WorldWideScience

Sample records for ukaea-lido reactor

  1. The organization of research reactor safety in the UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redpath, W.

    1983-01-01

    The present state of organization and development of research reactor safety in the UKAEA are outlined by addressing the fundamental safety principles which have been adopted in keeping with national health and safety requirement. The organisation, assessment and monitoring of research reactor safety on complex multi-discipline and multi-activity nuclear research and development site are discussed. Methods of safety assessment, such as probabilistic risk assessment and risk acceptance criteria, which have been developed and applied in practice are explained, and some indication of the directions in which some of the current developments in the safety of UKAEA research reactors is also included. (A.J.)

  2. Management of UKAEA graphite liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.

    2001-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) is responsible for managing its liabilities for redundant research reactors and other active facilities concerned with the development of the UK nuclear technology programme since 1947. These liabilities include irradiated graphite from a variety of different sources including low irradiation temperature reactor graphite (the Windscale Piles 1 and 2, British Energy Pile O and Graphite Low Energy Experimental Pile at Harwell and the Material Testing Reactors at Harwell and Dounreay), advanced gas-cooled reactor graphite (from the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor) and graphite from fast reactor systems (neutron shield graphite from the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor and Dounreay Fast Reactor). The decommissioning and dismantling of these facilities will give rise to over 6,000 tonnes of graphite requiring disposal. The first graphite will be retrieved from the dismantling of Windscale Pile 1 and the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor during the next five years. UKAEA has undertaken extensive studies to consider the best practicable options for disposing of these graphite liabilities in a manner that is safe whilst minimising the associated costs and technical risks. These options include (but are not limited to), disposal as Low Level Waste, incineration, or encapsulation and disposal as Intermediate Level Waste. There are a number of technical issues associated with each of these proposed disposal options; these include Wigner energy, radionuclide inventory determination, encapsulation of graphite dust, galvanic coupling interactions enhancing the corrosion of mild steel and public acceptability. UKAEA is currently developing packaging concepts and designing packaging plants for processing these graphite wastes in consultation with other holders of graphite wastes throughout Europe. 'Letters of Comfort' have been sought from both the Low Level Waste and the Intermediate Level Waste disposal organisations to support the

  3. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: UKAEA/BNFL policy in relation to EDRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    The policy of the UKAEA and BNFL, for the design and construction of a fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant, and how it relates to UK Government policy for the development of the fast reactor system in collaboration with other European countries, is described. ((U.K.)

  4. UKAEA fast reactor project research and development programme on fuel element cladding and sub-assembly wrapper materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Research and development work on fuel element component (cladding, subassembly wrappers, etc.) materials for the U.K. sodium cooled fast reactor programme has been conducted at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) establishments at Dounreay, Harwell, Risley, and Springfields during the past fifteen years or so. This work has formed an integral part of, and has been co-ordinated by, the UKAEA Fast Reactor Project and has involved close liaison with the Nuclear Power Company (NPC) and the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB). The research and development were initially related to the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) but the scope has now been extended to cover the first Civil Fast Reactor (CFR1), which has recently been re-designated the Civil Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR). The paper outlines the present status of the development of sodium cooled fast reactors in the U.K. and proceeds to summarize the principal PFR and CDFR core and fuel element parameters which have determined the planning and direction of the fuel element materials programme. The current position on the fuel element cladding and wrapper research and development programme is reviewed, and the facilities and future irradiation programme to be carried out in PFR are described

  5. End of the nuclear dream. The UKAEA and its role in nuclear research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flood, M

    1988-01-01

    The study sets out to assess the performance of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and to make recommendations for its role in the future within the overall energy needs of the United Kingdom. It assumes that the Magnox stations will be phased out after 20-25 years service, that the Advanced Gas-Cooled reactors will be shut down after 20-25 years service and no more built and that perhaps five or so Pressurized Water reactors will be built by the year 2000, including the Sizewell-B station. The first part of the report traces the institutional changes that have taken place in the UKAEA from its formation in 1954 up to the late 1980s. The current structure of the UKAEA is described in part 2. Questions of accountability are raised and its dual role of assessor and promoter of nuclear power is questioned. Part three looks at the UKAEA's role in developing nuclear power, especially the economic implications. In part four fundamental errors of judgement by the UKAEA are blamed for the failure of the UK nuclear industry to provide cheap, abundant, electricity. Practical recommendations for a major restructuring of the Authority are made.

  6. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  7. Fuel fabrication and reprocessing at UKAEA Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1994-01-01

    The Dounreay fuel plants, which are the most flexible anywhere in the world, will continue to carry out work for foreign commercial customers. A number of German companies are important customers of UKAEA and examples of the wide variety of the work currently being carried out for them in the Dounreay plants is given (reprocessing and fabrication of fuel elements from and for research reactors). (orig./HP) [de

  8. Note on current position regarding the development by the UKAEA of Reduced Enrichment fuels for Research and Test Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, B.

    1983-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority have an MTR fuel fabrication plant located at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland. The prime function of the plant is to manufacture fuel elements for the UKAEA's own DIDO and PLUTO heavy water reactors located at their research establishment at Harwell. The plant, which has a capacity of about 1000 fuel elements per annum, also manufactures fuel elements, on a commercial basis, for university reactors in the United Kingdom and for a number of customers in overseas countries. The UKAEA have been manufacturing MTR fuel elements of a wide range of designs for over twenty-five years. Following the initiative of the US Government's RERTR programme, the UKAEA have embarked on a modest programme of MTR fuel manufacturing development., irradiation and post-irradiation examination to establish the techniques required to manufacture fuel elements containing uranium of a significantly lower enrichment than that in the fuel elements they currently manufacture. In the first instance this work is being directed towards the production of fuel elements containing uranium of 45% enrichment. After an initial analysis it was recognised that although a satisfactory 45% enriched version of certain of the designs of fuel elements currently manufactured could probably be produced using established U/Al alloy technology, it would be necessary to utilise powder technology for other elements in order to achieve the higher uranium density required. Studies of published information and consideration of the technology and facilities already available at Dounreay prompted the decision to concentrate on the development Of U 3 O 8 /Al cermet type fuel elements of similar geometry to those currently manufactured. Some of the fuel element designs currently manufactured by the UKAEA are listed: Concentric (Extruded) 74% enriched; Concentric Plates 80% enriched with densities 0.60 and 0.53 g U/ cm 3 ; Flat Plate (Swaged) 80% enriched and Flat Plate

  9. UKAEA: boom or bust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surrey, J.

    1979-01-01

    The future of the UKAEA is considered in the light of present government policies concerning nuclear power generation. Energy forecasts are drastically lower and the uncertainty surrounding the future of the industry has led to the loss of key staff. It is felt that it is urgent to identify the resources and skills that are specific to nuclear design and engineering and to examine how they can best be organised and retained and that this problem must have precedence over the fast reactor question. The assurance of a future role which is nationally and personally worthwhile will remove much of the uncertainty for the scientists and will make it less likely that a breeder is built for the wrong reason. (UK)

  10. Development of software tools for supporting building clearance and site release at UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessop, G.; Pearl, M.

    2002-01-01

    UKAEA sites generally have complex histories and have been subject to a diverse range of nuclear operations. Most of the nuclear reactors, laboratories, workshops and other support facilities are now redundant and a programme of decommissioning works in accordance with IAEA guidance is in progress. Decommissioning is being carried out in phases with post- operative activities, care and maintenance and care and surveillance periods between stages to allow relatively short-lived radioactivity to decay. This reduces dose levels to personnel and minimises radioactive waste production. Following on from these stages is an end point phase which corresponds to the point at which the risks to human health and the environment are sufficiently low so that the buildings / land can be released for future use. Unconditional release corresponds to meeting the requirement for 'de-licensing'. Although reaching a de-licensable end point is the desired aim for UKAEA sites, it is recognised that this may take hundreds of years for parts of some UKAEA sites, or may never be attainable at a reasonable cost to the UK taxpayer. Thus on these sites, long term risk management systems are in place to minimise the impact on health, safety and the environment. In order to manage these short, medium and long term liabilities, UKAEA has developed a number of software tools based on good practice guidance. One of these tools in particular is being developed to address building clearance and site release. This tool, IMAGES (Information Management and Geographical Information System) integrates systematic data capture, with database management and spatial assessment (through a Geographical Information System). Details of IMAGES and its applications are discussed in the paper. This paper outlines the approach being adopted by UKAEA for building and site release and the integrated software system, IMAGES, being used to capture, collate, interpret and report results. The key to UKAEA's strategy for

  11. Reacting to the power politics [how the UKAEA will react to budget cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1988-01-01

    An interview with John Collier in which he tells how the UKAEA will cope with budget cuts and closures. The two major influences will be: 1. the government's decision to drastically cut the funding for fast reactor R and D., and 2. the planned privatisation of the electricity supply industry. (U.K.)

  12. UKAEA Government Division Annual Review 1994-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the first annual review of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) Government Division. The Division was set up in April 1994 with the primary responsibility of completing the UKAEA's nuclear mission by caring for and decommissioning the radioactive facilities used in pursuit of the national nuclear programme over the past 50 years; this includes the safe disposal of the resulting radioactive waste. The progress made in the first year towards carrying out this responsibility at the lowest cost while continuing to ensure safety and protection of the environment is reported. Other responsibilities of Government Division which are reviewed include: management of the UKAEA's sites, buildings and operating facilities; oversight of the United Kingdom fusion research programme and provision for the Joint European Torus which is situated next to the Culham fusion site; and the UKAEA Constabulary. Appended to the review are a financial statement and a list of the main decommissioning tasks. (UK)

  13. Decommissioning experience at UKAEA Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Winfrith Site was used for development of nuclear reactors, particularly the 100 MW(e) Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SGHWR) and the 30 MW gas-cooled DRAGON reactor. Following the closure of the SGHWR reactor in 1990 the site has run down nuclear operations by removing from site most of the high level hazards from both reactors and then commencing the decommissioning of major items of plant and other site facilities. After the SGHWR was shut down, UKAEA prepared a decommissioning programme for this plant comprising a multistage process, each to be subjected to a competitive tendering operation. The recently completed Stage 1 decommissioning contract, awarded to Nuvia in 2005, involved decommissioning and removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas of the plant. The decommissioning processes involved with these large and heavy plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations. Over the past 18 years Nuvia has gained vast experience with decommissioning operations on redundant nuclear plant and facilities on the Winfrith Site and has been extremely successful in meeting its contractual obligations in a safe and efficient manner. The final section of the paper will dwell upon the key issues that have made a difference in achieving these objectives for the benefit of others involved in similar operations. (author)

  14. The role of electron microscopy in the UKAEA Northern Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumerling, R.; Cawthorn, C.; Slattery, G.; Bilsby, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    The role of electron microscopy in the Northern Division of the UKAEA is to assist in the development of safe and efficient nuclear power, particularly in optimising fuel element performance, but also to solve the materials problems which arise in both nuclear and non-nuclear plant. Some of the fuel element investigations under-taken in the past 25 years are reviewed under six headings: compatibility of different materials - fuel, cladding and coolant; dimensional stability of the fuel element; heat transfer from fuel to coolant; fission gas release from the fuel; cladding integrity and causes of failure; and safety. The various types of thermal reactor and fast reactors pose different materials problems, but similarities abound and often experience with one system can be of value in another. Current investigations are discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Reactor decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1984-01-01

    A pioneering project on the decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor, by the UKAEA, is described. Reactor data; policy; waste management; remote handling equipment; development; and recording and timescales, are all briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  16. The fiftieth anniversary of the UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, P.; Hughes, A.E.; Lidiard, A.B.; Pooley, D.; Rae, J.

    2004-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) celebrated its fiftieth anniversary on 19 July 2004. Throughout this half-century the Authority has had an interesting and varied history, contributing much to UK science and the economy in many diverse ways. From its early central role of developing the UK's nuclear deterrent and nuclear power for the generation of electricity, the Authority, from the mid-1960s onwards, extended its R and D activities into non-nuclear fields, and broadened its links with businesses and universities. This paper reviews UKAEA's considerable achievements, its current fusion research programme and the reshaping of its business parks, and ends by offering best wishes for the future. (author)

  17. Radioactive waste discharges from UKAEA establishments during 1996 and associated monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, A.K.M.; Forbes, S.A.; Hughes, B.; Richardson, E.

    1997-08-01

    This annual report is published by the Safety Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and provides information on radioactive discharges from its sites. The Culcheth site was closed and then redeveloped during the end of 1993 and the Springfields site became part of BNFL in October 1994. No operations involving the need to discharge radioactivity are undertaken at the Risley site. After discussions with the Authorising Departments at that time, the discharge authorisations were revoked on 1 July 1994. These sites are therefore no longer included in this report. UKAEA has published annual radioactive waste discharges and associated monitoring results since 1963. This report is intended to give a relatively short factual overview of UKAEA waste discharge and disposal, and its impact on the environment. Additional information may be found in annual discharge reports published by the individual UKAEA establishments and the UKAEA Report on Safety and the Environment 1996-97 due to be issued at the end of September 1997. (UK)

  18. Project WAGR: the UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning - a review of the tools used to dismantle the reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benest, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has built and operated a wide range of nuclear facilities since the late 1940. UKAEA mission is to restore the environment of its sites in a safe and secure manner. This restoration includes the decommissioning of a number of redundant research and power reactors. The Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (WAGR) was the UK prototype Advanced gas cooled reactor and became the forerunner of a family of 14 reactors built to generate cheaper and more efficient electricity in the UK. WAGR was constructed between 1957 and 1961 and was a carbon dioxide cooled, graphite moderated reactor using uranium oxide fuel in stainless steel cans. The reactor consisted of a graphite moderator housed in a cylindrical reactor vessel with hemispherical ends. The reactor and associated heat exchangers were enclosed in the iconic spherical containment building regularly used by the media in the UK as an illustration of the nuclear industry. The reactor first produced power in August 1962 and achieved full design output in 1963. It operated at an electrical output of 33 MW (E) for 18 years (average load factor of 75%). In 1981 the reactor was shut down after satisfactory completion of all the research and development objectives. In anticipation of the UK likely nuclear decommissioning needs the UKAEA decided to decommission WAGR to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) stage 3 (restoration of the area occupied by the facility to a condition of unrestricted re-usability) as the national demonstration exercise for power reactor decommissioning. Since 1998 the UKAEA and its contractors have been undertaking the dismantling of the reactor core components and pressure vessel in a series of 10 campaigns. These contain neutron activated components expected to produce dose rates well in excess of 1 Sv/hr. To carry out the work UKAEA installed an 8M remote dismantling machine (RDM) a waste recovery and transport system and a shielded waste

  19. Decommissioning of the secondary containment of the steam generating heavy water reactor at UKAEA-Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Keith; Cornell, Rowland; Parkinson, Steve; McIntyre, Kevin; Staples, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The Winfrith SGHWR was a prototype nuclear power plant operated for 23 years by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) until 1990 when it was shut down permanently. The current Stage 1 decommissioning contract is part of a multi-stage strategy. It involves the removal of all the ancillary plant and equipment in the secondary containment and non-containment areas ahead of a series of contracts for the decommissioning of the primary containment, the reactor core and demolition of the building and all remaining facilities. As an outcome of a competitive tending process, the Stage 1 decommissioning contract was awarded to NUKEM with operations commencing in April 2005. The decommissioning processes involved with these plant items will be described with some emphasis of the establishment of multiple work-fronts for the production, recovery, treatment and disposal of mainly tritium-contaminated waste arising from its contact with the direct cycle reactor coolant. The means of size reduction of a variety of large, heavy and complex items of plant made from a range of materials will also be described with some emphasis on the control of fumes during hot cutting operations and establishing effective containments within a larger secondary containment structure. Disposal of these wastes in a timely and cost-effective manner is a major challenge facing the decommissioning team and has required the development of a highly efficient means of packing the resultant materials into mainly one-third height ISO containers for disposal as LLW. Details of the quantities of LLW and exempt wastes handled during this process will be given with a commentary about the difficulty in segregating these two waste streams efficiently. (authors)

  20. UKAEA's programme for the development of waste packages for deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes UKAEA ILW, the development programme underpinning the proposed disposals, the case for cement as the immobilising matrix and the waste package performance required by the Deep Repository. The paper also seeks to show that UKAEA is effectively managing its ILW liability through a well managed programme which is convincingly best value whilst meeting appropriate national and international agreed standards for safety and environmental care. (author)

  1. Dounreay - the way ahead. UKAEA response to the 1998 HSE/SEPA safety audit of Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-11-01

    UKAEA has been charged by Government with a task which is both challenging and vitally important - the decommissioning of Dounreay's nuclear facilities, and the restoration of the site for the use of future generations. The clear guidance provided by the report of the HSE/SEPA Safety Audit will assist the UKAEA to complete this task. UKAEA recognises the status quo is not an option, and that improvements must continue to be made to reach the standards which HSE and SEPA rightly expect and to which Dounreay aspires. UKAEA fully accepts its responsibilities for implementing the necessary improvement programmes, as set out in this detailed response to the Audit. Some improvements can be made almost immediately. Indeed some have been implemented already. But a number need a thorough and systematic approach. This will take time and require the recruitment of additional staff, a process which has already started. In the meantime, UKAEA is pleased that the Audit concluded that Dounreay is under proper control under the nuclear licensing regime and is presently safe. The Audit was carried out at a time when UKAEA was undergoing significant change. A review of its organisation and operations was initiated in November 1997 to ensure that the structure of the company was appropriate to its current needs and future objectives. A strategy conference in February 1998 recommended a number of major changes: clarification of safety and environmental responsibilities; the introduction of a site based structure with individual accountability for all operations; and sharpening the focus on our principal mission - to decommission our sites - rather than continuing to market services such as commercial reprocessing. Many of these changes were implemented on 1 April 1998, or shortly thereafter. A number of the key issues raised in the HSE/SEPA Report highlighted areas where change was already underway at the time of the Audit - notably the strengthening of the UKAEA management team at

  2. Radiation protection at UKAEA's solid waste plant at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallacher, G.; Tierney, T.

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the solid waste plant at Harwell ( United Kingdom)Examples of waste streams, processes and the supporting health physics measures have been briefly described. It is clear that all waste operations involve close team work between staff from U.K.A.E.A. (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) operations and health physics staff from both U.K.A.E.A. and RWE NUKEM (RWE NUKEM is one of the health physics support contractors). Work must be planned carefully, and radiological conditions monitored to ensure that the job is progressing smoothly and workplace exposure remains as low as reasonably practicable. (authors)

  3. Reactor performance calculations for water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D.

    1970-04-01

    The principles of nuclear, thermal and hydraulic performance calculations for water cooled reactors are discussed. The principles are illustrated by describing their implementation in the UKAEA PATRIARCH scheme of computer codes. This material was originally delivered as a course of lectures at the Technical University of Helsinki in Summer of 1969.

  4. EURATOM/UKAEA Association fusion research. 1998/99 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This annual progress report describes the fusion energy research carried out under the Contract of Association between UKAEA and the European atomic energy community, EURATOM: the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association. It covers the period from April 1998 to March 1999, which has been a very active time, and has included contributions to the European Fusion Programme in several important areas. A main objective of the EURATOM/UKAEA Association is to provide support for JET, which is presently operated as a Joint Undertaking, but this will end in December 1999. It is proposed that the facilities will then pass to the UKAEA which will operate them for a programme of work by all the European Associations in support of ITER; UKAEA has been heavily involved in drafting the Implementing Agreement and operating contract with its European partners. There has also been a strong involvement in the JET scientific and technology programme which, following operation with tritium, includes activation studies and the impact of tritium retention. Highlights in the scientific programme included the first measurements of the plasma current density distribution in configurations with the potential for steady state operation. A second key objective is to contribute to the design of ITER, and in particular the RTO-ITER with its focus on a burning plasma of reduced size. ITER is the tokamak proposed to demonstrate the physics and many of the technology requirements for fusion power production, designed by Europe, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States. Experiments on our COMPASS-D tokamak, which has the same geometry as JET and ITER, are supported by a strong theory programme to develop our understanding of key issues for ITER. One such issue is the study of instabilities which arise in the approach to a steady state configuration at high normalised plasma pressure, β, using micro-wave heating and current drive schemes. Data from our 'spherical' tokamak START, which ceased

  5. REACTOR: a computer simulation for schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns computer simulation of the operation of a nuclear reactor, for use in schools. The project was commissioned by UKAEA, and carried out by the Computers in the Curriculum Project, Chelsea College. The program, for an advanced gas cooled reactor, is briefly described. (U.K.)

  6. The UKAEA's research priorities in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) has a key role in the future development of nuclear power in the UK. In parallel with this, it aims to increase its support to other sectors of industry so that they too can benefit from the skills and expertise that it has developed within the nuclear business. R and D is expected to yield significant further improvements in safe, economic operation for AGRs and PWRs. The construction of commercial fast reactors will in a few years be within the competence of the UK industry, and of partners of the AEA in European collaboration. The forward collaborative R and D programme will yield substantial further benefits in safety and economics for the first generation of commercial fast reactors. Parallel, but on a longer timescale, is the development of nuclear fusion. Here the UK programme supports the successful European JET tokamak located on the UKAEA Culham site. Several more fundamental programmes and a wide range of facilities underpin these various development studies, and provide a firm footing upon which the Authority can construct valuable new programmes for both nuclear and non-nuclear industries. The AEA is confident that it can continue as a major force in international contract R and D. It will continue to support the nuclear industry, but in addition it foresees applying its business skills across an increasingly broad spectrum of markets worldwide. 1 fig

  7. Radiation protection at UKAEA's solid waste plant at Harwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallacher, G. [RWE NUKEM, Harwell (United Kingdom); Tierney, T. [UKAEA, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The paper provides an overview of the solid waste plant at Harwell ( United Kingdom)Examples of waste streams, processes and the supporting health physics measures have been briefly described. It is clear that all waste operations involve close team work between staff from U.K.A.E.A. (United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority) operations and health physics staff from both U.K.A.E.A. and RWE NUKEM (RWE NUKEM is one of the health physics support contractors). Work must be planned carefully, and radiological conditions monitored to ensure that the job is progressing smoothly and workplace exposure remains as low as reasonably practicable. (authors)

  8. The prospective United Kingdom nuclear energy programme up to 2000 AD and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simeone, R.N.; Hodgkinson, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper begins by surveying the development of the United Kingdom nuclear industry, its organization in both the public and private sectors of the economy, and changes in the numbers employed up to the present day. The possible future nuclear programme and overall manpower needs, and the UKAEA's role and manpower requirements within this programme, are outlined. Manpower problems arising from national shortages of engineers and technicians and reviews of arrangements for their education and training, and also from the pattern of historical development of the UKAEA, are described. UKAEA arrangements for formulating and implementing personnel policies, current policies for recruitment, carrier management and in-service training and their relationship to present and future needs are then discussed. The final section draws attention to UKAEA facilities for the training of staff from other organizations in the United Kingdom and from overseas. (author)

  9. Large experimental facilities of the UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, P.R.

    1987-10-01

    This list of UKAEA capital equipment was first assembled for the Interdepartmental Committee on Large Experimental Facilities as a contribution to a directory of national installations with a replacement value of Pound 1M or more. It is now being circulated in report form within the Authority, to assist staff to demonstrate to customers the wide range of facilities the Authority has available to carry out contract work, and to help them identify where customers' work can best be placed. (author)

  10. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1980 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1980. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL)-sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  11. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1978 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1979-05-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1978. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. (author)

  12. Storage of intermediate level waste at UKAEA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodill, D.R.; Tymons, B.J.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the storage of wastes at UKAEA sites and accordingly contributes to the investigations conducted by the Department of the Environment into the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) for radioactive waste storage and/or disposal. This report on the storage of ILW should be read in conjunction with a similar NII funded CTS study for Licensed Sites in the UK. (author)

  13. A review of the UKAEA interest in heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The chapter commences with a brief account of the history of heavy water production and then begins the story of the British use of this moderator in power reactors. This is equated with the introduction and development of the tube reactor as a distinct and important form of reactor construction in contrast with the perhaps better known vessel design that has tended to dominate reactor engineering to date. The account thus includes a succession of reactor designs including the gas and steam cooled heavy water systems in addition to the steam-generating heavy water reactor. The SGHWR was demonstrated by the construction of a substantial prototype, which continues in operation as a flexible and reliable electricity-generating plant. It was also, for a time, identified as the system to be used for Britain's third reactor programme. Today the successful Canadian CANDU power reactors represent the only penetration of heavy water reactor technology into large scale electricity generation. The range of research and experimental reactors using heavy water in their cores is reviewed. (author)

  14. SIR - small is safe [in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayns, M.

    1989-01-01

    A joint USA-UK venture has been initiated to design a small nuclear reactor which offers low capital cost, greater flexibility and a potentially lower environmental impact. Called Safe Integral Reactor (SIR), the lead unit could be built in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA's) Winfrith site if the design is accepted by the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). This article describes the 320 MWe reactor unit that is the basis of the design being developed. (author)

  15. Liquid metal coolant disposal from UKAEA reactors at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the United Kingdom's Fast Reactor Development programme two reactors were built and operated at Dounreay in the North of Scotland. DFR (Dounreay Fast Reactor) was operated from 1959-1977 and PFR (Prototype Fast Reactor) was operated from 1974-1994. Both reactors are currently undergoing Stage 1 Decommissioning and are installing plant to dispose of the bulk coolant (DFR ∼ 60 tonne; PFR ∼ 1500 tonne). The coolant (NaK) remaining at DFR is mainly in the primary circuit which contains in excess of 500 TBq of Cs137. Disposal of 40 tonnes of secondary coolant has already been carried out. The paper will describe the processes used to dispose of this secondary circuit coolant and how it is intended the remaining primary circuit coolant will be handled. The programme to process the primary coolant will also be described which involves the conversion of the liquid metal to caustic and its decontamination. No PFR coolant Na has been disposed off to date. The paper will describe the current decommissioning programme activities relating to liquid metal disposal and treatment describing the materials to be disposed of and the issue of decontamination of the effluents. (author)

  16. Back-end of the research reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, Gehard J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the status of topics and issues related to: (1) Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Return to the U.S., including policy, shipments and ports of entry, management sites, fees, storage technologies, contracts, actual shipment, and legal process, (2) UKAEA: MTR Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, (3) COGEMA: MTR Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, and (4) Intermediate Storage + Direct Disposal for Research Reactors. (author)

  17. Experience in nuclear materials accountancy, including the use of computers, in the UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.R.; Adamson, A.S.; Good, P.T.; Terrey, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    The UKAEA have operated systems of nuclear materials accountancy in research and development establishments handling large quantities of material for over 20 years. In the course of that time changing requirements for nuclear materials control and increasing quantities of materials have required that accountancy systems be modified and altered to improve either the fundamental system or manpower utilization. The same accountancy principles are applied throughout the Authority but procedures at the different establishments vary according to the nature of their specific requirements; there is much in the cumulative experience of the UKAEA which could prove of value to other organizations concerned with nuclear materials accountancy or safeguards. This paper reviews the present accountancy system in the UKAEA and summarizes its advantages. Details are given of specific experience and solutions which have been found to overcome difficulties or to strengthen previous weak points. Areas discussed include the use of measurements, the establishment of measurement points (which is relevant to the designation of MBAs), the importance of regular physical stock-taking, and the benefits stemming from the existence of a separate accountancy section independent of operational management at large establishments. Some experience of a dual system of accountancy and criticality control is reported, and the present status of computerization of nuclear material accounts is summarized. Important aspects of the relationship between management systems of accountancy and safeguards' requirements are discussed briefly. (author)

  18. Tratamento anaeróbio de resíduos sólidos orgânicos com alta e baixa concentração de sólidos Anaerobic treatment of organic solid waste with high and low concentrations of solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi D. Leite

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A finalidade principal deste trabalho foi estudar o tratamento anaeróbio de resíduos sólidos orgânicos com alta e baixa concentração de sólidos. O sistema experimental se compunha de dois reatores com capacidade unitária de 2.200 L, enquanto o substrato utilizado era composto de resíduos sólidos vegetais e lodo de esgotos sanitários, sendo um dos reatores alimentado com substrato contendo 20% de sólidos totais (80% de umidade e o outro com apenas 5% de sólidos totais (95% de umidade. Verificou-se, quando da utilização de substrato contendo 5% (percentagem em peso de sólidos totais, que o tempo de retenção de sólidos requerido para que fossem alcançados 80% de redução da massa de DQO aplicada, foi de 90 dias, propiciando uma taxa de produção de gás metano de 0,25 Nm³ CH4 kg-1 DQO Aplicada. Com relação ao substrato contendo 20% de sólidos totais, o tempo de retenção de sólidos requerido para bioestabilizar 80% da massa de DQO aplicada, foi de 270 dias, com taxa de produção de gás metano de 0,10 Nm³ CH4 kg-1 DQO Aplicada.In this study the anaerobic treatment of organic solid waste with high and low concentrations of solids was studied. The experimental system comprised of two reactors, with unitary capacity of 2,200 L, while the used substrate was composed of solid vegetable waste and sludge. One of the reactors was loaded with substrate containing 20% of total solids and the other with only 5% of total solids on weight basis. It was verified that, for the substrate containing 5% of total solids, the retention time of solids required for 80% reduction of the applied COD mass was 90 days, during which the methane gas production rate was of 0.25 Nm³ kg-1 COD Applied; whereas in the substrate containing 20% of total solids, the retention time of solids required for biostabilization of 80% of the mass of applied COD was 270 days, with a methane gas production rate of 0.1 Nm³ CH4 kg-1 COD Applied.

  19. The Kemeny commission report. Comments by UKAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report of the President's Commission - the Kemeny Report - on the accident at Three Mile island has been considered by the UKAEA and the implications of the Commission's findings and recommendations for the United Kingdom examined. The contents of the report have been studied not only generally but also for each site and especially with respect to plant instrumentation, operator training, emergency arrangements and communications. The Authority believes that there are no major deficiencies but is fully aware of the crucial importance of continuing to exercise all possible care and ensuring that each detailed point arising from the Kemeny Commission's Report is given careful thought. (U.K.)

  20. A WIMS E analysis of zero energy experiments performed on the Dragon reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancefield, M. J.; Broadhouse, B.; Woloch, F.

    1974-10-15

    UKAEA methods embodied in the WINS-E modular scheme of codes are described in their application to the analysis of zero energy experiments performed on the DRAGON reactor. Measured reactivity and reaction rate distributions are compared with the predictions of the analysis.

  1. Financial planning in the Northern Division of the UKAEA. Part 1 - The organisation and its finance. Part 2 -Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, N.; D'Eye, R.W.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the first part of the lecture the background and functions of the UKAEA, the relationship between management and the nuclear industry, and the management structure are explained. The financial cycle of the UKAEA is shown together with a breakdown of expenditure of the Northern Division between directorates and also between projects. In the second part, the constraints which influence the management of the Authority are discussed. The role of the Northern Division Planning and Resources Branch is explained and the methods of operation of its two sections ie Planning, and Resources Analysis and Forecasting, are described. (U.K.)

  2. Project WAGR: The UK demonstration project for power reactor decommissioning - removing the core and looking to completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benest, T. G.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has built and operated a wide range of nuclear facilities since the late 1940's. UKAEA's present mission is to restore the environment of these facilities in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. This restoration includes the decommissioning of a number of redundant research and power reactors, one of which is the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (WAGR). Following shut down, UKAEA decided to continue the prototype function of the reactor into the decommissioning phase to develop dismantling techniques and establish waste routes. The reactor core and pressure vessel are now being dismantled in a programme of 10 campaigns, seven of which have been completed since 1998. It is anticipated that the current programme will be completed by summer 2005. This paper outlines the history of the reactor, the operation of the waste-processing route, the installed dismantling equipment and the successful completion of the first seven campaigns. This earlier work has been described in a number of publications and conferences, so this paper concentrates on recent work to select and develop cutting equipment to dismantle the core support structures and the pressure vessel. The decommissioning of the Windscale Advance Gas-cooled reactor is being undertaken to demonstrate that a power reactor can be decommissioned shortly after shutdown. The removal of the core and pressure vessel has been broken down into a series of 10 campaigns associated with particular core components. The first 7 campaigns have been successfully completed and the 8., is expected to commence in September 2003 17 months earlier than planned. Dismantling methodologies and tools have been developed specifically for each of these campaigns. Full-scale mock-ups have been used to test the tools, train the operators and assess the duration of operations. However, despite successful trials, operational experience has shown that some of these tools have not

  3. Index to UKAEA, BNFL, MOD(PE) AWRE and recommended external standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-11-01

    The principal part of the document consists of an alphabetical index and numerical index to United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, British Nuclear Fuels Limited, and Atomic Weapons Research Establishment standards, engineering and general stores. Also included are: an index to Engineering Equipment Users Association handbooks and documents, members' specifications, codes of practice and handbooks; British Standard Codes of practice (for building, electrical engineering, civil engineering, mechanical engineering); UKAEA Standardisation Committee memoranda and metric guides; and miscellaneous documents. (U.K.)

  4. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Risk targets and EDRP design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.

    1986-06-01

    A full description is presented of the extent to which risk is controlled by the targets to be implemented in the proposed EDRP design, including a discussion of a particular accident sequence. Risk expressions and the usefulness of risk criteria are reviewed. Details are given of the accident consequence modelling as used by the UKAEA. Terrorist attack and sabotage are briefly discussed. (UK)

  5. The chairman's speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper contains a transcript of a speech by the chairman of the UKAEA, to mark the publication of the 1985/6 annual report. The topics discussed in the speech include: the Chernobyl accident and its effect on public attitudes to nuclear power, management and disposal of radioactive waste, the operation of UKAEA as a trading fund, and the UKAEA development programmes. The development programmes include work on the following: fast reactor technology, thermal reactors, reactor safety, health and safety aspects of water cooled reactors, the Joint European Torus, and under-lying research. (U.K.)

  6. Radioactive waste disposal by UKAEA establishments during 1979 and associated environmental monitoring results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flew, E.M.

    1980-07-01

    This report gives details of the amounts of solid and liquid radioactive waste disposed of by the principal establishments of the UKAEA during 1979. Waste arising at the UKAEA Nuclear Power Development Laboratories at Windscale and Springfields, which are both situated on British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) sites, is disposed of by BNFL and included in their authorisations. Discharges to atmosphere of airborne radioactive waste are also included in the report. A summary of the results of the environmental monitoring programmes carried out in connection with the radioactive waste discharges is given. To facilitate an appreciation of the standard of safety achieved, the discharges are, where appropriate, shown as a percentage of those authorised. In the case of atmospheric discharges no quantitative limits are yet specified in the authorisations, but the results and estimates of discharges from stacks are compared with Derived Working Limits (DWL's) (i.e. a limit derived from the dose limits recommended by The International Commission on Radiological Protection in such a way that compliance with it implies virtual certainty of compliance with the relevant dose limits). Environmental monitoring results are also compared with appropriate DWL's. The principles underlying the control of the discharge of radioactive waste to the environment are summarised in an Appendix to the report. (author)

  7. The UK gas-cooled reactor programme - Progress report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarises key developments during 1988 on the 26 Magnox reactors and 14 AGRs now operating in the UK. Details are given of long-term safety reviews of the Berkeley and Bradwell Magnox stations which resulted in a decision by CEGB to cease generation at Berkeley but to continue operation at Bradwell. The summary of operating experience with the AGRs concentrates on the completion of construction and successful commissioning of the second generation AGRs at Heysham 2 and Torness. An appended article by John Wilson, Deputy Director of the UKAEA's gas-cooled reactor R and D programme, gives details of the aims and achievements of the programme during 1988. (author)

  8. The SCARABEE experimental fast reactor safety programme already completed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.P.; Teague, H.; Heusener, G.

    1979-08-01

    The SCARABEE in-pile experimental programme comprised a series of tests on unirradiated fuel pins, either single or in seven-pin clusters. The main objective was to obtain information on the mode and consequences of fast reactor fuel pin failure in conditions representative of loss of cooling in a LMFBR. The application of such programmes in full scale reactors leads to the great importance of the interpretation of experimental observations. The interpretation of that programme was carried out jointly by CEA, KFK and UKAEA; this international collaboration led to a sharper focusing on essential features to be modelled in experiments and computer codes and to a valuable convergence of views

  9. TLD gamma-ray energy deposition measurements in the zero energy fast reactor ZEBRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    A recent study of gamma-ray energy deposition was carried out in the Zebra reactor at AEE Winfrith during a collaborative programme between the UKAEA and PNC of Japan. The programme was given the title MOZART. This paper describes the TLD experiments in the MOZART MZB assembly and discusses the technique and various corrections necessary to relate the measured quantity to the calculated energy deposition

  10. Windscale advanced gas-cooled reactor (WAGR) decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattinson, A.

    2003-01-01

    The current BNFL reactor decommissioning projects are presented. The projects concern power reactor sites at Berkely, Trawsfynydd, Hunterstone, Bradwell, Hinkley Point; UKAEA Windscale Pile 1; Research reactors within UK Scottish Universities at East Kilbride and ICI (both complete); WAGR. The BNFL environmental role include contract management; effective dismantling strategy development; implementation and operation; sentencing, encapsulation and transportation of waste. In addition for the own sites it includes strategy development; baseline decommissioning planning; site management and regulator interface. The project objectives for the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) are 1) Safe and efficient decommissioning; 2) Building of good relationships with customer; 3) Completion of reactor decommissioning in 2005. The completed WAGR decommissioning campaigns are: Operational Waste; Hot Box; Loop Tubes; Neutron Shield; Graphite Core and Restrain System; Thermal Shield. The current campaign is Lower Structures and the remaining are: Pressure vessel and Insulation; Thermal Columns and Outer Vault Membrane. An overview of each campaign is presented

  11. Development of design technology for advanced pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Si Hwan; Chang, Moon Hee; Lee, Jong Chul

    1991-08-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of the domestic passive reactor development, the analysis and evaluation on the development status, technical characteristics, and the safety and economy for the overseas passive reactors were carried out based on the vendor's information. Also the domestic nuclear technology basis was surveyed. The analysis and evaluation of the development status and technical characteristics were performed mainly for the AP-600 developed by Westing house and the SIR of UKAEA. The new design concepts and system characteristics have been evaluated by utilizing EPRI Utility Requirement Documents and Lahmeyer evaluation criteria. Based on this evaluation the recommendable design concepts in each major system were selected. The feasibility for the domestic passive reactor development has focused on the safety, technology and economy aspects, and on the applicability of the existing domestic technology to the design of the passive reactor. And the development plan for the domestic passive reactor was recommended in a step by step way. (Author)

  12. Desempeño de tanques decantadores de sólidos en un sistema de recirculación para producción de tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yemall Maigual E.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar la eficiencia de remoción de sólidos, turbidez y color aparente en un decantador convencional y uno de columna en un sistema de recirculación acuícola (SRA para cultivo de tilapia. Materiales y métodos. Se cultivaron tilapias con densidad entre 30 y 33 kg/m3 en un SRA, el cual constó de: caja de nivel constante, tubería en PVC, tres tanques de cultivo, decantador convencional de flujo horizontal (D.Con, decantador de columna de flujo ascendente (D.Col, reactor de lecho fluidizado trifásico, reactor para transferencia de oxígeno, compresor, blower, electrobomba. El D.Con operó con volumen útil (VU de 1.4 m3 y tiempo de retención hidráulica (TRH de 2.94 h, fue vaciado una vez por semana para lavado y colecta del lodo, representando sustitución del 55% del volumen del sistema. El D.Col operó con 0.30 m3 de VU y TRH de 0.553 h. Se realizaron 3 sangrados diarios, representando sustitución semanal de 50% del volumen. Resultados. Las eficiencias promedio de remoción fueron: para sólidos totales de 34.01 y 44.44%; sólidos suspendidos 64.45% y 71.71%; sólidos volátiles 21.10 y 45.65%; para turbidez 65.51 y 62.79%; para color aparente 56.37 y 50.91%, respectivamente en el D.Con y el D.Col. Conclusiones. Ambos decantadores son útiles en la remoción de los parámetros estudiados y presentaron comportamientos semejantes en remoción de turbidez y color aparente. Sin embargo, el D.Col es más eficiente que el convencional para remoción de los sólidos, ocupa menor espacio, menor volumen y requiere menor porcentaje de renovación, mostrando viabilidad para su utilización en SRA.

  13. COMPOSTAGEM DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ariclenes Olinto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Resíduos são os resultados de processos de diversas atividades da comunidade, sendo de origem industrial, doméstica, hospitalar, comercial, agrícola, de serviços e ainda da varrição pública. Os resíduos apresentam-se nos estados sólido, gasoso e líquido. Produzidos em todos os estágios das atividades humanas, os resíduos, em termos tanto de composição como de volume, variam em função das práticas de consumo e dos métodos de produção. Para solucionar a problemática que envolve os resíduos sólidos, como deposição inadequada em lixões que contaminam o solo e os recursos hídricos e saturação de aterros sanitários, é necessário adotar o gerenciamento integrado de resíduos sólidos que compreendem a redução da geração destes, a reutilização, a reciclagem de materiais que podem servir de matéria prima e a compostagem que trata o resíduo orgânico, dando a este uma nova utilidade. Tendo em vista a problemática da disposição de resíduos sólidos nos mais diversos procedimentos industrias, agroindustrias e domésticos, da sua deposição no ambiente sem tratamento prévio poluindo solos e mananciais hídricos, da possível transmissão de doenças e da busca de alternativas de tratamento desses resíduos, objetiva-se com esse trabalho além da preservação ambiental, a avaliação e estudo do processo de compostagem como método de tratamento de resíduos sólidos.

  14. Diagnóstico dos resíduos sólidos do setor agrossilvopastoril : resíduos sólidos inorgânicos

    OpenAIRE

    Rosseto, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho buscou realizar o diagnóstico preliminar dos resíduos sólidos inorgânicos gerados no setor agrossilvopastoril, especialmente nos segmentos de agrotóxicos, fertilizantes, insumos farmacêuticos veterinários, além dos resíduos sólidos domésticos (RSDs) rurais Os assuntos foram separados em seções. De forma geral, a ausência de informações oficiais sistematizadas seguiu como a principal dificuldade em realizar o diagnóstico dos resíduos sólidos inorgânicos presentes no setor agrossi...

  15. A revision of photon interaction data in the UKAEA nuclear data library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knipe, A.D.

    1975-10-01

    Photon interaction data in the UKAEA Nuclear Data Library have been updated and extended to cover all elements up to Atomic Number 94. Cross-sections for the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, pair-production, and the total cross-section, are stored at 40 energy points in the range 0.01 MeV to 20 MeV. The angular distribution for Compton scattering is also included in the library. This report describes the derivation and accuracy of the data, and tabulates the cross-sections and angular distribution in the appendices. The preparation of multigroup cross-sections from the library's data is also discussed. (author)

  16. A review of the UK fast reactor programme. April 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bramman, J I [International Relations Department, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    Total energy consumption in the UK in 1991 was 351.6 million tones of coal or coal equivalent, an increase of 2.1% on 1990. Nuclear electricity accounted for 19.5% of the total electricity consumption of about 300 TWh. The technical part of the report is principally concerned with progress with the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) and its associated fuel reprocessing plant and with some aspects of international cooperation on fast reactors. The total gross electrical generation of PFR for 1991 was 34,767 MWd, equivalent to annual load factor of 41.6%. The principal factor depressing the load factor figure was an ingress of lubricating oil from bearing on primary sodium pump 2 into the primary coolant which led to the station being out of service for six months. Two PFR fuel reprocessing campaigns were undertaken during the year. In the first, 18 subassemblies at burnup levels up to 12%, plus some loose pins from the fuel post-irradiation examination facility, were processed. In the second, a further 7 subassemblies at burnup levels up to 17.3%, plus some more loose pins were dealt with. The cumulative total amount of fuel reprocessed to date is now 17.99 tons of heavy metal, containing 3.17 tonnes of plutonium. The reduction of Government funding to the fast reactor research and development programme since 1989 has led to termination of fuel cycle research and development work. However, valuable information continues to be obtained from operation of the PFR fuel reprocessing plant and its support facilities and from development work on the manufacture of thermal MOX fuel. Information exchanges and cooperative work programmes conducted under the UKAEA's agreements with Japan (PNC and JAERI), the USA (US Department of energy), and the CIS are now coordinated with those of the UKAEA's European Fast Reactor research and development partners.

  17. A review of the UK fast reactor programme. April 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Total energy consumption in the UK in 1991 was 351.6 million tones of coal or coal equivalent, an increase of 2.1% on 1990. Nuclear electricity accounted for 19.5% of the total electricity consumption of about 300 TWh. The technical part of the report is principally concerned with progress with the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) and its associated fuel reprocessing plant and with some aspects of international cooperation on fast reactors. The total gross electrical generation of PFR for 1991 was 34,767 MWd, equivalent to annual load factor of 41.6%. The principal factor depressing the load factor figure was an ingress of lubricating oil from bearing on primary sodium pump 2 into the primary coolant which led to the station being out of service for six months. Two PFR fuel reprocessing campaigns were undertaken during the year. In the first, 18 subassemblies at burnup levels up to 12%, plus some loose pins from the fuel post-irradiation examination facility, were processed. In the second, a further 7 subassemblies at burnup levels up to 17.3%, plus some more loose pins were dealt with. The cumulative total amount of fuel reprocessed to date is now 17.99 tons of heavy metal, containing 3.17 tonnes of plutonium. The reduction of Government funding to the fast reactor research and development programme since 1989 has led to termination of fuel cycle research and development work. However, valuable information continues to be obtained from operation of the PFR fuel reprocessing plant and its support facilities and from development work on the manufacture of thermal MOX fuel. Information exchanges and cooperative work programmes conducted under the UKAEA's agreements with Japan (PNC and JAERI), the USA (US Department of energy), and the CIS are now coordinated with those of the UKAEA's European Fast Reactor research and development partners

  18. Development of nuclear power. Minutes of evidence, Monday, 2 April 1984, session 1983-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The following matters were discussed: responsibilities of the (UK) Department of Energy and the UKAEA for nuclear power development; operational objectives and control principles; planning and review of programmes; financial aspects and audit of UKAEA; fast reactor programme with special reference to proposed commercial demonstration fast reactor (CDFR); international cooperation in fast reactor research and development; radioactive waste management; economics of programme items. (U.K.)

  19. UKAEA mechanical test work in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    The main aim of the UKAEA work is to perform mechanical tests in high quality sodium, and on the basis of relatively long term tests to establish whether factors need to be applied to the air data for the design and assessment of components which will have to operate in sodium for up to 30 years. Most of the tests will be performed in sodium containing 5-10 ppm O 2 and ∼ 1 ppm C with a flow rate over the specimen surface of 3m/sec. Some work is also planned to establish the effect of changes in oxygen level up to 30 ppm on the properties and carburization studies will also be performed. Thin work has been in progress on a limited scale for 2-3 years but is now increasing in magnitude to meet the programme requirements. The materials under test include Type 316 steel and 9% Cr steel with most emphasis being placed on the austenitic steel. From the very limited fatigue and stress rupture tests so far performed on Type 316 steel there is no evidence to suggest that high purity sodium may be detrimental. Longer term tests are necessary however to confirm this finding which is based on results from relatively short term tests. Tests are also necessary in less pure sodium

  20. UK fast reactor components - sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, D M [FRDD, UKAEA, Risley (United Kingdom); Bray, J A; Newson, I H [UKAEA, Dounreay Nuclear Power Establishment, Thurso (United Kingdom)

    1978-08-01

    Over the past two decades extensive experience on sodium removal techniques has been gained at the UKAEA's Dounreay Nuclear Establishment from both the Dounreay Fact Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Part 2 of the paper, which describes recent operations associated with the PFR, demonstrates the background to these views. This past and continuing experience is being used in forming the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination and requalification of components in the UK's future commercial fast reactors. Further improvements in techniques and in component designs can be expected in the course of the next few years. Consequently UK philosophy and approach with respect to maintenance and repair operations is sufficiently flexible to enable relevant improvements to be incorporated into the next scheduled fast reactor - the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CUR). This paper summarises the factors which are being taken into consideration in this continuously advancing field.

  1. UK fast reactor components - sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.M.; Bray, J.A.; Newson, I.H.

    1978-01-01

    Over the past two decades extensive experience on sodium removal techniques has been gained at the UKAEA's Dounreay Nuclear Establishment from both the Dounreay Fact Reactor (DFR) and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). This experience has created confidence that complex components can be cleaned of sodium, maintenance or repair operations carried out, and the components successfully re-used. Part 2 of the paper, which describes recent operations associated with the PFR, demonstrates the background to these views. This past and continuing experience is being used in forming the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination and requalification of components in the UK's future commercial fast reactors. Further improvements in techniques and in component designs can be expected in the course of the next few years. Consequently UK philosophy and approach with respect to maintenance and repair operations is sufficiently flexible to enable relevant improvements to be incorporated into the next scheduled fast reactor - the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CUR). This paper summarises the factors which are being taken into consideration in this continuously advancing field

  2. A UKAEA review of gas-cooled reactors in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, E.C.; Knowles, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The commercial use of nuclear power for electrical generation commenced in the UK in the 1950s with the Calder Hall reactors. Based on this concept, eighteen commercial reactor units, with two further units outside the UK, were constructed and have been in operation for periods ranging from 10 to 19 years. The paper reviews this experience mainly from the aspects of safety and the achieved costs, which compare favourably with current figures for fossil fired generation. The further development of the gas-cooled system in the UK commenced with the construction of the Windscale AGR, which came into operation in 1962. This led to the ordering of 14 large commercial AGR units, 4 of which have been in service since 1976, 6 are at an advanced stage of construction and 4 are at an early stage of construction. The paper reviews the main safety features of the AGR and considers the costs, taking achieved costs for the units which are in service and a combination of historical costs and projected costs for the units under construction. Again a clear advantage over fossil fuelled stations is shown. The paper also includes a preliminary account of the use of the prototype AGR at Windscale for the series of experiments concerning plateout, over-temperature in the fuel and simulated fault transients in the core which were carried out earlier in 1981. (author)

  3. Tratamento anaeróbio de resíduos orgânicos com baixa concentração de sólidos Anaerobic treatment of organic wastes with low concentration of solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. D. de Luna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de reator anaeróbio compartimentado no tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos com baixa concentração de sólidos. O reator anaeróbio compartimentado possuía capacidade unitária de 2.200 litros, era dividido em seis câmaras de iguais dimensões e foi operado com tempo de retenção de sólidos de 90 dias. Os resíduos sólidos orgânicos utilizados para alimentação do reator eram constituídos de resíduos sólidos vegetais e de lodo de esgoto sanitário na proporção de 80% e 20%, respectivamente. A mistura desses dois tipos de resíduos originava o substrato, o qual, após a correção da umidade para 95% (percentagem em massa, era alimentado ao reator. A eficiência de redução de material carbonáceo situou-se em torno de 80%, com carga orgânica aplicada de 9,3 kg R SO m-3 dia-1. A taxa de produção de biogás obtida foi de 5,6 L kg-1substrato (base úmida, com percentagem em volume de 50% de gás metano.The object of this study was to evaluate the use of a compartmented anaerobic reactor to treat organic solid waste with low concentration of solids. The reactor with a total capacity of 2.200 liters, divided into 6 equal chambers, was operated at a solid retention time of 90 days. The organic solids used to feed the reactor were comprised by vegetable residues and sanitary sludge in the proportion 80% and 20% respectively. The mixture of these two types of residues after the humidity correction to 95% (percentage by weight was used to feed the reactor. The removal efficiency of carbonaceous material was approximately 80% at an organic loading of 9.3 kg residual organic solids m-3 d-1. The rate of biogas production was 5.6 L kg-1substrate (wet weight with a methane concentration of 50% by volume.

