. - Meticulous chemical treatment of gaseous or liquid effluent in strictly controlled stations in order that reactors and their annexes will be perfectly safe to use. This account shows the great extent of the effort laid out by a young, energetic chemical industry in full swing. Having made sure of its techniques and set up numerous installations it is fully in a position to confront the French atomic programme. In addition it is able and anxious to associate with the developments of foreign atomic industry, especially EURATOM and Eurochemic. (author) [French] Un mot en resume les caracteristiques presentes: l'expansion. Sous l

  4. Carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts empiric calculations of polymers by multi linear regression and molecular modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Pinto, P.S.; Eustache, R.P.; Audenaert, M.; Bernassau, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts empiric calculations by multi linear regression and molecular modeling. The multi linear regression is indeed one way to obtain an equation able to describe the behaviour of the chemical shift for some molecules which are in the data base (rigid molecules with carbons). The methodology consists of structures describer parameters definition which can be bound to carbon 13 chemical shift known for these molecules. Then, the linear regression is used to determine the equation significant parameters. This one can be extrapolated to molecules which presents some resemblances with those of the data base. (O.L.). 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Cea-Expo: A facility exposure matrix to assess passed exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle-Lamberton, M.; Bouville, P.; Bergot, D.; Gagneau, M.; Marot, S.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Giraud, J.M.; Gelas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A 'Facility-Exposure Matrix' (FEM) is proposed to assess exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides in a cohort of nuclear workers. Exposures are to be attributed in the following way: a worker reports to an administrative unit and/or is monitored for exposure to ionising radiation in a specific workplace. These units are connected with a list of facilities for which exposure is assessed through a group of experts. The entire process of the FEM applied in one of the nuclear centres included in the study shows that the FEM is feasible: exposure durations as well as groups of correlated exposures are presented but have to be considered as possible rather than positive exposures. Considering the number of facilities to assess (330), ways to simplify the method are proposed: (i) the list of exposures will be restricted to 18 chemical products retained from an extensive bibliography study; (ii) for each of the following classes of facilities: nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication, high-activity laboratories and radiation chemistry, accelerators and irradiators, waste treatment, biology, reprocessing, fusion, occupational exposure will be deduced from the information already gathered by the initial method. Besides taking into account confusion factors in the low doses epidemiological study of nuclear workers, the matrix should help in the assessment of internal contamination and chemical exposures in the nuclear industry. (author)

  6. Features of adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes distribution in iodine air filters AU-1500 of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neklyudov, I.M.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Dikiy, N.P.; Ledenyov, O.P.; Lyashko, Yu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of research is to investigate the physical features of spatial distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the iodine air filters of the type of AU-1500 in the forced-exhaust ventilation at the nuclear power plant. The ?-activation analysis method is applied to accurately characterize the distribution of the adsorbed radioactive chemical elements and their isotopes in the granular filtering medium in the AU-1500 iodine air filter after its long term operation at the nuclear power plant. The typical spectrum of the detected chemical elements and their isotopes in the AU-1500 iodine air filter, which was exposed by the irradiation of bremsstrahlung gamma-quantum producing by the accelerating electrons in the tantalum target, are obtained. The spatial distributions of the detected chemical element 127 I and some other chemical elements and their isotopes in the layer of absorber, which was made of the cylindrical coal granules of the type of SKT-3, in the AU-1500 iodine air filter are also researched. The possible influences by the standing wave of air pressure in the iodine air filter on the spatial distribution of the chemical elements and their isotopes in the iodine air filter are discussed. The comprehensive analysis of obtained research results on the distribution of the adsorbed chemical elements and their isotopes in the absorber of iodine air filter is performed.

  7. The UK chemical nuclear data library: a summary of the data available in ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, B.S.J.

    1981-11-01

    The UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee files have been considerably revised and extended. The files now embrace: fission yields (C31), fission product decay data (UKFPDD-2), activation product decay data (UKPADD-1), and heavy element decay data (UKHEDD-1). The fission yield data is based on Crouch's third round of adjustment and includes yields to isometric states. The decay data files include data on half-life, decay modes, branching ratios and alpha, beta and gamma radiation energies and intensities. The data have all been recommended by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee for use in the UK reactor programme; they are stored on magnetic tape at AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith and CEGB Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. (author)

  8. Chemical mode control in nuclear power plant decommissioning during operation of technologies in individual radioactive waste processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.; Dugovic, L.

    1999-01-01

    Sewage treatment of nuclear power plant decommissioning is performed by system of sewage concentration in evaporator with formation of condensed rest, it means radioactive waste concentrate and breeding steam. During sewage treatment plant operation department of chemical mode performs chemical and radiochemical analysis of sewage set for treatment, chemical and radiochemical analysis of breeding steam condensate which is after final cleaning on ionization filter and fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment; chemical and radiochemical analysis of heating steam condensate which is also after fulfilling the limiting conditions released to environment. Condensed radioactive concentrate is stored in stainless tanks and later converted into easy transportable and chemically stable matrix from the long term storage point of view in republic storage Mochovce. The article also refer to bituminous plant, vitrification plant, swimming pool decontamination plant of long term storage and operation of waste processing plant Bohunice

  9. Control and management of the chemical risk linked with hydrazine hydrate storage, unloading and injection across French nuclear fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahic, Mersiha; Dzemidzic Aida; Dijoux, Michel; Pages, Danielle; Rigal, Jean-Francois; Boize, Magali

    2012-09-01

    Across the EDF nuclear fleet, the chemical risk linked with hydrazine hydrate storage, unloading and injection has received much attention in the past decades. Since 1997, continuous investigation into the substitution of dangerous and carcinogenic chemicals has been conducted and regularly updated by EDF. As a downstream user of hydrazine hydrate, EDF is concerned by REACH legislation, in force since 1 June 2007. As part of the compliance process with REACH, EDF provided its hydrazine hydrate suppliers with information regarding the uses of the chemical. This was done by the end of 2008, as per REACH deadline. On the other hand, EDF contributed throughout European Chemicals Agency consultation phase by submitting data relating to hydrazine hydrate uses across nuclear sites. The absence of a suitable hydrazine hydrate replacement product, able to satisfy the entirety of technical requirements, entails rigorous arrangements to be implemented in order to segregate the zones where use of hydrazine is made and therefore eradicate the risk to personnel regarding hydrazine effects. Consequently, a number of engineering changes and modifications are to be carried out on the chemical injection systems of 58 French nuclear power plants over the next few years as part of the EDF Hydrazine Fleet Programme. (authors)

  10. Evaluation on Safety of Stainless Steels in Chemical Decontamination Process with Immersion Type of Reactor Coolant Pump for Nuclear Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jong; Han, Min Su; Jang, Seok Ki; Kim, Ki Joon

    2011-01-01

    Due to commercialization of nuclear power, most countries have taken interest in decontamination process of nuclear power plant and tried to develop a optimum process. Because open literature of the decontamination process are rare, it is hard to obtain skills on decontamination of foreign country and it is necessarily to develop proper chemical decontamination process system in Korea. In this study, applicable possibility in chemical decontamination for reactor coolant pump (RCP) was investigated for the various stainless steels. The stainless steel (STS) 304 showed the best electrochemical properties for corrosion resistance and the lowest weight loss ratio in chemical decontamination process with immersion type than other materials. However, the pitting corrosion was generated in both STS 415 and STS 431 with the increasing numbers of cycle. The intergranular corrosion in STS 431 was sporadically observed. The sizes of their pitting corrosion also increased with increasing cycle numbers

  11. Corrosion surveillance of the chemical decontamination process in Kuosheng nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.H.

    2002-01-01

    The Piping Recirculation System (RRS) and reactor water clean-up system (RWCU) of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant of Taiwan Power Company were decontaminated by CORD process of Framatome ANP GmbH during the outage at October 2001. This is the first time that CORD process was adopted and applied in Taiwan Nuclear Power Plant. To verify minor corrosion damage and correct process control, the material corrosion condition was monitored during all the stages of the chemical decontamination work. Three kinds of specimen were adopted in this corrosion monitoring, including corrosion coupons for weight loss measurements, electrochemical specimens for on-line corrosion monitoring, and WOL specimens (wedge opening loaded) for stress corrosion evaluation. The measured metal losses from nine coupon materials did not reveal any unexpected or intolerable high corrosion damage from the CORD UV or CORD CS processes. The coupon materials included type 304 stainless steel (SS) with sensitized and as-received thermal history, type 308 weld filler, type CF8 cast SS, nickel base alloy 182 weld filler, Inconel 600, Stellite 6 hard facing alloy, NOREM low cobalt hard facing alloy, and A106B carbon steel (CS). The electrochemical noise (ECN) measurements from three-electrode electrochemical probe precisely depicted the metal corrosion variation with the decontamination process change. Most interestingly, the estimated trend of accumulated metal loss is perfectly corresponding to the total removed activities. The ECN measurements were also used for examining the effect of different SS oxide films pre-formed in NWC and HWC on the decontamination efficiency, and for evaluating the galvanic effect of CS with SS. The existing cracks did not propagate further during the decontamination. The average decontamination factors achieved were 50.8 and 4.2 respectively for RRS and RWCU. (authors)

  12. Systematic approach for assessment of accident risks in chemical and nuclear processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, Murillo

    2003-07-01

    The industrial accidents which occurred in the last years, particularly in the 80's, contributed a significant way to draw the attention of the government, industry and the society as a whole to the mechanisms for preventing events that could affect people's safety and the environment quality. Techniques and methods extensively used the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries so far were adapted to performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. The risk analysis in industrial facilities is carried out through the evaluation of the probability or frequency of the accidents and their consequences. However, no systematized methodology that could supply the tools for identifying possible accidents likely to take place in an installation is available in the literature. Neither existing are methodologies for the identification of the models for evaluation of the accidents' consequences nor for the selection of the available techniques for qualitative or quantitative analysis of the possibility of occurrence of the accident being focused. The objective of this work is to develop and implement a methodology for identification of the risks of accidents in chemical and nuclear processing facilities as well as for the evaluation of their consequences on persons. For the development of the methodology, the main possible accidents that could occur in such installations were identified and the qualitative and quantitative techniques available for the identification of the risks and for the evaluation of the consequences of each identified accidents were selected. The use of the methodology was illustrated by applying it in two case examples adapted from the literature, involving accidents with inflammable, explosives, and radioactive materials. The computer code MRA - Methodology for Risk Assessment was developed using DELPHI, version 5.0, with the purpose of systematizing

  13. Non-chemical water purification a Westinghouse/Wallenius product for nuclear power plant needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetberg, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demand for ecologically effective water treatment technologies has resulted in the development of several new oxidation methods. These technologies are generally labelled Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOT) or Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP) and currently represent the most widely recognized alternative for ecologically sound, high-tech water purification. Many years of intensive research have culminated in the innovative Wallenius-AOT technology, a patented method that is remarkable in several ways. It imitates nature's own water purification method. This means no chemical additives are needed. The technology utilizes the ability of light, together with photo-catalytic semiconductor surfaces, to produce free radicals, like nature does. These reactive radicals create an environment in which organic and inorganic substances oxidize, whereby a broad spectrum of organisms is rendered harmless more effectively than with conventional UV technology. The entire process takes just a few micro-seconds. A major advantage of the technology is that it can be adjusted according to the desired degree of purification. By altering the dynamics of the process, the purification can be designed for specific applications. In this way, AOT tackles precise problems, regardless of flow and whether the problem is chemical or biological. The product was originally introduced for ballast treatment in the shipping industry. Ballast water has created severe damages to the biology at many locations. By moving an organism from one ocean to another we have introduced a possible threat to the local ecosystem. This has been prevented by using the AOT water treatment units. During ballasting and de-ballasting, the units create radicals with the help of a catalyst and a light source. These radicals then destroy the cell membrane of microorganisms. The radicals, which never leave the unit, have a lifetime of only a few milliseconds and pose no risk to the environment or crew

  14. Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Hadley, Donald L.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Buck, John W.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Janus, Michael C.

    2001-03-01

    Indoor air quality effects on human health are of increasing concern to public health agencies and building owners. The prevention and treatment of 'sick building' syndrome and the spread of air-borne diseases in hospitals, for example, are well known priorities. However, increasing attention is being directed to the vulnerability of our public buildings/places, public security and national defense facilities to terrorist attack or the accidental release of air-borne biological pathogens, harmful chemicals, or radioactive contaminants. The Indoor Air Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Health Modeling and Assessment System (IA-NBC-HMAS) was developed to serve as a health impact analysis tool for use in addressing these concerns. The overall goal was to develop a user-friendly fully functional prototype Health Modeling and Assessment system, which will operate under the PNNL FRAMES system for ease of use and to maximize its integration with other modeling and assessment capabilities accessible within the FRAMES system (e.g., ambient air fate and transport models, water borne fate and transport models, Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models, etc.). The prototype IA-NBC-HMAS is designed to serve as a functional Health Modeling and Assessment system that can be easily tailored to meet specific building analysis needs of a customer. The prototype system was developed and tested using an actual building (i.e., the Churchville Building located at the Aberdeen Proving Ground) and release scenario (i.e., the release and measurement of tracer materials within the building) to ensure realism and practicality in the design and development of the prototype system. A user-friendly "demo" accompanies this report to allow the reader the opportunity for a "hands on" review of the prototype system's capability.

  15. Chemical variability of zeolites at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The compositions of clinoptilolites and their host tuffs have been examined by electron microprobe and x-ray fluorescence, respectively, to determine their variability at a potential nuclear waste repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Because of their sorptive properties, these zeolites could provide important geologic barriers to radionuclide migration. Variations in clinoptilolite composition can strongly affect the mineral's thermal and ion-exchange properties, thus influencing its behavior in the repository environment. Clinoptilolites and heulandites closest to the proposed repository have calcium-rich compositions (60 to 90 mol. % Ca) and silica-to-aluminum ratios that concentrate between 4.0 and 4.6. In contrast, clinoptilolites and their host tuffs deeper in the volcanic sequence have highly variable compositions that vary vertically and laterally. Deeper-occurring clinoptilolites in the eastern part of Yucca Mountain are characterized by calcic-potassic compositions and tend to become more calcium-rich with depth. Clinoptilolites at equivalent stratigraphic levels on the western side of Yucca Mountain have sodic-potassic compositions and tend to become more sodium-rich with depth. Despite their differences in exchangeable cation compositions these two deeper-occurring compositional suites have similar silica-to-aluminum ratios, concentrating between 4.4 and 5.0. The chemical variability of clinoptilolites and their host tuffs at Yucca Mountain suggest that their physical and chemical properties will also vary. Compositionally-dependent clinoptilolite properties important for repository performance assessment include expansion/contraction behavior, hydration/dehydration behavior, and ion-exchange properties

  16. Chemical operational experiences in the Belgian nuclear power plants of Doel and Tihange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roofthooft, R.

    1977-01-01

    The nuclear program in Belgium started in 1962 with the commissioning of a small reactor BR3 and continued with Chooz, Doel and Tihange. This report gives a survey of the chemical experiences in Doal and Tihange. All these units are of the PWR type constructed by Westinghouse. The chemical specifications for the secondary circuit are very severe and difficult to maintain without condensate polishing system for units such as Doel 1 and 2, cooled with estuary brackish water. The condensate polishing system of Doel is described and the main results are given. The big problem of this station has been the behaviour of the condenser tubes. After 1 and 2 years of operation severe corrosion developed and a retubing became necessary. In the steam generators of Doel and Tihange deposits of a few cm are found. The denting problem has also started. Tihange has worked nearly one year with a leak in one of the steam generators. The blow down was treated on ion exchangers. The fuel elements have had a good behaviour especially in Doel 1. During shut down periods for refuelling H 2 O 2 is injected in the primary circuit. This gives a quick release of corrosion products. The activity of 58 Co increases to about 0,4 Ci/m 3 . A precoat filter with pulverised resins gives a good decontamination factor in this case. The liquid waste treatment of Doel has been modified in order to cope with the quantities of effluents. In Tihange it has been necessary to decontaminate a primary pump. This has been done with Turco products. Very good results have been obtained. (orig.) [de

  17. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  18. Experimental studies of thermal and chemical interactions between oxide and silicide nuclear fuels with water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    farahani, A.A.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsi, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Given some transient power/cooling mismatch is a nuclear reactor and its inability to establish the necessary core cooling, energetic fuel-coolant interactions (FCI`s commonly called `vapor explosions`) could occur as a result of the core melting and coolant contact. Although a large number of studies have been done on energetic FCI`s, very few experiments have been performed with the actual fuel materials postulated to be produced in severe accidents. Because of the scarcity of well-characterized FCI data for uranium allows in noncommercial reactors (cermet and silicide fuels), we have conducted a series of experiments to provide a data base for the foregoing materials. An existing 1-D shock-tube facility was modified to handle depleted radioactive materials (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al, and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al). Our objectives have been to determine the effects of the initial fuel composition and temperature and the driving pressure (triggering) on the explosion work output, dynamic pressures, transient temperatures, and the hydrogen production. Experimental results indicate limited energetics, mainly thermal interactions, for these fuel materials as compared to aluminum where more chemical reactions occur between the molten aluminum and water.

  19. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Praveen Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of “contamination” is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article. PMID:21829321

  20. Ensuring safe water in post-chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Amar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disaster scenarios are dismal and often result in mass displacement and migration of people. In eventuality of emergency situations, people need to be rehabilitated and provided with an adequate supply of drinking water, the most essential natural resource needed for survival, which is often not easily available even during non-disaster periods. In the aftermath of a natural or human-made disaster affecting mankind and livestock, the prime aim is to ensure supply of safe water to reduce the occurrence and spread of water borne disease due to interrupted, poor and polluted water supply. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN emergencies augment the dilemma as an additional risk of "contamination" is added. The associated risks posed to health and life should be reduced to as low as reasonably achievable. Maintaining a high level of preparedness is the crux of quick relief and efficient response to ensure continuous supply of safe water, enabling survival and sustenance. The underlying objective would be to educate and train the persons concerned to lay down the procedures for the detection, cleaning, and treatment, purification including desalination, disinfection, and decontamination of water. The basic information to influence the organization of preparedness and execution of relief measures at all levels while maintaining minimum standards in water management at the place of disaster, are discussed in this article.

  1. The challenge of preparation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear terrorist attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but, in the contemporary scene, it has established itself in a manner which commands the most serious attention of the authorities. Until relatively recently, the major threat has been through the medium of conventional weaponry and explosives. Their obvious convenience of use and accessibility guarantees that such methods will continue to represent a serious threat. However, over the last few years, terrorists have displayed an enthusiasm for higher levels of carnage, destruction and publicity. This trend leads inexorably to the conclusion that chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN methods will be pursued by terrorist organisations, particularly those which are well organised, are based on immutable ideological principles, and have significant financial backing. Whilst it is important that the authorities and the general public do not risk over-reacting to such a threat (otherwise, they will do the work of the terrorists for them, it would be equally ill-advised to seek comfort in denial. The reality of a CBRN event has to be accepted and, as a consequence, the authorities need to consider (and take seriously how individuals and the community are likely to react thereto and to identify (and rehearse in a realistic climate what steps would need to be taken to ameliorate the effects of such an event.

  2. Strategy for responding to nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical threats in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Daniel; Kenzelmann, Marc; Cadisch, Marc; Baggenstos, Martin

    2008-01-01

    ABC- Protection in Switzerland was originally set up primarily for protection against military weapons of mass destruction, such as atomic/nuclear or chemical weapons. Protection against biological weapons - at first within the domain of the medical service - was later integrated into AC-Protection, thus leading to ABC-Protection in Switzerland. In some cases the objectives of ABC-Protection with regard to prevention and intervention were defined differently in the military and civil fields. In order to put ABC-Protection in Switzerland on a uniform basis, the Federal Council has instructed the KomABC (Commission for ABC-Protection) to develop a general strategy for 'ABC-Protection in Switzerland'. The following paper describes the objectives as well as the key elements of this general strategy, which should guarantee that all Federal and Cantonal organizations take decisions related to prevention and intervention based on the same principles. The strategy covers the following topics: 1) Reference scenarios for ABC-Protection; 2) Demands related to prevention; 3) Demands related to intervention; 4) Allocation of tasks at the Federal and Cantonal levels. Protective measures for improving ABC-Protection in Switzerland are presented. (author)

  3. Geochemical properties and nuclear chemical characteristics of Oklo natural fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi [Hiroshima Univ., Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1997-07-01

    There are six uranium deposits in the Gabonese Republic in the cnetral Africa. `Fission reactor zone`, the fission chain reactions generated about 200 billion years ago, was existed in a part of them. CEA begun geochemical researches of Oklo deposits etc. in 1991. The geochemical and nuclear chemical properties of Oklo were reviewed from the results of researches. Oklo deposits is consisted of main five sedimentary faces such as sandstone (FA), Black Shale formation (FB), mudstone (FC), tuff (FD) and volcaniclastic sandstone (FE) from the bottom on the base rock of granite in the Precambrian era. Uranium is enriched in the upper part of FA layer and the under part of FB layer. {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U, U content, fission proportion, duration time, neutron fluence, temperature, restitution factor of {sup 235}U and epithermal index ({gamma}) were investigated and compared. The geochemical properties of Oklo are as followed: large enrich of uranium, the abundance ratio of {sup 235}U as same as that of enriched uranium, interaction of natural water and small rear earth elements. These factors made casually Oklo fission reactor. (S.Y.)

  4. Effect of Organic Solvents in Preparation of Silica-Based Chemical Gel Decontaminates for Decontamination of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Jung, Chong Hun; Kim, Chang Ki; Choi, Byung Seon; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment such as stainless steel components, other iron-based steel and alloys, metal surfaces, structural materials and so on. Chemical decontamination technology in particular is a highly effective method to remove the radioactive contamination through a chemical dissolution or a redox reaction. However, this method has the serious drawback due to the generation of large amounts of the radioactive liquid wastes. Recently, a few literatures have been reported for the preparation of the chemical gel decontaminants to reduce the amount of the radioactive liquid wastes and to enhance the decontamination efficiency through increasing the contact time between the gels and the radioactive contaminants. In the preparation of the chemical gels, the control of the viscosity highly depends on the amount of a coviscosifier used among the components of the chemical gels consisted of a viscosifier, a coviscosifier, and a chemical decontaminant. In this works, a new effective method for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the organic solvents. The mixture solution of the coviscosifier and organic solvent was more effective in the control of the viscosity compared with that of the coviscosifier only in gels. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels measured by using the multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed the high decontamination factor for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on the surface of the stainless steel 304

  5. The Unsuspected Roles of Chemistry in Nuclear Power Plants: Special Chemical Technologies for Enhanced Safety and Increased Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempere Belda, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The plant's chemists main responsibility is the establishment and monitoring of an adequate water chemistry to minimize corrosion and in PWRs, to control the neutron flux. But this is by no means the only way in which chemical applications contribute to the performance and safety of a NPP during its entire life: The use of special coatings and treatment protects the plant's components from aggressive environmental conditions. The chemical scale removal in steam generators improves the power output of aging plants, helping even to achieve permissions for NPP life extension. The use of special adhesives can replace welding in complicated or high-dose areas, even underwater. And chemical decontamination is used to remove activity from the components of the primary circuit prior to maintenance or replacement works in order to decrease the radiation exposure of the plant's personnel, employing revolutionary methods of waste minimization to limit the amount of generated radioactive waste to a minimum. The AREVA Group, in its pursue of excellence in all stages of the nuclear cycle, has devoted years of research and development to be able to provide the most advanced technological solutions in this field. The awareness of the existing possibilities will help present and future nuclear professionals, chemists and non-chemists alike, to benefit from the years of experience and continuous development in chemical technologies at the service of the nuclear industry. (authors)

  6. The Unsuspected Roles of Chemistry in Nuclear Power Plants: Special Chemical Technologies for Enhanced Safety and Increased Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sempere Belda, Luis [AREVA NP GmbH, An AREVA and SIEMENS Company, P.O. Box 1109, Erlangen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The plant's chemists main responsibility is the establishment and monitoring of an adequate water chemistry to minimize corrosion and in PWRs, to control the neutron flux. But this is by no means the only way in which chemical applications contribute to the performance and safety of a NPP during its entire life: The use of special coatings and treatment protects the plant's components from aggressive environmental conditions. The chemical scale removal in steam generators improves the power output of aging plants, helping even to achieve permissions for NPP life extension. The use of special adhesives can replace welding in complicated or high-dose areas, even underwater. And chemical decontamination is used to remove activity from the components of the primary circuit prior to maintenance or replacement works in order to decrease the radiation exposure of the plant's personnel, employing revolutionary methods of waste minimization to limit the amount of generated radioactive waste to a minimum. The AREVA Group, in its pursue of excellence in all stages of the nuclear cycle, has devoted years of research and development to be able to provide the most advanced technological solutions in this field. The awareness of the existing possibilities will help present and future nuclear professionals, chemists and non-chemists alike, to benefit from the years of experience and continuous development in chemical technologies at the service of the nuclear industry. (authors)

  7. In vitro nuclear receptor inhibition and cytotoxicity of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and their binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Peter A; Kumar, Anu

    2018-05-01

    The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in oil and gas extraction operations has led to concern over environmental risks posed by chemicals used in HF fluids. Here we employed a suite of stable luciferase reporter gene assays to investigate the potential for selected HF chemicals or geogenics to activate or antagonise nuclear receptor signalling. We screened three biocides (bronopol [BP], glutaraldehyde [GA], and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate [THPS]), a surfactant (2-butoxyethanol), a friction reducer (polyacrylamide), and a coal seam geogenic (o-cresol) for their potential to act as agonists or antagonists of the estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), glucocorticoid receptor or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). None of the chemicals induced luciferase activity in any of assays used in the study. In antagonistic mode, BP, GA and THPS caused reductions in luciferase activity in the reporter assays at higher concentrations (50-100 μM), while at low concentrations (2-10 μM) GA and THPS enhanced luciferase activity in some assays relative to controls. None of the other tested chemicals exhibited antagonism in the selected assays. In most cases, altered receptor signalling only occurred at concentrations exhibiting cytotoxicity. However, PPARγ activity, and to a lesser extent PR activity, were inhibited by THPS at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. The majority of binary combinations tested exhibited significantly less-than-additive cytotoxicity, and none of the combinations exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity. In summary, the results of the present study indicate that the selected chemicals are not likely to function as direct agonists of the nuclear receptors tested, and only one chemical, THPS was an apparent partial antagonist of two nuclear receptors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Low-frequency electromagnetic measurements as a zero-time discriminant of nuclear and chemical explosions - OSI research final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.J.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report on a series of investigations of low frequency (1-40 Hz) electromagnetic signals produced by above ground and underground chemical explosions and their use for confidence building under the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty. I conclude that low frequency electromagnetic measurements can be a very powerful tool for zero-time discrimination of chemical and nuclear explosions for yields of 1 Kt or greater, provided that sensors can be placed within 1-2 km of the suspected detonation point in a tamper-proof, low noise environment. The report includes descriptions and analyses of low frequency electromagnetic measurements associated with chemical explosions carried out in a variety of settings (shallow borehole, open pit mining, underground mining). I examine cavity pressure data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (underground chemical explosion) and present the hypothesis that electromagnetic signals produced by underground chemical explosions could be produced during rock fracturing. I also review low frequency electromagnetic data from underground nuclear explosions acquired by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during the late 1980s. (author)

  9. Assessing the risks of nuclear and chemical contamination in the former Soviet Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirk, J.

    1996-01-01

    scientists, policy makers, and members of NGO groups to pursue in future project involving nuclear and chemical contamination in the newly independent states. 9 figs., 12 tabs., 22 refs

  10. Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1: Primary cooling system chemical decontamination: Draft environmental statement (Docket No. 50-10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    The staff has considered the environmental impact and economic costs of the proposed primary cooling system chemical decontamination at Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1. The staff has focused this statement on the occupational radiation exposure associated with the proposed Unit 1 decontamination program, on alternatives to chemical decontamination, and on the environmental impact of the disposal of the solid radioactive waste generated by this decontamination. The staff has concluded that the proposed decontamination will not significantly affect the quality of the human environment. Furthermore, any impacts from the decontamination program are outweighed by its benefits. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  11. An assessment of the long-term impact of chemically toxic contaminants from the disposal of nuclear fuel waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, B.W.; Garisto, N.C.; Barnard, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the potential for impact on man of chemically toxic contaminants associated with the Canadian concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The elements of concern are determined through a series of screening criteria such as elemental abundances and solubilities. A systems variability analysis approach is then used to predict the possible concentrations of these elements that may arise in the biosphere. These concentrations are compared with environmental guidelines such as permissible levels in drinking water. Conclusions are made regarding the potential for the chemically toxic contaminants to have an impact on man. 54 refs

  12. The 40th anniversary of the discovery of NMR-chemical shift and nuclear spin-spin coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhenghe; Gou Qingquan

    1989-01-01

    After the discovery of NMR Phenomenon in the physics laboratories of E.M.Purcell at Harvard and F.Bloch at Stanford in 1946, W.G.Proctor and F.C.Yu made the successful discovery of NMR-chemical shift and nuclear spin-spin coupling at Stanford in 1950, Which brought NMR spectroscopy from the physics laboratory to the laboratories of many different fields. This is worth memorizing. Retrospecting the past 40 years, it is sure that chemical shift theory will be much more prosperous prospects

  13. Study of chemical reactions in the nuclear underground explosion - Incidence on radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picq, Jean Maurice

    1970-01-01

    In order to find out and state the theoretical or semi-empirical laws governing the reaction of radioactivity in contained nuclear explosion, we are studying the chemical reactions during the different stages of the cavity and chimney formation, as well as thermal transfers. At the same time, we are carrying an experimental study on melted rock and gas samples taken from the French underground explosions. The results of which can be found in this paper are derived from our present experiments at the plant (have been obtained from partial studies). During the French underground explosions, we took gaseous samples. The gas analysis, without taking water vapour into consideration, showed that those samples were composed of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide with small quantities of hydrocarbons (chiefly methane - about one per cent). The total amount of gas being quite large and proportional to the burst power, we came to the conclusion that those gases were produced by rock reactions (that rock was granite). We considered the following reagents because they were found in sufficient quantities to alter the balance between the different components: ferrous ions contained in mica, biotite, carbon dioxide from carbonates and water, either free or in a component state, contained in the rock. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results led us to notice among other things: the temperature of rock re-solidification; pressure nearing lithostatic pressure. Since the components of the environment, water not included, is quite homogeneous, the gas volume produced by '1 kiloton' is quite constant. On the other hand, the relative proportion of the gases undergoes a few changes, particularly the ratio CO/CO 2 which normally depends on the quantity of water contained in the environment. This statement is verified by the calculation of thermodynamic equilibriums. In order to calculate the simultaneous chemical equilibrium we have first selected five reactions. We

  14. Role of alkyl alcohol on viscosity of silica-based chemical gels for decontamination of highly radioactive nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B. S.; Yoon, S. B.; Jung, C. H.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Silica-based chemical gel for the decontamination of nuclear facilities was prepared by using fumed silica as a viscosifier, a 0.5 M Ce (IV) solution dissolved in concentrated nitric acid as a chemical decontamination agent, and tripropylene glycol butyl ether (TPGBE) as a co-viscosifier. A new effective strategy for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the alkyl alcohols as organic solvents to effectively dissolve the co-viscosifier. The mixture solution of the co-viscosifier and alkyl alcohols was more effective in the control of viscosity than that of the co-viscosifier only in gel. Here, the alkyl alcohols played a key role as an effective dissolution solvent for the co-viscosifier in the preparation of the chemical gel, resulting in a reducing of the amount of the co-viscosifier and gel time compared with that of the chemical gel prepared without the alkyl alcohols. It was considered that the alkyl alcohols contributed to the effective dissolution of the co-viscosifier as well as the homogeneous mixing in the formation of the gel, while the co-viscosifier in an aqueous media of the chemical decontamination agent solution showed a lower solubility. The decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels prepared in this work using a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed a high decontamination efficiency of over ca. 94% and ca. 92% for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on surface of the stainless steel 304, respectively. (authors)

  15. Standard test methods for chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) powder

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and mass spectrometric analysis of nuclear-grade gadolinium oxide powders to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Carbon by Direct CombustionThermal Conductivity C1408 Test Method for Carbon (Total) in Uranium Oxide Powders and Pellets By Direct Combustion-Infrared Detection Method Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis Ion Selective Electrode C1502 Test Method for Determination of Total Chlorine and Fluorine in Uranium Dioxide and Gadolinium Oxide Loss of Weight on Ignition 7-13 Sulfur by CombustionIodometric Titration Impurity Elements by a Spark-Source Mass Spectrographic C761 Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, Spectrochemical,Nuclear, and Radiochemical Analysis of Uranium Hexafluoride C1287 Test Method for Determination of Impurities In Uranium Dioxide By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Gadolinium Content in Gadolinium Oxid...

  16. Coupling of high temperature nuclear reactor with chemical plant by means of steam loop with heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopeć Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature nuclear reactors (HTR can be used as an excellent, emission-free source of technological heat for various industrial applications. Their outlet helium temperature (700°-900°C allows not only for heat supply to all processes below 600°C (referred to as “steam class”, but also enables development of clean nuclear-assisted hydrogen production or coal liquefaction technologies with required temperatures up to 900°C (referred to as “chemical class”. This paper presents the results of analyses done for various configurations of the steam transport loop coupled with the high-temperature heat pump designed for “chemical class” applications. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the key issues are discussed in comparison with alternative solutions, trying to answer the question whether the system with the steam loop and the hightemperature heat pump is viable and economically justified.