  4. Progress in the development of tooling and dismantling methodologies for the Windscale advanced gas cooled reactor (WAGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, M.T.; Wareing, M.I.; Dixon, C.

    1998-01-01

    Decommissioning of the Windscale Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (WAGR) is a major UK reactor decommissioning project co-funded by the UK Government, the European Commission and Magnox Electric. WAGR was a CO 2 cooled, graphite moderated reactor which served as a test bed for the development of Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor technology in the UK. It operated from 1963 until shutdown in 1981. AEA Technology plc are currently the Managing Agents on behalf of UKAEA for the WAGR decommissioning project and are responsible for the co-ordination of the project up to the point when the contents of the reactor core and associated radioactive materials are removed and either disposed of or packaged for disposal at some time in the future. Decommissioning has progressed to the point where the reactor has been dismantled down to the level of the hot gas collection manifold with the removal of the top biological shield, the refuelling standpipes and the top section of the reactor pressure vessel. The 4 heat exchangers have also been removed and committed to shallow land burial. This paper describes the work carried out by AEA Technology under separate contracts of UKAEA in developing some of the equipment and deployment methods for the next phase of active operations required in preparation for the dismantling of the core structure. Most recent work has concentrated on the development of specialist tooling for removal of items of operational waste stored within the reactor core, equipment for cutting and removal of the highly radioactive stainless steel 'loop' pressure tubes, diamond wire cutting equipment for sectioning large diameter pipework, and equipment for dismantling the reactor neutron shield. The paper emphasises the process of adaptation and extension of existing technologies for cost-effective application in the decommissioning environment, the need for adequate forward planning of decommissioning methodologies together with large-scale 'mock-up' testing of equipment to

  5. COMPORTAMENTO DOS SÓLIDOS TOTAIS NO PROCESSO DE DIGESTÃO ANAERÓBIA DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS E INDUSTRIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO O processo de digestão anaeróbia pode ser aplicado para bioestabilizar uma grande variedade de substratos. Neste trabalho, empregou-se o processo de digestão anaeróbia à fração orgânica putrescível dos resíduos sólidos urbanos, tomando-se como parâmetros avaliativos os sólidos totais e os sólidos totais voláteis. O trabalho foi realizado em quatro reatores anaeróbios de batelada, com capacidade unitária de 50 L e a análise dos seus dados mostra que é possível se empregar o processo de digestão anaeróbia a esse tipo de substrato que, além de bioestabilizar a matéria orgânica putrescível, produz gás metano, que pode ser utilizado como fonte alternativa de energia para fins domésticos e industriais.

  6. Automated ultrasonic shop inspection of reactor pressure vessel forgings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, J.M.; Dikstra, B.J.; Hanstock, D.J.; Pople, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    Automated ultrasonic shop inspection utilizing a computer-controlled system is being applied to each of the forgings for the reactor pressure vessel of the proposed Sizewell B PWR power station. Procedures which utilize a combination of high sensitivity shear wave pulse echo, 0 degrees and 70 degrees angled longitudinal waves, tandem and through-thickness arrays have been developed to provide comprehensive coverage and an overall reliability of inspection comparable to the best achieved in UKAEA defect detection trials and in PISC II. This paper describes the ultrasonic techniques, the automated system (its design, commissioning and testing), validation and the progress of the inspections

  7. ESTUDO DA SELETIVIDADE CAPACIDADE EM SISTEMAS SÓLIDO-GÁS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. SOUZA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A solubilidade de compostos pesados em fase gasosa contendo um componente supercrítico (equilíbrio sólido-gás foi analisada, adotando-se a equação de estado de Peng-Robinson para representar os sistemas sólido-gás estudados. A modelagem foi aplicada para vários sistemas binários (monossólido/monossolvente e multissólido/multissolvente. Para cada sistema, fez-se a estimação dos parâmetros pertinentes, os parâmetros de interação binária, obtidos por regressão não linear a partir dos dados experimentais de equilíbrio sólido-gás correspondentes. Tendo como base os dados binários, foi realizada uma análise de seletividade/ capacidade de sistemas do tipo 2 sólidos-1solvente, comparando-os com dados experimentais, e fez-se a comparação com os sistemas ternários experimentais.The solubility of heavy compounds in gaseous phase containing a supercritical component (solid-gas equilibrium was analised. It was adopted the state equation of Peng-Robinson, to represent the solid-gas systems considered. The model was applied to several cases ranging from binary systems (mono-solid/mono-solvent to multi-solid/multi-solvent systems. For each system, it was done the estimation of pertinent parameters, the binary interaction parameters, obtained by non-linear regression from experimental data of correspondent solid-gas equilibrium. Using the results obtained from binary systems, predictions of selectivity/capacity for ternary systems like 2 solids-1 solvent were accomplished, and then a comparison with experimental data of ternary systems was achieved.

  8. In-tank examination and experience with MTR fuel integrity at the Imperial College reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, S.; Chapman, N.; Robertson, B.; Shields, A.; Velez-Moss, S. [Imperial College of Science Technology and Medicine, Silwood Park, Ascot (United Kingdom); Boeck, H.; Schachner, H.; Klapfer, E. [Atominstitut of the Austrian Universities, Vienna (Austria)

    2000-07-01

    Many changes have occurred in the UK nuclear industry over the past 10 years: nuclear power/radiation research groups have closed, the fast reactor program ceased, and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) changed emphasis to decommissioning. Many UK research reactors and associated facilities have closed. In 1997, the 100 kW CONSORT pool-type reactor became the last civil nuclear research reactor surviving in the UK. Although VIPER, NEPTUNE and VULCAN remain in the defense field, they have lower steady state neutron fluxes. With so many reactors closing, CONSORT has a strong future. In fact, it underpins many research projects, monitoring schemes and power plants - but each provides a relatively small amount of business. The future strategy of the reactor is being reviewed this year. First criticality took place April 1965, and so in parallel, it is important to understand what the residual technical life of the reactor might be. This paper presents the results of an in-service inspection, which took place in August 1999. (author)

  9. In-tank examination and experience with MTR fuel integrity at the Imperial College reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, S.; Chapman, N.; Robertson, B.; Shields, A.; Velez-Moss, S.; Boeck, H.; Schachner, H.; Klapfer, E.

    2000-01-01

    Many changes have occurred in the UK nuclear industry over the past 10 years: nuclear power/radiation research groups have closed, the fast reactor program ceased, and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) changed emphasis to decommissioning. Many UK research reactors and associated facilities have closed. In 1997, the 100 kW CONSORT pool-type reactor became the last civil nuclear research reactor surviving in the UK. Although VIPER, NEPTUNE and VULCAN remain in the defense field, they have lower steady state neutron fluxes. With so many reactors closing, CONSORT has a strong future. In fact, it underpins many research projects, monitoring schemes and power plants - but each provides a relatively small amount of business. The future strategy of the reactor is being reviewed this year. First criticality took place April 1965, and so in parallel, it is important to understand what the residual technical life of the reactor might be. This paper presents the results of an in-service inspection, which took place in August 1999. (author)

  10. Juggling the figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, David.

    1987-01-01

    There are three options as to how to cope with a nuclear reactor when it reaches the end of its operating life - simply withdraw the fuel rods and leave the structure standing, entombment or dismantling. The UKAEA have chosen to dismantle the WAGR reactor. This decision is criticised on the grounds that it will create large quantities of radioactive dust and liquids and disperse the radioactivity throughout the environment. The removal of the low and intermediate-level wastes will be expensive - it will be packaged in reinforced concrete boxes and as yet no disposal site has been found for intermediate-level wastes. Greenpeace support leaving disused reactors alone until a better option is available for waste disposal. Dismantling an AGR will not, it is argued, give the UKAEA the dismantling experience it needs as it will be the Magnox reactors that will end their service life first, and the techniques needed will be different. The UKAEA is accused of 'playing with robots'. (UK)

  11. Energy research, development and demonstration in the UK. Minutes of evidence, Wednesday 11 April 1984, session 1983-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The following aspects of nuclear power research in the UK were discussed: expenditure by UKAEA; fast reactor research and development to commercial scale, including cooperation with other European countries, and assessment of FBR budget over the next 5 to 10 years; JET project and the Next Step; work for the AGR reactors, including economics and safety aspects; present and future role of the UKAEA, having regard to nuclear and non-nuclear research programmes. (U.K.)

  12. Development of the design of the High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, G.E.; Huddle, R.A.U.

    1960-01-01

    Early in 1956 a small team was formed at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, to investigate the possibilities of the High Temperature Gas Cooled (H.T.G.C.) Reactor System. Although the primary objective of this team was to carry out a feasibility study of the system as a whole, it soon became apparent that, in addition to design studies and economic surveys of power producing reactors, the most appropriate approach to such a novel system was to carry out a design study of a relatively small (10 to 20 M.W.) Reactor Experiment, together with the necessary research and development work associated with such a reactor. This work proceeded within the U.K.A.E.A. during the three following years, and it was felt that realistic design proposals could be put forward with sufficient confidence to justify the detailed design and construction of a 20 M.W. Reactor Experiment. In April 1959 responsibility for this Reactor Experiment was taken over by the O.E.E.C. High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Project, the DRAGON Project, at the Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset. In this Paper the research, development, and design work is reviewed, and the proposals for the Reactor Experiment are summarised. (author)

  13. UKAEA calculations for German National Problem 7 - blind predictions of the REBEKA-6 clad ballooning experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, D.W.; Haste, T.J.

    1983-08-01

    The REBEKA-6 clad ballooning experiment has been chosen as the basis of a CSNI Open International Standard Problem (ISP14). The test, which was carried out at KfK, Karlsruhe in March 1983, has also been adopted as a Blind German National Problem (DSP7) and this exercise has been extended to include interested organisations outside the FDR. The UKAEA has completed a set of calculations with the intention of contributing to DSP7 but has not formally submitted these because of reservations regarding the problem specification. This memorandum provides a record of the calculations and summarises the difficulties encountered. (author)

  14. Tratamento de resíduos sólidos de centrais de abastecimento e feiras livres em reator anaeróbio de batelada Treatment of solid waste from supply centers and free markets in batch anaerobic reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi D. Leite

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Em feiras livres e centrais de abastecimento são produzidas quantidades bastante significativas de resíduos sólidos, com características favoráveis ao aproveitamento integral em processo de bioestabilização anaeróbia. O processo de bioestabilização é realizado em reatores anaeróbios de batelada (RAB, com tempo de detenção de sólidos variando de 250 a 300 dias originando, como produtos finais, o biogás, com cerca de 60% de gás metano, além de composto orgânico parcialmente bioestabilizado. Neste trabalho, foram utilizados resíduos sólidos orgânicos tipicamente vegetais, advindos de centrais de abastecimento, feiras livres e lodo de esgoto sanitário. O sistema experimental utilizado era constituído basicamente por um reator anaeróbio de batelada, com capacidade unitária de 2200 litros, além de outros dispositivos complementares. O sistema experimental foi instalado e monitorado na Estação Experimental de Tratamento Biológico de Esgoto Sanitário, situada no Bairro do Tambor, na cidade de Campina Grande, Estado da Paraíba, no período de janeiro a setembro de 2001. No processo de monitoração foram realizadas caracterizações sistemáticas das frações sólidas, líquidas e gasosas. Após análise dos dados, ficou evidenciada a viabilidade desta alternativa de tratamento, restando ser investigada ainda a viabilidade econômica, quando comparada com outras alternativas tecnológicas de tratamento de resíduos sólidos orgânicos.Significant quantity of organic solid waste with favorable characteristics for integral utilization in anaerobic biostabilization is produced in free markets and supply centers. The process is conducted in anaerobic batch reactors (ABR, with detention time of solids varying from 250 to 300 days, producing biogas with about 60% of methane, besides the partially biostabilized organic compost as the final product. In this study, the organic solid waste used was typically of vegetables

  15. Pandora's POX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutton, Pete.

    1987-01-01

    The article continues the debate on plutonium transport to the Dounreay fast reactor site. The particular concerns are on the air transport of plutonium dioxide, the sea transport of plutonium nitrate and the potential military use of the plutonium from the fast reactor. The article criticises the UKAEA for taking safety risks and putting convenience and security before considerations of safety. The UKAEA is also criticised for not publishing safety information and the secrecy surrounding the transport of plutonium. (UK)

  16. The Lido as Venice's refuse tip: Dalmatian sheep and the 1819 elephant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giormani, Virgilio

    2004-01-01

    The Lido of Venice is an island twelve kilometers long and between a hundred and one thousand meters wide. The citizans of Venice and many turists can't imagine today, what Lido was some centuries ago Initially totally sandy, it was fertilized by means of a continuous supply of Venice's garbage (the "scoasse"). In addition to the "scoasse", damaged foodstuffs and the waste of the vegetable market were also sent to the Lido. Other fertilisers originated from the dung of the cattle and sheep arriving by ship from Dalmatia, which were landed on the Lido, where they could pasture before slaughter to regain weight lost during their voyage. The sheep dung, especially, was important for the proto-industrial production of saltpetre, a material of the greatest strategic importance, like uranium at the present time. Saltpetre is the most important component of gun powder, which was the only explosive known up to the second half of 19th century. There were plans to establish an "artificial nitriary" in the Lido, making use of the garbage and of the animal waste. In all probability, the most bulky item ever buried in the Lido is the corpse of an enraged elephant, which escaped from its cage on the Riva degli Schiavoni where it was performing during the 1819 carnival, and was killed by a cannon shot in a church where it took refuge. The original title of the paper, published in Italian is: V. Giormani, II Lido di Venezia "scoassera" della città. I montoni dalmati e l'elefante del 1819, in Atti del III Convegno nazionale di storia della medicina veterinaria, Lastra a Signa (Firenze), 23-24 settembre 2000, a cura di Alba Veggetti, Brescia, 2001, pp. 333-339. Other information has been added in order to facilitate non-italians readers and articles appearing after the publication of the Proceedings of the Third National Congress for the History of Veterinary Medicine, Lastra a Signa, (Florence), Italy, have also been used. I am deeply grateful to Mrs. Mary Moors for the

  17. Oscillator measurements of the reactivity changes resulting from the irradiation of low enrichment particulate fuel in the Dragon reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burbidge, B.L.H.; Franklin, B.M.; Small, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    This Report describes a series of experiments carried out as a joint UKAEA/CEA/DRAGON project to determine the reactivity changes of low-enrichment particulate fuel samples following their irradiation in the DRAGON reactor to various levels up to approximately 60,000 MWD/Te. The samples are described, together with the method of measurement of reactivity in the Winfrith reactor HECTOR, which was an extension of the well-known Oscillator Technique to yield simultaneously overall reactivity changes and changes in macroscopic absorption cross-sections. Measurements were carried out at room temperature in two reactor spectra; a thermal spectrum and one typical of an HTR type reactor. The resultant reactivity changes are presented together with the relevant sample burn-ups as determined by #betta#-scanning methods and, in some cases, by rigorous chemical analysis. The results of supporting measurements are also reported, carried out to characterise the neutron spectra in which the oscillator measurements were made and to determine the neutron flux distributions in the HECTOR reactor. (author)

  18. Fusion reactors and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    A summary is given of the report of a study group set up in 1971 by the Director of the UKAEA Culham Laboratory to investigate environmental and safety aspects of future commercial fusion reactors (1975, Carruthers, R., Dunster, H.J., Smith, R.D., Watson, C.J.H., and Mitchell, J.T.D., Culham Study Group Report on Fusion Reactors and the Environment, CLM-R148, HMSO, London). This report was originally issued in 1973 under limited distribution, but has only recently been made available for open circulation. Deuterium/tritium fusion is thought to be the most likely reaction to be used in the first generation of reactors. Estimates were made of the local and world-wide population hazards from the release of tritium, both under normal operating conditions and in the event of an accident. One serious type of accident would be a lithium metal fire in the blanket region of the reactor. The use of a fusible lithium salt (FLIBE), eliminating the lithium fire risk, is considered but the report concentrates on lithium metal in the blanket region. The main hazards to operating staff arise both from tritium and from neutron activation of the construction materials. Remote servicing of the reactor structure will be essential, but radioactive waste management seems less onerous than for fission reactors. Meaningful comparison of the overall hazards associated with fusion and fission power programmes is not yet possible. The study group emphasized the need for more data to aid the safety assessments, and the need for such assessments to keep pace with fusion power station design. (U.K.)

  19. Development of nuclear power. Thirty-second report from the Committee, session 1983-84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the UK Atomic Energy Authority - role and accountability; the Department of Energy's control arrangements; UKAEA internal control of programmes and projects; the fast reactor programme; general; summary of specific conclusions. Minutes of evidence before the committee cover the following matters relating to the development of nuclear power in the United Kingdom: the relevant activities and responsibilities of the Department of Energy and the UKAEA; programme planning and control; CEGB activities; fast reactors; radioactive waste management; economics. (U.K.)

  20. An overview of the RECH-1 reactor conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.; Medel, J.; Daie, J.; Torres, H.

    2000-01-01

    The RECH-l research reactor achieved the first criticality on October 13, 1974 using HEU MTR type fuel elements, which were fabricated by the UKAEA at Dounreay, Scotland. In 1979, the conversion of the reactor to use LEU fuel was decided; however, a rough estimate of the uranium density needed to convert the reactor gave 3.7 g/cm 3 . This density was not available, and to maintain the overall fuel element geometry it was necessary to convert the reactor to use 45% enriched uranium fuel. In 1985, the conversion of the reactor to use medium enriched uranium was achieved. Some years later, the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission developed the capability to produce fuel elements based on U 3 Si 2 -Al dispersion fuel. Once the plant and the manufacturing and quality control procedures were commissioned to permit the production of fuel elements, a fabrication program starts to produce LEU fuel elements with a uranium density of 3.4 g/cm 3 . A fabrication qualification period that extended to the required fuel plates for the assembly of two fuel elements started. In November 1998, the first four LEU fuel elements manufactured by the Chilean Fuel Fabrication Plant were delivered to the reactor. When the first two fuel elements were introduced into the core a LEU fuel element qualification program began. While those fuel elements remain in the core, an evaluation program is being applied to observe its performance under irradiation condition. (author)

  1. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant D1206: disassembly cave window 4 replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, H.G.; Beckitt, S.; Potts, A.B.

    1996-01-01

    At UKAEA's fast reactor reprocessing plant at Dounreay, the containment glass on the zinc bromide cave viewing window tank failed after 13 years active use. External shielding was fitted and the window tank subsequently drained to make it safe. Fuel cropping operations carried out behind the window were resited to enable cave work to continue whilst a project team made arrangements and plans to replace the damaged window. Because of the complexity of the task and high (alpha, beta, gamma and neutron) radiation levels in excess of 500 Sv/hr a rehearsal facility was built to develop the remote handling techniques to be employed in the task. (UK)

  2. Fusion research at Culham site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolonen, P.; Toppila, T.

    1998-01-01

    One of the many targets on the Finnish Nuclear Society (ATS) excursion to England was the Culham fusion research site. The site has divided into two parts. One of them is UKAEA Fusion with small scale fusion reactors and 200 employees. UKAEA has 3 fusion reactors at Culham site. One of is the START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) which was operational since 1991 but is today already out of operation. UKAEA has been operating a JET-like tokamak fusion reactor COMPASS-D since 1989. The latest of three reactors is MAST (Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak), which is still under construction. The first plasma will take place in the end of 1998. Another part of Culham site is JET (Joint European Torus), an all-European fusion undertaking with 350 employees. 150 of them are from various European countries and the rest 200 are employed by UKAEA. JET is the biggest fusion reactor ever and it represents the latest step in world wide fusion programme. In October 1997 JET achieved a world record in fusion power and energy. JET produced 16,1 MW power for 1 s and totally 21,7 MJ energy. This is the closest attempt to achieve break-even conditions. The next step in world wide fusion programme will be international ITER-reactor. This undertaking has some financial problems, since United States has taken distance to magnetic fusion research and moved closer to inertial fusion with funding of US Department of Defence. The planned reactor, however, is physically twice as big as JET. The step after this phase will be DEMO, which is purposed to produce fusion energy. According to our hosts in Culham this phase is 40 years ahead. (author)

  3. Annual report 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority operates seen sites: the Harwell Laboratory, Nuclear Power Development Establishments at Risley, Dounreay, Springfields and Windscale, the Winfrith Atomic Establishment and the Culham Laboratory. These are supported by Central Services of finance, administration, safety, etc. 1986/87 was the UKAEA's first year of financial operation as a Trading Fund and the accounts are, therefore, an important part of this report. The General Report includes information on finance, members, organisation, staff and information services. The Technical Report covers the UKAEA's interests in advanced gas-cooled reactors, water cooled-reactors, fast reactors, safety, fusion, underlying research and industrial and environmental technology. (U.K.)

  4. Indicadores sobre la gestión de los desechos sólidos en las municipalidades.

    OpenAIRE

    Quirós Vega, José

    2010-01-01

    El objetivo principal de este estudio es: Generar información sobre la situación municipal en cuanto a la gestión integral de desechos sólidos Los específicos: -Recolectar información sobre el manejo de los desechos sólidos de 18 municipalidades del país.-Mostrar la situación vivida en diversos cantones del país en cuanto a la gestión de los desechos sólidos generados en las comunidades que los componen.

  5. Final decommissioning of the former active handling Building A59 at UKAEA Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, Rowland; Brown, Nick; Staples, Andy

    2006-01-01

    RWE NUKEM has been decommissioning the former active handling Building A59 at Winfrith since July 2000 for the site owners and nuclear site licence holders UKAEA, following a competitive tendering process. Following recent government changes the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority has contracts with UKAEA for delivery of the site clean-up programme. Decommissioning work has centred upon two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements although other supporting facilities are also involved. Starting activity and contamination levels were extremely high in the two cave lines but decommissioning operations have steadily advanced and both facilities have now been decontaminated such that they are ready for demolition. The processes used to achieve this objective involved mainly standard off-the-shelf equipment but the work has demonstrated the importance of undertaking the task with the right tooling and lessons learnt will be described for the benefit of other operators. The essential challenge is always to achieve these objectives in a safe and cost-effective way whilst ensuring that the radiation exposure of the operators is kept as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). This paper describes how the approach to cave line demolition had to be amended from the original plan owing to features of the original building design which provide structural support for the main fabric from the concrete cave line walls. As a result, the original plan to demolish the cave lines first could not be undertaken economically and the building itself will now be cleared, decontaminated and demolished ahead of these two major facilities. Considerable benefits have flowed from this decision and the paper will set out the advantages that have been gained, which may be of benefit to others carrying out similar tasks. Finally, the paper will explain how the achievement of cost-effective and safe solutions to all these

  6. MANEJO DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS EN LOS ESTABLECIMIENTOS DE SALUD DEL MINSA EN EL DISTRITO DE HUNTER. AREQUIPA. 2012

    OpenAIRE

    ALCOCER NUÑEZ, JULIO

    2015-01-01

    LA CONTAMINACIÓN Y LOS RESIDUOS CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL CONCEPTO CONTAMINACIÓN AMBIENTAL COMÚN PRINCIPALES EFECTOS DE LOS CONTAMINANTES SOBRE LA SALUD TIPOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS COMPONENTES DE UN PLAN PARA EL MANEJO DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS RESIDUOS QUÍMICOS RESIDUOS NUCLEARES RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS EN LOS ESTABLECIMIENTOS DE SALUD DEFINICIÓN DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDO DEFINICIONES DE RESIDUOS HOSPITALARIOS CLASIFICACIÓN DE RESIDUOS DE ESTABLECIMIENTOS DE SALUD MANEJO DE RESIDUOS MITIGACIÓN...

  7. Sub-critical crack growth and clad integrity in a PWR reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tice, D.R.; Foreman, A.J.E.; Sharples, J.K.

    1987-10-01

    The possibility of in-service growth of sub-critical defects in a PWR reactor pressure vessel to a critical size which could result in vessel failure was addressed in both the 1976 and 1982 reports of the Light Water Reactor Study Group (LWRSG), under the Chairmanship of Dr W Marshall (now Lord Marshall). An addendum to this report was published by UKAEA in April 1987. The section of the addendum dealing with subcritical crack growth and the related issue of integrity of the stainless steel cladding on the inner vessel surface is reproduced in this report. This section of the LWRSG addendum provides a review of the current status of fatigue crack growth and environmentally assisted cracking research for pressure vessel steels in light water reactor environments, as well as a review of developments in crack growth assessment methods. The review concludes that the alternative assessment procedures now being developed give a more realistic prediction of in service crack growth than the ASME Section XI Appendix A fatigue crack growth curves. (author)

  8. Tema 1. Mecánica de sólidos y fluidos (Curso 2009-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero Caballero, María Teresa; Miret Marí, Juan José; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    lidos, líquidos y gases: densidad; Elasticidad en sólidos: tensión y deformación; Elasticidad en fluidos: presión; Temperatura y dilatación térmica; Estática de fluidos; Fenómenos de superficie: tensión superficial, capilaridad; Dinámica de fluidos ideales; Fluidos reales: viscosidad.

  9. Avaliação agronômica de um biossólido na produtividade da couve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidelamine Abibe Mahadal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avalia a viabilidade agronômica de um biossólido, resultante da mistura de lodo da estação de tratamento de esgotos (ETE da indústria de refrigerantes, palha de soja e terra para a cultura de couve Brassica oleleracea da variedade tronchuda. O ensaio de campo foi realizado em um solo caracteristicamente pedalférico, destacando-se os solos vermelhos argiloarenosos, diferenciados na base da textura média ou argilosa, de camada superficial castanho-avermelhada no período de fevereiro a junho de 2012. O biossólido produzido apresentou uma relação nutricional de 0,5:1,0:0,2. O campo de ensaio foi dividido em nove parcelas. Três delas foram tratadas com o biossólido, três com adubo mineral e as três restantes foram definidas como parcelas de controle. Nas parcelas tratadas com biossólido foram adicionadas 30 gramas dele em cada pé de couve. A produtividade relativa foi definida tendo em conta os parâmetros: altura da planta, comprimento da folha, largura da folha e peso da folha. O biossólido melhorou a fertilidade do solo, o estado nutricional e a produtividade da couve superando a parcela de controle em cerca de 40,3%. Porém, teve uma eficiência relativamente menor que a parcela de adubação mineral, na ordem de 48,7%, podendo se considerar que o biossólido teve um rendimento mais próximo ao de adubação mineral. Os resultados mostram que o biossólido produzido a partir do lodo da estação de tratamento de esgotos da indústria de refrigerantes incrementa a produtividade do solo.

  10. TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES MEDIANTE REACTORES ANAERÓBICOS DE PLACAS VERTICALES PARALELAS EN ACRÍLICO TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUÁRIAS POR REATORES ANAERÓBIOS DE PLACAS VERTICAIS PARALELAS EM ACRÍLICO WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY ANAEROBIC REACTORS OF VERTICAL PARALLEL PLATES IN ACRYLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Chaux F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos filtros anaeróbicos con lecho de piedra construidos en el departamento del Cauca (Colombia, están presentando problemas de colmatación. Si se reemplaza la piedra por placas verticales paralelas, se elimina el problema de obstrucción. Este documento presenta el desarrollo y resultados de una investigación que evaluó a escala de laboratorio el potencial de los reactores anaeróbicos de placas verticales paralelas en acrílico para remover contaminantes (materia orgánica y sólidos suspendidos. El reactor anaeróbico de placas paralelas en acrílico se desempeñó como tratamiento secundario; se alimentó con agua residual efluente de un Tanque Imhoff con concentraciones medias de 156 ± 14 mg/L de DB05, 438 ± 32 mg/L de DQO y 98 ±22 mg/L de sólidos suspendidos totales. Las remociones de DQO y DB05 en el reactor sobrepasan el 50% y la remoción de sólidos suspendidos sobrepasó el 60% para tiempos de detención de 24 horas. La facilidad en la operación del reactor lo hace viable como tratamiento biológico anaeróbico de aguas residuales previamente decantadasAlguns filtros anaeróbios com recheio de pedras construída no departamento de Cauca (Colombia estão apresentando problemas de obstrução. Se a pedra é substituída por placas verticais paralelas, evita o problema da obstrução. Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento e os resultados e no estudo realizado em escala de laboratório que avaliaram o potencial de reatores anaeróbios de placas verticais paralelas em acrílico para remover os contaminantes (sólidos suspensos e matéria orgânica. 0 reator anaeróbio de placas paralelas de acrílico serviu como tratamento secundário; foi alimentado com água residuária do efluente de um tanque Imhoff com concentrações médias de 156 ± 14 mg/L DB05, 438 ± 32 mg/L de DQO e 98 ±22 mg/L de sólidos suspensos totais. A remoção de DQO e DB05 no reator são mais de 50% ea remoção de sólidos em suspensão superior a 60

  11. UBICACIÓN Y MANEJO PARA LA DISPOSICIÓN FINAL DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS DE ÍNDOLE MUNICIPAL DE LA CIUDAD DE PUNO - 2015

    OpenAIRE

    ALOSILLA VICTORIA, LUCIO GILBERTO

    2016-01-01

    SITUACIÓN ACTUAL DEL MANEJO DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS. UBICACIÓN Y MANEJO DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS MUNICIPIOS CON SERVICIO DE RECOLECCIÓN DOMICILIARIA DE RESIDUOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS MUNICIPALES LA POLÍTICA PÚBLICA PERUANA EN MATERIA DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS GESTIÓN INTEGRAL DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS PREVENCIÓN DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS MEJORAMIENTO PARA UNA POLÍTICA INTEGRAL GOBIERNOS LOCALES EL RELLENO SANITARIO PRINCIPALES NECESIDADES Y REQUERIMIENTOS DEL SERVICIO DE RECOLECCIÓN DE BASURA E...

  12. Estudio de la variabilidad genética en camélidos bolivianos

    OpenAIRE

    Barreta Pinto, Julia

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de los camélidos sudamericanos es de gran interés en los países andinoscomo Perú, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, debido a su importante valor económico y suimportancia en el mantenimiento y desarrollo de las poblaciones rurales en dichos países. Dada la falta de estudios genéticos centrados en las poblaciones de camélidos quehabitan en Bolivia, y la necesidad de realizar una valoración de la diversidad genética deestas poblaciones, la presente Tesis doctoral ha abordado el estudio gené...

  13. Mixed core management: Use of 93% and 72% enriched uranium in the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponsard, B.

    2000-01-01

    The BR2 reactor, put into operation in 1963 and refurbished from July 1995 till April 1997, is a 100 MW high-flux Materials Testing Reactor, using 93% 235 U enriched uranium as standard fuel, light water as coolant and beryllium as moderator. The present operating regime consists of five irradiation cycles per year at an operating power between 50 and 70 MW; each cycle is characterized by 21 days operation. In the framework of a 'qualification programme', six 72% 235 U fuel elements fabricated with uranium recovered from the reprocessing of BR2 spent fuel at UKAEA-Dounreay have been successfully irradiated in the period 1994-1995 reaching a maximum mean burnup of 48% without the release of fission products. Since 1998, this type of fuel element is irradiated routinely together with standard 93% 235 U fuel elements in order to optimize the utilization of the available HEU inventory. The purpose of this paper is to present the strategy developed in order to optimize the mixed core management of the BR2 reactor. (author)

  14. Stakeholder involvement in the decommissioning of Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrisson, Norman; LOVE, June; Murray, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) was established in the 1950's to pioneer the development of nuclear energy within the UK. Today its primary mission is to decommission UK's former nuclear research sites and restore its environment in a way that is safe and secure, environmentally friendly, value for money and publicly Acceptable. UKAEA Dounreay celebrated its 50 birthday in 2005, having pioneered the development of fast reactor technology since 1955. Today the site is now leading the way in decommissioning. The Dounreay nuclear site licence covers an area of approximately 140 acres and includes 3 reactors: the Dounreay Material Test Reactor (DMTR), the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR), and the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR). In addition there are 180 facilities on site which have supported the fast reactor programme, including a fuel reprocessing capability, laboratories and administration buildings. The reactors are now all in advanced stages of decommissioning. In October 2000 the Dounreay Site Restoration Plan (DSRP) was published to provide a framework for the site's restoration. The plan's objective was to reduce the site's hazards progressively by decontaminating and dismantling the plant, equipment and facilities, remediating contaminated ground and treating and packaging waste so it is suitable for long term storage or disposal. Whilst hailed as the most detailed plan integrating some 1500 activities and spanning 60 years it was criticised for having no stakeholder involvement. In response to this criticism, UKAEA developed a process for public participation over the following 2 years and launched its stakeholder engagement programme in October 2002. In order to provide a larger platform for the engagement process an advertisement was placed in the Scottish media inviting people to register as stakeholders in the Dounreay Site Restoration Plan. The stakeholder list now total over 1000. In October 2002 UKAEA launched their commitment to public

  15. Procedimiento de descontaminación superficial de alimentos sólidos envasados

    OpenAIRE

    López Gómez, Antonio; López Cánovas, David Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Número de publicación: 2 534 529 Número de solicitud: 201530326 Procedimiento de descontaminación microbiana de alimentos sólidos envasados mediante aceites esenciales (AEs) que comprende una evaporación de los AEs a vacío, y una aplicación a vacío de los vapores de AEs sobre el alimento sólido situado en un envase abierto, en donde dichos vapores son arrastrados por aire o por una mezcla de gases de grado alimentario y conducidos hasta el recinto al vacío, en donde se encuentra el alim...

  16. Can we be happy with the safety at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A recent BBC programme which discussed the alleged loss of two plutonium pins from the UKAEA's fast reactor at Dounreay is considered and the UKAEA's reaction to the programme discussed. It is felt that the importance of the programme lay in its examination of the operator's systems of controls and it is stressed that there should be two levels of such controls - one for the experts and one for the public. (U.K.)

  17. ESONET LIDO Demonstration Mission: the East Sicily node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobene, Giorgio; Favali, Paolo; Andrè, Michel; Chierici, Francesco; Pavan, Gianni; Esonet Lido Demonstration Mission Team

    2010-05-01

    Off East Sicily (at 2100 m depth, 25 km off the harbour of Catania) a prototype of a cabled deep-sea observatory (NEMO-SN1) was set up and has been operational in real-time since 2005 (the cabled deep-sea multi-parameter station SN1, equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors and the cabled NEMO-OνDE, equipped with 4 broadband hydrophones). The Western Ionian Sea is one of the node sites for the upcoming European permanent underwater network (EMSO). Within the activities of the EC project ESONET-NoE some demonstration missions have been funded. The LIDO-DM (Listening to the Deep Ocean-Demonstration Mission) is one of these and is related to two sites, East Sicily and Iberian Margin (Gulf of Cadiz), the main aims being geo-hazards monitoring and warning (seismic, tsunami, and volcanic) and bio-acoustics. The LIDO-DM East Sicily installation represents a further major step within ESONET-NoE, resulting in a fully integrated system for multidisciplinary deep-sea science, capable to transmit and distribute data in real time to the scientific community and to the general public. LIDO-DM East Sicily hosts a large number of sensors aimed at monitoring and studying oceanographic and environmental parameters (by means of CTD, ADCP, 3-C single point current meter, turbidity meter), geophysical phenomena (low frequency hydrophones, accelerometer, gravity meter, vector and scalar magnetometers, seismometer, absolute and differential pressure gauges), ocean noise monitoring and identification and tracking of biological acoustic sources in deep sea. The latter will be performed using two tetrahedral arrays of 4 hydrophones, located at a relative distance of about 5 km, and at about 25 km from the shore. The whole system will be connected and powered from shore, by means of the electro-optical cable net installed at the East Sicily Site Infrastructure, and synchronised with GPS. Sensors data sampling is performed underwater and transmitted via optical fibre link, with

  18. Biossólido como substrato para produção de mudas de Toona ciliata var. australis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Winckler Caldeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O êxito de plantios florestais não está ligado unicamente à espécie utilizada, mas depende diretamente do tipo de recipiente, da qualidade das sementes e do substrato utilizado. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência do biossólido como substrato na produção de mudas de cedro-australiano (Toona ciliata. O experimento foi realizado em casa de sombra do Viveiro Florestal/CCA/UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo constituído de seis tratamentos contendo biossólido, em proporções decrescentes, associado com terra de subsolo e dois tratamentos sem o uso de biossólido (esterco bovino + terra de subsolo e substrato comercial, respectivamente, com oito repetições. No geral, os melhores resultados para as características morfológicas analisadas foram obtidos com a utilização de 100 a 70% de biossólido na composição do substrato. Portanto, o biossólido pode ser considerado adequado para o crescimento de mudas de Toona ciliata o que demonstra uma alternativa viável de disposição final desse resíduo.

  19. Compostaje de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de águas residuales

    OpenAIRE

    Torres,Patricia; Pérez,Andrea; Escobar,Juan C.; Uribe,Iris E.; Imery,Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    Foi avaliada a compostagem dos biossólidos gerados na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos - ETE, de Cañaveralejo, da cidade de Cali - Colômbia. Ainda que o processo se mostrasse viável, a incorporação de materiais de suporte e emenda foi favorável ao mesmo e à qualidade do produto final ao melhorar as condições de manejo, estrutura e porosidade do biossólido (B), além de melhorar as relações carbono/nitrogênio. Dos materiais avaliados, os que apresentaram melhor desempenho como materiais de supo...

  20. ESONET LIDO Demonstration Mission: the Iberian Margin node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embriaco, Davide; André, Michel; Zitellini, Nevio; Esonet Lido Demonstration Mission Team

    2010-05-01

    The Gulf of Cadiz is one of two the test sites chosen for the demonstration of the ESONET - LIDO Demonstration Mission (DM) [1], which will establish a first nucleus of regional network of multidisciplinary sea floor observatories. The Gulf of Cadiz is a highly populated area, characterized by tsunamigenic sources, which caused the devastating earthquake and tsunamis that struck Lisbon in 1755. The seismic activity is concentrated along a belt going from this region to the Azores and the main tsunamigenic tectonic sources are located near the coastline. In the framework of the EU - NEAREST project [2] the GEOSTAR deep ocean bottom multi-parametric observatory was deployed for a one year mission off cape Saint Vincent at about 3200 m depth. GEOSTAR was equipped with a set of oceanographic, seismic and geophysical sensors and with a new tsunami detector prototype. In November 2009 the GEOSTAR abyssal station equipped with the tsunami prototype was redeployed at the same site on behalf of NEAREST and ESONET - LIDO DM. The system is able to communicate from the ocean bottom to the land station via an acoustic and satellite link. The abyssal station is designed both for long term geophysical and oceanographic observation and for tsunami early warning purpose. The tsunami detection is performed by two different algorithms: a new real time dedicated tsunami detection algorithm which analyses the water pressure data, and a seismic algorithm which triggers on strong events. Examples of geophysical and oceanographic data acquired by the abyssal station during the one year mission will be shown. The development of a new acoustic antenna equipped with a stand alone and autonomous acquisition system will allow the recording of marine mammals and the evaluation of environmental noise. References [1] M. André and The ESONET LIDO Demonstration Mission Team, "Listening to the deep-ocean environment: an ESONET initiative for the real-time monitoring of geohazards and marine ambient

  1. USO DE BIOSÓLIDOS COMO REACTIVO ESPUMANTE EN PROCESOS DE FLOTACIÓN: CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSICA Y QUÍMICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LORENZO REYES-BOZO

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La flotación espumosa usa diversos reactivos, orgánicos e inorgánicos, para aumentar el rendimiento y selectividad del proceso. La fl otación utiliza sustancias tensoactivas que se adsorben en la interfase aire/agua. Como potenciales sustitutos de los espumantes usados actualmente, se consideran los residuos orgánicos de origen animal, como los biosólidos. Este estudio, evalúa el uso de biosólidos y ácidos húmicos como agentes espumantes para fl otación espumosa, cuantifi cándose su capacidad tensoactiva y para formar y estabilizar espumas. Biosólidos son capaces de cambiar la tensión superfi cial de una solución, crear y estabilizar espumas. Dosis menores a 4 g L-1 muestran un afecto tensoactivo mayor comparado con reactivos espumantes, tipo MIBC. Para un uso efectivo de biosólidos, se requiere realizar una etapa de preacondicionamiento, que permita separar la fracción soluble y coloidal que tiene la capacidad tensoactiva. El uso de biosólidos a gran escala necesita investigación adicional para escalar los resultados obtenidos en laboratorio.

  2. The management of radiological protection in a multi-employer environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, Alex

    2000-01-01

    For more than 40 years the UKAEA has been a world leader in the field of nuclear power R and D, pioneering the world's first civil nuclear programme and developing new nuclear power reactor technologies. Now that the initial programme has been successfully completed, UKAEA is again leading the world by pioneering new approaches to managing nuclear liabilities. In this new role, UKAEA is making a significant use of other companies in carrying out its decommissioning tasks and in providing support services. Whilst bringing with it new ideas and useful outside experience, this approach has given new challenges to UKAEA in ensuring that the work is carried out safety and that UKAEA is able to continue to exercise it's responsibilities as site operator and nuclear site licensee. This paper draws upon the experience within UKAEA to explore the management of radiological protection in a multi-employer situation emphasising the importance of co-operation between radiological protection experts, the need to clarify roles and responsibilities and the importance of worker participation. It is concluded that properly managed such an arrangement can not only work but can strengthen radiation protection building on various parties' strengths and experiences. One particular area where considerable use of service contractors has been undertaken is in radiological protection support services. UKAEA has now some unique experience in UK and have demonstrated that again, with adequate and appropriate management arrangements a potential challenge can be turned into an advantage. It is vital however that UKAEA is able to demonstrate sufficient in-house knowledge and expertise to remain in control as the site Licensee. (author)

  3. EDITOR: A programme for editing BCD data on magnetic tape in the format of the U.K.A.E.A. Nuclear Data Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, A.L.

    1965-05-01

    This paper describes the programme EDITOR and gives operating instructions. EDITOR is written in the S2 FORTRAN dialect for the IBM 7030 computer. Its purpose is to prepare data library tapes for the U.K.A.E.A. nuclear data library by copying prescribed data files in BCD from one or more input data tapes, or from card decks, on to a single output tape. The first version of the programme was designed by D. Sams at A.W.R.E. Aldermaston; a number of improvements have been incorporated into the current version. (author)

  4. GERENCIAMENTO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS: O CASO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA CATARINENSE

    OpenAIRE

    Ávila, Lucas Veiga; Damke, Luana Inês; Burg, Fernando; Burg, Giovane

    2015-01-01

    Os resíduos sólidos não devem ser expostos ou colocados em qualquer lugar, enterrados, ou lançados nos rios, mares, córregos ou depósitos clandestinos, é necessário encontrar soluções que possam reduzir a contaminação e os impactos ambientais ocasionados por esse tipo de resíduo tendo em vista a qualidade de vida e a preservação do Planeta. O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar as estratégias de gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos, verificando os tipos e gerenciamento para melhoria no pr...

  5. The evolving UK strategy for the management of intermediate level waste to enable disposal to a deep geological repository - a UKAEA/BNFL/NIREX perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wratten, A.J.; Allan, D.F.; Palmer, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development of BNFL's and UKAEA's strategies for managing Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) against the background of the evolving national strategy. The impact of the loss of the sea disposal route is addressed together with the challenge of designing waste conditioning plants in parallel with the evolving technical specification for the Nirex deep repository. What has been achieved and is Planned in terms of plant provisioning is described, together with the lessons that have been learned in striving to achieve optimum design solutions. (author)

  6. Influencia de un sólido sobre el secado de mezclas líquidas parcialmente miscibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vargas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Un estudio experimental del secado convectivo de un sólido humedecido con una mezcla líquida que exhibe separación de fases durante el proceso de evaporación ha sido efectuado. Los experimentos fueron realizados en un secador de túnel a escala de laboratorio bajo diferentes condiciones de operación tales como temperatura y velocidad del gas así como diferentes composiciones de las mezclas líquidas. Se humedeció el sólido con mezclas binarias y ternarias, y se efectuó la evaporación a partir de la superficie libre líquida. Se utilizo como humedad el sistema binario agua-hexano y la mezcla ternaria agua-hexano-etanol, ambos involucrados en la extracción de biopesticida a partir de semillas de nim. Esferas de vidrio y semillas de nim trituradas fueron usadas como sólido. La densidad y el índice de distribución másico de las fases tienen gran influencia en el proceso de evaporación. Si la fase menos densa del hexano esta en exceso, la superficie es cubierta solamente por esta fase y no existe evaporación de la otra fase hasta que el índice de distribución másico es tal que la segunda fase es expuesta al gas. La presencia de un sólido poroso interrumpe este patrón y la fase más densa puede ser removida simultáneamente incluso a bajas fracciones de esta última. En este caso, también la forma en que el sólido fue humedecido tiene influencia en el proceso.

  7. UK fast reactor components. Sodium removal decontamination and requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, D.M.; Bray, J.A.; Newson, I.H.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive experience gained at the U.K.A.E.A. Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment is being applied to form the basis of the plant to be provided for sodium removal, decontamination, and requalification of components in future commercial fast reactors. In the first part of a three part paper, the factors to be taken into account, showing the UK philosophy and approach to maintenance and repair operations are discussed. In the second part, PFR facilities for sodium removal and decontamination are described and some examples are given of cleaning components such as pumps, charge machine, cold trap baskets, and steam generator units. Similar facilities at DFR are briefly described. In the third part of the paper a short description is given of the Harwell mass transfer loop, currently used to study the deposition of activated stainless steel corrosion products. Decontamination method for pipework specimens cut from the loop are described and results of first screening tests of various chemical decontaminants are presented. (U.K.)

  8. The association between prostate cancer and exposure to 65Zn in UKAEA employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, W.D.; Bull, R.K.; Marshall, M.; Morgan, G.R.; Newton, D.; Salmon, L.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent case-control study among UKAEA employees in elevated incidence of prostate cancer was associated with potential exposure to 51 Cr, 65 Zn, 60 Co, 59 Fe and 3 H. The authors highlighted 65 Zn as the most likely carcinogen because zinc is concentrated in the prostate gland and the effective doses from its Auger electrons may be very high at short range. However, predictions from BEIR V models are that a radiation dose to the prostate of at least 17 Sv would be required to account for the observed risk of cancer. We calculate that the maximum conceivable intakes of 65 Zn over a 10 year period would only produce a dose of 216 mSv to the prostate gland even if we exaggerate the degree of concentration and the damaging effects of Auger electrons. Using more realistic assumptions, we arrive at a dose of only 7.2 mSv which is a factor of over 1000 too low. Similar calculations for the other radionuclides again leave the dose well short of that required to explain the observed risk. We conclude that 65 Zn and the other activation products are merely markers for a working environment in which the risk is raised for other unidentified reasons. (Author)

  9. Decommissioning of the Dragon High Temperature Reactor (HTR) Located at the Former United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) Research Site at Winfrith - 13180

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Anthony A. [Research Sites Restoration Ltd, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The Dragon Reactor was constructed at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Winfrith in Dorset through the late 1950's and into the early 1960's. It was a High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR) with helium gas coolant and graphite moderation. It operated as a fuel testing and demonstration reactor at up to 20 MW (Thermal) from 1964 until 1975, when international funding for this project was terminated. The fuel was removed from the core in 1976 and the reactor was put into Safestore. To meet the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) objective to 'drive hazard reduction' [1] it is necessary to decommission and remediate all the Research Sites Restoration Ltd (RSRL) facilities. This includes the Dragon Reactor where the activated core, pressure vessel and control rods and the contaminated primary circuit (including a {sup 90}Sr source) still remain. It is essential to remove these hazards at the appropriate time and return the area occupied by the reactor to a safe condition. (author)

  10. El sólido hiperbólico agudo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Herrera

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Torricelli consideró el cálculo del volumen de sólido hiperbólico agudo como el mejor logro en sus trabajos con ‘indivisibles curvos’. Fue publicado en la Opera geometrica. Aquí se presenta como muestra del estilo de las demostraciones matemáticas (geométricas que se efectuaban en el siglo XVII, y por su valor precursor del cálculo infinitesimal. Es un ejemplo significativo para aproximarse al pensamiento torricelliano.

  11. The Management Advisory Committee of the Inspection Validation Centre seventh report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    The Management Advisory Committee of the Inspection Validation Centre (IVC/MAC) was set up to review the policy, scope, procedure and operation of the Inspection Validation Centre (IVC), to supervise its operation and to advise and report to the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) appropriately. The IVC was established at the UKAEA Risley Laboratory, to validate the procedures, personnel and equipment proposed by Nuclear Electric for use in the ultrasonic inspection at various stages of the fabrication, erection and operation of the Sizewell 'B' Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and such other components as are identified by the utility. It is operated by the UKAEA to work as an independent organisation under contract to Nuclear Electric, and results are reported to Nuclear Electric together with the conclusions of the Centre in relation to the validation of individual techniques. At the meetings of the IVC/MAC, the progress on the manufacture of the pressure vessel is also outlined by the PWR Project Director. The vessel has now undergone the final stress relief and post-hydro inspection and is due to be delivered to the Sizewell site before the end of 1990. (author)

  12. Reprocessing of LEU silicide fuel at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartwright, P.

    1996-01-01

    UKAEA have recently reprocessed two LEU silicide fuel elements in their MTR fuel reprocessing plant at Dounreay. The reprocessing was undertaken to demonstrate UKAEA's commitment to the world-wide research reactor communities future needs. Reprocessing of LEU silicide fuel is seen as a waste treatment process, resulting in the production of a liquid feed suitable for conditioning in a stable form of disposal. The uranium product from the reprocessing can be used as a blending feed with the HEU to produce LEU for use in the MTR cycle. (author)

  13. Federal Order approving the Agreement for cooperation on the peaceful uses of atomic energy between the Swiss Government and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-03-01

    This Order reproduces the Agreement of 11 August 1964 between Switzerland and the United Kingdom on peaceful nuclear cooperation. The Agreement entered into force on 5 August 1965 for a period of ten years, renewable. It provides for the sale by the UKAEA to Switzerland of research and power reactors, nuclear fuels and for UKAEA assistance in developing, constructing and operating nuclear fuel production facilities. The Agreement also provides that the Parties will negotiate a Safeguards Agreement with IAEA regarding material and equipment requiring such controls under the Agreement. (NEA) [fr

  14. Lixiviação de íons inorgânicos em solos repetidamente tratados com biossólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. M. Anjos

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A lixiviação de nitratos e dos metais K, Ca, Mg, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb e Zn, em solos repetidamente tratados com biossólido, foi avaliada num experimento em vasos, segundo um delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições, subdividindo as parcelas em aplicações. A adição de biossólidos foi feita aos vasos com capacidade para 0,5 m³ de terra, que continham Latossolo Amarelo distrófico (LAd e Latossolo Vermelho distrófico (LVd, a cada dois meses, num total de 388 Mg ha-1. Após a aplicação do resíduo, foi feita sua incorporação na camada de 0-0,20 m do solo contido nos vasos. As aplicações de biossólidos foram sempre precedidas de amostragem de solo. Toda a água drenada através dos vasos, oriunda da precipitação atmosférica, num período de 12 meses, foi quantificada e amostrada para determinação do teor dos metais presentes, enquanto o teor de NO3- foi determinado apenas nas amostras coletadas após a primeira e a última aplicação do biossólido. As repetidas aplicações de biossólidos, em doses médias de 78 Mg ha-1, proporcionaram aumento da condutividade elétrica dos solos e das quantidades lixiviadas, pela ordem, de K > Mg > Ca. A quantidade de N-NO3- lixiviada atingiu valores de até 96 mg L-1, o que indica que a quantidade de biossólido a ser aplicada no solo agrícola depende do teor de N contido no resíduo. Não foi observada lixiviação de metais pesados, o que demonstra o poder de acumulação desses metais nos Latossolos utilizados.

  15. Informe Especial sobre el Manejo de los Residuos Sólidos en Panamá. Panamá,

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    La Defensoría del Pueblo, atenta al mandato consagrado en la Ley No. 7 de 5 de febrero de 1997, reformada por la Ley No. 41 de 1 de diciembre de 2005, ha elaborado este informe especial sobre la creciente problemática de los residuos sólidos en la República de Panamá y cuya finalidad es proporcionar elementos que faciliten la toma de decisiones gubernamentales relacionadas con su manejo. El inadecuado manejo y disposición final de los residuos sólidos, que en su mayoría son depositados dentro...

  16. Resíduos sólidos em um sistema de drenagem urbana no município de Santa Maria (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmira Beatriz Wolff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o crescimento da população e o consequente aumento da urbanização, o lançamento de resíduos sólidos nos sistemas de drenagem urbana tem aumentado nos últimos anos, principalmente nas regiões periféricas das cidades. Este estudo teve como objetivo qualificar e quantificar os resíduos sólidos no arroio Cancela-Tamandai, localizado em área urbana, no município de Santa Maria (RS. Foram coletados ao todo 1.153,2 kg de resíduos sólidos com uma precipitação pluviométrica total para o período de novembro de 2012 a janeiro de 2013 de 518,94 mm, sendo, desses, 93,9% composto por matéria orgânica, sendo a maioria vegetação. O arroio Cancela-Tamandai apresentou uma carga de resíduos sólidos igual a 17,27 ou 0,424 kg.hab-1.ano-1. A curva de previsão de resíduos sólidos orgânicos drenados em função da precipitação pluviométrica apresentou correlação de 76,4%, um parâmetro importante para a tomada de decisão dos gestores municipais em relação aos resíduos sólidos gerados. Assim, conceber estratégias para o monitoramento desses resíduos representa passo importante na busca de soluções que visem um melhor gerenciamento de bacias hidrográficas urbanas.

  17. DEFORMITAS LIGULA LARVA TANYPODINAE SEBAGAI INDIKATOR PENCEMARAN LOGAM BERAT DI DANAU LIDO, JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Dita Pramesthy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As one group of Chironomidae Tanypodinae larvae can be used in biological assessment to detect the heavymetal pollution in aquatic environment, because they could show morphological changes due to the pollution. Thestudy was aimed to describe ligula deformities in Tanypodinae larvae in a heavy metal polluted lake. The study wasconducted in Mei to June 2014 at Lake Lido, West Java. The results showed that lead (Pb concentration in LidoLake was quaite high, i.e. 0.08 0.19 mg/L. Ten of fifty-five collected Tanypodinae larve exhibited deformation in theirligulae. Index of severity of ligula deformation (ILSD was 4.4 indicating the response of the Chironomidae larvae tolead pollution.

  18. The Management Advisory Committee of the Inspection Validation Centre - fifth report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The Management Advisory Committee of the Inspection Validation Centre (IVC/MAC) was set up by the Chairman of the UKAEA early in 1983 with terms of reference to review the policy, scope, procedure and operation of the Inspection Validation Centre, to supervise its operation and to advise and report to the UKAEA appropriately. The Inspection Validation Centre (IVC) has been established at the UKAEA Northern Research Laboratories, Risley for the purpose of validating the procedures, equipment and personnel proposed by the CEGB for use in the ultrasonic inspection at various stages of the fabrication, erection and operation of the CEGB's PWR reactor pressure vessel and such other components as are identified by the CEGB. This report, for 1987/8, states that the IVC has continued to make progress in the provision of the validation services as specified. (author)

  19. Seguimiento a patógenos presentes en biosólido empleado como enmienda para revegetalizar un talud

    OpenAIRE

    López Sánchez, Idalia Jacqueline; Acevedo Cifuentes, Diana Rocío; Ordóñez Ante, Carlos Andrés

    2010-01-01

    Con el fin de evaluar la factibilidad del uso del biosólido como enmienda orgánica para el establecimiento de vegetación y el control de procesos erosivos superficiales activos, se seleccionó un corte de carretera ubicado sobrela Variante a Caldas (Antioquia). Para darle amarre y cobertura al suelo, se sembraron dos especies vegetales tipo pasto Brachiaria Decumbens y Kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum), utilizando biosólido proveniente de la PTAR San Fernando, mezclado con suelo de la zon...

  20. A ANÁLISE DO COMPORTAMENTO COMO SUBSÍDIO POSSÍVEL À GESTÃO DOS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Humbert Andrade de Lemos

    2016-12-01

    Datos acerca del impacto ambiental generado por la disposición inadecuada de residuos sólidos son alarmantes, así como el costo que genera para el estado. El propósito de este trabajo es ilustrar como la ciencia del analisis del comportamiento puede contribuir a la creación de programas de intervención para la buena gestión de residuos sólidos. Haciendo uso de la investigación bibliográfica, algunos principios básicos de la ciencia del analisis del comportamiento se presentan en primer lugar. Siguiendo una revisión de algunos artículos publicados en el Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 1968-2016, que describen algunas de las principales estrategias que aparecen en búsquedas sobre gestión de residuos sólidos. Finalmente se analizan tales búsquedas mediante dos categorías de intervenciones: eventos antecedentes de comportamiento a favor del ambiente, mientras que consideraciones finales proponen que loa resultados de estas búsquedas, tal como se describen, puedan ser usados como posibles contribuciones para la planeación de políticas públicas. Palabras clave: Residuos Sólidos; Medio Ambiente; Analisis de Comportamiento; Estrategias de Intervención.

  1. Plan de manejo integral de residuos sólidos urbanos en Esparza de Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olman J. Quijada Segura

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados del estudio de composición de residuos sólidos de la Municipalidad de Esparza, y serán utilizados con el objetivo de determinar la factibilidad técnica y económica para construir un relleno sanitario municipal discriminado. La Municipalidad de Esparza actualmente utiliza el vertedero de Zagala, el cual no cumple con los estándares adecuados para el manejo de estos materiales y se ha convertido en un problema ambiental para la región. Por ello en esta investigación se propuso realizar un estudio físico de los desechos sólidos en tres sectores del cantón de Esparza. Los resultados más prominentes de esta investigación indican que en el cantón el 74.5% de los desechos sólidos pueden ser aprovechados en prácticas de producción de abonos orgánicos, compost y reciclamiento, mientras que un 25.5% no tendrían ningún aprovechamiento y deberían ser dispuestos en un relleno sanitario, situación que actualmente no se hace, pues son enviados al botadero de Zagala. Se espera que este estudio sirva de base para proponer un plan de manejo de los residuos sólidos, apoye los esfuerzos de educación ambiental, sirva de sustento para seleccionar los materiales con potencial de reciclable y defina la cantidad de materiales que irán al relleno sanitario municipal.

  2. Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-02-01

    The report is in chapters, entitled: nuclear energy - policy and institutional structure (energy policy; nuclear energy -institutional structure; scope of the study); the Department of Energy - development of nuclear energy (main statutory provisions; role and objectives of the Department of Energy; financial strategy for the expenditure by the UKAEA; control of expenditure on nuclear energy R and D; examination of major capital projects; monitoring of progress; audit review); the UKAEA - role and objectives (organisation and management; R and D programmes; monitoring; audit review); the fast reactor programme (history and recent policy development; the PFR programme 1975-1983; audit review). (U.K.)

  3. Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General. Development of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The report is in chapters, entitled: nuclear energy - policy and institutional structure (energy policy; nuclear energy -institutional structure; scope of the study); the Department of Energy - development of nuclear energy (main statutory provisions; role and objectives of the Department of Energy; financial strategy for the expenditure by the UKAEA; control of expenditure on nuclear energy R and D; examination of major capital projects; monitoring of progress; audit review); the UKAEA - role and objectives (organisation and management; R and D programmes; monitoring; audit review); the fast reactor programme (history and recent policy development; the PFR programme 1975-1983; audit review).

  4. Prefermentación de agua residual urbana empleando un reactor biopelícula de lecho sumergido

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo de Castro, Pedro; González Ruiz, Guarocuya; Tejero Monzón, Iñaki

    1999-01-01

    Esta investigación describe la acidificación de agua residual urbana (ARU). La experimentación se llevó a cabo utilizando un reactor biopelícula de lecho sumergido fijo (BLSF), en el cual se produce la hidrólisis de los sólidos en suspensión retenidos en la zona de decantación del reactor, mientras que la biomasa de la biopelícula se encarga de la acidificación del medio. Se operó bajo cargas orgánicas aplicadas (COA) comprendidas entre 0,5 y 23 kg DQO/m3·d, tiempos de retención hidráulico (T...

  5. Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    In May 1985 the Government announced its support of an application by the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) to construct a Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant at Dounreay, Caithness in the North of Scotland. This plant is intended to be part of a European Collaboration and represents a fundamental change in nuclear energy policy. Because of the complexities of fast reactor technology, and the lack of precise official information, SCRAM has produced this broadsheet. It gives a brief history of the Dounreay establishment and examines the world experience with fast reactors as well as discussing the implications of the European Collaboration in energy and economic terms. Successive Energy Secretaries have promised a full public inquiry before a Commercial scale Fast Reactor is built in this country. This promise could be reneged on by granting planning permission for the reprocessing plant in advance of the application for the fast reactor. This proposal could be seen as an admission that the Commercial reactor will not in fact be built in Britain after all and that the UKAEA and the Government have opted for the 'dirty end' of the fuel chain as the only available part of the programme. (author)

  6. Gasificación con aire en lecho fluidizado de los residuos sólidos del proceso industrial de la naranja//Air gasification in fluidized bed of solid residue the orange industrial process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Aguiar-Trujillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria procesadora de la naranja genera elevados volúmenes de residuos sólidos. Este residuo se ha utilizado en la alimentación animal y en procesos bioquímicos; pero no se ha aprovechado a través de la gasificación. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el aporte energético por medio del proceso de gasificación, realizándose estudios de los residuos sólidos de naranja, utilizando aire en reactor de lecho fluidizado burbujeante (variando la temperatura de gasificación, relación estequiométrica y altura del lecho. En el proceso se utilizó un diseño de experimento factorial completo de 2k, valorando la influencia de las variables independientes y sus interacciones en las respuestas, con un grado de significación del 95 %. Se obtuvieron los parámetros para efectuar el proceso de gasificación de los residuos sólidos de naranja, obteniendo un gas de bajo poder calórico, próximo a 5046 kJ/m3N, demostrando sus cualidades para su aprovechamiento energético.Palabras claves: gasificación con aire, lecho fluidizado, residuo de naranja._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe orange industrial process generates high volumes of solid residue. This residue has been used as complement in the animal feeding and biochemical processes; but it has not taken advantage through of the gasification process. The objective of the work was to determine the energy contribution by means ofthe gasification process, were carried out studies of the orange solid residue, using air in reactor of bubbling fluidized bed (varying the gasification temperature, air ratio and bed height. In the process a design of complete factorial experiment of 2k, was used, valuing the influence of the independent variables and its interactions in the answers, using a confidence level of 95 %. Were obtained the parameters to make the process of gasification of the orange solid residue, obtaining a gas of lower heating

  7. Tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura em reator anaeróbio operado em batelada sequencial Treatment of swine wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alves de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo avaliou-se o desempenho de um reator anaeróbio operado em batelada sequencial, em escala piloto, com volume total de 280 L, no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura. As cargas orgânicas volumétricas aplicadas no reator foram de 4,42; 5,27; 9,33 e 11,79 g DQOtotal (L d-1. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQOtotal, sólidos suspensos totais (SST e sólidos suspensos voláteis (SSV variaram de 56 a 87%. O nitrogênio total Kjedahl (NTK, fósforo total (P-total e magnésio (Mg foram removidos com eficiências médias de 26 a 39%. As produções volumétricas de metano variaram de 0,50 a 0,64 L CH4 (L reator d-1 e não foram observadas diferenças significativas. As relações sólidos voláteis/sólidos totais (SV/ST do lodo de tal reator variaram de 0,74 a 0,58. As maiores concentrações médias de nutrientes no lodo do reator foram para o nitrogênio, fósforo, ferro e cálcio, com valores de 30.610 a 64.400, 1.590 a 9.870, 6.180 a 8.700 e 1.180 a 6.760 mg kg-1 base seca, respectivamente.In the present study, we evaluated an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, in pilot scale and with a total volume of 280 L, for the treatment of swine wastewater. The organic loading rates applied in such reactor were 4.42; 5.27; 9.33 and 11.79 g CODtotal (L d-1. The average efficiencies of removal of CODtotal total solids suspension (TSS and volatile suspension solids (VSS varied from 56 to 87%. The nutrients total Kjedahl nitrogen (TKN, total phosphorus (total P and Mg were removed with average efficiencies from 26 to 39%. The volumetric methane productions varied from 0.50 to 0.64 L CH4 (L reactor d-1 and did not present significant differences. The VS/TS relations of the aforementioned reactor's sludge varied from 0.74 to 0.58. The highest mean concentrations of nutrients in the reactor sludge were those of nitrogen, phosphorus, iron and calcium, with values from 30.610 to 64.400, 1.590 to 9.870, 6.180 to 8.700 and 1.180 to 6

  8. Elementos sobre el diseño de conductos para transporte de sólidos en suspensión.

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Osorio, Sandra; Toro Escobar, Carlos Mario; Vélez Upegui, Jaime Ignacio

    1993-01-01

    Se propone una metodología de trabajo para el diseño de conductos empleados en el transporte de sólidos en suspensión y se aplica al caso de suspensiones de caolín. Se examinan los parámetros reológicos de fluidos newtonianos y no newtonianos y las características de la sedimentación de tales fluidos, así como los aspectos técnicos del transporte de sólidos por tubería.

  9. Estudio de composición de los residuos sólidos urbanos, en Esparza, Puntarenas, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olman Quijada

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados del estudio de composición de Residuos Sólidos de la Municipalidad de Esparza, estos serán utilizados con el objetivo de determinar la factibilidad técnica y económica para construir un relleno sanitario municipal discriminado. La Municipalidad de Esparza, actualmente, utiliza el vertedero de Zagala, el cual no cumple con los estándares adecuados para el manejo de estos materiales y se ha convertido en un problema ambiental para la región. Por esta razón, en esta investigación se propuso realizar un estudio físico de los desechos sólidos en tres sectores del cantón de Esparza.Los resultados más prominentes de esta investigación indican que en el cantón el 74.5% de los desechos sólidos pueden ser aprovechados en prácticas de producción de abonos orgánicos, compost y reciclamiento; mientras que un 25.5% no tendrían ningún aprovechamiento y deberían ser dispuestos en un relleno sanitario, situación que, actualmente, no se hace pues estos mismos son enviados al botadero de Zagala. Se espera que este estudio sirva de base para proponer un plan de manejo de los residuos sólidos, apoye los esfuerzos de educación ambiental, sirva de sustento para seleccionar los materiales con potencial de reciclable y defina la cantidad de materiales que irán al relleno sanitario municipal.

  10. The experimental testing of the long-term behaviour of cemented radioactive waste from nuclear research reactors in the geological disposal conditions of the boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, A.; Marivoet, J.; Iseghem, P. van

    1998-01-01

    Liquid wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from the BR-2 Materials Testing Reactor, will be conditioned in a cement matrix at the dedicated cementation facility of UKAEA at Dounreay. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is studied as a potential host rock for the final geological disposal of cemented research reactor waste. In view of evaluating the safety of disposal, laboratory leach experiments and in situ tests have been performed. Leach experiments in synthetic clay water indicate that the leach rates of calcium and silicium are relatively low compared to those of sodium and potassium. In situ experiments on inactive samples are performed in order to obtain information on the microchemical and mineralogical changes of the cemented waste in contact with the Boom clay. Finally, results from a preliminary performance assessment calculation suggest a non-negligible maximum dose rate of 5 10 -9 Sv/a for 129 I. (author)

  11. The experimental testing of the long-term behaviour of cemented radioactive waste from nuclear research reactors in the geological disposal conditions of the boom clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneyers, A.; Marivoet, J.; Iseghem, P. van [SCK-CEN, B-2400 Mol (Belgium)

    1998-07-01

    Liquid wastes, resulting from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel from the BR-2 Materials Testing Reactor, will be conditioned in a cement matrix at the dedicated cementation facility of UKAEA at Dounreay. In Belgium, the Boom clay formation is studied as a potential host rock for the final geological disposal of cemented research reactor waste. In view of evaluating the safety of disposal, laboratory leach experiments and in situ tests have been performed. Leach experiments in synthetic clay water indicate that the leach rates of calcium and silicium are relatively low compared to those of sodium and potassium. In situ experiments on inactive samples are performed in order to obtain information on the microchemical and mineralogical changes of the cemented waste in contact with the Boom clay. Finally, results from a preliminary performance assessment calculation suggest a non-negligible maximum dose rate of 5 10{sup -9} Sv/a for {sup 129}I. (author)

  12. Specialists' meeting on gas-cooled reactor core and high temperature instrumentation, Windermere, UK, 15-17 June 1982. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Gas-Cooled Reactor Core and High Temperature Instrumentation'' was held at the Beech Hill Hotel, Windermere in England on June 15-17 1982. The meeting was sponsored by the IAEA on the recommendation of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors and was hosted by the Windscale Nuclear Power Development Laboratories of the UKAEA. The meeting was attended by 43 participants from Belgium, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America. The objective of the meeting was to provide a forum, both formal and informal, for the exchange and discussion of technical information relating to instrumentation being used or under development for the measurement of core parameters, neutron flux, temperature, coolant flow etc. in gas cooled reactors. The technical part of the meeting was divided into five subject sessions: (A) Temperature Measurement (B) Neutron Detection Instrumentation (C) HTR Instrumentation - General (D) Gas Analysis and Failed Fuel Detection (E) Coolant Mass Flow and Leak Detection. A total of twenty-five papers were presented by the participants on behalf of their organizations during the meeting. A programme of the meeting and list of participants are given in appendices to this report

  13. USO DE BIOSÓLIDOS EN LA REHABILITACIÓN DE ÁREA EN EL RELLENO SANITARIO SANTIAGO PONIENTE-CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Lucrecia Brutti; Valentina Vallejos

    2012-01-01

    Se evalúan distintas especies herbáceas como estabilizadoras de taludes sobre una mezcla de suelo con biosólidos en el Relleno Sanitario Santiago Poniente en Santiago, Región Metropolitana (Chile), con el fin de recuperar el suelo. Se determina el comportamiento de cuatro tratamientos, tres corresponden a diferentes mezclas herbáceas más uno que actuó como testigo, la mezcla de suelo utilizada contenía un 15% de biosólido. Se utilizó un diseño estadístico de Cuadrado Latino, con cuatro repeti...

  14. Experimental validation of the containment codes ASTARTE and SEURBNUK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, K.C.; Arnold, L.A.; Broadhouse, B.J.; Jones, A.; Yerkess, A.; Benuzzi, A.

    1979-10-01

    The fast reactor containment codes ASTARTE and SEURBNUK are being validated against data from the COVA series of small scale experiments being performed jointly by the UKAEA and JRC Ispra. The experimental programme is nearly complete, and data are given. (U.K.)

  15. Hacia la gestión ambiental de residuos sólidos en las metrópolis de América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Ángela Rodríguez Escobar

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación generada por la acumulación de residuos sólidos está presente en todas las metrópolis de América Latina, afectando el ecosistema. Dicha contaminación es causada por la población y su aglomeración en zonas urbanas. Los datos estadísticos de las metrópolis latinoamericanas permiten establecer una relación directa entre población y acumulación de residuos sólidos y también entre nivel de ingresos y generación de residuos, mostrando que la relación población-residuos sólidos está mediada por variables económicas y culturales. La información de generación de basura por persona y su respectivo nivel socioeconómico permite establecer diferencias de cantidad y calidad de los residuos generados por individuos de distinto nivel socioeconómico, que a su vez se asocian a diferentes estilos de vida y patrones de consumo. Así, la producción de basura es potenciada por la dinámica de producción y consumo y por la dinámica demográfica, siendo un efecto no esperado de ambas, que convierte los residuos sólidos en un subproducto del modelo de desarrollo y la dinámica demográfica. En el escenario planteado, el problema ambiental de los residuos sólidos en .las metrópolis de América Latina aparece como irresoluto y la decisión de resolverlo de manera fundamental pasa por cambiar el modelo de desarrollo y el comportamiento de la sociedad. Una solución menos extrema consiste en hacer un manejo integral de los residuos sólidos a través de políticas de gestión integral.

  16. Eliminación de patógenos en biosólidos por estabilización alcalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Leal Jorge Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Cañaveralejo –PTAR-C de Cali– Colombia, produce alrededor de 100 t/día de biosólidos que, aunque no tienen restricción por metales pesados, son clase B por el nivel de microorganismos patógenos y parásitos. En un diseño completamente al azar, conformado por seis tratamientos con su respectivo duplicado, se evaluó la estabilización alcalina con dosis del 9% peso a peso de cal viva e hidratada, aplicada a pilas de 0.5 t de biosólidos húmedos (66.5% y secos a temperatura ambiente (25 - 31°C durante 72 h (humedad 50.1%. Con la estabilización alcalina el pH aumentó a valores superiores a 12 unidades durante el tiempo suficiente para garantizar la reducción de patógenos y parásitos, alcanzando un material clase A; sin embargo, el biosólido seco facilitó la formación de grumos que dificultaron las labores de homogenización del sustrato con los alcalinizantes, factor indeseable para la eficiente reducción de patógenos.

  17. Eliminación de patógenos en biosólidos por estabilización alcalina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Cañaveralejo -PTAR-C de Cali- Colombia, produce alrededor de 100 t/día de biosólidos que, aunque no tienen restricción por metales pesados, son clase B por el nivel de microorganismos patógenos y parásitos. En un diseño completamente al azar, conformado por seis tratamientos con su respectivo duplicado, se evaluó la estabilización alcalina con dosis del 9% peso a peso de cal viva e hidratada, aplicada a pilas de 0.5 t de biosólidos húmedos (66.5% y secos a temperatura ambiente (25 - 31°C durante 72 h (humedad 50.1%. Con la estabilización alcalina el pH aumentó a valores superiores a 12 unidades durante el tiempo suficiente para garantizar la reducción de patógenos y parásitos, alcanzando un material clase A; sin embargo, el biosólido seco facilitó la formación de grumos que dificultaron las labores de homogenización del sustrato con los alcalinizantes, factor indeseable para la eficiente reducción de patógenos.

  18. Biossólidos como fertilizantes de água para produção de plâncton

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Patrícia de Souza Lima

    2008-01-01

    Objetivando-se avaliar a utilização do biossólido como estratégia de fertilização de água na produção de Daphnia sp., foram conduzidos três experimentos no Laboratório de Nutrição de peixes do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV). O primeiro experimento, conduzido no período de fevereiro e março de 2008, com duração de treze dias, teve como objetivo avaliar a utilização de diferentes fertilizantes - fosfato bicálcico (FB), biossólido (BS) e fezes de codorna (FC) n...

  19. Estudio del manejo de residuos sólidos en el Relleno Sanitario Doña Juana con el fin de delinear un borrador de propuesta para el manejo integral de residuos sólidos en la ciudad de Bogotá D.C

    OpenAIRE

    Anzola Parra, Diego Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Con el presente trabajo se busca realizar una propuesta de solución al sistema de manejo de los residuos sólidos urbanos en el relleno sanitario de Doña Juana en la ciudad de Bogotá, porque los desechos producidos por el consumo humano al no ser tratados de la forma correcta, afectan negativamente a la ciudad, rompen el cirulo vital del desarrollo y desequilibran el medio ambiente. Se realiza un diagnostico histórico al manejo de los residuos sólidos en la ciudad de Bogotá, para poder entende...

  20. Ensamblado de nanopartículas de magnetita a sólidos porosos por interacción con ferrofluídos para el desarrollo de materiales multifuncionales

    OpenAIRE

    González Alfaro, Yorexis

    2016-01-01

    El trabajo presentado en esta Tesis Doctoral constituye una aportación al tema de la funcionalización de sólidos porosos mediante ensamblado de nanopartículas basadas en magnetita. El procedimiento aquí empleado que puede considerarse más novedoso, consiste en el tratamiento de los sólidos porosos mediante un proceso de infiltración de ferrofluídos, generando materiales funcionales provistos de propiedades adsorbentes características de los sólidos porosos y preservando el comportamiento supe...

  1. USO DE BIOSÓLIDOS COMO REACTIVO ESPUMANTE EN PROCESOS DE FLOTACIÓN: CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSICA Y QUÍMICA

    OpenAIRE

    LORENZO REYES-BOZO; RONALDO HERRERA-URBINA; ALEX GODOY-FAÚNDEZ; CÉSAR SÁEZ-NAVARRETE; MIGUEL HERRERA; ROSANNA GINOCCHIO

    2011-01-01

    La flotación espumosa usa diversos reactivos, orgánicos e inorgánicos, para aumentar el rendimiento y selectividad del proceso. La fl otación utiliza sustancias tensoactivas que se adsorben en la interfase aire/agua. Como potenciales sustitutos de los espumantes usados actualmente, se consideran los residuos orgánicos de origen animal, como los biosólidos. Este estudio, evalúa el uso de biosólidos y ácidos húmicos como agentes espumantes para fl otación espumosa, cuantifi cándose su capacidad...

  2. UKAEA underlying research programme annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.P.

    1988-11-01

    Work from all technical areas of the Authority's underlying research programme is described. This is typically in the form of an interim progress report for the year April 1987 to March 1988. The seventeen chapters report research into radiation damage, fracture studies, chemical effects at surfaces, surface physics and corrosion, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, nuclear studies, neutron beam studies, theoretical sciences, instrumentation, reactor physics and control, fabrication processes, laser isotope separation, nuclear fuel cycle studies, quantum electronics, radiological protection, and miscellaneous underlying research. (author)

  3. INDICADORES DE CONTAMINACIÓN FECAL EN BIOSÓLIDOS APLICADOS EN AGRICULTURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guzmán

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de aguas residuales genera como subproducto lodos cuyas características dependen del origen del agua y del tratamiento utilizado para su depuración. El uso de este material en campos como la agricultura, recuperación de canteras, reforestación y producción de materiales de construcción, entre otros, son alternativas a su disposición final en rellenos sanitarios, en el océano o por incineración. Su aplicación en agricultura está condicionada a la concentración de microorganismos patógenos, así como a la presencia de sustancias tóxicas y metales pesados. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la concentración de coliformes fecales (indicadores de contaminación bacteriana, fagos somáticos y fagos F-específicos (indicadores de contaminación viral y huevos viables de helminto (indicadores de contaminación parasitaria, en biosólidos producidos en una planta depuradora de aguas residuales domésticas, estabilizados por digestión anaeróbica mesofílica. La media geométrica de las concentraciones de los indicadores bacterianos y virales es de 1,6 x 105 UFC/g peso seco para coliformes fecales, 5,0 x 103 PFP/g peso seco para fagos somáticos y 7,9 x 101 PFP/g peso seco para fagos F-específicos. La concentración promedio de huevos viables de helminto fue 0.14/4 g peso seco. En este último grupo, los huevos de Ascaris sp. fueron los que presentaron el mayor porcentaje de viabilidad junto con los huevos de origen no humano (Capillaria sp., Dicrocoelium sp. y Stephanarus sp., entre otros. De acuerdo con la norma EPA/625/R-92/013 (1999 que regula el control de patógenos y la atracción de vectores en lodo residual, este lodo se clasifica como B, por presentar concentraciones de coliformes fecales <2 x 106 UFC/g sólidos totales. Sin embargo, la concentración de huevos viables de helminto en el biosólido es <1 huevo viable/4 g peso seco, lo cual cumple con la clasificación de un lodo tipo A (autorizado para

  4. FACTIBILIDAD DE DISPOSICIÓN DE LOS BIOSÓLIDOS GENERADOS EN UNA PLANTA DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES COMBINADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Quinchía

    Full Text Available Por medio de dos pruebas piloto, la Escuela de Ingeniería de Antioquia y la Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, con el apoyo de Empresas Públicas de Medellín, se propusieron determinar la factibilidad de disposición de los biosólidos provenientes de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales San Fernando, considerándolos como potenciales rehabilitadores de suelos degradados y como materiales de compostaje. Las pruebas realizadas en la investigación incluyeron la caracterización fisicoquímica y microbiológica del biosólido, la cual permitió establecer la no peligrosidad del material bajo los criterios de corrosividad, reactividad, explosividad, toxicidad e inflamabilidad; la identificación de aportes de sustancias al medio por la aplicación de los biosólidos en suelos degradados y el establecimiento de las tasas más recomendadas de aplicación directa para la rehabilitación de áreas degradadas en el trópico, en lugares donde no se establezcan cultivos ni se adelanten actividades de ganadería. De igual forma se determinó el potencial del biosólido como material susceptible de compostaje, la evaluación del proceso y los materiales más recomendados; se obtuvo un material de excelente calidad orgánica que aporta nutrientes. Pese a lo anterior, se debe aclarar que el material presenta organismos patógenos y una carga alta de cromo, lo que debe tenerse en cuenta a la hora de usarlo directamente; además, para el caso del compost, se supera la carga de cromo encontrada en recomendaciones de la normatividad colombiana.

  5. Nuclear energy in view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This leaflet advertises the availability of the following from UKAEA: film and video titles (nuclear fuel cycle; energy for all; power from the atom; using radioactivity; fast reactor; energy - the nuclear option; principles of fission; radiation); slide-tape packs (16 titles); other information services. (U.K.)

  6. USO DE BIOSÓLIDOS EN LA REHABILITACIÓN DE ÁREA EN EL RELLENO SANITARIO SANTIAGO PONIENTE-CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Brutti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúan distintas especies herbáceas como estabilizadoras de taludes sobre una mezcla de suelo con biosólidos en el Relleno Sanitario Santiago Poniente en Santiago, Región Metropolitana (Chile, con el fin de recuperar el suelo. Se determina el comportamiento de cuatro tratamientos, tres corresponden a diferentes mezclas herbáceas más uno que actuó como testigo, la mezcla de suelo utilizada contenía un 15% de biosólido. Se utilizó un diseño estadístico de Cuadrado Latino, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: temperatura del suelo del ensayo, producción de materia verde y seca de raíces, nodulación de raíces de leguminosas y cuantificación de malezas. Los resultados fueron sometidos a un análisis de varianza (ANDEVA, donde la significancia de las diferencias entre tratamientos fueron determinadas a través de un test de rango múltiple de Duncan (P<0,05. La incorporación de 15% de biosólidos a un suelo pobre produce efectos positivos para el establecimiento del prado.

  7. 'E minimis maxima' or The work of the UKAEA Laboratories at Windscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, H.

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes the work carried out at Windscale's reprocessing site for thermal reactor fuels. Thermal reactor fuel behaviour is discussed, with reference to Magnox fuel, AGR fuel and water fuel. Fuel work that has application to more than one reactor system is mentioned. The plutonium studies on the development of the mixed plutonium/uranium oxide fuel for use in fast reactors is also considered. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear heat for high temperature fossil fuel processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    This is a report of a one-day symposium held at the Royal Institution, London, on 28 April 1981. It was organized by the Institute of Energy (London and Home Counties section) under the chairmanship of Dr A M Brown with the assistance of the Institute of Energy's Nuclear Special Interest Group. The following five papers were presented (available as a booklet, from the Institute of Energy, price Pound12.00): 1) The Dragon project and the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) position. Dr L Shepherd, UKAEA, Winfrith. 2) Coal gasification technology. Dr M St J Arnold, NCB, Stoke Orchard Laboratories. 3) The utilization of nuclear energy for coal gasification. Dr K H van Heek, G Hewing, R Kirchhoff and H J Schroter, Bergbau Forschung, Essen, West Germany. 4) The hydrogen economy. K F Langley, Energy Technology Support Unit, Harwell. 5) Economic perspectives and high temperature reactors. J D Thorn, director, Technical Services and Planning, UKAEA. (author)

  9. Biosólidos en la producción de maíz: impacto socioeconómico en zonas rurales del municipio de Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La generación de desechos manifiesta la compleja relación sociedad-naturaleza. Los biosólidos son un subproducto del trata- miento de aguas residuales urbanas y su disposición fi nal se ha convertido es un problema ambiental. Una opción es utili- zarlos como enmiendas orgánicas en suelos agrícolas. En el municipio de Puebla, Mé- xico, se generan 200 t d-1 de biosólidos que se utilizan en suelos agrícolas en zonas ru- rales. Los efectos ocasionados al suelo y al ambiente han sido muy estudiados, pero sobre los efectos socioeconómicos de los productores y sus familias, es un campo inexplorado. Se realizó una encuesta a los productores de la localidad de La Paz Tlax- colpan, Puebla, que aplican biosólidos en sus parcelas. El objetivo del estudio fue eva- luar la magnitud de los benefi cios económi- cos y sociales que reciben por utilizar biosó- lidos. Hay incremento en los rendimientos en un rango de 25% a 400%. Los benefi cios económicos y sociales son mínimos.

  10. Resíduos sólidos e meio ambiente : a sistematização do lixo no direito brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    Cecília Toscano Vieira Pinto, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Os resíduos sólidos conhecidos vulgarmente como lixo , é um problema que afeta todos os setores da sociedade, encontrando-se vinculado à degradação do meio ambiente. Apesar de estudado por outras áreas, principalmente a de Engenharia e a de Medicina, não recebeu da seara jurídica o devido enfoque, o que só aumenta a dramaticidade da questão. A presente dissertação possui como objetivo descrever a normatização relativa ao tratamento dos resíduos sólidos no Direito Brasileiro e ...

  11. Acopio de residuos sólidos y contaminación del medio ambiente en la Región Lima, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Gárate Aybar, Rudy Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación titulada Acopio de residuos sólidos y contaminación del medio ambiente en la región Lima, puesto que en la actualidad existen entidades comprometidas al manejo de residuos con el fin de reducir en nivel de contaminación, es por ello nos planteamos el objetivo de identificar la incidencia del acopio de residuos sólidos en la contaminación del medio ambiente en la región Lima. El trabajo de investigación, fue desarrollada en una muestra no ...

  12. INFLUENCIA DEL MANEJO DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS EN EL ENTORNO AMBIENTAL DEL CAMPUS UNIVERSITARIO PERAYOC DE LA UNSAAC 2014- CUSCO

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCO MENDEZ, CARLOS REYNALDO

    2015-01-01

    MEDICIÓN Y CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS UNIDADES DE ESTUDIO CARACTERIZACIÓN DE RESIDUOS CARACTERIZACIÓN Y EFICIENCIA DEL MANEJO DE RESIDUOS RESULTADOS DE LA OBSERVACIÓN SOBRE EL MANEJO DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS EN LA UNSAAC GRADO DE INFLUENCIA DEL MANEJO DE RESIDUOS SOBRE EL IMPACTO AMBIENTAL IMPACTOS AMBIENTALES GENERADOS POR LA ACTIVIDAD DE MANEJO DE RESIDUOS EN LA UNSAAC. FORMULACIÓN DE LA MATRIZ DE IMPORTANCIA MATRIZ DE IMPORTANCIA: VALORACIÓN DE IMPACTOS AMBIENTALES

  13. Uso de biossólidos em povoamento de eucalipto: efeito em atributos químicos do solo, no crescimento e na absorção de nutrientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. S. Vaz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da aplicação de doses crescentes de biossólido (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 e 40 t ha-1, base seca em atributos químicos do solo, crescimento e absorção de macro e micronutrientes em um povoamento de Eucalyptus grandis, foi instalado um experimento na Estação Experimental de Itatinga da ESALQ/USP, Itatinga (SP. Alguns tratamentos tiveram suplementação de K e P e, como referência, em um dos tratamentos foi aplicada adubação mineral como praticado em empresas florestadoras com alta tecnologia na região.O solo da área foi caracterizado como Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico textura média. Seis meses após a aplicação do biossólido, não foram constatadas alterações do pH e dos teores de P, Mg, Zn, Cu e B no solo. Foi observada elevação dos teores de K, Ca e S no solo, bem como redução das concentrações de Al, Fe e Mn, dependendo da dose de biossólido aplicada. Diferentemente, 13 meses após a aplicação do biossólido, percebeu-se a elevação do pH e dos teores de P, Ca, K e S somente na camada de 0-5 cm. Nas duas épocas de amostragem do solo, a elevação das doses de biossólido ocasionou redução dos teores de MO somente na camada de 0-5 cm. Em compasso com a mineralização da MO no solo, os teores de N e S no tecido foliar elevaram-se com o aumento das doses de biossólido em ambas as épocas de amostragem. A disponibilidade de P assimilável (P-resina elevou-se, consideravelmente, com o tempo de contato do biossólido com o solo, resultando em maior absorção de P e crescimento das plantas. A aplicação de fertilizante fosfatado no sulco ou cova de plantio, conjuntamente com o biossólido, mostrou-se necessária para elevar o crescimento inicial das plantas, assegurando atendimento das elevadas demandas iniciais deste nutriente. A suplementação de K em plantações jovens de eucalipto poderá não ser necessária para doses de biossólido maiores que 10 t ha-1, quando as

  14. Analysis of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Papers presented at the UKAEA Conference on Materials Analysis by Physical Techniques (1987) covered a wide range of techniques as applied to the analysis of irradiated materials. These varied from reactor component materials, materials associated with the Authority's radwaste disposal programme, fission products and products associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. An invited paper giving a very comprehensive review of Laser Ablation Microprobe Mass Spectroscopy (LAMMS) was included in the programme. (author)

  15. Remediation of the site of a former active handling building at UKAEA- Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, Jack; Brown, Nick; Cornell, Rowland; Jessop, Gareth

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building, A59 at Winfrith, Dorset, United Kingdom (UK) under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, (UKAEA). The building contained two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements and other supporting facilities which have all been decontaminated ready to permit building demolition. The demolition of the building structure and the removal of one cave line was completed during 2006 and the second cave line was demolished by March 2007. The remaining operations to be completed concern removal of the building slab and remediation of underlying soils to the final end point, free for unrestricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory control. Within the building base slab there are a range of contaminated items including secondary drain pipes, filter pits, storage hole liners and ventilation ducts which all have to be recovered for disposal along with around 4,000 m 3 of surrounding concrete. In order to characterise the slab before its removal, supporting information has been obtained from site investigation work including a collimated low resolution, high sensitivity gamma survey using the GroundhogTM system of the foundation slab and the recovery and analysis of 27 cores obtained by drilling through the slab into the underlying soil. During removal of the slab it will be necessary to employ a variety of monitoring techniques to locate and remove the contaminated sections and then expose and monitor the underlying soil for evidence of any residual radioactivity. (authors)

  16. Nuclear energy and the big sell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1988-01-01

    The position of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) as a research and development organisation is outlined. It is now a trading fund and offers research facilities to industry on a contract basis. This will be further promoted. The Authority's main business remains the development of systems producing economic electricity. An example of this is the work on the proposed commercial fast reactor. However, the expertise and specialised facilities developed for this have applications in other areas relevant to British and overseas industry. An example of this is the technology developed at the UKAEA's Harwell laboratories for assuring the firm attachment of steel platforms to the sea bed. Radioactive tracers are added to underwater cement grouting enabling the progress of grout injection to be monitored. Oil recovery techniques, chemical scaling problems, pipeline flow, safety and reliability, the development of a pocket gamma radiation dosimeter, structural integrity testing and problem solving, development of electric propulsion systems for space satellites, advanced robotics and computing services are all areas of UKAEA research and development interest and capability. (U.K.)

  17. A Review of the UK Fast Reactor Programme: March 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Towards the end of 1979 the Government announced a new programme of thermal reactor stations to be built over ten years (totalling 15GW), in addition to the two AGR stations at Torness and Heysham 'B' which had been approved by the previous Government. The first station of the new programme will be based on a Westinghouse PWR, subject to safety clearance and the outcome of a public inquiry, and it is envisaged that the remaining stations of the programme would be split between PWRs and AGRs. The AEA Chairman wrote formally to the Secretary of State for Energy in December 1979, putting forward on behalf of the Electricity Supply Authorities, NNC, BNFL and the AEA a recommended strategy for building the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR), subject to normal licensing procedure and to public inquiry, so as to ensure that the key options for introducing commercial fast reactors, when required, should remain open. A Government statement is expected during the next few months. Meanwhile the level of effort on fast reactor research and development in the UK has been maintained, the fast reactor remaining the largest of the UKAEA's reactor development projects with expenditure totalling somewhat over £80M per annum. The main feature of the UK fast reactor programme has continued to be the operation of PFR (Sections 2 and 7) which is yielding a wealth of experience and of information relevant to the design of commercial fast reactors. Bum-up of standard driver fuel has reached 6-7% by heavy atoms, while specially enriched lead fuel pins have reached 11 % without failure. An extensive programme of work in the reactor and its associated steam plant was completed in March 1980 and the reactor then started its fifth power run. The fuel reprocessing plant at DNE is being commissioned and has reprocessed some of the spent fuel remaining from the DFR. It will start soon on reprocessing fuel discharged from the PFR. During the year improvements to the design of the future

  18. GERENCIAMENTO DOS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS EM UNIDADES DE SAÚDE DA FAMÍLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória de Cássia Félix de Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio, de carácter descriptivo/ explorador y planteo cuantitativo, tuvo como objetivo identificar las medidas desempeñadas en las unidades de salud de la familia en el municipio de Juazeiro do Norte, Ceará, respecto a la administración de los residuos sólidos. Realizado entre agosto y septiembre del 2007, se basó en la muestra de 47 enfermeros coordinadores de las unidades de salud. Para recoger datos se entrevistó a los enfermeros y se observaron las unidades. Ninguna unidad de salud presentaba el Plan de Gestión de Residuos Sólidos (PGRSS. Las dificultades mencionadas para la administración de los residuos fueron: falta de capacitación de los recursos humanos; deficiencia de material adecuado; y ausencia de sistema específico para recoger material para corte y perforación y residuos contaminados. Aunque pesquisas más exactas sean necesarias, también se plantea la necesidad de que los profesionales de la salud y los administradores adquieran más conocimientos sobre el tema.

  19. Diseño de un compactador de desechos sólidos para para el Hospital Carlos Andrade Marín

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón Pico, Christiam Santiago

    2004-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación implica el diseño de un compactador de desechos sólidos, para el hospital CARLOS ANDRADE MARÍN, el cual permitirá un adecuado manejo de los mismos. La necesidad de adquirir un compactador de desechos sólidos producidos en el hospital nació de la cantidad de basura que genera su recolección, transporte, capacidad y cantidad de compactación. Es por esta razón que se ha observado que es indispensable que esta institución diseñe y aplique un sistema de manejo ...

  20. Los residuos sólidos urbanos en Mar del Plata, Argentina ¿problemática ambiental o insumos para la industria?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Gonzalez Insua; Rosana Ferraro

    2015-01-01

    A partir de Conferencia de Naciones Unidas sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (CNUMAD-92) se establecen las bases para un manejo integral de los Residuos Sólidos como parte del Desarrollo Sostenible; en este contexto Argentina desarrolla la Estrategia Nacional de Gestión de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (ENGIRSU) en el año 2005. Una de las estrategias para el  estudio de los residuos como materiales posibles de ser valorizados, es el análisis de la cadena de valor. El presente trabajo tiene por obj...

  1. Gestión y manejo de los residuos sólidos hospitalarios en el Centro de Salud Carlos Showing Ferrari, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza Herrera, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo. Determinar la relación entre la gestión y el manejo de los residuos sólidos hospitalarios en el Centro de Salud “Carlos Showing Ferrari” durante el año 2015. Metodología. Fue un estudio de tipo transversal, analítico, prospectivo y observacional, con diseño correlacional. La población lo conformaron los servicios asistenciales del Centro de Salud Carlos Showing. Se aplicó una ficha de observación de la gestión y manejo de residuos sólidos hospitalarios. El an...

  2. Clasificación e impacto ambiental de los residuos sólidos generados en las playas de Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Elin Márquez Gulloso; Jairo Rafael Rosado Vega

    2011-01-01

    En la presente investigación se realizó una clasificación y valoración de impacto de los residuos sólidos generados en las playas de Riohacha, desde Valle de los Cangrejos hasta el Barrio Marbella. Se seleccionaron cinco estaciones de muestreo; en cada una se ubicaron transectos perpendiculares a la línea de costa; sobre estos se trazaron cuadrantes paralelos para la recolección de residuos sólidos. Además, se aplicaron encuestas a los usuarios y vendedores de las playas para determinar la pe...

  3. Optimización de la succión de sólidos sumergidos utilizando bombas centrífugas con velocidad variable

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Ávalos, Víctor Manuel

    2012-01-01

    La acumulación de material sólido en embalses, cauces fluviales y en zonas marítimas hace que la extracción mecánica de estos materiales por medio de succión sea cada vez mas frecuente, por ello resulta importante estudiar el rendimiento de la succión de estos materiales analizando la forma de las boquillas y los parámetros del flujo incluyendo la bomba. Esta tesis estudia, mediante equipos experimentales, la eficacia de distintos dispositivos de extracción de sólidos (utilizando boquillas...

  4. NNC - the past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of the activities of the National Nuclear Corporation and its predecessors. Its historical involvement in the design and construction of all the nuclear power stations currently operated by Britain's generating boards, two stations overseas, and in association with UKAEA the design and construction of the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay, is described. Heysham 2 and Torness, and the Proposed Sizewell B are discussed. Headings are: origins and structure; qualified workforce; choice of reactors; collaborative agreements (on fast reactors); market survey; more diversity. (U.K.)

  5. Evaluación técnica de dos métodos de compostaje para el tratamiento de residuos sólidos biodegradables domiciliarios y su uso en huertas caseras

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-Rodríguez, Rooel; Brenes-Peralta, Laura; Jiménez-Morales, María Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Resumen La necesidad de plantear soluciones para apoyar la gestión integral de los residuos sólidos biodegradables ha llevado a proponer métodos de tratamiento como el compostaje, el cual consiste en la transformación de residuos sólidos por medios biológicos, bajo condiciones controladas, en productos como abono, sustrato o enmiendas para la agricultura. Por esto, se evaluó técnicamente dos métodos de compostaje de residuos sólidos biodegradables con miras a utilizar el abono resultante en h...

  6. Sensación térmica percibida en vivienda económica y auto-producida, en periodo cálido, para clima cálido húmedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Garcia Gomez

    Full Text Available El estudio de la sensación térmica percibida en la vivienda, permite establecer lineamientos de diseño para la habitabilidad térmica, con base en la percepción de los sujetos. En trabajos anteriores, se plantea que la adaptación de las personas en climas cálidos, está definida por preferencias según el estrato socioeconómico y cultural, basado en su tipología de vivienda. Se presenta la comparación entre dos investigaciones sobre confort térmico desarrolladas en Mérida, Yucatán, México, con clima cálido húmedo. Los sujetos de estudio fueron habitantes de vivienda de tipo económico y auto-producida. Se utilizó el enfoque de adaptación, se trabajó con base en la norma ISO 10551 (1995 y se registraron temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de globo negro, humedad relativa y velocidad de viento. Se estimó la temperatura neutral con el método de medias por intervalo de sensación térmica, y se compararon preferencia, aceptación y tolerancia del ambiente térmico. Los resultados de ambas investigaciones muestran variaciones en la temperatura neutral y rangos de confort térmico, además se presentan diferencias significativas en el nivel de adaptación, experiencia y expectativa, aún cuando las condiciones del ambiente térmico presentan similitudes.

  7. Commercial basis to nuclear industry skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Mike

    1989-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has considerable experience in measurement and control systems which it has designed for nuclear reactor use. It is now using this experience to help other industries needing to monitor variables such as flow, level, position, conductivity, thickness, temperature, density, sound, vibrations, light, movement, pressure, strain and radiation. Recently British Nuclear Fuels sought UKAEA's help to solve a process measurement problem at the Sellafield encapsulation plant which is used to recycle unspent fuel and immobilise liquid wastes using a cementation process. The level and specific gravity of the liquid waste slurry must be accurately measured before the correct amount of solidifying material can be added. The solution to this problem, using pneumacator technology, is described. (author)

  8. Guía para el manejo de residuos sólidos generados en la industria de la construcción

    OpenAIRE

    Cortina Ramírez, José Manuel

    2007-01-01

    La disertación presentará la actual problemática ambiental que se vive en México ante una nula cultura en la disposición final de los desechos sólidos que se generan en la industria de la construcción, los aspectos necesarios en la elaboración de un plan de manejo de residuos en el lugar de edificación, clasificación de los materiales, las técnicas para la reutilización o reciclaje de estos residuos así como la normativa que rige en nuestro país (Ley De Residuos Sólidos D...

  9. Preparación cristaloquímica y comportamiento eléctrico de electrolitos sólidos de estequiometría NASICON

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Manso, María Pilar

    2004-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo la preparación y la caracterización estructural y eléctrica de varias series de materiales de estequiometría NASICON, sistema ampliamente conocido por sus propiedades conductoras y adecuadas prestaciones en el campo de los electrolitos sólidos. Las síntesis se han realizado, en general, en estado sólido por el método cerámico, caracterizándose los compuestos obtenidos empleando muy diversas técnicas como difracción de rayos-X y/o neut...

  10. Percepción ciudadana del manejo de residuos sólidos municipales. El caso Riviera Nayarit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Romualdo Márquez González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas causados por el mal manejo de los residuos sólidos municipales podrían generar conflictos económicos y ambientales en la denominada Riviera Nayarit, integrada por los municipios de San Blas, Compostela y Bahía de Banderas. Por tanto, no es suficiente identificar y solucionar los problemas en forma parcial, ya que la economía de la zona está basada en el turismo y los servicios, principalmente. Se aplicó una encuesta para saber la percepción ciudadana sobre el manejo de los residuos sólidos municipales, y los encuestados manifestaron que si a éstos no se les daba un manejo adecuado, se reflejaría en el corto plazo en la disminución del número de visitantes. Dicha percepción fue diferenciada, y la comunidad hizo propuestas para que mejore el manejo integral de los residuos.

  11. POLÍTICA NACIONAL DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS, LEI 12.305/2010: ESTUDO DE CASO DO MUNICÍPIO DE UBERLÂNDIA, MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Giarola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A discussão sobre a destinação adequada dos resíduos sólidos se insere entre as principais preocupações mundiais. Deste modo, este artigo examina a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, Lei 12.305, de 2 de agosto de 2010, para o município de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. Em especial analisa os seus princípios norteadores e as políticas públicas implantadas pelo Governo Municipal de Uberlândia em cumprimento a esta Lei. O município, em seus projetos ambientais apresentados, comprovou a observância parcial à lei de resíduos sólidos. Ao assim proceder, o presente artigo contribui para um adequado entendimento do instrumento e alerta para possíveis dificuldades em sua regulamentação e durante a sua implantação e execução.