  17. Modeling the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor process heat plant: a nuclear to chemical conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfremmer, R.D.; Openshaw, F.L.

    1982-05-01

    The high-temperature heat available from the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) makes it suitable for many process applications. One of these applications is a large-scale energy production plant where nuclear energy is converted into chemical energy and stored for industrial or utility applications. This concept combines presently available nuclear HTGR technology and energy conversion chemical technology. The design of this complex plant involves questions of interacting plant dynamics and overall plant control. This paper discusses how these questions were answered with the aid of a hybrid computer model that was developed within the time-frame of the conceptual design studies. A brief discussion is given of the generally good operability shown for the plant and of the specific potential problems and their anticipated solution. The paper stresses the advantages of providing this information in the earliest conceptual phases of the design

  18. Chemical Characterization of Nuclear Materials: Development a New Combined X-Ray Fluorescence and Raman Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szaloki, I.; Gerenyi, A.

    2015-01-01

    New mobile analytical device based on combination of X-ray fluorescence and Raman spectrometer has been developed for prompt and quantitative characterization of chemical component from Al to U in nuclear waste or undeclared materials. The excitation source of the X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is an air-cooled X-ray tube with Ag transmission anode. For collection of secondary X-ray photons and data processing, a compact Amptek X-ray detector system is applied with silicon drift X-ray detector. The XRF system operates in confocal mode with focal volume around 1-4 mm 3 . Varying the geometrical position and orientation of the sample optional part of its surface can be analyzed. The Raman unit includes thermoelectrically cooled laser source having 500 mW power at wavelength 785 nm. In order to obtain spectral information from sample surface a reflection-type probe is connected by optical fibres to the Raman spectrometer. A mini focusing optics is set up to the sensor-fibre that provides the system to operate as confocal optical device in reflection mode. The XRF spectrometer with X-ray detector, Raman probe and X-ray tube are mechanically fixed and hermetically connected to an aluminium chamber, which can be optionally filled with helium. The chamber is mounted on a vertical stage that provides moving it to the sample surface. A new model and computer code have been developed for XRF quantitative analysis which describes the mathematical relationship between the concentration of sample elements and their characteristic X-ray intensities. For verification of the calculations standard reference alloy samples were measured. The results was in good agreement with certified concentrations in range of 0.001-100 w%. According to these numerical results this new method is successfully applicable for quick and non-destructive quantitative analysis of waste materials without using standard samples. (author)

  19. 1H chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in the photodecomposition of uranyl carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykov, S.V.; Khudyakov, I.V.; Skakovsky, E.D.; Burrows, H.D.; Formosinho, S.J.; Miguel, M. da G.M.

    1991-01-01

    Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization ( 1 H CIDNP) has been observed during photolysis of uranyl salts of pivalic, propionic, and acetic acids in D 2 O solution, [ 2 H 6 ]acetone, [ 2 H 4 ]methanol, or in some other solvent. The multiplet polarization of isobutene and isobutane protons has been found under photolysis of deoxygenated pivalate solution. The polarized compounds are formed in the triplet pairs of tert-butyl free radicals. 1 H Emission of the tert-butylperoxyl group and emission of 1 H from isobutene have been recorded under photolysis of air-saturated pivalate solutions. The CIDNP of butane protons stays as a multiplet. Such changes in the presence of air/oxygen have arisen apparently because of the formation of tert-butylperoxyl free radical and its reaction with tert-butyl radical products, i.e. hydroperoxide (peroxide) and isobutene. Isobutene probably forms a complex with molecular oxygen which has a very short proton relaxation time. During the photolysis of uranyl pivalate in the presence of p-benzoquinone (5 x 10 -2 -0.1 mol dm -3 ) we have not observed any CIDNP, whereas under p-benzoquinone concentrations of 10 -3 -10 -2 mol dm -3 the CIDNP from both hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone has been followed. Photolysis of uranyl propionate has led to CIDNP from butane protons. An emission from methyl group protons of a compound with an ethylperoxyl fragment in the presence of air/oxygen has been observed. The same polarization picture has arisen under interaction of photoexcited uranyl with propionic acid. During the photolysis of uranyl acetate at relatively low concentrations (10 -2 mol dm -3 ) a CIDNP very similar to that registered for uranyl propionate was recorded. The ethyl fragment is probably obtained in reactions for two methyl radicals formed from acetate with the parent uranyl acetate, namely hydrogen-atom abstraction and addition reactions. (author)

  20. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  1. Construction of an experimental simplified model for determining of flow parameters in chemical reactors, using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Paiva, J.A. de.

    1981-03-01

    The development of a simplified experimental model for investigation of nuclear techniques to determine the solid phase parameters in gas-solid flows is presented. A method for the measurement of the solid phase residence time inside a chemical reactor of the type utilised in the cracking process of catalytic fluids is described. An appropriate radioactive labelling technique of the solid phase and the construction of an eletronic timing circuit were the principal stages in the definition of measurement technique. (Author) [pt

  2. Monitoring of surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions with help of ionospheric radio-sounding above test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Drobzheva, Ya.V.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the basic principles, advantages and disadvantages of ionospheric method to monitor surface chemical and underground nuclear explosions. The ionosphere is 'an apparatus' for the infra-sound measurements immediately above the test site. Using remote radio sounding of the ionosphere you can obtain that information. So you carry out the inspection at the test site. The main disadvantage of the ionospheric method is the necessity to sound the ionosphere with radio waves. (author)

  3. Establishment of data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the Former Soviet Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolenko, N.A.; Kopnichev, Yu.F.; Kunakov, V.G.; Kunakova, O.K.; Rakhmatullin, M.Kh.; Sokolova, I.N.; Vybornyy, Zh.I. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Fiziki Zemli

    1995-06-01

    In this report results of work on establishment of a data base of regional seismic recordings from earthquakes, chemical explosions and nuclear explosions in the former Soviet Union are described. This work was carried out in the Complex Seismological Expedition (CSE) of the Joint Institute of Physics of the Earth of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The recording system, methods of investigations and primary data processing are described in detail. The largest number of digital records was received by the permanent seismic station Talgar, situated in the northern Tien Shan, 20 km to the east of Almaty city. More than half of the records are seismograms of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions. The nuclear explosions were recorded mainly from the Semipalatinsk test site. In addition, records of the explosions from the Chinese test site Lop Nor and industrial nuclear explosions from the West Siberia region were obtained. Four records of strong chemical explosions were picked out (two of them have been produced at the Semipalatinsk test site and two -- in Uzbekistan). We also obtained 16 records of crustal earthquakes, mainly from the Altai region, close to the Semipalatinsk test site, and also from the West China region, close to the Lop Nor test site. In addition, a small number of records of earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions, received by arrays of temporary stations, that have been working in the southern Kazakhstan region are included in this report. Parameters of the digital seismograms and file structure are described. Possible directions of future work on the digitizing of unique data archive are discussed.

  4. Chemical cleaning for sludge in steam generator of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mengqin; Lu Yucheng; Zhang Binyong; Yu Jinghua

    2002-01-01

    The sludge induced corrosion damage to secondary side of tubes of Steam Generator (SG), effect of chemical cleaning technique on maintenance integrity of tubes of SG NPP and use of chemical cleaning technique in SG NPP have been summarized. The engineering technique of chemical cleaning for removing sludge in secondary side of SG NPP has been studied and qualified by CIAE (China Institute of Atomic Energy). Chemical cleaning engineering technique is introduced (main agent is EDTA, temp. <100 degree C), including chemical cleaning technology for tube plate and full tube nest of secondary side of SG, the monitoring technique of chemical cleaning process (effectiveness and safety), the disposal method of wastage of chemical cleaning, the system of chemical cleaning. The method for preventing sludge deposition in secondary side and the research on advanced water chemistry of secondary loop are introduced

  5. Study of the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition process on very dense powder for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is part of the development of low-enriched nuclear fuel, for the Materials Test Reactors (MTRs), constituted of uranium-molybdenum particles mixed with an aluminum matrix. Under certain conditions under irradiations, the U(Mo) particles interact with the aluminum matrix, causing unacceptable swelling of the fuel plate. To inhibit this phenomenon, one solution consists in depositing on the surface of the U(Mo) particles, a thin silicon layer to create a barrier effect. This thesis has concerned the study of the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to deposit silicon from silane, on the U(Mo) powder, which has an exceptional density of 17,500 kg/m 3 . To achieve this goal, two axes were treated during the thesis: the study and the optimization of the fluidization of a so dense powder, and then those of the silicon deposition process. For the first axis, a series of tests was performed on a surrogate tungsten powder in different columns made of glass and made of steel with internal diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm, at room temperature and at high temperature (650 C) close to that of the deposits. These experiments helped to identify wall effects phenomena within the fluidized bed, which can lead to heterogeneous deposits or particles agglomeration. Some dimensions of the fluidization columns and operating conditions allowing a satisfactory fluidization of the powder were identified, paving the way for the study of silicon deposition. Several campaigns of deposition experiments on the surrogate powder and then on the U(Mo) powder were carried out in the second axis of the study. The influence of the bed temperature, the inlet molar fraction of silane diluted in argon, and the total gas flow of fluidization, was examined for different diameters of reactor and for various masses of powder. Morphological and structural characterization analyses (SEM, XRD..) revealed a uniform silicon deposition on all the powder and around each particle

  6. Nuclear overhauser enhancement mediated chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging at 7 Tesla in glioblastoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paech

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE mediated chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST is a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique on the basis of saturation transfer between exchanging protons of tissue proteins and bulk water. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the information provided by three dimensional NOE mediated CEST at 7 Tesla (7T and standard MRI in glioblastoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with newly diagnosed histologically proven glioblastoma were enrolled in this prospective ethics committee-approved study. NOE mediated CEST contrast was acquired with a modified three-dimensional gradient-echo sequence and asymmetry analysis was conducted at 3.3 ppm (B1 = 0.7 µT to calculate the magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTR(asym. Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1 and T2-weighted images were acquired at 3T and used for data co-registration and comparison. RESULTS: Mean NOE mediated CEST signal based on MTR(asym values over all patients was significantly increased (p<0.001 in CE-T1 tumor (-1.99 ± 1.22%, tumor necrosis (-1.36 ± 1.30% and peritumoral CEST hyperintensities (PTCH within T2 edema margins (-3.56 ± 1.24% compared to contralateral normal appearing white matter (-8.38 ± 1.19%. In CE-T1 tumor (p = 0.015 and tumor necrosis (p<0.001 mean MTR(asym values were significantly higher than in PTCH. Extent of the surrounding tumor hyperintensity was smaller in eight out of 12 patients on CEST than on T2-weighted images, while four displayed at equal size. In all patients, isolated high intensity regions (0.40 ± 2.21% displayed on CEST within the CE-T1 tumor that were not discernible on CE-T1 or T2-weighted images. CONCLUSION: NOE mediated CEST Imaging at 7 T provides additional information on the structure of peritumoral hyperintensities in glioblastoma and displays isolated high intensity regions within the CE-T1 tumor that cannot be acquired on CE-T1 or T2

  7. Has the civil society a real place in the governance of the nuclear and chemical activities?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This colloquium, organized in three sessions discusses the following topics: the historical aspects of the transparency in the nuclear domain, the AZF accident, the nuclear wastes specific case, the access of the society to the knowledge, the democratic participation to the management of the risk activities and the conditions of this sustainable participation, the international situation and the public trust. (A.L.B.)

  8. Support for the American Chemical Society's Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantica, Paul F. [Michigan State University

    2013-06-20

    The ACS Summer Schools in Nuclear and Radiochemistry were held at San Jose State University (SJSU) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Summer Schools offer undergraduate students with U.S. citizenship an opportunity to complete coursework through ACS accredited chemistry degree programs at SJSU or the State University of New York at Stony Brook (SBU). The courses include lecture and laboratory work on the fundamentals and applications of nuclear and radiochemistry. The number of students participating at each site is limited to 12, and the low student-to-instructor ratio is needed due to the intense nature of the six-week program. To broaden the students’ perspectives on nuclear science, prominent research scientists active in nuclear and/or radiochemical research participate in a Guest Lecture Series. Symposia emphasizing environmental chemistry, nuclear medicine, and career opportunities are conducted as a part of the program.

  9. Comparison of the effects in the rock mass of large-scale chemical and nuclear explosions. Final technical report, June 9, 1994--October 9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spivak, A.A.

    1995-04-01

    It was found that in the first approximation the mechanical effect of underground nuclear explosion is analogous to the effect of chemical explosion. Really qualitative analysis shows that accompanying mechanical effects of nuclear and chemical explosions are the same: in the both cases explosion consequences are characterized by formation of the camouplet cavity (crater after explosion near free surface), destruction of the rock massif near explosion centre, creation of the stress wave, which forms seismoexplosive effect a long distance from explosion epicentre. Qualitative likeness of underground nuclear explosions and chemical explosions is the base of modelling the mechanical effects of the underground nuclear explosion. In this paper we`ll compare two explosions: nuclear (15-04-84) and chemical (27.06.95) with large power. These explosions were realized at the same geological conditions at Degelen test area, which is a part of the Semipalatinsk Test Site. In the case of the nuclear explosion, the charge was disposed in the face of the deep horizontal gallery. The charge of the chemical explosion was a semisphere from explosives at the rock massif surface. In the both case rock massif behavior after explosions was investigated at underground conditions (in the case of chemical explosion -- in the long underground excavation from explosion epicentre). Mechanical effects from the nuclear and chemical explosions were investigated with the same methods. The changes in geological medium after a large-scale explosive actions will be analyzed in detail too. Investigations of the influence of tectonic energy on the mechanical effects after underground nuclear, explosions represents the main interest. In this paper we`ll discuss this question on the data from underground nuclear explosion, realized 08.09.89 in the deep well at the Balapan test area, at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

  10. Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Flowsheet. A Report by the WPFC Expert Group on Chemical Partitioning of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Chan; Yamagishi, Isao; Choi, Yong-Joon; Glatz, Jean-Paul; Hyland, Bronwyn; Uhlir, Jan; Baron, Pascal; Warin, Dominique; De Angelis, Giorgio; Luce, Alfredo; INOUE, Tadashi; Morita, Yasuji; Minato, Kazuo; Lee, Han Soo; Ignatiev, Victor V.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhail V.; Caravaca, Concepcion; Lewin, Robert G.; Taylor, Robin J.; Collins, Emory D.; Laidler, James J.

    2012-06-01

    Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC), the Working Party on Scientific Issues of the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) has been established to co-ordinate scientific activities regarding various existing and advanced nuclear fuel cycles, including advanced reactor systems, associated chemistry and flowsheets, development and performance of fuel and materials, and accelerators and spallation targets. The WPFC has different expert groups to cover a wide range of scientific fields in the nuclear fuel cycle. The Expert Group on Chemical Partitioning was created in 2001 to (1) perform a thorough technical assessment of separations processes in application to a broad set of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) operating scenarios and (2) identify important research, development and demonstration necessary to bring preferred technologies to a deployable stage and (3) recommend collaborative international efforts to further technological development. This report aims to collect spent nuclear fuel reprocessing flowsheet of various processes developed by member states: aqueous, pyro and fluoride volatility. Contents: 1 - Hydrometallurgy process: Standard PUREX, Extended PUREX, UREX+3, Grind/Leach; 2 - Pyrometallurgy process: pyro-process (CRIEPI - Japan), 4-group partitioning process, pyro-process (KAERI - Korea), Direct electrochemical processing of metallic fuel, PyroGreen (reduce radiotoxicity to the level of low and intermediate level waste - LILW); 3 - Fluoride volatility process: Fluoride volatility process, Uranium and protactinium removal from fuel salt compositions by fluorine bubbling, Flowsheet studies on non-aqueous reprocessing of LWR/FBR spent nuclear fuel; Appendix A: Flowsheet studies of RIAR (Russian Federation), List of contributors, Members of the expert group

  11. Valuation of the safety concept of the combined nuclear/chemical complex for hydrogen production with HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.; Nishihara, T.

    2004-06-01

    The high-temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) in Oarai, Japan, will be worldwide the first plant to demonstrate the production of hydrogen by applying the steam reforming process and using nuclear process heat as primary energy. Particular safety aspects for such a combined nuclear/chemical complex have to be investigated to further detail. One of these special aspects is the fire and explosion hazard associated with the presence of flammable gases including a large LNG storage tank in close vicinity to the reactor building. A special focus is laid upon the conceivable development of a detonation pressure wave and its damaging effect on the reactor building. A literature study has shown that methane is a comparatively slow reacting gas and that a methane vapor cloud in the open atmosphere or partially obstructed areas is highly unlikely to result in a detonation if inadvertently released and ignited. Various theoretical assessments and experimental studies, which have been conducted in the past and which are of significance for the HTTR-steam reforming system, include the spreading and combustion behavior of cryogenic liquids and flammable gas mixtures providing the basis of a comprehensive safety analysis of the combined nuclear/chemical facility. (orig.)

  12. The chemical monitoring and control during temporary turbine trip or reactor scram of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heng

    2012-01-01

    During normal operation, a malfunction of equipment or improper operation sometimes results in a turbine trip or reactor scram or even cold shutdown. Because present chemical control strategy and programs aimed at the situation of normal operation and planed refueling outage, no integrate emergency program of radiochemical and chemical control had been developed to focus on this urgent and unexpected situation. After many years of practice and experience feedback, chemists have created an emergency collaborative program of radiochemical and chemical control which aims at these unexpected situations such as unplanned unit down power, turbine trip, or reactor scram. The program defines different radiochemical and chemical control measures and steps during different status to monitor primary loop dose rate variation, fuel assembly integrity and water chemical excursion to prevent components from corrosion. (author)

  13. Determination of chemical forms of C-14 in liquid discharges from nuclear power plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Světlík, Ivo; Fejgl, M.; Povinec, P. P.; Kořínková, Tereza; Tomášková, Lenka; Pospíchal, J.; Kurfiřt, M.; Striegler, R.; Kaufmanová, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 177, OCT (2017), s. 256-260 ISSN 0265-931X Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : analytical routines * dissolved organic forms of C-14 (DIC) * dissolved inorganic forms of C-14 (DOC) * Nuclear power plant (NPP) * liquid releases Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environment al sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.310, year: 2016

  14. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1999-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 This test method covers the determination of uranium and the oxygen to uranium atomic ratio in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide powder and pellets. 1.4 This test method covers the determination of chlorine and fluorine in nuclear-grade uranium dioxide. With a 1 to 10-g sample, concentrations of 5 to 200 g/g of chlorine and 1 to 200 μg/g of fluorine are determined without interference. 1.5 This test method covers the determination of moisture in uranium dioxide samples. Detection limits are as low as 10 μg. 1.6 This test method covers the determination of nitride nitrogen in uranium dioxide in the range from 10 to 250 μg. 1.7 This test method covers the spectrographic analysis of nuclear-grade UO2 for the 26 elements in the ranges indicated in Table 2. 1.8 For simultaneous determination of trace ele...

  15. Development of an opto-fluidic micro-system dedicated to chemical analysis in a nuclear environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoffray, F.; Canto, F.; Couston, L. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, SERA/LAMM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Allenet, T.; Bucci, D.; Broquin, J.E. [IMEP-LaHC, Universite de Grenoble Alpes, UMR 5130 CNRS, Minatec-Grenoble-INP, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble (France); Jardinier, E. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, RadioChemistry and Processes Department, SERA/LAMM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); IMEP-LaHC, Universite de Grenoble Alpes, UMR 5130 CNRS, Minatec-Grenoble-INP, CS 50257, 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-01

    Micromachining techniques enable the fabrication of innovative lab-on-a-chip. Following the trend in chemical and biological analysis, the use of microsystems also appears compelling in the nuclear industry. The volume reduction of radioactive solutions is especially attractive in order to reduce the workers radiation exposition in the context of off-line analysis in spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. We hence present the development of an opto-fluidic sensor combining micro-fluidic channels for fluid transportation and integrated optics for detection. With the aim of achieving automated microanalysis with reduced response time the sensor is made compatible with a commercial micro-fluidic holder. Therefore the chip is connected to computer controlled pumps and electro-valves thanks to capillary tubing. In this paper we emphasis on the fluid handling capacities of the opto-fluidic sensor. (authors)

  16. Radiological pathways analysis for spent solvents from the boiler chemical cleaning at the Pickering Nuclear Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garisto, N.C.; Eslami, Z.; Hodgins, S.; Beaman, T.; Von Svoboda, S.; Marczak, J.

    2006-01-01

    Spent solvents are generated as a result of Boiler Chemical Cleanings (BCC) at CANDU reactor sites. These solutions contain small amount of radioactivity from a number of different sources including: Cut tubes - short sections of boiler tubes are infrequently removed from the boilers for a detailed characterization. These tubes are typically only plugged at the tubesheet allowing the primary side deposits to be exposed to BCC solvents. Tube leaks - primary to secondary side leaks also occur infrequently as a result of tube degradation. Radioactivity from the leaking fluid can consequently be deposited in the sludge on the secondary side of the tubes. Diffusion of tritium - during normal operation of the reactor units, tritium slowly diffuses from the heavy water in the primary heat-transfer system to the light-water coolant on the secondary side. Some of this tritium is retained in the secondary side deposits. The Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS) would like the flexibility to have several options for handling the spent solvent waste and associated rinse water from BCC. To this end, a radiological pathways analysis was undertaken to determine dose consequences associated with each option. Sample results from this study are included in this paper. The pathways analysis is used in this study to calculate dose to hypothetical receptors including individuals such as truck drivers, incinerator workers, residue (ash) handlers, residents who live near the landfill, inadvertent intruders into the landfill after closure and residents who live near the outfall. This dose is compared to a de minimis dose. A de minimis dose or dose rate represents a level of risk, which is generally accepted as being of no significance. Shipments of spent solvents and rinse water with corresponding doses below de minimis can be sent to conventional (i.e., non-radioactive) landfills for incineration and disposal as the radioactive dose associated with them is much less than natural

  17. Physical and toxic properties of hazardous chemicals regularly stored and transported in the vicinity of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    This report gives a compilation of data based on information assembled by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completed by the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the UK AEA, the Dutch Reactor Safety Commission, the French Atomic Energy Commission, and the CSNI Secretariat. Data sheets for a large number of hazardous chemicals are presented (from acetaldehyde to xylene), giving details of their physical and toxic properties such as: molecular weight, boiling point, vapor density, heat of vaporization, toxic concentration in air, flammability limits, toxic effects, vapor pressure data, etc.

  18. Maintenance of nuclear chemical and fuel fabrication plants [Invited talk no. IT-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Though the objective of the maintenance practices followed in nuclear facilities is to optimise production as in other conventional production plants, the radioactivity associated with nuclear materials is a major constraint in all maintenance jobs on equipment of the nuclear facility. Often non-routine maintenance have to be adopted. Maintenance aspect has to be taken into consideration at the design stage of the nuclear facility. The maintenance concept adopted in a nuclear facility depends on the type of plant and varies from full indirect remote maintenance to direct contact maintenance. This is illustrated by discussing maintenance practices followed in a fuel reprocessing plant, a high level radioactive waste management facility, a fuel fabrication plant, and a heavy water plant. Exposure of maintenance staff to radiation has to be kept within limits governed by safety regulations. Along with planning and scheduling of maintenance, training of manpower with mock-up facilities assumes importance and the maintenance jobs must be carried out under strict supervision. (M.G.B.)

  19. Chemical decontamination of non-dismounted equipment of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, K.; Dietrich, P.; Hildebrandt, N.

    1979-01-01

    Reasons for performing system chemical decontaminations are considered, some cases of practical application to water cooled power reactors are discussed, radical and soft decontamination techniques are compared with each other, and evaluation criteria for decontaminations are studied. (author)

  20. Chemical removal of radionuclides in contaminated spinach derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Uno, Izumi; Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Yanaga, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    We examined a simple and effective removal method for contaminated farm products to ensure the relief of farmers and the security of consumers. Removal of radionuclides from spinach by chemical methods was investigated. The result of chemical removal showed that antioxidant agents removed radionuclides from spinach by 70–80% for 131 I and more than 80% for radiocesium. In particular, ascorbic acid is promising as a safe and versatile option. (author)

  1. Nuclear power plant life management: flow accelerated corrosion and chemical control. Application to Embalse Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Saucedo, Ramona E.; Sainz, Ricardo A.; Ovando, Luis E.

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry of a water-steam cycle is one of the main aspects of the Plant Life Management of a Nuclear Power Plant and it is important for the preservation, efficiency and availability of the whole system. In that sense this aspect has to be prioritized in any study whose aim is the life extension of the plant. In particular, the flow-assisted -corrosion or FAC is a problem that worldwide has been considered important due to the piping wall thinning that in some occasions has led to severe accidents. The FAC phenomena is not easy to be interpreted and addressed although nowadays there are some accepted models to understand and predict sensitive areas of the cycle. The objectives of the present paper have been: a) The construction of an integrated code that involves all the aspects that have influence on FAC, i.e., materials, composition, geometry, temperature and flow rate, quality, chemistry, etc.; b) Establish or adapting current models to the circuit of Embalse PHWR NPP; c) Identify new locations for inspection and wall thickness measurement in order to predict residual life; d) Compare different chemistries and e) handle large sets of inspection data. Among the results, new lines have been incorporated to the inspection schedule of the 2005' programmed outage. Also, the evaluation is part of the PLIM-PLEX programme at Embalse-N.A.S.A. in collaboration with C.N.E.A. is being carried out. (author)

  2. Radiochemical problems of radiation chemical synthesis in n, γ-field of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.P.; Frejdus, N.V.; Bugaenko, L.T.; Kalyazin, E.P.; Petryaev, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    A wide applicability of products of radiation chemical synthesis (RCS), using n, γ-irradiation, is limited by possible contamination of the latter with long-lived radioactive isotopes of chemical elements included in the composition of the reagent and compounds syntesized (chemically non-separable radionuclides - CNR). A technique of the determination of the limit accumulation CNR on the basis of radiation chemical parameters of the synthesis (radiation-chemical yield, the dose rate absorbed, singleness of purpose of RCS etc.) and radiochemical parameters of formation and accumulation of CNR (radiochemical yields of CNR in the products of radiolysis, neutron fluence, the reagent purity etc.) is suggested. The radiochemical evaluation of CNR accumulation (tritium and carbon-14), formed at the expense of activation with neutrons of chemical elements of water and organic substances, consisting of hydrogen, carbon and oxygen has shown that at relatively low yields of final products (> or approximately 3 molecules/100 eV) no accumulation of radionuclides in concentrations reaching the average admissible concentration takes place [ru

  3. Standard test methods for chemical and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-Grade silver-indium-cadmium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1990-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear grade silver-indium-cadmium (Ag-In-Cd) alloys to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Silver, Indium, and Cadmium by a Titration Method 7-15 Trace Impurities by Carrier-Distillation Spectro- chemical Method 16-22 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard and precautionary statements, see Section 5 and Practices E50. 7.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of silver, indium, and cadmium in alloys of approximately 80 % silver, 15 % indium, and 5 % cadmium used in nuclear reactor control r...

  4. Safety assurance for nuclear chemical plants - regulatory practice in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.; Charlesworth, F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the legislation and licensing requirements for nuclear installations as well as the related safety assurance procedures in the UK. Developments in safety assurance practice are identified and discussed in relation to the role of the regulator and of the operator. (NEA) [fr

  5. Chemical analytical considerations on the determination of burnup in irradiated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretella, R.F.; Servant, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Burnup in an irradiated nuclear fuel may be defined as the energy produced per mass unit, from the time the fuel is introduced into the reactor and until a given moment. It is usually shown in megawatt/day or megawatt/hour generated per ton or kilo of fuel. It is also indicated as the number of fission produced per volume unit (cm 3 ) or per every 100 initial fissionable atoms. The yield of a power plant is directly related to the burnup of its fuel load and knowing the latter contributes to optimizing the economy in reactor operation and the related technologies. The development of nuclear fuels and the operation of reactors require doing with exact and accurate methods allowing to know the burnup. Errors in this measurement have an incidence upon the fuel design, the physical and nuclear calculations, the shielding requirements, the design of vehicles for the transportation of irradiated fuels, the engineering of processing plants, etc. All these factors, in turn, have an incidence upon the cost of nuclear power generation. (Author) [es

  6. The impact of conventional and nuclear industries on the population A comparative study of the radioactive and chemical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Coulon, R; Anguenot, F

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to make it possible to assess and localize in an objective manner the extent of the hazards and associated detrimental effects which are inherent in nuclear and non-nuclear industrial activities, among all the hazards to which the population of a given region is exposed. Rather than carry out a purely theoretical and speculative study a region was chosen as a basis to carry out a full- scale exercise, taking into account the existing real situation. The region chosen is situated in the south-east of France (Greater Rhone Delta) where almost all industrial activities can be found: electricity generating industries (thermal and nuclear power stations), the activities associated with them (extraction, processing, storage of waste, etc.) and industrial activities which are sources of pollution (refineries, chemical industries, etc.). To put the risks of all these activities (to workers, the public and the environment) in perspective, the case of other sources of risk, such as certain ag...

  7. US/Russian cooperative efforts in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting at the Siberian Chemical Combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goloskokov, I.; Yarygin, A.; Petrushev, V.; Morgado, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK) is the largest multifunction nuclear production facility in the Russian nuclear complex. Until recently, it produced and processed special nuclear material for the Russian Defense Ministry. SKhK and its US partners in the Department of Energy (DOE) US/Russian Materials Protection, Control, and Accountability (MPC and A) Program are nearing completion of the initial MPC and A upgrades at the six SKhK plant sites that were begun three years ago. Comprehensive enhancements to the physical protection and access control systems are progressing on a site-wide basis while a comprehensive MC and A system is being implemented at the Radiochemical Plant site. SKhK now produces thermal and electrical power, enriches uranium for commercial reactor fuel, reprocesses irradiated fuel, converts high-enriched uranium metal into high-enriched oxide for blending into reactor-grade, low-enriched uranium, and manufactures civilian products. The authors review the progress to date and outline plans for continuing the work in 1999

  8. Nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms in the assessment of nuclear fuel waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.R.; LeNeveu, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclides emplaced in an underground disposal vault can possibly migrate from the vault, and through the geosphere, to enter Man's environment. Chemical sorption is a primary mechanism for retarding this migration. The effects of nonlinear chemical sorption isotherms on radionuclide transport are discussed. A method is given by which nonlinear isotherms can be approximated by the linear sorption isotherm used in the vault submodel. The relevance of nonlinear isotherms to transport in the geosphere is discussed, and it is shown that the linear isotherm model is conservative for deep geologic disposal. 22 refs

  9. Chemical Explosion Experiments to Improve Nuclear Test Monitoring - Developing a New Paradigm for Nuclear Test Monitoring with the Source Physics Experiments (SPE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snelson, Catherine M.; Abbott, Robert E.; Broome, Scott T.; Mellors, Robert J.; Patton, Howard J.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Townsend, Margaret J.; Walter, William R.

    2013-01-01

    A series of chemical explosions, called the Source Physics Experiments (SPE), is being conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to develop a new more physics-based paradigm for nuclear test monitoring. Currently, monitoring relies on semi-empirical models to discriminate explosions from earthquakes and to estimate key parameters such as yield. While these models have been highly successful monitoring established test sites, there is concern that future tests could occur in media and at scale depths of burial outside of our empirical experience. This is highlighted by North Korean tests, which exhibit poor performance of a reliable discriminant, mb:Ms (Selby et al., 2012), possibly due to source emplacement and differences in seismic responses for nascent and established test sites. The goal of SPE is to replace these semi-empirical relationships with numerical techniques grounded in a physical basis and thus applicable to any geologic setting or depth

  10. Chemical aspects of the precise and accurate determination of uranium and plutonium from nuclear fuel solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinonen, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous or separate determination of uranium and plutonium has been developed. The method is based on the sorption of uranium and plutonium as their chloro complexes on Dowex 1x10 column. When separate uranium and plutonium fractions are desired, plutonium ions are reduced to Pu (III) and eluted, after which the uranium ions are eluted with dilute HCl. Simultaneous stripping of a mass ratio U/Pu approximately 1 fraction for mass spectrometric measurements is achieved by proper choice of eluant HC1 concentration. Special attention was paid to the obtaining of americium free plutonium fractions. The distribution coefficient measurements showed that at 12.5-M HCl at least 30 % of americium ions formed anionic chloro complexes. The chemical aspects of isotopic fractionation in a multiple filament thermal ionization source were also investigated. Samples of uranium were loaded as nitrates, chlorides, and sulphates and the dependence of the measured uranium isotopic ratios on the chemical form of the loading solution as well as on the filament material was studied. Likewise the dependence of the formation of uranium and its oxide ions on various chemical and instrumental conditions was investigated using tungsten and rhenium filaments. Systematic errors arising from the chemical conditions are compared with errors arising from the automatic evaluation of of spectra. (author)

  11. Stereoelectronic effects on 1H nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts in methoxybenzenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Maja; Olsen, Lars; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W

    2006-01-01

    the Ar-OCH3 torsion out of the ring plane, resulting in large stereoelectronic effects on the chemical shift of Hpara. Conformational searches and geometry optimizations for 3-16 at the B3LYP/6-31G** level, followed by B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) calculations for all low-energy conformers, gave excellent...