  12. Comportamiento viscoelástico de pulpa de membrillo en función de la concentración de sólidos solubles Comportamento viscoelástico de polpa de marmelo em função da concentração de sólidos solúveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Mota Ramos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de las propiedades viscoelásticas de los alimentos es muy útil en el diseño y predicción de la estabilidad de muestras almacenadas. El trabajo tuvo como objetivos caracterizar las propiedades viscoelásticas de las muestras de pulpa de membrillo a diferentes concentraciones de sólidos solubles. El estudio reológico del pulpa de membrillo fue realizado en el rango de concentraciones de 12,3 a 28°Brix a la temperatura de 20°C. Las medidas viscoelásticas fueron realizadas con un reômetro Haake Rheostress RS100 y fue seleccionado el barrido de frecuencia entre 0,1 a 100 Hz. Los resultados demostraron que para la muestra de 28°Brix la pulpa se comportó como un semi-sólido en todo el rango de frecuencia estudiada. Para la concentración de 24°Brix, a bajas frecuencias, la pulpa se comportó como un semi-líquido (G">G' mientras que en frecuencias más altas se comportó como semi-sólido (G'>G". Para la pulpa de 16 e 20°Brix hubo el predominio del carácter viscoso sobre el carácter elástico. Para la pulpa de 12,3°Brix no fue posible determinar los valores G' e G". Se observó todavía que la viscosidad compleja del pulpa de membrillo aumenta con la concentración para todo el rango de frecuencias estudiadas.O conhecimento das propriedades viscoelásticas dos alimentos é muito útil no desenho e na predição da estabilidade de amostras armazenadas. O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar as propriedades viscoelásticas de amostras de polpa de marmelo a diferentes concentrações de sólidos solúveis. O estudo reológico da polpa de marmelo foi realizado na faixa de concentração de 12,3 a 28°Brix à temperatura de 20°C. As medidas viscoelásticas foram realizadas com um reômetro Haake Rheostress RS100 e foi selecionado um varrido de freqüência (frequency sweep entre 0,1 e 100 Hz. Os resultados demonstraram que para a amostra de 28°Brix a polpa se comportou como um semi-sólido (G'>G" em toda faixa de freq

  13. Sellado y recuperación de antiguos vertederos de residuos sólidos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero, Isabel

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a reclamation project for several solid wastes disposal areas in three small municipalities of the province of Álava, within the 'Plan Director' of Urban Solid Wastes Management. Problems common to these areas as well as reclamation measures (refuse disposal, sealing-off, terrain morphology landscaping, are emphasized. A study for locating a dumping zone is also included.

    El artículo se centra básicamente en el proyecto de sellado y recuperación de los antiguos vertederos de residuos sólidos urbanos de los Municipios de Ribera Baja, Lantarón, y Valdegovía (Álava, realizado para la Diputación Foral de Álava dentro del Plan Director de Gestión de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos. El acento se pone principalmente en la descripción de una serie de problemas tipo y de las medidas correctoras adoptadas (retirada de vertidos, sellado, remodelación del terreno, siembras y plantaciones. Por último se expone el estudio de localización de una escombrera en el término municipal de Lantarón.

  14. Meeting of Specialists on the Reliability of Decay Heat Removal Systems for Fast Reactors. Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    The Specialists Meeting on Reliability of Decay Heat Removal Systems proposed for Fast Reactors was sponsored by the UKAEA Safety & Reliability Directorate and held at Harwell between 28th April and 1st May, 1975. The meeting was attended by delegates from six countries - (USA, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, USSR and the UK). A list of participants is included in an Appendix to this report. The subject matter of the meeting was concerned with the degree to which the ability to maintain decay heat removal from a fast reactor after shutdown in normal and abnormal circumstances could be guaranteed by design provisions and substantiated by reliability analysis techniques, operational testing etc. Consideration of conditions prevailing after a hypothetical core melt down incident were not included in the subject matter. The deliberations of the meeting were focussed at each working session on a defined theme and its dependant topics as shown in the detailed Agenda included in this report. Although provision had been made in the Agenda for a limited amount of discussion of the decay heat rejection problems of Gas Cooled Fast Reactors, delegates had no contributions to offer on this subject. During each session a Recording Secretary prepared a summary of the main points made by national delegates and of the resulting recommendations and conclusions. These draft summaries were made available to delegates during subsequent sessions of the meeting and approved by them for inclusion in the Summary, General Conclusions and Recommendations provided under Table of Contents (item 3 and 4)

  15. Análise da eficiência na geração de resíduos sólidos nos terminais de carga geral brasileiro utilizando DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breno Tostes de Gomes Garcia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos, o setor portuário brasileiro foi obrigado a gerenciar os resíduos sólidos gerados nos portos e terminais portuários. A partir disto, o levantamento do inventário dos resíduos, da carga movimentada e da quantidade de atracações possibilitou analisar a eficiência na geração dos resíduos sólidos dos terminais portuários cuja natureza da carga selecionada foi a carga geral.  Para isto, utilizou o modelo DEA BCC, por considerar retornos variáveis de escala, orientado a output. O resultado evidenciou que a DMU mais eficiente foi a que menos gerou resíduos sólidos da amostra, entretanto, uma DMU não apresentou o maior valor para a eficiência padrão, mas apresentou valor máximo na composta, gerando uma inconsistência nos resultados. Apesar disto, o modelo permitiu analisar as referências das DMU’s ineficientes, onde é possível ter mais de uma DMU eficiente como referência para se tornarem eficientes.

  16. Energia do futuro: Bioálcool a partir de Resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Martínez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rev.esc.adm.neg El presente artículo tiene como objetivo presentar un panorama ambiental, técnico y económico de la producción de bioalcohol, a partir de la Fracción Orgánica de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (FORSU, tema que ha sido trabajado en investigaciones conjuntas con la Universidad de Castilla La Mancha (UCLM-España y complementado con otros desarrollos realizados a través de la línea de investigación en Residuos Sólidos de la Universidad EAN, con el apoyo de estudiantes de especialización tanto en gestión de residuos sólidos, como en finanzas y negocios internacionales. El aprovechamiento no convencional de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (RSU, y en particular, para las condiciones de América Latina en donde más del 50% de los RSU corresponden a residuos de características orgánicas, termina siendo una posibilidad para agregar valor, generar crecimiento económico y crear condiciones de trabajo dignas para las personas vinculadas al aprovechamiento informal de residuos. Por ello, aprovechando el potencial de la biotecnología que ofrece diversas opciones para la generación de energías renovables, se busca abordar la producción de bioetanol a partir de procesos biológicos de metabolización de la materia orgánica mediante fermentación. En este artículo se presentará inicialmente, el contexto global de la producción de biocombustibles en Colombia, para posteriormente presentar el desarrollo de una fase preliminar a escala de laboratorio para la obtención de bioalcohol mediante una unidad de fermentación anaerobia experimental. Posteriormente se mencionarán los elementos económicos y financieros relativos a la implementación de este tipo de tecnologías y que por consiguiente podrían afectar el desarrollo a escala industrial de dicho proceso. Los resultados permitirán evaluar la viabilidad técnica y económica, al menos en una etapa preliminar, de implementación de este tipo de procesos en Colombia.

  17. Índice de adequação do gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos como ferramenta para o planejamento: aplicação no estado de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Custódio Urban

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Considerando as diretrizes de gestão e gerenciamento da Política Nacional dos Resíduos Sólidos e a necessidade de uma visão ampla da problemática dos resíduos sólidos urbanos, este artigo propôs uma metodologia qualitativa de análise regional dos resíduos sólidos urbanos, baseada em um índice aplicado como ferramenta de planejamento. Apresentou-se, também, um panorama dos resíduos sólidos urbanos gerados no estado de São Paulo. Para o desenvolvimento do método, foram usados dados de geração de resíduos, população e desenvolvimento humano. Planilhas de cálculo e sistema de informações geográficas foram empregadas como ferramentas. Um índice de adequação do gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos foi gerado a partir da atribuição de pesos para variáveis de população, geração de resíduos sólidos urbanos, coleta seletiva e dos resíduos de serviço de saúde e participação em consórcios intermunicipais. Foi obtida uma equação para estimativa da geração de resíduos sólidos urbanos em função da população do estado de São Paulo, com R²=0,9977. O índice de adequação do gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos não apresentou tendência espacial, mas possibilitou identificar municípios com maiores problemas na gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos. Uma análise dos aterros regionais foi realizada, os quais, em sua maioria, estão localizados próximos aos municípios de maior porte do estado de São Paulo. Existe necessidade de aumentar a quantidade de aterros regionais próximos aos municípios de menor porte da parte Oeste do estado. A metodologia do índice de adequação do gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos se mostrou adequada para uma análise regional da problemática de resíduos, podendo ser adaptada para outras áreas de estudo, em regiões administrativas diversificadas. Não foi encontrada correlação entre os dados de geração e de desenvolvimento humano.

  18. Los residuos sólidos urbanos en Mar del Plata, Argentina ¿problemática ambiental o insumos para la industria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonzalez Insua

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A partir de Conferencia de Naciones Unidas sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo (CNUMAD-92 se establecen las bases para un manejo integral de los Residuos Sólidos como parte del Desarrollo Sostenible; en este contexto Argentina desarrolla la Estrategia Nacional de Gestión de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (ENGIRSU en el año 2005. Una de las estrategias para el  estudio de los residuos como materiales posibles de ser valorizados, es el análisis de la cadena de valor. El presente trabajo tiene por objetivos contribuir al conocimiento de la Gestión Integral de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos de la ciudad de Mar del Plata y analizar la revalorización de los mismos en el Circuito Formal (CF de recuperación bajo el enfoque de Cadena de Valor, visualizando a sus principales actores y su poder y control dentro de la cadena. Para alcanzarlos se realiza un revisión histórico-ambiental de la problemática de los residuos en Argentina hasta el desarrollo de ENGIRSU; puntualizando el análisis en la implementación de la estrategia en la ciudad de Mar del Plata focalizada en la etapa de  separación de residuos, específicamente en la Planta de Separación y Clasificación operada por la Cooperativa CURA. Como resultado se evidencia una baja productividad de la planta como componente de GIRSU y un rol débil como eslabón dentro la cadena de valor de residuos sólidos urbanos.

  19. UKAEA underlying research programme annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    Investment in fundamental research is essential to the success of an organisation such as Atomic Energy Authority (AEA) Technology whose business is the selling of Research and Development (R and D) and the services relating to it. Such research supplies the scientific understanding that underpins the technical expertise of the organisation, develops new skills and techniques, and stimulates technical innovation. The resulting scientific and technical excellence is the hall-mark of a major contract R and D organisation. Fundamental research in the AEA is co-ordinated through the Underlying Research Programme. This Report describes progress made during the financial year 1988/89 within all Technical Areas of the Programme, and additionally summarises the AEA's Underlying Research on the Safe Integral Reactor design and on 'Cold Fusion'. Highlights of recent technical achievements within the Programme are described in a separate brochure. (author)

  20. Propuesta del plan maestro a nivel metropolitano para la mejora de la gestión de los residuos sólidos urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Sandoval, Héctor Antonio; Gil Sandoval, Héctor Antonio

    2003-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es proponer el Plan Maestro a nivel Lima Metropolitana para la mejora de la gestión de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos obteniéndose beneficios económicos, sociales y ambientales, para lo cual se desarrollan cinco capítulos y tres anexos. En el primer capítulo, se describe el planteamiento metodológico, definiéndose la realidad problemática, el problema principal y los problemas secundarios (falta de Planificación Estratégica en la Gestión de los Residuos Sólidos ...

  1. A geração de resíduos sólidos no festival gastronômico de Carlos Barbosa : o Festiqueijo

    OpenAIRE

    Néry, Carlos Henrique Cardona

    2008-01-01

    Um evento (festa gastronômica) possui características de um empreendimento turístico que consome água, energia e insumos, gerando resíduos sólidos, emissões gasosas e água residuária. Assim, é importante a identificação das diferentes formas de impactos ambientais decorrentes de festas dessa natureza, no sentido de melhor contemplar a variável ambiental no planejamento das mesmas. O presente estudo se propõe avaliar a geração de resíduos sólidos em um festival gastronômico, que faz parte de u...

  2. GESTIÓN DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS EN CADENAS DE SUMINISTRO DE CICLO CERRADO DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN DE OPERACIONES

    OpenAIRE

    Peña-Montoya, Claudia Cecilia; Osorio-Gómez, Juan Carlos; Vidal-Holguín, Carlos Julio; Torres-Lozada, Patricia; Marmolejo-Rebellón, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    La integración de los flujos reversos y directos en la cadena de suministro, trae beneficios al reducir costos y evitar el daño ambiental porque se recupera valor de los residuos sólidos; esta integración se conoce como la cadena de suministro de ciclo cerrado. La mayoría de experiencias que relacionan cadena de suministro de ciclo cerrado y decisiones de gestión de residuos sólidos, provienen de países desarrollados con estrictas regulaciones ambientales y usan técnicas de invetigación de op...

  3. Un littoral sableux en progradation : le lido entre Leucate et Port-la-Nouvelle (Aude, Golfe du Lion, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Larue

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available L'étude multichronique de photographies aériennes révèle que le lido entre Leucate et Port-la-Nouvelle (Aude a progradé d'environ 15 % en largeur, entre 1952 et 2008. L'analyse sédimentologique permet de montrer que cette progradation exceptionnelle en période d'élévation du niveau marin est due à la présence de barres pré-littorales volumineuses et bien alimentées par la dérive littorale et le transport éolien effectué par les vents de terre. Cependant, du fait de la montée actuelle du niveau marin (2,5 à 3 mm/an et malgré la poursuite de l'accrétion, le lido subit des inondations de plus en plus fréquentes entre le cordon actuel et l'ancien cordon romain.A kinematic study of vertical aerial photos taken between 1952 and 2008 reveals that the Leucate-Port-la-Nouvelle lido (Aude has prograded of about 15 % in width. A sedimentological analysis allows us to explain this accretion caused by drift and wind which supply abundant nearshore bars. In spite of this progradation, frequent floodings, favoured by sea level rise (2.5 to 3 mm-1.year, occur between the present coastal bar and the Roman barrier.

  4. PFR liquid metals disposal at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.W.

    1997-01-01

    When the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay was shut down in 1994, the UKAEA commissioned a series of studies to determine the least cost, lowest risk option for dealing with the liquid metal coolants, i.e. the sodium from the primary and secondary circuits and the NaK from the decay heat removal system. The studies concluded that leaving the liquid metals in situ was not a viable option. Removing the liquid metals had three options, provision of long term external storage facilities, re-use in other projects or treatment for final disposal. The UKAEA invited companies to bid for the challenging task of disposing of more than 1500 t of liquid metals. In 1995 UKAEA awarded NNC Ltd. one of the largest decommissioning projects ever to be let competitively in the UK. During the first year of the contract, the challenges have focused on solving design problems and a number of innovative solutions have been developed by NNC and its subcontractors. From January 1997 the focus has moved to construction on site at Dounreay, and the manufacturing and installation of the mechanical components of the plant

  5. Plano municipal de gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos no município de Araraquara-SP: formulação e implementação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Moretti Martins

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Lei 12.305, promulgada em 02 de agosto de 2010, surge como um marco regulatório junto às questões de resíduos sólidos no Brasil. Ela designou aos municípios a elaboração de planos de gestão de resíduos na tentativa de solucionar os problemas até então enfrentados pela administração local. Contudo, notada as variadas dificuldades municipais em atender as exigências da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos (PNRS, o artigo visa analisar o caso do município de Araraquara-SP, por meio da investigação de seu Plano Municipal de Gestão Integrada de Resíduos Sólidos (PMGIRS sob a ótica do cumprimento do Artigo 19 da PNRS, que compreende o conteúdo mínimo dos planos municipais, bem como a aplicação da Matriz SWOT com base em entrevistas com gestores do Departamento Autônomo de Água e Esgotos (DAAE e Cooperativa Acácia, principais órgãos envolvidos na gestão de resíduos sólidos do município. Tais procedimentos tiveram como objetivo contribuir com a construção do cenário local de resíduos sólidos em Araraquara. Resultados evidenciam que o município organizou um estudo nos moldes do Artigo 19 em seu PMGIRS, fixando diretrizes e metas para cada tipo de resíduo sólido encontrado no território. Indicadores apontam que Araraquara, com o passar dos anos, vem se adequando aos preceitos da PNRS e apesar da infraestrutura básica já instalada, o município precisa expandir os investimentos se deseja cumprir as metas declaradas no plano, bem como promover o aprimoramento, modernização e integração do sistema municipal de resíduos sólidos.

  6. Status of reduced enrichment programs for research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Keiji; Nishihara, Hedeaki; Shirai, Eiji; Oyamada, Rokuro; Sanokawa, Konomo

    1997-01-01

    The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) have been partially completed and are mostly still in progress under the Joint Study Programs with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JMTR and JRR-2 have been already converted to use MEU aluminide fuels in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The operation of the upgraded JRR-3(JRR-3M) has started in March 1990 with the LEU aluminide fuels. Since May 1992, the two elements have been inserted in the KUR. The safety review application for the full core conversion to use LEU silicide in the JMTR was approved in February 1992 and the conversion has been done in January 1994. The Japanese Government approved a cancellation of the KUHFR Project in February 1991, and in April 1994 the U.S. Government gave an approval to utilize HEU in the KUR instead of the KUHFR. Therefore, the KUR will be operated with HEU fuel until 2001. Since March 1994, Kyoto University is continuing negotiation with UKAEA Dounreay on spent fuel reprocessing and blending down of recovered uranium, in addition to that with USDOE

  7. Status of reduced enrichment programs for research reactors in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Keiji; Nishihara, Hedeaki [Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan); Shirai, Eiji; Oyamada, Rokuro; Sanokawa, Konomo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    The reduced enrichment programs for the JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), and the KUR of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI) have been partially completed and are mostly still in progress under the Joint Study Programs with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The JMTR and JRR-2 have been already converted to use MEU aluminide fuels in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The operation of the upgraded JRR-3(JRR-3M) has started in March 1990 with the LEU aluminide fuels. Since May 1992, the two elements have been inserted in the KUR. The safety review application for the full core conversion to use LEU silicide in the JMTR was approved in February 1992 and the conversion has been done in January 1994. The Japanese Government approved a cancellation of the KUHFR Project in February 1991, and in April 1994 the U.S. Government gave an approval to utilize HEU in the KUR instead of the KUHFR. Therefore, the KUR will be operated with HEU fuel until 2001. Since March 1994, Kyoto University is continuing negotiation with UKAEA Dounreay on spent fuel reprocessing and blending down of recovered uranium, in addition to that with USDOE.

  8. Evaluación del potencial de aplicación de biosólidos higienizados en el cultivo de rábano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Antonio Silva-Leal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el posible aprovechamiento de tres tipos de biosólidos, procedentes del manejo de los lodos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas, para el cultivo y producción de rábano (Raphanus sativa cultivado en un suelo Vertic endoaquepts. Los tratamientos de los biosólidos consistieron en: deshidratado-BD, secado térmicamente (60 °C por 12.58 h-BST y alcalinizado (cal viva 9% peso seco-BA, aplicados en dosis de 1, 2, 4 y 8 veces el requerimiento de nitrógeno del cultivo (80 kg/ha. En el cultivo se midieron el número de hojas de las plantas y la producción de biomasa y en los rábanos el peso final y el contenido de coliformes fecales, Escherichia coli, y huevos de helmintos al momento de la cosecha. Los resultados mostraron que la aplicación de biosólidos mejoró entre 17% y 150% los pesos de la planta y del rábano en relación con el tratamiento control; no obstante, no se encontraron diferencias (P > 0.05 en el peso del rábano entre tratamientos. Aunque la aplicación de los biosólidos no influyó en la concentración de coliformes fecales ni de E. coli en el rábano al momento de la cosecha, la aplicación de estos aumentó el contenido de huevos de helmintos viables, lo que presenta un riesgo elevado para la salud humana, y hace necesario implementar prácticas de higienización antes de su uso en cultivos.

  9. Environmental impact assessment relating to the proposed siting of the European Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (EDRP) at Dounreay, Caithness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This Report assesses the likely environmental impact of the European Demonstration Fast Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (EDRP) which the United Kingdom Atomic Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) are proposing to build at the Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment (DNE), Caithness and for which they have sought outline planning permission. The format of the report has been designed to meet the guidelines set out in the European Economic Community's Directive (85/337/EEC) concerning the assessment of the environmental effects of certain public and private projects. The Report is presented in four parts: Part A gives information on the present environment at DNE and explains in detail the environmental monitoring which has been carried out there since 1956. Part B describes the proposed development. Part C assesses the likely effects of the proposed development on the environment. Part D lists all the references quoted in this Report together with a bibliography of other sources of information relevant to the proposed development.

  10. PROPOSTA DE TRATAMENTO ALTERNATIVO PARA RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS NA CIDADE DE UBERLÂNDIA – MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ferreira de Morais

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O aterro sanitário é o principal meio de disposição final para os resíduos sólidos urbanos de Uberlândia. Alternativas, além das que estão em desenvolvimento no município, precisam ser pensadas já que o aterramento é uma opção com grandes impactos ao meio ambiente. Sendo assim, essa pesquisa tem como objetivo desenvolver uma proposta para a cidade de Uberlândia com uma nova alternativa de tratamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos que não priorize o seu aterramento e que traga maiores ganhos socioambientais. A metodologia consistiu em trabalhos de campo, levantamentos bibliográficos e referenciais, o qual baseou a elaboração da proposta com a adoção da tecnologia do Projeto Natureza Limpa, desenvolvido por uma empresa particular, localizada no município de Unaí – MG. A escolha da tecnologia teve como requisitos aquela que não priorizasse o aterramento de resíduos sólidos urbanos em seu processo. Portanto, os resultados são diminuição de emissões de gases de efeito estufa, aproveitamento do potencial energético da biomassa, retorno de matéria-prima ao mercado produtivo e ainda diminuição ou extinção de impactos ambientais decorrentes da má disposição dos resíduos. Consequentemente, os ganhos sociais se pautam na melhoria da saúde ambiental e o uso pela governança municipal de saldos creditícios positivos em benefício comum.

  11. Uso de biosólidos como reactivo espumante en procesos de flotación: caracterización física y química

    OpenAIRE

    HERRERA-URBINA, RONALDO; GODOY-FAÚNDEZ, ALEX; SÁEZ-NAVARRETE, CÉSAR; HERRERA, MIGUEL; GINOCCHIO, ROSANNA

    2011-01-01

    La flotación espumosa usa diversos reactivos, orgánicos e inorgánicos, para aumentar el rendimiento y selectividad del proceso. La flotación utiliza sustancias tensoactivas que se adsorben en la interfase aire/agua. Como potenciales sustitutos de los espumantes usados actualmente, se consideran los residuos orgánicos de origen animal, como los biosólidos. Este estudio, evalúa el uso de biosólidos y ácidos húmicos como agentes espumantes para flotación espumosa, cuantifi cándose su capacidad t...

  12. Aprovechamiento del subproducto sólido de la digestión anaerobia del bagazo de fique (furcraea macrophylla) para el acondicionamiento de suelos

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera González, Dayana; Plata Martínez, Lorena; Castro Molano, Liliana; Guzmán Luna, Carolina; Escalante Hernández, Humberto

    2012-01-01

    La digestión anaerobia del bagazo de fique (Furcraea macrophylla) genera 0,3m³ CH4/kg sólidos volátiles (SV) y 7L de lodo efluente por kg de bagazo tratado. El lodo efluente (LE) puede ser empleado en agricultura. El objetivo de este trabajo de investigación fue producir un biosólido a partir de la estabilización alcalina del LE y evaluar el efecto reparador en un suelo franco-arenoso de Mogotes -Santander. El desarrollo metodológico consistió en caracterizar fisicoquímica y microbiológicamen...

  13. STEM - software test and evaluation methods. A study of failure dependency in diverse software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, P.G.; Pullen, F.D.

    1989-02-01

    STEM is a collaborative software reliability project undertaken in partnership with Halden Reactor Project, UKAEA, and the Finnish Technical Research Centre. The objective of STEM is to evaluate a number of fault detection and fault estimation methods which can be applied to high integrity software. This Report presents a study of the observed failure dependencies between faults in diversely produced software. (author)

  14. EFECTO DE LA APLICACIÓN DE BIOSÓLIDOS, COMO ENMIENDA ORGÁNICA, EN LA RECUPERACIÓN DE UN SUELO DISTURBADO POR ACTIVIDAD EXTRACTIVA EN LA CANTERA DE SORATAMA, LOCALIDAD DE USAQUÉN, BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guacaneme

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar durante nueve meses, el efecto del biosólido en la recuperación de las propiedades físicas y químicas de un suelo disturbado por actividad extractiva, y a su vezcomparar el grado de recuperación de los diferentes tratamientos con los suelos de referencia. Para ello, se efectuó un diseño experimental de una vía con tres niveles y tres repeticiones más el control, para un total de 12 parcelas (c/u 18 m2 dispuestas completamente al azar en el terreno.Se implementaron tratamientos volumen/volumen de estéril - biosólido de la siguiente manera: un tratamiento control sin contenido de biosólido (1:0 y tres tratamientos con contenido de biosólido en las proporciones 8:1 (T1 4:1 (T2 y 2:1 (T3. Los resultados mostraron que la adición del biosólido como enmienda orgánica, incrementó de manera proporcional los contenidos de carbono orgánico, pH, nitrógeno, fósforo, capacidad de intercambio catiónico, bases totales, humedad y porosidad del suelo, de acuerdo a las dosis aplicadas. Se presentó inicialmente un mayor contenido de carbono orgánico en la profundidad de 15 a 30 cm, debido al proceso de lixiviación. Los tratamientos con biosólidos mostraron mayores cantidades de carbonato de calcio y fósforo acorde con las proporciones respectivas, que favorecieron a su vez el incremento del pH, factor que influyó en la baja disponibilidad de aluminio en las parcelas con biosólidos. No obstante, la adición del biosólido generó un aumento paulatino en la salinidad del suelo. Este experimento indicó que el tercer tratamiento (2:1 fue el que generó más efectos benéficos sobre el suelo, debido a que aumentó los contenidos de nutrientes, mejoró las condiciones físicas y se acercó en mayor proporción al suelo de referencia de un bosque adyacente a la cantera.

  15. Learning effect of isokinetic measurements in healthy subjects, and reliability and comparability of Biodex and Lido dynamometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Søndergaard, K; Zachariassen, T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the learning effect during a set of isokinetic measurements, to evaluate the reliability of the Biodex System 3 PRO dynamometer, and to compare the Biodex System 3 PRO and the Lido Active dynamometers on both extension and flexion over the elbow and the knee a...

  16. GESTÃO SISTÊMICA DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS PARA A UEFS: subsídios para a construção de uma política participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Mércia Soares da Silva Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A geração de resíduos sólidos tem sido um dos problemas ambientais enfrentados pelasautoridades públicas, sociedade e Universidades uma vez que, sendo resultantes dasatividades humanas e na ausência de um manejo adequado, passam a se constituir emameaça ao meio ambiente e à saúde pública. Nas universidades, o movimento ambientalteve início nos anos 1970, e, reconhecido como espaço gerador de resíduos sólidos,estes passaram a ocupar as agendas institucionais. O primeiro registro foi nos EstadosUnidos, no ano de 1972, com a implantação do Programa de Reciclagem de ResíduosSólidos. Tal movimento se consolida nos anos 1980, se propagando em instituições deoutros países. Nas Universidades brasileiras, os resíduos sólidos demarcaram espaçosna década de 1990, sendo crescente o número de instituições a partir de então queimplantaram programas e políticas de gestão para os resíduos sólidos e em algumasdelas avançando em direção à gestão ambiental. A presente pesquisa teve comoobjetivo elaborar uma proposta de política de gestão de resíduos sólidos para aUniversidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS, Bahia, construída de formaparticipativa, com a comunidade universitária, a partir de uma realidade local. Para acoleta de dados foram utilizadas entrevistas individuais, observação direta e pesquisadocumental. Para a análise das entrevistas, utilizou-se o Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo,delineando-se um modelo de intervenção para a construção da política de gestão deresíduos sólidos. Dos dados obtidos, foi possível diagnosticar a situação atual dos RSna instituição, a percepção da comunidade sobre estes e o manejo atual praticado naUEFS, além de obter sugestões para sua melhoria. Levando em consideração os dadosobtidos, a formulação da política de gestão de RS pautou-se em diretrizes norteadoras,entendidas como essenciais a uma gestão sustentável. As diretrizes formuladoras foram

  17. Economia Política da Gestão de Resíduos Sólidos Municipais em Vitória (Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémie Cavé

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata das interações entre a globalização dos intercâmbios econômicos e a gestão dos resíduos sólidos municipais, através do estudo de caso de Vitória-ES. Além do serviço municipal de gestão do lixo, uma diversidade de atores participa da economia da recuperação dos resíduos sólidos secos. O lixo sendo por definição aquilo que não pertence a ninguém, esses diversos atores disputam sua apropriação e conflitos surgem. Ora, a recuperação dos resíduos recicláveis é um setor de intervenção cujo caráter lucrativo é instável, dependente das variações de valor das matérias primas. A questão que se coloca, para os poderes públicos, é a de como conciliar uma cadeia de captação de resíduos sólidos ritmada pelas flutuações do mercado com um serviço publico territorial?

  18. Análisis y diseño de un detector compacto de radiación gamma de estado sólido para espectrometría

    OpenAIRE

    Toral Zamorano, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    La detección de radiación es una necesidad desde el momento del descubrimiento de la radiación misma. Son muchas las tecnologías actuales empleadas para medir el nivel de radiación: contadores proporcionales, Geiger-Müller, cámaras de ionización, centelleo con tubos fotomultiplicadores, centelleo líquido, detectores de germanio, detectores de semiconductor de estado sólido (con o sin centelleador)… De todos ellos, solamente unos pocos son válidos para realizar una espectrometría gamma. Mie...

  19. Avaliação dos solos e das águas nas áreas de influência de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos de Humaitá, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benone Otávio Souza de Oliveira

    Full Text Available RESUMO: As áreas utilizadas para disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos - normalmente representados pelos "lixões" - são focos potenciais de poluição, influenciando negativamente na qualidade de vida, saúde humana e ambiental nas regiões sob sua influência. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as alterações no solo e da água na área de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos de Humaitá, Amazonas. O estudo foi realizado em solo de mata nativa, campo natural e na área de disposição de resíduos sólidos, e em curso d'águas próximos à área de disposição de resíduos sólidos. Os baixos teores de argila encontrados no solo da área de estudo o torna inadequado para disposição de resíduos sólidos. Os teores de metais pesados no solo estão dentro dos limites permitidos pela legislação. E na água, apenas o ferro encontra-se acima dos limites permitidos. O índice de qualidade da água mostrou-se bom.

  20. Cumplimiento normativo de la gestión del manejo de desechos sólidos hospitalarios en la Clínica de Jicaral de Puntarenas

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés Giutta, Rosa D.

    2013-01-01

    Se dirige la investigación al análisis del cumplimiento normativo de la gestión del manejo de los desechos sólidos hospitalarios en la Clínica de Jicaral perteneciente al Área de Salud Peninsular, C.C.S.S., en Puntarenas, realizado en el año 2003. Como antecedente de la investigación se señala la preocupación por parte de los organismos tanto internacionales como nacionales por el ambiente, los problemas existentes con relación al manejo de los desechos sólidos hos...

  1. Impacto económico del tratamiento y gestión de los residuos sólidos producidos por el Hospital Militar Central – Lima

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Torres, César Augusto; Nava Torres, César Augusto; Loayza Berrocal, Luis Alberto; Nava Torres, César Augusto

    2012-01-01

    El manejo de los residuos sólidos hospitalarios en nuestro país es uno de los aspectos de la gestión hospitalaria que ha ido tomando importancia e interés en los últimos años. Mediante la presente investigación se pretende evaluar el actual Tratamiento y Gestión de los residuos sólidos en el Hospital Militar Central (HMC) de la ciudad de Lima, analizando los servicios de salud donde los pacientes se hospitalizan y se genere la mayor cantidad de desechos, a fin de determinar las ganancias...

  2. Modelado de la inestabilidad de sólidos celulares en compresión

    OpenAIRE

    Pernich, Adriana; Flores, Fernando G.; Godoy, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    En este trabajo se utliza el método de elementos finitos para estudiar el comportamiento de estructuras celulares formadas por celdas hexagonales, bajo compresión en una dirección, con el fin de obtener los valores de los parámetros macroscópicos que definen a un sólido continuo equivalente. Estos parámetros se obtienen a partir de las respuestas calculadas para varias configuraciones de geometría. Estudios parámetros se obtienen a partir de las respuestas calculadas para varias configuracion...

  3. Ácaros (Arahcnida: Acari asociados a escarabajos pasálidos (Coleóptera: Passalidae de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Orlando Combita Heredia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron taxonómicamente a nivel de familia y en algunos casos a género, los ácaros asociados a escarabajos de la familia Passalidae de Colombia. Se hallaron 23  morfoespecies de ácaros, se identificaron ocho géneros correspondientes a 11 familias, la gran mayoría pertenecen al suborden Mesostigmata, cohorte Monogynaspida; la familia Uropodidae fue la más predominante. El género Heterocheylus se encontró asociado exclusivamente al género Passalus. Todos los individuos revisados en este trabajo presentaron evidencias de una asociación forética con los pasálidos. Fueron detectadas para algunas morfoespecies y géneros una distribución específica sobre el cuerpo del escarabajo y una repartición de los microhábitats en las superficies de adhesión del pasálido. Se hace el primer registro para Colombia de las familias Diplogynidae y Anoetidae, se proporciona una clave ilustrada para familias de América con algunos comentarios sobre las familias presentes en Colombia y se aporta una colección de referencia.

  4. Estudio cuantitativo de la reacción en estado sólido del fluorapatito

    OpenAIRE

    Traveria i Cros, Adolf; Cuevas Diarte, Miguel Ángel; Plana Llevat, Feliciano; Font-Altaba, M. (Manuel), 1922-2005

    1980-01-01

    Mediante difracción de rayos X se valora cuantitativamente el fluoruro cálcico remanente en la reacción al estado sólido con hidroxiapatito, para formar fluorapatito, a distintos tiempos y temperaturas de tratamiento térmico. Se observa que tanto el aumento de temperatura como el tiempo de calefacción hacen descender el porcentaje de fluoruro cálcico libre, que por otra parte siempre está presente, por cuanto la reacción no es total.

  5. OSTEOMETRÍA Y GENÉTICA DE LOS CAMÉLIDOS MOCHICA, COSTA NORTE DEL PERÚ / Mochica camelids osteometry and genetics, north coast of Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Félix Vásquez Sánchez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los resultados de la osteometría a dos muestras óseas de camélidos de sitios de la época Mochica (siglos I y VII d.C. en la costa norte de Perú. Los huesos analizados en este estudio son primeras falanges que provienen de dos sitios arqueológicos Mochica (Cerro Chepén y Zona Urbana Moche. Se realizaron análisis discriminantes a una muestra de 44 primeras falanges, tomando en cuenta las cinco variables que son medidas en este hueso. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la identificación de dos especies de camélidos domésticos en ambos sitios, Lama glama “llama” y Lama pacos “alpaca”. La interpretación de los resultados es discutida mediante la explicación de un modelo de especiación geográfica o vicariante de los camélidos que habitaron la costa peruana en la época Mochica. Este modelo toma en cuenta que actualmente en esta ecología no hay crianza de camélidos, así como factores genéticos y evolutivos de una nueva forma doméstica, incluyendo el efecto de la Regla de Bergmann y los nuevos pastos en la morfología de esta nueva forma de camélido doméstico que vivió en la época Mochica.Palabras claves: osteometría, genética, camélidos, especiación, Mochica  AbstractThe objective of this study was to evaluate the results of osteometric analyses applied to camelid bones samples from Moche sites (I and VII AD located on the north coast of Peru. The bones analyzed in this study correspond to first phalanges from two Moche archaeological sites (Cerro Chepén and Moche Urban Zone. Discriminant analysis was conducted on a sample of 44 first phalanges, taking into account five measurments in each bone. The results showed the identification in both sites of two species of domestic camelids, Lama glama “llama” and Lama pacos “alpaca.” The interpretation of the results is discussed by explaining a model of geographic or vicariant speciation of camelids that inhabited the coast

  6. TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DE UNA INDUSTRIA PROCESADORA DE PESCADO EN REACTORES ANAERÓBICOS DISCONTINUOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César Marín Leal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se evaluó el tratamiento de las aguas residuales de una industria procesadorade pescado de la ciudad de Manta (Ecuador, en reactores anaeróbicos discontinuos, y se estableciósu adecuación a las normas ambientales vigentes en materia de vertido. Para ello, se realizaronensayos de laboratorio en reactores discontinuos de 1 L, con un tiempo de contacto de 24 h yprovistos de un lodo anaerobio procedente de una planta de tratamiento de aguas residualesdomésticas. Dicho efluente fue diluido con agua destilada en proporciones de 33%, 66% y 100%,correspondientes a las etapas I, II y III, respectivamente. Durante cada etapa se monitorearon los siguientes parámetros, de acuerdo con los métodos estándares: pH, alcalinidad total, DBO5.20,DQO, nitrito, amonio, nitrógeno total Kjeldahl (NTK, ortofostato, sulfato, sólidos suspendidostotales (SST y sólidos suspendidos volátiles (SSV. Los resultados muestran porcentajes deremoción de materia orgánica, expresados como DBO5.20(37.9±4.1%; 41.8±7.6% y 46.2±3.2% yDQO (34.7±9.7%; 36.9±9.2% y 43.8±4.1%, para las etapas I, II y III, respectivamente, relativamentebajos como resultado del origen del inóculo usado, así como del contenido relativo de sales en elefluente industrial. Las remociones de amonio, NTK y ortofosfato estuvieron entre 60-95%, 25-37% y 6-25%, respectivamente. Bajo las condiciones de los ensayos realizados, el efluente tratadorequiriere de la aplicación de un postratamiento para reducir el contenido de materia orgánica ynutrientes a los límites permisibles de descarga establecidos en la República de Ecuador.

  7. Estrategia para el manejo integral de residuos sólidos urbanos en el municipio de Jilotepec, México.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Proyecto Terminal Profesional en el que se propone una planificación a futuro de la elaboración de una estrategia adecuada para el manejo integral de residuos sólidos urbanos sustentable, con el fin de alcanzar un estándar ambiental adecuado en el manejo de residuos.

  8. Clasificación e impacto ambiental de los residuos sólidos generados en las playas de Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Márquez Gulloso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se realizó una clasificación y valoración de impacto de los residuos sólidos generados en las playas de Riohacha, desde Valle de los Cangrejos hasta el Barrio Marbella. Se seleccionaron cinco estaciones de muestreo; en cada una se ubicaron transectos perpendiculares a la línea de costa; sobre estos se trazaron cuadrantes paralelos para la recolección de residuos sólidos. Además, se aplicaron encuestas a los usuarios y vendedores de las playas para determinar la percepción de olores ofensivos y se cuantificó la carga turística. Los datos de residuos se analizaron con el software estadístico SPSS 12,0 a través de la prueba Kruskal-wallis con el 97,5% de significancia y se valoró el impacto con el Método de Leopold (1971. En el inventario realizado los materiales que registraron mayor presencia fueron materia orgánica, plásticos, misceláneos y vidrios, siendo los residuos sólidos orgánicos los que obtuvieron mayor porcentaje. Las mayores concentraciones de usuarios se presentaron en la Zona Activa (ZA y Zona Pasiva (ZP, coincidiendo con la cantidad de residuos recolectados en cada estación de muestreo. Los olores ofensivos de mayor incidencia fueron basura, orina, excrementos humano y animal. La cantidad y el tipo de material están condicionados por las características del área y la influencia de actividades socioeconómicas. Las cantidades de residuos sólidos en las estaciones durante el 1º y 2º muestreo no presentaron diferencias significativas, siendo las principales causas de generación la disposición de desechos por residentes y visitantes, la pesca y la deposición de excrementos en la playa.

  9. Propuesta de gestión ambiental para contribuir con el fortalecimiento a la empresa asociativa solidaria recuperadores de residuos sólidos La Esperanza, en el municipio de Cartagena del Chairá, Caquetá

    OpenAIRE

    Perdomo Granja, Yenly

    2009-01-01

    Los residuos sólidos son "todo objeto, sustancia o elemento en estado sólido o semisólido que se abandona, bota o rechaza",( ) los cuales al tener un manejo y disposición final inadecuados, causan graves daños a nuestro ecosistema y por ende al hombre, que se manifiestan en el acelerado deterioro de nuestros suelos, ríos y quebradas, disminución considerable de la fauna y flora, al igual que en afecciones respiratorias y cutáneas en el ser humano, lo que se evidencia en el descenso de la cali...

  10. Gestión integral de residuos sólidos generados en hospitales y centros afines : Comparación microbiológica entre residuos sanitarios y residuos sólidos urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Mery Letelier, Francisco Santiago

    2011-01-01

    La tesis doctoral aborda temáticamente la gestión integral de los residuos sanitarios, y la caracterización de residuos generados en distintos tipos de centros sanitarios (hospital, clínicas, laboratorios clínicos y clínica veterinaria), así como de residuos sólidos urbanos, a través de su composición, parámetros físicos como la humedad y la densidad, así como de indicadores microbiológicos, culminando en una propuesta de reglamentación aplicable a la gestión de residuos sanitarios....

  11. Análisis de la gestión integral de los residuos sólidos urbanos en Mar del Plata desde un enfoque económico

    OpenAIRE

    Leis, Alejandro Nahuel

    2015-01-01

    El manejo de los residuos sólidos urbanos en Argentina conlleva principalmente dos problemáticas económicas: su elevado peso relativo en los presupuestos municipales y sus impactos ambientales, que constituyen externalidades negativas. Este trabajo analiza el sistema actual de recolección de residuos sólidos domiciliarios de la ciudad de Mar del Plata en vista de la disposición municipal que promueve la separación en origen entre orgánicos y reciclables que, a su vez, constituye uno de los ej...

  12. Tratamiento de las excretas de cerdo mediante un reactor anaeróbico SCFBR a nivel de banco Treatment of pig excreta using an SCFBR anaerobic reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caicedo Luis A.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Un nuevo reactor anaeróbico denominado Sludge Central Fixed Bed Reactor (SCFBR fue construido y evaluado para tratar los residuos líquidos de las granjas porcícolas. El SCFBR está constituido por tres zonas principales. Una zona inferior de lodos, seguida por un módulo empacado ubicado en forma concéntrica y, en la parte superior, una zona de separación sólido, líquido y gas. El reactor de 28,5 1 de volumen de reacción fue evaluado durante 210 días para tres cargas orgánicas de 0,548, 0,421 y 1,239 g DQO/ 1 día. El SCFBR fue alimentado inicialmente en forma discontinua con tiempos de retención hidráulicos (TRH de 10 y 10,7 días. Posteriormente el TRH fue disminuido a 3,87 días con una alimentación en continuo. Para las tres cargas orgánicas de 0,548, 0,421 y 1,239 g DQO/1 día se obtuvieron remociones en la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO de 68%, 81% y 73% y en los sólidos volátiles (SV, de 53,5%, 55,8% y 50,1%, respectivamente. El SCFBR presentó un buen desempeño, re-presentado en las eficiencias de remoción y en la estabilidad observada. Se presenta una microfotografía tomada de una muestra de lodo de la zona inferior del SCFBR, observándose una gran presencia de microorganismos del género Methanosaeta (Methanothrix.

    A new anaerobic reactor called the Sludge Central Fixed Bed Reactor (SCFBR was built and evaluated for the treatment of liquid residue from the pig farms. The SCFBR has three main parts. The lower area is for sludge, the middle part consists of a concentrically

  13. Remoção de sólidos suspensos e totais em biofiltros operando com esgoto doméstico primário para reuso na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Oliveira Batista

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou analisar a remoção de sólidos suspensos e totais em biofiltros, preenchidos com lixo compostado, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e serragem de madeira, submetidos às taxas de aplicação do esgoto doméstico de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m³ m-2 d-1, em Viçosa-MG. Para isso, foi montada uma bancada experimental, constituída de 27 biofiltros, em área experimental da Universidade Federal de Viçosa. As concentrações de sólidos suspensos e totais foram determinadas, mensalmente, durante período de 153 dias. O experimento foi montado no esquema de parcelas subsubdivididas, tendo, nas parcelas, as taxas de aplicação do esgoto doméstico; nas subparcelas, os tipos de material orgânico e, nas subsubparcelas, os períodos de avaliação, no delineamento em blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Os resultados indicaram que os biofiltros proporcionaram remoções de sólidos suspensos e totais de até 82 e 46%, no esgoto doméstico, após 153 dias de operação; a serragem de madeira foi o tipo de material orgânico filtrante com melhor desempenho no tratamento de esgoto doméstico; as aplicações de taxas de 0,5, 1,0 e 1,5 m³ m-2 d-1 de esgoto não apresentaram diferenças quanto à remoção de sólidos suspensos e totais; e a utilização de biofiltros minimiza a obstrução de emissores causada por sólidos suspensos, quando do aproveitamento agrícola de esgoto doméstico, por via do sistema de irrigação por gotejamento.

  14. Gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos industriais em uma empresa de usinagem sobre o enfoque da produção mais limpa

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Simião

    2011-01-01

    As atividades industriais geram resíduos sólidos, de diferentes características e quantidades, que precisam ser gerenciados adequadamente para não causar poluição ambiental e danos à saúde do homem. A Lei n.o 12.305/2010, que institui a Política Nacional dos Resíduos Sólidos, estabelece a seguinte ordem de prioridade no gerenciamento dos resíduos: não geração, redução, reutilização, reciclagem, tratamento dos resíduos e disposição final ambientalmente adequada dos rejeitos. A adoção destas es...

  15. La problemática del manejo de los residuos sólidos en seis municipios del sur de Zacatecas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germaín A. Castañeda Delgado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available los objetivos de la presente investigación son determinar la cantidad de residuos sólidos generados en seis municipios del estado de Zacatecas, México, y comparar su composición porcentual en peso y volumen. Los resultados muestran la complejidad para el tratamiento y la disposición final de residuos sólidos en los municipios rurales y urbanos, debido a los grandes volúmenes generados y a los cambios en los patrones de consumo, que revelan la necesidad de emprender proyectos enfocados a su reducción, reciclaje, reutilización y valorización energética en los municipios analizados, además pueden servir para evaluar el inicio de acciones conjuntas entre ciudadanos y autoridades municipales para su tratamiento y disposición final. Esta investigación pretende contribuir al entendimiento de los problemas asociados a la disposición final de residuos en el estado de Zacatecas.

  16. Impacto ambiental del manejo de desechos sólidos ordinarios en una comunidad rural

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Jiménez, Juan Carlos; Quesada Carvajal, Hilda

    2006-01-01

    El propósito de este artículo es identificar y evaluarlos impactos ambientales en cada una de las etapas de la actividad de recuperación de desechos sólidos ordinarios en una comunidad rural. Con el fin de definir las acciones por ejecutar para prever, impedir, minimizar y mitigar los efectos adversos sobre el entorno natural y social. La recuperación de los desechos ordinarios en comunidades rurales tiene un enfoque ambientalista, pero sus actividades deben planificarse de tal modo que mitig...

  17. Modelling the risk of nitrate leaching from two soils amended with five different biosolids Modelagem do risco de lixiviação de nitrato em dois solos tratados com cinco diferentes biossólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available High N concentrations in biosolids are one of the strongest reasons for their agricultural use. However, it is essential to understand the fate of N in soils treated with biosolids for both plant nutrition and managing the environmental risk of NO3--N leaching. This work aimed at evaluating the risk of NO3--N leaching from a Spodosol and an Oxisol, each one treated with 0.5-8.0 dry Mg ha-1 of fresh tertiary sewage sludge, composted biosolids, limed biosolids, heat-dried biosolids and solar-irradiated biosolids. Results indicated that under similar application rates NO3--N accumulated up to three times more in the 20 cm topsoil of the Oxisol than the Spodosol. However, a higher water content held at field capacity in the Oxisol compensated for the greater nitrate concentrations. A 20 % NO3--N loss from the root zone in the amended Oxisol could be expected. Depending on the biosolids type, 42 to 76 % of the NO3--N accumulated in the Spodosol could be expected to leach down from the amended 20 cm topsoil. NO3--N expected to leach from the Spodosol ranged from 0.8 (composted sludge to 3.5 times (limed sludge the amounts leaching from the Oxisol treated alike. Nevertheless, the risk of NO3--N groundwater contamination as a result of a single biosolids land application at 0.5-8.0 dry Mg ha-1 could be considered low.Concentrações altas de nitrogênio (N em biossólidos são uma das maiores razões para a utilização agronômica deles. Entretanto, é essencial entender o destino do N em solos tratados com biossólidos, tanto por motivos de nutrição vegetal quanto para manejar o risco ambiental representado pela lixiviação de nitrato. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o risco de lixiviação de nitrato em um Espodossolo e em um Latossolo, cada um tratado com doses de 0,5 a 8,0 Mg ha-1 de biossólido fresco, biossólido compostado, biossólido caleado, biossólido seco a calor e biossólido irradiado por sol. Os resultados mostraram que

  18. Perfil Económico Del Mercado de Residuos Sólidos: Un Estudio de Caso en Cuiabá/Várzea Grande (Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélde Araújo Domingos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La coyuntura socio ambiental y urbano de los municipios brasileños tiene como principal desafío la gestión ambiental en su espacio. Por medio de una investigación en el campo y utilizando estadística descriptiva, fue realizada una caracterización del perfil económico de las empresas de residuos sólidos en Cuiabá y Várzea Grande (Brasil. Los resultados indican que el sector fue responsable por el reciclaje de un 30,3% de los residuos en estos municipios brasileños en el año de 2010, sino que el Gobierno no ha ayudado las firmas con políticas económicas. Las inversiones totales privadas llegaran a 1,2 millones de reales, generando empleos y renta en la economía local, desplazadas por los sectores comerciales, industriales y las cooperativas. El mercado de reciclaje es parte estratégica hacia el desafío de la modernización en la gestión de los residuos sólidos. La creación de políticas públicas e incentivos fiscales para el sector productivo es un costo de oportunidad que puede apalancar las tasas de reciclaje. El trabajo proporciona importantes aspectos sociales y económicos de la gestión de los residuos sólidos en centros urbanos.

  19. Diagnóstico preliminar, base para la construcción de un programa de manejo de residuos sólidos en la universidad de san buenaventura, cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    RÍOS MONTES, KARINA ANDREA; ECHEVERRI JARAMILLOM, GUSTAVO EUGENIO

    2012-01-01

    Los residuos sólidos pueden generar impactos negativos al ambiente y al ser humano por causa de un manejo inadecuado. Las universidades deben contemplar su manejo en las etapas de generación, recolección y disposición final, e incluir su valoración. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, cuyo objetivo fue realizar un diagnóstico preliminar sobre el manejo de residuos sólidos, incluyendo percepción, conocimiento y recomendaciones dadas por la comunidad universitaria, para cont...

  20. The detection, causes and repair of the small steam leaks in the PFR evaporator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, J.A.; Broomfield, A.M.; Anderson, R.

    1984-01-01

    The occurrence of a number of small steam leaks into the gas space above the sodium in the evaporator units of the UKAEA's Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay has had a significant impact on plant availability. The paper describes experience with the leak detection system and the phenomena which have caused the leaks and an outline is given of the measures which have been introduced to remedy the problem. (author)

  1. Residuos sólidos en América Latina: gestión, políticas públicas y conflictos socioambientales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Cuvi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Basura. Así la llamamos la mayoría de las veces. Porque en ocasiones, tecnicismos como residuos sólidos suenan más bien a eufemismos. ¿Acaso no estamos hablando de la basura de toda la vida? Y sin embargo, la transformación del lenguaje en torno a las excrecencias sólidas del metabolismo social tiene un sentido: convertir a la basura en algo menos alejado, menos oloroso, menos desagradable, menos peyorativo, menos asociado con lo que no queremos ver. Convertirla en un algo sobre el cual tenemos una responsabilidad, y que si lo llamásemos basura, nos remitiría hacia algo que no nos compete más allá del deshacernos de ella. Tiene sentido el cambio, entonces, porque esa basura (ahora residuo sólido que queremos alejar de nuestras casas, instituciones, industrias, requiere de nuestra atención para que genere menos problemas y quizás algunas oportunidades.

  2. La gestión integral de residuos sólidos urbanos en México: entre la intención y la realidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Merary Jiménez Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentar un marco de referencia que nos permita juzgar el estado actual de la gestión de los residuos sólidos urbanos en México constituye una tarea fundamental al emprender un análisis sobre este tema, por ello nos propusimos dar cuenta de los avances, los obstáculos y las inercias presentes al llevar a cabo la implementación del también llamado modelo de sustentabilidad de residuos.A esta inquietud intentamos responder en este artículo, cuyo objetivo es presentar cómo enfrentamos en México el problema de los residuos, con qué recursos e instrumentos políticos, legales, tecnológicos. Mostrar sus características básicas --generación y composición-; dar cuenta de la evolución del perfil institucional que se ha hecho cargo de los mismos y del marco legal y programático en que su manejo está inscrito.Los resultados dan cuenta que la gestión integral de los residuos sólidos urbanos continúa siendo una tarea pendiente y que el estado actual de su implementación ha provocado diferencias territoriales significativas que apuntan hacia la construcción de una nueva geografía: la generada por la crisis ambiental relacionada al manejo que reciben los  residuos sólidos en el país.

  3. MANEJO DE DEJETOS SÓLIDOS DE POEDEIRAS PELO PROCESSO DE BIODIGESTÃO ANAERÓBICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando Lemos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As indústrias avícolas de poedeiras, além de ovos, geram anualmente um grande volume de resíduos na forma de esterco. O esterco de ave poedeira é o principal resíduo gerado na indústria de produção de ovos e requer uma infraestrutura para o tratamento adequado. Sendo assim, o objetivo desta revisão visa abordar o manejo de resíduos sólidos de poedeira, em particular com o uso do biodigestor como forma de minimizar os impactos ambientais negativos causados pela atividade avícola. Nesse sentido, ressalta-se que a biodigestão anaeróbica ajuda a minimizar os impactos negativos que são gerados ao meio ambiente, reduzindo assim os riscos ambientais e melhorando a qualidade de vida. Salienta-se, todavia, que, existem casos ainda em que estes resíduos têm sido utilizados como fertilizantes, mas sem prévio tratamento e controle sanitário antes da aplicação no solo. Os dejetos de aviários apresentam o potencial de ser tanto um recurso como um poluente. Em resumo, sob o aspecto das práticas adequadas de manejo dos resíduos, o biodigestor é uma alternativa para o tratamento do esterco de ave poedeira. Conclui-se que o manejo e tratamento de resíduos sólidos de poedeiras pelo processo de biodigestão anaeróbica representa uma forma ambientalmente recomendável.

  4. Proyecto de factibilidad para la implantación de un sistema de recolección de residuos sólidos en la ciudad de Quito parroquia calderón

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo Narváez, Sandy Viviana; Vinueza Bracero, Diana Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Actualmente el sistema de Recolección de Desechos Sólidos presenta deficiencias en su manejo, ocasionando, así, problemas directos sobre la población, por este motivo el presente documento se ha elaborado con el objetivo de analizar la factibilidad de implantación de un servicio de soporte para el actual sistema de recolección de desechos sólidos en el cantón de Quito, parroquia Calderón, el cual consiste en la propuesta de un servicio de contenedore...

  5. Caracterização do Resíduo Sólido Proveniente do Processo de Beneficiamento de Areia e sua Viabilidade de Uso em Cerâmica.

    OpenAIRE

    BIFF, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo efetuar a caracterização química e física do resíduo sólido proveniente do processo de beneficiamento de areia industrial, areia esta destinada às indústrias cerâmicas, vidro e de fundição. Adicionalmente foi avaliado o potencial uso do resíduo na indústria de revestimentos cerâmicos em substituição às matérias-primas convencionalmente utilizadas na composição das massas cerâmicas. O resíduo sólido, objeto deste estudo foi gerado pelo processo de ben...

  6. Estudio mecánico e hidrodinámico de un reactor de gasificación de lecho fluidizado. // Mechanic and hydrodynamic study of a fluidized bed gasification reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rosales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una simulación mediante Elementos Finitos y CFD de un prototipo de gasificador experimental a partir de unageometría propuesta. Se abordan aspectos termomecánicos, al calcularse las deformaciones originadas en el equipo,producto de su peso, en las condiciones de emplazamiento y la carga térmica a la que se somete. También se considera elflujo multifásico gas-sólido presente en el lecho fluidizado, se determina el rango de presiones y velocidades de trabajo deldispositivo, y se estudia la evolución del flujo. Para ello se utiliza el modelo de fuerza de arrastre y presión de sólido deGidaspow, así como los criterios de velocidad mínima de fluidización de Wen & Yu y Kunii & Levenspiel.Palabras claves: Gasificación, lecho fluidizado, CFD, FEM, flujo multifásico.______________________________________________________________________________Abstract.A Finite Element and CFD simulations were conducted to a prototype of experimental gasifier, starting from a proposedgeometry. Thermomechanic aspects are briefed, calculating the reactor deformation, due to its weight and the thermic load.The gas-solid multiphase flow, present on the fluidized bed was also considered, the working range for the pressure andvelocity fields were determined and the flow evolution was studied. The drag force and solid pressure models byGidaspow, and the minimum fluidization velocity criteria, by Wen & Yu and Kunii & Levenspiel were used.Key words: gasification, fluidized bed, CFD, Finite Element, Multiphase Flow.

  7. Resíduos Sólidos na Bacia do Rio Ivinhema-MS | Solid Waste in River Basin Ivinhema-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Akemi Ikuta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE Introdução: O trabalho apresenta parte dos resultados da pesquisa intitulada “Geração e disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos e as formas de organização dos trabalhadores catadores de resíduos recicláveis nos municípios localizados na bacia do rio Ivinhema-MS”, realizada com apoio do CNPq. A área estudada compreende um conjunto de 25 municípios, localizados na bacia do Rio Ivinhema, na região sudeste do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, com uma população total aproximada de 675.569 habitantes, sendo 81,92% urbana (IBGE, Censo 2010. Dentre os principais objetivos destacam-se: realizar um diagnóstico da situação da produção e destinação de resíduos sólidos; e contribuir para a identificação de ações prioritárias a serem desenvolvidas na área, tendo em vista o melhor gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos. Metodologia/Desenvolvimento: O desenvolvimento da pesquisa apoiou-se em ampla revisão bibliográfica sobre as principais questões teórico-metodológicas ligadas ao tema escolhido, o que fundamentou sua melhor compreensão e orientação da pesquisa, bem como a coleta de dados de fontes secundárias. Os principais instrumentos utilizados para a coleta de dados foram: questionários, aplicados junto às prefeituras municipais, empresas envolvidas no manejo de resíduos e organizações de catadores (associações ou cooperativas; entrevistas não estruturadas, para esclarecimento de dúvidas sobre os questionários e complementação de informações; e observações realizadas em trabalho de campo nos locais de disposição dos diversos tipos de resíduos sólidos urbanos, para complementar dados, obter informações com registros fotográficos e confrontar os dados informados em questionários. Após a coleta, foi realizada a tabulação e sistematização, facilitando a verificação de semelhanças, diferenças, relações e inter-relações entre os dados. Em

  8. Situación de la Gestión de Residuos Sólidos en las Municipalidades en Costa Rica: Recolección, disposición y recuperación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Gaviria Montoya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una primera aproximación sobre la situación de la gestión de residuos sólidos en municipalidades costarricenses; los resultados provienen del proyecto “Herramientas de Gestión Ambiental Municipal”, financiado por la Vicerrectoría de Investigación del ITCR. Se describe parte de los resultados del I Encuentro Nacional de Municipalidades en torno al Manejo Adecuado de los Desechos Sólidos Municipales, realizado los días 20 y 21 de junio del 2005, al cual se convocó a todas las municipalidades de Costa Rica y en el que se desarrolló una metodología participativa con funcionarios municipales, a quienes se les solicitó información del funcionamiento y gestión de los residuos sólidos de la municipalidad que representaban. A la fecha, ninguna de las municipalidades consultadas tiene un planeamiento estructurado a mediano y largo plazos, que garantice la atenuación de los impactos ambientales de los residuos en su comuna. 

  9. Los Residuos Sólidos en el Sur de Tamaulipas y sus implicaciones socioeconómicas

    OpenAIRE

    Treviño Hernández, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    La presente investigación aborda, desde la perspectiva de la planeación territorial, uno de los principales problemas de las ciudades, como es la Gestión Integral de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (RSU) y sus implicaciones socioeconómicas; esto es debido al constante crecimiento de la población y al continuo cambio en los patrones de consumo. Este trabajo se organiza en una presentación de la investigación y cuatro partes: La presentación se inicia con una introducción donde se aborda de ...

  10. Resíduos sólidos de serviços de saúde: uma fotografia do comprometimento da equipe de enfermagem Residuos sólidos de servicios de salud: una fotografía del comprometimiento del equipo de enfermería Solid waste of health services: a photograph of the commitment of nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuy Meotti Doi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho investigou os conhecimentos e atitudes dos profissionais da equipe de enfermagem do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA, Rio Grande do Sul, em relação ao descarte dos resíduos sólidos dos serviços de saúde (RSSS. Realizou-se uma pesquisa de natureza exploratória descritiva, através de uma abordagem qualitativa. Os dados foram obtidos a partir de entrevistas semi-estruturadas aplicadas a 24 profissionais da equipe de enfermagem. Os dados foram categorizados através da análise de conteúdo, tendo sido identificadas quatro categorias: Significado da expressão resíduos sólidos de serviços de saúde; Separação dos resíduos sólidos dos serviços de saúde; Realização do curso/conhecimento e Profissionais que não realizam a separação. Os resultados ratificaram a importância de tratar com maior seriedade a questão apresentada, reforçando a necessidade do acesso às orientações adequadas.El presente trabajo pretiende investigar los conocimientos y actitudes de los profesionales del equipo de enfermería del Hospital de Clínicas de Porto (HCPA, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, en relación al descarte de los residuos sólidos de los servicios de salud (RSSS. Fue realizada una pesquisa de naturaleza exploratoria descriptiva, a través de un abordaje cualitativo. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir de encuestas semi estructuradas aplicadas a 24 profesionales del equipo de enfermaje. Se buscó la categorización de los datos a través del análisis de contenido. Fueron identificadas cuatro categorías: Significado de la palabra residuos sólidos de servicios de salud; Separación de los residuos sólidos de los servicios de salud; Realización del curso/conocimiento y Profesionales que no realizan la separación. Con los resultados, se ratificó la importancia de tratar con mayor seriedad la cuestión presentada, reforzando la necesidad del acceso a las orientaciones adecuadas.This work investigated the

  11. Development of square and hexagonal lattice analysis capability in WIMS-AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, J.V.

    1990-11-01

    WIMS, originally developed by the UKAEA (Winfrith), is a widely used computer code for reactor physics analysis of lattice cells. WIMS-AECL (Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) has been developed from a version of the code received from Winfrith in the early 1970s and is generally used within AECL. The facilities existing in the original version of WIMS were very capable for the analysis of reactor designs normally encountered within AECL at that time, such as CANDU fuel lattices, but had limitations in the analysis of more general reactor geometries, such as square light-reactor assemblies. This paper discusses the development and testing of modifications to the two-dimensional collision-probability calculation module in WIMS-AECL to enable more rigorous analysis of lattice geometries based on square or hexagonal cells

  12. Evolução e desafios no gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Fernandez Nascimento

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A geração dos resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU no Brasil vem aumentando ao longo do tempo, com alterações na qualidade do resíduo, o que levanta discussões a respeito do gerenciamento e da importância em se destinar estes resíduos adequadamente. Atualmente as questões que envolvem a gestão dos RSU têm enfoque central no cumprimento de políticas públicas. A partir da implementação efetiva da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos (PNRS - lei nº 12.305/2010 é que se esperam mudanças no panorama dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil. Por conta disso, este trabalho faz um levantamento bibliográfico que tem como objetivo abordar aspectos sobre os RSU no Brasil, considerando aqueles esperados para acontecer no setor público após a implementação da PNRS. Os dados apresentados e discutidos permitiram entender a evolução da gestão dos RSU no Brasil e alguns desafios para o cumprimento das determinações da PNRS, como, por exemplo, a expansão da coleta e tratamento dos RSU, o papel mais ativo da sociedade nos processos que envolvem a separação dos resíduos e a dificuldade da erradicação de lixões e sua substituição por aterros sanitários. Em geral, apesar de terem ocorrido melhoras no gerenciamento dos RSU, estas não foram suficientes para que as mudanças propostas pela PNRS fossem cumpridas e para que se estabeleça uma gestão integrada de RSU mais eficaz e sustentável tanto ao meio ambiente quanto à sociedade, denotando a emergência de soluções estruturais no setor de gerenciamentos dos RSU no Brasil.

  13. Eficiência agronômica de fertilizantes fosfatados fluidos e sólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Scivittaro

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento para avaliar a eficiência agronômica de fertilizantes fosfatados fluidos e sólidos foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação no Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - CENA/USP, em Piracicaba (SP, de junho a outubro de 1992. Plantas de milho foram cultivadas durante 30 dias, por três cultivos sucessivos, em vasos contendo 1 kg de dois latossolos vermelho-amarelos com diferentes capacidades de retenção de fósforo. Os fosfatos na forma fluida - ácido fosfórico e suspensão coloidal 10-30-00 e sólida - fosfato monoamônico e superfosfato triplo foram aplicados no primeiro cultivo nas doses 0, 70, 140 e 210 mg kg-1 de P2O5 (0, 30,6, 61,2 e 91,8 mg kg-1 de P. Avaliaram-se os tratamentos pelo rendimento de matéria seca, pela absorção de fósforo e pelos índices: de eficiência agronômica (IEA e equivalente em superfosfato triplo (EqST. Os resultados indicaram não haver diferenças entre as fontes fosfatadas fluidas e sólidas quanto ao seu efeito sobre a produção de matéria seca e absorção de fósforo pelas plantas de milho. Entretanto, a aplicação de doses crescentes dos fosfatos aos solos promoveu aumentos significativos no rendimento de matéria seca e absorção de fósforo. Em ambos os solos, a eficiência agronômica dos fertilizantes fosfatados fluidos e sólidos foi semelhante.

  14. Comparison of computer codes related to the sodium oxide aerosol behavior in a containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermandjian, J.

    1984-09-01

    In order to ensure that the problems of describing the physical behavior of sodium aerosols, during hypothetical fast reactor accidents, were adequately understood, a comparison of the computer codes (ABC/INTG, PNC, Japan; AEROSIM, UKAEA/SRD, United Kingdom; PARDISEKO IIIb, KfK, Germany; AEROSOLS/A2 and AEROSOLS/B1, CEA France) was undertaken in the frame of the CEC: exercise in which code users have run their own codes with a prearranged input

  15. Recuperación y cierre de áreas degradadas por residuos sólidos en las Pampas de Reque: estudio de impacto ambiental - distrito de Reque, Lambayeque 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Sánchez, Segundo Néstor

    2012-01-01

    El presente Estudio de investigación, consistió en revisar la normatividad referente a la formulación de Estudios de Impacto Ambiental del proyectos de cierre y recuperación de áreas degradadas por contaminación de residuos sólidos; para proponer el Estudio de Impacto Ambiental (EIA) del proyecto de inversión Pública denominado "Recuperación y Cierre de Áreas Degradadas por Residuos Sólidos en las Pampas de Reque", formulado a nivel de perfil, en su fase de pre inversión. El problema de la pr...

  16. Diagnose foliar em mudas de pinhão-manso (Jatropha Curcas L. produzidas com biossólido Foliar analysis of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. seedlings grown with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirio C. D. Maldonado Reginaldo de Camargo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso do biossólido na agricultura tem-se mostrado a melhor alternativa ambiental e econômica para o destino do lodo de esgoto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial nutricional do biossólido para produção de mudas de pinhão-manso em tubetes. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação tendo, como substrato, esterco bovino, vermiculita e biossólido. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, correspondendo às concentrações de biossólido no substrato (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% e ao tratamento ou não das sementes de pinhão-manso com fungicida. Aos 60 dias foi realizada análise foliar. Relativo às concentrações de biossólido verificou-se efeito significativo para os macronutrientes N, P, Ca, Mg e S e micronutrientes B, Cu, Mn e Zn. O tratamento de sementes teve efeito significativo para o Zn. As folhas apresentaram concentração de macronutrientes com a seguinte ordem: N > K > Mg > Ca > P > S. O acúmulo de micronutrientes apresentou a seguinte ordem: Fé > Mn >Zn > B > Cu. Há grande contribuição do biossólido nos teores de nitrogênio, enxofre e micronutrientes foliares, em plantas de pinhão-manso.The use of biosolids in agriculture has proven to be the best alternative for the environmental and economic destination of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of biosolids to produce jatropha seedlings in polytube. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using as substrate manure, biosolids and vermiculite. The experimental design was in randomized block with three replications in a 5 x 2 factorial, corresponding to the substrate concentrations in sewage sludge (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, and the treatment or not of the seeds of jatropha with fungicide. At 60 days, leaf analysis was performed. Regarding the biosolids concentrations, significant effect was verified for the macronutrients N, P, Ca, Mg and S

  17. Summary of case studies presented at the WPDD topical session on stakeholder involvement in decommissioning projects - november 14, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Two case studies were presented on experiences with stakeholder involvement in decommissioning projects. The first paper described the development of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's (UKAEA) stakeholder involvement activities for the Dounreay Nuclear Reactor Test Establishment. The second paper presented the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory process for decommissioning that includes opportunities for public involvement. The presentation contrasted the stakeholder involvement for two commercial US nuclear power plants (NPPs) that completed decommissioning in 2005, the Trojan NPP and the Maine Yankee NPP. The two case studies highlighted the importance of involving stakeholders in decommissioning projects, and provide important lessons learned. The Dounreay case study demonstrated the UKAEA's determination and commitment to continuously improve its stakeholder engagement program. In 2002, the UKAEA set out to broaden its stakeholder program by improving both public understanding and participation. With regard to public understanding, the UKAEA committed to keep the public informed on decommissioning developments, and ensure that communication was in an understandable form. To improve participation, the UKAEA actively worked to identify and engage stakeholders. The UKAEA then made efforts to involve stakeholders in decision-making activities, including the use of stakeholder panels to discuss and consider options for specific aspects of the Dounreay decommissioning and site restoration plan. In 2004, the UKAEA commissioned an independent review of its stakeholder involvement program to assess the program's effectiveness and benchmark it against best practices. The program was found to be useful, and positive feedback was provided on the use of stakeholder panels and the UKAEA's determination to deliver a broad based and effective stakeholder strategy. Recommendations to UKAEA included involving stakeholders

  18. LIBROS DIDÁCTICOS DE GEOGRAFÍA DE ENSEÑANZA BÁSICA: una propuesta para el tratamiento del tema de los residuos sólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Cristiane Dias Sobarzo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo se aborda el tratamiento del tema de residuos sólidos en los libros didácticos. El objetivo principal es analizar la importancia de ese material en la práctica pedagógica, además de delimitar los avances, las prioridades, las lagunas y la fragmentación, relacionados a esa temática, que se identifican en los libros didácticos de Geografía del segundo ciclo de la enseñanza básica. A partir de los análisis expuestos se pretende contribuir para que las discusiones del tema, realizadas en el ámbito científico, sean materializadas en las salas de clases, además de sugerir medidas metodológicas y teóricas que auxilien en la adquisición de los conocimientos. En términos operacionales, fueron analizadas las colecciones seleccionadas por el Programa Nacional del Libro Didáctico (PNLD en 2007, con base en directrices formuladas por profesores universitarios que realizan investigaciones vinculadas a la temática de los residuos sólidos. Los principales resultados alcanzados indican que en los libros existe la tendencia al tratamiento de los temas sobre residuos sólidos como un problema de la sociedad. Aunque exista en algunas colecciones la preocupación en proponer formas de reducción del consumo, del desperdicio y alternativas de reutilización, esas informaciones aparecen de forma puntual, dificultando la construcción del conocimiento acerca del asunto. RESUMO: Este artigo tem como finalidade demonstrar como é tratado o tema de resíduos sólidos nos livros didáticos. O objetivo é analisar a importância desse material em sala de aula, além de delimitar os avanços, as prioridades, as lacunas e a fragmentação relacionadas ao tema de resíduos sólidos, presentes nos livros didáticos de Geografia do segundo ciclo do ensino fundamental. O intuito é contribuir para que a discussão do tema, realizada no âmbito científico, seja materializada nas salas de aula, além de apresentar sugestões te

  19. Radiation protection in the decommissioning of a post accident reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.; Wilkinson, J.L.; Dalton, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the control and limitation of dose uptake to operators during the early stages of decommissioning of the Windscale Piles. This was achieved by careful planning, the use of inactive trials. thoughtful use of remote handling techniques and review and feedback of information. Built between 1947 and 1950, the Windscale Piles were shut down following the Windscale Incident in 1957. UKAEA Government Division are now undertaking the early stages of decommissioning of these facilities, removing material from the air and water ducts and preparing for subsequent core removal. As part of the overall strategy of UKAEA GD, this work is being carried out using contract staff including the use of a Managing Agency, W S Atkins (Northern). Decommissioning utilizes the same means of dose reduction and control as any other nuclear operation although sometimes in novel ways. In the Windscale Piles, fully remote operations have been used to remove fuel and debris from the environs of the core which was damaged during the 1957 incident. Much use has also been made of training in mock-up facilities allowing manual techniques to be used for some jobs. The implications of using various different contractors rather than an in-house team is also discussed. It is concluded that decommissioning of major facilities can be carried out within acceptable dose uptake criteria by utilising both novel and adaptations of traditional, active handling techniques. (author)

  20. Perspectiva bioenergética de los residuos sólidos urbanos en el Valle de Lerma

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, Silvina Magdalena; Franco, Ada Judith; Núñez, Virgilio; Seghezzo, Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Los residuos sólidos urbanos (RSU), que tradicionalmente se han depositado a cielo abierto en el Valle de Lerma (Salta), podrían comenzar a ser dispuestos en un relleno sanitario regional en función de un proyecto provincial existente. El mencionado proyecto no incluye el aprovechamiento de la energía contenida en los RSU. En este trabajo se consideraron como recursos bioenergéticos potenciales. Dos clases de estimaciones fueron realizadas a partir de diferentes metodologías: a) poder caloríf...

  1. Impacto ambiental del manejo de desechos sólidos ordinarios en una comunidad rural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Salas Jiménez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es identificar y evaluarlos impactos ambientales en cada una de las etapas de la actividad de recuperación de desechos sólidos ordinarios en una comunidad rural. Con el fin de definir las acciones por ejecutar para prever, impedir, minimizar y mitigar los efectos adversos sobre el entorno natural y social. La recuperación de los desechos ordinarios en comunidades rurales tiene un enfoque ambientalista, pero sus actividades deben planificarse de tal modo que mitiguen los impactos negativos, principalmente por la degradación estética del ambiente.

  2. Quantificação de resíduos sólidos na drenagem urbana

    OpenAIRE

    Marllus Gustavo Ferreira Passos das Neves

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho é quantificar os resíduos sólidos que atingem a rede de drenagem de águas pluviais, isto é, plásticos, vidros, papéis e outros que podem ter destinação mais adequada do que a mais comum nos países em desenvolvimento: cursos d’água, ruas e outros locais inadequados. A quantificação do lixo foi realizada a partir da pesagem do material que atingiu o poço da casa de bombas de número 12, situada o parque Marinha do Brasil em Porto Alegre. Logo a montante desta casa de bo...

  3. Efecto de la aplicación de elicitores sobre la producción de 4-hidroxiwithanólido E, en raíces transformadas de Physalis peruviana L.

    OpenAIRE

    Piñeros-Castro, Yineth; Programa de Ingeniería de Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano. Carrera 4 # 22-60. Bogotá; Otálvaro-Álvarez, Ángela; Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Carrera 30 # 45-03. Bogotá; Velásquez-Lozano, Mario; Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Ambiental, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Carrera 30 # 45-03. Bogotá

    2009-01-01

    Efecto de la aplicación de elicitores sobre la producción de 4b- hidroxiwithanólido E, en raíces transformadas de Physalis peruviana L.  Objetivo: Estudiar la producción del metabolito  4b-hidroxiwithanólido E,  mediante el cultivo in vitro de raíces transformadas de uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) y evaluar el efecto de la influencia de la aplicación de diferentes elicitores sobre la producción de dicho metabolito.  Materiales y métodos: Se obtuvieron raíces transformadas de Physalis peruvian...

  4. Responding to change - The evolution of operator training for the PFR liquid metals disposal project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashmore, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    On March 31, 1994 the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland, shut down for the last time. Eight years under construction; an operating life of 20 years; and now PFR had entered what was potentially the longest phase of its career - decommissioning. The initial decommissioning phase started immediately after the reactor shut down. All fuel was removed from the core, conditioned and sent to interim storage pending on-site reprocessing. Likewise the strip out of the turbine hall was a conventional operation, completed, like defueling, within budget and time-scale, leaving a large empty building together with some 1500 te of liquid metals which had to be disposed of. Of the total PFR liquid metals inventory, 900 te were active sodium, 585 te non-active sodium, and the remainder was the sodium/potassium mixture, NaK. Early disposal of this potentially dangerous legacy was clearly a high priority. Experience gained at DFR, the famous Dounreay Fast Reactor, had shown that reacting sodium with a high molarity caustic solution, then neutralizing the resulting effluent with acid to form a salt solution suitable for discharge to sea was the safest and most efficient disposal method. In 1993, a proposal was put forward for a sodium disposal plant. For the whole of its operational life, PFR had been managed and run by the UKAEA, a Government body that had been set up in 1954 and which embodied many of the UK civil service traditions and practices. The management and staffing requirements for the proposed PFR sodium disposal plant initially reflected the civil service background of its designers. The plant was to be operated continuously by 5 shift teams working a 3-shift system. Since its inception UKAEA had been involved in commercial ventures, especially in the fields of isotope production, the hiring out of irradiation facilities, and the fabrication and reprocessing of research reactor fuels; all these being lucrative income streams that

  5. Estudio mecánico e hidrodinámico de un reactor de gasificación de lecho fluidizado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rosales

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una simulación mediante Elementos Finitos y CFD de un prototipo de gasificador experimental a partir de una geometría propuesta. Se abordan aspectos termomecánicos, al calcularse las deformaciones originadas en el equipo, producto de su peso, en las condiciones de emplazamiento y la carga térmica a la que se somete. También se considera el flujo multifásico gas-sólido presente en el lecho fluidizado, se determina el rango de presiones y velocidades de trabajo del dispositivo, y se estudia la evolución del flujo. Para ello se utiliza el modelo de fuerza de arrastre y presión de sólido de Gidaspow, así como los criterios de velocidad mínima de fluidización de Wen & Yu y Kunii & Levenspiel.A Finite Element and CFD simulations were conducted to a prototype of experimental gasifier, starting from a proposed geometry. Thermomechanic aspects are briefed, calculating the reactor deformation, due to its weight and the thermic load. The gas-solid multiphase flow, present on the fluidized bed was also considered, the working range for the pressure and velocity fields were determined and the flow evolution was studied. The drag force and solid pressure models by Gidaspow, and the minimum fluidization velocity criteria, by Wen & Yu and Kunii & Levenspiel were used.

  6. Adsorbentes sólidos de origen natural para metales pesados en solución acuosa

    OpenAIRE

    Ángeles Villón, Luis Rosas

    2013-01-01

    En la presente investigación se plantea el resumir y ordenar las investigaciones respecto a los a los adsorbentes sólidos de origen natural para metales pesados en solución acuosa, a través de la clasificación de los mismos por su origen natural, el presentar los parámetros más utilizados en la caracterización de (los adsorbentes, así como en los procesos de adsorción e identificar los adsorbentes de origen natural con capacidad de ser reutilizados. Es así que se ha efectuado esta clasific...

  7. Compostaje de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de águas residuales Plant biosolids composting of wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a compostagem dos biossólidos gerados na Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos - ETE, de Cañaveralejo, da cidade de Cali - Colômbia. Ainda que o processo se mostrasse viável, a incorporação de materiais de suporte e emenda foi favorável ao mesmo e à qualidade do produto final ao melhorar as condições de manejo, estrutura e porosidade do biossólido (B, além de melhorar as relações carbono/nitrogênio. Dos materiais avaliados, os que apresentaram melhor desempenho como materiais de suporte (MS e Emenda (ME, foram os resíduos de poda e a cachaça, respectivamente; a relação ótima B:MS:ME, em percentagem, foi 72:10:18. Do ponto de vista da gestão dos resíduos e considerando o crescente incremento no número de ETEs municipais, este estudo mostrou que o composto produzido a partir de biossólidos pode ser considerado um material com potencial agrícola; adicionalmente, nos casos em que a única opção é a disposição final, o processo permitiu reduzir o volume a ser disposto até em 70%.It was evaluated the bio solid composting in Cañaveralejo Wastewater Treatment Plant in Cali - Colombia. Although the process was viable, the bulking agent (BA incorporation improved the final product C/N relation. Municipal yard trimmings and sugar cane waste were the best bulking agent and amendment material, respectively. The B:BA:AM optimal relation, on percent, was 72:10:18. In terms of waste management and considering the increasing on the municipal wastewater treatment plants number, this study showed that the bio solid compost could be considered as a material with agricultural potential use; additionally when the option is just the bio solid final disposition, the composting process can reduce its disposal volume at 70%.

  8. Percepción ciudadana del manejo de residuos sólidos municipales. El caso Riviera Nayarit

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Romualdo Márquez González; María Elena Ramos Pantoja; Verónica Alejandra Mondragón Jaimes

    2013-01-01

    Los problemas causados por el mal manejo de los residuos sólidos municipales podrían generar conflictos económicos y ambientales en la denominada Riviera Nayarit, integrada por los municipios de San Blas, Compostela y Bahía de Banderas. Por tanto, no es suficiente identificar y solucionar los problemas en forma parcial, ya que la economía de la zona está basada en el turismo y los servicios, principalmente. Se aplicó una encuesta para saber la percepción ciudadana sobre el manejo de los resid...

  9. EFEITO DA ADUBAÇÃO N, P E K NO TEOR DE SÓLIDOS SOLÚVEIS TOTAIS DE FRUTOS DE GOIABEIRA (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William NATALE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Com o objetivo de estudar os efeitos da adubação nitrogenada, fosfatada e potássica sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais de frutos de goiabeira, foram realizados seis ensaios de campo, utilizando-se plantas das cultivares rica e paluma, em duas regiões produtoras do Estado de São Paulo, durante três anos. Os resultados mostraram que o grau Brix dos frutos não foi significativamente afetado pelas doses de N, P ou K, durante todo o ensaio. Os frutos da cv. Rica apresentaram valores de sólidos solúveis totais entre 8,0 e 10,8, enquanto a cv. Paluma apresentou teores entre 8,4 e 9,65. PALAVRAS – CHAVE: Goiaba; nutrição; Brix; fertilizante N, P e K.

  10. REMOCIÓN DE SÓLIDOS TOTALES DE VINAZAS POR ELECTROCOAGULACIÓN - ELECTROFLOTACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DÁVILA RINCÓN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo presenta los resultados obtenidos en el tratamiento de vinaza proveniente una destilería de alcohol por medio de un proceso de electrocoagulación - electroflotación. Se evaluaron diferentes variables de operación como pH inicial de la solución, densidad de corriente y concentración de NaCl, como soporte electrolítico, en un diseño factorial 23 usando electrodos de aluminio en un arreglo monopolar. Los resultados indican que esta técnica podría ser usada en el proceso de concentración de vinazas. Se obtuvo remoción de sólidos totales de 37% sin utilizar un soporte electrolítico.

  11. CUANTIFICACIÓN DE MERCURIO EN PASTO TRATADO CON BIOSÓLIDOS POR ESPECTROFOTOMETRÍA DE ABSORCIÓN ATÓMICA CON GENERADOR DE HIDRUROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilvia Yanett Ortiz Villa

    Full Text Available Los subproductos sólidos de carácter orgánico generados por los procesos de tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales son utilizados comúnmente como fuente de nutrientes para tratamiento de suelos. Estos biosólidos contienen nutrientes contaminantes inorgánicos como el mercurio, el cual es empleado para el estudio, por el conocimiento ampliamente documentado de su toxicidad en sistemas vivos y sus efectos en seres humanos. En este mismo sentido, y puesto que las plantas constituyen la base de la cadena trófica, se centra la atención sobre el pasto, debido a su fácil crecimiento y uso como pastura de ganadería. El mercurio en pasto fue cuantificado mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica utilizando la técnica de generador de hidruros con vapor frío. Se verificaron algunos parámetros de validación con criterios de aceptación deseables tales como linealidad (r² = 0,999, exactitud (R = 93,14-96,12%, precisión (CV = 1,11-1,69%, límites de detección y cuantificación (0,001-0,003 ppb. Se evidenció que las concentraciones de mercurio se encuentran por debajo de los valores máximos permitidos por la normatividad Internacional, presentando el biosólido como fuente confiable de nutrientes para el agro. De esta forma se establece una metodología que puede ser una buena herramienta para la determinación analítica de mercurio en pastos.

  12. Caracterización de los residuos sólidos de las instituciones educativas urbanas para un manejo adecuado de la basura en el distrito de Barranca, año 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez León, Wilder Edhuin

    2014-01-01

    La ineficiente gestión y manejo de los residuos sólidos, provoca problemas tales como la contaminación, que resume problemas de salud y daña al ambiente. Consecuentemente, las instituciones educativas no escapan de esta problemática; más aún, el desconocimiento de información básica de generación y caracterización de los residuos sólidos escolares conlleva a una mala gestión integral de los mismos. Por ello, la estrategia de gestión de residuos en las instituciones educativas de la zona urban...

  13. Renda e evolução da geração per capita de resíduos sólidos no Brasil Evolution of income and per capita generation of solid wastes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana Kátia Tavares Campos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A redução da geração de resíduos sólidos é a prioridade para o manejo dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil, de acordo com a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. Este texto apresenta dados sobre a evolução da geração per capita de resíduos sólidos no Brasil e em outros países desenvolvidos, bem como os esforços e as dificuldades encontradas por estes últimos para a sua redução ou estabilização. São levantadas hipóteses sobre fatores sociais, econômicos e culturais que interferem no consumo e na consequente geração de resíduos sólidos, visando contribuir com o debate sobre o tema. Em uma primeira análise sobre a evolução da geração per capita dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil verifica-se uma maior propensão ao seu crescimento em função, principalmente, da melhoria da renda da população pobre e fatores culturais como a redução do tamanho das famílias e a entrada da mulher no mercado de trabalho.Reducing solid wastes generation is a priority for solid waste management in Brazil, according to the National Policy of Solid Waste. This paper presents data on trends in per capita solid wastes generation in Brazil, and in other developed countries, as well as the efforts and difficulties to reduce or stabilize that flow. In order to contribute to the debate on the subject, some hypotheses are raised about social, economic and cultural factors that affect consumption and the consequent generation of solid wastes. In a first analysis of the evolution of the per capita generation of solid wastes in Brazil, there is a greater propensity for growth due mainly to the improvement in the income of the poor and to cultural factors, such as reduction of the family size and inclusion of women in the labor market.

  14. Geração de resíduos sólidos em um restaurante de um Hotel da Serra Gaúcha, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Pistorello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEstudos sobre a geração de resíduos sólidos e desperdício de alimentos em restaurantes são importantes e necessários para a gestão gastronômica e definição de planos de gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos. Essa pesquisa avaliou o balanço mássico de um restaurante de um hotel na Região Turística Uva e Vinho no Rio Grande do Sul. Foram coletados dados durante períodos de alta e baixa temporada, caracterizados pela ocorrência ou não de eventos na região (nove semanas intercaladas. Todos os alimentos crus e processados (utilizados no preparo das refeições e oferecidos aos hóspedes e os resíduos gerados foram quantificados. Constatou-se que o desperdício de alimentos ocorre, em geral, devido à oferta ser maior do que o consumo. Conclui-se sobre a importância do desenvolvimento de estudos direcionados à geração e descarte de resíduos sólidos em restaurantes no sentido de otimizar os procedimentos no planejamento gastronômico, reduzir o desperdício de alimentos e adotar técnicas de reaproveitamento e de tratamento desses resíduos.

  15. Desenvolvendo indicadores para a gestão sustentável de resíduos sólidos nos municípios de Iranduba, Manacapuru e Novo Airão, Amazonas, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos André de Oliveira e Castro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA gestão dos resíduos sólidos é de forma consensual uma das premissas para a sustentabilidade urbana no mundo. No Brasil, o principal marco legal para o setor é a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. Instituído em agosto de 2010, o dispositivo estabeleceu diretrizes, planos e metas para todas as unidades da Federação. Considerando a precariedade do saneamento básico no norte do país, o estudo optou por desenvolver uma avaliação dos sistemas de gestão/gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos em três municipalidades do Amazonas: Iranduba, Manacapuru e Novo Airão. Foram aplicados nove indicadores de sustentabilidade, de natureza predominantemente qualitativa, adaptados a partir de duas pesquisas predecessoras sob mesma abordagem. Como resultado final o estudo concluiu que as três municipalidades apresentaram resultados muito abaixo da média pré-estabelecida e recomendou a adoção de algumas ações prioritárias.

  16. Potencial de recuperación de residuos sólidos domésticos dispuestos en un relleno sanitario

    OpenAIRE

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen; Carolina Armijo-de Vega; Paul Taboada-González; Xochitl M. Aguilar

    2010-01-01

    Conocer las cantidades y tipos de residuos sólidos domésticos (RSD) que son depositados en el relleno sanitario, brinda la posibilidad de proponer opciones sustentables para su aprovechamiento. Los residuos de cualquier localidad manejados de forma apropiada se pueden convertir en insumos de algún otro proceso. El objetivo de este estudio fue cuantificar los componentes de los RSD susceptibles de ser reciclados, depositados en el relleno sanitario de la ciudad de Ensenada (Baja California, Mé...

  17. UKAEA contract no. 3: miscellaneous solid, liquid and gaseous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, B.A.

    1984-12-01

    This document reports work carried out in 1982/83 on the following topics concerned with the treatment and disposal of intermediate level wastes: flowsheeting; dewatering low and medium level radioactive wastes; applications of ultrafiltration in the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes; ion exchange processes; electrical processes for the treatment of medium active liquid wastes; chemical conversion of Zircaloy cladding to oxide; fast reactor fuel element cladding; dissolver residues; fuel cladding and ion exchanger immobilisation - radioactive trials; thermal techniques; development and assessment of medium level waste forms. (U.K.)

  18. DIAGNÓSTICO PRELIMINAR, BASE PARA LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN PROGRAMA DE MANEJO DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS EN LA UNIVERSIDAD DE SAN BUENAVENTURA, CARTAGENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RÍOS MONTES KARINA ANDREA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Los residuos sólidos pueden generar impactos negativos al ambiente y al ser humano por causa de un manejo inadecuado. Las universidades deben contemplar su manejo en las etapas de generación, recolección y disposición final, e incluir su valoración. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal, cuyo objetivo fue realizar un diagnóstico preliminar sobre el manejo de residuos sólidos, incluyendo percepción, conocimiento y recomendaciones dadas por la comunidad universitaria, para contribuir con la elaboración final de un programa de manejo integral de residuos sólidos en la institución.Se aplicó un instrumento a una muestra probabilística, conformada por una población de estudiantes (84%, docentes (8,8% y personal administrativo (7,1%. Los resultados indican que el 59,9% conoce el manejo de RS, y sólo el 29,8% recicla. Los medios masivos de comunicación, con un 49,8%, son el principal canal para conocer de éstos. El 72,1% recicla por conciencia o compromiso ambiental, siendo el papel/cartón (23,5% y plástico (22,6% los más reciclados. El 42,1% recomienda actividades de educación ambiental, el 40,1% rotulación de canecas; y la responsabilidad de su manejo debe incluir a toda la comunidad universitaria, siendo estudiantes- docentes (82,8% y directivos- administrativos (57,6% los pioneros en liderar el proceso.  

  19. RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS: diagnóstico e proposições para o bairro de Redenção, no município de Vitória de Santo Antão/PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David dos Santos Azevedo

    2016-08-01

    Los residuos sólidos generados por las diversas actividades urbanas se presentan como una de las principales preocupaciones de la sociedad, a la vista de las consecuencias perjudiciales que pueden causar al medio ambiente cuando no se manejan correctamente. Hoy en día, es muy común ver a los grandes volúmenes de residuos sólidos en terrenos baldíos, los cursos de agua e incluso lugares públicos como aceras y plazas. El artículo tiene como objetivo realizar un diagnóstico sobre la eliminación incorrecta de los residuos sólidos en el barrio de Redenção, municipio de Vitória de Santo Antão-PE, ya partir de ese diagnóstico hacen propuestas para la educación ambiental y un sistema de recogida selectiva que hacen posible la correcta gestión de los residuos sólidos allí. Para ello, se realizaron visitas a la zona de la Redenção, hicieron registros fotográficos y descriptivos para destacar los puntos críticos de los residuos, el momento de la recogida convencional, los principales generadores de residuos y la disposición inadecuada de los residuos en esa comunidad. Los principales problemas observados fueron: construcción deposición de residuos en las carreteras locales, eliminación de residuos domésticos en los canales de agua de lluvia, los animales vagan cerca de acumulación de puntos críticos, la eliminación de desechos peligrosos terrenos baldíos. Frente a este diagnóstico se propusieron acciones de educación ambiental que implican comerciantes, escuelas y guarderías, líderes comunitarios y otros residentes. Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior, se puede concluir que existe una urgencia en extensión a la comunidad y el gobierno local, de modo que proporciona una mejor calidad de vida de la población y hacer cumplir las que determinan las políticas federales y estatales de los residuos sólidos. Palabras clave: Gestión de Residuos Sólidos; Educación Ambiental; Recogida Selectiva; Redencão; Vitória de Santo Antão/PE.

  20. Medio de cultivo utilizando residuos-sólidos para el crecimiento de una bacteria nativa con potencial biofertilizante

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Mantilla, Cecilia; García Támara, Liliana Pahola; Oviedo Zumaqué, Luis E

    2010-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos de la evaluación del crecimiento, desarrollo y viabilidad de una cepa bacteriana nativa Azotobacter A15M2G con potencial biofertilizante, sobre un medio de cultivo preparado con residuos sólidos vegetales procedentes del mercado: Brassica Oleracea (repollo), Lactusa sativa (lechuga) y Allium fistulosum (cebollín). El crecimiento de la bacteria en el medio de residuo vegetal a diferentes concentraciones: 25, 50 y 75% p/v fue evaluado,...

  1. A brief outline of the proposed data/physics calculation scheme proposed for Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, C.

    1974-10-15

    The paper describes the data handling system COSMOS, that was in current use at the Dounreay Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR), to provide a template for data handling for the Dragon Project wherein the Physics and Engineering Modules would be centered instead around the WIMS-E suite of codes which are more applicable to the HTR. The tailoring of COSMOS to Dragon needs and the adaption of UKAEA and existing Dragon codes to operate on the data interface would require considerable modification.

  2. The PFR challenge: how to dispose of 1500t of liquid metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The decommissioning of liquid metal cooled FBRs presents many interesting challenges requiring innovative engineering solutions. In advance of the Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay in Scotland being shut down in 1994 the owners, UKAEA, commissioned a series of risk and cost assessment studies to determine the least risk, lowest cost long term strategy. This concluded that a priority was safe disposal of the large inventories of liquid metal coolant. UK companies were invited to take up the challenge. (author)

  3. The manufacture of MTR fuel elements and Mo99 production targets at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium/aluminium alloy elements have been produced at Dounreay for nearly 40 years. In April 1990 the two DIDO-type reactors operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) at Harwell were closed, with the result that a large portion of the then current customer base disappeared and, to satisfy the needs of the evolving market, the decision was taken to invest over 1m pounds in new equipment for the manufacture of dispersed fuels and molybdenum production targets. (author)

  4. The Dounreay PFR Liquid-Metal Disposal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, D.V.; Comline, A.; Small, J.; Blyth, J.

    2005-01-01

    The UKAEA Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay had a liquid sodium-cooled core. Following its shutdown in 1994, the liquid metal is being removed from the reactor and other vessels by means of specialized equipment and reacted with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide in a special vessel. The reaction products are neutralized with hydrochloric acid to produce a saline solution.The reactor sodium delivery and processing equipment is all of novel design. As sodium has been withdrawn from the vessel, it has been necessary to switch off the primary sodium pumps (used to heat the sodium), and the reactor is now kept at temperature by a purpose-designed electric heater and a NaK loop heater.A primary sodium extract pump has currently removed [approximately]450 tonnes of primary sodium from the reactor. As the level falls special equipment will be used to punch a hole in the primary circuit pipe work and to drill the strongback to allow trapped sodium to drain for extraction

  5. The distribution of littoral caprellids (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea along the Pacific coast of continental Chile La distribución de caprélidos litorales (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Caprellidea en la costa del Pacífico de Chile continental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN THIEL

    2003-06-01

    females as anchored buoys, suggesting that buoys and other floating substrata (litter, macroalgae may facilitate dispersal of caprellids (and other epibiota along the Pacific coast of Chile. Since artificial and natural floating substrata are also abundant at high latitudes it is inferred that the low diversity of littoral caprellids at high latitudes is not due to lack of dispersal vectors, but rather of other factorsMuchas especies de caprélidos del litoral presentan una amplia distribución, algunas han sido citadas a lo largo de todo el mundo. La distribución cosmopolita de muchas especies de caprélidos podría deberse al hecho de que se asocian frecuentemente a las comunidades "fouling" en objetos flotantes, que presentan una capacidad importante de dispersión a largas distancias. Esta capacidad de dispersión puede tener implicaciones en la distribución de caprélidos a escala local y regional. En este estudio, nosotros examinamos la distribución de las especies de caprélidos litorales en dos escalas espaciales, local (decenas de kilómetros y regional (cientos de kilómetros, a lo largo de la costa Pacífico de Chile continental. A escala local se estudió la fauna de caprélidos en distintos hábitats (bolones intermareales, praderas de algas y fanerógamas marinas, comunidades "fouling" de boyas y cuerdas; a escala regional el estudio se centró solamente en los caprélidos asociados a boyas y cuerdas. Se encontraron un total de seis especies de caprélidos, algunos de los cuales fueron muy abundantes a escala local y regional. A escala local, existió una diferencia entre los tres tipos de hábitat con respecto a la fauna de caprélidos, algunos de los cuales estuvieron presentes en más de un hábitat. Los valores más altos de riqueza específica y abundancia se encontraron en la comunidad "fouling" asociada a boyas y cuerdas ancladas. A escala regional, los caprélidos fueron más abundantes y diversos en las comunidades "fouling" de la región norte

  6. Situación de la gestión de residuos sólidos en las municipalidades de Costa Rica: gestión ambiental municipal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilliana Gaviria Montoya

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta algunos de los resultados del I Encuentro Nacional de Municipalidades en torno al manejo adecuado de los desechos sólidos municipales, que se realizó los días 20 y 21 de junio del año 2005 en la municipalidad de Cartago. Este es la continuación del artículo “Situación de la Gestión de Residuos Sólidos en las Municipalidades de Costa Rica: recolección , disposición y recuperación”. En este nuevo artículo se presentan los resultados de la evaluación de la gestión ambiental municipal para lo cual se consideraron los temas de educación ambiental, sistemas de gestión ambiental dentro de la municipalidad, presencia de comisión ambiental municipal, existencia de una oficina de gestión ambiental y mecanismos de rendición de cuentas del quehacer ambiental.

  7. Monitoramento das águas subterrâneas e lixiviado do local de disposição dos resíduos sólidos urbanos do município de Passo Fundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Helena Beck

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi o monitoramento das águas subterrâneas e do lixiviado, do local de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos do município de Passo Fundo, uma parceria entre universidade e instituição pública, no intuito de investigar possíveis danos ao meio ambiente. Para isto foram executadas analises físico-químicas durante o período de junho de 2004 a janeiro de 2005 no local de disposição destes resíduos. Os resultados demonstraram que os valores encontrados nas águas subterrâneas, de cloreto, sódio, zinco, cobre, nitrito e dureza obedeceram aos padrões de potabilidade. Porém, a qualidade destas águas está comprometida, devido aos valores de condutividade elétrica, DBO e DQO. Pode-se concluir deste estudo que as águas subterrâneas estão contaminadas com o lixiviado produzido pelos resíduos sólidos, provenientes da deposição dos resíduos sólidos urbanos, produzidos pela cidade de Passo Fundo.

  8. Microbiologia de resíduos sólidos urbanos e sua relação com a deformação vertical da massa aterrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Camargo de Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Em aterros de resíduos sólidos urbanos, os recalques – ou redução da altura e volume da massa de resíduos – ocorrem, principalmente, devido à degradação da matéria orgânica por microrganismos. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar os recalques sob o aspecto microbiológico em uma célula experimental de resíduos sólidos urbanos localizada na Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, na Paraíba. O estudo abrangeu as etapas de construção, coleta, amostragem e enchimento da célula experimental com os resíduos sólidos de três bairros da cidade, baseados no critério de condição social, de modo a se obter uma amostra de resíduos representativa. A célula experimental foi instrumentada com medidores de recalque superficial e em profundidade para leitura do deslocamento vertical da massa aterrada. Foram observados ciclos de recalques seguidos de recalques zero, que são períodos de atividade microbiana intensa com aumento de vazios progressivos. De acordo com os estudos desenvolvidos neste trabalho, os recalques no interior da massa de resíduos devem ser compreendidos como resultado de atividade microbiana e comportamentos mecânicos, pois os períodos de recalques zero são consequência de atividade microbiana, bem como os períodos de recalques propriamente ditos.

  9. MEJORAMIENTO DE LA CALIDAD MICROBIOLÓGICA DE BIOSÓLIDOS GENERADOS EN PLANTAS DE TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES DOMÉSTICAS MELHORAMENTO DA QULIDADE MICROBIOLÓGICA DE BIOSÓLIDOS GERADOS EM PLANTAS DE TRATAMENTO DE ÁGUAS RESIDUAIS MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF BIOSOLIDS FROM DOMESTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIA TORRES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los principales problemas de calidad que presentan los biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas –PTAR– es el contenido de microorganismos patógenos que los clasifica en muchos casos como Clase B con restricción para uso agrícola. Este estudio evaluó la estabilización alcalina de los biosólidos de la PTAR Cañaveralejo (Cali, Colombia para mejorar su calidad microbiológica, empleando dos tipos de cal (hidratada y viva en dosis entre 8 y 25 % y dos tipos de ceniza con dosis entre 8 y 40 % en unidades experimentales de 0,2 m2 con un tiempo de contacto de 13 días. Los resultados mostraron que con cal se logró reducción total de las variables de respuesta evaluadas (coliformes fecales, Salmonella sp y huevos de helmintos, mientras que el poder alcalinizante de las cenizas evaluadas fue insuficiente. El biosólido higienizado con cal presenta alto potencial de uso agrícola por su calidad microbiológica y por el contenido final de materia orgánica y nutrientes (N, P que pueden beneficiar los suelos, pero es recomendable evaluar la optimización a escala piloto de la dosificación de cal y la aplicación del biosólido en diferentes tipos de suelos y cultivos para precisar los beneficios o medidas preventivas antes de la aplicación.One of the main quality problems of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants –WWTP– is the high concentration of pathogens, often classified as a class B, with restriction for use in agriculture. This study evaluated the alkali stabilization of biosolids from Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant (PTAR-C, located in Cali, Colombia, in order to improve their microbiological quality using two types of lime (quick and hydrated with doses between 8 to 25 % and two types of ash with 8 to 40 % as doses, in experimental units 0,2 m2 with 13 days of contact time. The results showed that both type of lime reached the total reduction of evaluated monitoring

  10. ANÁLISE QUALITATIVA DE SÓLIDOS ELASTOPLÁSTICOS SOB DEFORMAÇÃO FINITA UTILIZANDO ELEMENTOS DE BARRA BI-ARTICULADOS 2D E 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Taylor Matias Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma descrição Lagrangeana Total para retratar sólidos elastoplásticos sob deformação finita. Discretiza-se estes sólidos com elementos de treliça 2D e 3D com o intuito de obter analiticamente o vetor de forças internas e a matriz de rigidez tangente. Assume-se um modelo constitutivo hiperelástico para o estado uniaxial de tensão-deformação, utilizando a tensão de Kirchhoff e a deformação logarítmica, que formam um par energeticamente conjugado. Para descrever as deformações plásticas finitas utiliza-se a hipótese da decomposição multiplicativa do estiramento uniaxial do elemento de treliça. Por fim, apresentam-se algumas simulações numéricas de sólidos 3D discretizados com elementos de treliça 2D e 3D. ABSTRACT: This paper presents a Lagrangian Total description to describe elastoplastic solids under finite deformation. These solids are discretized with truss elements 2D and 3D aiming to obtain analytically internal force vector and the tangent stiffness matrix. Are assumed a hyperelastic constitutive model for the state of uniaxial stress-strain using the Kirchhoff's stress and logarithmic strain, to form a conjugate pair energetically. To describe the finite plastic deformation using the hypothesis of the multiplicative decomposition of uniaxial stretching of the truss element. Finally, we present some numerical simulations of solid 3D discretized with 2D and 3D truss elements.