  12. Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Education and Training: A Review Across the Services and Joint Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    13 1. Air Force Inspector General – CBRNE CERFP Program Audit ...14 2. Defense Medical...CBRNE CERFP Program Audit “The AFAA [Air Force Audit Agency] is assessing whether Air National Guard officials properly managed the Chemical...processing personnel through the aircrew contamination control area ( ACCA ). Flight Medicine provides training on agent toxicology and pharmacology. The

  13. Standards for chemical or NDA measurements for nuclear safeguards: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of various materials from all parts of the fuel cycle are required to be traceable to a national measurement system, primarily through standards. The availability of the standards is discussed, for nondestructive as well as destructive chemical analysis. Needs for improved standards (reference materials) and lowered uncertainty are discussed

  14. 2007 Joint Chemical Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Conference and Exhibition - Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-27

    Selected CB Defense Systems SHAPESENSE Joint Warning and Reporting Network JSLIST CB Protected Shelter Joint Vaccine Acquisition Program Joint Effects...military can operate in any environment, unconstrained by chemical or biological weapons. 21 SHIELD SUSTAIN Selected CB Defense Systems SHAPESENSE Joint...28070625_JCBRN_Conference_Reeves UNCLASSIFIED Decontamination Vision Strippable Barriers Self-Decontaminating Fabrics/Coatings Reduce Logistics Burden

  15. Chemical purity using quantitative "1H-nuclear magnetic resonance: a hierarchical Bayesian approach for traceable calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toman, Blaza; Nelson, Michael A.; Lippa, Katrice A.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical purity assessment using quantitative "1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a method based on ratio references of mass and signal intensity of the analyte species to that of chemical standards of known purity. As such, it is an example of a calculation using a known measurement equation with multiple inputs. Though multiple samples are often analyzed during purity evaluations in order to assess measurement repeatability, the uncertainty evaluation must also account for contributions from inputs to the measurement equation. Furthermore, there may be other uncertainty components inherent in the experimental design, such as independent implementation of multiple calibration standards. As such, the uncertainty evaluation is not purely bottom up (based on the measurement equation) or top down (based on the experimental design), but inherently contains elements of both. This hybrid form of uncertainty analysis is readily implemented with Bayesian statistical analysis. In this article we describe this type of analysis in detail and illustrate it using data from an evaluation of chemical purity and its uncertainty for a folic acid material. (authors)

  16. Using HABIT to Establish the Chemicals Analysis Methodology for Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    J. R. Wang; S. W. Chen; Y. Chiang; W. S. Hsu; J. H. Yang; Y. S. Tseng; C. Shih

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the HABIT analysis methodology was established for Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP). The Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), reports, and other data were used in this study. To evaluate the control room habitability under the CO2 storage burst, the HABIT methodology was used to perform this analysis. The HABIT result was below the R.G. 1.78 failure criteria. This indicates that Maanshan NPP habitability can be maintained. Additionally, the sensitivity study of the paramet...

  17. Nuclear methods in chemical kinetics. Technical progress report, April 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Significant progress was achieved in the following products: (1) gas phase thermal F-to-HF reactions; (II) gas phase thermal 18 F olefinic addition reactions; (III) steady state hot atom kinetic theory; (IV) moderator effects on nuclear recoil 18 F substitution reactions; and (V) new experimental methodology. New work has been initiated upon the development of a realisitic potential form of kinetic collision theory

  18. Analysis and design recommendation on rabbeted capping plate of equipment cell in nuclear chemical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingyu; Yin Xiaozhan

    2013-01-01

    Rabbeted capping plates are widely used in the roof of equipment cells in order to meet the requirements of nuclear radiation protection. The key considerations in the design include vertical load, seismic load and repair load. This article establishes T shaped and Z-shaped plate model via FEM software (ANSYS), analyzes the bearing capacity and displacement distribution in different load cases, and provides recommendations to the design and construction accordingly. (authors)

  19. Chemical thermodynamic assessment of the Li-U-O system for possible space nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besmann, T.M.; Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1985-06-01

    A thermochemical assessment of possible oxide fuel-lithium coolant interactions in conceptual 100-kW(e) space nuclear power reactors has been performed. Results of the evaluation indicate that in the event of a cladding breach the fuel and coolant will interact with extremely negative consequences. The lithium has the potential to reduce the fuel to metallic uranium. Differences in temperature within the coolant loop can drive oxygen and uranium transport processes

  20. Laboratory and Field Testing of Commercially Available Detectors for the Identification of Chemicals of Interest in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle for the Detection of Undeclared Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carla Miller; Mary Adamic; Stacey Barker; Barry Siskind; Joe Brady; Warren Stern; Heidi Smartt; Mike McDaniel; Mike Stern; Rollin Lakis

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, IAEA inspectors have focused on the detection of nuclear indicators as part of infield inspection activities. The ability to rapidly detect and identify chemical as well as nuclear signatures can increase the ability of IAEA inspectors to detect undeclared activities at a site. Identification of chemical indicators have been limited to use in the analysis of environmental samples. Although IAEA analytical laboratories are highly effective, environmental sample processing does not allow for immediate or real-time results to an IAEA inspector at a facility. During a complementary access inspection, under the Additional Protocol, the use of fieldable technologies that can quickly provide accurate information on chemicals that may be indicative of undeclared activities can increase the ability of IAEA to effectively and efficiently complete their mission. The Complementary Access Working Group (CAWG) is a multi-laboratory team with members from Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory. The team identified chemicals at each stage of the nuclear fuel cycle that may provide IAEA inspectors with indications that proliferation activities may be occurring. The group eliminated all indicators related to equipment, technology and training, developing a list of by-products/effluents, non-nuclear materials, nuclear materials, and other observables. These proliferation indicators were prioritized based on detectability from a conduct of operations (CONOPS) perspective of a CA inspection (for example, whether an inspector actually can access the S&O or whether it is in process with no physical access), and the IAEA’s interest in the detection technology in conjunction with radiation detectors. The list was consolidated to general categories (nuclear materials from a chemical detection technique, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, halogens, and miscellaneous materials). The team

  1. Chemical durability and characterization of nuclear waste forms in a hydrothermal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braithwaite, J.W.; Johnstone, J.K.

    1979-01-01

    The chemical durability of a simulated copper borosilicate waste glass and titanate waste ceramic has been studied in hydrothermal environments which could possibly be encountered in a bedded salt or sub-sealed waste isolation repository. The major parameters investigated which affect matrix corrosion and cesium solubilization include solution saturation and equilibrium phenomena, solution composition (especially the Mg +2 ion concentration), pH, particle size, temperature, and time

  2. NUMATH: a nuclear material holdup estimator for unit operations and chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    NUMATH provides inventory estimation by utilizing previous inventory measurements, operating data, and, where available, on-line process measurements. For the present time, NUMATH's purpose is to provide a reasonable, near-real-time estimate of material inventory until accurate inventory determination can be obtained from chemical analysis. Ultimately, it is intended that NUMATH will further utilize on-line analyzers and more advanced calculational techniques to provide more accurate inventory determinations and estimates

  3. Inventory of chemical releases of nuclear installations in the North-Cotentin; Inventaire des rejets chimiques des installations nucleaires du Nord-Cotentin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-15

    The nuclear installations concerned by this study are Cogema La Hague, the Flamanville nuclear power plant, the Manche plant and the National Navy of Cherbourg.The objective followed by the ' source term ' work group has consisted in counting and examining the whole of existing measures relative to the releases of chemical substances in the liquid and gaseous effluents. Then because of the lack of measures for the operation first years of installations, the work group has estimated the order of magnitude of these chemical releases (essentially for Cogema La Hague). This report presents a review of the literature looking at the background levels of chemicals in different environmental compartments: air, soil, plants and animals products. these values have been summarized here to be available for comparisons with concentrations input by the North Cotentin nuclear installations, calculated by the G.R.N.C. (radioecology group of Nord Cotentin)

  4. Chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization in systems containing large hyperfine coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, H.D.; Hutton, R.S.; Hwang, Kuochu; Turro, N.J.; Welsh, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear spin polarization effects induced in radical pairs with one or more strong ( 13 C) hyperfine coupling constants have been evaluated. The pairs were generated by photoinduced α-cleavage or hydrogen abstraction reactions of carbonyl compounds. Several examples illustrate how changes in the magnetic field strength (H 0 ) and the g-factor difference (Δg) affect the general appearance of the resulting CIDNP multiplets. The results bear out an earlier caveat concerning the qualitative interpretation of CIDNP effects observed for multiplets

  5. Nuclear war: short-term chemical and radiative effects of stratospheric injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luther, F.M.

    1983-10-01

    Earlier investigations of the atmospheric effects of a nuclear war focused primarily on the potential reduction in stratospheric ozone. The numerical models used in those assessments were one-dimensional and calculated the average ozone reduction over the Northern Hemisphere. The results presented here are the first assessment of the potential reduction in total ozone on a subcontinental scale. The purpose is to determine whether regions of large ozone reduction (sometimes called ozone holes) are possible, and to identify the important parameters affecting the magnitude of the ozone reduction and rate of recovery

  6. Chemical effluents in surface waters from nuclear power plants. Quarterly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of this research project are threefold: to obtain data on the behavior of potentially toxic substances introduced into surface waters from nuclear power plants; to determine the magnitude of the impact of these substances on representative and economically important aquatic species; and to develop models with which to predict the partitioning of these substances among the abiotic aquatic compartments. To fulfill these objectives in our investigation of copper, we are determining copper partitioning in marine and freshwater systems, evaluating the toxicity of copper to representative aquatic organisms, and developing a mathematical model to predict copper partitioning

  7. Centrifugal micro-fluidic platform for radiochemistry: Potentialities for the chemical analysis of nuclear spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchet, Anthony; Mariet, Clarisse; Taniga, Velan; Descroix, Stephanie; Malaquin, Laurent; Goutelard, Florence

    2013-01-01

    The use of a centrifugal micro-fluidic platform is for the first time reported as an alternative to classical chromatographic procedures for radiochemistry. The original design of the micro-fluidic platform has been thought to fasten and simplify the prototyping process with the use of a circular platform integrating four rectangular microchips made of thermoplastic. The microchips, dedicated to anion-exchange chromatographic separations, integrate a localized monolithic stationary phase as well as injection and collection reservoirs. The results presented here were obtained with a simplified simulated nuclear spent fuel sample composed of non-radioactive isotopes of Europium and Uranium, in proportion usually found for uranium oxide nuclear spent fuel. While keeping the analytical results consistent with the conventional procedure (extraction yield for Europium of ∼97%), the use of the centrifugal micro-fluidic platform allowed to reduce the volume of liquid needed by a factor of ∼250. Thanks to their unique 'easy-to-use' features, centrifugal micro-fluidic platforms are potential successful candidates for the down-scaling of chromatographic separation of radioactive samples (automation, multiplexing, easy integration in glove-boxes environment and low cost of maintenance). (authors)

  8. Application of the risk based inspection in chemical and nuclear installations: a critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Anna Leticia Barbosa de

    2004-01-01

    Risk-based Inspection (RBI) has arisen as an opportunity for the industry to give a specific treatment to items as equipment integrity, failures consequences and the level of risk of each piece of equipment in the inspection programs definitions. Risk-based inspection programs are replacing the traditional ones based on prescriptive requirements, for both the oil and nuclear industries. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate how the nuclear industry has gotten over several difficulties in implementing risk-based programs considering that its safety design and regulations have traditionally been based on deterministic and prescriptive criteria and requirements. During the development of the work, the study has shown how the absence of a rigid regulation favored the dissemination of RBI diffusion in the oil industry, mainly in the USA, where such industries do not face those difficulties found by the European plants, as long as it is well known that in Europe there are complex interrelations among documents from different countries with diversity of regulation procedures. (author)

  9. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade plutonium dioxide powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Plutonium Sample Handling 8 to 10 Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Ceric Sulfate Titration Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron(II) Plutonium by Diode Array Spectrophotometry Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 11 to 18 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion–Thermal Conductivity 19 to 30 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 31 to 38 Sulfur by Distillation Spectrophotometry 39 to 47 Plutonium Isotopic Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earth Elements by Spectroscopy 48 to 55 Trace Elements by Carrier–Distillation Spectroscopy 56 to 63 Impurities by ICP-AES Impurity Elements by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 64 to 70 Moisture by the Coulomet...

  10. A mechanistic model for long-term nuclear waste glass dissolution integrating chemical affinity and interfacial diffusion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teqi [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China); Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group, Modelling and Simulation Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Jivkov, Andrey P., E-mail: andrey.jivkov@manchester.ac.uk [Mechanics and Physics of Solids Research Group, Modelling and Simulation Centre, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Li, Weiping; Liang, Wei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Hui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China); Han, Xiaoyuan, E-mail: xyhan_nint@sina.cn [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, No.28 Pingyu Road, Baqiao District, Xi' an,Shaanxi, 710024 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the alteration of nuclear waste glass in geological repository conditions is critical element of the analysis of repository retention function. Experimental observations of glass alterations provide a general agreement on the following regimes: inter-diffusion, hydrolysis process, rate drop, residual rate and, under very particular conditions, resumption of alteration. Of these, the mechanisms controlling the rate drop and the residual rate remain a subject of dispute. This paper offers a critical review of the two most competitive models related to these regimes: affinity–limited dissolution and diffusion barrier. The limitations of these models are highlighted by comparison of their predictions with available experimental evidence. Based on the comprehensive discussion of the existing models, a new mechanistic model is proposed as a combination of the chemical affinity and diffusion barrier concepts. It is demonstrated how the model can explain experimental phenomena and data, for which the existing models are shown to be not fully adequate.

  11. Cloning retinoid and peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors of the Pacific oyster and in silico binding to environmental chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Vogeler

    Full Text Available Disruption of nuclear receptors, a transcription factor superfamily regulating gene expression in animals, is one proposed mechanism through which pollution causes effects in aquatic invertebrates. Environmental pollutants have the ability to interfere with the receptor's functions through direct binding and inducing incorrect signals. Limited knowledge of invertebrate endocrinology and molecular regulatory mechanisms, however, impede the understanding of endocrine disruptive effects in many aquatic invertebrate species. Here, we isolated three nuclear receptors of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas: two isoforms of the retinoid X receptor, CgRXR-1 and CgRXR-2, a retinoic acid receptor ortholog CgRAR, and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ortholog CgPPAR. Computer modelling of the receptors based on 3D crystal structures of human proteins was used to predict each receptor's ability to bind to different ligands in silico. CgRXR showed high potential to bind and be activated by 9-cis retinoic acid and the organotin tributyltin (TBT. Computer modelling of CgRAR revealed six residues in the ligand binding domain, which prevent the successful interaction with natural and synthetic retinoid ligands. This supports an existing theory of loss of retinoid binding in molluscan RARs. Modelling of CgPPAR was less reliable due to high discrepancies in sequence to its human ortholog. Yet, there are suggestions of binding to TBT, but not to rosiglitazone. The effect of potential receptor ligands on early oyster development was assessed after 24h of chemical exposure. TBT oxide (0.2μg/l, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA (0.06 mg/L and perfluorooctanoic acid (20 mg/L showed high effects on development (>74% abnormal developed D-shelled larvae, while rosiglitazone (40 mg/L showed no effect. The results are discussed in relation to a putative direct (TBT disruption effect on nuclear receptors. The inability of direct binding of ATRA to CgRAR suggests

  12. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes a presentation and discussion of the main notions, issues, principles, or characteristics related to nuclear energy: radioactivity (presence in the environment, explanation, measurement, periods and activities, low doses, applications), fuel cycle (front end, mining and ore concentration, refining and conversion, fuel fabrication, in the reactor, back end with reprocessing and recycling, transport), the future of the thorium-based fuel cycle (motivations, benefits and drawbacks), nuclear reactors (principles of fission reactors, reactor types, PWR reactors, BWR, heavy-water reactor, high temperature reactor of HTR, future reactors), nuclear wastes (classification, packaging and storage, legal aspects, vitrification, choice of a deep storage option, quantities and costs, foreign practices), radioactive releases of nuclear installations (main released radio-elements, radioactive releases by nuclear reactors and by La Hague plant, gaseous and liquid effluents, impact of releases, regulation), the OSPAR Convention, management and safety of nuclear activities (from control to quality insurance, to quality management and to sustainable development), national safety bodies (mission, means, organisation and activities of ASN, IRSN, HCTISN), international bodies, nuclear and medicine (applications of radioactivity, medical imagery, radiotherapy, doses in nuclear medicine, implementation, the accident in Epinal), nuclear and R and D (past R and D programmes and expenses, main actors in France and present funding, main R and D axis, international cooperation)

  13. Nuclear and radiochemical techniques in chemical analysis. Progress report, 1 June 1974--31 May 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, H.L.; Williams, E.T.

    1975-01-01

    Progress on the project to determine the neutron-absorption cross section of 22 Na is described. Upper limits for the thermal-neutron cross sections of 88 Y and 139 Ce have been set at 100 barns. The experiment to search for a change in the ratio of electron capture to positron emission due to difference in chemical environment is underway. The mechanical aspects of the system for analysis by proton-induced x-ray emission are described. Recent results on solvent extraction of mercury by pure solvents and propylene carbonate are described. Recent measurements in a study of an acid-base hypothesis are described. (U.S.)

  14. Chemical effects of (n, γ) nuclear reaction on (Mo6Cl8)Cl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucugauchi, L.A.; Millan, S.; Mondragon, A.; Solache-Rios, M.

    1994-01-01

    The chemical effects of 98 Mo(n, γ) 99 Mo reaction on molybdenum(II) chloride [(Mo 6 Cl 8 )Cl 4 ] have been studied. Retention, thermal and radiolytical annealing were determined. It was found that this molybdenum compound has low retention, a negligible tendency to thermal annealing and a virtual insensitivity to hydrolysis. For practical applications in the enrichment of 99 Mo by the Shilard-Chalmers method, molybdenum(II) chloride [(Mo 6 Cl 8 )Cl 4 ] appears to offer good prospects. (author) 14 refs.; 2 figs

  15. An overview of physico-chemical properties of molten fluoride for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, Smruti

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to provide an overview of the key research trends of physicochemical properties of molten salts. This study also calculated the coefficient of viscosities of NaF, KF, FeF 2 , NiF 2 and different compositions of NaF + KF melt using FactSage programme. This programme linked the slag viscosity to the internal structure of melts through second nearest neighbor bonds concentrations which was calculated from the advanced quasi-chemical thermodynamic model. The calculated coefficients of viscosities were compared with that reported in the literature. (author)

  16. A study of essential elements in ancient Thai fighting swords by chemical and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janposri, K.

    1980-01-01

    Four ancient Thai fighting swords from the Bangkok National Museum and iron ore from Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi were studied by neutron activation analysis, metallography and chemical analysis. The results of these scientific studies show that all of these four swords are made of plain carbon steel, containing trace elements which have no effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the steel. The trace elements which were found in the iron ore are quite similar to those found in one of these swords. This means that the iron in one of the swords may have come from ore found at Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi

  17. Chemical effect in nuclear decay processes. Applications in in situ studies in hot atom chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urch, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    In certain cases, secondary processes, such as X-ray or electron emission initiated by the primary event, do show effects which can be correlated with the chemical state of the emitting atom. The most well known is Moessbauer recoil-less γ-emission, but this talk will concentrate on other, more widespread processes that follow either γ-ray internal conversion (γIC) or electron capture (EC). The former leads to electron emission and the latter to X-ray and Auger electron emission. Such emissions have been extensively studied in non-radioactive situations. These studies have shown that changes in photo- or Auger-electron energy can be readily correlated with valency and that the energies, peak shapes and peak intensities of X-rays that are generated by valence-core transitions show chemically related perturbations. γIC has been applied to the determination of changes of 3p and 3d binding energies as a function of technetium valency. The results are comparable with those from conventional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) it is the Kα and Kβ X-rays from chromium ( 51 Cr) that have been most extensively studied. Studies in non-radioactive systems for chromium and related first row transition elements seem to indicate that the Kβ/Kα intensity ratio increases with valency. This may be rationalized as due to a greater response by 3p than 2p electrons to a reduction in the number of 3d electrons: 3p becomes more contracted and so the 3p → 1s transition probability is enhanced leading to the relative increase in Kβ intensity. Once 'chemical effects' in γIC and EC:XES have been established for a range of recoil elements they may be used to determine the chemical state of a recoil atom in a solid state matrix without recourse to dissolution. Such a non-invasive procedure will yield invalunable data on the primary hot atom chemistry processes. (author)

  18. Historical nuclear materials balance report for the former AEC-owned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    From June 1957 through December 1966, four types of nuclear material were processed in the AEC-owned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant. These materials were: (1) natural uranium, (2) depleted uranium, (3) slightly enriched uranium, and (4) natural thorium. The summary material balances for each material are shown in Table 1. In processing these materials, discards occurred to (a) the atmosphere through stacks, (b) area waterways through sewers, and (c) to raffinate pits still in existence at the site. These discards are summarized in Table 2. Natural uranium processing accounted for more than 97% of the nuclear materials throughput (Table 1). Total material balance closures for natural uranium, depleted uranium, slightly enriched uranium, and natural thorium were 99.94%, 100%, 99.27%, and 98.52%, respectively. Of the discards, summarized in Table 2, approximately 75% went to and remain in the existing raffinate pits. Discharges to stacks and sewers account for the remaining discards. As far as can be determined, it appears all plant processes operated efficiently and all materials were well accounted for with only minimal variances

  19. Nuclear chemical method for preparation of free carbenium ions and radiochemical investigation of reactions of these particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefedov, V.D.; Sinotova, E.N.; Toropova, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tritium nuclear transformation (β-decay) in the composition of the molecules of hydrocarbons, appearance of primary molecular ions and formation of free carbenium ion are the main items of nuclear-chemical method of preparation of free carbenium ions. The method permits to prepare carbenium ions present in free state, i.e. without counterion and without solvate sheath of variou nitial localization of the charge. The rate of carbenium ion generation is strictly definite and does not depend upon outer conditions. The method suggested permits to prepare carbenium ions in all phases, study their reactions with individual substances in gaseous, liquid and solid states. The study of ion-molecular reactions is carried out using radiochemical method. The analysis of the products is made using the method of gaseous radiochromatography. Development of preparation techniques of carbenium ions and their analogues, study of the reactions of these particles with different classes of compounds, investigation of the effect of different factors upon procedure of ion-molecular reactions are the main directions of the investigations

  20. Systematic approach for assessment of accident risks in chemical and nuclear processing; Abordagem sistematica para avaliacao de riscos de acidentes em instalacoes de processamento quimico e nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senne, Junior, Murillo

    2003-07-15

    The industrial accidents which occurred in the last years, particularly in the 80's, contributed a significant way to draw the attention of the government, industry and the society as a whole to the mechanisms for preventing events that could affect people's safety and the environment quality. Techniques and methods extensively used the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries so far were adapted to performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. The risk analysis in industrial facilities is carried out through the evaluation of the probability or frequency of the accidents and their consequences. However, no systematized methodology that could supply the tools for identifying possible accidents likely to take place in an installation is available in the literature. Neither existing are methodologies for the identification of the models for evaluation of the accidents' consequences nor for the selection of the available techniques for qualitative or quantitative analysis of the possibility of occurrence of the accident being focused. The objective of this work is to develop and implement a methodology for identification of the risks of accidents in chemical and nuclear processing facilities as well as for the evaluation of their consequences on persons. For the development of the methodology, the main possible accidents that could occur in such installations were identified and the qualitative and quantitative techniques available for the identification of the risks and for the evaluation of the consequences of each identified accidents were selected. The use of the methodology was illustrated by applying it in two case examples adapted from the literature, involving accidents with inflammable, explosives, and radioactive materials. The computer code MRA - Methodology for Risk Assessment was developed using DELPHI, version 5.0, with the purpose of systematizing

  1. Systematic approach for assessment of accident risks in chemical and nuclear processing; Abordagem sistematica para avaliacao de riscos de acidentes em instalacoes de processamento quimico e nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senne Junior, Murillo

    2003-07-15

    The industrial accidents which occurred in the last years, particularly in the 80's, contributed a significant way to draw the attention of the government, industry and the society as a whole to the mechanisms for preventing events that could affect people's safety and the environment quality. Techniques and methods extensively used the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries so far were adapted to performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. The risk analysis in industrial facilities is carried out through the evaluation of the probability or frequency of the accidents and their consequences. However, no systematized methodology that could supply the tools for identifying possible accidents likely to take place in an installation is available in the literature. Neither existing are methodologies for the identification of the models for evaluation of the accidents' consequences nor for the selection of the available techniques for qualitative or quantitative analysis of the possibility of occurrence of the accident being focused. The objective of this work is to develop and implement a methodology for identification of the risks of accidents in chemical and nuclear processing facilities as well as for the evaluation of their consequences on persons. For the development of the methodology, the main possible accidents that could occur in such installations were identified and the qualitative and quantitative techniques available for the identification of the risks and for the evaluation of the consequences of each identified accidents were selected. The use of the methodology was illustrated by applying it in two case examples adapted from the literature, involving accidents with inflammable, explosives, and radioactive materials. The computer code MRA - Methodology for Risk Assessment was developed using DELPHI, version 5.0, with the purpose of

  2. Moessbauer spectroscopy-nuclear hyperfine technique for studying dynamic chemical states of iron complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A brief introduction of Moessbauer spectroscopy will be presented, followed by a discussion of the Moessbauer parameters, isomer shifts, quadrupole splittings, and spectral shapes of complexes in the presence of relaxation of the electronic states of the iron atoms. The usefulness of Moessbauer spectroscopy to demonstrate the dynamic phenomena of electronic states will be discussed in this lecture. (1) The Moessbauer spectra of mixed valence dinuclear and trinuclear iron complexes will be discussed in connection with the chemical structure of the complexes: The values of the quadrupole splittings and isomer shifts of [Fe II Fe III (bpmp) (ppa) 2 ](BF 4 ) 2 increase on raising the temperature, where Hbpmp represents 2,6-bis[bis(2- pyridylmethyl)aminoethyl]-4-methylphenol and ppa is 3-n-phenylpropionic acid. The spectra can be accounted for by postulating intramolecular electron exchange between two energetically inequivalent vibronic states Fe A 2+ Fe B 3+ and Fe A 3+ Fe B 2+ : The apparent time averaged valence states of the iron atoms are 2.2 and 2.8 on the Moessbauer time scale at 293 K. (2) The Moessbauer spectra of iron(III) spin-crossover complexes will be discussed in connection with the spin-transition rate and chemical structure of the complexes. The Moessbauer spectra of spin-crossover iron(III) complexes with LIESST (Light Induced Electronic Spin-State Transition) and of metallomesogens will be discussed to illustrate the extension of this research area by the use of Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  3. Chemical elimination of alumina in suspension in nuclear reactors heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledoux, A.

    1967-02-01

    Corrosion of aluminium in contact with moderating water in nuclear reactor leads to the formation of an alumina hydrosol which can have an adverse effect on the operation of the reactor. Several physical methods have been used in an attempt to counteract this effect. The method proposed here consists in the elimination of the aluminium by dissolution and subsequent fixation in the ionic form on mixed-bed ion-exchange resin. In order to do this, the parameters and the values of these parameters most favorable to the dissolution process have been determined. If the moderator is heavy water, the deuterated acid can be prepared by converting a solution in heavy water to a salt of the acid using a deuterated cationic resin. (author) [fr

  4. Nuclear and radiochemical techniques in chemical analysis. Progress report, August 1, 1977--July 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, H.L.; Williams, E.T.

    1978-07-01

    The study of neutron-absorption cross sections of reactor-produced radionuclides has been completed, and results are reported for 22 Na, 126 I, 139 Ce, 88 Y, 184 Re, 182 Ta, 54 Mn, and 94 Zr. The results for 22 Na indicate the existence of a resonance in the thermal region which could explain the discrepancies in the published values for the thermal cross section. The results of air-sampling experiments are described as is the proton-induced x-ray emission system developed at Brooklyn College. Work on sample preparation and applications of the PIXE technique are given. Progress on a nuclear method to determine fluorine-containing gaseous compounds is reported. Work on solvent extraction with propylene carbonate and experiments involving an acid-base hypothesis are described

  5. Determination of chemical forms of 14C in liquid discharges from nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlik, I; Fejgl, M; Povinec, P P; Kořínková, T; Tomášková, L; Pospíchal, J; Kurfiřt, M; Striegler, R; Kaufmanová, M

    2017-10-01

    Developments of radioanalytical methods for determination of radiocarbon in wastewaters from nuclear power plants (NPP) with pressurized light water reactors, which would distinguish between the dissolved organic and inorganic forms have been carried out. After preliminary tests, the method was used to process pilot samples from wastewater outlets from the Temelín and Dukovany NPPs (Czech Republic). The results of analysis of pilot water samples collected in 2015 indicate that the instantaneous 14 C releases into the water streams would be about 7.10 -5 (Temelín) and 4.10 -6 (Dukovany) of the total quantity of the 14 C liberated into the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Method of chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels (especially fuels containing uranium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.

    1975-01-01

    The invention deals with a method for the extraction especially of fast breeder fuels of high burn-up. A quaternary ammonium nitrate of high molecular weight is put into an organic diluting medium as extraction agent, corresponding to the general formula NRR'R''R'''NO 3 where R,R' and R'' are aliphatic radicals, R''' a methyl radical and the sum of the C atoms is greater than 16. After the extraction of the aqueous nitric acid containing nuclear fuel solution with this extracting agent, uranium, plutonium (or also thorium) can be found to a very high percentage in the organic phase and can be practically quantitatively back-extracted by means of diluted nitric acid, sulphuric acid or acetic acid. By using 30 volume percent tricapryl methyl ammonium nitrate in diethyl benzene for example, a distribution coefficient of 10.3 is obtained for uranium. (RB/LH) [de

  7. Chemical analysis used in nuclear fuels reprocessing of uranium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schvartzman, M.M.A.M.

    1986-01-01

    An overall review of the analytical chemistry in nuclear fuel reprocessing is done. In Purex and Thorex process flowsheets, the analyses required to the control of the process, balance and accountability of fissile and fertile materials, and final product specification are pointed out. Some analytical methods applied to the determination of uranium, plutonium, thorium, nitric acid, tributylphosphate and fission products are described. Specific features of the analytical laboratories are presented. The radioactivity level of the samples requires facilities as shielded cells and glove boxes, and handling by remote control. Finally it is reported an application of one analytical method to evaluate thorium content in organic and aqueous solutions, in cold tests of Thorex process. These tests were performed at CDTN/NUCLEBRAS. (author) [pt

  8. Organic phosphorus fractionation in wetland soil profiles by chemical extraction and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Min; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guangqian; Yang, Haijun; Whelan, Michael J.; White, Sue M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chemical sequential extraction and 31 P NMR spectroscopy were used for organic P analysis. ► Organic P includes orthophosphate, monoester and diester phosphate and pyrophosphate. ► Highly resistant organic P and monoester phosphate were the dominant organic P. ► HCl pretreatment can remove most inorganic P and increase organic P recovery rate. ► A comprehensive organic P chemical sequential fractionation approach was proposed. - Abstract: Organic P (OP) plays an important role in soil P cycling and is a potential P source for wetland plants. In this study, a modified chemical sequential fractionation method and 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P NMR) of NaOH–EDTA extracts were used to examine the distribution of organic P fractions and compounds in soil profiles of the Beijing Yeyahu Wetland, China. The influence of acid treatment prior to NaOH–EDTA extraction on 31 P NMR spectra was also investigated. Results show that highly resistant OP was the major class of organic P. The rank order of organic P fractions was highly resistant OP (on average accounting for 68.5% of total OP) > moderately resistant OP (15.8%m of total OP) > moderately labile OP (11.4% of total OP) > labile OP (4.3% of total OP). Most of the organic P fractions decreased with soil depth due to the accumulation of plant residues in surface soils and the deposition and diagenesis of soils. Moderately (r = 0.586, p < 0.01) and highly (r = 0.741, p < 0.01) resistant OP fractions were positively correlated with soil organic matter. Phosphorus compounds including orthophosphate (23–74.6% of total P in spectra), monoester phosphate (18.6–76%), diester phosphate (nil-7.8%) and pyrophosphate (nil-6.7%) were characterized using 31 P NMR. Monoester-P was the dominant soil organic P compound identified. The proportion of monoester-P increased significantly in NaOH–EDTA extracts with HCl pretreatment and it was confirmed by chemical analysis. Therefore, it

  9. Interaction mechanisms of radioactive, chemical and thermal releases from the nuclear industry: Methodology for considering co-operative effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of chemicals are known which can modify radiation effects on cell killing, carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. In this paper data are reported for radiosensitizing agents. In order to discuss the interaction mechanisms of these synergistic effects, the action of radiation on DNA, on its biological functions and on its metabolism are explained briefly. Also it is indicated that part of the radiation effects in the DNA can be 'repaired' and that living cells can recover from radiation damage. One group of radiosensitizers interacts with cellular DNA or with the DNP-complex. These reactions change the configurational structure or metabolism of DNA and DNP. In this connection the action of antibiotics such as actinomycin D, and the action of SH-blocking agents such as iodoacetamide and NEM, as well as the action of alkylating agents, are discussed. A second group of radiosensitizers, especially with hypoxic cells, are the electron affinic chemicals like nitro-compounds, ketones and others. Data are also given on the modification of radiation effects by changes in temperature. Further, the problem of whether synergistic effects are to be expected arising from the chemicals and radiation originating in the nuclear industry is considered. Data show that repair and recovery processes especially are modified by radiosensitizers. The implications of this fact on sensitization at low radiation doses and at low dose rates, as well as the effect of high LET radiation, are considered. It is of interest that the dose modifying factor of some sensitizers can reach a magnitude of a factor of two to three. (author)

  10. Nuclear and radiochemical techniques in chemical analysis. Progress report, June 1, 1975--July 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finston, H.L.; Williams, E.T.