  11. INCORPORAÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS NA FABRICAÇÃO DE TIJOLOS SOLO-CIMENTO

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira, Josiane Rodrigues; do Amaral, Adriana Garcia; Schneider, Roselene Maria

    2014-01-01

    O modo inadequado de extração de recursos naturais e a poluição provocada por resíduos geram impactos sobre o meio ambiente. Visando oferecer alternativas de destinação dos resíduos sólidos urbanos, como os resíduos de tornearia mecânica, objetivou-se analisar as características físicas e mecânicas de tijolos compostos por misturas ternárias de solo-cimento-resíduo e avaliar a viabilidade da sua utilização em construções. Os tijolos solo-cimento-resíduo foram moldados em prensa manual, empreg...

  12. Análise do gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos e proposição de melhorias: estudo de caso em uma marcenaria de Cariacica, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miraya Dutra Degli Esposti Caetano

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente trabalho investiga o gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos em uma empresa moveleira sediada no município de Cariacica, ES. Primeiro, foram obtidas informações acerca do setor moveleiro da região, por meio de material bibliográfico, junto à Associação de Indústrias e Produtos de Insumos do Setor Mobiliário de Cariacica (AMOVEL, à Secretaria Municipal de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Turismo (SEDETUR da Prefeitura de Cariacica e ao Sindicato das Indústrias de Madeira e Atividades Correlatas em Geral da Região Centro Sul do Estado do Espírito Santo (SINDMADEIRA/ES. Em seguida, elaborou-se um questionário para coleta de informações. Depois, escolheu-se uma marcenaria para a análise em questão. Feito isso, por meio de visitas técnicas e entrevistas com o coordenador de produção da empresa, coletaram-se informações sobre o processo produtivo de móveis, com foco na utilização da matéria-prima e insumos, geração de resíduos sólidos, presença de técnicas de Produção mais Limpa, Licença Ambiental e Sistema de Gestão Ambiental. Ao final, constatou-se que, mesmo a empresa possuindo várias técnicas de Produção mais Limpa, há uma elevada quantidade de resíduos sólidos gerados ao longo da cadeia produtiva e que o percentual de perda de matéria-prima é superior a 20%, acima dos 10% estimados inicialmente. Com vistas nisso, alternativas com base no conceito de Produção mais Limpa foram propostas, para melhor aproveitamento e destinação dos resíduos sólidos gerados.

  13. Situación actual de la disposición final de residuos sólidos en los municipios integrados en la Cuenca de la Laguna de Apoyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Regidor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo pretende proporcionar información acerca del estado actual de los vertederos municipales en los territorios integrados en la Cuenca de la Lagunade Apoyo, tomando en cuenta la reciente aprobación (mayo 2010 del Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial de la Cuenca de la Reserva Natural Laguna de Apoyo(RNLA. Además, procura servir a las alcaldías municipales como base para la planificación de proyectos para la mejora de los sitios de disposición final de losresiduos sólidos.Se abordan aspectos relacionados a la situación actual de la recolección de residuos sólidos municipales; los resultados sobre la disposición final de los residuos sólidos enmarcados en las características de la ubicación de los vertederos; el diseño,operación y mantenimiento de los mismos; y los aspectos administrativos y de control.Seguidamente se presenta una valoración de la ubicación, el diseño y la operación de los sitios de disposición final; la identificación y valoración de los impactos actualesy potenciales de carácter ambiental y social que pueden encontrarse en estos sitios.Por otro lado se plantean propuestas de mejora para el diseño y operación de los vertederos para mitigar los impactos potenciales identificados en ellos.

  14. Estudio y diseño de un sistema integral de residuos sólidos en la UPS-Campus Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Guamá Conforme, Carolina; Ordóñez Jácome, Santiago Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses the study and design of an Integrated Management System for solid waste generated daily in southern UPS campus, based on a thorough study of the characteristics of the system of collection and temporary storage that is currently running, including: containers and clean points, collection routes, gathering performance and journey times, among others. El trabajo trata sobre el estudio y diseño de un Sistema de Gestión Integral para los residuos sólidos generados diariamen...

  15. Quiste óseo aneurismático mandibular de tipo sólido Mandibular solid aneurysmal bone cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Saldaña Rodríguez; Maria Fe García Reija; Belén García-Montesinos Perea; Marta Mayorga Fernández; Ramón Carlos Saiz Bustillo

    2013-01-01

    El quiste óseo aneurismático sólido es una lesión ósea benigna muy infrecuente de la que no existe consenso en relación a su origen etiopatogénico. Presenta características clínicas, radiológicas e histológicas inespecíficas, por lo que los estudios ultraestructurales son fundamentales para su diagnóstico y clasificación. El diagnóstico diferencial es extenso e incluye múltiples lesiones óseas como el granuloma reparativo de células gigantes e incluso tumores malignos como el osteosarcoma. El...

  16. Pre-test prediction and post-test analysis of PWR fuel rod ballooning in the MT-3 in-pile LOCA simulation experiment in the NRU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Horwood, R.A.; Healey, T.

    1983-01-01

    The USNRC and the UKAEA have jointly funded a series of in-pile LOCA simulation experiments in the Canadian NRU reactor in order to secure further information on the thermal hydraulic and clad deformation response of PWR fuel rod bundles. Test MT-3 in the series was performed using reflood rate and rod internal pressure conditions specified by the UK nuclear industry. The parameters were selected to ensure the development of a near-isothermal clad temperature history during which zircaloy was required to balloon and rupture near the alpha-alpha/beta phase transition. Specification of the reflood rate conditions was assisted by the performance of a precursor test on an unpressurised rod bundle and by complementary application of appropriate thermal hydraulic analyses. Identification of the rod internal pressure needed to cause ballooning and rupture was achieved using a creep deformation model, BALLOON, in conjunction with the clad thermal history defined by the prior thermal hydraulic test. This paper presents the basis of the BALLOON analysis and describes its application in calculating the fill gas pressure for rods MT-3, their axial ballooning profile and the clad temperature at peak radial strain elevations. (author)

  17. Consignment of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW) from the Winfrith dragon reactor containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuler, K.

    2008-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), CH2M Hill and AMEC are implementing innovative technical approaches in the decommissioning of redundant nuclear plant. These approaches will form the basis of lessons learned and best practices to be applied to future decommissioning work across the United Kingdom. This paper highlights the approach used for categorizing waste from the Dragon Decommissioning Project as Very Low Level Waste (VLLW), a category typically used by hospitals and laboratories for small quantities of waste contaminated with radioisotopes. (authors)

  18. ANÁLISE DA GESTÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS GERADOS POR GALINHAS POEDEIRAS EM UMA GRANJA FAMILIAR / ANALYSIS OF SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT GENERATED BY LAYING HENS ON A FAMILY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A exemplo de diversas atividades agropecuárias, a produção de ovos de galinhas poedeiras gera resíduos sólidos que, se não forem tratados, podem acarretar problemas ambientais significativos como a contaminação do solo e de lençóis freáticos. Sob o aspecto da poluição ambiental e mais especificamente ao tratamento e disposição dos rejeitos oriundos de granja avícola de postura, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a gestão dos resíduos sólidos gerados por uma granja familiar situada no noroeste paulista, com intuito de verificar se as práticas utilizadas estão de acordo com a legislação, principalmente ao que diz respeito a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. O artigo busca responder a seguinte questão: como é feita a gestão dos resíduos sólidos gerados pelas galinhas poedeiras em uma granja familiar? Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso de caráter exploratório-descritivo, com abordagem qualitativa na coleta de dados, utilizando para tal um roteiro de entrevistas com o proprietário. Como resultado, foi possível observar que a granja, apesar de receber orientações sobre a forma adequada de destinar seus resíduos, ainda não as incorporou enquanto processo consciente de preservação ambiental, fazendo a destinação adequada somente quando esta se apresenta como ameaça de punição monetária. 

  19. The use of reliability analysis techniques applied to nuclear power station emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsen, A.; Snaith, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    A reliability investigation carried out by the Safety and Reliability Services of the UKAEA, and the SSEB, of the essential system/reactor coolant system for a large nuclear power station is described. In AGR type reactors, after all reactor shutdown conditions, it is necessary to restore forced gas circulation and sufficient boiler feed to maintain the heat removal capacity of the boilers. The coolant requirements are provided by several independent mechanical systems of primary coolant fans, feedwater pumps, and valves integrated with electrical power sources, switchgear, and automatic control equipment. Reliability is treated as one aspect of system performance and quantified in terms of failure to meet a specific objective. Based on the reliability performance of the constituent components the optimum system configuration is determined together with the preferred plant operating procedures and maintenance requirements. (author)

  20. Estudo Prospectivo das Características Sonográficas no Diagnóstico de Nódulos Sólidos da Mama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulinelli Régis Resende

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar, por meio de estudo prospectivo, o valor de diferentes características ultra-sonográficas dos nódulos sólidos, na diferenciação de lesões malignas e benignas da mama. Métodos: foram incluídas 142 pacientes do Programa de Mastologia do Departamento de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da Universidade Federal de Goiás com nódulos sólidos da mama. A ultra-sonografia mamária foi realizada pelo médico estagiário de mastologia, acompanhado do preceptor. As seis características estudadas foram: contornos, ecos internos, ecos posteriores, diferença dos diâmetros, ligamentos de Cooper e halo ecogênico. Cada descrição característica ultra-sonográfica foi analisada estatisticamente e comparada, após a exérese da lesão, com o resultado do exame anatomopatológico. Resultados: dentre as 142 pacientes incluídas no estudo, 90 (63% tiveram suas lesões ressecadas, com diagnóstico de 77 tumores benignos (86% e 13 de malignos (14%. Foram significantes no diagnóstico de malignidade as seguintes características ultra-sonográficas: presença de sombra acústica posterior (p=0,0001, contornos irregulares (p=0,0007, ecos internos heterogêneos (p=0,0015 e diâmetro ântero-posterior (AP maior que o látero-lateral (LL (p<0,0001. A presença de halo ecogênico no tumor e a visibilização dos ligamentos de Cooper espessados não influenciaram o diagnóstico de malignidade nesse estudo. Conclusão: a ultra-sonografia é um método diagnóstico que pode ajudar na diferenciação de tumores sólidos benignos e malignos. Os contornos irregulares, os ecos internos heterogêneos, a sombra posterior e o diâmetro AP maior que o LL, quando presentes, apresentaram alta correlação com o exame anatomopatológico de câncer.

  1. Gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos nos municípios da Bacia Hidrográfica do Alto Tietê: uma análise sobre o uso de TIC no acesso à informação governamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bordino Klein

    Full Text Available Resumo O estudo teve por objetivo analisar de que forma tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC, e a internet em particular, são empregadas para apoiar a gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU no nível municipal. Para tanto, analisaram-se os websites dos 34 municípios da Bacia Hidrográfica do Alto Tietê em relação às informações de programas de coleta seletiva, uso de Pontos de Entrega Voluntária (PEVs e o acesso ao Plano de Gestão Integrada de Resíduos Sólidos (PGIRS. Os resultados revelam que a maior parte dos municípios utilizam as TIC de forma limitada, e as subutilizam na divulgação de informações relevantes à população, sobretudo no que diz respeito às formas adequadas de separação e acondicionamento dos resíduos sólidos para a coleta seletiva. Isso pode reduzir o desempenho desse serviço público e aumentar os riscos à saúde dos catadores que atuam na reciclagem desses materiais. Concluiu-se que um melhor uso de TIC para o adequado monitoramento e difusão de informações sobre resíduos sólidos urbanos pode ser um mecanismo efetivo para o cumprimento dos objetivos e metas determinados pela Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos no nível local e para práticas de accountability e informação aos cidadãos.

  2. ANÁLISIS DEL FUNCIONAMIENTO DE PLANTAS DE MANEJO DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS EN EL NORTE DEL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA ANÁLISE DO DESEMPENHO DE PLANTAS DE GESTÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS NO NORTE DO VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLÔMBIA PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SOLID WASTE RECOVERY FACILITIES IN NORTHERN VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Marmolejo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos municipales (RSM tiene cada día mayor aceptación en Colombia. Dos hechos evidencian esta situación: su inclusión en los planes de gestión integral de residuos sólidos de numerosos municipios y el incremento en el número de plantas de manejo de residuos sólidos (PMRS que se han construido. De ahí que el análisis de las experiencias existentes y la investigación y desarrollo alrededor del tema son indispensables para avanzar en este campo. En el presente artículo se analiza el funcionamiento de cinco PMRS de cabeceras municipales del norte del Valle del Cauca, en las cuales se encontró que, aunque presenten deficiencias en su operación, aspectos como la existencia de mercado para sus productos, las posibilidades de generación de empleo y los costos evitados al no tener que enviar residuos a rellenos sanitarios regionales justifican su continuidad. Como elementos clave para fortalecer el funcionamiento de las PMRS, se identificaron la sensibilización continua de los usuarios del servicio de aseo, la adaptación de las tecnologías al contexto, el fortalecimiento de la gestión administrativa y el mayor impulso al aprovechamiento en el marco político nacional.O aproveitamento de resíduos sólidos municipais (RSM tem a cada dia maior aceitação na Colômbia. Dois fatos evidenciam esta situação: sua inclusão nos planos de gerenciamento integral de resíduos sólidos de numerosos municípios e o incremento no número de plantas de manejo de resíduos sólidos (PMRS que se construíram. Daí que a análise das experiências existentes e a pesquisa e desenvolvimento ao redor do tema são indispensáveis para avançar em este campo. No presente artigo analisa-se o funcionamento das cinco PMRS de cabeceiras municipais do norte do departamento de Valle del Cauca, nas quais se encontrou que, ainda que apresentem deficiências em sua operação, aspectos como a existência de mercado para seus

  3. Contribuições para a evolução do gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos no Brasil com base na experiência Européia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Ferreira Mannarino

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Esse trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar dados relevantes sobre o gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU na Europa de forma a se estabelecer paralelos e subsidiar a discussão no Brasil. É apresentada uma contextualização da situação atual da gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos no Brasil, onde os efeitos da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos já se fazem sentir, sobretudo com o aumento da disposição final de RSU em aterros sanitários, predominantemente nas regiões metropolitanas. A reciclagem no país, em grande parte, ainda baseia-se na coleta informal por catadores ou na ação de organizações privadas. Na Europa, a partir da Diretiva 1999/31/EC, que estabeleceu metas para a disposição de resíduos em aterros sanitários, e da Diretiva 94/62/EC, sobre recolhimento de embalagens, a gestão de RSU se alterou profundamente. São apresentados dados das tecnologias predominantes de tratamento e disposição final de RSU e alguns mecanismos para implementação da mudança de cenário na Europa. O exemplo suíço é detalhado, mostrando como a cobrança de tarifas impulsiona as ações da população. É preciso reconhecer que o gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos RSU tem que ser planejado da coleta até o destino final, utilizando e integrando diferentes tecnologias de tratamento, de acordo com as características locais. É relevante para o Brasil a avaliação criteriosa das soluções disponíveis, do ponto de vista técnico e operacional, considerando fortemente a sua aplicabilidade local.

  4. MAMMARY SOLID CARCINOMA WITH SPINAL CORD METASTASIS CARCINOMA SÓLIDO DE GLÂNDULA MAMÁRIA COM METÁSTASE EM MEDULA ESPINHAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Caroline Toledo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Mammary neoplasias are common in canine females and carcinomas, among malignant types, occur frequently, especially solid form. At gross view, it can be small and incipient, but it’s invasive and show little differentiation, being able to produce metastasis that can compromise animal survive. This describes a bitch, Fila Brasileiro, six year old with tetraplegy and cervical spinal cord metastasis of mammary solid carcinoma.

    KEYWORDS: Central nervous system, dog, mammary neoplasia.

    Neoplasias mamárias são comuns entre as fêmeas caninas e os carcinomas, dentre as formas malignas, ocorrem com maior frequência, particularmente o tipo sólido. Estes podem apresentar-se pequenos e incipientes à macroscopia, contudo são invasivos e pouco diferenciados, com possibilidade de produzir metástases que comprometem a sobrevida do animal. Assim, descreve-se o caso de uma cadela, da raça Fila Brasileiro, de seis anos, que apresentou tetraplegia consequente à metástase medular cervical de carcinoma sólido mamário.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cão, neoplasia mamária, sistema nervoso central.

  5. Estrategias para el control microclimático del espacio entre edificaciones en clima cálido – húmedo

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez de Perozo, Nersa

    2012-01-01

    La presente investigación parte del problema en las zonas de clima cálido - húmedo en las cuales se producen impactos asociados a la incomodidad térmica producto de la intensa radiación solar, altas temperaturas y elevada humedad. Estos factores reducen la calidad de los espacios abiertos y desarrollan en la población una actitud de rechazo hacia el uso del microespacio urbano entre edificaciones en los desarrollos urbanos - conjuntos urbanos - , los mismos frecuentemente admiten soluciones q...

  6. APORTE A LA GESTIÓN INTEGRAL DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS NO PELIGROSOS EN LA ESPAM–MFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Rolando Lucas Vidal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una investigación enfocada en la situación actual de la gestión integral de residuos sólidos en la Escuela Superior Politécnica Agropecuaria de Manabí Manuel Félix López, con énfasis en el manejo de los desechos no peligrosos y cuyo fin fue establecer bases para la elaboración de una guía de gestión de los mismos. Se partió de la observación in situ para elaborar una línea base sobre la situación actual de la gestión de los residuos sólidos (RS; se realizó la caracterización de los mismos, lo que permitió la separación por componentes y pesaje, obtención de la densidad y composición física de los RS. Las entrevistas dirigidas a docentes, estudiantes, personal administrativo y de servicio dieron las pautas para establecer los principios de las estrategias ambientales más viables para tratar los RS no peligrosos, las cuales fueron sometidas a una matriz de factibilidad, en la cual se evaluó el aspecto ambiental, la viabilidad económica, el componente educativo, la participación social, la factibilidad operativa y el aspecto estético de las mismas; lo cual sirvió para elaborar una combinación de estrategias como herramienta fundamental de la estructuración de la guía. Se concluye entonces que en la ESPAM MFL no existe un sistema de clasificación de RS, considerando que las áreas que generan mayor cantidad de desechos son los bares y las aulas de clase.

  7. Análisis regional de los instrumentos económicos para el manejo integral de residuos sólidos en América Latina y el Caribe: Estudio de caso del manejo integral de residuos sólidos en Montebello, Antioquia.

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Collazos; Ramón Duque

    2003-01-01

    Esta es la última versión disponible de este documento de trabajo. Sobre las deliberaciones de la primera reunión de la Red de Medio Ambiente, en abril de 2002, se decidió que en la segunda, realizada en febrero de 2003, uno de los temas centrales fuese el manejo de residuos sólidos en la región, enfocándose en el uso de instrumentos económicos como herramientas de gestión. Este documento presenta la experiencia de Montebello, municipio pequeño de 2.000 habitantes, en la zona de montaña del n...

  8. "Metodologia Automatizada para Seleção de Áreas para Disposição de Resíduos Sólidos. Aplicação na Região Metropolitana de Campinas (SP)"

    OpenAIRE

    Maria José Brollo

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo. Esta tese tem como objetivo geral desenvolver uma metodologia para a seleção de áreas para disposição de resíduos sólidos, apoiada em princípios e recursos de Geoprocessamento, através de um Sistema Gerenciador de Informações (SGI). Metodologia. São analisados aspectos de uso e ocupação do solo e aspectos fisiográficos do terreno que interferem na correta seleção de áreas para disposição de resíduos sólidos, considerando-se uma escala de abordagem regional (1:100.000). São definidos...

  9. Examples of processing problematic waste and material. A-3. Processing of lead by mechanical decontamination at UKAEA Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The UKAEA and its contractor (NNC) have decontaminated lead blocks arising from the decommissioning of a metallurgical site that comprised three concrete shielded remote handling cells and 36 lead shielded enclosures. The primary decommissioning and dismantling work entailed the dismantling of the 36 lead enclosures, which were expected to yield over 1000 t of lead shielding bricks as waste. During the initial dismantling of the lead shielded enclosures, all the lead bricks were monitored for radioactive contamination; clean items were segregated and set aside for detailed clearance and assurance checks. The contaminated blocks were sent for assessment and decontamination treatment, as necessary. The decontamination process utilized a purpose built partitioned containment tent, ventilated with a HEPA filtration system, so that the receipt, decontamination and radiological monitoring of individual items could be segregated in order to minimize any cross-contamination. The dismantled lead blocks comprised a range of standard thicknesses (2, 4, 9 and 10 in, or 3, 8, 13 and 15 cm) and incorporated a variety of chevron, concave and convex shapes, which are utilized to avoid weaknesses within the assembled shielding. The primary technical issues for the mechanical processing of the contaminated lead blocks were consideration of the individual lead brick shapes (i.e. the bricks were contoured) and the individual weight of the bricks, which had a range of 10-75 kg. The preferred option was a manual dry cutting technique using a handheld rotary industrial planer (the selected planer is normally associated with the joinery trade). The dry cutting option considered the malleability of the lead, which under certain circumstances during dry cutting could give rise to localized heating effects, leading to melted lead over the cutting surface, resulting in limited effectiveness in the removal of the contaminated layer. To mitigate this effect the planer was set to take cuts

  10. Establecimiento de un aula demostrativa del manejo adecuado de desechos sólidos ordinarios, industriales y peligrosos

    OpenAIRE

    Salas-Jiménez, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    En este artículo se expone cómo el Centro de Transferencia y Transformación de Materiales (CTTM) del (ITCR) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica se ha convertido en un aula demostrativa que facilita los procesos de aprendizaje en la temática de desechos sólidos y transferencia de experiencia de los sectores público y privado del país, para buscar alternativas viables desde los puntos de vista ambiental, social y económico. El logro más importante es que las personas y grupos debidamente organi...

  11. Modelo de valoração ambiental da reciclagem de resíduos sólidos urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Guilherme Cardim Gouveia de

    2012-01-01

    gestão dos resíduos sólidos vem se tornando um tema cada vez mais relevante, uma vez que os espaços para disposição final do lixo nos centros urbanos são escassos e valorizados. A prática da reciclagem desponta como uma das melhores alternativas para a redução do volume de resíduos enviados aos lixões e aterros sanitários, ao mesmo tempo em que possibilita seu reaproveitamento, preservando os recursos naturais e gerando economia de energia. Como forma de promoção dessa prática,...

  12. Nuclear services for Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, B.

    1991-01-01

    The UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) became AEA Technology in April 1990. The commercial interests are focussed through 4 business units: AEA Reactor Services, with whom several contracts have been won from Japanese customers for high resolution Field Emission Gun Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (FEGSTEM); AEA Fuel Services, a contract is being negotiated with an existing Japanese customer; AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, with whom further development of an alternative approach to evaporation of liquid waste effluent for specific application in Japan is in progress; AEA Fusion. 1 fig

  13. ANÁLISE DA GERAÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS DA CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL EM TERESINA, PIAUÍ

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, A. S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Os resíduos sólidos da construção civil apresentam grandes problemas ambientais devido principalmente a grande quantidade produzida e destinação inadequada. Este trabalho objetiva conhecer as características dos entulhos gerados na cidade de Teresina, assim como a sua quantificação e possíveis impactos ambientais. O estudo foi realizado em uma construção de um prédio residencial de 19 pavimentos, durante as fases de revestimento (assentamento de contrapiso) e concretagem (laje e rampa). Na fa...

  14. Seguridad de la vacuna de la gripe en el receptor de trasplante de órgano sólido

    OpenAIRE

    Bulnes Ramos, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    La infección por influenza en los pacientes receptores de trasplante de órgano sólido (TOS) se ha asociado con altas tasas de morbilidad y mortalidad, especialmente en los primeros tres meses tras el trasplante. La vacunación de la gripe se ha propuesto como una medida eficaz para la prevención de la infección en estos pacientes. La mayoría de los estudios realizados para evaluar la eficacia de la vacunación en este grupo de pacientes han reflejado una respuesta humoral óptima en el receptor ...

  15. OS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS COMO CONDICIONANTE DE DOENÇAS NA CIDADE DE MANAUS – AM/ Solid urban waste as conditioning of diseases in the city of Manaus-AM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulliane de Amorim Pereira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a ocorrência da disposição final ambientalmente inadequada dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na cidade de Manaus, tal prática realizada sem critérios ambientais adequados se torna um condicionante de doenças, implicando na saúde e na qualidade de vida da população. O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar a problemática dos resíduos sólidos na cidade de Manaus e identificar sua interferência na saúde humana. O estudo foi desenvolvido com base na bibliografia especializada sobre o tema e a realização de trabalho de campo na cidade de Manaus, além de coleta de dados no DATASUS e IBGE. A precária aplicabilidade das políticas públicas resulta na degradação de alguns ambientes em Manaus, sendo identificados comumente em alguns espaços da cidade durante realização de trabalho de campo, apresentando a existência de lixeiras com excesso de material depositado e resíduo dispostos inadequadamente nos igarapés urbanos da cidade. Também se verificou que a espacialização da problemática dos resíduos sólidos não ocorre de forma homogênea na cidade, estando mais presente nas áreas periféricas. Além disso, verificou-se que a cidade apresenta o total elevado de casos de doenças que têm como condicionante socioambiental a disposição inadequada do resíduo, especialmente a Leptospirose. Conclui-se assim que o resíduo e a respectiva disposição inadequada do mesmo atuam como um condicionante de doenças na cidade de Manaus, estando as ocorrências ligadas a precariedade da gestão e gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos na cidade.

  16. Gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos no município de São Bentinho-PB – Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine da Silva Sousa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O gerenciamento inadequado dos resíduos sólidos urbanos acarreta inúmeros impactos no meio ambiente, alterando suas características físicas, químicas e biológicas. A ausência de tratamentos adequados para resíduos sólidos urbanos aliados a disposição incorreta torna-se um grande problema de ordem estética e uma alarmante ameaça à saúde pública. Assim, para que o gerenciamento adequado dos resíduos sólidos urbanos seja executado de acordo a legislação vigente é necessários mecanismo e estratégias para o manejo dos resíduos desde sua origem até sua disposição ambientalmente adequada. Este trabalho tem por objetivo diagnosticar o atual processo de gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos do município de São Bentinho-PB, e propor o gerenciamento dos mesmos de maneira mais adequada diante das condições locais. A metodologia de diagnóstico fundamentou-se num levantamento bibliográfico, entrevista ao órgão competente e a aplicação de questionários a população do município. Com o resultado deste estudo foi notório que a maioria da população necessita ser informada sobre as questões ambientais, para que exerçam sua responsabilidade no gerenciamento do lixo. O poder público municipal não tem tomado nenhuma providência para minimizar os impactos relacionados ao gerenciamento impróprio de seus resíduos, é necessário incentivos e ações para conscientização da população em relação à educação ambiental.Management of municipal solid waste in the city of São Bentinho-PB – Brazil Inadequate management of municipal solid waste entails numerous impacts on the environment by changing its physical, chemical and biological characteristics. The absence of appropriate treatments for solid urban waste coupled with incorrect disposal becomes a problem of aesthetic and an alarming threat public health. So for the proper management of municipal solid waste is implemented in accordance with current

  17. Biosolids conditioning and the availability of Cu and Zn for rice Condicionamento de biossólidos e a disponibilidade de Cu e Zn para arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Marlene Moreno Pires

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Sewage treatment process is a factor to be considered for biosolid use in agriculture. The greatest sewage treatment facility of São Paulo State (Barueri/SP altered in the year 2000 of its sludge treatment. The addition of ferric chloride and calcium oxide was substituted by the addition of polymers. This change can modify heavy metal phytoavailability. A green house experiment, using 2 soils treated with biosolids (three with and one without polymers with and without polymers was performed to evaluate Cu and Zn phytoavailability using rice (Oryza sativa L. as test plant. Three kilograms of two soils (Haphorthox abd Hapludox were placed in pots and the equivalent to 50 Mg ha-1 (dry basis of biosolid was added and incorporated. The statistical design adopted was completely randomized experiment, with five treatments (control plus four different biossolids each soil and four replications. Soil pH before and after harvesting, Cu and Zn concentrations in shoot were evaluated. Tukey (5% was used to compare the results. DTPA, HCl 0.1 mol L-1 and Mehlich 3 were used to estimate soil available Cu and Zn. Amounts extracted were correlated to those presented in rice shoot, to evaluate the efficiency of predicting Cu and Zn phytoavailabilities. Biosolids with polymers presented higher Cu and Zn phytoavailabilities, possibly due to the lower pH of these residues. In this case soil presented lowest values of pH and plant shoot had highest. All extractants were representative of Cu and Zn availability to rice plants.O processo gerador do biossólido é um fator a ser considerado na avaliação do uso agrícola deste resíduo. Em 2000, a adição de cloreto férrico+cal virgem durante o tratamento do esgoto foi substituída pela adição de polieletrólitos na maior Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos de São Paulo (Barueri, o que pode gerar mudanças na fitodisponibilidade dos metais pesados. Um experimento em casa de vegetação, com dois solos (Latossolo

  18. Origen geográfico de camélidos en el periodo mochica (100-800 AD) y análisis isotópico secuencial del esmalte dentario: enfoque metodológico y aportes preliminares

    OpenAIRE

    Goepfert, Nicolas; Dufour, Elise; Gutiérrez, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Comunes en los sitios arqueológicos costeños peruanos en la época prehispánica, los camélidos se encuentran hoy en día ausentes de este medio ambiente. Por lo tanto, se sugirió durante mucho tiempo que estos animales llegaban a la costa a través de intercambios con la sierra. Este trabajo representa un primer intento en la utilización del oxígeno en los análisis isotópicos secuenciales para reconstruir el origen geográfico de los camélidos en la zona andina. El análisis isotópico del esmalte ...

  19. Innovación en la gestión de los residuos sólidos en la Región VII del Estado de México

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Aguilar Miranda

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo trata sobre las tendencias hacia la innovación que experimentaron los municipios de la Región VII del Estado de México, en la gestión de los residuos sólidos. Asimismo describe la metodología con la cual se aproximó al objeto de estudio

  20. Punção aspirativa por agulha fina no diagnóstico de linfadenopatias e tumores sólidos em crianças e adolescentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Acioli Freire de Gois

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a importância diagnóstica da punção aspirativa por agulha fina (PAAF em crianças e adolescentes portadores de linfadenopatias e tumores sólidos. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva dos pacientes com idade igual ou inferior a 18 anos, atendidos no Centro de Pediatria Cirúrgica do Hospital Universitário de Brasília, Universidade de Brasília, no período de julho de 2000 a julho de 2005. Foram calculados: sensibilidade, especificidade, precisão (acurácia diagnóstica, valor preditivo positivo e valor preditivo negativo. RESULTADOS: Em 50 pacientes estudados, os resultados da PAAF mostraram sensibilidade de 90,9%; especificidade de 100%, precisão diagnóstica de 95% e valores preditivos positivo e negativo de 100% e 90%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: Em nossa experiência, a PAAF é um método preciso, simples e seguro, útil no diagnóstico de linfadenopatias e tumores sólidos em crianças e adolescentes.

  1. Temperatura neutral y rangos de confort térmico para exteriores, período cálido en clima cálido seco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Bojórquez

    Full Text Available El estimar las temperaturas de confort térmico en espacios exteriores permite obtener información que sirve de base para generar propuestas de diseño, cuyas condiciones ambientales propicien el confort térmico de los usuarios. Se presenta la estimación de temperatura neutral y rangos de confort térmico para espacios exteriores de un parque recreativo, en el período cálido en un clima desértico. El estudio fue desarrollado en Mexicali, Baja California, México. Se diseñó un cuestionario basado en la escala de sensaciones térmicas de ISO 10551, se midieron temperatura de bulbo seco, temperatura de globo gris, humedad relativa y velocidad de viento. Se aplicaron 822 encuestas en julio y agosto del 2008. Se estimaron temperatura neutra y rangos de confort con el método de medias por intervalo de sensación térmica. El análisis se hizo para tres niveles de actividad: pasiva, moderada e intensa y uno combinado con los tres niveles. Los valores de temperatura neutra obtenidos son aproximadamente simétricos con respecto a sus rangos de confort térmico. Las temperaturas neutras obtenidas muestran que los sujetos en actividad intensa, con práctica periódica de ejercicio y hábitos apropiados a las condiciones de clima, tienen una temperatura de confort térmico similar a aquellos con actividad pasiva.

  2. Avaliação de desempenho de reator UASB no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura Evaluation of performance of UASB reactor in swine wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Rodrigues

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e a avaliação de um sistema de tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura constituído de decantador e seguido de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (reator UASB, em escala real. O reator UASB foi construído de alvenaria e concreto armado. Coletaram-se amostras do esgoto bruto e do efluente do decantador e reator UASB, e se monitoraram os seguintes parâmetros: temperatura, pH, alcalinidade, ácidos voláteis totais (AVT, sólidos suspensos totais (SST, sólidos suspensos voláteis (SSV, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO e demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, de acordo com os métodos estabelecidos pelo Standard Methods (APHA, 1998. Os resultados médios de remoção total de DQO e de DBO foram de 93 e 92%, respectivamente. As concentrações médias de DQO, DBO e SST no efluente final foram de 0,8, 1,8 e 0,8 g L-1, respectivamente. A carga orgânica volumétrica (COV aplicada no reator UASB variou de 1,1 a 17,5 kg DQO m-3 d-1. O sistema decantador-reator UASB apresenta-se como alternativa promissora para o tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura.This research presents the development and evaluation of a system for treatment of swine wastewaters constituted by slat settler, followed by upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, at full scale. The UASB reactor was completely made of masonry and reinforced concrete. The evaluation of the treatment system was carried out through samples collected in the influent and effluent from the settler and UASB reactor. The following parameters were analyzed: temperature, pH, alkalinity, total volatile acids (VFA, suspended solids (TSS, volatile suspended solids (VSS, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, according to the methods established by the Standard Methods (APHA, 1998. The mean results of COD and BOD removal were 93 and 92%, respectively. The mean concentrations of COD, BOD and TSS in the final effluent were

  3. Biosolids effectiveness to yield ryegrass based on their nitrogen content Eficiência de biossólidos na produção de azevém baseado no conteúdo de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Studart Corrêa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids have been reported to increase yields and supply plant nutrients. However, complying with health and environmental standards is necessary before applying biosolids to land. Thus, sludge stabilization is required to make biosolids safe enough for their agricultural use. Side effects of stabilization processes on agronomic features of sewage sludge are not quite known, although their understanding is essential for biosolids management. Based on a model equivalent to the Mitscherlich equation, effects of the most common processes for sludge stabilization were evaluated (composting, liming, heat-drying and solar irradiation in relation to the agronomic effectiveness of biosolids to yield Lolium perenne L. on two tropical soils, with NH4H2PO4 as a reference. Sewage stabilization processes have affected the ability of biosolids to promote plant growth. Their effectiveness was usually higher than fertilizer in a Spodosol and lower in an Oxisol. Solar-irradiated sludge presented the highest effectiveness among the biosolids and reached peak yields at the lowest application rate independent on soil type. Biosolids could efficiently substitute fertilizers and even yield more plant dry matter than the NH4H2PO4 reference, depending on the biosolid and soil type.Biossólidos têm sido citados como capazes de aumentar a produção de culturas e suprir nutrientes para plantas. Questões sanitárias e ambientais demandam que eles sejam estabilizados para que sejam usados na agricultura. Os efeitos dos processos de estabilização sobre as propriedades agronômicas de biossólidos não são completamente conhecidos, apesar de essenciais para o seu manejo. Baseado em um modelo equivalente à equação de Mitscherlich, este trabalho avaliou os efeitos dos processos mais comuns para a estabilização de lodos de esgotos (compostagem, caleação, secagem térmica e irradiação solar sobre a eficiência agronômica de biossólidos na produção de Lolium

  4. The role of procurement in liabilities management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The new United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has as its primary purpose the management of the liabilities left from the nuclear R and D programme. When it was set up in its present form in 1994 (as UKAEA Government Division) it had as its core functions programme management and procurement. It aimed to be involved in project implementation and operations only in so far as it needed to be for purposes of control as nuclear site licensee, or where otherwise this represented best value for money for the taxpayer. This paper describes how the clear definition and split of client and contractor roles has enabled UKAEA to promote the development of a competitive market in decommissioning, to the benefit of the taxpayer and industry. The importance of procurement at the various stages of planning and implementation are explained, along with some of the initiatives UKAEA has taken to improve client-contractor relationships. It is argued that UKAEA's approach has helped to define the boundaries of what is permissible in contractorization within the terms of a nuclear site licence. (author)

  5. Using contractors to decommission while remaining as licensee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last few years the role of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has changed from one involved in research and development in the field of nuclear power and associated technology, to one of managing the liabilities left over from its previous mission. This period has also seen two significant portions of the organization move to the private sector with sale of the Facilities Services Division to PROCORD and the privatization of AEA Technology. The new UKAEA is therefore a focused liabilities management organization, making the best use of expertise in the private sector in carrying out its mission, but retaining adequate internal resource and expertise to fulful its role and responsibilities as the licensee. UKAEA continues to be committed to giving the highest priority to meeting high standards of safety and environmental protection required of the holder of the Nuclear Site Licence under the Nuclear Installations Act. This paper describes the safety management system within the UKAEA which ensures that UKAEA remains the proper and effective licensee and gives some examples of how this has worked in practice. (author)

  6. COMPORTAMIENTO DE LOS FAGOS SOMÁTICOS EN MEZCLAS DE BIOSÓLIDO Y ÁRIDOS UTILIZADOS PARA LA RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA DE LA CANTERA SORA- TAMA, LOCALIDAD DE USAQUÉN, BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. León-Zapata

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Los biosólidos se caracterizan por tener concentraciones importantes de materia orgánica y nutrientes, lo cual los hace aptos para ser utilizados como enmienda orgánica en la recuperación de terrenos disturbados por el hombre. Su aplicación se encuentra condicionada a la concentración de microorganismos patógenos presentes, los cuales generan un riesgo sanitario para las personas que lo manipulan o entran en contacto directo con ellos. La concentración de fagos somáticos en los biosólidos de la planta “El Salitre” es de 2.0 x 104 PFP/g de peso seco, superando los límites sugeridos por la EPA para aplicación sin restricción. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento de los fagos somáticos como indicadores virales de contaminación fecal en mezclas de biosólido y árido en diferentes proporciones utilizadas para la restauración ecológica de la cantera “Soratama” en un período de 90 días. Se realizaron tres tratamientos (T1 8:1; T2 4:1 y T3 2:1, v/v de arena - biosólido con tres réplicas cada uno y un control negativo, únicamente con estériles. Se utilizó la técnica de elusión descrita por Lasobras (1999 y el método para detección y cuantificación de fagos somáticos en aguas, descrito por ISO 10705-2 (1999. El porcentaje de reducción fue de 97,84% para T1, 91,38% para T2 y 98,05% para T3. Se observó que el factor de mayor influencia en la reducción de la concentración de fagos somáticos fue la humedad.

  7. Seguimiento a patógenos presentes en biosólido empleado como enmienda para revegetalizar un talud Follow-up to pathogens present in biosolids used as emendation to reforest a slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Jacqueline López Sánchez

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar la factibilidad del uso del biosólido como enmienda orgánica para el establecimiento de vegetación y el control de procesos erosivos superficiales activos, se seleccionó un corte de carretera ubicado sobrela Variante a Caldas (Antioquia. Para darle amarre y cobertura al suelo, se sembraron dos especies vegetales tipo pasto Brachiaria Decumbens y Kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum, utilizando biosólido proveniente de la PTAR San Fernando, mezclado con suelo de la zona. Se evaluó el comportamiento de bioindicadores de riesgo ambiental: coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, Salmonella-Shiguella, en las aguas de escorrentía y en el suelo del talud en el tiempo. Ambas especies se adaptaron bien amarrando el suelo; la cobertura fue total y permanente. Los resultados muestran la factibilidad del uso del biosólido como enmienda. Sin embargo, la permanencia de los parámetros microbiológicos medidos durante el tiempo de evaluación evidencia la necesidad de sanitizar el biosólido antes de usarlo, ya que estos patógenos constituyen un riesgo ambiental.In order to evaluate the feasibility of biosolids use as an organic emendation for reforestation and controlling active superficial erosive processes, a part of the highway -located near to the alternative route to Caldas (Antioquia. With the purpose of preventing erosion, two types of plants Brachiaria Decumbens and kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum were planted, using biosolids from San Fernando Water Treatment Plant, mixed with soil from the site. The behavior of some environmental risk bioindicators: total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Salmonella-Shiguella, were evaluated, in runoff waters and in the slope soil across the time. Both plant species adapted well to soil; the coverage was complete and permanent. Results show the feasibility of bio-solid as emendation. However, microbiological specifications measured during the evaluation time, showed the need for sanitizing

  8. Gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos urbanos – uma proposta para o município de Paranavaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v33i1.581

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Akiko Nagashima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Buscar soluções para a problemática dos resíduos sólidos urbanos é um dos desafios enfrentados pelos gestores públicos municipais atualmente. Com o aumento da população e a sua migração para os centros urbanos nas últimas décadas, as dificuldades em relação ao gerenciamento desses resíduos se multiplicaram e se diversificaram. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho propõe um modelo de gestão integrada dos resíduos sólidos urbanos para a cidade de Paranavaí, objetivando o uso racional quanto aos recursos naturais, a redução da quantidade de resíduos gerados, a sua valorização e a minimização dos riscos associados a sua eliminação. O modelo apresenta um sistema de gerenciamento integrado, composto por: coleta segregada, coleta seletiva, unidades de triagem, unidade de compostagem e aterro sanitário. O trabalho analisa, ainda, a situação em que se encontra o gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos domiciliares, a característica dos resíduos gerados pela população paranavaiense, bem como a quantidade de material reciclável coletado na cidade e a forma de operação do aterro sanitário, onde são dispostos aproximadamente 1.700 t mês-1>/sup> de resíduos sólidos urbanos.

  9. CONSTRUÇÃO DE UMA MATRIZ DE INDICADORES DE SUSTENTABILIDADE PARA A GESTÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Santos Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos têm demonstrado a problemática dos resíduos sólidos na atualidade. A gestãodesses resíduos tem sido foco da preocupação de pesquisadores das mais diversas áreasde estudo, além de se tomar um dos grandes desafios para as cidades ao longo daspróximas décadas. Uma forma de avaliar, monitorar e planejar a Gestão dos ResíduosSólidos Urbanos (GRSU é por meio da utilização de indicadores de sustentabilidade,instrumento que pode auxiliar os gestores públicos no processo decisório. Com oobjetivo de elaborar uma Matriz de Indicadores para a GRSU, este estudo foidesenvolvido. A construção da matriz foi realizada baseando-se em informaçõesadquiridas em referências nacionais e internacionais. Os indicadores foram organizadosem uma matriz preliminar, a qual passou por um processo de validação externa, comespecialistas, por meio do método Delphi. Para a validação de todos os descritoresforam necessárias duas rodadas, utilizando o consenso de 50%. A primeira rodadavalidou 80,2% dos descritores e os demais foram validados na etapa posterior. A matrizfinal possui 06 dimensões de sustentabilidade: Política, Tecnológica,Econômica/Financeira, Ambiental/Ecológica, Conhecimento e Inclusão Social,contemplando 42 indicadores e 126 descritores. Aplicou-se a matriz final no municípiode Alagoinhas-BA, sendo possível avaliar o Nível de Sustentabilidade (NS da GRSUno município. O NS encontrado foi igual a 6,25, o que corresponde a médiasustentabilidade. A matriz elaborada mostrou-se exequível quando aplicada nomunicípio de Alagoinhas. A aplicação da mesma permitiu não apenas uma percepçãogeral da situação dos RSU no município, como auxiliou na identificação de prioridadesna Gestão. Esta experiência mostrou que os indicadores de sustentabilidade devempermitir uma visão sistêmica que considere as variáveis ambiental, social, cultural,econômica, ecológica e de saúde pública, conforme os princípios e

  10. CENÁRIO MUNDIAL DOS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS E O COMPORTAMENTO CORPORATIVO BRASILEIRO FRENTE À LOGÍSTICA REVERSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Dacach Fernandez Marchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, em um ranking de 163 paises, está no 62º lugar em desempenho ambiental, segundo o estudo Environmental Performance Index 2010. Este estudo configura-se em dois eixos principais: contribuir para a redução de impactos ambientais na saúde humana, e promover incentivos ao gerenciamento dos recursos naturais. A preservação do meio ambiente ganha contornos mundiais quando se refere à geração de resíduos urbanos. Em 2010, depois de vinte anos de discussão, a Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos foi sancionada. Este projeto impõe obrigações aos empresários, ao Poder Público e aos cidadãos no gerenciamento dos resíduos. Este trabalho levanta a problemática do comportamento corporativo brasileiro no enfrentamento de alguns princípios ligados aos Resíduos Sólidos. Existem instrumentos mundiais que podem dar suporte às empresas para enfrentar este desafio? Analisa como ocorre a mediação destas práticas entre setor público, cidadãos e empresas, em algumas regiões do mundo. Divide-se em duas partes: a primeira, teórica, descrevem-se os resultados de uma pesquisa bibliográfica sobre o cenário mundial do lixo urbano; na segunda parte, apresenta-se uma ferramenta utilizada pelo poder público na França, que pode ser replicada no Brasil, contribuindo para minimizar possíveis impactos econômicos e legais que a lei poderá provocar nas organizações brasileiras.

  11. Propiedades físicas de naranja agria cocristalizada: efecto del pH, sólidos solubles y zumo adicionado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo David Andrade Pizarro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar las condiciones de cocristalización del zumo de naranja agria con sacarosa, sobre las propiedades fisicoquímicas del producto obtenido. El zumo de naranja agria fue obtenido con un exprimidor mecánico y concentrado en un rota-evaporador. Se preparó un jarabe de sacarosa a 70 °Brix, el cual fue sometido a calentamiento y agitación de 1000 rpm, hasta que se observó una coloración blanca (118 oC. El zumo de naranja agria se adicionó al jarabe, y la mezcla fue sometida a agitación constante de 600 rpm, hasta observar la formación de un material sólido particulado. Los cocristales fueron secados, molturados y tamizados. A los cocristales secos se les determinó: humedad, densidad aparente, solubilidad, actividad de agua y el ángulo de reposo. Una alta proporción de zumo de naranja agria adicionada (20% y bajo contenido de sólidos solubles (50 °Brix producen cocristales con bajo contenido de humedad (2,59%, actividad de agua (0,52 y tiempo de solubilidad (69,4 s. El zumo de naranja agria concentrado con un pH de 4,5, produjo cocristales con bajos contenidos de humedad (1,96%. Los cocristales de zumo de naranja agria mostraron buenas características de reconstitución (alta solubilidad; sin embargo, presentaron alta humedad (2,5 a 4,5% y actividad de agua (0,508 a 0,798.

  12. El análisis de datos en el marco de un proyecto ambiental de manejo de residuos sólidos

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Marín, Jehison

    2014-01-01

    En el colegio CED Bosco II se observa después de las jornadas de refrigerio y de los descansos una notable cantidad de residuos y basuras en los diferentes espacios de la institución e incluso en lugares aledaños identificándose así cuatro problemáticas en la comunidad estudiantil relacionada con el consumo de alimentos: 1. La no valoración de los alimentos que les ofrece la institución. 2. Ignorancia del manejo de residuos sólidos. 3. Desconocimiento de las normas ciudadana...

  13. European Fast Reactor IWGFR/FRCC-report. A review of the collaborative programme on the European Fast Reactor (EFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    The design work for the 1500 MWe European Fast Reactor EFR was started in 1988. Two years during phase 1 were devoted to the concept design; the subsequent concept validation phase 2 will last until March 1993. In autumn 1991 the 'concept design '91, CD91, was put forward; its major design features and the R and D support are described briefly together with the organisational structures. The European Fast Reactor Utilities Group 'EFRUG' presently comprises EdF (France), ENEL (Italy), Nuclear Electric (UK) and Bayernwerk, PreulsenElektra and RWE (Germany). For design and construction of EFR the group 'EFR Associates' is responsible, combining the companies Siemens (formerly Interatom, Germany), NNC Ltd. (UK) and Framatome/Div. Novatome (France). The necessary R and D support is given by CEA (France), UKAEA (UK) and KfK/Siemens (Germany). The R and D work is executed in the various national research centres ranging from Dounreay via Bensberg and Karlsruhe to Cadarache. The design work is done at Bensberg, Lyon and Risley. The present programme of design work extends to early 1993 and is aimed at producing a detailed consistent design for the nuclear part of the plant and a non site specific safety report. By that date the basic feasibility of the main design features will have been underwritten by the joint R and D programme and there will be an informal assessment of the general licensibility of the concept by the Ad Hoc Safety Club. In follow-up the utilities will then be in the position to decide whether to proceed with the next steps. The key issues of this phase will include the specification of the plant, the siting, the detailed engineering, licensing with possibly a public enquiry and the question of ownership and financing. In the international arena the collaboration with USSR is proceeding well on the basis of an USSR-Europe Agreement from January 8, 1991; it foresees review and specialists meetings in the field of fast breeder research. On the occasion of

  14. Decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunning, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Collaborative studies are in progress in the U.K. between the U.K.A.E.A., the Generating Boards and other outside bodies, to identify the development issues and practical aspects of decommissioning redundant nuclear facilities. The various types of U.K.A.E.A. experimental reactors (D.F.R., W.A.G.R , S.G.H.W.R.) in support of the nuclear power development programme, together with the currently operating commercial 26 Magnox reactors in 11 stations, totalling some 5 GW will be retired before the end of the century and attention is focussed on these. The actual timing of withdrawal from service will be dictated by development programme requirements in the case of experimental reactors and by commercial and technical considerations in the case of electricity production reactors. Decommissioning studies have so far been confined to technical appraisals including the sequence logic of achieving specific objectives and are based on the generally accepted three stage progression. Stage 1, which is essentially a defuelling and coolant removal operation, is an interim phase. Stage 2 is a storage situation, the duration of which will be influenced by environmental pressures or economic factors including the re-use of existing sites. Stage 3, which implies removal of all active and non-active waste material and returning the site to general use, must be the ultimate objective. The engineering features and the radioactive inventory of the system must be assessed in detail to avoid personnel or environmental hazards during Stage 2. These factors will also influence decisions on the degree of Stage 2 decommissioning and its duration, bearing in mind that for Stage 3 activation may govern the waste disposal route and the associated radiation man-rem exposure during dismantling. Ideally, planning for decommissioning should be considered at the design stage of the facility. An objective of present studies is to identify features which would assist decommissioning of future systems

  15. Posibilidades de reducción de los residuos sólidos (no peligrosos) en el Municipio de Barbosa : un estudio de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Ríos, Luis Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Este trabajo muestra los diferentes mecanismo utilizados en la actualidad para disminuir la cantidad de residuos sólidos en el municipio de Barbosa, explicando desde el problema de las externalidades que se generan en el sitio de disposición final y el medio ambiente, pasando por el desarrollo del manejo integral de estos desechos y formas en las cuales se puede contribuir al mejoramiento de esta situación que cada vez sigue creciendo.

  16. El manejo de los residuos sólidos municipales: un enfoque antropológico. El caso de San Luis Potosí, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Guzmán Chávez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta una revisión crítica de la literatura especializada en la gestión de residuos sólidos municipales y una reflexión sobre los aspectos políticos vinculados a dicha gestión. Ello, a partir de un estudio de caso: el tiradero Peñasco situado en la periferia de la zona metropolitana de San Luis Potosí. La reflexión se enfoca, particularmente, en las estrategias empleadas por los pepenadores (separadores de basura para defender su fuente de trabajo, esto es, en sus luchas y negociaciones para incidir en la política municipal y en las decisiones gerenciales de la empresa habilitada para administrar dicho sitio. Nuestro análisis ofrece evidencia sobre las dificultades y la insuficiencia de los enfoques propuestos desde la ingeniería ambiental para generar cambios en la gestión de residuos sólidos y muestra el papel decisivo que juegan los intereses y percepciones de los distintos actores en la definición del control territorial y la solución de la disposición final de residuos en tanto problemática social.

  17. Compostagem aeróbia conjugada de lodo de tanque séptico e resíduos sólidos vegetais Conjugated aerobic composting of septic tank sludge and vegetable solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Gustavo da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O lodo sanitário, principal subproduto do tratamento de esgotos, constitui um dos maiores problemas ambientais urbanos da atualidade. Em meio a este contexto, objetivou-se nesse estudo avaliar o processo da compostagem conjugada de lodo de tanque séptico (LS e resíduos sólidos vegetais (RV e determinar a importância da temperatura para o processo de sanitização do substrato tratado. O experimento, inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e três repetições, consistiu de nove reatores aeróbios com 100 litros de capacidade. Os resíduos foram utilizados nas seguintes proporções - T1: 100% RV; T2: 5% LS + 95% RV; T3: 10% LS + 90% RV. A compostagem aeróbia conjugada mostrou ser uma alternativa viável para destruição de ovos de helminto e estabilização dos resíduos, sendo fundamentais para tal, a temperatura, o pH e as relações ecológicas presentes nos reatores.The sanitary sludge, principal byproduct of sewage treatment, constitutes one of the major municipal environmental problems of the present time. The present study was aimed to evaluate the composting of septic tank sludge (SS and vegetable solid waste (VW and to determine the importance of the temperature for the process of sanitization of the treated substrate. The experiment, entirely randomized with three treatments and three repetitions, constituted of nine aerobic reactors with 100 L capacity. The proportions of the wastes utilized were T1: 100%VW; T2: 5%SS + 95%VW; T3: 10%SS + 90%VW. The conjugated composting showed to be a feasible alternative for destruction of helminth eggs and stabilization of the wastes. The temperature, pH and ecological relations present in the reactors were fundamental for this purpose.

  18. Copolimerização em emulsão de acetato de vinila e acrilato de butila com alto teor de sólidos High solid contents semi-batch emulsion copolymerization of vinyl acetate and butyl acrylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Palma

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi investigada a influência da concentração de uma mistura dos emulsificantes nonilfenol etoxilado e sulfato sódico de nonilfenol etoxilado (não iônico e iônico, respectivamente e concentração de protetor coloidal, poli (álcool vinílico na estabilidade coloidal de látices do copolímero acetato de vinila (AV/acrilato de butila (AB com alto teor de sólidos. Foram determinados o teor de sólidos e o tamanho médio das partículas ao longo da reação e foram obtidas as viscosidades das emulsões finais. Os ensaios foram realizados de acordo com um projeto fatorial com 3 níveis de concentração de emulsificantes e de protetor coloidal. Foi verificado que são necessárias maiores quantidades relativas de emulsificantes e de protetor coloidal pela massa total de monômeros para se obter látices estáveis com teores de sólidos de 70 e 73% (m/m. Os tamanhos médios das partículas no final de cada ensaio foram relativamente elevados (800 a 1000 nm e as viscosidades a 20°C relativamente baixas (500 mPa.s para teor de sólidos de 67% (m/m; para teor de sólidos de 70% (m/m as viscosidades variaram de 5.000 a 10.000 mPa.s e para teor de sólidos de 73% (m/m a viscosidade foi de 365.000 mPa.s.In this work the influence of the concentration of ionic (alkyl phenol polyglycol ether sodium sulfate, and non-ionic (alkyl phenol polyglycol ether, surfactants mixture and of protective colloid (polyvinyl alcohol on the colloidal stability of high solid contents butyl acrylate/vinyl acetate copolymers latexes was investigated. Solid contents and particle diameter were determined along the reaction and, at the end of each run, also the emulsion viscosity. The experiments were carried out according to a factorial design with three levels of surfactant and protective colloid concentrations. Higher amounts of surfactant and protective colloid per total monomers were required for the colloidal stability of emulsions with total solid

  19. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of activities carried out by the DeBeNe partners in 1988 have been compiled in this report. The 1989 KNK II experimental program will focus on the management of fuel element failures. This includes in particular post-irradiation examinations in the hot cells and the THIBO experiments (thermally induced fuel rod oscillation). For this program, nine permits were received in 1988 for the installation and operation of test systems, including a new facility for localizing failed fuel elements. Increasing the purity of sodium is the purpose of a cesium trap recently installed, and of modifications to an oxygen probe operated for test purposes. The SNR 300 project is being continued within the framework of the ''holding phase''. The objective of this phase of operation is to keep the reactor plant in the loading and operational states and execute planning within the licensing procedure necessary to obtain the next partial permit. R and D work was concentrated on fuel and materials development, safety, physics, and components development. Materials for fuel, blanket, and absorber elements were studied and further developed with a view to very high burnup. In the sector of physics, the engineering design and the nuclear design of large breeders call for a reduction of the margins of uncertainty in reliable predictions of the major reactor parameters. The development of the joint European cell code, ECCO (European Cell Code) has progressed far enough in the meantime to allow the criticality parameter, k eff , of a cell arrangement to be calculated with ECCO for the first time at UKAEA Winfrith, the central agency for carrying out the development work. One of the major aspects covered in safety studies is the complex of fuel rod failures, loss of coolant flow, and power transients as possible causes of accidents. Studies conducted into the management of credible accident consequences were concentrated, among other topics, on the behaviour of aerosols, sodium fires

  20. VALIDACIÓN DE TRES SUPLEMENTOS ALIMENTICIOS ELABORADOS A PARTIR DE SUBPRODUCTOS AGROINDUSTRIALES DE POSCOSECHA EN FUNCIÓN DEL INCREMENTO EN SÓLIDOS TOTALES DE LA LECHE VALIDAÇÃO DE TRÊS SUPLEMENTOS ALIMENTARES FEITOS A PARTIR DA PÓS-COLHEITA DE SUBPRODUTOS AGROINDUSTIAIS EM FUNÇÃO DO AUMENTO DE SÓLIDOS TOTAIS DO LEITE VALIDATION OF THREE FOOD SUPPLEMENTS MADE FROM POST-HARVEST AGRO-INDUSTRIAL IN TERMS OF INCREASED MILK TOTAL SOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA ANDREA HENAO C

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un proyecto de acompañamiento a una planta de procesamiento, que aprovecha los subproductos de poscosecha, en la producción de un suplemento alimenticio para ganado bovino. El proceso comprendió la evaluación de tres suplementos en su composición bromatológica para conocer su contenido y su análisis microbiológico para determinar su inocuidad. Finalmente se realizó la validación de estos tres suplementos alimenticios conducente a determinar si su ingesta incrementaba el porcentaje de sólidos totales de la leche del lote de animales que lo consumieron. Los suplementos alimenticios que se desarrollaron a partir de subproductos poscosecha, generados durante la transformación de pulpas y néctares, no presentaron microorganismos patógenos, ni cuantificación de aflatoxinas, además de tener contenidos de fibra, proteína y grasa representativas para la complementación de la alimentación animal. Posteriormente, se validaron en hatos lecheros los suplementos, con el objetivo de determinar aquel que expresara un mejor rendimiento en sólidos totales. Dichos suplementos se pusieron a prueba, mediante contrastación estadística, en procura de determinar si su uso incrementa los sólidos totales de la leche, en comparación con una alimentación tradicional. Los resultados arrojaron que en particular el uso del suplemento B genera incrementos significativos en los sólidos totales de la lecheRealizamos um projeto de acompanhamento de uma planta de processamento que tira proveito dos produtos pós-colheita na produção de um suplemento alimentar para o gado. 0 processo envolveu a avaliação de três suplementos em sua composição química para substâncias e análises microbiológicas para determinar a sua segurança. Finalmente, a validação destes três principáis suplementos dietéticos para determinar se o seu consumo aumentou a porcentagem de sólidos totais do leite do lote de animais que consumiram. Os suplementos

  1. Medio de cultivo utilizando residuos-sólidos para el crecimiento de una bacteria nativa con potencial biofertilizante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lara Mantilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos de la evaluación del crecimiento, desarrollo y viabilidad de una cepa bacteriana nativa Azotobacter A15M2G con potencial biofertilizante, sobre un medio de cultivo preparado con residuos sólidos vegetales procedentes del mercado: Brassica Oleracea (repollo, Lactusa sativa (lechuga y Allium fistulosum (cebollín. El crecimiento de la bacteria en el medio de residuo vegetal a diferentes concentraciones: 25, 50 y 75% p/v fue evaluado, encontrándose un mejor crecimiento en la concentración del 25%; la caracterización química del medio de cultivo al 25% p/v, después de ser esterilizado, mostró los siguientes valores: 0,035% de carbohidratos, 0,4044% de proteína, 0,03574% de cenizas, 99,3955% de humedad, 6,93 mg/l de azufre, 0,170 mg/l de fósforo, 0,2 mg/l de manganeso, 409,2 mg/l de potasio, 1,842 mg/l de hierro, 14 mg/l de sodio y 0,1 mg/l de zinc, 28,056 mg/l de calcio y 17,017 mg/l de magnesio. En el medio de cultivo al 25% también fue evaluada la capacidad fijadora de nitrógeno y productora de ácido indol acético (AIA de la bacteria, obteniendo una concentración de 4,8725 mg/l y 13,5837 mg/l respectivamente. Posteriormente se realizó un ensayo de viabilidad por un periodo de 2 meses. Los resultados muestran que los residuos-sólidos vegetales generados en las plazas de mercado local pueden ser utilizados como medio de cultivo ofreciendo un aporte nutricional al microorganismo de interés agrícola minimizando la contaminación ambiental generada.

  2. Gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos no município de pombal – PB - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Alves Martins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO - Os resíduos quando disposto de forma incorreta, sem qualquer tratamento, pode poluir o solo, alterando suas características físicas, químicas e biológicas, se tornando também em um problema de ordem estética e uma ameaça à saúde pública. A destinação inadequada dos resíduos sólidos proveniente das diversas atividades humanas é, atualmente, um dos significativos problemas enfrentado pela administração pública no Brasil e em países em desenvolvimento. Este trabalho tem por objetivo diagnosticar o atual processo de gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos realizados no município de Pombal – PB, e propor o gerenciamento dos mesmos de maneira mais adequada diante das condições locais. O método de diagnosticar fundamentou-se num levantamento bibliográfico, entrevista ao órgão competente e a aplicação de questionários a população, em todos os bairros do município. Com o resultado deste estudo foi perceptível que a maioria da população necessita ser informada sobre as questões ambientais, para que desta forma gerencie adequadamente seus resíduos. O poder público municipal já está tomando algumas providencias para diminuir os impactos gerados pela falta de um correto gerenciamento dos seus resíduos, mas alguns pontos ainda precisam ser levados em consideração, como trabalhar principalmente a conscientização da população.Palavras chave: Destino final, Conscientização, Poder publico. 

  3. Influencia de la separación en la fuente sobre el compostaje de residuos sólidos municipales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marmolejo Luis fernando

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia, el aprovechamiento de la fracción putrescible de
    los residuos sólidos municipales (RSM ha aumentado en años
    recientes, siendo el compostaje la opción más utilizada para
    ello. Sin embargo la efectividad de esta transformación se ve
    afectada por lo incipiente de los procesos de separación en la
    fuente. Con la aplicación efectiva de los mismos se espera una
    mayor eficiencia de operación, así como una disminución en
    los tiempos de procesamiento y en la cantidad de residuos a
    disponer. El propósito del presente este estudio fue la evaluación
    de la influencia de esta práctica sobre el proceso de compostaje.
    Para ello se realizó un montaje a escala de laboratorio utilizando
    muestras de RSM separados y no separados en la fuente, generados
    en el municipio de La Victoria (Valle del Cauca, Colombia,
    población cuya planta de manejo de residuos sólidos incluye el
    compostaje de la fracción putrescible. La evaluación incluyó:
    i la calidad de las materias primas, ii el comportamiento de
    la Temperatura y el pH durante el proceso, y iii la calidad microbiológica
    de los productos. Los resultados indican que los
    residuos separados en la fuente presentan mayor facilidad de
    degradación, requieren menor tiempo para alcanzar la temperatura
    ambiente, y además permiten obtener un producto final
    de mejor calidad microbiológica.

  4. Eliminación de patógenos en biosólidos por estabilización alcalina Eliminating pathogens in biosolids by alkaline stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available La Planta de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Cañaveralejo -PTAR-C de Cali- Colombia, produce alrededor de 100 t/día de biosólidos que, aunque no tienen restricción por metales pesados, son clase B por el nivel de microorganismos patógenos y parásitos. En un diseño completamente al azar, conformado por seis tratamientos con su respectivo duplicado, se evaluó la estabilización alcalina con dosis del 9% peso a peso de cal viva e hidratada, aplicada a pilas de 0.5 t de biosólidos húmedos (66.5% y secos a temperatura ambiente (25 - 31°C durante 72 h (humedad 50.1%. Con la estabilización alcalina el pH aumentó a valores superiores a 12 unidades durante el tiempo suficiente para garantizar la reducción de patógenos y parásitos, alcanzando un material clase A; sin embargo, el biosólido seco facilitó la formación de grumos que dificultaron las labores de homogenización del sustrato con los alcalinizantes, factor indeseable para la eficiente reducción de patógenos.The Cañaveralejo wastewater treatment plant (PTAR-C based in Cali-Colombia, produces almost 100 t-day-1 of biosolids. Although do not have heavy metals restrictions, it is class B for high contents of pathogens microorganisms and parasites. The alkali stabilization was done with a 9% of dose (w/w of quicklime and hydrated lime applied to different 0.5 ton piles of wet biosolids (66.5% humidity and dry biosolids an environmental temperature (25-31°C for 72 hours (50.1% humidity. The experiment had a completely randomized design and it was composed by 6 treatments with their respective duplicated. With the alkali stabilization, the pH increments above 12 units during enough time to assure pathogens and parasites reduction in order to achieve a class A material level. On the other hand, the dry biosolids facilitate the conditions for lumps formation that reduce the homogenization of the substrate with the alkali material, which it is and undesirable factor for pathogen

  5. A second simulated criticality accident dosimetry experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, N

    1973-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to facilitate training in criticality dose assessment by UKAEA and BNFL establishments with potential criticality hazards. Personal dosemeters, coins, samples of hair, etc. supplied by the seven participating establishments were attached to a man-phantom filled with a solution of sodium nitrate (simulating 'body-sodium'), and exposed to a burst of radiation from the AWRE pulsed reactor VIPER. The neutron and photon doses were each several hundred rads. Participants made two sets of dose assessments. The first, made solely from the evidence of their routine dosemeters the activation of body-sodium and standard monitoring data, simulated the initial dose assessment that would be made before the circumstances of a real incident were established. The second was made when the position and orientation of the phantom relative to the reactor and the shielding (20 cm of copper) between the reactor core and the phantom were disclosed. Neutron and photon dose assessments for comparison wit...

  6. Reaproveitamento de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico em cerâmica vermelha

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,G. E.; Holanda,J. N. F.

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho mostra os resultados de um estudo sobre a incorporação de resíduo sólido proveniente do setor siderúrgico na formulação de uma massa argilosa utilizada na fabricação de cerâmica vermelha. As massas preparadas continham os seguintes teores de resíduo de siderurgia: 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 2,5 e 3,0% em peso. Os resultados de difração de raios X, distribuição de tamanho de partículas e limites de Atterberg são apresentados para as massas argilosas. Os corpos-de-prova foram conforma...

  7. Lixo turístico e a importância da gestão integrada de resíduos sólidos urbanos para um turismo sustentável : o caso de Caldas Novas : Goiás

    OpenAIRE

    Álvares, Priscila Bernardes

    2011-01-01

    Esta dissertação analisa alguns reflexos da atividade turística diante da gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos (lixo) de Caldas Novas, Goiás, município considerado pelo Ministério do Turismo como o 37º destino indutor da atividade turística no Brasil - Região da Águas. O aumento dos resíduos orgânicos e inorgânicos em alta temporada devido ao fluxo turístico foi denominado neste trabalho lixo turístico. Esta variável, aliada à má gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos, foi a principal responsável...

  8. Consórcios Públicos: uma alternativa viável para a gestão regionalizada de resíduos sólidos urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Rosí Cristina Espindola da; Philippi, Luiz Sérgio

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho analisa as alternativas, as potencialidades e as limitações de processos de gestão associada e regionalizada de resíduos sólidos urbanos, diante de um contexto em que se apresentam a descentralização político-administrativa dos entes federados, a centralização econômica e uma nova regulamentação através da recente Lei dos Consórcios no Brasil.

  9. Propuesta Para La Disposición Adecuada De Los Residuos Sólidos Reciclables En El Laboratorio San Martín

    OpenAIRE

    Araya-Trejos, Yesenia

    2011-01-01

    Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Gestión de Recursos Naturales y Tecnologías de Producción) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica. Área Académica Agroforestal, 2011. En las últimas décadas la generación de residuos sólidos ha ido creciendo exponencialmente a nivel mundial. Dentro de los factores que han contribuido a tal expansión están: la cultura de usar y tirar los llamados “desechables”, la elevada cantidad y diversidad de materiales de empaque que se comercializan con los productos, ...

  10. A taxa de coleta de resíduos sólidos domiciliares: uma análise crítica

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Fonseca Leite

    2006-01-01

    Os serviços de coleta e destinação final dos resíduos sólidos urbanos - RSU, são de responsabilidade dos municípios. As despesas decorrentes dos serviços são repassadas na forma de taxas, geralmente lançadas junto com o IPTU. O objetivo desta cobrança é o de recuperar os recursos despendidos neste serviço. O trabalho proposto busca apresentar algumas formas de definição da cota que cada município adota para definir o valor a ser cobrado de cada domicílio no Brasil e alguns casos do exterior, ...

  11. The technology of under-sodium inspection in LMFBR's with particular reference to experimental measurements of the PFR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKnight, J.A.; Barrett, L.M.; Burton, E.J.; Fothergill, J.R.; Gould, R.F.; Parker, J.A.; Willis, P.; Fenemore, P.

    1985-05-01

    For future Nuclear Fast Reactor systems an expected requirement will be the ability to examine components immersed in the sodium coolant. The potential of ultrasonic technology for this purpose is well illustrated by the successful experiment in the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay in the UK made during the Spring of 1982 by a team from the UKAEA Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratories. A device was loaded through the top shield of the reactor, and this was used to obtain recognisable images of the tops of reactor core components. Small on-line computers were used to store, assemble and display the images. They were also used for a subsequent analysis which measured the distortion and growth of the components due to irradiation. The experiment enables an assessment to be made of the performance to be expected from future under-sodium instruments. The need for an access manipulator with robotic functions is clear. So too are required improvements in imaging technology to enable targets to be seen whatever their orientation. thus a substantial development programme is envisaged. (author)

  12. Efecto del secado de los biosólidos de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales El Salitre (Bogotá sobre su contenido de nutrientes, metales pesados y patógenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giraldo Óscar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Se acondicionó el biosólido proveniente  de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales El Salitre, en Bogotá, para su uso agrícola o forestal, de tal manera que el producto obtenido se encontrara dentro de los límites máximos permisibles de contaminantes establecidos por la estadounidense Environmental Protection Agency (EPA y su contenido de nutrientes se afectara en la menor proporción posible. Se realizaron tratamientos térmicos a temperaturas de 50, 55, 60, 65 y 70 °C, y se determinó el contenido de coliformes totales, E. coli y Salmonella, el contenido de nutrientes totales (N, P, K y metales pesados disponibles (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, antes y después de cada uno de los tratamientos. Los tratamientos de secado entre 55-70 °C redujeron los coliformes totales y E. coli hasta niveles apropiados para que el biosólido pueda ser utilizado en aplicaciones forestales. Aunque los contenidos de nutrientes del producto se redujeron entre 75% y 95%, aún se considera apropiados para su utilización como fertilizante. Los metales Cu y Zn aumentaron sus contenidos disponibles después de los tratamientos, Cd y Cr no fueron detectados y los contenidos de  algunos metales pesados (Mn, Ni, Pb se redujeron con el proceso de secado. Sin embargo, para  todos  los metales los valores se encontraron por debajo de los límites establecidos por la EPA para la aplicación del biosólido en terrenos agrícolas. Se concluyó que el tratamiento de secado de biosólido puede considerarse como una opción válida para su acondicionamiento para uso forestal.

  13. Qualification of high density aluminide fuels for the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeckmans de West-Meerbeeck, Andre; Gubel, Pol; Ponsard, Bernard; Pin, Thomas; Falgoux, Jean Louis

    2005-01-01

    The BR2 operation still relies on the use of 90..93% enriched HEU aluminide fuel. The availability of a limited batch of 73% enriched HEU from reprocessed BR2 uranium in Dounreay justified 10 years ago the qualification and use of this material. After some preliminary test irradiations, various batches of fuel elements were fabricated by the UKAEA-Dounreay and successfully irradiated. Due to their lower 235 U content (0.050 g 235 U/cm 2 ), these elements were always irradiated together with standard 90...93% HEU fuel elements. A mixed-core strategy was developed at this occasion for an optimal utilization, and was reported during the 4th RRFM conference (March 19-21, 2000, Colmar, France). The availability of a new batch of fresh 73% HEU material was the occasion, a few years ago, to initiate the development, fabrication and qualification of a new high density fuel element. An order was placed with CERCA to assess the optimal fabrication methods and tooling required to meet as far as possible the existing BR2 standard specifications and 235 U content (0.060 g 235 U/cm 2 ). This development phase has been already reported during the 7th RRFM conference (March 9-12, 2003, Aix-en-Provence, France). Afterwards, six lead test fuel elements were ordered for qualification by irradiation. The neutronic properties of the fuel elements were adjusted and optimized. After a short summary of the main results of the development program, this paper describes the nuclear characteristics of the high density fuel elements and comments on the nuclear follow-up of the lead test fuel elements during their irradiation for five cycles in the BR2 reactor and the return of experience for CERCA. (author)

  14. Análisis de la situación del estado de la gestión integral de residuos sólidos en el cantón de Alvarado, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. Soto-Córdoba

    2014-11-01

    Para esta investigación se recopiló y analizó la información bibliográfica disponible de la zona, se desarrollaron instrumentos de captura de información, se entrevistaron los principales actores sociales, se realizaron visitas de campo y se analizó toda esta información, de forma que se logró sistematizar y organizar en los siguientes tópicos: 1 Gestión administrativa de los residuos sólidos: porcentajes de cobertura de recolección, limpieza de parques y vías, relleno sanitario que se utiliza y estado actual del antiguo botadero municipal; 2 descripción y reseña del programa de gestión integral de residuos sólidos, descripción de la implementación de la ley de Gestión Integral de Residuos (GIR y su relación con los indicadores utilizados por la Controlaría General de la República.

  15. Atomic Energy Authority (Special Constables) Act 1976 of 10 June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Act, which came into force on 10th June 1976, extends the powers of the UKAEA's Special Constables (i.e. Police) so that they may be better able to safeguard fissile materials in nuclear installations and during transport. Under the Act the UKAEA's Special Constables are deemed to be Crown servants for the purposes of the Firearms Act 1968, Section 2, and it extends the kind of property in relation to which the UKAEA's Special Constables may exercise their powers when they are outside the premises within which they were appointed to act. It also extends the geographical limits within which the UKAEA's Special Constables may exercise their powers, so that their powers may now be exercised wherever they may go in order to safeguard fissile materials or to pursue persons believed to have removed or attempted to remove such materials unlawfully. (NEA) [fr

  16. Evolutionary genomics in cicindelids : characterisation and expression analysis of reproductive and immune related genes = Genómica evolutiva en cicindélidos : caracterización y análisis de expresión de genes relacionados con la reproducción y el sistema inmune

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez García, María Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Los cicindélidos o escarabajos tigre son una familia de coleópteros depredadores pertenecientes al suborden Adephaga que cuentan con más de 2500 especies distribuidas por todo el mundo. Son especies importantes en los ecosistemas y comúnmente usadas como bioindicadores que han despertado la curiosidad de científicos y aficionados y han sido frecuentemente estudiados a distintos niveles. Sin embargo, hay poca información sobre los transcriptomas de los cicindélidos, y no se han realizado estud...

  17. Reactor theory and power reactors. 1. Calculational methods for reactors. 2. Reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Various methods for calculation of neutron flux in power reactors are discussed. Some mathematical models used to describe transients in nuclear reactors and techniques for the reactor kinetics' relevant equations solution are also presented

  18. Trading fund opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the operation of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) as a trading fund. The changes and anticipated effects of this role are discussed, including the financial arrangements, UKAEA skills, customers, Department of Energy sponsorship and new business opportunities. (U.K.)

  19. Reactor core in FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1989-01-01

    In a reactor core in FBR type reactors, a portion of homogenous fuels constituting the homogenous reactor core is replaced with multi-region fuels in which the enrichment degree of fissile materials is lower nearer to the axial center. This enables to condition the composition such that a reactor core having neutron flux distribution either of a homogenous reactor core or a heterogenous reactor core has substantially identical reactivity. Accordingly, in the transfer from the homogenous reactor core to the axially heterogenous reactor core, the average reactivity in the reactor core is substantially equal in each of the cycles. Further, by replacing a portion of the homogenous fuels with a multi-region fuels, thereby increasing the heat generation near the axial center, it is possiable to reduce the linear power output in the regions above and below thereof and, in addition, to improve the thermal margin in the reactor core. (T.M.)

  20. PLANO DE GERENCIAMENTO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS DO MUNICÍPIO DE MAMANGUAPE - PB: PARADIGMAS DA GESTÃO AMBIENTAL LOCAL / THE MANAGEMENT PLAN OF SOLID WASTE IN THE CITY OF MAMANGUAPE – PB: MODELS OF LOCAL ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldner Gomes Barbosa Filho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Os resíduos sólidos protagonizam grande preocupação para uma gestão local que busca resolver os crescentes problemas ambientais. Compreendendo a importância deste tema, o presente artigo objetiva relatar o trabalho de gestão ambiental do município de Mamanguape - PB, conhecendo suas características, o processo de coleta e a disposição final dos resíduos sólidos do município. Para isso, foi realizada a participação voluntária no comitê técnico, junto a gestão local durante todo processo. A partir dos dados coletados foi elaborado um Plano de Gerenciamento de Resíduos Sólidos PGRS, que busca contribuir com a qualidade de vida e melhores condições ambientais para a população local. Palavras-chave: Resíduos sólidos, Mamanguape, Gestão Ambiental. ABSTRACT Solid waste represents a major worried for a local management which seeks to resolve the increasing environmental difficulty. In the first place, understanding the meaning of this issue, this article is going to demonstrate the effort of managing solid waste in the city of Mamanguape - PB. First is necessary to identify features, the collection process and final disposal of solid waste in the city. With this intention, it was performed a voluntary participation in technical committee in together with the local management throughout the process. From the collected data, it was organized a Plan for Solid Waste Management, which seeks to get rid of the garbage of the city consequently contribute to quality of life and better environmental conditions for the local population. Keywords: Solid waste, Mamanguape, Environmental Management.

  1. ANÁLISIS DE LA DINÁMICA BIOLÓGICA PRESENTE EN UN SISTEMA PILOTO DE LOMBRICULTURA PARA EL MANEJO DE BIOSÓLIDOS PROVENIENTES DE AGUAS RESIDUALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Chávez Porras

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la dinámica biológica presente en un sistema piloto de lombricultura con la especie Eisenia foetida para el manejo de biosólidos provenientes de la Planta de Tratamiento Aguas Residuales -PTAR- Salitre, Bogotá D. C., con el fin de establecer la influencia de los organismos presentes en la transformación y translocación de la materia orgánica -MO-, la eficiencia de este proceso, así como la calidad del humus y su posible uso como abono orgánico. Esto, mediante análisis biológicos en diferentes etapas. En la primera fase del sistema se identificó que los biosólidos están clasificados como tipo B de acuerdo con la EPA (Agencia de Protección del Medioambiente de los EE. UU., y presentan condiciones desfavorables para su aplicación a cultivos agrícolas. Sin embargo, luego de dos meses de procesamiento biológico, el humus tuvo características similares a las de un compost maduro, con baja presencia de microorganismos patógenos, así como también un leve aumento en la diversidad y equitatividad de la meso y la macrofauna.

  2. DETERMINACIONES DE FLUJO DEL SUERO COSTEÑO CON DIFERENTES CONCENTRACIONES DE SÓLIDOS TOTALES DETERMINAÇÃO DE FLUJO DO SORO COSTENHO CON DIFERENTES CONCENTRAÇOES DO SOLIDOS TOTAIS SUERO COSTEÑO FLOW DETERMINATIONS WITH DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TOTAL SOLIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIOFANOR ACEVEDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los efectos del incremento de los sólidos totales con lactosuero parcialmente desmineralizado en las determinaciones de flujo del Suero costeño. Los resultados muestran que el flujo fue de naturaleza no-newtoniana, las curvas se ajustaron mejor al modelo de Herschel-Bulkley, previamente evaluado por la ecuación de Casson. El aumento de los sólidos totales disminuye el índice de flujo (n, aumenta el umbral de fluencia (?0 y el coeficiente de consistencia (K, presentando un adelgazamiento por corte o cizalladuraO objetivo deste estudo foi determinar os efeitos do aumento de sólidos totais com soro parcialmente desmineralizado na determinação do fluxo de soro costenho. Os resultados mostram que o fluxo era de curvas não-newtoniano montado um modelo de Herschel-Bulkley, previamente avaliada pela equação de Casson. O aumento do teor de sólidos diminui a taxa de fluxo (n aumenta a tensão de escoamento (?0 e o coeficiente de consistência (K, indicando uma tesoura de desbaste ou de corte.The main objective in this study was to determine the effects of increment in total solids concentration with partially dematerialized whey for the flow determinations in Suero Costeño. The results shown that the increase in total solids concentration affects the rheological properties, like consistency coefficient (K and an increment of the values of yield stress (?0, while the flow index (n values slightly decreased, showing a leverage in shear-thinning behavior

  3. CONSIDERAÇÕES SOBRE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS DE SERVIÇOS DE SAÚDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Gomes de Mello Brito

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo trata da situação dos resíduos sólidos de serviços de saúde ( RSSS e aborda a coleta seletiva de resíduos como uma alternativa para a redução do volume de lixo enviado para deposição ao solo. O trabalho lança uma discussão a respeito do "lixo" sob a ótica da educação ambiental e insere os RSSS nesse contexto. Pretende, através de abordagens educativas, despertar nas pessoas envolvidas com a geração de resíduos, e em especial os resíduos de serviços de saúde, uma consciência crítica sobre a sua responsabilidade como gerador de "lixo" e poluidor do meio ambiente. A mudança de atitudes resultará em combate ao desperdício e diminuição da geração dos diferentes tipos de resíduos com destino ao aterro sanitário.

  4. Planificación de recogida y flujo de residuos sólidos (de construcción y demolición, hormigón, cerámica y otros) mediante la utilización de una herramienta informatizada para su gestión sostenible

    OpenAIRE

    Garzón, E.; Sánchez-Soto, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Not availableSe presenta un procedimiento para la planificación de recogida y flujo de los residuos sólidos (de construcción y demolición, hormigón, cerámica, vidrio y otros) basado en la utilización de una herramienta informatizada, para conseguir una optimización de su gestión. Dicho procedimiento parte de normativa establecida según un Plan Director Territorial de la Gestión de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (RSU) aprobado en una Comunidad Autónoma, en este caso se particulariza a la de Andalucí...

  5. Sorção e mobilidade do lítio em solos de áreas de disposição final de resíduos sólidos urbanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Coutinho de Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Um dos grandes problemas da atualidade é a disposição inadequada dos resíduos sólidos urbanos no solo, e seus efeitos recaem, principalmente, na contaminação das águas e do solo. Este trabalho objetivou o estudo da sorção e da mobilidade do Lítio nos solos das áreas de disposição de resíduos sólidos urbanos dos municípios de Lavras, Campo Belo e Pouso Alegre, MG. A partir dos ensaios de sorção em batelada e mobilidade do Li em colunas de solo, ajustaram-se os parâmetros das isotermas de Freundlich e da equação de transporte de solutos no solo. Pelos resultados obtidos verificou-se que, dentre os solos avaliados, o do município de Lavras foi o que apresentou a maior mobilidade do Li seguido dos solos de Pouso Alegre e Campo Belo, sendo, portanto, mais vulnerável à contaminação das águas subterrâneas.

  6. A geração de resíduos sólidos em um processo produtivo de uma indústria automobilística: uma contribuição para a redução

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Madureira Orth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available É sabido que a produção de resíduos industriais constitui uma das principais formas de degradação do meio ambiente. As indústrias têm empreendido um esforço crescente para tornarem seus processos produtivos menos agressivos, especialmente no que se refere à geração e gestão de resíduos sólidos. O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu em estudar a geração de resíduos sólidos no processo produtivo de uma indústria automobilística, visando a apresentação de ações de redução. O estudo se deu por meio de observações in loco, registros fotográficos e cálculos da quantidade de resíduos sólidos gerados no processo de Moldagem e Acabamento em Plástico Reforçado com Fibra de Vidro. Constatou-se que a moldagem do tipo aberta, adotada pela fábrica, representa a principal fonte de geração de resíduos. Outra fonte refere-se ao desperdício de materiais, atribuído à falta de capacitação e de Educação Ambiental. Concluiu-se que a migração para um processo mais limpo e a adoção de um Programa de Educação Ambiental devem ser consideradas pela unidade fabril estudada.

  7. Aproveitamento Energético dos Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos em Aterro Sanitário

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geslaine Frimaio da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Em países em desenvolvimento os aterros sanitários se destacam como a técnica de disposição final de resíduos sólidos urbanos por apresentar menor custo e apresentar técnicas de engenharia que visam minimizar os impactos à saúde pública e ambientais. Nesse sentido este estudo realiza a síntese em emergia de um aterro sanitário na cidade de São Paulo, que possui um projeto de compensação ambiental e geração de energia elétrica por meio da queima do biogás. A emergia total do sistema corresponde a 1,22x10 20 sej, as transformidades do RSU e da energia elétrica foram correspondem a 8,36x10 11 sej/J e 4,67x10 3.

  8. Reactor core and initially loaded reactor core of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo.

    1989-01-01

    In BWR type reactors, improvement for the reactor shutdown margin is an important characteristic condition togehter with power distribution flattening . However, in the reactor core at high burnup degree, the reactor shutdown margin is different depending on the radial position of the reactor core. That is , the reactor shutdown margin is smaller in the outer peripheral region than in the central region of the reactor core. In view of the above, the reactor core is divided radially into a central region and as outer region. The amount of fissionable material of first fuel assemblies newly loaded in the outer region is made less than the amount of the fissionable material of second fuel assemblies newly loaded in the central region, to thereby improve the reactor shutdown margin in the outer region. Further, the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower portion of the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower region of the second fuel assemblies, to thereby obtain a sufficient thermal margin in the central region. (K.M.)

  9. O Papel da Universidade na Gestão de Resíduos Sólidos: O Caso da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - UFMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Tobias de Vasconcelos Barros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este século trouxe muitas demandas novas para a gestão dos resíduos sólidos no Brasil. Concernente a alguns geradores específicos (como, por exemplo, serviços de saúde e empresas indus- triais, as leis são muito mais rígidas e existe uma pressão forte para reciclagem de resíduos domésticos - embora seu cumprimento possa levar muito tempo. As universidades desempenham um papel fundamental na sociedade: ao mesmo tempo criam e difundem o conhecimento, e devem ser uma referência em termos de atitudes, formando alunos, quer como profissionais, quer como cidadãos. Este estudo procura relacionar o que acontece na Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, e na cidade de Belo Horizonte em termos de gestão dos resíduos sólidos. O ensaio considerou exigências externas (leis federais, estadu- ais e locais, as ações gestão ambiental e urbana da cidade, do judiciário - na figura dos promotores públicos - e da sociedade e disposições internas (administração da universidade e comunidade acadêmica, tentando estabelecer elos entre a cidade e a Universidade. A premissa é que os membros da comunidade acadêmica tendem a se comportar do mesmo modo que o cidadão comum, não exercendo o poder de difusor de conhecimentos transformadores da sociedade.

  10. Nuclear reactor physics course for reactor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2006-01-01

    The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated

  11. Reactor core of FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Hideyuki; Ichimiya, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor core is a homogeneous reactor core divided into two regions of an inner reactor core region at the center and an outer reactor core region surrounding the outside of the inner reactor core region. In this case, the inner reactor core region has a lower plutonium enrichment degree and less amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction, and the outer reactor core region has higher plutonium enrichment degree and greater amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction. Moderator materials containing hydrogen are added only to the inner reactor core fuels in the inner reactor core region. Pins loaded with the fuels with addition of the moderator materials are inserted at a ratio of from 3 to 10% of the total number of the fuel pins. The moderator materials containing hydrogen comprise zirconium hydride, titanium hydride, or calcium hydride. With such a constitution, fluctuation of the power distribution in the radial direction along with burning is suppressed. In addition, an absolute value of the Doppler coefficient can be increased, and a temperature coefficient of coolants can be reduced. (I.N.)

  12. Hábitos da população no manejo de resíduos sólidos domiciliares: estudo de caso em Juazeiro do Norte – CE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anny Kariny Feitosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é analisar os hábitos da população no manuseio e destinação final dos resíduos sólidos domiciliares na cidade de Juazeiro do Norte, estado do Ceará. Para tanto, realizou-se entrevista em 53 domicílios, distribuídos em seis bairros classificados nos estratos socioeconômicos A, B1, B2, C1, C2 e D. Como resultados, destacam-se: 62,26% dos entrevistados destinam resíduos orgânicos para a coleta convencional do município; 81,13% destinam os materiais plásticos para a coleta convencional, 15,09% doam para catadores de rua; sobre o óleo de cozinha, 24,53% destinam à coleta convencional, 30,19% derramam no ralo da pia e 20,76% destinam para a produção de sabão; sobre pilhas e baterias, 84,91% descartam na coleta convencional, 1,89% queima ou enterra e 5,66% entregam em estabelecimentos cadastrados para a logística reversa. É necessário investir em campanhas educativas sobre o descarte adequado de resíduos sólidos no município, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento sustentável da região.

  13. Hands-on glovebox decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.

    1997-01-01

    Over recent years, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has undertaken the decommissioning of a large number of Plutonium glove boxes at Winfrith Technology Centre. UKAEA has managed this work on behalf of the DTI, who funded most of the work. Most of the planning and practical work was contracted to AEA Technology (AEAT), which, until 1996, was the commercial arm of UKAEA, but is now a private company. More than 70 gloveboxes, together with internal plant and equipment such as ball mills, presses and furnaces, have been successfully size reduced into drums for storage, leaving the area, in which they were situated, in a clean condition. (UK)

  14. Nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor

  15. Indicadores para a gestão de resíduos sólidos em aeroportos e sua aplicação no Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos, Campinas, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Andrés Carra

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considerando o contexto atual de valorização da questão ambiental, os objetivos deste trabalho foram propor e aplicar indicadores para avaliar o gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos em aeroportos. Para tanto, foram elaborados 17 indicadores sobre geração, armazenamento, transporte, coleta e destinação de resíduos sólidos. Estes foram aplicados no Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos, em Campinas, no estado de São Paulo. Os resultados obtidos no estudo apresentaram desempenho de 2,9, em uma escala de um a cinco, caracterizado como regular. Posteriormente, foram analisadas as principais fragilidades no gerenciamento dos resíduos no Aeroporto Internacional de Viracopos, bem como a identificação de boas práticas e soluções ambientais para o desenvolvimento das atividades do empreendimento. Dentre as estratégias de manejo sugeridas, destacam-se a adequação de áreas para armazenamento de resíduos, a implantação de coleta seletiva e a realização de compostagem.

  16. Utilização do biossólido da CAESB na produção de milho no Distrito Federal Use of biosolids for corn (Zea mays, L. production in the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lemainski

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A disposição final dos resíduos das estações de tratamento de esgotos é uma crescente preocupação mundial, com reflexos na disponibilidade e na qualidade da água para consumo e atividades econômicas. A Companhia de Saneamento Ambiental do Distrito Federal (CAESB processa 400 toneladas diárias de biossólido, resíduo rico em nutrientes e matéria orgânica. Embora ainda sem parâmetros agronômicos para seu aproveitamento, o material é demandado para cultivos de grãos, pastagens, fruteiras, café, etc. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resposta do milho à aplicação de biossólido úmido (teor de água 900 g kg-1 nas doses de 0, 7,5, 15, 30 e 45 t ha-1 em comparação a fertilizante mineral aplicado em quantidades equivalentes de N, P(20(5 e K(20. O experimento foi realizado na Embrapa Cerrados, num Latossolo Vermelho distrófico argiloso em dois cultivos. Biossólido e fertilizante mineral foram aplicados apenas antes do primeiro cultivo. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. No primeiro e no segundo cultivo, respectivamente, as produtividades de 7,41 e 5,70 t ha-1 de grãos, obtidas na dose de 30 t ha-1 de biossólido úmido, bem como as de 7,38 e 5,88 t ha-1 de grãos, obtidas na dose de 45 t ha-1, foram todas superiores à produtividade média nacional da cultura de milho e evidenciaram os efeitos (imediato e residual do biossólido como fertilizante. A produtividade máxima estimada de milho (6,84 t ha-1 foi obtida na dose de 37,8 t ha-1. A melhor relação benefício-custo (1,90 foi obtida na dose de 30 t ha-1. O biossólido foi, em média, 21 % mais eficiente do que o fertilizante mineral. Os resultados revelam a oportunidade de aproveitamento do biossólido da CAESB como fertilizante na produção de milho no Distrito Federal.The final disposal of sewage sludge is a growing concern worldwide as it has impacts on the water availability and quality for consumption, and economic

  17. Nuclear accident dosimetry measurements at the fourth IAEA intercomparison, Harwell, United Kingdom, April 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majborn, B.

    1975-11-01

    During the fourth IAEA intercomparison at Harwell, teams from several countries compared their systems for assessing doses in criticality accidents. The dosimeters were exposed to mixed pulses of neutron and gamma radiation produced by the VIPER reactor at AWRE, Aldermaston. Risoe participated in this intercomparison with the routine personnel dosimeters employed in 'criticality areas' at Risoe. These include the UKAEA criticality dosimeter for the measurement of neutron doses and the Risoe TLD badge for the measurement of gamma doses. The final results of the Risoe measurements are presented in this report in a form designed for ease of comparison with results of other pparticipants. (author)

  18. The finite element structural analysis code SAP IV conversion from CDC to IBM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, L.P.

    1977-02-01

    SAP IV is a general three dimensional, linear, static and dynamic finite element structural analysis program. The program which was obtained from the Earthquake Engineering Research Center, University of California, Berkeley, was written in FORTRAM for a CDC 6400. Its main use was anticipated to be the seismic analysis of reactor structures. SAP IV may also prove useful for fracture mechanics studies as well as the usual elastic stress analysis of structures. A brief description of SAP IV and a more detailed account of the FORTRAN conversion required to make SAP IV run successfully on the UKAEA Harwell IBM 370/168 are given. (author)

  19. Aplicación de la espectroscopia NIR para la predicción de sólidos solubles en pulpa de guayaba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ányelo Andrey Gutiérrez Devia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando la técnica NIRS (espectroscopia de reflectancia en el infrarrojo cercano se realizó la predicción de sólidos solubles en pulpa de guayaba (Psidium guajava L. y (Psidium friedrichsthalianum sobre 92 muestras en dos estados de madurez de la fruta. Cada fruto fue procesado hasta obtener la fracción comestible en la cual se determinó el contenido de sólidos solubles (%. De esta fracción se tomaron dos submuestras que fueron escaneadas en el espectrofotómetro NIR en un rango entre 400 y 2500 nm. Para la calibración se generaron modelos de regresión mediante MPLS (mínimos cuadrados parciales modificados en un rango entre 1108 y 2498.2 nm. Para la elección del modelo final de calibración del NIR se consideraron como criterios el coeficiente de determinación (R² y la desviación residual predictiva (RPD. Para establecer la existencia de diferencias entre los resultados obtenidos por el método primario o de referencia y los de NIR se realizó un análisis de varianza y prueba de medias mediante el programa estadístico SAS v 9.0. Los resultados mostraron una alta capacidad de predicción del modelo (R² = 0.990 entre las mediciones primarias y las de NIR. El valor de RPD fue 6.20, que indica una excelente precisión de la predicción. Entre las estimaciones por NIR y primarias no se presentaron diferencias significativas, pero sí se observaron entre muestras.

  20. Riesgos laborales en las empresas de residuos sólidos en Andalucía: una perspectiva de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sánchez Sánchez

    Full Text Available Resumen El sector de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos tiene amplia trayectoria en la implementación de planes de prevención en riesgos laborales. Analizamos dos aspectos: cuáles son los factores de riesgos laborales a los que se encuentran expuestos los empleados y que pueden afectar fundamentalmente a su salud dentro del sector analizado; y diferencias en la prevención de riesgos laborales por las empresas del sector que presentaron enfermedades profesionales en función del género de los trabajadores. El procedimiento metodológico consistió en el análisis descriptivo transversal en ocho provincias de Andalucía (España. Como herramienta de estudio se ha utilizado el cuestionario de 75 preguntas para la elaboración del informe sobre “condiciones de trabajo y gestión preventiva en las empresas de gestión de residuos sólidos urbanos en Andalucía” realizado por el Instituto Andaluz de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales. Como técnica estadística se ha usado el análisis de correspondencias múltiple y el test Chi-Cuadrado de independencia. En los resultados se han encontrado dos percepciones bien diferenciadas sobre los riesgos laborales en las organizaciones que vienen fijadas por la jerarquía en la organización. Se puede establecer relación directa entre los puestos de mando de la empresa y la preocupación por los riesgos laborales. A mayor distancia a puestos de dirección mayor es la preocupación de los empleados respecto a los riesgos laborales a los que están expuestos. En cuanto a los riesgos psicosociales se identifica que las mujeres se ven más afectadas que los hombres.

  1. Reactor core for LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumi, Ryoji; Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Bando, Masaru; Watari, Yoshio.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the power distribution fluctuations and obtain flat and stable power distribution throughout the operation period in an LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: In the inner reactor core region and the outer reactor core region surrounding the same, the thickness of the inner region is made smaller than the axial height of the reactor core region and the radial width thereof is made smaller than that of the reactor core region and the volume thereof is made to 30 - 50 % for the reactor core region. Further, the amount of the fuel material per unit volume in the inner region is made to 70 - 90 % of that in the outer region. The difference in the neutron infinite multiplication factor between the inner region and the outer region is substantially constant irrespective of the burnup degree and the power distribution fluctuation can be reduced to about 2/3, by which the effect of thermal striping to the reactor core upper mechanisms can be moderated. Further, the maximum linear power during operation can be reduced by 3 %, by which the thermal margin in the reactor core is increased and the reactor core fuels can be saved by 3 %. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. EVALUACION DEL POTENCIAL DE LOS BIOSÓLIDOS PROCEDENTES DEL TRATAMIENTO DE AGUAS RESIDUALES PARA USO AGRÍCOLA Y SU EFECTO SOBRE EL CULTIVO DE RABANO ROJO (Raphanus sativus L.. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOSOLIDS OBTAINED FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL USE AND THEIR EFFECT ON CULTIVATION OF RED RADISH (Raphanus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ramírez Pisco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se adelantó en predios de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, en la ciudad de Bogotá, con el propósito de evaluar el potencial del subproducto del tratamiento de aguas residuales “biosólido”, para su aplicación en la agricultura por medio de la valoración del crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano rojo, y establecer una posible alternativa al problema de disposición final de 3900 toneladas de este material generado mensualmente en las planta de tratamiento de aguas. El diseño experimental empleado correspondió a bloques completos al azar, con cinco tratamientos y tres repeticiones, dispuesto en parcelas de 2 m x 2 m. Los tratamientos correspondieron a mezclas de biosólidos con suelo en las siguientes proporciones: 100 % biosólido (equivalente a 294 ton ha-1, 75 % biosólido (220 ton Ha-1, 50 % biosólido (147 ton ha-1, 25 % biosólido (73 ton ha-1 y 100 % suelo como control. Se sembró rábano rojo Raphanus sativus L. Las variables evaluadas fueron: porcentaje de germinación, peso seco de hojas y raíz, longitud de la planta, área foliar y producción. Además, se midió la acumulación de elementos traza en los rábanos cosechados, para determinar su riesgo para el consumo. Los resultados evidenciaron que los tratamientos 50 % biosólido y 25 % biosólido, son los que favorecen el crecimiento, desarrollo y producción del cultivo de rábano, mientras que los tratamientos 75 % biosólido y 100% suelo presentaron un menor desarrollo, crecimiento y producción del cultivo. El tratamiento 100% biosólido provoco una baja germinación, además no presentó acumulación en la raíz, que es el producto cosechable. Los niveles de acumulación de metales pesados sobrepasaron los máximos permitidos con el tratamiento 75 % biosólido. Se evidenció como, la utilización del biosólido en la agricultura puede acarrear un gran riesgo, ya que a pesar de presentar una gran cantidad

  3. Modelo de gestión integral de desechos sólidos industriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Salas Jiménez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rica cuenta con 13 parques industriales bajo el régimen de zona franca. En ellas encuentran industrias de diferente quehacer. La figura 1 muestra algunos de los productos obtenidos en las zonas francas, entre ellos: maquiladoras de ropa y componentes electrónicos, equipo médico y componentes plásticos, etc. Para el 2001, había 254 empresas bajo este régimen, y una base en comportamiento observado desde 1993, se espera que este número continúe en aumento y haya un crecimiento de la producción de desechos de estas empresas.Solo el 54% de las empresas del Parque industrial de Cartago (18 firmas genera unas 250 toneladas por mes de desechos industriales sólidos, por lo que se ha creado la necesidad de darle un manejo adecuado a estos desechos, para impedir que sean enviados a los rellenos sanitarios y colaboren con la contaminación ambiental. La oportunidad de manejo es notable, ya que en una zona geográfica tan pequeña se concentra mucha cantidad de desechos, lo que facilita el transporte de estos a un sitio donde se puedan recuperar, para su reutilización o reciclaje, con lo que se logrará una disminución del impacto negativo que provocan al ambiente.