    1976-01-01

    There has been significant progress on the project to measure the neutron-capture cross sections of reactor produced radionuclides, in particular, centering on the problems with nuclides such as 22 Na which may have a resonance for thermal-neutron capture. The thermal capture cross section of less than 40 b has been verified for 54 Mn, and cadmium ratios have been determined for 184 Re in the V-11 and V-14 positions in the HFBR. Lutetium has been used as a neutron temperature monitor for the Brookhaven reactors. Preliminary results on the project to determine the effect of chemical state on the branching ratio in 58 Co are reported. Procedures for aerosol collection and analysis by proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) are reported. A program to analyze aerosols for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been initiated. Progress is reported on the experimental verification of the proposed acid-base hypothesis

  11. THE CHEMICAL AND RADIATION RESISTANCE OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE AS ENCOUNTERED IN THE NUCLEAR WASTE CLEANING PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.

    2011-10-20

    Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) is extremely resistant to gamma irradiation, caustic solution, and dilute nitric acid. PPS is the material of construction for the coalescers used in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). After applying the equivalent of 16 years of gamma irradiation and several months of exposures to caustic solution, no dimensional changes nor chemical changes were detected in PPS whether the PPS was in fiber form or in a composite with E-glass fibers. However, PPS acts as a media for heterogeneous nucleation. In particular, PPS appears to favor aluminosilicate formation in saturated solutions of aluminum and silicon in caustic environments. Parallel testing, in progress, is examining the stability of PPS when exposed to the new solvent formulation under development for MCU. Preliminary data, after two months of exposure, PPS is remarkably stable to the new solvent.

  12. High-temperature thermal-chemical analysis of nuclear fuel channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekhamkin, Y; Rosenband, V; Hasan, D; Elias, E; Wacholder, E; Gany, A [Technion-Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-01

    In a severe accident situation, e.g., a postulated loss of coolant accident with a coincident loss of emergency core cooling (LOCA/LOECC), the core may become partially uncovered and steam may become the only coolant available. The thermodynamic conditions in the core, in this case, depend on ability of the steam to effectively remove the fuel decay heat and the heat generated by the exothermic steam/Zircaloy reaction., Therefore, it is important to understand the high-temperature behavior of an oxidizing fuel channel. The main objective of this work is to develop a methodology for calculating the clad temperature and rate of oxidation of a partially covered fuel pin. A criterion is derived to define the importance of the chemical reaction in the overall heat balance. The main parameters affecting the fuel thermal behavior are outlined (authors).

  13. On line surveillance of large systems: applications to nuclear and chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwingelstein, G.

    1978-01-01

    An on line surveillance method for large scale and distributed parameter systems is achieved by comparing in real time the internal physical parameter values to the reference values. It is shown that the following steps are necessary: modeling, model validation using dynamic testing and on line estimation of parameters. For large scale systems where only few outputs are measurable, an estimation algorithm was developed, selecting the measurable output giving the minimum variance of the physical parameters. This estimation scheme uses a quasilinearization technique associated to the sensitivity equation and the recursive least squares techniques. For large scale systems of order greater than 100, two versions of the estimation scheme are proposed to decrease the computation time. An application to a nuclear reactor core (state variable model of order 29) is proposed and used real data. For distributed systems the estimation scheme was developed with either measurements at fixed time or at fixed space. The estimation algorithm selects the set of measurements that gives the minimum variance of the estimates. An application to a liquid-liquid extraction column, modelized by a set of four coupled partial differential equations, demonstrates the efficiency of the method

  14. Nuclear-chemical methods in a hard tooth tissue abrasion study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosman, A.; Spevacek, V.; Konicek, J.; Vopalka, D.; Housova, D.; Dolezalova, L.

    1999-01-01

    The advanced method consists in implantation-labelling of the thin surface layers of the solid objects, e.g. hard tooth tissue, by atoms of suitable natural or artificial radionuclides. Nuclides from the uranium series were implanted into the surface by using nuclear recoil effect at alpha decay of 226 Ra to 222 Rn, alpha decay of 222 Rn to RaA, alpha decay of RaA to RaB (beta-emitter) and further alpha or beta emitters. With regard to chosen alpha detection and to the half-lives of the radionuclides, there was actually measured the activity of 222 Rn, RaA and RaC' in the thin surface layer. This was followed by the laboratory simulation of the abrasion in the system of 'toothbrush - various suspensions of the tooth-pastes - hard tooth tissue (or material standard - ivory)' in specially designed device - the dentoabrasion meter. The activities of the tissue surface measured before and after abrasion were used for calculations of the relative drop of the surface activity. On this basis the influence of various tooth-pastes containing various abrasive substances was determined. (author)

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of the use a chemical heat pump to link a supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor and a thermochemical water-splitting cycle for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.; Pioro, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Increases in the power generation efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are mainly limited by the permissible temperatures in nuclear reactors and the corresponding temperatures and pressures of the coolants in reactors. Coolant parameters are limited by the corrosion rates of materials and nuclear-reactor safety constraints. The advanced construction materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ supercritical water (SCW) as a coolant and heat carrier, permit improved 'steam' parameters (outlet temperatures up to 625degC and pressures of about 25 MPa). An increase in the temperature of steam allows it to be utilized in thermochemical water splitting cycles to produce hydrogen. These methods are considered by many to be among the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require an intensive heat supply at temperatures higher than 550-600degC. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump, which increases the temperature of the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. Here, a high-temperature chemical heat pump, which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction, is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with the second steam cycle of a SCW nuclear power generation plant on one side and a thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature of the 'nuclear' heat and, consequently, the intensity of heat transfer into the water splitting cycle. A comparative preliminary thermodynamic analysis is conducted of

  16. Chemical nuclear polarization effects in photoreactions of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane with carbonyl-containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkhun, V. I.; Rakhimov, A. I.

    2012-11-01

    Elementary acts of the photoreaction of diamine with 2,6-diphenyl- p-benzoquinone are determined from the effects of chemical nuclear polarization effects. Hydrogen atom transfer is shown to occur in two stages with the participation of a radical ion pair.

  17. Role of aromatic amino acids in carbohydrate binding of plant lectins : Laser photo chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization study of hevein domain-containing lectins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siebert, HC; vonderLieth, CW; Kaptein, R; Beintema, JJ; Dijkstra, K; vanNuland, N; Soedjanaatmadja, UMS; Rice, A; Vliegenthart, JFG; Wright, CS; Gabius, HJ

    Carbohydrate recognition by lectins often involves the side chains of tyrosine, tryptophan, and histidine residues. These moieties are able to produce chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization (CIDNP) signals after laser irradiation in the presence of a suitable radical pair-generating dye.

  18. Applications of chemical engineering principles to glassmaking for nuclear waste fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boersma, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    There are five important differences between radwaste vitrification and normal industrial glassmaking. The hostile (radioactive) environment requires the entire process to be operated and maintained remotely. This is largely a mechanical/architectural engineering problem because radiation has very little direct impact on process chemistry or energy. A second difference is that process plant economics are dominated by safety and reliability considerations, rather than market conditions and energy costs. Third, the product quality criteria are quite different; rather than optical clarity, mechanical strength, functional shape, and esthetic appeal, the important quality for radwaste glass is its chemical durability in final storage. Fourth, the off-gases from a radwaste vitrification process are of greater environmental concern. Equipment must be airtight or under vacuum, and highly efficient gas cleanup systems must be used. Finally, feed to a radwaste glass melter is typically at least 50% water. Liquid slurry melter feed is not unheard of in commercial glassmaking but dry batch feed is normal. Slurry water more than doubles the process energy demand in the melter and causes some very large local temperature gradients. 2 figs

  19. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sablayrolles C.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+. The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  20. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertron, A.; Ranaivomanana, H.; Jacquemet, N.; Erable, B.; Sablayrolles, C.; Escadeillas, G.; Albrecht, A.

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  1. Quality control at the Regional Centre of Nuclear Sciences chemical dosimetry laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Melo, Roberto T. de; Silva, Danubia B. da; Pedroza, Eryka H.; Rodrigues, Kelia R.G.; Cunha, Manuela S. da; Figueiredo, Marcela D.C. de [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Oliveira, Aristides, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rtmelo@cnen.gov.b [Hospital de Cancer de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Standards for accreditation of laboratories as in ISO 9001 in section: 4.11 require inspection, measuring and equipment testing; likewise, IEC 17025: 2005 in section: 5.5.2 requires the equipment to be calibrated or verified before being put into use. In our laboratory, quality control is often accomplished by standards set done by the laboratory scientists themselves; however, at present, Hellma secondary calibration standards (4026 - Holmium oxide - Filters: F0, F2, F3, F4 and filter didymium - F7) have been used in order to verify if errors in the laboratory have been close to the 1-2% margin. Control graphs were made by using the results of synthetically prepared standards and standardized spectral calibration certificates. The set of secondary calibration standards permits to check the accuracy of the spectrophotometers used in research for both the absorbance in the visible spectrum (at 440, 465, 546, 590 and 635 nm wavelengths) and for the wavelengths (270, 280, 300, 320 nm) of the ultraviolet light. Filters (F0, F2, F3, F4 and F7) are stable and do not suffer the influence of temperature (the influence is negligible), the F0 filter was being used as a blank. The purpose is to verify whether the spectrometer needs adjustments, an important procedure to check absorbance stability, baseline flatness, slit width accuracy and stray radiation. The calibration tests are performed annually in our laboratory and recalibration of Hellma secondary standards is recommended every two years. The results show that the Chemical Dosimetry Laboratory in CRCN has a calibrated spectrophotometer and their synthetic standards for Fricke dosimetry could be used as an alternative method for testing the proficiency and competence of calibration laboratories in accordance with the regulations and standards. (author)

  2. Chemicals in effluent waters from nuclear power stations: the distribution, fate, and effects of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.

    1984-04-01

    This report provides a summary of research performed to determine the physicochemical forms and fate of copper in effluents from power stations adjacent to aquatic ecosystems with water that differs in salinity, pH, and concentrations of organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, research performed to evaluate responses of selected ecologically and economically important marine and freshwater organisms to increased concentrations of soluble copper is reviewed. The same parameters were measured and the same analytical techniques were used throughout the study. Copper concentration and speciation, in influent and effluent waters collected from eight power stations using copper alloys in their cooling systems, showed that the quantities of copper associated with particles, colloids, and organic and inorganic ligands differed with the site, season, and mode of operation of the station. Under normal operating conditions, the differences between influent and effluent waters were generally small, and most of the copper was in bound (complexed) species except when low pH water was circulated. However, copper was high in concentration and present in labile species during start-up of water circulation through some cooling systems and during changeover from open-cycle to closed-cycle operation. The toxic response to copper differed with the species and life stage of the organism and with the chemical form of copper in the water. Our primary emphasis was on acute effects and most of the testing was performed under controlled laboratory conditions. However, sublethal effects of copper on a population of bluegills living in a power station cooling lake containing water of low pH and on a population exposed to increased soluble copper in the laboratory were also assessed. 105 references, 15 figures, 11 tables

  3. Review of hazardous chemical regulation at nuclear facilities by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, March 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Seven witnesses from agencies and the nuclear industry testified on the status of chemical regulation at nuclear facilities, the potential for accidents, and the quality of emergency plans in the event of a release of chemical substances. Impetus for the review came from incidents at Kerr-McGhee's Sequoyah plant in Oklahoma and the release of uranium hexafluoride, as well as a pattern of accidents which occur after the potential hazard has already been identified. The witnesses included Richard Krimm of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, James Makris of the Environmental Protection Agency, John Miles of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Nunxio Palladino of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and representatives of DOE and Kerr-McGee. Additional materials submitted for the record follows the testimony

  4. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials; Eskalation des Terrors? Ueber das Anschlagsrisiko mit chemischen, biologischen, radiologischen und nuklearen Waffen oder Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-07-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  5. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation Of N Reactor (U-Metal) Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Bernot

    2001-01-01

    The Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M and O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the N Reactor, a graphite moderated reactor at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site (ref. 1). The N Reactor core was fueled with slightly enriched (0.947 wt% and 0.947 to 1.25 wt% 235 U in Mark IV and Mark IA fuels, respectively) U-metal clad in Zircaloy-2 (Ref. 1, Sec. 3). Both types of N Reactor SNF have been considered for disposal at the proposed Yucca Mountain site. For some WPs, the outer shell and inner shell may breach (Ref. 3) allowing the influx of water. Water in the WP will moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the WP; and the water may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components from the WP, further affecting the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of WPs containing two multi-canister overpacks (MCO) with either six baskets of Mark IA or five baskets of Mark IV intact N Reactor SNF rods (Ref. 1, Sec. 4) and two high-level waste (HLW) glass pour canisters (GPCs) arranged according to the codisposal concept (Ref. 4). The specific study objectives were to determine: (1) The extent to which fissile uranium will remain in the WP after corrosion/dissolution of the initial WP configuration (2) The extent to which fissile uranium will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water (such that internal criticality is no longer possible, but the possibility of external criticality may be enhanced); and (3) The nominal chemical composition for the criticality evaluations of the WP design, and to suggest the range of parametric variations for additional evaluations. The scope of this calculation, the chemical compositions (and subsequent criticality evaluations) of the simulations, is limited to

  6. EQ6 Calculations for Chemical Degradation Of N Reactor (U-Metal) Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2001-02-27

    The Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the N Reactor, a graphite moderated reactor at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site (ref. 1). The N Reactor core was fueled with slightly enriched (0.947 wt% and 0.947 to 1.25 wt% {sup 235}U in Mark IV and Mark IA fuels, respectively) U-metal clad in Zircaloy-2 (Ref. 1, Sec. 3). Both types of N Reactor SNF have been considered for disposal at the proposed Yucca Mountain site. For some WPs, the outer shell and inner shell may breach (Ref. 3) allowing the influx of water. Water in the WP will moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the WP; and the water may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components from the WP, further affecting the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of WPs containing two multi-canister overpacks (MCO) with either six baskets of Mark IA or five baskets of Mark IV intact N Reactor SNF rods (Ref. 1, Sec. 4) and two high-level waste (HLW) glass pour canisters (GPCs) arranged according to the codisposal concept (Ref. 4). The specific study objectives were to determine: (1) The extent to which fissile uranium will remain in the WP after corrosion/dissolution of the initial WP configuration (2) The extent to which fissile uranium will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water (such that internal criticality is no longer possible, but the possibility of external criticality may be enhanced); and (3) The nominal chemical composition for the criticality evaluations of the WP design, and to suggest the range of parametric variations for additional evaluations. The scope of this calculation, the chemical compositions (and subsequent criticality evaluations) of the simulations, is limited

  7. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  8. How to communicate with the public about chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear terrorism: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, G James; Chowdhury, Alexander K; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-12-01

    A deliberate attack involving chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) material has the potential to cause substantial fear among the public. This presents problems for communicators, who will need to provide information quickly after an attack while ensuring that their messages are easily understood and likely to be attended to by members of the public. Identifying in advance what people would want to know, where they would get information from, and how messages should be presented might allow communicators to ensure that their messages have the best chance of having their desired effect. In this review, we identified all peer-reviewed studies that have assessed communication strategies or information needs using hypothetical CBRN scenarios or in actual CBRN incidents. We identified 33 relevant studies. Their results support existing psychological models of why people engage in health protective behaviors, with information about the severity of the incident, the likelihood of being exposed, the efficacy and costs or risks of recommended behaviors, and the ability of individuals to perform recommended behaviors being sought by the public. Trust plays a crucial role in ensuring that people attend to messages. Finally, while a large variety of spokespeople and sources were identified as being turned to in the event of an incident, the use of multiple information sources was also common, affirming the importance of communicating a consistent message through multiple channels. Further research is required to extend these predominantly US-based findings to other countries and to confirm the findings of research using hypothetical scenarios.

  9. Physico-chemical studies of laser-induced plasmas for quantitative analysis of materials in nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, Rawad

    2014-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a multi-elemental analysis technique very well suited for analysis in hostile environments particularly in the nuclear industry. Quantitative measurements are frequently performed on liquid or solid samples but in some cases, atypical signal behaviors were observed in the LIBS experiment. To avoid or minimize any impact on measurement accuracy, it is necessary to improve the understanding of these phenomena. In the framework of a three-year PhD thesis, the objective was to study the chemical reactions occurring within laser-generated plasma in a LIBS analysis. Experiments on a model material (pure aluminum sample) highlighted the dynamics of molecular recombination according to different ambient gas. The temporal evolution of Al I atomic emission lines and molecular bands of AlO and AlN were studied. A collisional excitation effect was identified for a peculiar electronic energy level of aluminum in the case of a nitrogen atmosphere. This effect disappeared in air. The aluminum plasma was also imaged during its expansion under the different atmospheres in order to localize the areas in which the molecular recombination process takes place. Spectacular particle projections have been highlighted. (author) [fr

  10. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl x , UAl x -Al and U 3 O 8 -Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH x , UErZrH, UO 2 -stainless steel cermet, and U 3 O 8 -stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  11. Structural changes in irreversibly densified fused silica: implications for the chemical resistance of high level nuclear waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.; Liebermann, R.C.; Gwanmesia, G.D.; Yanbin Wang

    1990-01-01

    Energetic photons and energetic particles create changes in the structure of nuclear waste glasses. These can be observed as changes in the average bulk physical properties. For example, exposure of fused silica to high doses of neutron bombardment leads to a maximum average compaction of 3%. However, this does not reveal the true extent of the densification that takes place at a microscopic level. Recent advances in high pressure technology have yielded large samples of fused silica which have been permanently densified under pressure and whose bulk density has been increased by 20%. These specimens have an overall structure that replicates the microstructure of a radiation damaged glass. Measurements have been made for the first time of the structural changes in this pressure densified vitreous silica using neutron diffraction and infrared absorption spectrometry. Extensive alterations in intermediate range order have been observed with consequent anticipated changes in chemical reactivity. The resistance of high level waste glasses to leaching by groundwater must be considered in light of these experimental findings. (author)

  12. Exergy analysis of a system using a chemical heat pump to link a supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor and a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovskii, M.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M. A.; Pioro, I

    2007-01-01

    The power generation efficiency of nuclear plants is mainly determined by the permissible temperatures and pressures of the nuclear reactor fuel and coolants. These parameters are limited by materials properties and corrosion rates and their effect on nuclear reactor safety. The advanced materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ steam as a coolant and heat carrier, permit the increased steam parameters (outlet temperature up to 625 degree C and pressure of about 25 MPa). Supercritical water-cooled (SCW) nuclear power plants are expected to increase the power generation efficiency from 35 to 45%. Supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactors can be linked to thermochemical water splitting cycles for hydrogen production. An increased steam temperature from the nuclear reactor makes it also possible to utilize its energy in thermochemical water splitting cycles. These cycles are considered by many as one of the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require a heat supply at the temperatures over 550-600 degree C. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump which increases the temperature the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. A high temperature chemical heat pump which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with a SCW nuclear plant on one side and thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature level of the 'nuclear' heat and, thus, the intensity of

  13. Synthesis of the IRSN report of the management of effluents in operating nuclear plants, and of associated radioactive and chemical rejections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This report discusses the various improvements proposed by the IRSN to EDF for a better management of effluents and rejections in nuclear plants. These improvements should bear on a better understanding of the production, of the behaviour and of the treatment of radioactive compounds and of associated chemical compounds. They should also bear on the design of the installations and their inspection, operation practices, the use of local good practices, the organisation, the control of rejections, the control of underground waters of nuclear sites, experience feedback, the documentation on effluents and rejections

  14. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The first text deals with a new circular concerning the collect of the medicine radioactive wastes, containing radium. This campaign wants to incite people to let go their radioactive wastes (needles, tubes) in order to suppress any danger. The second text presents a decree of the 31 december 1999, relative to the limitations of noise and external risks resulting from the nuclear facilities exploitation: noise, atmospheric pollution, water pollution, wastes management and fire prevention. (A.L.B.)

  15. A Natural Analogue for Thermal-Hydrological-Chemical Coupled Processes at the Proposed Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bill Carey; Gordon Keating; Peter C. Lichtner

    1999-01-01

    Dike and sill complexes that intruded tuffaceous host rocks above the water table are suggested as natural analogues for thermal-hydrologic-chemical (THC) processes at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Scoping thermal-hydrologic calculations of temperature and saturation profiles surrounding a 30-50 m wide intrusion suggest that boiling conditions could be sustained at distances of tens of meters from the intrusion for several thousand years. This time scale for persistence of boiling is similar to that expected for the Yucca Mountain repository with moderate heat loading. By studying the hydrothermal alteration of the tuff host rocks surrounding the intrusions, insight and relevant data can be obtained that apply directly to the Yucca Mountain repository and can shed light on the extent and type of alteration that should be expected. Such data are needed to bound and constrain model parameters used in THC simulations of the effect of heat produced by the waste on the host rock and to provide a firm foundation for assessing overall repository performance. One example of a possible natural analogue for the repository is the Paiute Ridge intrusive complex located on the northeastern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The complex consists of dikes and sills intruded into a partially saturated tuffaceous host rock that has stratigraphic sequences that correlate with those found at Yucca Mountain. The intrusions were emplaced at a depth of several hundred meters below the surface, similar to the depth of the proposed repository. The tuffaceous host rock surrounding the intrusions is hydrothermally altered to varying extents depending on the distance from the intrusions. The Paiute Ridge intrusive complex thus appears to be an ideal natural analogue of THC coupled processes associated with the Yucca Mountain repository. It could provide much needed physical and chemical data for understanding the influence of heat

  16. Identification of a chemical inhibitor for nuclear speckle formation: Implications for the function of nuclear speckles in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, Yutaro; Matsuo, Yota; Mihara, Yuki; Yagi, Hiroaki; Shigaki-Miyamoto, Kaya; Toyota, Syukichi; Azuma, Yuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Igarashi, Masayuki [Laboratory of Disease Biology, Institute of Microbial Chemistry, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 141-0021 (Japan); Tani, Tokio, E-mail: ttani@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • We identified tubercidin as a compound inducing aberrant formation of the speckles. • Tubercidin causes delocalization of poly (A){sup +}RNAs from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin induces dispersion of splicing factors from nuclear speckles. • Tubercidin affects alternative pre-mRNA splicing. • Nuclear speckles play a role in regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing. - Abstract: Nuclear speckles are subnuclear structures enriched with RNA processing factors and poly (A){sup +} RNAs comprising mRNAs and poly (A){sup +} non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Nuclear speckles are thought to be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression, such as pre-mRNA splicing. By screening 3585 culture extracts of actinomycetes with in situ hybridization using an oligo dT probe, we identified tubercidin, an analogue of adenosine, as an inhibitor of speckle formation, which induces the delocalization of poly (A){sup +} RNA and dispersion of splicing factor SRSF1/SF2 from nuclear speckles in HeLa cells. Treatment with tubercidin also decreased steady-state MALAT1 long ncRNA, thought to be involved in the retention of SRSF1/SF2 in nuclear speckles. In addition, we found that tubercidin treatment promoted exon skipping in the alternative splicing of Clk1 pre-mRNA. These results suggest that nuclear speckles play a role in modulating the concentration of splicing factors in the nucleoplasm to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing.

  17. EQ6 Calculation for Chemical Degradation of Shippingport LWBR (TH/U Oxide) Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Arthur

    2000-01-01

    The Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating contractor (CRWMS M and O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) (Ref. 1). The Shippingport LWBR SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. Because of the high content of fissile material in the SNF, the waste package (WP) design requires special consideration of the amount and placement of neutron absorbers and the possible loss of absorbers and SNF materials over geologic time. For some WPs, the outer shell corrosion-resistant material (CRM) and the corrosion-allowance inner shell may breach (Refs. 2 and 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the WP will moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the WP; and the water may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers from the WP, further affecting the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of WPs containing a Shippingport LWBR SNF seed assembly, and high-level waste (HLW) glass canisters arranged according to the codisposal concept (Ref. 4). The specific study objectives were to determine: (1) The extent to which criticality control material, suggested for this WP design, will remain in the WP after corrosion/dissolution of the initial WP configuration (such that it can be effective in preventing criticality); (2) The extent to which fissile uranium and fertile thorium will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water (such that internal criticality is no longer possible, but the possibility of external criticality may be enhanced); and (3) The nominal chemical composition for the criticality evaluations of the WP design, and to suggest the range of parametric variations for additional evaluations. The scope of this

  18. EQ6 Calculation for Chemical Degradation of Shippingport LWBR (TH/U Oxide) Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Arthur

    2000-09-14

    The Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Department of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management & Operating contractor (CRWMS M&O) performed calculations to provide input for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) (Ref. 1). The Shippingport LWBR SNF has been considered for disposal at the potential Yucca Mountain site. Because of the high content of fissile material in the SNF, the waste package (WP) design requires special consideration of the amount and placement of neutron absorbers and the possible loss of absorbers and SNF materials over geologic time. For some WPs, the outer shell corrosion-resistant material (CRM) and the corrosion-allowance inner shell may breach (Refs. 2 and 3), allowing the influx of water. Water in the WP will moderate neutrons, increasing the likelihood of a criticality event within the WP; and the water may, in time, gradually leach the fissile components and neutron absorbers from the WP, further affecting the neutronics of the system. This study presents calculations of the long-term geochemical behavior of WPs containing a Shippingport LWBR SNF seed assembly, and high-level waste (HLW) glass canisters arranged according to the codisposal concept (Ref. 4). The specific study objectives were to determine: (1) The extent to which criticality control material, suggested for this WP design, will remain in the WP after corrosion/dissolution of the initial WP configuration (such that it can be effective in preventing criticality); (2) The extent to which fissile uranium and fertile thorium will be carried out of the degraded WP by infiltrating water (such that internal criticality is no longer possible, but the possibility of external criticality may be enhanced); and (3) The nominal chemical composition for the criticality evaluations of the WP design, and to suggest the range of parametric variations for additional evaluations. The scope of this

  19. Composition effects on chemical durability and viscosity of nuclear waste glasses - systematic studies and structural thermodynamic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.

    1988-01-01

    Two of the primary criteria for the acceptability of nuclear waste glasses are their durability, i.e. chemical resistance to aqueous attack for 10 4 to 10 5 years, and processability, which requires their viscosity at the desired melt temperature to be sufficiently low. Chapter 3 presents the results of systematic composition variation studies around the preliminary reference glass composition WV205 and an atomistic interpretation of the effects of individual oxides. Chapter 4 is concerned with modifications of the Jantzen-Plodinec hydration model which takes into account formation of complex aluminosilicate compounds in the glass. Chapter 5 is devoted to the development and validation of the structural-thermodynamic model for both durability and viscosity. This model assumes the strength of bonds between atoms to be the controlling factor in the composition dependence of these glass properties. The binding strengths are derived from the known heats of formation and the structural roles of constituent oxides. Since the coordination state of various oxides in the glass is temperature dependent and cation size has opposite effects on the two properties, the correlation between melt viscosity and rate of corrosion at low temperature is not simply linear. Chapter 6 surveys the effects of aqueous phase composition on the leach behavior of glasses. These studies provide a comprehensive view of the effects of both glass composition and leachant composition on leaching. The models developed correlate both durability and viscosity with glass composition. A major implication is that these findings can be used in the systematic optimization of the properties of complex oxide glasses

  20. Scandium complexes: physico-chemical study and evaluation of stability in vitro and in vivo for nuclear medicine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerdjoudj, Rabha

    2014-01-01

    Among the different isotopes of Scandium that can be used in nuclear medicine may be mentioned the 47 Sc and 44 Sc. The first decays by emitting an electron associated with a 159 keV gamma can thus be used either for radiotherapy or TEMP imaging. The 44 Sc (3.97 h) decays in 94.27% in case by emitting a positron, with a γ photon energy equal to 1.157 MeV. This isotope is then an ideal candidate for applications in PET imaging. Currently, the Cyclotron of high energy and high intensity ARRONAX produce 44 Sc and co-produces the isomeric state the 44m Sc (2.44 d). The 44m Sc has properties (E(γ) = 270 keV, 98.8%), which allows to consider its use as a potential in vivo generator. Previous work had demonstrated that the DOTA ligand is most suitable and stable for Sc. This thesis aims; make in evidence the feasibility of the in vivo 44m / 44 Sc generator. Initially a procedure was optimized and validated for the production of 44m / 44 Sc with a high specific activity and chemical purity. Radiolabeling of DOTA conjugated peptides was then developed and optimized. Theoretical and experimental studies have been performed in order to demonstrate the feasibility of 44m / 44 Sc as a potential in vivo generator. Finally, in vitro stability studies on radiolabeled 44m / 44 Sc complexes were performed, followed by biodistribution studies and PET imaging. (author)

  1. Mechanical and chemical cleaning of the tubes bundles of the moisture separator reheaters (GSS) of Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Patrice; Ruiz, Jose T.; Ureta, Roman; Carreres, Cristina; Virginie, Le-Guerroue

    2012-09-01

    The cleaning operation concerns the 'GSS' system (GSS stands for moisture separator reheaters, MSR) which are classified as 'watch quality guarantee', not classified as safety facility and subjected to Pressure Equipment regulations. The follow-up of the operational GSS (steel carbon) of EDF nuclear power plants CP0 group reveals a clog rate due to a relevant magnetite deposits that could result in equipment damage, loss of availability and loss of plant productivity. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the heating steam is close to maximum design criterion. The service consisted in designing, developing, qualifying and carrying out a process which removes clog from the inside of GSS U-tubes bundle located in the vapor circuit and which respects the equipment integrity and ensures the process harmlessness. This cleaning has to enable the complete removal of deposits and oxides (magnetite) in order to recover a passage diameter and a surface finish equivalent to the origin, thus avoiding the replacement of the GSS and obtaining a considerable reduction of costs. To do so, LAINSA and SOLARCA designed, developed, qualified and operated on 14 GSS bundles, by carrying out the following operations: - Cartography of the GSS tubes bundles clogging state; - Pre-Mechanical cleaning to un-block the sealed tubes and release the inside tubes passing; - Isolation of the bundle and check of leaks of the system; - Chemical cleaning with the efficiency and harmlessness parameters follow-up: - Acid Phase by means of weak organic acids to eliminate all the deposits; - Passivation phase; - Final Rinsing respecting the customer criteria; - Drying; - Waste management and waste treatment. The implementation of this operation enables the elimination of the whole deposits (magnetite) and oxides located inside the GSS tube bundle and thus to recover a passage diameter inside the tubes, and a pressure drop close to a new system and therefore to enables the

  2. Chemical decomposition of high-level nuclear waste storage/disposal glasses under irradiation. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griscom, D.L.; Merzbacher, C.I.

    1997-01-01

    'The objective of this research is to use the sensitive technique of electron spin resonance (ESR) to look for evidence of radiation-induced chemical decomposition of vitreous forms contemplated for immobilization of plutonium and/or high-level nuclear wastes, to interpret this evidence in terms of existing knowledge of glass structure, and to recommend certain materials for further study by other techniques, particularly electron microscopy and measurements of gas evolution by high-vacuum mass spectroscopy. Previous ESR studies had demonstrated that an effect of y rays on a simple binary potassium silicate glass was to induce superoxide (O 2 - ) and ozonide (O 3 - ) as relatively stable product of long-term irradiation Accordingly, some of the first experiments performed as a part of the present effort involved repeating this work. A glass of composition 44 K 2 O: 56 SiO 2 was prepared from reagent grade K 2 CO3 and SiO 2 powders melted in a Pt crucible in air at 1,200 C for 1.5 hr. A sample irradiated to a dose of 1 MGy (1 MGy = 10 8 rad) indeed yielded the same ESR results as before. To test the notion that the complex oxygen ions detected may be harbingers of radiation-induced phase separation or bubble formation, a small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiment was performed. SANS is theoretically capable of detecting voids or bubbles as small as 10 305 in diameter. A preliminary experiment was carried out with the collaboration of Dr. John Barker (NIST). The SANS spectra for the irradiated and unirradiated samples were indistiguishable. A relatively high incoherent background (probably due to the presence of protons) may obscure scattering from small gas bubbles and therefore decrease the effective resolution of this technique. No further SANS experiments are planned at this time.'

  3. Pollution of the Marine Environment by Dumping: Legal Framework Applicable to Dumped Chemical Weapons and Nuclear Waste in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The Arctic seas are the world’s biggest dumping ground for sea-disposed nuclear waste and have served among the primary disposal sites for chemical warfare agents. Despite of scientific uncertainty, the Arctic Council has noted that this hazardous waste still affects adversely the Arctic marine environment and may have implications to the health of the Arctic people. The purpose of this manuscript is to establish the rights and obligations of the Arctic States in c...

  4. Spin-orbit ZORA and four-component Dirac-Coulomb estimation of relativistic corrections to isotropic nuclear shieldings and chemical shifts of noble gas dimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Marzena; Kupka, Teobald; Stobiński, Leszek; Faber, Rasmus; Lacerda, Evanildo G; Sauer, Stephan P A

    2016-02-05

    Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP and general gradient KT2 exchange-correlation functionals were used for nonrelativistic and relativistic nuclear magnetic shielding calculations of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon dimers and free atoms. Relativistic corrections were calculated with the scalar and spin-orbit zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonian in combination with the large Slater-type basis set QZ4P as well as with the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian using Dyall's acv4z basis sets. The relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shieldings and chemical shifts are combined with nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] calculations using the very large polarization-consistent basis sets aug-pcSseg-4 for He, Ne and Ar, aug-pcSseg-3 for Kr, and the AQZP basis set for Xe. For the dimers also, zero-point vibrational (ZPV) corrections are obtained at the CCSD(T) level with the same basis sets were added. Best estimates of the dimer chemical shifts are generated from these nuclear magnetic shieldings and the relative importance of electron correlation, ZPV, and relativistic corrections for the shieldings and chemical shifts is analyzed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nuclear DNA synthesis rate and labelling index: effects of carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic chemicals on its behaviour in the organism of growing CBA mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amlacher, E.; Rudolph, C.

    1978-01-01

    Well known bioassays have been compared with the author's thymidine incorporation-screening system and other assays based on biochemical quantification of DNA synthesis as a possibility of identification of carcinogens. The partial inhibition of the whole DNA synthesis in a proliferating cell population after treatment with toxic and carcinogenic chemicals is an early common response especially in hepatectomized animal, livers caused by the effects of those substances. However, by quantitative evaluation of the nuclear DNA synthesis rate as a basic parameter, using autoradiographs of kidney and liver of juvenile growing CBA mice, it is possible to differentiate carcinogenic from non-carcinogenic chemicals by means of silver grain counting after 3 H-TdR incorporation. On the contrary, the whole DNA synthesis, expressed by the 3 H-labelling index (in per cent) of kidney and liver, did not permit such a differentiation in the experimental arrangement used. It could be demonstrated that carcinogenic compounds of different chemical classes partially inhibit the nuclear DNA synthesis rate significantly over a period of more than 24 hours. The tested non-carcinogenic compounds did not show this suppressive effect on the nuclear DNA synthesis rate. (author)

  6. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection.

  7. Nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.; Forkman, B.; Persson, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book covers the general theories and techniques of nuclear chemical analysis, directed at applications in analytical chemistry, nuclear medicine, radiophysics, agriculture, environmental sciences, geological exploration, industrial process control, etc. The main principles of nuclear physics and nuclear detection on which the analysis is based are briefly outlined. An attempt is made to emphasise the fundamentals of activation analysis, detection and activation methods, as well as their applications. The book provides guidance in analytical chemistry, agriculture, environmental and biomedical sciences, etc. The contents include: the nuclear periodic system; nuclear decay; nuclear reactions; nuclear radiation sources; interaction of radiation with matter; principles of radiation detectors; nuclear electronics; statistical methods and spectral analysis; methods of radiation detection; neutron activation analysis; charged particle activation analysis; photon activation analysis; sample preparation and chemical separation; nuclear chemical analysis in biological and medical research; the use of nuclear chemical analysis in the field of criminology; nuclear chemical analysis in environmental sciences, geology and mineral exploration; and radiation protection

  8. Workshop Summary for Maintaining Innovation and Security in Biotechnology: Lessons Learned from Nuclear, Chemical, and Informational Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, Paris [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-11

    In the fast-paced field of biotechnology where innovation has such far-reaching impacts on human health and the environment, dealing with the implications of possible illicit activities, accidents or unintended research consequences with potential detrimental societal impacts tends to remain in the background. While controls may be inevitable for the biotech industry, workshop attendees agreed that the way in which controls are implemented will play a major role in the agility and innovation of the biotechnology industry. There is little desire to slow down the pace of the gains while dealing with the security issues that arise. As was seen from the brief examinations of the Nuclear, Chemical, and Information Technology sectors explored in this workshop, establishing a regulatory regime needs to be a partnership between the public, corporate interests, scientists, and the government. Regulation is often written to combat perceived risk rather than actual risk—the public’s perceptions (occasionally even fictional portrayals) can spur regulatory efforts. This leads to the need for a thorough and continuing assessment of the risks posed by modern biotechnology. Inadequate or minimal risk assessment might expedite development in the short term but has potential negative long-term security and economic consequences. Industry and the technical community also often have a large role in setting regulatory policy, especially when well-crafted incentives are incorporated into the regulations. Such incentives might actually lead to enhanced innovation while poorly designed incentives can actually reduce safety and security. Any regulations should be as agile and flexible as the technology they regulate and when applied to biotechnologies they will need a new framework for thinking and implementing. The new framework should consider biotechnology as a technology and not simply a science since it is an extremely complex and adaptive system. This suggests the need to invest

  9. A Nuclear Reactor and Chemical Processing Design for Production of Molybdenum-99 with Crystalline Uranyl Nitrate Hexahydrate Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Gary Michael

    Medical radioisotopes are used in tens of millions of procedures every year to detect and image a wide variety of maladies and conditions in the human body. The most widely-used diagnostic radioisotope is technetium-99m, a metastable isomer of technetium-99 that is generated by the radioactive decay of molybdenum-99. For a number of reasons, the supply of molybdenum-99 has become unreliable and the techniques used to produce it have become unattractive. This has spurred the investigation of new technologies that avoid the use of highly enriched uranium to produce molybdenum-99 in the United States, where approximately half of the demand originates. The first goal of this research is to develop a critical nuclear reactor design powered by solid, discrete pins of low enriched uranium. Analyses of single-pin heat transfer and whole-core neutronics are performed to determine the required specifications. Molybdenum-99 is produced directly in the fuel of this reactor and then extracted through a series of chemical processing steps. After this extraction, the fuel is left in an aqueous state. The second goal of this research is to describe a process by which the uranium may be recovered from this spent fuel solution and reconstituted into the original fuel form. Fuel recovery is achieved through a crystallization step that generates solid uranyl nitrate hexahydrate while leaving the majority of fission products and transuranic isotopes in solution. This report provides background information on molybdenum-99 production and crystallization chemistry. The previously unknown thermal conductivity of the fuel material is measured. Following this is a description of the modeling and calculations used to develop a reactor concept. The operational characteristics of the reactor core model are analyzed and reported. Uranyl nitrate crystallization experiments have also been conducted, and the results of this work are presented here. Finally, a process flow scheme for uranium

  10. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors

  11. Nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Kiss, I.

    1987-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of nuclear science in modern chemistry. The first group of chapters discuss the basic phenomena and concepts of nuclear physics with emphasis on their relation to chemical problems, including the main properties and the composition of atomic nuclei, nuclear reactions, radioactive decay and interactions of radiation with matter. These chapters provide the basis for understanding the following chapters which encompass the wide scope of nuclear chemistry. The methods of the investigation of chemical structure based on the interaction of nuclear radiation with matter including positronium chemistry and other exotic atoms is elaborated in particular detail. Separate chapters are devoted to the use of radioactive tracers, the chemical consequences of nuclear processes (i.e. hot atom chemistry), radiation chemistry, isotope effects and their applications, and the operation of nuclear reactors. (Auth.)

  12. On the spot ethical decision-making in CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear event) response: approaches to on the spot ethical decision-making for first responders to large-scale chemical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebera, Andrew P; Rafalowski, Chaim

    2014-09-01

    First responders to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) events face decisions having significant human consequences. Some operational decisions are supported by standard operating procedures, yet these may not suffice for ethical decisions. Responders will be forced to weigh their options, factoring-in contextual peculiarities; they will require guidance on how they can approach novel (indeed unique) ethical problems: they need strategies for "on the spot" ethical decision making. The primary aim of this paper is to examine how first responders should approach on the spot ethical decision-making amid the stress and uncertainty of a CBRN event. Drawing on the long-term professional CBRN experience of one of the authors, this paper sets out a series of practical ethical dilemmas potentially arising in the context of a large-scale chemical incident. We propose a broadly consequentialist approach to on the spot ethical decision-making, but one which incorporates ethical values and rights as "side-constraints".

  13. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  14. ERA—European Radiochemists Association: Report on the activities of the Working Party for Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Z. I.; Ware, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    The European Radiochemists Association started almost simultaneously with the appearance of the first issue of the Radiochemistry in Europe newsletter in August 1995. The objective of the European Radiochemists Association (ERA) is to extend and improve communication between radiochemists in Europe through a newsletter. Liaison persons within each country or group exchange details of their activities, set up a diary of relevant international events and exchange details of specialist equipment, facilities and technology. In the year 2000 the Federation of European Chemical Societies decided to form a working party on nuclear and radiochemistry. It is a formalisation of the European Radiochemists Association. Each chemical society is allowed to nominate a member to the Working Party on Nuclear and Radiochemistry. Currently we have 12 nominated members plus two invited and one observer. In addition to the ERA aims and objectives it proposes to put together a syllabus of radiochemistry for undergraduate and post-graduate students—this aspect has been a part of our support of the International Atomic Energy Agency initiative. Also the aim of the working party is to support other working parties and divisions, to press the Federation of the European Chemical Societies for financial structure. To this end an Expression of Interest has been tabled with the Framework 6 Programme for networking within radiochemistry in Europe. The WP will liaise with the International Isotope Society and the International Society on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology to seek to communicate and to consider ways of working together.

  15. U.S. and Russian cooperative efforts to enhance nuclear material protection, control, and accountability at the Siberian Chemical Combine at Tomsk-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreykes, J.; Petrushev, V.I.; Griggs, J.

    1996-01-01

    The US partners in the Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program in Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accountability (MPC and A) have reached signed agreements with the Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK) to rapidly enhance the protection, control, and accountability of nuclear material at all of its facilities. SKhK is the largest multi-function production center of the Russian nuclear complex and, until recently, its facilities produced and processed special nuclear materials for the Russian Defense Ministry. SKhK produces heat and electricity, enriches uranium for commercial reactor fuel, reprocesses irradiated fuel, and converts highly enriched uranium metal into oxide for blending into low-enriched reactor-grade uranium, and manufactures civilian products. SKhK is aggressively pursuing a program to enhance MPC and A which includes the installation of pedestrian and vehicle radiation monitors, rapid inventory methods, tamper-indicating devices, computerized accounting systems, and physical protection measures. This work is a collaboration between technical experts from Brookhaven, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, pacific Northwest, and Sandia National Laboratories and their Russian counterparts at SKhK. This paper reviews the status of this initial effort and outlines plans for continuing the work in 1996

  16. Implementation of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Amorim, Aneuri de; Santos, Avelino dos and others, E-mail: mariobalthar@gmail.com [Centro Tecnológico do Exército (IDQBRN/CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the implementation and adaptation stages of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (Laboratório de Calibração de Monitores Gama - LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear - IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (Centro Tecnológico do Exército - CTEx). Calibration of the radiation monitors used by the Brazilian Army will be performed by quantitatively measuring the ambient dose equivalent, in compliance with national legislation. LABCAL still seeks licensing from CNEN and INMETRO. The laboratory in intended to supply the total demand for calibration of ionizing radiation devices from the Brazilian Army. (author)

  17. Implementation of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (CTEx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthar, Mario Cesar V.; Amorim, Aneuri de; Santos, Avelino dos and others

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to describe the implementation and adaptation stages of the Gamma Monitor Calibration Laboratory (Laboratório de Calibração de Monitores Gama - LABCAL) of the Institute of Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense (Instituto de Defesa Química, Biológica, Radiológica e Nuclear - IDQBRN) of the Technology Center of the Brazilian Army (Centro Tecnológico do Exército - CTEx). Calibration of the radiation monitors used by the Brazilian Army will be performed by quantitatively measuring the ambient dose equivalent, in compliance with national legislation. LABCAL still seeks licensing from CNEN and INMETRO. The laboratory in intended to supply the total demand for calibration of ionizing radiation devices from the Brazilian Army. (author)

  18. Existing Approaches to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Education and Training for Health Professionals: Findings from an Integrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Mayumi; Hammad, Karen; Mitani, Satoko; Arbon, Paul

    2018-04-01

    This review was conducted to explore the literature to determine the availability, content, and evaluation of existing chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) education programs for health professionals. An integrative review of the international literature describing disaster education for CBRN (2004-2016) was conducted. The following relevant databases were searched: Proquest, Pubmed, Science Direct, Scopus, Journals @ OVID, Google Scholar, Medline, and Ichuschi ver. 5 (Japanese database for health professionals). The search terms used were: "disaster," "chemical," "biological," "radiological," "nuclear," "CBRN," "health professional education," and "method." The following Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, "education," "nursing," "continuing," "disasters," "disaster planning," and "bioterrorism," were used wherever possible and appropriate. The retrieved articles were narratively analyzed according to availability, content, and method. The content was thematically analyzed to provide an overview of the core content of the training. The literature search identified 619 potentially relevant articles for this study. Duplicates (n=104) were removed and 87 articles were identified for title review. In total, 67 articles were discarded, yielding 20 articles for all-text review, following 11 studies were retained for analysis, including one Japanese study. All articles published in English were from the USA, apart from the two studies located in Japan and Sweden. The most typical content in the selected literature was CBRN theory (n=11), followed by studies based on incident command (n=8), decontamination (n=7), disaster management (n=7), triage (n=7), personal protective equipment (PPE) use (n = 5), and post-training briefing (n=3). While the CBRN training course requires the participants to gain specific skills and knowledge, proposed training courses should be effectively constructed to include approaches such as scenario-based simulations

  19. Real-Time Monitoring of Chemical Changes in Three Kinds of Fermented Milk Products during Fermentation Using Quantitative Difference Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kwon, Yeondae; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2018-02-14

    Fermented milk products are rising in popularity throughout the world as a result of their health benefits, including improving digestion, normalizing the function of the immune system, and aiding in weight management. This study applies an in situ quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance method to monitor chemical changes in three kinds of fermented milk products, Bulgarian yogurt, Caspian Sea yogurt, and kefir, during fermentation. As a result, the concentration changes in nine organic compounds, α/β-lactose, α/β-galactose, lactic acid, citrate, ethanol, lecithin, and creatine, were monitored in real time. This revealed three distinct metabolic processes in the three fermented milk products. Moreover, pH changes were also determined by variations in the chemical shift of citric acid during the fermentation processes. These results can be applied to estimate microbial metabolism in various flora and help guide the fermentation and storage of various fermented milk products to improve their quality, which may directly influence human health.

  20. One- and two-dimensional chemical exchange nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the creatine kinase catalyzed reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gober, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The equilibrium chemical exchange dynamics of the creatine kinase enzyme system were studied by one- and two-dimensional 31 P NMR techniques. Pseudo-first-order reaction rate constants were measured by the saturation transfer method under an array of experimental conditions of pH and temperature. Quantitative one-dimensional spectra were collected under the same conditions in order to calculate the forward and reverse reaction rates, the K eq , the hydrogen ion stoichiometry, and the standard thermodynamic functions. The pure absorption mode in four quadrant two-dimensional chemical exchange experiment was employed so that the complete kinetic matrix showing all of the chemical exchange process could be realized

  1. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  2. Effect of Containment Spray Additives on the Chemical Effect after a Loss of Coolant Accident in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Park, Jong Woon; Lee, Guen Sung [KOREA HYDRO and NUCLEAR POWER Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    As a part of USNRC GSI-191, evaluation of Kori Unit 1 ECCS recirculation sump performance has been carried out in 2006. The work is derived from the result of first PSR(Periodic Safety Review) of Kori Unit1. In this work, we have considered the replacement of spray additive in containment building to solve issues of GSI-191 and GL2004-02. We estimated the chemical effect of changing NaOH into TSP(Trisodium Phosphate) based on SRP(Standard Review Plan) 6.5.2. Rev.02. WCAP-16530 methodology is used to compare chemical effects of spray additive(or buffering agents). In the other side, chemical thermodynamic simulation can be utilized. Herein, the results using WCAP-16530 methodology and chemical simulation are presented.

  3. Fragment-based {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift predictions in molecular crystals: An alternative to planewave methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartman, Joshua D.; Beran, Gregory J. O., E-mail: gregory.beran@ucr.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Monaco, Stephen; Schatschneider, Bohdan [The Pennsylvania State University, The Eberly Campus, 2201 University Dr, Lemont Furnace, Pennsylvania 15456 (United States)

    2015-09-14

    We assess the quality of fragment-based ab initio isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shift predictions for a collection of 25 molecular crystals with eight different density functionals. We explore the relative performance of cluster, two-body fragment, combined cluster/fragment, and the planewave gauge-including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) models relative to experiment. When electrostatic embedding is employed to capture many-body polarization effects, the simple and computationally inexpensive two-body fragment model predicts both isotropic {sup 13}C chemical shifts and the chemical shielding tensors as well as both cluster models and the GIPAW approach. Unlike the GIPAW approach, hybrid density functionals can be used readily in a fragment model, and all four hybrid functionals tested here (PBE0, B3LYP, B3PW91, and B97-2) predict chemical shifts in noticeably better agreement with experiment than the four generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals considered (PBE, OPBE, BLYP, and BP86). A set of recommended linear regression parameters for mapping between calculated chemical shieldings and observed chemical shifts are provided based on these benchmark calculations. Statistical cross-validation procedures are used to demonstrate the robustness of these fits.

  4. Chemical yield determination for 59Ni, 63Ni and 56Fe in low and intermediate nuclear wastes by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Milton B.; Santos Neto, Francisco C. dos; Reis Junior, Aluisio S.; Temba, Eliane S.C.; Monteiro, Roberto P.G.

    2011-01-01

    Iron and nickel are constituents of a wide range of metallic materials used in nuclear reactor construction and their corresponding activation products are often encountered in reactor-derived solid low and intermediate-level wastes. The most significant radioisotopes of iron and nickel, in terms of quantity and half life, are 55 Fe (t 1/2 =2.73y), 59 Ni (t 1/2 =7.6x10 4 y) and 63 Ni (t 1/2 =10 2 y) and they are activation products of stable iron and nickel. 59 Ni is an X-ray - emitting and 55 Fe and 63 Ni are β-particle-emitting radionuclides and so they are radionuclides of interest for the performance of assessment studies of waste storage or disposal. For their determination in the radioactive wastes is necessary to know the chemical yield for the radiochemical separation procedures prior analytical measurements. In this work Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) technique was used for this aim. Total nickel and iron in waste samples from nuclear power plants were determined before and after the radiochemical separation at specific wavelengths, 231.604 nm and 259.940 nm respectively. The chemical yields for nickel and iron recovery were around 82 % for iron and 59 % for nickel according the analytical methodology adopted. (author)

  5. Summary of the physical chemical analyses of mixed oxide nuclear fuel as they might influence biological behavior and internal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidson, A.F.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Twelve representative materials that might be accidentally released during the fabrication of mixed-oxide nuclear fuel pellets were studied using x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence, alpha spectroscopy and in vitro dissolution methods. The results are related to a postulated exposure accident and to inhalation experiments using laboratory animals. 19 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs

  6. Method of and apparatus for cleaning garments and soft goods contaminated with nuclear, chemical and/or biological contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method is described for decontaminating garments, soft good or mixtures thereof contaminated with radioactive particulates, toxin, chemical, and biological contaminants comprising the steps of: (a) depositing contaminated garments, soft goods or mixtures thereof in a cleaning drum; (b) charging the drum with a cleaning solvent in which the chemical contaminants are soluble; (c) agitating the drum during a wash cycle to separate radioactive, toxin, biological particulate matter of mixtures thereof from the garments; (d) draining the drum of the dry cleaning solvent which contains suspended particulate contaminants and dissolved chemical contaminants; (e) contacting the drained solvent with both a neutralizing agent and an oxidizing agent, the neutralizing agent being selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide and mixtures thereof and having a concentration greater than one (1.0) normal; (f) rinsing the garments, soft goods or mixtures thereof by circulating clean solvent from a solvent tank through the drum thereby effecting additional removal and flushing of particulate and chemical contaminants; (g) filtering the circulated solvent to remove the particulate material suspended in the solvent prior to addition to the drum; and (h) preferentially adsorbing the chemical contaminants dissolved in the circulated solvent prior to addition to the drum

  7. Recommendations for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense. On analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations. Brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling; Empfehlungen fuer die Probenahme zur Gefahrenabwehr im Bevoelkerungsschutz. Zur Analytik von chemischen, biologischen und radioaktiven Kontaminationen. Kurzanleitung fuer die CBRN-Probenahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Udo; Biederbick, Walter; Derakshani, Nahid (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The recommendation for sampling for prevention of hazards in civil defense is describing the analytics of chemical, biological and radioactive contaminations and includes detail information on the sampling, protocol preparation and documentation procedures. The volume includes a separate brief instruction for the CBRN (chemical, biological, radioactive, nuclear) sampling.

  8. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  9. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do.

  10. Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, final report, 'Weapons of Terror: Freeing the World of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Arms', Stockholm, Sweden, 1 June 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are rightly called weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Designed to terrify as well as destroy, they have the potential to kill thousands and thousands of people in a single attack, and their effects may persist in the environment and in our bodies, in some cases indefinitely. Many efforts have been made to free the world from the threat of these weapons and some progress has been made. Paradoxically, despite the end of the Cold War, the past decade has seen more setbacks than successes. States have failed to comply with their disarmament and non-proliferation commitments, and terrorist groups have emerged that recognize no restraints. In September 2005, the United Nations World Summit was unable to agree on a single recommendation on disarmament and non-proliferation. It is time for all to wake up to the awesome reality that many of the old threats continue to hang over the world and that many new ones have emerged. It is time for all governments to revive their cooperation and to breathe new life into the disarmament work of the United Nations. Efforts to eradicate poverty and to protect the global environment must be matched by a dismantling of the world's most destructive capabilities. The gearshift now needs to be moved from reverse to drive. Biological and chemical weapons have been comprehensively outlawed through global conventions, but these need to be universally accepted and fully implemented. Nuclear weapons must also be outlawed. Before this aim is realized, there must be new initiatives to reduce the number of nuclear weapons and the threat posed by them. It is equally urgent to prevent proliferation and to take special measures to ensure that terrorists do not acquire any weapons of mass destruction. This report presents ideas and recommendations on what the world community - including national governments and civil society - can and should do

  11. Use of nuclear receptor luciferase-based bioassays to detect endocrine active chemicals in a biosolids-biochar amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolyn G; Joshi, Geetika; Bair, Daniel A; Oriol, Charlotte; He, Guochun; Parikh, Sanjai J; Denison, Michael S; Scow, Kate M

    2017-08-01

    Biosolids are a potentially valuable source of carbon and nutrients for agricultural soils; however, potential unintended impacts on human health and the environment must be considered. Virtually all biosolids contain trace amounts endocrine-disrupting chemicals derived from human use of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). One potential way to reduce the bioavailability of PPCPs is to co-apply biosolids with biochar to soil, because biochar's chemical (e.g., aromaticity) and physical properties (e.g., surface area) give it a high affinity to bind many organic chemicals in the environment. We developed a soil-specific extraction method and utilized a luciferase-based bioassay (CALUX) to detect endocrine active chemicals in a biosolids-biochar co-amendment soil greenhouse study. Both biochar (walnut shell, 900 °C) and biosolids had positive impacts on carrot and lettuce biomass accumulation over our study period. However, the walnut shell biochar stimulated aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, suggesting the presence of potential endocrine active chemicals in the biochar. Since the biochar rate tested (100 t ha -1 ) is above the average agronomic rate (10-20 t ha -1 ), endocrine effects would not be expected in most environmental applications. The effect of high temperature biochars on endocrine system pathways must be explored further, using both quantitative analytical tools to identify potential endocrine active chemicals and highly sensitive bioanalytical assays such as CALUX to measure the resulting biological activity of such compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance in chemical department of the Exact Science Institute of the Minas Gerais Federal University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The specifications for acquisition of pulsed NMR spectrometer by chemical department of Minas Gerais Federal University are described. The researches carried out using the NMR spectrometer are presented as well as installation and operation of NMR equipments. (M.C.K.)

  13. Study of the influence of central nuclear power plants at Valdaliga (Civitavecchia) on the chemical composition of local rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargagli, A.; Morabito, R.; Basili, N.; Tidei, F.

    1989-05-01

    Data from a wet deposition sampling over the area collocated nearby Civitavecchia power plants are here presented and discussed. In order to establish the possible influence of the power plants emission on the chemical composition of the rain collected, the experimental data have been correlated with synoptic and local meteorological conditions. (author)

  14. Chemical treatments to reduce the transfer of caesium radioisotopes to the human foodchain after a serious nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the project is to produce a reduction of the transfer factors of radiocesium in plants, milk and meat owing to a deposition of radioactive products following a severe nuclear accident. The project includes two distinct working departments. The first studies the possibility to reduce the translocation of radiocesium from the areal parts to the edible products of crops. The second studies the possibility to reduce the radiocesium in the milk and in the meat as a consequence of the feeding with contaminated fodder. (R.P.) 4 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs

  15. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized

  16. Analysis on the Current Status of Chemical Decontamination Technology of Steam Generators in the Oversea Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Taebin; Kim, Sukhoon; Kim, Juyoul; Kim, Juyub; Lee, Seunghee [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The steam generators in Hanbit Unit 3 and 4 are scheduled to be replaced in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Nevertheless, the wastes from the dismantled steam generators are currently just on-site stored in the NPP because there are no disposal measures for the waste and lack of the decontamination techniques for large-sized metallic equipment. In contrast, in the oversea NPPs, there are many practical cases of chemical decontamination not only for oversized components in the NPPs such as reactor pressure vessel and steam generator, but also for major pipes. Chemical decontamination technique is more effective in decontaminating the components with complicated shape compared with mechanical one. Moreover, a high decontamination factor can be obtained by using strong solvent, and thereby most of radionuclides can be removed. Due to these advantages, the chemical decontamination has been used most frequently for operation of decontaminating the large-sized equipment. In this study, an analysis on the current status of chemical decontamination technique used for the steam generators of the foreign commercial NPPs was performed. In this study, the three major chemical decontamination processes were reviewed, which are applied to the decommissioning process of the steam generators in the commercial NPPs of the United States, Germany, and Belgium. The three processes have the different features in aspect of solvent, while those are based in common on the oxidation and reduction between the target metal surface and solvents. In addition, they have the same goals for improving the decontamination efficiency and decreasing the amount of the secondary waste generation. Based on the analysis results on component sub-processes and major advantages and disadvantages of each process, Table 2 shows the key fundamental technologies for decontamination of the steam generator in Korea and the major considerations in the development process of each technology. It is necessary to prepare

  17. A solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance study of post-plasma reactions in organosilicone microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Colin J; Ponnusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Murphy, Peter J; Lindberg, Mats; Antzutkin, Oleg N; Griesser, Hans J

    2014-06-11

    Plasma-polymerized organosilicone coatings can be used to impart abrasion resistance and barrier properties to plastic substrates such as polycarbonate. Coating rates suitable for industrial-scale deposition, up to 100 nm/s, can be achieved through the use of microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), with optimal process vapors such as tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) and oxygen. However, it has been found that under certain deposition conditions, such coatings are subject to post-plasma changes; crazing or cracking can occur anytime from days to months after deposition. To understand the cause of the crazing and its dependence on processing plasma parameters, the effects of post-plasma reactions on the chemical bonding structure of coatings deposited with varying TMDSO-to-O2 ratios was studied with (29)Si and (13)C solid-state magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) using both single-pulse and cross-polarization techniques. The coatings showed complex chemical compositions significantly altered from the parent monomer. (29)Si MAS NMR spectra revealed four main groups of resonance lines, which correspond to four siloxane moieties (i.e., mono (M), di (D), tri (T), and quaternary (Q)) and how they are bound to oxygen. Quantitative measurements showed that the ratio of TMDSO to oxygen could shift the chemical structure of the coating from 39% to 55% in Q-type bonds and from 28% to 16% for D-type bonds. Post-plasma reactions were found to produce changes in relative intensities of (29)Si resonance lines. The NMR data were complemented by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Together, these techniques have shown that the bonding environment of Si is drastically altered by varying the TMDSO-to-O2 ratio during PECVD, and that post-plasma reactions increase the cross-link density of the silicon-oxygen network. It appears that Si-H and Si-OH chemical groups are the most susceptible to post-plasma reactions. Coatings produced at a

  18. Chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides [(U,Pu)O2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Mixed oxide, a mixture of uranium and plutonium oxides, is used as a nuclear-reactor fuel in the form of pellets. The plutonium content may be up to 10 wt %, and the diluent uranium may be of any U-235 enrichment. In order to be suitable for use as a nuclear fuel, the material must meet certain criteria for combined uranium and plutonium content, effective fissile content, and impurity content. Analytical procedures used to determine if mixed oxides comply with specifications are: uranium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by controlled-potential coulometry; plutonium by amperometric titration with iron (II); nitrogen by distillation spectrophotometry using Nessler reagent; carbon (total) by direct combustion-thermal-conductivity; total chlorine and fluorine by pyrohydrolysis; sulfur by distillation-spectrophotometry; moisture by the coulometric, electrolytic moisture analyzer; isotopic composition by mass spectrometry; rare earths by copper spark spectroscopy; trace impurities by carrier distillation spectroscopy; impurities by spark-source mass spectrography; total gas in reactor-grade mixed dioxide pellets; tungsten by dithiol-spectrophotometry; rare earth elements by spectroscopy; plutonium-238 isotopic abundance by alpha spectrometry; uranium and plutonium isotopic analysis by mass spectrometry; oxygen-to-metal atom ratio by gravimetry

  19. Assistance in chemistry and chemical processes related to primary, secondary and ancillary systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio A.; Becquart, Elena T.; Iglesias, Alberto M.; La Gamma, Ana M.; Villegas, Marina

    2003-01-01

    Argentina is currently running two nuclear power plants: Atucha I (CNA I) and Embalse (CNE) operated by Nucleoelectrica Argentina (NASA) whereas the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), among other activities, is responsible for research and development in the nuclear field, operates research reactors and carries out projects related to them. In particular, the Reactor Chemistry Section personnel (currently part of the Chemistry Dept.) has been working on the field of reactor water chemistry for more than 25 years, on research and support to the NPPs chemistry department. Though the most relevant tasks have been connected to primary and secondary circuits chemistry, ancillary systems show along the time unexpected problems or feasible improvements originated in the undergoing operating time as well as in phenomena not foreseen by the constructors. In the present paper are presented the tasks performed in relation to the following systems of Embalse NPP: 1) Heavy water upgrade column preliminary water treatment; 2) Liquid waste system preliminary water treatment; and 3) Primary heat transport system coolant crud composition. (author)

  20. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides ((U, Pu)O2)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade mixed oxides, (U, Pu)O2, powders and pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Uranium in the Presence of Pu by Potentiometric Titration Plutonium by Controlled-Potential Coulometry Plutonium by Amperometric Titration with Iron (II) Nitrogen by Distillation Spectrophotometry Using Nessler Reagent 7 to 14 Carbon (Total) by Direct Combustion-Thermal Conductivity 15 to 26 Total Chlorine and Fluorine by Pyrohydrolysis 27 to 34 Sulfur by Distillation-Spectrophotometry 35 to 43 Moisture by the Coulometric, Electrolytic Moisture Analyzer 44 to 51 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry Rare Earths by Copper Spark Spectroscopy 52 to 59 Trace Impurities by Carrier Distillation Spectroscopy 60 to 69 Impurities by Spark-Source Mass Spectrography 70 to 76 Total Gas in Reactor-Grade Mixed Dioxide P...

  1. An assessment of the Canadian Forces' capability to manage the consequences of the domestic use of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear weapons of mass destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    In view of the threat to Canadian domestic targets presented by the asymmetric use of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) weapons of mass destruction (WMD), this thesis examines whether the Canadian Forces (CF) has capability deficiencies in managing the consequences of such an attack. Research included an examination of the post Cold War strategic environment, the state of the art in CBRN technology, current concepts and experience in managing the consequences of major disasters and responsibilities at the municipal, provincial and federal levels of government. The methodology used included scenario based planning to develop circumstances where WMD might be used domestically, and decomposition to break down the scenarios into events and potential CF roles and tasks. The current CF structure was used to determine the probable CF response, which included the ability of CF units to perform the required tasks, the CF response time and the ability of the CF to sustain the operation. (author)

  2. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources; Rendimiento de un reactor quimico-nuclear con fuentes radioisotopicas gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguis T, C

    1975-07-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  3. Productivity of a nuclear chemical reactor with gamma radioisotopic sources; Rendimiento de un reactor quimico-nuclear con fuentes radioisotopicas gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anguis T, C

    1975-07-01

    According to an established mathematical model of successive Compton interaction processes the made calculations for major distances are extended checking the acceptability of the spheric geometry model for the experimental data for radioisotopic sources of Co-60 and Cs-137. Parameters such as the increasing factor and the absorbed dose served as comparative base. calculations for the case of a punctual source succession inside a determined volume cylinder are made to obtain the total dose, the deposited energy by each photons energetic group and the total absorbed energy inside the reactor. Varying adequately the height/radius relation for different cylinders, the distinct energy depositions are compared in each one of them once a time standardized toward a standard value of energy emitted by the reactor volume. A relation between the quantity of deposited energy in each point of the reactor and the conversion values of chemical species is established. They are induced by electromagnetic radiation and that are reported as ''G'' in the scientific literature (number of molecules formed or disappeared by each 100 e.v. of energy). Once obtained the molecular performance inside the reactor for each type of geometry, it is optimized the height/radius relation according to the maximum production of molecules by unity of time. It is completed a bibliographical review of ''G'' values reported by different types of aqueous solutions with the purpose to determine the maximum performance of molecular hydrogen as a function of pH of the solution and of the used type of solute among other factors. Calculations for the ethyl bromide production as an example of one of the industrial processes which actually work using the gamma radiation as reactions inductor are realized. (Author)

  4. Use of chemical fractionation and proton nuclear magnetic resonance to probe the physical structure of the primary plant cell wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, I.E.P.; Wallace, J.C.; MacKay, A.L.; Volke, F.

    1990-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance has been used to monitor the microscopic physical properties of etiolated hypocotyl cell walls from Phaseolus vulgaris L. at all stages in a series of chemical fractionations with ammonium oxalate and potassium hydroxide. Solid echo measurements indicate that 75% of the polymers in the intact cell wall, including the cellulose and most of the hemicelluloses, are arranged such that there is almost complete restraint of molecular motion. The chemical fractionations generally altered the physical structures of the remaining cell wall components. Digestion with 0.25% ammonium oxalate/oxalic acid solubilized the pectin and increased the mobility of the hemicellulose I component. Extraction with 4% potassium hydroxide removed the hemicellulose I component and loosened the hemicellulose II. Further extraction with 24% potassium hydroxide removed the hemicellulose II and loosened some of the cellulose. The cellulose crystallinity, as monitored by Jeener echo measurements decreased from 83% to 63% during these fractionations. We conclude that, while hemicellulose I is firmly attached to hemicellulose II, it is not in a closely packed structure. Hemicellulose II is strongly bound to cellulose and has a much more closely packed structure

  5. Veronica: Chemical characters for the support of phylogenetic relationships based on nuclear ribosomal and plastid DNA sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albach, Dirk C.; Jensen, Søren Rosendal; Özgökce, Fevzi

    2005-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed many relationships in Veronica (Plantaginaceae) never anticipated before. However, phytochemical characters show good congruence with DNA-based analyses. We have analysed a combined data set of 49 species and subspecies derived from the nuclear...... are monophyletic sister groups with the annual species consecutive sisters to them. All species of Veronica that contain cornoside are found in this subgenus, although some species seem to have secondarily lost the ability to produce this compound. Subgenera Pocilla and Pentasepalae are well supported sister...... species in the genus analysed to date to contain melittoside and globularifolin. Subgenus Pentasepalae appears to be a clade of diverse lineages from southwestern Asia and a single European clade. Species shown to have 6-hydroxyflavones do not form a monophyletic group. Subgenus Pseudolysimachium seems...

  6. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance method of the markers of nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Avik; Gupta, Hemendra K; Garg, Prabhat; Jain, Rajeev; Dubey, Devendra K

    2009-07-03

    This paper details an on-flow liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-nuclear magnetic resonance (LC-UV-NMR) method for the retrospective detection and identification of alkyl alkylphosphonic acids (AAPAs) and alkylphosphonic acids (APAs), the markers of the toxic nerve agents for verification of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). Initially, the LC-UV-NMR parameters were optimized for benzyl derivatives of the APAs and AAPAs. The optimized parameters include stationary phase C(18), mobile phase methanol:water 78:22 (v/v), UV detection at 268nm and (1)H NMR acquisition conditions. The protocol described herein allowed the detection of analytes through acquisition of high quality NMR spectra from the aqueous solution of the APAs and AAPAs with high concentrations of interfering background chemicals which have been removed by preceding sample preparation. The reported standard deviation for the quantification is related to the UV detector which showed relative standard deviations (RSDs) for quantification within +/-1.1%, while lower limit of detection upto 16mug (in mug absolute) for the NMR detector. Finally the developed LC-UV-NMR method was applied to identify the APAs and AAPAs in real water samples, consequent to solid phase extraction and derivatization. The method is fast (total experiment time approximately 2h), sensitive, rugged and efficient.

  7. Chemical and radiochemical control of the primary circuit of Atucha INPP (Nuclear Power Plant) since the start up in January 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.P; Baungartner, E.C.; Blesa, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the start up of Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant in January 1990, an exhaustive chemical and radiochemical control of primary media was undertaken. The main objectives were the evaluation of the water condition after the long outage and the determination of activity measurements limitations to detect and localize fuel failures. Chemical and radiochemical techniques were critically proved. At the same time, a complete program of updating and optimization of those procedures was developed, including the revision of the analytical parameters, range of applicability and accuracy. A more adequate processing of data was adopted. They were compared with historical values corresponding to periods with and without fuel elements failures, used as references. The analysis of theoretical models of total gamma activity concentration and some specific radionuclides activity concentration evolution and their rates, and the comparison with experimental data obtained during normal operation including some failure events, generated tables of alarm criteria through a combination of parameters. Additionally, actions are suggested for different combination of parameters. Operative conditions that might interfere in the detection and localization of a failed fuel element are also pointed out. (Author)

  8. Decommissioning nuclear and radiation hazardous facilities at the Mining and Chemical Combine: International cooperation in assessment of impact on the environment and population health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.; Revenko, Y.A.; Zhidkov, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    The discharge of radionuclides to the Yenisei River has substantially reduced after shutdown of direct cycle reactors at the Mining and Chemical Combine; currently exposure dose rate above water surface and radionuclide concentration in sewage water flows do not exceed the levels set by existing sanitary rules. The results of other protection measures connected with decommissioning of nuclear- and radiation-dangerous facilities and environment restoration activity are considered in the paper. Recently, the workers of the Mining and Chemical Combine, together with specialists from other Russian institutions and with international participation, made significant progress in investigation and monitoring of the radiological impact, primarily in the Yenisei River floodplain and around the 'Severnyi' radwaste disposal site. The inventory of man-made radionuclides in flood-plain deposits of the Yenisei River was assessed and long-term radionuclide transport into the Kara Sea forecasted. New local information on radionuclide pathways to man and environment was the basis for the development of an original dosimetric model. The models of radionuclide migration in the underground liquid radwaste disposal sites have been created and associated human doses predicted. A GIS project has been developed for Yenisei River floodplain contamination. Future work will include development of M and CC ecological geoinformation cadastre and assessments of the impact of radionuclide exposure on the environment, agriculture, fishing, and water quality, as well as identification of necessary rehabilitation measures. (author)

  9. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevedo D, M.; Ayala S, A.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  10. Nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangwani, Saloni; Chakrabortty, Sumita

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear fuel is a material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned for energy. Nuclear fuels are the most dense sources of energy available. Nuclear fuel in a nuclear fuel cycle can refer to the fuel itself, or to physical objects (for example bundles composed of fuel rods) composed of the fuel material, mixed with structural, neutron moderating, or neutron reflecting materials. Long-lived radioactive waste from the back end of the fuel cycle is especially relevant when designing a complete waste management plan for SNF. When looking at long-term radioactive decay, the actinides in the SNF have a significant influence due to their characteristically long half-lives. Depending on what a nuclear reactor is fueled with, the actinide composition in the SNF will be different. The following paper will also include the uses. advancements, advantages, disadvantages, various processes and behavior of nuclear fuels

  11. Level crossing analysis of chemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization: Towards a common description of liquid-state and solid-state cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosnovsky, Denis V.; Ivanov, Konstantin L., E-mail: ivanov@tomo.nsc.ru [International Tomography Centre of SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Jeschke, Gunnar [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Matysik, Jörg [Institut für Analytische Chemie, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 3, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Vieth, Hans-Martin [International Tomography Centre of SB RAS, Institutskaya 3a, 630090, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, Arnimallee 14, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-04-14

    Chemically Induced Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (CIDNP) is an efficient method of creating non-equilibrium polarization of nuclear spins by using chemical reactions, which have radical pairs as intermediates. The CIDNP effect originates from (i) electron spin-selective recombination of radical pairs and (ii) the dependence of the inter-system crossing rate in radical pairs on the state of magnetic nuclei. The CIDNP effect can be investigated by using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) methods. The gain from CIDNP is then two-fold: it allows one to obtain considerable amplification of NMR signals; in addition, it provides a very useful tool for investigating elusive radicals and radical pairs. While the mechanisms of the CIDNP effect in liquids are well established and understood, detailed analysis of solid-state CIDNP mechanisms still remains challenging; likewise a common theoretical frame for the description of CIDNP in both solids and liquids is missing. Difficulties in understanding the spin dynamics that lead to the CIDNP effect in the solid-state case are caused by the anisotropy of spin interactions, which increase the complexity of spin evolution. In this work, we propose to analyze CIDNP in terms of level crossing phenomena, namely, to attribute features in the CIDNP magnetic field dependence to Level Crossings (LCs) and Level Anti-Crossings (LACs) in a radical pair. This approach allows one to describe liquid-state CIDNP; the same holds for the solid-state case where anisotropic interactions play a significant role in CIDNP formation. In solids, features arise predominantly from LACs, since in most cases anisotropic couplings result in perturbations, which turn LCs into LACs. We have interpreted the CIDNP mechanisms in terms of the LC/LAC concept. This consideration allows one to find analytical expressions for a wide magnetic field range, where several different mechanisms are operative; furthermore, the LAC description gives a way to determine CIDNP sign

  12. Speciation of trace elements in biological samples by nuclear analytical and related techniques coupled with chemical and biochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.Y.; Gao, Y.X.; Li, B.; Yu, H.W.; Li, Y.F.; Sun, J.; Chai, Z.F.

    2005-01-01

    In the past, most analytical problems relating to biological systems were addressed by measuring the total concentrations of elements. Now there is increasing interest of the importance of their chemical forms, in which an element is present in biological systems, e.g., the oxidation state, the binding state with macromolecules, or even the molecular structure. The biological effects of chromium, which is classified as an essential nutrient, are dependent upon its oxidation. state. In general, trivalent chromium is biochemically active, whereas hexavalent chromium is considered to be toxic. Mercury is one of serious environmental persistent pollutants. However, organic forms of mercury are known to possess much higher toxicity than inorganic mercury. Therefore, information on speciation is critically required in order to better understanding of their bioavailability, metabolism, transformation, and toxicity in vivo. Recently, chemical speciation of selenium, mercury, copper, zinc, iron, and so on, has been investigated by INAA, ICP-MS, XRF, EXAFS and related techniques combined with chemical and biochemical separation (extraction, chromatography, gel electrophoresis, etc.). INAA, XRF, and ICP-MS have superior advantages in aspect of multielemental analysis with high accuracy and sensitivity, which render the possibility of analyzing various elements of interest simultaneously. These offline or online techniques have been flexibly applied to different biological matrixes, such as human hair, serum, urine, various tissues and organs in our researches. In addition, EXAFS provides structural information about the moiety of metal centers up to a distance of approximately 4-5 Anstrom. For instance, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Imbalance of elements, such as Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Ca, etc., has been found in the whole blood or serum of patients with HCC. We found that the profiles of Se, Cd, Fe, Zn and Cu-containing proteins

  13. Modeling of Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes for Bentonite in a Clay-rock Repository for Heat-generating Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Rutqvist, J.; Zheng, L.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Engineered Barrier Systems (EBS) that include a bentonite-based buffer are designed to isolate the high-level radioactive waste emplaced in tunnels in deep geological formations. The heat emanated from the waste can drive the moisture flow transport and induce strongly coupled Thermal (T), Hydrological (H), Mechanical (M) and Chemical (C) processes within the bentonite buffer and may also impact the evolution of the excavation disturbed zone and the sealing between the buffer and walls of an emplacement tunnel The flow and contaminant transport potential along the disturbed zone can be minimized by backfilling the tunnels with bentonite, if it provides enough swelling stress when hydrated by the host rock. The swelling capability of clay minerals within the bentonite is important for sealing gaps between bentonite block, and between the EBS and the surrounding host rock. However, a high temperature could result in chemical alteration of bentonite-based buffer and backfill materials through illitization, which may compromise the function of these EBS components by reducing their plasticity and capability to swell under wetting. Therefore, an adequate THMC coupling scheme is required to understand and to predict the changes of bentonite for identifying whether EBS bentonite can sustain higher temperatures. More comprehensive links between chemistry and mechanics, taking advantage of the framework provided by a dual-structure model, named Barcelona Expansive Model (BExM), was implemented in TOUGHREACT-FLAC3D and is used to simulate the response of EBS bentonite in in clay formation for a generic case. The current work is to evaluate the chemical changes in EBS bentonite and the effects on the bentonite swelling stress under high temperature. This work sheds light on the interaction between THMC processes, evaluates the potential deterioration of EBS bentonite and supports the decision making in the design of a nuclear waste repository in light of the maximum allowance

  14. Contribution to the optimization of the chemical and radiochemical purification of pressurized water nuclear power plants primary coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elain, L.

    2004-12-01

    The primary coolant of pressurised water reactors is permanently purified thanks to a device, composed of filters and the demineralizers furnished with ion exchange resins (IER), located in the chemical and volume control system (CVCS). The study of the retention mechanisms of the radio-contaminants by the IER implies, initially, to know the speciation of the primary coolant percolant through the demineralizers. Calculations of theoretical speciation of the primary coolant were carried out on the basis of known composition of the primary coolant and thanks to the use of an adapted chemical speciation code. A complementary study, dedicated to silver behaviour, considered badly extracted, suggests metallic aggregates existence generated by the radiolytic reduction of the Ag + ions. An analysis of the purification curves of the elements Ni, Fe, Co, Cr, Mn, Sb and their principal radionuclides, relating to the cold shutdown of Fessenheim 1-cycle 20 and Tricastin 2-cycle 21, was carried out, in the light of a model based on the concept of a coupling well term - source term. Then, a thermodynamic modelling of ion exchange phenomena in column was established. The formation of the permutation front and the enrichment zones planned was validated by frontal analysis experiments of synthetic fluids (mixtures of Ni(B(OH) 4 ) 2 , LiB(OH) 4 and AgB(OH) 4 in medium B(OH) 3 )), and of real fluid during the putting into service of the device mini-CVCS at the time of Tricastin 2 cold shutdown. New tools are thus proposed, opening the way with an optimised management of demineralizers and a more complete interpretation of the available experience feedback. (author)

  15. Nuclear rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarram, M.

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine call NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen, in a nuclear reactor, from 420F to 4000 0 F. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight

  16. Nuclear rockets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarram, M [Teheran Univ. (Iran). Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology

    1972-02-01

    Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. This article deals with these applications. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear energy for propulsion purposes in space flight. The main objective is to develop a 75000 pound thrust flight engine called NERVA by heating liquid hydrogen in a nuclear reactor. The paper describes in detail the salient features of the NERVA rocket as well as its comparison with the conventional chemical rockets. It is shown that a nuclear rocket using liquid hydrogen as medium is at least 85% more efficient as compared with the chemical rockets such as those used for the APOLLO moon flight.

  17. Thermal, chemical, and mass transport processes induced in abyssal sediments by the emplacement of nuclear wastes: Experimental and modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Erickson, K.L.; Seyfried, W.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    In this chapter the authors discuss the current status of heat and mass transport studies in the marine red clay sediments that are being considered as a nuclear waste isolation medium and review analytical and experimental studies. Calculations based on numerical models indicate that for a maximum allowable sediment-canister interface temperatures of 200 0 to 250 0 C, the sediment can absorb about 1.5kW initial power from waste buried 30 m in the sediment in a canister that is 3 m long and 0.3 m in diameter. The resulting fluid displacement due to convections is found to be small, less than 1 m. Laboratory studies of the geochemical effects induced by heating sediment-seawater mixtures indicate that the canister and waste form should be designed to resist a hot, relatively acidic oxidizing environment. Since the thermally altered sediment volume of about 5.5 m/sup 3/ is small relative to the sediment volume overlying the canister, the acid and oxidizing conditions should significantly affect the properties of the far field only if thermodiffusional process (Soret effect) prove to be significant. If thermodiffusional effects are important, however, near-field chemistry will differ considerably from that predicted from results of constant temperature sediment-seawater interaction experiments

  18. Conceptual modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical processes in bentonite buffer for high-level nuclear waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byoung Young; Park, Jin Young [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ji Hun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    In this study, thermal-hydrological-chemical modeling for the alteration of a bentonite buffer is carried out using a simulation code TOUGHREACT. The modeling results show that the water saturation of bentonite steadily increases and finally the bentonite is fully saturated after 10 years. In addition, the temperature rapidly increases and stabilizes after 0.5 year, exhibiting a constant thermal gradient as a function of distance from the copper tube. The change of thermal-hydrological conditions mainly results in the alteration of anhydrite and calcite. Anhydrite and calcite are dissolved along with the inflow of groundwater. They then tend to precipitate in the vicinity of the copper tube due to its high temperature. This behavior induces a slight decrease in porosity and permeability of bentonite near the copper tube. Furthermore, this study finds that the diffusion coefficient can significantly affect the alteration of anhydrite and calcite, which causes changes in the hydrological properties of bentonite such as porosity and permeability. This study may facilitate the safety assessment of high-level radioactive waste repositories.

  19. A rapid dissolution procedure to aid initial nuclear forensics investigations of chemically refractory compounds and particles prior to gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, David G., E-mail: d.reading@noc.soton.ac.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E. [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Britton, Richard [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-05

    A rapid and effective preparative procedure has been evaluated for the accurate determination of low-energy (40–200 keV) gamma-emitting radionuclides ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 234}Th, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 235}U) in uranium ores and uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) using high-resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The measurement of low-energy gamma photons is complicated in heterogeneous samples containing high-density mineral phases and in such situations activity concentrations will be underestimated. This is because attenuation corrections, calculated based on sample mean density, do not properly correct where dense grains are dispersed within a less dense matrix (analogous to a nugget effect). The current method overcomes these problems using a lithium tetraborate fusion that readily dissolves all components including high-density, self-attenuating minerals/compounds. This is the ideal method for dissolving complex, non-volatile components in soils, rocks, mineral concentrates, and other materials where density reduction is required. Lithium borate fusion avoids the need for theoretical efficiency corrections or measurement of matrix matched calibration standards. The resulting homogeneous quenched glass produced can be quickly dissolved in nitric acid producing low-density solutions that can be counted by gamma spectrometry. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated using uranium-bearing Certified Reference Materials and provides accurate activity concentration determinations compared to the underestimated activity concentrations derived from direct measurements of a bulk sample. The procedure offers an effective solution for initial nuclear forensic studies where complex refractory minerals or matrices exist. It is also significantly faster, safer and simpler than alternative approaches. - Highlights: • Low energy gamma photons (<200 keV) are attenuated in U-bearing compounds. • Corrections based on bulk density do not yield accurate activity

  20. Geological Disposal of Nuclear Waste: Investigating the Thermo-Hygro-Mechanical-Chemical (THMC) Coupled Processes at the Waste Canister- Bentonite Barrier Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. W.; Davie, D. C.; Charles, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geological disposal of nuclear waste is being increasingly considered to deal with the growing volume of waste resulting from the nuclear legacy of numerous nations. Within the UK there is 650,000 cubic meters of waste safely stored and managed in near-surface interim facilities but with no conclusive permanent disposal route. A Geological Disposal Facility with incorporated Engineered Barrier Systems are currently being considered as a permanent waste management solution (Fig.1). This research focuses on the EBS bentonite buffer/waste canister interface, and experimentally replicates key environmental phases that would occur after canister emplacement. This progresses understanding of the temporal evolution of the EBS and the associated impact on its engineering, mineralogical and physicochemical state and considers any consequences for the EBS safety functions of containment and isolation. Correlation of engineering properties to the physicochemical state is the focus of this research. Changes to geotechnical properties such as Atterberg limits, swelling pressure and swelling kinetics are measured after laboratory exposure to THMC variables from interface and batch experiments. Factors affecting the barrier, post closure, include corrosion product interaction, precipitation of silica, near-field chemical environment, groundwater salinity and temperature. Results show that increasing groundwater salinity has a direct impact on the buffer, reducing swelling capacity and plasticity index by up to 80%. Similarly, thermal loading reduces swelling capacity by 23% and plasticity index by 5%. Bentonite/steel interaction studies show corrosion precipitates diffusing into compacted bentonite up to 3mm from the interface over a 4 month exposure (increasing with temperature), with reduction in swelling capacity in the affected zone, probably due to the development of poorly crystalline iron oxides. These results indicate that groundwater conditions, temperature and corrosion

  1. Nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubert, M.

    1992-01-01

    The following motion was put before the United Kingdom House of Commons on 3rd February 1992 and agreed; that this House, recognising the potential dangers of the rapidly changing world order, welcomes the recent proposals for substantial reductions in nuclear weaponry, the growing support for the non-proliferation treaty and progress in the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions concerning the dismantling of Iraqi nuclear, chemical and biological capabilities; urges the Government to play their full part in helping the relevant authorities in the Commonwealth of Independent States to dismantle their nuclear devices, to safeguard their nuclear components and to discourage the proliferation of nuclear expertise; and believes it is of the first importance that Britain retains an effective and credible minimum nuclear deterrent as security in a world where there remain many sources of instability. The record of arguments for and against the motion in the debate is presented. (author)

  2. Determination of Methylmercury Traces in Biological Matrix: Chemical Extraction and Nuclear Quantification with the Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldati, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mercury is present in the environment as a result of the human and natural activities.The total amount of Hg present in the biosphere has been incremented three times since the industrial era, and now it is affecting in a global sense all the ecosystem.One of the main entrance of Hg in the human diet is the consumption of fish and other marine creatures.Most of the ingested Hg is mono methylmercury (MeHg), which is one of the most toxic forms in which this element could be found because it crosses membranes.Since the toxicity levels are low, the determination of concentrations of total Hg and Me Hg require very careful sampling, sample conditioning and analytical procedures to prevent either losses or contamination, or the degradation of the Hg species.In this work, we implemented a chemical Me Hg extraction procedure, using a ionic exchange resin, with three different types of fish tissue: muscle, liver and hepato pancreas.After Me Hg extraction, the determination and quantification was made by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, by measuring the 197 Au, y el 203 Tl deexcitation s, created through the radioactive decay of the isotopes 197 Hg y 203 Hg.The influence of several parameters on the overall extraction process, such as velocity of passage through the ionic exchange column and the acid concentration used in the extraction was evaluated.Regarding the INAA determinations, a choice was made for the irradiation, decay and counting times, neutron and gamma doses, and the counting geometry The detection limit found for this technique (dry weight) is 140 pg MeHg/g. The Hg contents of the muscle samples were measured with the 279 keV emission of the product of the 202 Hg(n,g) 203 Hg reaction, with a recovery of (100 ± 13)%. Liver and Hepato pancreas samples were measured with the 77 keV gamma emission of the 197 Hg, checking this result with the 67 y 69 keV X emissions from the same isotope.The liver samples needed an extra vacuum filtering process during

  3. Factors that elevate the internal radionuclide and chemical retention, dose and health risks to infants and children in a radiological-nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R. B.

    2009-01-01

    The factors that influence the dose and risk to vulnerable population groups from exposure and internal uptake of chemicals are examined and, in particular, the radionuclides released in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive events. The paper seeks to identify the areas that would benefit from further research. The intake and body burdens of carbon and calcium were assessed as surrogates for contaminants that either act like or bind to hydrocarbons (e.g. tritium and 14 C) or bone-seeking radionuclides (e.g. 90 Sr and 239 Pu). The shortest turnover times for such materials in the whole body were evaluated for the newborn: 11 d and 0.5 y for carbon and calcium, respectively. However, their biokinetic behaviour is complicated by a particularly high percentage of the gut-absorbed dietary intake of carbon (∼16%) and calcium (∼100%) that is incorporated into the soft tissue and skeleton of the growing neonate. The International Commission on Radiological Protection dose coefficients (Sv Bq -1 ) were examined for 14 radionuclides, including 9 of concern because of their potential use in radiological dispersal devices. The dose coefficients for a 3-month-old are greater than those for adults (2-56 times more for ingestion and 2-12 times for inhalation). The age-dependent dose and exposure assessment of contaminant intakes would improve by accounting for gender and growth where it is currently neglected. Health risk is evaluated as the product of the exposure and hazard factors, the latter being about 10-fold greater in infants than in adults. The exposure factor is also approximately 10-fold higher for ingestion by infants than by adults, and unity for inhalation varying with the contaminant. Qualitative and quantitative physiological and epidemiological evidence supports infants being more vulnerable to cancer and neurological deficit than older children). (authors)

  4. Using of new chemical regime on secondary circuit in nuclear power plant 'Kozloduy' - Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkova, K.; Stanchev, S.; Kalpakchiev, Z.

    2010-01-01

    There are two WWER-1000 - Russian design units (№5 and №6) working in the Bulgarian Nuclear Power Plant 'Kozloduy', which are equipped with horizontal steam generators. The report describes the chronology of the stages in the improvement of the water chemistry regime on the secondary circuit at both of the units 5 and 6 from their start up till now. As a final result of our purposeful activity is done a full exchange of copper alloys with stainless steel in regenerative LP heat exchangers and condensers in the secondary circuit equipment. That way we created preconditions for cardinal change and improvement of the water chemistry regime of the circuit. For that purpose is realized a program for optimization in maximal degree of the water chemistry regime of the secondary circuit of the WWER-1000 Units. The program includes the preliminary study, the stage of experimental operation and the stage of establishing the new regime into regular exploitation. The preliminary study included the definition of the coefficients of distribution of the ammonia in a real operation conditions in the secondary circuit and rating the expected results from the applying of different varieties of the secondary circuit water chemistry. It is taken into account the balance plans for distribution of the corrective reagents, the expected pH values at working temperature (pHt), the transport of products of corrosion to steam generators and the abilities of the installation for purification of the blow down water. As a final result a mixed ammonia-ethanolamine water chemistry regime has been chosen, characterized with pH 25 =9.9(9.85-9.95). The special feature of this regime is that, both the corrective reagents ethanolamine and ammonia are dosed in the feed up water as a mixed solution with permanent proportion of the concentrations. This water chemistry treatment combines the advantages of high ammonia AVT water chemistry related to specific constructive steels in low

  5. iNR-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nuclear receptors and their subfamilies via physical-chemical property matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xiao

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs form a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a wide variety of biological processes, such as homeostasis, reproduction, development, and metabolism. Human genome contains 48 genes encoding NRs. These receptors have become one of the most important targets for therapeutic drug development. According to their different action mechanisms or functions, NRs have been classified into seven subfamilies. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, we are facing the following challenging problems. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, how can we identify whether it is a nuclear receptor? If it is, what subfamily it belongs to? To address these problems, we developed a predictor called iNR-PhysChem in which the protein samples were expressed by a novel mode of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross-covariance transformations. It was observed that the overall success rate achieved by iNR-PhysChem was over 98% in identifying NRs or non-NRs, and over 92% in identifying NRs among the following seven subfamilies: NR1--thyroid hormone like, NR2--HNF4-like, NR3--estrogen like, NR4--nerve growth factor IB-like, NR5--fushi tarazu-F1 like, NR6--germ cell nuclear factor like, and NR0--knirps like. These rates were derived by the jackknife tests on a stringent benchmark dataset in which none of protein sequences included has ≥60% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. As a user-friendly web-server, iNR-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at either http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-PhysChem or http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iNR-PhysChem. Also a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics involved in developing the predictor. It is anticipated that iNR-PhysChem may

  6. Nuclear transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulaj, V.

    1992-01-01

    Two types of nuclear transmutations are outlined, namely the radioactive transmutations and nuclear reactions. The basic characteristics are given of radioactive transmutations (gamma transmutations and isomeric transitions, beta, alpha transmutations, spontaneous fission and spontaneous emission of nucleons), their kinetics and the influence of the physical and chemical state of the radionuclide on the transmutation rate. The basic characteristics are described of nuclear reactions (reactions of neutrons including fission, reactions induced by charged particles and photons), their kinetics, effective cross sections and their mechanism. Chemical reactions caused by nuclear transmutations are discussed (recoil energy, properties of hot atoms, Szilard-Chalmers effect). A brief information is given on the behavior of radionuclides in trace concentrations. (Z.S.) 2 tabs., 19 figs., 12 refs

  7. A chemical genetic screen for mTOR pathway inhibitors based on 4E-BP-dependent nuclear accumulation of eIF4E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Mark; Larsson, Ola; Sukarieh, Rami; Pelletier, Jerry; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2009-12-24

    The signal transduction pathway wherein mTOR regulates cellular growth and proliferation is an active target for drug discovery. The search for new mTOR inhibitors has recently yielded a handful of promising compounds that hold therapeutic potential. This search has been limited by the lack of a high-throughput assay to monitor the phosphorylation of a direct rapamycin-sensitive mTOR substrate in cells. Here we describe a novel cell-based chemical genetic screen useful for efficiently monitoring mTOR signaling to 4E-BPs in response to stimuli. The screen is based on the nuclear accumulation of eIF4E, which occurs in a 4E-BP-dependent manner specifically upon inhibition of mTOR signaling. Using this assay in a small-scale screen, we have identified several compounds not previously known to inhibit mTOR signaling, demonstrating that this method can be adapted to larger screens. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. KrasMAS: Implementation of a nuclear material computerized accounting system at the Mining and Chemical Combine through the Russian/US cooperative MPC and A program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, K.V.; Zhidkov, V.V.; Martinez, B.J.; Perry, R.T.; Scott, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Russian/US Mining and Chemical Combine (Gorno-Kimichesky Kombinat, GKhK, also referred to as Krasnoyarsk-26) Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) project was initiated in June 1996. A critical component of the ongoing cooperative MPC and A enhancements at the GKhK is the implementation of a computerized nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system. This system must meet the MC and A requirements of the GKhK by integrating the information generated by numerous existing and new MC and A components in place at the GKhK (e.g., scales, bar-code equipment, NDA measurement systems). During the first phase of this effort, the GKhK adapted CoreMAS (developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory) for use in the PuO 2 storage facility. This included formulation of Web-based user interfaces for plant personnel, Russification of the existing user interface, and at the functional level, modification of the CoreMAS stored procedures. The modified system is referred to as KrasMAS and builds upon completed work on CoreMAS. Ongoing efforts include adding GKhK specific report forms and expanding the functionality of the system for implementation at the radiochemical processing and reactor plants of the GKhK. Collaborations with other Russian facilities for appropriate parts of these efforts will be pursued

  9. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit''. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes

  10. Standard test methods for chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover procedures for the chemical, mass spectrometric, and spectrochemical analysis of nuclear-grade aluminum oxide and aluminum oxide-boron carbide composite pellets to determine compliance with specifications. 1.2 The analytical procedures appear in the following order: Sections Boron by Titrimetry 7 to 13 Separation of Boron for Mass Spectrometry 14 to 19 Isotopic Composition by Mass Spectrometry 20 to 23 Separation of Halides by Pyrohydrolysis 24 to 27 Fluoride by Ion-Selective Electrode 28 to 30 Chloride, Bromide, and Iodide by Amperometric Microtitrimetry 31 to 33 Trace Elements by Emission Spectroscopy 34 to 46 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. (F...

  11. A literature review of coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes pertinent to the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manteufel, R.D.; Ahola, M.P.; Turner, D.R.; Chowdhury, A.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses

    1993-07-01

    A literature review has been conducted to determine the state of knowledge available in the modeling of coupled thermal (T), hydrologic (H), mechanical (M), and chemical (C) processes relevant to the design and/or performance of the proposed high-level waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The review focuses on identifying coupling mechanisms between individual processes and assessing their importance (i.e., if the coupling is either important, potentially important, or negligible). The significance of considering THMC-coupled processes lies in whether or not the processes impact the design and/or performance objectives of the repository. A review, such as reported here, is useful in identifying which coupled effects will be important, hence which coupled effects will need to be investigated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in order to assess the assumptions, data, analyses, and conclusions in the design and performance assessment of a geologic reposit``. Although this work stems from regulatory interest in the design of the geologic repository, it should be emphasized that the repository design implicitly considers all of the repository performance objectives, including those associated with the time after permanent closure. The scope of this review is considered beyond previous assessments in that it attempts with the current state-of-knowledge) to determine which couplings are important, and identify which computer codes are currently available to model coupled processes.

  12. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION SUMMARY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawroski, S.; Vogel, R. C.; Levenson, Milton; Munnecke, V. H.

    1963-07-01

    Work reported includes: Chemical-Metallurgical Processing; Fuel Cycle Applications of Volatility and Fluidization Techniques; Calorimetry; Reactor Safety; Energy Conversion; and Determination of Nuclear Constants.

  13. Primary retention following nuclear recoil in β-decay: Proposed synthesis of a metastable rare gas oxide ((38)ArO4) from ((38)ClO4(-)) and the evolution of chemical bonding over the nuclear transmutation reaction path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Matthew J; Matta, Chérif F

    2014-12-01

    Argon tetroxide (ArO4) is the last member of the N=50 e(-) isoelectronic and isosteric series of ions: SiO4(4-), PO4(3-), SO4(2-), and ClO4(-). A high level computational study demonstrated that while ArO4 is kinetically stable it has a considerable positive enthalpy of formation (of ~298kcal/mol) (Lindh et al., 1999. J. Phys. Chem. A 103, pp. 8295-8302) confirming earlier predictions by Pyykkö (1990. Phys. Scr. 33, pp. 52-53). ArO4 can be expected to be difficult to synthesize by traditional chemistry due to its metastability and has not yet been synthesized at the time of writing. A computational investigation of the changes in the chemical bonding of chlorate (ClO4(-)) when the central chlorine atom undergoes a nuclear transmutation from the unstable artificial chlorine isotope (38)Cl to the stable rare argon isotope (38)Ar through β-decay, hence potentially leading to the formation of ArO4, is reported. A mathematical model is presented that allows for the prediction of yields following the recoil of a nucleus upon ejecting a β-electron. It is demonstrated that below a critical angle between the ejected β-electron and that of the accompanying antineutrino their respective linear momentums can cancel to such an extent as imparting a recoil to the daughter atom insufficient for breaking the Ar-O bond. As a result, a primary retention yield of ~1% of ArO4 is predicted following the nuclear disintegration. The study is conducted at the quadratic configuration interaction with single and double excitations [QCISD/6-311+G(3df)] level of theory followed by an analysis of the electron density by the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Crossed potential energy surfaces (PES) were used to construct a PES from the metastable ArO4 ground singlet state to the Ar-O bond dissociation product ArO3+O((3)P) from which the predicted barrier to dissociation is ca. 22kcal/mol and the exothermic reaction energy is ca. 28kcal/mol [(U)MP2/6-311+G(d)]. Copyright © 2014

  14. Nuclear power and weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, T.; Rathjens, C.W.; Ruina, J.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear weapons development and nuclear electric power is examined. A brief description of nuclear weapons design is first given. This is then followed by a discussion of various aspects of nuclear power technology and of how they affect a nuclear weapon programme. These include fuel cycles, chemical reprocessing of spent fuel, uranium enrichment, and the control of dissemination of nuclear technology. In conclusion there is a discussion of possible political and institutional controls for limiting nuclear proliferation. (U.K.)

  15. Nuclear technical or chemical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitzschel, G.; Tennie, M.; Ristow, U.; Sulic, M.

    1987-01-01

    The handling element and the tool are provided in a complementary way with a marking and a sensor for detecting the marking. The sensor is connected to a switching device, which controls the remote control depending on travel and/or time. The sensor controls a positioning device, which causes the tool to engage with the handling element. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Chemical structures of coal lithotypes before and after CO2 adsorption as investigated by advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.; Mastalerz, Maria; Chappell, M.A.; Miller, L.F.; Li, Y.; Mao, J.

    2011-01-01

    Four lithotypes (vitrain, bright clarain, clarain, and fusain) of a high volatile bituminous Springfield Coal from the Illinois Basin were characterized using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR techniques included quantitative direct polarization/magic angle spinning (DP/MAS), cross polarization/total sideband suppression (CP/TOSS), dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, and recoupled C-H long-range dipolar dephasing techniques. The lithotypes that experienced high-pressure CO2 adsorption isotherm analysis were also analyzed to determine possible changes in coal structure as a result of CO2 saturation at high pressure and subsequent evacuation. The main carbon functionalities present in original vitrain, bright clarain, clarain and fusain were aromatic carbons (65.9%-86.1%), nonpolar alkyl groups (9.0%-28.9%), and aromatic C-O carbons (4.1%-9.5%). Among these lithotypes, aromaticity increased in the order of clarain, bright clarain, vitrain, and fusain, whereas the fraction of alkyl carbons decreased in the same order. Fusain was distinct from other three lithotypes in respect to its highest aromatic composition (86.1%) and remarkably small fraction of alkyl carbons (11.0%). The aromatic cluster size in fusain was larger than that in bright clarain. The lithotypes studied responded differently to high pressure CO2 saturation. After exposure to high pressure CO2, vitrain and fusain showed a decrease in aromaticity but an increase in the fraction of alkyl carbons, whereas bright clarain and clarain displayed an increase in aromaticity but a decrease in the fraction of alkyl carbons. Aromatic fused-rings were larger for bright clarain but smaller for fusain in the post-CO2 adsorption samples compared to the original lithotypes. These observations suggested chemical CO2-coal interactions at high pressure and the selectivity of lithotypes in response to CO2 adsorption. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Accuracy in the quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) and relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Li, Hua; Xu, Junzhong; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang

    2017-07-01

    Accurate quantification of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) effects, including dipole-dipole mediated relayed nuclear Overhauser enhancement (rNOE) saturation transfer, is important for applications and studies of molecular concentration and transfer rate (and thereby pH or temperature). Although several quantification methods, such as Lorentzian difference (LD) analysis, multiple-pool Lorentzian fits, and the three-point method, have been extensively used in several preclinical and clinical applications, the accuracy of these methods has not been evaluated. Here we simulated multiple-pool Z spectra containing the pools that contribute to the main CEST and rNOE saturation transfer signals in the brain, numerically fit them using the different methods, and then compared their derived CEST metrics with the known solute concentrations and exchange rates. Our results show that the LD analysis overestimates contributions from amide proton transfer (APT) and intermediate exchanging amine protons; the three-point method significantly underestimates both APT and rNOE saturation transfer at -3.5 ppm (NOE(-3.5)). The multiple-pool Lorentzian fit is more accurate than the other two methods, but only at lower irradiation powers (≤1 μT at 9.4 T) within the range of our simulations. At higher irradiation powers, this method is also inaccurate because of the presence of a fast exchanging CEST signal that has a non-Lorentzian lineshape. Quantitative parameters derived from in vivo images of rodent brain tumor obtained using an irradiation power of 1 μT were also compared. Our results demonstrate that all three quantification methods show similar contrasts between tumor and contralateral normal tissue for both APT and the NOE(-3.5). However, the quantified values of the three methods are significantly different. Our work provides insight into the fitting accuracy obtainable in a complex tissue model and provides guidelines for evaluating other newly developed

  18. Nuclear astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)

  19. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY ANNUAL REPORT 1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1971-05-01

    Papers are presented for the following topics: (1) Nuclear Structure and Nuclear Properties - (a) Nuclear Spectroscopy and Radioactivity; (b) Nuclear Reactions and Scattering; (c) Nuclear Theory; and (d) Fission. (2) Chemical and Atomic Physics - (a) Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy; and (b) Hyperfine Interactions. (3) Physical, Inorganic, and Analytical Chemistry - (a) X-Ray Crystallography; (b) Physical and Inorganic Chemistry; (c) Radiation Chemistry; and (d) Chemical Engineering. (4) Instrumentation and Systems Development.

  20. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  1. Study of physico-chemical release of uranium and plutonium oxides during the combustion of polycarbonate and of ruthenium during the combustion of solvents used in the reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilloux, L.

    1998-01-01

    The level of consequences concerning a fire in a nuclear facility is in part estimated by the quantities and the physico-chemical forms of radioactive compounds that may be emitted out of the facility. It is therefore necessary to study the contaminant release from the fire. Because of the multiplicity of the scenarios, two research subjects were retained. The first one concerns the study of the uranium or plutonium oxides chemical release during the combustion of the polycarbonate glove box sides. The second one is about the physico chemical characterisation of the ruthenium release during the combustion of an organic solvent mixture (tributyl phosphate-dodecane) used for the nuclear fuel reprocessing. Concerning the two research subjects, the chemical release, i.e. means the generation of contaminant compounds gaseous in the fire, was modelled using thermodynamical simulations. Experiments were done in order to determine the ruthenium release factor during solvent combustion. A cone calorimeter was used for small scale experiments. These results were then validated by large scale tests under conditions close to the industrial process. Thermodynamical simulations, for the two scenarios studied. Furthermore, the experiments on solvent combustion allowed the determination of a suitable ruthenium release factor. Finally, the mechanism responsible of the ruthenium release has been found. (author)

  2. Study of solid chemical evolution in torrefaction of different biomasses through solid-state "1"3C cross-polarization/magic angle spinning NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and TGA (thermogravimetric analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Alonso, Elvira; Dupont, Capucine; Heux, Laurent; Da Silva Perez, Denilson; Commandre, Jean-Michel; Gourdon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to compare mass loss and chemical evolution of the solid phase, versus time, during dynamic torrefaction of different types of biomass. For this purpose, two experiments, ThermoGravimetric Analysis and solid-state "1"3C Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, were run on four representative biomasses. Overall mass loss and chemical evolution of the solid phase were followed, respectively, as a function of temperature and time. Thanks to this coupled information, it was shown that the knowledge of both solid mass loss and chemical evolution is necessary to characterize torrefaction severity. Moreover, biomasses containing higher proportions of xylan lost mass faster than those containing lower proportions. Lignin showed a protecting role towards cellulose, which would lead to a faster degradation of non-woody biomasses in comparison with woody biomasses. Three parameters would have an influence on solid chemical evolution during torrefaction: xylan content in hemicellulose, lignin content in biomass, and cellulose crystallinity. - Highlights: • Torrefaction of four biomasses was studied with TGA and solid-state NMR. • Both solid mass loss and chemical evolution characterize torrefaction severity. • Biomasses containing a higher proportion of xylan lose mass faster. • Lignin shows a stronger protecting role in degradation of woody biomasses. • Xylan, lignin and crystalline cellulose values influence solid chemical evolution.

  3. Pollutant deposition in forest ecosystems and characteristics of chemical properties of soils in the environs of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochman, V.; Bucek, J.; Biba, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the results of investigations of the chemistry of precipitation water and soil water in 1991-1992 on research plots in the nearer and farther environs of the building site of the Temelin nuclear power plant (about 25 km north of Ceske Budejovice). Research plots lie in spruce and beech stands. When the installations on research plots were built (1990 and 1991), soil samples were taken to determine the supply of biogenic elements in humus and soil. The objective of the program was to determine the current level of element deposition in forest ecosystems, dynamics of soil elements and chemistry; the program is a part of more extensive research into forest environment and stand condition. The research of investigation provide data for a forecast of the effect of the projected operation of the nuclear power plant on forest environment, basic factor of growth and stabilization and for fulfilment of their functions. They can be a basis for evaluation of the rate of changes in forest ecosystems after the nuclear power plant has been launched into operation. The results of research are currently applied to supply data to the network of plots with monitoring of pollutant loads in the forest ecosystem in Southern Bohemia. Two research plots in spruce stand (Hnevkovice and Strouha) and a plot in beech stand (Vsetec) were laid out at a distance of several kilometers from the built-up premises of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The soils on these plots are medium deep brown forest soils (Cambisol) with a large amount of mother rock skeleton (biotitic paragneiss). Moder is a soil humus form in the spruce and beech stands. To monitor pollutant deposition in the forest ecosystems and their effect of the soil properties Vojirov plots were laid out which lie in spruce stand and in a mixed stand of beech and spruce in the Jindrichuv Hradec forest district, near the frontier with Austria. Humus podzols with moder and mor forms were developed on eolian sand between

  4. Curium Management Studies in France, Japan and USA. A Report by the WPFC Expert Group on Chemical Partitioning of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee - April 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Isao; Choi, Yong-Joon; Glatz, Jean-Paul; Hyland, Bronwyn; Uhlir, Jan; Baron, Pascal; Warin, Dominique; DE ANGELIS, Giorgio; LUCE, Alfredo; Inoue, Tadashi; Morita, Yasuji; Minato, Kazuo; Lee, Han Soo; Ignatiev, Victor V.; Kormilitsyn, Mikhail V.; Caravaca, Concepcion; Lewin, Robert g.; Taylor, Robin J.; Collins, Emory D.; Laidler, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Curium is closely associated with americium in irradiated fuels because of their chemical similarity with regard to potential separation requirements, and because americium also requires special shielding and handling requirements due to its gamma radiation emission. Americium is produced in greater mass than curium in irradiated nuclear fuels and the mass ratio can grow exponentially with decay time because of the simultaneous decay of 244 Cm and in-growth of 241 Am from decay of 241 Pu (half-life = 14.4 years). For these reasons, curium management is challenging. Countries that are now engaged in or planning future fuel recycle operations, are considering methods to manage the curium produced and minimise the shielding and handling requirements, as well as the reprocessing requirements for separation of curium from americium France, Japan, and the USA have begun curium management studies. Curium management methods under consideration include (1) separation of curium from americium and storage of curium for several decades to allow 244 Cm to decay substantially to 240 Pu, while moving ahead to recycle americium; (2) recycling of americium and curium without separation; and (3) waiting several decades to reprocess used nuclear fuels, allowing decay minimisation of curium emissions and the requirement for separation of curium from americium, and allowing an alteration of the subsequent transmutation path to reduce the production of curium in recycled used fuels. In this report, recent curium management studies in France, Japan, and the USA have been described. The French studies included scenarios that compared the recycle of ail minor actinides (neptunium, americium, and curium) with the recycle of only neptunium and americium in radial blankets of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR). In the latter scenario, curium is separated from americium during used fuel reprocessing and stored for 5000 years to allow 244 Cm to decay to 240 Pu which is then recycled. Even though

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Shielding of Monoboranes: Calculation and Assessment of B-11 NMR Chemical Shifts in Planar BX3 and in Tetrahedral [BX4](-) Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháček, Jan; Bühl, M.; Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Hnyk, Drahomír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 50 (2017), s. 9631-9637 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08045S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Electrostatic potentials * Nonrelativistic * Nuclear magnetic shieldings Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  6. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  7. Board on chemical sciences and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Current and Ongoing Projects include: Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry; Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry Workshop on Training Requirements for Chemists in Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Industry, and Related Areas; Committee on Nuclear and Radiochemistry Workshop on High-Temperature and Nuclear Chemical Processes in Severe Reactor Accidents; Committee on Chemical Engineering Frontiers Research Needs and Opportunities; Committee on Separation Science on Technology; Panel on Future Directions for Fundamental Science in Fossil Energy Research; Committee for Handling and Disposal of Biohazards in the Laboratory (BIL); Advisory Panels to the AFSOR Chemical and Atmospheric Sciences Directorate; US National Committee for Pure and Applied Chemistry; US National Committee for Biochemistry; US National Committee for Crystallography

  8. Nuclear energy and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakacs, Istvan; Czeizel, Endre; Hajdu, Janos; Marx, Gyoergy.

    1984-01-01

    The text of a round-table discussion held on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the discovery of neutron is given. The participants were the Chief Engineer of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, the first nuclear power plant in Hungary started in November 1982, a geneticist treating the problems of genetic damages caused by nuclear and chemical effects, a nuclear physicist and a journalist interested in the social aspects of nuclear energy. They discussed the political, economical and social problems of nuclear energy in the context of its establishment in Hungary. (D.Gy.)

  9. Nuclear and radiochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Konya, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    The field of nuclear and radiochemistry is wide-reaching, with results having functions and use across a variety of disciplines. Drawing on 40 years of experience in teaching and research, this concise book explains the basic principles and applications of the primary areas of nuclear and radiochemistry. Separate chapters cover each main area of recent radiochemistry. This includes nuclear medicine and chemical aspects of nuclear power plants, namely the problems of nuclear wastes and nuclear analysis (both bulk and surface analysis), with the analytical methods based on the interactions of

  10. Proceeding on the scientific meeting and presentation on basic research of nuclear science and technology (book II): chemical, waste processing technology and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Syarip; Samin; Darsono; Agus Taftazani; Sudjatmoko; Tri Mardji Atmono; Dwi Biyantoro; Gede Sutresna W; Tjipto Sujitno; Slamet Santosa; Herry Poernomo; Bambang Siswanto; Eko Edy Karmanto; Endro Kismolo; Budi Setiawan; Prajitno; Jumari; Wahini Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Scientific Meeting and Presentation on Basic Research in Nuclear Science and Technology is an annual activity held by Centre for Accelerator Science and Technology, National Nuclear Energy Agency, in Yogyakarta, for monitoring research activities achieved by the Agency. The papers presented in the meeting were collected into proceedings which were divided into two groups that are chemistry, environmental and waste treatment technology process . The proceedings consists of three articles from keynote speakers and 24 articles from BATAN and others participants.(PPIKSN)

  11. Terror weapons. Ridding the world of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons - Commission on mass destruction weapons; Armes de terreur. Debarrasser le monde des armes nucleaires, biologiques et chimiques - Commission sur les armes de destruction massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blix, H.; Journe, V.

    2010-07-01

    This book approaches in 8 chapters the ambitious challenge of ridding the world of all mass destruction weapons: 1 - re-launching disarmament; 2 - terror weapons: nature of threats and answers (weakness of traditional answers, counter-proliferation); 3 - nuclear weapons: preventing proliferation and terrorism, reducing threat and nuclear weapons number, from regulation to banning); 4 - biological or toxin weapons; 5 - chemical weapons; 6 - vectors, anti-missile defenses and space weapons; 7 - exports control, international assistance and non-governmental actors; 8 - respect, verification, enforcement and role of the United Nations. The recommendations and works of the Commission are presented in appendix together with the declaration adopted on April 30, 2009. (J.S.)

  12. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  13. From chemical mapping to pressure temperature deformation micro-cartography: mineralogical evolution and mass transport in thermo-mechanic disequilibrium systems: application to meta-pelites and confinement nuclear waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, V. de

    2006-03-01

    The mineralogical composition of metamorphic rocks or industrial materials evolves when they are submitted to thermomechanical disequilibria, i.e. a spatial or temporal pressure and temperature evolution, or chemical disequilibria as variations in redox conditions, pH... For example, during low temperature metamorphic processes, rocks re-equilibrate only partially, and thus record locally thermodynamic equilibria increasing so the spatial chemical heterogeneities. Understanding the P-T evolution of such systems and deciphering modalities of their mineralogical transformation imply to recognize and characterize the size of these local 'paleo-equilibria', and so to have a spatial chemical information at least in 2 dimensions. In order to get this information, microprobe X-ray fluorescence maps have been used. Computer codes have been developed with Matlab to quantify these maps in view of thermo-barometric estimations. In this way, P-T maps of mineral crystallisation were produced using the multi-equilibria thermodynamic technique. Applications on two meta-pelites from the Sambagawa blue-schist belt (Japan) and from the Caledonian eclogitic zone in Spitsbergen, show that quantitative chemical maps are a powerful tool to retrieve the metamorphic history of rocks. From these chemical maps have been derived maps of P-T-time-redox-deformation that allow to characterize P-T conditions of minerals formation, and so, the P-T path of the sample, the oxidation state of iron in the chlorite phase. As a result, we underline the relation between deformation and crystallisation, and propose a relative chronology of minerals crystallisation and deformations. The Fe 3+ content map in chlorite calculated by thermodynamic has also been validated by a μ-XANES mapping at the iron K-edge measured at the ESRF (ID24) using an innovative method. Another application relates to an experimental study of clay materials, main components of an analogical model of a nuclear waste storage site

  14. Proceedings of the Jorge Andre Swieca Summer School; 4. Experimental Nuclear Physics Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    These proceedings present works on experimental nuclear physics, activation analysis, nuclear interactions, neutron physics, nuclear moments, inelastic scattering, lattices and chemical analysis. (L.C.J.A.)

  15. Nuclear law - Nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontier, Jean-Marie; Roux, Emmanuel; Leger, Marc; Deguergue, Maryse; Vallar, Christian; Pissaloux, Jean-Luc; Bernie-Boissard, Catherine; Thireau, Veronique; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Spencer, Mary; Zhang, Li; Park, Kyun Sung; Artus, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    This book contains the contributions presented during a one-day seminar. The authors propose a framework for a legal approach to nuclear safety, a discussion of the 2009/71/EURATOM directive which establishes a European framework for nuclear safety in nuclear installations, a comment on nuclear safety and environmental governance, a discussion of the relationship between citizenship and nuclear, some thoughts about the Nuclear Safety Authority, an overview of the situation regarding the safety in nuclear waste burying, a comment on the Nome law with respect to electricity price and nuclear safety, a comment on the legal consequences of the Fukushima accident on nuclear safety in the Japanese law, a presentation of the USA nuclear regulation, an overview of nuclear safety in China, and a discussion of nuclear safety in the medical sector

  16. Spin-orbit ZORA and four-component Dirac-Coulomb estimation of relativistic corrections to isotropic nuclear shieldings and chemical shifts of noble gas dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankowska, Marzena; Kupka, Teobald; Stobiński, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP and general gradient KT2 exchange-correlation functionals were used for non-relativistic and relativistic nuclear magnetic shielding calculations of helium, neon, argon, krypton and xenon dimers and free atoms. Relativistic...

  17. The Department of Defense Chemical, Biological, Nuclear and High Yield Explosive Response Enterprise: Have We Learned the Lessons to Ensure an Effective Response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Chernobyl . New York, NY: Warner Books. Gniady, Lisa N. 2008. Bridging the gap: Department of Defense’s planning for domestic disaster assistance. Thesis...Hurricane Katrina disaster . Fort Leavenworth: Combat Studies Institute Press. Yaroshinskaya, Alla. 1994. Chernobyl : The forbidden truth. Lincoln, NE...41 Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor Incident ............................................................................ 43 Conclusion

  18. Mineral nuclear exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The information on quantitative determination in rocks of water (humidity), rock-forming chemical elements, and various usefull components are presented. When considering separate chemical elements given are brief information on their content in natural objects, nuclear properties (the main reactions, their cross sections, isotope characteristics etc.). Possibilities of different nuclear methods in determination of chemical element concentrations in ores and rocks are analyzed. The greatest attention is paid to analysis of methods, based on gamma quantum and neutron irradiation. The results of application of laboratory nuclear-physical methods of rapid analysis are briefly considered, whereas the results of different field methods of nuclear exploration are considered in detail: field survey, well logging, inspection of mine roadway walls. In the appendix general information on chemical elements and sensitivity thresholds of certain activation methods are presented

  19. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  20. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  1. Automated Fragmentation Polarizable Embedding Density Functional Theory (PE-DFT) Calculations of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Shielding Constants of Proteins with Application to Chemical Shift Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Bratholm, L.A.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    that are comparable with experiment. The introduction of a probabilistic linear regression model allows us to substantially reduce the number of snapshots that are needed to make comparisons with experiment. This approach is further improved by augmenting snapshot selection with chemical shift predictions by which we...

  2. Radioactive particles revealed by electron microscopy. Chemical and physical properties of radioactive particles in aerosol samples emitted during the early stage of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Kouji

    2015-01-01

    Water-insoluble radioactive materials emitted during an early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 were identified, and their chemical and physical properties were characterized as particulate matters. In this report, studies on radioactive particles collected from filter samples in Tsukuba on March 14–15, 2011 are summarized. Their compositions, chemical states, sizes, shapes, crystallinity, and hygroscopicity were analyzed using microscopic analyses such as electron microscopy and synchrotron with a micro-beam. The results indicate that they include Cs, Fe, and Zn as well as elements from fission products and are water insoluble, spherical-glassy particles with ca. 2 micrometer in size. Understanding of their detailed properties is significant to improve the numerical models during the accident and to understand their occurrences in soil as well as the accident itself. In addition to the water-insoluble radioactive materials, water-soluble radioactive materials, which were likely emitted in different events during the accident, should be investigated to have comprehensive understanding of the accident and its environmental effects. More samples from various environments such as soil will be needed, and more detailed chemical and physical analyses will help to understand their formation process, influences on human health, and long term decrements in ambient conditions. (author)

  3. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A brief administrative review is given of work in the following areas: investigations of the chemical effects accompanying muon capture in atoms and molecules, quadrupole interaction in metal and semimetal systems using perturbed gamma-ray angular correlation, and nuclear structure research using nuclear reaction spectroscopy. Detailed research reports were published in appropriate places; a publication list is included. 2 figures

  4. Steels and welding nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessa, M.; Milella, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    This ENEA Data-Base regards mechanical properties, chemical composition and heat treatments of nuclear pressure vessel materials: type A533-B, A302-B, A508 steel plates and forgings, submerged arc welds and HAZ before and after nuclear irradiation. Irradiation experiments were generally performed in high flux material test reactors. Data were collected from international available literature about water nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials embrittlement

  5. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  6. Organic chemistry and radiochemistry: study of chemical interactions between iodine and paint of French nuclear reactor in a severe accident situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aujollet, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In Phebus (French in pile facility; PWR scale 1/5000) experiments, performed by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, few quantities of organic iodides were registered after interaction between iodine and reactor containment paint. This study concerns all mechanisms of chemical reactions between iodine and the polymer of the paint in order to estimate the organic iodides released from the paint. At first, all the paint components had been identified. Several models of chemical sites of the polymer were synthesized and tested with iodine in different conditions of temperature and radiation. These experiments showed interactions between iodine and secondary or tertiary amines by charge transfer. In few cases, the complex of tertiary amines creates oxidation reactions. (author)

  7. Involvement of the ORNL Chemical Technology Division in contaminated air and water handling at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooksbank, R.E.; King, L.J.

    1979-08-01

    The President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island requested that Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) generate documents concerning two areas in which ORNL personnel provided on-site assistance following the accident on March 28, 1979. These are: instrumentation diagnostics, and the treatment of radioactive wastes and liquid effluents stemming from the accident. This report describes the involvement of the ORNL Chemical Technology Division (CTD) in contaminated air and water handling at Three Mile Island

  8. Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging and High Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Soybean Seeds, Somatic Embryos and Single Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T; AOCS 94th Meeting, Kansas

    2002-01-01

    Novel methodologies are currently being developed and established for the chemical analysis of soybean seeds, embryos and single cells by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR) Microspectroscopy, Fluorescence and High-Resolution NMR (HR-NMR). The first FT-NIR chemical images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are presented here. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such 400 MHz 1H NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. ~20%) compared to non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monitored by FT-NIR with a precision ...

  9. Application of fisheries management techniques to assessing impacts: task I report. [Assessment of chemical, radiological, and thermal impacts of nuclear power plants on fish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Baker, K.S.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Metzger, R.M.; Skalski, J.R.

    1979-03-01

    Task I efforts examined the available fisheries management techniques and assessed their potential application in a confirmatory monitoring program. The objective of such monitoring programs is to confirm that the prediction of an insignificant impact (usually made in the FES) was correct. Fisheries resource managers have developed several tools for assessing the fish population response to stress (exploitation) and they were thought potentially useful for detecting nuclear power plant impacts. Techniques in three categories were examined; catch removal, population dynamics, and nondestructive censuses, and the report contains their description, examples of application, advantages, and disadvantages. The techniques applied at nuclear power plant sites were examined in detail to provide information on implementation and variability of specific approaches. The most suitable techniques to incorporate into a monitoring program confirming no impact appear to be those based on Catch Per Unity Effort (CPUE) and hydroacoustic data. In some specific cases, age and growth studies and indirect census techniques may be beneficial. Recommendations for task II efforts to incorporate these techniques into monitoring program designs are presented. These include development of guidelines for; (1) designing and implementing a data collection program; (2) interpreting these data and assessing the occurrence of impact, and (3) establishment of the monitoring program's ability to detect changes in the affected populations.

  10. Combination of physico-chemical analysis, Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay/nuclear abnormalities tests for cyto-genotoxicity assessments of treated effluents discharged from textile industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2016-09-01

    Bioassays for cyto-genotoxicity assessments are generally not required in current textile industry effluent discharge management regulations. The present study applied in vivo plant and fish based toxicity tests viz. Allium cepa test system and Oreochromis niloticus erythrocyte based comet assay and nuclear abnormalities tests in combination with physico-chemical analysis for assessing potential cytotoxic/genotoxic impacts of treated textile industry effluents reaching a major river (Kelani River) in Sri Lanka. Of the treated effluents tested from two textile industries, color in the Textile industry 1 effluents occasionally and color, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand in the Textile industry 2 effluents frequently exceeded the specified Sri Lankan tolerance limits for discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters. Exposure of A. cepa bulbs to 100% and 12.5% treated effluents from both industries resulted in statistically significant root growth retardation, mito-depression, and induction of chromosomal abnormalities in root meristematic cells in comparison to the dilution water in all cases demonstrating cyto-genotoxicity associated with the treated effluents. Exposure of O. niloticus to the 100% and 12.5% effluents, resulted in erythrocytic genetic damage as shown by elevated total comet scores and induction of nuclear abnormalities confirming the genotoxicity of the treated effluents even with 1:8 dilution. The results provide strong scientific evidence for the crucial necessity of incorporating cyto-genotoxicity impact assessment tools in textile industry effluent management regulations considering human health and ecological health of the receiving water course under chronic exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  12. Technical and metrological service improvement of measurement channels with flow-type transducers of ionic impurities for water chemical control in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilkov, Nicolay Ya.; Voronina, N.V.; Matveyev, V.N.; Sorokin, N.M.; Sidorchuk, A.N.

    2012-09-01

    Improvement of sampling process, including sample taking, transport, and preparation, and optimization of on-line metrological maintenance on measuring chains containing flow-type sensors is very important for obtaining high quality information about NPP coolant water composition. Sample preparation and measurement errors almost cannot be eliminated by data processing in top level computers. For on-line measurements of the coolant water ion composition, nuclear plants commonly use sampling lines with gage pressure regulators provided at inlets of flow type sensors. The major part of sample fluid is drained via bypass outside the flow path through the sensors. A better alternative is to form flows at the inlets of flow type sensors using outlet pressure feedback devices. This sampling scheme ensures fully representative samples that are transported to the sensor inlets with a given time delay. In such a scheme, the sample fluid returns into the coolant system without change in composition. The paper presents test results for the prototype model of the pressure and flow control device. Alexandrov NITI has patented a method and apparatus for comprehensively calibrating measuring chains with flow type ion analyzers which are used in nuclear power plants to measure on line the ion composition of high-purity and other water streams. The patented dynamical method generates calibration solutions as binary electrolytes with a given analyte concentration. The method is easy to implement and requires no dosing equipment. Calibration solutions are generated directly in the water flow through the sampling line connected to the coolant line or high-purity water feed line. Unlike the concentration of buffer solutions used in pH measurements, the total ion concentration in generated electrolyte solutions is close to that in actual water streams at nuclear plants. With the proposed method and equipment, a reference pH value can be obtained with accuracy which is close to the

  13. Introduction to nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieser, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    The study in this book begins with the periodic system of elements (chapter 1). The physical fundamentals necessary to understand nuclear chemistry are dealt with in chapter 2. Chapter 3 and 4 treat the influence of the mass number on the chemical behaviour (isotope effect) and the isotope separation methods thus based on this effect. A main topic is studied in chapter 5, the laws of radioactive decay, a second main topic is dealt with in chapter 8, nuclear reactions. The chemical effects of nuclear reactions are treated on their own chapter 9. Radiochemical reactions which are partly closely linked to the latter are only briefly discussed in chapter 10. The following chapters discuss the various application fields of nuclear chemistry. The large apparatus indispensable for nuclear chemistry is dealt with in a special chapter (chapter 12). Chapter 15 summarizes the manifold applications. (orig.) [de

  14. Fourier Transform Near Infrared Microspectroscopy, Infrared Chemical Imaging, High-Resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Microspectroscopy Detection of Single Cancer Cells and Single Viral Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu,I C; Hofmann, N E; Korban, S S; Lozano, P; You, T

    2004-01-01

    Single Cancer Cells from Human tumors are being detected and imaged by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Fourier Transform Near Infrared (FT-NIR)Hyperspectral Imaging and Fluorescence Correlation Microspectroscopy. The first FT-NIR chemical, microscopic images of biological systems approaching one micron resolution are here reported. Chemical images obtained by FT-NIR and FT-IR Microspectroscopy are also presented for oil in soybean seeds and somatic embryos under physiological conditions. FT-NIR spectra of oil and proteins were obtained for volumes as small as two cubic microns. Related, HR-NMR analyses of oil contents in somatic embryos as well as 99% accurate calibrations are also presented here with nanoliter precision. Such high-resolution, 400 MHz H-1 NMR analyses allowed the selection of mutagenized embryos with higher oil content (e.g. >~20%) compared to the average levels in non-mutagenized control embryos. Moreover, developmental changes in single soybean seeds and/or somatic embryos may be monito...

  15. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  16. Nuclear safety. Seguranca nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aveline, A [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1981-01-01

    What is nuclear safety Is there any technical way to reduce risks Is it possible to put them at reasonable levels Are there competitiveness and economic reliability to employ the nuclear energy by means of safety technics Looking for answers to these questions the author describes the sources of potential risks to nuclear reactors and tries to apply the answers to the Brazilian Nuclear Programme. (author).

  17. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J; Dirian, G; Roth, E; Vignet, P; Platzer, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  18. Study relating to the physico-chemical behaviour of heavy water in nuclear reactors; Etudes relatives au comportement physico-chimique de l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenouard, J.; Dirian, G.; Roth, E.; Vignet, P.; Platzer, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Chemical and isotope pollution, and radiolytic decomposition are the two most important ways in which heavy water becomes degraded in nuclear reactors. Chemical pollution has led to the creation of ion exchange purification loops specially designed for reactors: the report contains a description in detail of the application of this purification method in CEA research reactors, including the analysis required, results obtained, and their interpretation. The intelligence obtained on radiolytic decomposition with the same facilities is also discussed, as well as the recombination apparatus and control equipment utilized. Finally, investigation to date in the CEA on recombination circuits for power reactors is also discussed. (author) [French] Parmi les degradations subies par l'eau lourde dans les reacteurs nucleaires, les deux plus importantes sont la pollution chimique et isotopique et la decomposition radiolytique. La pollution chimique a conduit a mettre au point pour le cas particulier des reacteurs, des circuits d'epuration par echange d'ions. On decrit ici en detail la mise en oeuvre de cette methode dans les reacteurs de recherche du CEA; les controles qu'elle necessite, les resultats obtenus et leur interpretation. En ce qui concerne la dissociation radiolytique de l'eau, les renseignements obtenus sur ces memes reacteurs sont communiques, ainsi que les details des dispositifs de recombinaison et des moyens de controle. Enfin, on fait le point des etudes poursuivies au CEA sur ces memes problemes de recombinaison dans le cas des reacteurs de puissance. (auteur)

  19. Inferring the chemical form of 137Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring (137)Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu; Takenaka, Chisato; Sugiura, Yuki

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of (137)Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the (137)Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ((137)Cs pre-accident N), and the amount of (137)Cs in the initial fallout itself ((137)Cs fallout) was determined ((137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout) at 66 sites. In addition, the (137)Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ((137)Cs male cone) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ((137)Cs 2011N) was determined at 82 sites ((137)Cs male cone/(137) Cs 2011N). Most of the sites with lower (137)Cs pre-accident N /(137)Cs fallout ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower (137)Cs pre-accident N/(137)Cs fallout and higher (137)Cs malecone/(137)Cs 2011N were found to be associated with higher proportions of (137)Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrochemical corrosion studies on a selected carbon steel for application in nuclear waste disposal containers: Influence of chemical species in brines on corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque-Bera, A.M.; Smailos, E.

    1994-04-01

    In previous corrosion studies, carbon steels were identified as promising materials for the manufacture of long-lived high-level waste containers that could act as an engineered barrier in a rock-salt repository. In this paper, the influence of chemical species, potentially present in salt brines, on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of the preselected fine-grained steel TStE 355 was studied. The steel was examined at 90 C in a disposal relevant NaCl-rich brine containing various species (Br - , I - , Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , S 2- , B(OH )4 - and Fe 3+ ) at concentrations between 10 -5 M/I and 10 -1 M/I. (orig.) [de

  1. Coprecipitation experiment with Sm hydroxide using a multitracer produced by nuclear spallation reaction: A tool for chemical studies with superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Yoshitaka; Yokokita, Takuya; Toyomura, Keigo; Shigekawa, Yudai; Haba, Hiromitsu; Kanaya, Jumpei; Huang, Minghui; Ezaki, Yutaka; Yoshimura, Takashi; Morita, Kosuke; Shinohara, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    To establish a new methodology for superheavy element chemistry, the coprecipitation behaviors of 34 elements with samarium hydroxide were investigated using multitracer produced by a spallation of Ta. The chemical reactions were rapidly equilibrated within 10 s for many elements. In addition, these elements exhibited individual coprecipitation behaviors, and the behaviors were qualitatively related to their hydroxide precipitation behaviors. It was demonstrated that the ammine and hydroxide complex formations of superheavy elements could be investigated using the established method. - Highlights: • We established a new methodology for superheavy element (SHE) chemistry. • Coprecipitation behaviors of 34 elements with Sm hydroxide could be simultaneously investigated by using multitracer. • The complex formations were investigated from the coprecipitation behaviors. • The established method will lead to the study on various precipitates of SHEs.

  2. Experimental study of the hydrothermal alteration of a chemical analogue of the French nuclear glass in a thermal gradient: characterization of newly formed phases and of matter transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poinssot, Christophe

    1994-01-01

    As the most dangerous radioactive wastes are to be stored in deep geological layers after having been packaged in barrels made of borosilicate glasses, this research report addresses the study of the alteration of such glasses through the study of a chemical analogue. In order to experimentally model phenomena involved within a storage, the studied glass has been submitted to different thermal gradients between 320 and 150 C and during 3 to 5 months. These gradients comply with those met about the parcels, and allows the spatial evolution of the waste parcel at a given moment, as well as the evolution in time (progressive cooling of wastes) to be simultaneously simulated. The different phases formed within the gradient have been studied and characterized by scanning electronic microscopy, semi-quantitative microanalysis, and X-ray micro-diffraction [fr

  3. Studies by nuclear and physico-chemical methods of tissue's metallic contamination located around biomaterials. Toxicity measurements of several biomaterials residual radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibert, Geoffroy

    2004-01-01

    Implants used as biomaterials fulfill conditions of functionality, compatibility and occasionally bio-activity. There are four main families of biomaterials: metals and metal alloys, polymers, bio-ceramics and natural materials. Because of corrosion and friction in the human body, implants generate debris. These debris develop different problems: toxicity, inflammatory reactions, prosthetic unsealing by osseous dissolution. Nature, size, morphology and amount of debris are the parameters which have an influence on tissue response. We characterize metallic contamination coming from knee prosthesis into surrounding capsular tissue by depth migration, in vivo behaviours, content, size and nature of debris. The PIXE-RBS and STEM-EDXS methods, that we used, are complementary, especially about characterization scale. Debris contamination distributed in the whole articulation is very heterogeneous. Debris migrate on several thousands μm in tissue. Solid metallic particles, μm, are found in the most polluted samples, for both kinds of alloys TA6V and CrCoMo. In the mean volume analysed by PIXE, the in vivo mass ratios [Ti]/[V] and [Co]/[Cr] confirm the chemical stability of TA6V debris and chemical evolution of CrCoMo debris. Complementary measures of TA6V grains, on a nano-metric scale by STEM-EDXS, show a dissolution of coarse grain (μm) in smaller grains (nm). Locally, TA6V grains of a phase are detected and could indicate a preferential dissolution of β phase (grain boundaries) with dropping of Al and V, both toxic and carcinogenic elements. A thin target protocol development correlates PIXE and histological analysis on the same zone. This protocol allows to locate other pathologies in relationship with weaker metal contamination, μg/g, thanks to the great sensitivity of PIXE method. Harmlessness with respect to the residual radioactivity of several natural or synthetic biomaterials is established, using ultra low background noise γ detection system. (author)

  4. Hot isostatically-pressed aluminosilicate glass-ceramic with natural crystalline analogues for immobilizing the calcined high-level nuclear waste at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, S.

    1993-12-01

    The additives Si, Al, MgO, P 2 O 5 were mechanically blended with fluorinelsodium calcine in varying proportions. The batches were vacuum sealed in stainless steel canisters and hot isostatically pressed at 20,000 PSI and 1000 C for 4 hours. The resulting suite of glass-ceramic waste forms parallels the natural rocks in microstructural and compositional heterogeneity. Several crystalline phases ar analogous in composition and structure to naturally occurring minerals. Additional crystalline phases are zirconia and Ca-Mg borate. The glasses are enriched in silica and alumina. Approximately 7% calcine elements occur dissolved in this glass and the total glass content in the waste forms averages 20 wt%. The remainder of the calcine elements are partitioned into crystalline phases at 75 wt% calcine waste loading. The waste forms were tested for chemical durability in accordance with the MCC1-test procedure. The leach rates are a function of the relative proportions of additives and calcine, which in turn influence the composition and abundances of the glass and crystalline phases. The DOE leach rate criterion of less than 1 g/m 2 -day is met by all the elements B, Cs and Na are increased by lowering the melt viscosity. This is related to increased crystallization or devitrification with increases in MgO addition. This exploratory work has shown that the increases in waste loading occur by preferred partitioning of the calcine components among crystalline and glass phases. The determination of optimum processing parameters in the form of additive concentration levels, homogeneous blending among the components, and pressure-temperature stabilities of phases must be continued to eliminate undesirable effects of chemical composition, microstructure and glass devitrification

  5. Invisible nuclear; converting nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongmoon

    1993-03-01

    This book consists of 14 chapters which are CNN era and big science, from East and West to North and South, illusory nuclear strategy, UN and nuclear arms reduction, management of armaments, advent of petroleum period, the track of nuclear power generation, view of energy, internationalization of environment, the war over water in the Middle East, influence of radiation and an isotope technology transfer and transfer armament into civilian industry, the end of nuclear period and the nuclear Nonproliferation, national scientific and technological power and political organ and executive organ.

  6. Climate risks by radioactive krypton-85 from nuclear fission. Atmospheric-electrical and air-chemical effects of ionizing radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollert, R.

    1994-01-01

    The study shows that krypton-85 from nuclear fission enhances air ionization and, thus, interferes with the atmospheric-electrical system and the water balance of the earth atmosphere. This is reason for concern: There are unforeseeable effects for weather and climate if the krypton-85 content of the earth atmosphere continues to rise. There may be a krypton-specific greenhouse effect and a collapse of the natural atmospheric-electrical field. In addition, human well-being may be expected to be impaired as a result of the diminished atmospheric-electrical field. There is also the risk of radiochemical actions and effects caused-by krypton-85-containing plumes in other air-borne pollutants like the latters' transformation to aggressive oxidants. This implies radiation smog and more acid rain in the countries exposed. This study summarizes findings gained in these issues by various sciences, analyses them and elaborates hypotheses on the actions and effects of krypton-85 on the air, the atmosphere and the climate. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Research on the chemical speciation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Euo Chang; Park, K. K.; Cho, H. R.

    2010-04-01

    A demand for the safe and effective management of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste generated from nuclear power plant draws increasing attention with the growth of nuclear power industry. The objective of this project is to establish the basis of research on the actinide chemistry by using advanced laser-based highly sensitive spectroscopic systems. Researches on the chemical speciation of actinides are prerequisite for the development of technologies related to nuclear fuel cycles, especially, such as the safe management of high level radioactive wastes and the chemical examination of irradiated nuclear fuels. For supporting these technologies, laser-based spectroscopies have been performed for the chemical speciation of actinide in an aqueous solutions and the quantitative analysis of actinide isotopes in spent nuclear fuels. In this report, results on the following subjects have been summarized. (1) Development of TRLFS technology for chemical speciation of actinides, (2) Development of LIBD technology for measuring solubility of actinides, (3) Chemical speciation of plutonium complexes by using a LWCC system, (4) Development of LIBS technology for the quantitative analysis of actinides, (5) Development of technology for the chemical speciation of actinides by CE, (6) Evaluation on the chemical reactions between actinides and humic substances, (7) Chemical speciation of actinides adsorbed on metal oxides surfaces, (8) Determination of actinide source terms of spent nuclear fuel

  8. Chemical variability along the value chains of turmeric (Curcuma longa): a comparison of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and high performance thin layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Anthony; Frommenwiler, Debora; Johnston, Deborah; Umealajekwu, Chinenye; Reich, Eike; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-03-14

    Herbal medicine value chains have generally been overlooked compared with food commodities. Not surprisingly, revenue generation tends to be weighted towards the end of the chain and consequently the farmers and producers are the lowest paid beneficiaries. Value chains have an impact both on the livelihood of producers and on the composition and quality of products commonly sold locally and globally and consequently on the consumers. In order to understand the impact of value chains on the composition of products, we studied the production conditions for turmeric (Curcuma longa) and the metabolomic composition of products derived from it. We aimed at integrating these two components in order to gain a better understanding of the effect of different value chains on the livelihoods of some producers. This interdisciplinary project uses a mixed methods approach. Case studies were undertaken on two separate sites in India. Data was initially gathered on herbal medicine value chains by means of semi-structured interviews and non-participant observations. Samples were collected from locations in India, Europe and the USA and analysed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis software and with high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). We investigate medicinal plant value chains and interpret the impact different value chains have on some aspects of the livelihoods of producers in India and, for the first time, analytically assess the chemical variability and quality implications that different value chains may have on the products available to end users in Europe. There are benefits to farmers that belonged to an integrated chain and the resulting products were subject to a higher standard of processing and storage. By using analytical methods, including HPTLC and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, it has been possible to correlate some variations in product composition for selected producers and identify strengths and weaknesses of some types of value

  9. Radiological equivalent of chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy has caused continued effort toward public safety through radiation health protection measures and nuclear management practices. However, concern has not been focused on the development specifically in the operation of chemical pestrochemical industries as well as other industrial processes brought about by technological advancements. This article presents the comparison of the risk of radiation and chemicals. The methods used for comparing the risks of late effects of radiation and chemicals are considered at three levels. (a) as a frame of reference to give an impression of resolving power of biological tests; (b) as methods to quantify risks; (c) as instruments for an epidemiological survey of human populations. There are marked dissimilarities between chemicals and radiation and efforts to interpret chemical activity may not be achieved. Applicability of the concept of rad equivalence has many restrictions and as pointed out this approach is not an established one. (RTD)

  10. Characterization and heading of irradiated fuels and their chemical analogs; Caracterizacion y lixiviacion de combustibles nucleares irradiados y de sus analogos quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, J A [Ciemat.Madrid (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    This work presents results of leaching experiments under deionized water and under synthetic granite at room temperature in air using spent fuel (UO{sub 2} and MOX LWR fuels) and the chemical analogues, natural UO{sub 2} and SIMFUEL. The experimental conditions and procedure for irradiated and non-irradiated materials were kept similar as much as possible. Also dissolution behaviour studies of preoxidised LWR UO{sub 2} and MOX spent fuel up to different on the oxidation degree. For both fuel types, UO{sub 2} and MOX, the fission products considered showed a fractional release normalised to uranium higher than 1, due to either the larger inventory at preferential leaching zones, such as, grain boundaries or to the inherent higher solubility of some of these elements. In contrast to fission products, the fractional release of PU from the UO{sub 2} fuel was not affected by the oxidation level. Finally a thermodynamic study of the experimental leaching results obtained in this work was performed. (Author)

  11. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  12. Metabonomic analysis of water extracts from Chinese and American ginsengs by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance: identification of chemical profile for quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Pui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the gaining popularity of commercially prepared decoctions of herbal medicines on the market, an objective and efficient way to reveal the authenticity of such products is urgently needed. Previous attempts to use chromatographic or spectroscopic methods to identify ginseng samples made use of components derived from methanol extracts of the herb. It was not established that these herbs can be distinguished solely from consumable components, which are responsible for the clinical efficacy of the herb. In this study, metabonomics, or metabolic profiling, based on the application of 1H-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, is applied to distinguish the water extracts of three closely related ginseng species: P. ginseng (from two different cultivated regions in China, P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius. Methods A water extraction protocol that mimics how ginseng decoctions are made for consumption was used to prepare triplicate samples from each herb for analysis. High-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to acquire metabolic profiles of the four ginseng samples. The spectral data were subjected to multivariate and univariate analysis to identify metabolites that were able to distinguish different types of ginseng. Results H NMR metabolic profiling was performed to distinguish the water extracts of P. ginseng cultivated in Hebei and Jilin of China, both of which were distinguished from extracts of P. notoginseng and P. quinquefolius, by unsupervised principle component analysis based on the entire 1H NMR spectral fingerprint Statistically significant differences were found for several discriminating features traced to common metabolites and the ginsenosides Rg1 and Rd, in the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusion This study demonstrated that 1H NMR metabonomics can simultaneously distinguish different ginseng species and multiple samples of the same species that were cultivated in different regions. This technique is applicable to the

  13. Thermal, chemical, and mass-transport processes induced in abyssal sediments by the emplacement of nuclear waste: experimental and modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, D.F.; Erickson, K.L.; Seyfried, W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses heat and mass transport studies of marine red clay sediments being considered as a nuclear waste isolation medium. Numerical models indicate that for a maximum allowable sediment/canister interface temperature of 200 to 250 0 C, the sediment can absorb about 1.5 kW initial power from waste in a 3 m long by 0.3 m dia canister buried 30 m in the sediment. Fluid displacement due to convection is found to be less than 1 m. Laboratory studies of the geochemical effects induced by heating sediment/seawater mixtures indicate that the canister and waste form must be designed to resist a hot, acid (pH 3 to 4) oxidizing environment. Since the thermally altered sediment volume of about 5.5 m 3 is small relative to the sediment volume overlying the canister, the acid and oxidizing conditions are not anticipated to effect the properties of the far field. Using sorption coefficient correlations, the migration of four nuclides 239 Pu, 137 Cs, 129 I, and 99 Tc were computer for a canister buried 30 m deep in a 60 m thick red clay sediment layer. It was found that the 239 Pu and 137 Cs are essentially completely contained in the sediments, while 129 I and 99 Tc broke through the 30 m of sediment in about 5000 years. The resultant peak injection rates of 4.6 x 10 -5 μCi/year-m 2 for 129 I and 1.6 x 10 -2 μCi/year-m 2 for 99 Tc were less than the natural radioactive flux of 226 Ra (3.5 to 8.8 x 10 -4 μCi/year-m 2 ) and 222 Rn

  14. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  15. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  16. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasivirta, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  17. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  18. Properties of the LiCl-KCl-Li2O system as operating medium for pyro-chemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullabaev, Albert; Tkacheva, Olga; Shishkin, Vladimir; Kovrov, Vadim; Zaikov, Yuriy; Sukhanov, Leonid; Mochalov, Yuriy

    2018-03-01

    Crystallization temperatures (liquidus and solidus) in the LiCl-Li2O and (LiCl-KCl)-Li2O systems with the KCl content of 10 and 20 mol.% were obtained with independent methods of thermal analysis using cooling curves, isothermal saturation, and differential scanning calorimetry. The linear sweep voltammetry was applied to control the time of the equilibrium establishment in the molten system after the Li2O addition, which depended on the composition of the base melt and the concentration of Li2O. The fragments of the binary LiCl-Li2O and quazi-binary [LiCl-KCl(10 mol.%)]-Li2O and [LiCl-KCl(20 mol.%)]-Li2O phase diagrams in the Li2O concentration range from 0 to 12 mol.% were obtained. The KCl presence in the LiCl-KCl-Li2O molten mixture in the amount of 10 and 20 mol.% reduces the liquidus temperature by 30 and 80°, respectively, but the region of the homogeneous molten state of the system is considerably narrowed, which complicates its practical application. The Li2O solubility in the molten LiCl, LiCl-KCl(10 mol.%) and LiCl-KCl(20 mol.%) decreases with increasing the KCl content and is equal to 11.5, 7.7 and 3.9 mol.% at 650°С, respectively. The LiCl-KCl melt with 10 mol.% KCl can be recommended for practical use as a medium for the SNF pyro-chemical reprocessing at temperature below 700 °C.

  19. Multivariate innovative approaches to the treatment of the emission of LIBS plasmas. Application to chemical online analysis in a nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Rakwe, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Online and in situ analysis is now a strategic development for analytical chemistry. This is especially true in the nuclear field for which the security constraints related to the radioactivity of samples, and the need to minimize waste from analyzes argue for remote measurement techniques without sampling or sample preparation. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for elemental analysis of materials based on laser ablation and the optical emission spectroscopy, has these qualities. It is a technique of choice for online analysis. However, processes involved in LIBS, namely laser ablation, atomization, plasma formation and emission, are quite complex and difficult to control because the underlying physical phenomena are coupled and nonlinear. In addition, the analytical performance of the LIBS technique depends strongly on the choice of experimental conditions. Finally, an online analysis system should be as robust as possible face to uncontrolled variations in measurement conditions. The objective of this thesis is to improve control and performance of quantitative analysis by LIBS using multivariate methods capable of handling multi-dimensionality, nonlinearity and the coupling between parameters and data. For this, the work is divided into two parts. First the optimization is carried out using a central composite design to model the relationship between the experimental parameters of laser ablation (pulse energy and beam focusing parameters) and signal detection (delay time) to the physical characteristics of plasma (ablated mass, temperature) and the analytical performance (intensity and repeatability of the signal). The optimization parameters that results is then interpreted as the best compromise for the quantitative analysis between efficiency of laser ablation and plasma heating. Secondly, a multivariate methodology based on MCR-ALS, ICA and PLS techniques, was developed to quantify certain elements in different metallic matrices

  20. Industrial application of nuclear techniques in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easey, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    The applications of nuclear techniques in Australia was reviewed - the work has been to aid: mining and mineral sector, the manufacturing, chemical and petroleum industries, hydrology and sedimentology

  1. A Survey and Intervention Study of the Military Medics and Physicians' Knowledge about Nuclear, Biological or Chemical Disaster%军医和卫生员“三防”知识认知调查与干预

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵京生; 袁跃彬; 胡波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To survey and promote the military medics and doctors' knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster. Method 243 medics and 110 military physicians were surveyed firstly. And then they learned some knowledge about nuclear, biological or chemical disaster through multimedia and demonstrating. Six months later, they were surveyed again. Result Before intervention, related knowledge of the medics and doctors was deficiency( the score was 55. 3 and 50. 3 respectively). The scores of the navy were higher than the land army and the air force. All their scores were promoted significantly after intervention (P <0. 01) , education level had effects on the scores (P <0. 01). Conclusion This study demonstrates the knowledge of the medics and doctors doesn' t meet the needs of military missions, so it is necessary and urgent to improve their related knowledge to make better preparedness for the potential high - tech warfare.%目的 了解并提高部队军医和卫生员“三防”防护知识.方法 共抽样175名军医和243名卫生员,现场填写调查表和考核,一系列干预措施后重复调查和考核.结果 干预前军医和卫生员核化生防护知识均缺乏,分别得分为总成绩的55.3%和50.3%,干预后军医和卫生员成绩均显著提高(P<0.01),文化程度对军医或卫生员干预前后成绩均有显著性影响(P<0.01).结论 部队军医和卫生员“三防”知识与实际要求尚存有差距,努力提高其“三防”知识,为潜在的高技术条件下的局部战争做好军事斗争准备有重要的现实意义.

  2. Thermodynamics of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: The science of chemical thermodynamics has substantially contributed to the understanding of the many problems encountered in nuclear and reactor technology. These problems include reaction of materials with their surroundings and chemical and physical changes of fuels. Modern reactor technology, by its very nature, has offered new fields of investigations for the scientists and engineers concerned with the design of nuclear fuel elements. Moreover, thermodynamics has been vital in predicting the behaviour of new materials for fission as well as fusion reactors. In this regard, the Symposium was organized to provide a mechanism for review and discussion of recent thermodynamic investigations of nuclear materials. The Symposium was held in the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre, at the invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The International Atomic Energy Agency has given much attention to the thermodynamics of nuclear materials, as is evidenced by its sponsorship of four international symposia in 1962, 1965, 1967, and 1974. The first three meetings were primarily concerned with the fundamental thermodynamics of nuclear materials; as with the 1974 meeting, this last Symposium was primarily aimed at the thermodynamic behaviour of nuclear materials in actual practice, i.e., applied thermodynamics. Many advances have been made since the 1974 meeting, both in fundamental and applied thermodynamics of nuclear materials, and this meeting provided opportunities for an exchange of new information on this topic. The Symposium dealt in part with the thermodynamic analysis of nuclear materials under conditions of high temperatures and a severe radiation environment. Several sessions were devoted to the thermodynamic studies of nuclear fuels and fission and fusion reactor materials under adverse conditions. These papers and ensuing discussions provided a better understanding of the chemical behaviour of fuels and materials under these

  3. [Nuclear theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion

  4. 77 FR 7613 - Dow Chemical Company; Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Facility Operating License No. R-108

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-264; NRC-2012-0026] Dow Chemical Company; Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Facility Operating License No. R-108 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Facility Operating License No. R-108 (``Application''), which currently authorizes the Dow Chemical Company...

  5. Nuclear Chemistry and Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevelde, L.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of research activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in the field of nuclear analytical techniques are summarized. Major efforts in 1999 went to a project on the qualification of radioanalytical routines for the determination of alpha-emitting nuclides in conditioned radioactive waste; the ARIANE project; and the provision of radiochemical and chemical analytical services to internal and external clients

  6. Determination of Methylmercury Traces in Biological Matrix: Chemical Extraction and Nuclear Quantification with the Neutron Activation Analysis Technique; Determinacion de Trazas de Metilmercurio en Matriz Biologica: Extracion Quimica y Cuantificacion Mediante la Tecnica Nuclear de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica (AANI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldati, A L [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    Mercury is present in the environment as a result of the human and natural activities.The total amount of Hg present in the biosphere has been incremented three times since the industrial era, and now it is affecting in a global sense all the ecosystem.One of the main entrance of Hg in the human diet is the consumption of fish and other marine creatures.Most of the ingested Hg is mono methylmercury (MeHg), which is one of the most toxic forms in which this element could be found because it crosses membranes.Since the toxicity levels are low, the determination of concentrations of total Hg and Me Hg require very careful sampling, sample conditioning and analytical procedures to prevent either losses or contamination, or the degradation of the Hg species.In this work, we implemented a chemical Me Hg extraction procedure, using a ionic exchange resin, with three different types of fish tissue: muscle, liver and hepato pancreas.After Me Hg extraction, the determination and quantification was made by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, by measuring the {sup 197} Au, y el {sup 203} Tl deexcitation s, created through the radioactive decay of the isotopes {sup 197} Hg y {sup 203} Hg.The influence of several parameters on the overall extraction process, such as velocity of passage through the ionic exchange column and the acid concentration used in the extraction was evaluated.Regarding the INAA determinations, a choice was made for the irradiation, decay and counting times, neutron and gamma doses, and the counting geometry The detection limit found for this technique (dry weight) is 140 pg MeHg/g. The Hg contents of the muscle samples were measured with the 279 keV emission of the product of the {sup 202} Hg(n,g){sup 203} Hg reaction, with a recovery of (100 {+-} 13)%. Liver and Hepato pancreas samples were measured with the 77 keV gamma emission of the {sup 197} Hg, checking this result with the 67 y 69 keV X emissions from the same isotope.The liver samples needed

  7. Nuclear topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukner, C.

    1982-07-01

    The pamphlet touches on all aspects of nuclear energy, from the world energy demands and consumption, the energy program of the Federal Government, nuclear power plants in the world, nuclear fusion, nuclear liability up to the nuclear fuel cycle and the shutdown of nuclear power plants. (HSCH) [de

  8. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  9. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described

  10. Inferring the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs deposited by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident by measuring {sup 137}Cs incorporated into needle leaves and male cones of Japanese cedar trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanasashi, Tsutomu, E-mail: kanasashi.tsutomu@g.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takenaka, Chisato [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Sugiura, Yuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 765-1 Funaishikawa, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1184 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We hypothesized that the water-soluble (ionic) and water-insoluble (stable) radiocesium from the initial fallout of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident was distributed in various proportions in the surrounding areas and that this distribution was reflected in the trees that suffered deposition from the initial fallout. This study attempted to evaluate local variations in the chemical form of {sup 137}Cs derived from the initial fallout of the FDNPP accident and whether its chemical form affected the radiocesium concentration in the tissues currently growing in trees, even after the initial fallout ceased. For these estimations, the ratio between the {sup 137}Cs concentration in Cryptomeria japonica needle leaves in the tree crown, which existed before the FDNPP accident and subsequently directly exposed to the initial fallout ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}), and the amount of {sup 137}Cs in the initial fallout itself ({sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) was determined ({sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout}) at 66 sites. In addition, the {sup 137}Cs ratios between the male cones produced in 2012 ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}) and needle leaves that had elongated in the spring of 2011 ({sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N}) was determined at 82 sites ({sup 137}Cs{sub male} {sub cone}/{sup 137} Cs{sub 2011N}). Most of the sites with lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accident} {sub N}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} ratios were distributed in eastern Fukushima, relatively close to the Pacific Ocean coastline. Lower {sup 137}Cs{sub pre-accidentN}/{sup 137}Cs{sub fallout} and higher {sup 137}Cs{sub malecone}/{sup 137}Cs{sub 2011N} were found to be associated with higher proportions of {sup 137}Cs in ionic forms. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis, and likely reflect regional variations in the chemical form of the deposited radiocesium. - Highlights: • Study of spatial variation of ionic and stable {sup 137}Cs in the initial

  11. Nuclear forensics: a comprehensive model action plan for Nuclear Forensics Laboratory in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, A.V.; Nyati, S.; Fatangre, N.M.; Raghav, N.K.; Reddy, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear forensic is an emerging and highly specialized discipline which deals with nuclear investigation and analysis of nuclear or radiological/radioactive materials. Nuclear Forensic analysis includes various methodology and analytical methods along with morphology, physical, chemical, elemental and isotopic analysis to characterize and develop nuclear database for the identification of unknown nuclear or radiological/radioactive material. The origin, source history, pathway and attribution of unknown radioactive/nuclear material is possible with certainty through Nuclear Forensics. Establishment of Nuclear Forensic Laboratory and development of expertise for nuclear investigation under one roof by developing the nuclear data base and laboratory network is need of the hour to ably address the problems of all the law enforcement and nuclear agencies. The present study provides insight in Nuclear Forensics and focuses on an urgent need for a comprehensive plan to set up Nuclear Forensic Laboratory across India. (author)

  12. Spectroscopic and first-principles calculation studies of the chemical forms of palladium ion in nitric acid solution for development of disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shinta; Sato, Toshikazu; Yoshida, Tomoko; Nakaya, Masato; Yoshino, Masahito; Nagasaki, Takanori; Inaba, Yusuke; Takeshita, Kenji; Onoe, Jun

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the chemical forms of palladium (Pd) ion in nitric acid solution, using XAFS/UV-vis spectroscopic and first-principles methods in order to develop the disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear liquid wastes (HLLW: radioactive metal ions in 2 M nitric acid solution). The results of theoretical calculations and XAFS/UV-vis spectroscopy indicate that Pd is a divalent ion and forms a square-planar complex structure coordinated with four nitrate ions, [Pd(NO3)4]2-, in nitric acid solution. This complex structure is also thermodynamically predicted to be most stable among complexes [Pd(H2O)x(NO3)4-x]x-2 (x = 0-4). Since the overall feature of UV-vis spectra of the Pd complex was independent of nitric acid concentration in the range 1-6 M, the structure of the Pd complex remains unchanged in this range. Furthermore, we examined the influence of γ-ray radiation on the [Pd(NO3)4]2- complex, using UV-vis spectroscopy, and found that UV-vis spectra seemed not to be changed even after 1.0 MGy irradiation. This implies that the Pd complex structure will be still stable in actual HLLW. These findings obtained above are useful information to develop the vitrification processes for disposal of HLLW.

  13. Technical study for the automation and control of processes of the chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste at Racso Nuclear Center; Estudio tecnico para la automatizacion y control de procesos de la planta de tratamiento quimico de los residuos liquidos radiactivos del Centro Nuclear Racso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo D, M; Ayala S, A

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce the development of an automation and control system in a chemical processing plant for liquid radioactive waste of low and medium activity. The control system established for the chemical processing plant at RACSO Nuclear Center is described. It is an on-off sequential type system with feedback. This type of control has been chosen according to the volumes to be treated at the plant as processing is carried out by batches. The system will be governed by a programmable controller (PLC), modular, with a minimum of 24 digital inputs, 01 analog input, 16 digital outputs and 01 analog input. Digital inputs and outputs are specifically found at the level sensors of the tanks and at the solenoid-type electro valve control. Analog inputs and outputs have been considered at the pH control. The comprehensive system has been divided into three control bonds, The bonds considered for the operation of the plant are described, the plant has storing, fitting, processing and clarifying tanks. National Instruments' Lookout software has been used for simulation, constituting an important tool not only for a design phase but also for a practical one since this software will be used as SCADA system. Finally, the advantages and benefits of this automation system are analyzed, radiation doses received by occupationally exposed workers are reduced and reliability on the operation on the system is increased. (authors)

  14. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J

    1984-05-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process).

  15. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  16. The nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herken, G.

    1992-01-01

    A development history and current status evaluation are presented for nuclear-thermal rocket propulsion systems applicable to interplanetary flight. While the most advanced current chemical rocket engines, such as the SSMEs of the Space Shuttle, produce specific impulses of the order of 450 secs, a nuclear-thermal rocket engine tested at Los Alamos in 1969 generated 845 secs; such specific impulse improvements could represent weeks or months of interplanetary travel time. Attention is given to the achievements of the historical Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application, Helios, and Orion design programs, as well as to the current Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transportation Applications, which is fusion-based

  17. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, William E.; Day, Walter C.

    1970-01-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment

  18. Excavation research with chemical explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenberg, William E; Day, Walter C [U.S. Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The US Army Engineer Nuclear Cratering Group (NCG) is located at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore, California. NCG was established in 1962 and assigned responsibility for technical program direction of the Corps of Engineers Nuclear Excavation Research Program. The major part of the experimental program has been the execution of chemical explosive excavation experiments. In the past these experiments were preliminary to planned nuclear excavation experiments. The experience gained and technology developed in accomplishing these experiments has led to an expansion of NCG's research mission. The overall research and development mission now includes the development of chemical explosive excavation technology to enable the Corps of Engineers to more economically accomplish Civil Works Construction projects of intermediate size. The current and future chemical explosive excavation experiments conducted by NCG will be planned so as to provide data that can be used in the development of both chemical and nuclear excavation technology. In addition, whenever possible, the experiments will be conducted at the specific sites of authorized Civil Works Construction Projects and will be designed to provide a useful portion of the engineering structures planned in that project. Currently, the emphasis in the chemical explosive excavation program is on the development of design techniques for producing specific crater geometries in a variety of media. Preliminary results of two such experiments are described in this paper; Project Pre-GONDOLA III, Phase III, Reservoir Connection Experiment; and a Safety Calibration Series for Project TUGBOAT, a small boat harbor excavation experiment.

  19. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  20. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...