  4. Aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos en un sistema hidro-orgánico de agricultura urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Montes Rojas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo por objeto diseñar un sistema hidroorgánico de producción de hortalizas en áreas pequeñas, con el fin de contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de la población urbana y al aprovechamiento de los residuos sólidos de la ciudad de Popayán. Se diseñó un sistema a partir de material reciclado y se evaluó utilizando tres tratamientos como fuente nutricional (Lixiviado orgánico, Lixiviado orgánico suplementado, solución nutritiva común y como indicador biológico cilantro (Coriandrum sativum l.. La respuesta de las plantas fue evaluada por crecimiento y desarrollo. El sistema para producción urbana de hortalizas permitió obtener producciones hasta de 627 g m-2, superando la producción en agricultura tradicional (227 g. La mejor fuente nutricional fue la solución nutritiva comercial.

  5. MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA UBICACIÓN DE ESTACIONES DE TRANSFERENCIA DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Varón Valencia

    Full Text Available Las Estaciones de Transferencia son instalaciones que están dedicadas al manejo y traslado de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos o Municipales, desde un vehículo a otro con mayor capacidad de carga que los transporta hasta su sitio de aprovechamiento o disposición final. El objeto central de esta investigación es representar la localización de este tipo de instalaciones a través de un modelo de programación lineal entera mixta, que tiene en cuenta las principales características de las estaciones, como la capacidad total y la capacidad de recuperación de materiales. La función objetivo formulada busca reducir al mínimo los costos fijos de apertura, los costos de transporte y los costos de operación, evaluados en el momento actual a través de una función de costo presente equivalente.

  6. Cuantificación, valoración y tecnificación de los desechos (sólidos y líquidos) de la industria cafetalera.

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba-Mora, Juan Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Informe final, Proyecto de investigación. La metodología empleada fue de dos tipos a saber, investigación de campo y mediciones de campo en varias cooperativas, investigación en bases de datos y finalmente se obtuvieron datos de mercado de gases, tipos de carbón, marcas y precios. Los principales resultados obtenidos son: Cuantificados y valorizados los desechos líquidos y sólidos de la industria cafetalera con base en tres Cooperativas estudiadas, identificadas tres patentes dos de ...

  7. Contaminación de desechos sólidos y su afectación al ambiente del barrio Vinicio Yagual II - cantón Salinas.

    OpenAIRE

    Coronel Franco, Erika Azucena; Lavayen Orrala, Wilmer Raúl

    2017-01-01

    El desarrollo sostenible es aquel que satisface las necesidades de la generación presente sin comprometer la capacidad de las generaciones futuras y busca equilibrar el desarrollo social, económico y ambiental. La contaminación ambiental está causando problemas en todos los rincones del mundo, y es originada por diferentes causas, entre ellas, por la excesiva producción de desechos sólidos, donde la mayor culpabilidad de este inconveniente es de origen antropogénico. El objetivo del trabajo i...

  8. Estudo de cenários para o gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos urbanos de Curitiba Scenario studies for the management of urban solid waste in Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Araújo de Melo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Na cidade de Curitiba, a discussão relacionada aos resíduos sólidos tem se ampliado nos meios popular, acadêmico e político devido às dificuldades de se encontrarem formas de tratamento e destinação que possam substituir a atual disposição no aterro sanitário da Caximba. A técnica de cenários tem sido utilizada em diversas áreas como ferramenta do planejamento estratégico, e foi empregada neste artigo com o objetivo de auxiliar o planejamento da gestão de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU em Curitiba. São apresentados dados sobre geração, caracterização e gerenciamento atual dos RSU, bem como dados socioeconômicos de seus habitantes. A caracterização dos resíduos sólidos urbanos em Curitiba indica uma geração de 0,6 kg.hab-1.dia-1, valor considerado baixo em relação à média Brasileira. No entanto, a composição de resíduos recicláveis é de 40% do total destinado ao aterro sanitário. Uma metodologia para a simulação de cenários futuros da produção de RSU em Curitiba foi desenvolvida, e alguns exemplos de prováveis cenários foram construídos e comparados com o intuito de demonstrar uma aplicação da técnica, assim como de contribuir para o gerenciamento dos resíduos sólidos de Curitiba e para o desenvolvimento de estratégias e políticas de gestão. Dentre os cenários simulados para o período de 2008-2020, destaca-se que, para uma redução de 20% do material reciclável, uma economia de R$ 2.410.000,00 e uma redução de 535.00 ton de resíduos sólidos podem ser alcançadas em relação ao cenário atual ("do nothing".In Curitiba, the discussion on solid waste has increased at the popular, academic and political spheres due to the difficulties on finding ways of treatment and disposals to replace the current waste disposition at the Caximba sanitary landfill. The scenarios technique has been used in many areas as a tool for strategic planning. This article brings a characterization of municipal

  9. Management of waste associated with the decommissioning of the JASON research reactor and the nuclear laboratories at the Royal Naval College Greenwich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeley, P.A.; Lockwood, R.J.S.; Hoult, D.; Major, R.

    2001-01-01

    tonnes packed in 6 disposal skips. These estimates will be compared to the actual waste inventories as reported in the projects Post Decommissioning Report. With respect to the overall waste management strategy, a Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) phase preceded decommissioning. This allowed all approved discharges and transfers to occur under the facility operational safety case, including the disposal of laboratory sources and the reactor start-up source (185 GBq 241 Am/Be) by Safeguards International. The reactor fuel was then transported off-site under a fuel removal safety case. In addition, the reactor control plates, drive motors and in-core nuclear detectors were removed, designated as ILW, packaged and transported under the decommissioning safety case so that all major radioactive hazards were removed from the facility prior to construction of the main waste handling and transfer facilities. All ILW was sent for storage at the UK's national facility at UKAEA Harwell. Waste categorisation, size reduction and initial packaging was carried out in the reactor hall and items were transferred by trolley to an airlock/storage area. Waste was segregated according to type, monitored and transported across the airlock/storage boundary for further interim storage or direct loading of ISO containers. The assay of waste, size reduction, packaging, radiological monitoring and final, removal of waste to designated ILW, LLW or FLW facilities will be described. In addition, the special case of low level tritium waste in the facility, its assay and removal will be discussed. Finally, the results and conclusions of the Post Decommissioning Report will be compared to the proposed waste management scheme in the Preliminary Safety Report and any significant lessons learned will be addressed

  10. GERENCIAMENTO MUNICIPAL DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS: O PAPEL ESTRATÉGICO DE UM CENTRO DE TRIAGEM EM SÃO PAULO/ Municipal solid waste management of urban: the role of strategic a screening center in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisandra Marisa Zambra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Os acordos setoriais propostos pela Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos (PNRS trouxeram muitos desafios para os atores envolvidos no processo de gestão dos Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos (RSU. Nesse meio, os Centros de Triagem ganharam destaque a partir da publicação da Lei 12305/2010, a PNRS, que determinou a extinção dos lixões a céu aberto e fortaleceu a figura dos catadores e das cooperativas de reciclagem de resíduos. Desse modo, o presente artigo técnico, visa identificar as características do processo de Gestão Municipal dos Resíduos Sólidos Urbanos em um município do estado de São Paulo. Na coleta de dados primários, optou-se pela pesquisa exploratória com técnicas observação direta e entrevistas (com trabalhadores e gestor do Centro de Triagem. Os dados apontam a necessidade da valorização econômica e social dos agentes de triagem e a necessidade da maior integração dos atores/agentes locais, para que ocorra maior efetividade no tratamento e destinação desses resíduos. Palavras-chave: Gerenciamento. Resíduos. Triagem. Integração Local.

  11. Nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction comprising: (a) a nuclear reactor core having a bottom platform support structure; (b) a reactor vessel for holding a large pool of low pressure liquid metal coolant and housing the core; (c) a containment structure surrounding the reactor vessel and having a sidewall spaced outwardly from the reactor vessel side wall and having a base mat spaced below the reactor vessel bottom end wall; (d) a central small diameter post anchored to the containment structure base mat and extending upwardly to the reactor vessel to axially fix the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and provide a center column support for the lower end of the reactor core; (e) annular support structure disposed in the reactor vessel on the bottom end wall and extending about the lower end of the core; (f) structural support means disposed between the containment structure base mat and bottom end of the reactor vessel wall and cooperating for supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall on the containment structure base mat to allow the reactor vessel to expand radially but substantially prevent any lateral motions that might be imposed by the occurrence of a seismic event; (g) a bed of insulating material disposed between the containment structure base mat and the bottom end wall of the reactor vessel and uniformly supporting the reactor vessel at its bottom end wall; freely expand radially from the central post as it heats up while providing continuous support thereof; (h) a deck supported upon the wall of the containment vessel above the top open end of the reactor vessel; and (i) extendible and retractable coupling means extending between the deck and the top open end of the reactor vessel and flexibly and sealably interconnecting the reactor vessel at its top end to the deck

  12. Optimizing decommissioning and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, J.

    2000-01-01

    UKAEA has clarified its future purpose. It is a nuclear environmental restoration business. Its proud history of being at the forefront of nuclear research now provides decommissioning challenges of unique breadth. The methods employed, and in some cases developed, by UKAEA to assist in the optimization of its overall work programme are identified. (author)

  13. Una propuesta de localización óptima para un nuevo sitio de disposición final de residuos sólidos no peligrosos para Bogotá, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Mauricio González Díaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Para la determinación de la localización óptima de un sitio de disposición final de residuos sólidos, centrada en la teoría de la localización y el análisis multicriterio, se utilizó la Geomática. Se procedió a evaluar la gestión territorial efectuada por el Distrito Capital en la zona actual de operación del Relleno Sanitario Doña Juana, mediante la revisión del expediente 1101-761-1919 Relleno Sanitario Doña Juana. Con el fin de examinar los factores que condicionan la localización óptima de un nuevo sitio de disposición final, se definieron los criterios técnicos, ambientales y sociales que delimitan las zonas aptas para la localización de este tipo de instalaciones, con base en lo establecido en el Decreto 838 de 2005. Finalmente, se generan diferentes escenarios y, por medio de la evaluación multicriterio, se propone una localización óptima de un nuevo sitio para la disposición final de residuos sólidos para Bogotá.

  14. Gestión de manejo de residuos sólidos hospitalarios en el Centro de Salud de Morales de junio a diciembre del 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Gonzales, Genny Janeth

    2014-01-01

    El presente estudio, tiene como objetivo conocer la gestión de manejo de los residuos sólidos hospitalarios como estrategia para implementar una gestión adecuada, respetando la normatividad vigente. El método aplicado es de tipo cuantitativo, no experimental de tipo transeccional y análisis descriptivo; la muestra es el Centro de Salud Morales, incluyéndose sus servicios ofertados. La técnica para recolección de información es la ficha de observación. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente e...

  15. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  16. Finite element program ARKAS: verification for IAEA benchmark problem analysis on core-wide mechanical analysis of LMFBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, M.; Tsuboi, Y.

    1990-01-01

    ''ARKAS'' code verification, with the problems set in the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the inter-comparison between liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) Core Mechanics Codes, is discussed. The CRP was co-ordinated by the IWGFR around problems set by Dr. R.G. Anderson (UKAEA) and arose from the IWGFR specialists' meeting on The Predictions and Experience of Core Distortion Behaviour (ref. 2). The problems for the verification (''code against code'') and validation (''code against experiment'') were set and calculated by eleven core mechanics codes from nine countries. All the problems have been completed and were solved with the core structural mechanics code ARKAS. Predictions by ARKAS agreed very well with other solutions for the well-defined verification problems. For the validation problems based on Japanese ex-reactor 2-D thermo-elastic experiments, the agreements between measured and calculated values were fairly good. This paper briefly describes the numerical model of the ARKAS code, and discusses some typical results. (author)

  17. CARACTERIZACIÓN Y POTENCIAL DEL RECICLADO DE LOS RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS GENERADOS EN EL INSTITUTO TECNOLÓGICO DE TEPIC, UNA INSTITUCION DE EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Flores M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer la cantidad de residuos que se generan en el campus del Instituto Tecnológico de Tepic (ITT, así como el potencial de la caracterización y reciclaje de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (RSU. Los productos de los RSU, fueron clasificados durante doce días dividiendo el área en dos zonas: “A” denominada centro comunitario, se encuentran edificios académicos, edificios administrativos, biblioteca, baños, el comedor, cafetería, jardines y corredores; zona “B”, comprende edificios administrativos, académicos, laboratorios, talleres, baños, jardines y corredores. La cantidad total de RSU, generada durante este tiempo fue de 894.37 Kg. Los productos estaban compuestos para la zona A: 30 % papel y cartón, 16 % residuos orgánicos, 27 % botellas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET, 4 % metales, 15 % botellas y envases de vidrio y 8 % otros. Para la zona B: 48 % residuos orgánicos, 19 % para el papel y cartón, 12 % botellas de PET, 2 % metales, 4 % botellas y envases de vidrio y 15 % otros. A traves de los resultados de la investigación, podemos determinar el potencial de los residuos sólidos generados en el campus, así como un reto para su manejo integral de los mismos.

  18. Procedimiento para la combustión de un gas en lecho fijo con un sólido oxidado e instalación asociada

    OpenAIRE

    Abanades García, Juan Carlos; Fernández García, José Ramón

    2013-01-01

    La presente invención se encuadra dentro del campo de la obtención de energía a partir de gases combustibles incorporando captura de dióxido de carbono para su uso o almacenamiento permanente, y en concreto se refiere a procedimientos cíclicos de combustión de gases con sólidos oxidados (procesos de "chemical looping") en lecho fijo para resolver el problema del control de temperatura en la combustión de combustibles gaseosos en lechos fijos de óxidos metálicos operando a altas presiones, así...

  19. Generation IV reactors: reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardonnier, J.L.; Dumaz, P.; Antoni, O.; Arnoux, P.; Bergeron, A.; Renault, C.; Rimpault, G.; Delpech, M.; Garnier, J.C.; Anzieu, P.; Francois, G.; Lecomte, M.

    2003-01-01

    Liquid metal reactor concept looks promising because of its hard neutron spectrum. Sodium reactors benefit a large feedback experience in Japan and in France. Lead reactors have serious assets concerning safety but they require a great effort in technological research to overcome the corrosion issue and they lack a leader country to develop this innovative technology. In molten salt reactor concept, salt is both the nuclear fuel and the coolant fluid. The high exit temperature of the primary salt (700 Celsius degrees) allows a high energy efficiency (44%). Furthermore molten salts have interesting specificities concerning the transmutation of actinides: they are almost insensitive to irradiation damage, some salts can dissolve large quantities of actinides and they are compatible with most reprocessing processes based on pyro-chemistry. Supercritical water reactor concept is based on operating temperature and pressure conditions that infers water to be beyond its critical point. In this range water gets some useful characteristics: - boiling crisis is no more possible because liquid and vapour phase can not coexist, - a high heat transfer coefficient due to the low thermal conductivity of supercritical water, and - a high global energy efficiency due to the high temperature of water. Gas-cooled fast reactors combining hard neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle open the way to a high valorization of natural uranium while minimizing ultimate radioactive wastes and proliferation risks. Very high temperature gas-cooled reactor concept is developed in the prospect of producing hydrogen from no-fossil fuels in large scale. This use implies a reactor producing helium over 1000 Celsius degrees. (A.C.)

  20. Potencial poluidor de resíduo sólido da Samarco Mineração: estudo de caso da barragem de Germano

    OpenAIRE

    Pires,José Maurício Machado; Lena,Jorge Carvalho de; Machado,Carlos Cardoso; Pereira,Reginaldo Sérgio

    2003-01-01

    Foram estudadas amostras de resíduo sólido da Barragem de Germano, da Samarco Mineração S.A. Tal barragem localiza-se no município de Mariana-MG. Sua principal função é coletar os efluentes do tratamento do minério de ferro processado no Complexo de Germano. Este resíduo foi submetido a testes de classificação, de acordo com as Normas ABNT 10004, 10005, 10006 e 10007. Constatou-se que o resíduo é classe III (inerte) e que os testes mostraram a grande capacidade deste material na retenção de m...

  1. Cuando la comunidad busca hacerse oír : el conflicto de los residuos sólidos urbanos del Gran San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Colombo, Marcela

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo describe el conflicto ambiental planteado por la disposición de los residuos sólidos urbanos en San Miguel de Tucumán, capital de la Provincia de Tucumán, Argentina. Distintos actores sociales confluyeron en una autoconvocatoria ciudadana, logrando la desestimación del proyecto planteado unilateralmente por el Poder Ejecutivo Provincial. De la experiencia acumulada en este caso se puede resaltar: Que las medidas unilaterales, sumadas a la falta de información y consulta a ...

  2. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Sadao; Sato, Morihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Liquid metals such as liquid metal sodium are filled in a reactor container as primary coolants. A plurality of reactor core containers are disposed in a row in the circumferential direction along with the inner circumferential wall of the reactor container. One or a plurality of intermediate coolers are disposed at the inside of an annular row of the reactor core containers. A reactor core constituted with fuel rods and control rods (module reactor core) is contained at the inside of each of the reactor core containers. Each of the intermediate coolers comprises a cylindrical intermediate cooling vessels. The intermediate cooling vessel comprises an intermediate heat exchanger for heat exchange of primary coolants and secondary coolants and recycling pumps for compulsorily recycling primary coolants at the inside thereof. Since a plurality of reactor core containers are thus assembled, a great reactor power can be attained. Further, the module reactor core contained in one reactor core vessel may be small sized, to facilitate the control for the reactor core operation. (I.N.)

  3. The CAREM reactor and present currents in reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    INVAP has been working on the CAREM project since 1983. It concerns a very low power reactor for electrical energy generation. The design of the reactor and the basic criteria used were described in 1984. Since then, a series of designs have been presented for reactors which are similar to CAREM regarding the solutions presented to reduce the chance of major nuclear accidents. These designs have been grouped under different names: Advanced Reactors, Second Generation Reactors, Inherently Safe Reactors, or even, Revolutionary Reactors. Every reactor fabrication firm has, at least, one project which can be placed in this category. Presently, there are two main currents of Reactor Design; Evolutionary and Revolutionary. The present work discusses characteristics of these two types of reactors, some revolutionary designs and common criteria to both types. After, these criteria are compared with CAREM reactor design. (Author) [es

  4. Transportes turísticos no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável: a gestão de resíduos sólidos aeroportuários.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaciel Gustavo Kunz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es discurrir acerca de la relevancia de la gestión de residuos sólidos en aeropuertos y su interface con el turismo, tomando por base la discusión del desarrollo sustentable, principalmente en su dimensión ambiental. El trabajo es resultado de una investigación bibliográfica, de carácter exploratorio, que se constituyó en una revisión de la literatura relativa a los ejes temáticos propuestos para la discusión. Con base em los resultados es posible reafirmar: (a la (necesidad de inserción del sistema de turismo en el concepto de desarrollo sustentable; (b la importancia del modal aéreo de transporte para la ampliación del turismo (y lo opuesto; (c la relevancia del aspecto ambiental “residuos sólidos” en la gestión aeroportuaria; (d el hueco teórico existente en lo que se refiere a la producción de conocimiento en nivel de stricto sensu, respecto de la gestión de residuos sólidos aeroportuarios, incluso en el turismo. Así, fue posible aproximar, por medio del abordaje de la temática “residuos sólidos”, el transporte turístico de modal aéreo de la problemática ambiental que involucra el desarrollo sustentable.

  5. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant)

  6. Reactor science and technology: operation and control of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Junlong

    1994-01-01

    This article is a collection of short reports on reactor operation and research in China in 1991. The operation of and research activities linked with the Heavy Water Research Reactor, Swimming Pool Reactor and Miniature Neutron Source Reactor are briefly surveyed. A number of papers then follow on the developing strategies in Chinese fast breeder reactor technology including the conceptual design of an experimental fast reactor (FFR), theoretical studies of FFR thermo-hydraulics and a design for an immersed sodium flowmeter. Reactor physics studies cover a range of topics including several related to work on zero power reactors. The section on reactor safety analysis is concerned largely with the assessment of established, and the presentation of new, computer codes for use in PWR safety calculations. Experimental and theoretical studies of fuels and reactor materials for FBRs, PWRs, BWRs and fusion reactors are described. A final miscellaneous section covers Mo-Tc isotope production in the swimming pool reactor, convective heat transfer in tubes and diffusion of tritium through plastic/aluminium composite films and Li 2 SiO 3 . (UK)

  7. Nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-11-01

    After an introduction and general explanation of nuclear power the following reactor types are described: magnox thermal reactor; advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR); pressurised water reactor (PWR); fast reactors (sodium cooled); boiling water reactor (BWR); CANDU thermal reactor; steam generating heavy water reactor (SGHWR); high temperature reactor (HTR); Leningrad (RMBK) type water-cooled graphite moderated reactor. (U.K.)

  8. Evaluación de la adecuación de humedad en el compostaje de biorresiduos de origen municipal en la Planta de Manejo de Residuos Sólidos (PMRS del Municipio de Versalles, Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Castro García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento de residuos sólidos orgánicos de origen municipal (biorresiduos, es una atractiva opción para la obtención de materiales aptos para su aplicación en suelo como fuente de materia orgánica. Sin embargo, en Colombia, esta tecnología presenta deficiencias en su ejecución en plantas de manejo de residuos sólidos PMRS. Una de las principales limitantes en el compostaje de biorresiduos es el alto contenido de humedad inicial en las materias primas. En este artículo se presenta los resultados del compostaje de biorresiduos separados en la fuente, en donde se evaluó la incorporación de compost maduro para el control de la humedad de la mezcla, observando como interactuó con el proceso, y su relación con las principales variables ambientales del compostaje, como los son la temperatura, pH, humedad, porosidad y espacio libre de aire (ELA.

  9. Fruit of the atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, E.

    1978-01-01

    This article first appeared in the August 1977 issue of the journal 'Third Way' and is reprinted with permission. Its author worked in the Chemistry Division of UKAEA Harwell from 1950 to 1960, but is now Vicar of a Liverpool parish and also an adviser on Social and Scientific Affairs. The article discusses the case of the British Council of Churches and UK religious leaders in opposing proposed extensions of the reprocessing facilities of the UKAEA Windscale works in respect of the setting up of an oxide reprocessing plant, at the public enquiry which is to be held. The opposition is connected with the Churches' decision to urge the UK Government not to go ahead at present with the building of a commercial fast reactor (CFR-1) and not until prospects for international co-operation have been further explored and a solution has been found for the problem of waste disposal and the problems connected with Pu. The article endeavours to present a balanced opinion on controversial nuclear matters, including a theological approach. Attention is paid to the problem of the proliferation of nuclear weapons. It is emphasised, however, that we must accept the fact that we now live in a nuclear age, but alternative energy technologies, notably sun, wind and wave power must receive consideration for the future. (U.K.)

  10. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchie, Francois

    2015-10-01

    This article proposes an overview of research reactors, i.e. nuclear reactors of less than 100 MW. Generally, these reactors are used as neutron generators for basic research in matter sciences and for technological research as a support to power reactors. The author proposes an overview of the general design of research reactors in terms of core size, of number of fissions, of neutron flow, of neutron space distribution. He outlines that this design is a compromise between a compact enough core, a sufficient experiment volume, and high enough power densities without affecting neutron performance or its experimental use. The author evokes the safety framework (same regulations as for power reactors, more constraining measures after Fukushima, international bodies). He presents the main characteristics and operation of the two families which represent almost all research reactors; firstly, heavy water reactors (photos, drawings and figures illustrate different examples); and secondly light water moderated and cooled reactors with a distinction between open core pool reactors like Melusine and Triton, pool reactors with containment, experimental fast breeder reactors (Rapsodie, the Russian BOR 60, the Chinese CEFR). The author describes the main uses of research reactors: basic research, applied and technological research, safety tests, production of radio-isotopes for medicine and industry, analysis of elements present under the form of traces at very low concentrations, non destructive testing, doping of silicon mono-crystalline ingots. The author then discusses the relationship between research reactors and non proliferation, and finally evokes perspectives (decrease of the number of research reactors in the world, the Jules Horowitz project)

  11. Avaliação agronômica de biossólidos tratados por diferentes métodos químicos para aplicação na cultura do milho Agronomic evaluation of biosolids treated by different chemical methods for cultivation of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaldete T. Barros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A presença de patógenos e metais potencialmente tóxicos, são as principais limitações do lodo de esgoto para a reciclagem agrícola. Este trabalho avaliou a aplicação de biossólidos, tratados quimicamente, em um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, na produção de matéria seca e na absorção de nutrientes pela cultura de milho. O lodo de esgoto foi tratado com cal, hipoclorito de sódio, peróxido de hidrogênio, ácido acético e peracético. Nos biossólidos tratados com os ácidos orgânicos fez-se a neutralização com cal. Os biossólidos foram aplicados em vasos, na dose de 50 t ha-1, cultivado com milho pelo período de 55 dias, quando foram determinadas a produção de matéria seca e concentração de nutrientes na parte aérea das plantas. A maior produção de matéria seca foi observada no tratamento com ácido peracético e a menor no tratamento com cal. A aplicação de biossólido aumentou os teores dos macronutrientes na parte aérea das plantas. Os teores de Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe e Pb nas plantas, estiveram abaixo dos limites fitotóxicos. Os biossólidos mostraram ser uma importante fonte de nutrientes para o desenvolvimento da cultura de milho. Os tratamentos alternativos do lodo podem ser eficientes no controle de patógenos e facilitam a reciclagem agrícola de biossólidos.The presence of pathogens and potentially toxic metals are the main limitations for the agronomic recycling of sewage sludge. This study evaluated the application of biosolids, chemically treated in a distrophic Red Latosol in the production and in the absorption of nutrients by the maize crop. The sludge was treated with lime, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic and acetic acids. Biosolids treated with organic acids were neutralized with lime. The biosolids were applied in pots at a dose equivalent to 50 t ha-1 and maize was grown for a period of 55 days, and later the dry matter production and concentrations of nutrients were determined in

  12. Caracterización de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos en Ciudad de La Habana, un aporte a la solución de un problema medioambiental.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma. del C. Espinosa Lloréns; Matilde López Torres; Haydee Álvarez; Alexis Pellón Arrechea; Jorge Alejandro García; Rigoberto Escobedo Acosta; Oneida Correa Senciales; Xiomara Rodríguez Petit; Yadiana León; Yamilé Álvarez Llaguno; Rosario Morejón Montano; Jacqueline Gutiérrez Navarrete; Heikel Lezcano; Marlenys Agramonte; Elsa Pérez Despaigne

    2005-01-01

    La Ciudad de La Habana, principal centro político, administrativo y cultural del país, concentra gran parte de las actividades económicas de la nación, ya sean de naturaleza industrial, de servicios, científicas y el turismo. Todo ello conlleva a una elevada generación de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (RSU) en relación con otras ciudades cubanas. La inexistencia de soluciones adecuadas y eficientes para el tratamiento y la disposición final, así como el manejo inadecuado de dichos residuos, potenc...

  13. Roles of plasma neutron source reactor in development of fusion reactor engineering: Comparison with fission reactor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Shoichi; Kawabe, Takaya

    1995-01-01

    The history of development of fusion power reactor has come to a turning point, where the main research target is now shifting from the plasma heating and confinement physics toward the burning plasma physics and reactor engineering. Although the development of fusion reactor system is the first time for human beings, engineers have experience of development of fission power reactor. The common feature between them is that both are plants used for the generation of nuclear reactions for the production of energy, nucleon, and radiation on an industrial scale. By studying the history of the development of the fission reactor, one can find the existence of experimental neutron reactors including irradiation facilities for fission reactor materials. These research neutron reactors played very important roles in the development of fission power reactors. When one considers the strategy of development of fusion power reactors from the points of fusion reactor engineering, one finds that the fusion neutron source corresponds to the neutron reactor in fission reactor development. In this paper, the authors discuss the roles of the plasma-based neutron source reactors in the development of fusion reactor engineering, by comparing it with the neutron reactors in the history of fission power development, and make proposals for the strategy of the fusion reactor development. 21 refs., 6 figs

  14. Reactor physics aspects of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critoph, E.

    1980-01-01

    These four lectures are being given at the Winter Course on Nuclear Physics at Trieste during 1978 February. They constitute part of the third week's lectures in Part II: Reactor Theory and Power Reactors. A physical description of CANDU reactors is given, followed by an overview of CANDU characteristics and some of the design options. Basic lattice physics is discussed in terms of zero energy lattice experiments, irradiation effects and analytical methods. Start-up and commissioning experiments in CANDU reactors are reviewed, and some of the more interesting aspects of operation discussed - fuel management, flux mapping and control of the power distribution. Finally, some of the characteristics of advanced fuel cycles that have been proposed for CANDU reactors are summarized. (author)

  15. Research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarski, L.

    1955-01-01

    It brings together the techniques data which are involved in the discussion about the utility for a research institute to acquire an atomic reactor for research purposes. This type of decision are often taken by non-specialist people who can need a brief presentation of a research reactor and its possibilities in term of research before asking advises to experts. In a first part, it draws up a list of the different research programs which can be studied by getting a research reactor. First of all is the reactor behaviour and kinetics studies (reproducibility factor, exploration of neutron density, effect of reactor structure, effect of material irradiation...). Physical studies includes study of the behaviour of the control system, studies of neutron resonance phenomena and study of the fission process for example. Chemical studies involves the study of manipulation and control of hot material, characterisation of nuclear species produced in the reactor and chemical effects of irradiation on chemical properties and reactions. Biology and medicine research involves studies of irradiation on man and animals, genetics research, food or medical tools sterilization and neutron beams effect on tumour for example. A large number of other subjects can be studied in a reactor research as reactor construction material research, fabrication of radioactive sources for radiographic techniques or applied research as in agriculture or electronic. The second part discussed the technological considerations when choosing the reactor type. The technological factors, which are considered for its choice, are the power of the reactor, the nature of the fuel which is used, the type of moderator (water, heavy water, graphite or BeO) and the reflector, the type of coolants, the protection shield and the control systems. In the third part, it described the characteristics (place of installation, type of combustible and comments) and performance (power, neutron flux ) of already existing

  16. Nitrogen fixation and growth response of Alnus Rubra following fertiliztion with urea or biosolids Fixação de nitrogênio e crescimento de Alnus Rubra fertilização com uréia ou biosólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Gaulke

    2006-08-01

    trees to support this accelerated growth.A fertilização nitrogenada de florestas com biosólidos constitui um meio de aceleração do crescimento das plantas potencialmente não impactante ao meio. Os efeitos de fertilização de nitrogênio atmosférico na relação simbiôntica e de fixação de nitrogênio Alnus rubra Bong. (amieiro vermelho e Frankia foram avaliados em um estudo de campo. Biosólidos classe B digeridos anaerobicamente e uréia sintética (46% N foram aplicados a taxas de 140, 280 e 560 kg ha-1 de N disponível em um solo tipo Areia Quartzosa. Ao contrário das plantas do grupo controle (17 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 ou fertilizadas com biosólidos (26-45 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1, plantas fertilizadas com uréia não apresentavam fixação de nitrogênio após um ano de cultivo. Ao final do segundo ano, todas as árvores em todos os tratamentos fixavam N (7 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1; 4-16 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1; e 20-29 µmol C2H4 g-1 hr-1 para controle, uréia e biosólidos, respectivamente. Plantas cultivadas sob remediação com biosólidos apresentaram maior biomassa na parte aérea ao final do ano 2 (50 g; 51 g; e 190 g para controle, uréia, e biosólidos, respectivamente, e também maiores concentrações de nitrogênio foliar em ambos os períodos analisados (N foliar no ano 1 26 g kg-1, 27 g kg-1, e 40 g kg-1; N foliar no ano 2 17 g kg-1, 19 g kg-1, and 23 g kg-1, respectivamente para controle, uréia e biosólidos. A maior taxa de crescimento de A. rubra pode ter resultado em maior exigência em N e os biosólidos supriram quantidades adicionais de nutrientes capazes de sustentar o crescimento acelerado.

  17. Comparison between TRU burning reactors and commercial fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Koji; Sanda, Toshio; Ogawa, Takashi

    2001-03-01

    Research and development for stabilizing or shortening the radioactive wastes including in spent nuclear fuel are widely conducted in view point of reducing the environmental impact. Especially it is effective way to irradiate and transmute long-lived TRU by fast reactors. Two types of loading way were previously proposed. The former is loading relatively small amount of TRU in all commercial fast reactors and the latter is loading large amount of TRU in a few TRU burning reactors. This study has been intended to contribute to the feasibility studies on commercialized fast reactor cycle system. The transmutation and nuclear characteristics of TRU burning reactors were evaluated and compared with those of conventional transmutation system using commercial type fast reactor based upon the investigation of technical information about TRU burning reactors. Major results are summarized as follows. (1) Investigation of technical information about TRU burning reactors. Based on published reports and papers, technical information about TRU burning reactor concepts transmutation system using convectional commercial type fast reactors were investigated. Transmutation and nuclear characteristics or R and D issue were investigated based on these results. Homogeneously loading of about 5 wt% MAs on core fuels in the conventional commercial type fast reactor may not cause significant impact on the nuclear core characteristics. Transmutation of MAs being produced in about five fast reactors generating the same output is feasible. The helium cooled MA burning fast reactor core concept propose by JAERI attains criticality using particle type nitride fuels which contain more than 60 wt% MA. This reactor could transmute MAs being produced in more than ten 1000 MWe-LWRs. Ultra-long life core concepts attaining more than 30 years operation without refueling by utilizing MA's nuclear characteristics as burnable absorber and fertile nuclides were proposed. Those were pointed out that

  18. Nuclear reactor types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of different reactor types designed to exploit controlled fission reactions are explained. Reactors vary from low power research devices to high power devices especially designed to produce heat, either for direct use or to produce steam to drive turbines to generate electricity or propel ships. A general outline of basic reactors (thermal and fast) is given and then the different designs considered. The first are gas cooled, including the Magnox reactors (a list of UK Magnox stations and reactor performance is given), advanced gas cooled reactors (a list of UK AGRs is given) and the high temperature reactor. Light water cooled reactors (pressurized water [PWR] and boiling water [BWR] reactors) are considered next. Heavy water reactors are explained and listed. The pressurized heavy water reactors (including CANDU type reactors), boiling light water, steam generating heavy water reactors and gas cooled heavy water reactors all come into this category. Fast reactors (liquid metal fast breeder reactors and gas cooled fast reactors) and then water-cooled graphite-moderated reactors (RBMK) (the type at Chernobyl-4) are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Reactor containment and reactor safety in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1986-01-01

    The reactor safety systems of two reactors are studied aiming at the reactor containment integrity. The first is a BWR type reactor and is called Peachbottom 2, and the second is a PWR type reactor, and is called surry. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised

  1. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  2. Reactor Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Abderrahim, A.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  3. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Energy - Britain must grasp at the nuclear nettle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.

    1976-01-01

    The need for a decision, without delay, by the Government concerning the choice of a reactor for Britain's nuclear industry is stressed. The ten points contained in a statement sent to the Department of Industry, representing the views of the British Nuclear Forum are summarised. Amongst the problems which are discussed are the need for a reorganisation of the industry, with a suggestion of scaling down the role of the UKAEA. Further criticisms of the lack of a positive image on safety and the importance of informing the public of the safety and cost advantages of nuclear power are stressed. Some tables are produced comparing generating costs for nuclear and coal fired stations. (U.K.)

  5. Tratamento do chorume de aterro de resíduos sólidos urbanos utilizando um coagulante à base de Tanino, tratamento biológico e ozonização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edir Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A crescente produção de resíduos sólidos, demanda a realização de pesquisas visando atenuar os impactos ambientais decorrentes da destinação desses despejos. Sabe-se que as características qualitativas dos resíduos produzidos no Brasil, são predominantemente de origem orgânica, sendo que a pluviosidade causa a geração de grandes volumes de chorume. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo estudar duas diferentes alternativas para o abatimento da carga poluidora do chorume gerado, no aterro sanitário de resíduos sólidos urbanos, localizado em um município do meio oeste de Santa Catarina. Através da caracterização e tratamento por processos biológicos seguido de físico-químicos usando um coagulante a base de tanino e um floculante catiônico de alto peso molecular, a fim de se obterem efluentes com características que permitam o seu descarte de acordo com a legislação. Potencializando a eficiência do processo de tratamento, de forma que, a empresa operadora possa adotar em escala real o processo estudado em laboratório.

  6. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutron and gamma calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation and control, reactor code benchmarking and reactor safety calculations. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 materials testing reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2001 are summarised.

  7. Cytogenetics of solid tumors Revisión de tema Citogenética de tumores sólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ramírez Castro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic analysis of tumors has provided valuable information on the biology of cancer. It has been established that more than half of solid tumors show chromosomal anomalies; therefore, cytogenetic analysis is of great usefulness for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Identification of recurrent chromosomal anomalies in numerous tumors has been considered as an indicador of clinical importance. Cytogenetic studies in tissue tumors have revealed near 100,000 clonal chromosome abnormalities belonging to more that 30,000 human neoplasms. However, due to technical difficulties in cell cultures, only one third of solid tumors have been cytogenetically characterized. Conventional cytogenetics has been very useful for molecular characterization of new oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes involved in human tumorigenesis. In this review, some important issues related with tumors of chromosomal etiology, the diverse types of chromosomal anomalies with their frequencies, modern diagnostic techniques as well as their impact on the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer are presented. EL análisis citogenético de tumores ha proporcionado valiosa información sobre la biología del cáncer. Se ha establecido que más de la mitad de los tumores sólidos presentan alteraciones cromosómicas; por lo tanto, el análisis citogenético es de gran utilidad para el diagnóstico y el pronóstico. La identificación de cambios cromosómicos específicos recurrentes en numerosos tumores se considera un indicador de importancia clínica. Los estudios en este campo han revelado cerca de 100.000 alteraciones cromosómicas en más de 30.000 neoplasias humanas. Sin embargo, los tumores sólidos son los menos caracterizados citogenéticamente, sólo una tercera parte del total de ellos, debido a problemas técnicos en los cultivos celulares. La citogenética convencional ha sido muy útil para la posterior caracterización molecular de nuevos oncogenes y genes supresores de

  8. Research reactor standards and their impact on the TRIGA reactor community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The American Nuclear Society has established a standards committee devoted to writing standards for research reactors. This committee was formed in 1971 and has since that time written over 15 standards that cover all aspects of research reactor operation. The committee has representation from virtually every group concerned with research reactors and their operation. This organization includes University reactors, National laboratory reactors, Nuclear Regulatory commission, Department of Energy and private nuclear companies and insurers. Since its beginning the committee has developed standards in the following areas: Standard for the development of technical specifications for research reactors; Quality control for plate-type uranium-aluminium fuel elements; Records and reports for research reactors; Selection and training of personnel for research reactors; Review of experiments for research reactors; Research reactor site evaluation; Quality assurance program requirements for research reactors; Decommissioning of research reactors; Radiological control at research reactor facilities; Design objectives for and monitoring of systems controlling research reactor effluents; Physical security for research reactor facilities; Criteria for the reactor safety systems of research reactors; Emergency planning for research reactors; Fire protection program requirements for research reactors; Standard for administrative controls for research reactors. Besides writing the above standards, the committee is very active in using communications with the nuclear regulatory commission on proposed rules or positions which will affect the research reactor community

  9. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  10. Sistema de equipamiento para el reciclado de residuos sólidos urbanos : Propuesta de diseño Industrial para el agregado de valor en cadenas productivas de Asociaciones de Recuperadores y Emprendimientos Municipales

    OpenAIRE

    Caló, Julieta

    2005-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en el diseño de un sistema modular de equipos/maquinaria de bajo costo adaptable a diferentes escalas productivas, destinado a emprendimientos municipales y/o cooperativas de recuperadores urbanos (cartoneros) dedicados a la valorización de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (RSU). (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  11. Improved nuclear reactor construction with bottom supported reactor vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    An improved liquid metal nuclear reactor construction has a reactor core and a generally cylindrical reactor vessel for holding liquid metal coolant and housing the core within the pool. A generally cylindrical concrete containment structure surrounds the reactor vessel and a central support pedestal is anchored to the containment structure base mat and supports the bottom wall of the reactor vessel and the reactor core. The periphery of the reactor vessel bore is supported by an annular structure which allows thermal expansion but not seismic motion of the vessel, and a bed of thermally insulating material uniformly supports the vessel base whilst allowing expansion thereof. A guard ring prevents lateral seismic motion of the upper end of the reactor vessel. The periphery of the core is supported by an annular structure supported by the vessel base and keyed to the vessel wall so as to be able to expand but not undergo seismic motion. A deck is supported on the containment structure above the reactor vessel open top by annular bellows, the deck carrying the reactor control rods such that heating of the reactor vessel results in upward expansion against the control rods. (author)

  12. Reactor as furnace and reactor as lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    There are presented general characteristics of the following ways of transforming of nuclear energy released in reactors into chemical : ordinary way (i.e. trough the heat, mechanical energy and electricity); chemonuclear synthesis ; use of high-temperature fuel elements (reactor as furnace); use of the mixed nγ-radiation of reactors; use of the radiation loops; radiation - photochemical synthesis (reactor as lamp). Advantage and disadvantages of all above variants are compared. The yield of the primary product of fixation of nitrogen (nitric oxide NO) in reactor with the high-temperature (above ca. 1900degC) fuel elements (reactor-furnace) can exceed W ∼ 200 kg per gram of burned uranium. For the latter variant (reactor-lamp) the yield of chemical products can reach W ∼ 60 kg. per gram of uranium. Such values of W are close to or even strongly exceed the yields of chemical products for other abovementioned variants and - what is particularly important - are not connected to the necessity of archscrupulous removal of radioactive contamination of products. (author)

  13. Development of Reactor Console Simulator for PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Idris Taib; Izhar Abu Hussin; Mohd Khairulezwan Abdul Manan; Nufarhana Ayuni Joha; Mohd Sabri Minhat

    2012-01-01

    The Reactor Console Simulator will be an interactive tool for operator training and teaching of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Behaviour and characteristic for reactor console and reactor itself can be evaluated and understand. This Simulator will be used as complement for actual present reactor console. Implementation of man-machine interface is using computer screens, keyboard and mouse. Multiple screens are used to match the physical of present reactor console. LabVIEW software are using for user interface and mathematical calculation. Polynomial equation based on control rods calibration data as well as operation parameters record was used to calculate the estimated reactor console parameters. (author)

  14. Evaluación del microespacio urbano en clima cálido-húmedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nersa Gómez de Perozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En las zonas de clima cálido - húmedo se producen impactos asociados a la incomodidad térmica producto de la intensa radiación solar, altas temperaturas y elevada humedad que  desarrolla en la población una actitud de rechazo hacia el uso del microespacio urbano entre edificaciones en los conjuntos residenciales multifamiliares. El estudio se centra en las particularidades contextuales relacionadas con el microclima (soleamiento y ventilación, las características morfológicas y edificatorias y las superficies (pavimentos. El trabajo aborda literatura relevante sobre la calidad ambiental y el microespacio urbano, describe la caracterización climática de Maracaibo (Venezuela, datos locales y localización. Explica  la metodología de análisis y evaluación de la condición térmica ambiental que describe la selección de los casos de estudio, los instrumentos y técnicas de medición y la técnica de Simulación Computacional aplicada para evaluar el microespacio de los conjuntos residenciales seleccionados. Luego aborda el estudio de casos referente a las condiciones físicas, climáticas y de valoración térmico - ambiental del microespacio en los conjuntos. También aplica la Técnica de Simulación Computacional, se analizan los resultados obtenidos y se presenta la comparativa de los conjuntos y las conclusiones. Los resultados demuestran que el análisis en experiencias de la realidad permiten comprobar que las situaciones y alteraciones ambientales sustanciales, los niveles de afectación térmica, confortabilidad e impacto, derivan de las condiciones urbanas y microclimáticas que afectan el uso efectivo del microespacio urbano en clima cálido – húmedo.   Abstract: In hot - humid climate zones where impacts related thermal discomfort produced as a result from the intense solar radiation and high temperatures and humidity people develops an attitude of rejection towards the use of urban microspace among buildings within

  15. Utilização de biossólido no crescimento inicial de mudas de aroeira (Schinus terebynthifolius Raddi Utilization of sewage sludge in the seedling growth of aroeira (Schinus terebynthifolius Raddi seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Simão Abrahão Nóbrega

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o uso do biossólido como componente do substrato para crescimento inicial de mudas de aroeira. Os substratos foram compostos de amostras de Neossolo Quartzarênico e de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo coletadas na profundidade de 0,2 a 0,5 m, acrescidos do biossólido produzido pela Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto (ETE de Serrania, MG, nas seguintes proporções de solo:biossólido (%: 100:0; 80:20; 60:40; 40:60; e 20:80, sem a utilização de fertilização mineral. Após 30 dias da semeadura, foi feito o desbaste deixando-se uma planta por tubete, e, no final do período de 60 dias, as mudas foram coletadas para a determinação da massa seca da parte aérea (MSPA, das raízes (MSR e total (MST, diâmetro de colo (D, altura das plantas (H, área foliar (A, relação altura da parte aérea com diâmetro do colo (H/D e peso da massa seca da parte aérea com peso da massa seca da raiz (MSPA/MSR. O biossólido melhorou a fertilidade dos substratos, aumentando os teores de P, K, Ca, Mg, soma de bases, CTC, matéria orgânica e teores de micronutrientes, fato que proporcionou aumento no D, A, MSPA, MSR, MST, H, MSPA/MSR das mudas de aroeira, sendo que esses efeitos variaram de acordo com as proporções de biossólido empregadas. O crescimento máximo das mudas foi obtido com a proporção de 63:37, tanto para Neossolo Quartzarênico quanto Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo. A concentração de metais pesados em todos os substratos ficou abaixo dos limites estabelecidos pela CETESB.This work aimed to evaluate sewage sludge as substrate component for aroeira seedling growth. Substrates were composed of soil samples collected at 0.2-0.5 m depth from a Quartzarenic Neosol or from a Red-Yellow Latosol, with sewage sludge produced by the Sewage Treatment Station (Estação de Tratamento de Esgoto - ETE located in Serrania, Minas Gerais, in five proportions: 100:0; 80:20; 60:40; 40:60 and 20:80, being all without mineral fertilizers. Thirty

  16. Avaliação de desempenho de lagoa de polimento para pós-tratamento de reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB no tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura Evaluation of the performance of a polishing pond for the post-treatment of the effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor treating swine wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de uma lagoa de polimento, no tratamento de efluentes de águas residuárias de suinocultura de um reator anaeróbio de manta de lodo (UASB. O sistema foi composto de decantador, reator UASB, em escala real, e lagoa de polimento em escala experimental. As análises físico-químicas realizadas foram: temperatura, pH, demanda bioquímica de oxigênio (DBO, demanda química de oxigênio (DQO, sólidos suspensos totais (SST e sólidos suspensos voláteis (SSV, nitrogênio total kjedhal (NTK, nitrogênio amoniacal (N-am. e orgânico (N-org., fósforo total (Pt, coliformes totais e termotolerantes. A lagoa de polimento apresentou alto desempenho, com remoção média de 58,9% de DBO, 60,1% de NTK, 57% de N-am. e 95,34% de coliformes termotolerantes.The performance of a polishing pond for treating swine wastewater from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor was evaluated. The system was assembled with a slat settler, followed by an UASB reactor, on a real scale, and a post-treatment pond, on a demonstration scale. The following parameters were analyzed: temperature, pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD, total suspended solids (TSS, volatile suspended solids (VSS, total Kjedahl nitrogen (NTK, ammonia nitrogen (N-am., organic nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total and thermotolerant coliforms. The polishing pond was highly efficient, removing an average of 58.9% of BOD, 60.1% of NTK, 57% of N-am., and 95.34% of thermotolerant coliforms.

  17. An overview of sodium-fire related studies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilsborough, R.; Capp, P.D.; Newman, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the six years since the last Sodium Fires Specialists Meeting (Hanford, May 1972) the UKAEA and the Construction Companies, now NPC, have concentrated on the commissioning and early operation of the prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Rig support for PFR has continued at Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratory with effort mainly directed to engineering and heat transfer studies; the fire protection and leak detection systems used have been based on information available in 1972. Over the same period the CEGB have shown an increasing interest in the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor system with a consequent increase in research work on the subject of sodium fires. The text and appendices of this overview reflect this spread of emphasis. The ignition characteristics, burning rates and smoke release fractions of free ambient pool fires have been studied and this is described. This paper covers the following topics as well: extinguishment of sodium fires; prevention and protection; aerosols, physical chemistry and codes

  18. Fusion - the programme in the UK - and other thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, R

    1978-01-01

    The Fusion Programme in the Euratom--UKAEA Fusion Association is mainly one of plasma confinement studies in four major experimental areas. Conceptual studies of fusion reactors have been based upon the tokamak and the reversed field pinch. Particular attention has been given to the potential operating problems of toroidal fusion reactors in order to establish design principles which take note of the high availability essential in a power plant. Future plans for fusion power programmes are discussed and it is suggested that they are not obviously the quickest or most cost effective ways to establishing the credibility of fusion. It is proposed that a more aggressive programme which involved taking calculated risks could be quicker and cheaper. An additional, important advantage would be to attract into the fusion programme good engineers who feel the need to be motivated by action on a time scale less than the 30 to 50 years of much present planning

  19. An overview of sodium-fire related studies in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilsborough, R [NPC, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Capp, P D [UKAEA, Atomic Energy Establishment Winfrith, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom); Newman, R N [CEGB, Berkely Nuclear Laboratories, Berkley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom)

    1979-03-01

    In the six years since the last Sodium Fires Specialists Meeting (Hanford, May 1972) the UKAEA and the Construction Companies, now NPC, have concentrated on the commissioning and early operation of the prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. Rig support for PFR has continued at Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratory with effort mainly directed to engineering and heat transfer studies; the fire protection and leak detection systems used have been based on information available in 1972. Over the same period the CEGB have shown an increasing interest in the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor system with a consequent increase in research work on the subject of sodium fires. The text and appendices of this overview reflect this spread of emphasis. The ignition characteristics, burning rates and smoke release fractions of free ambient pool fires have been studied and this is described. This paper covers the following topics as well: extinguishment of sodium fires; prevention and protection; aerosols, physical chemistry and codes.

  20. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  1. Gestão de Resíduos Sólidos e Turismo: O Tratamento Dado por Meios de Hospedagem e Pelo Setor Público na Ilha do Mel, PR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Poli Sperb

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ilha do Mel, reconhecido destino turístico do litoral do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, que enlaça duas áreas de preservação ambiental, passou por consideráveis alterações socioambientais e econômicas a partir da década de 1980, em função do aumento da demanda turística. O desenvolvimento do turismo possibilitou o surgimento de mais de cem hotéis e pousadas em seu território, concentração essa que se tornou um grave problema para a gestão pública dos resíduos sólidos. Neste contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa é o de analisar a gestão dos resíduos sólidos realizada pelos meios de hospedagem e pelo setor público, bem como verificar a opinião dos empreendedores privados sobre o tratamento dado a esses resíduos, no local. Os dados primários foram coletados através de entrevistas realizadas com empresários de trinta meios de hospedagem e com representantes do setor público local. Os resultados indicam que muitas das ações de tratamento e destinação dos resíduos sólidos acontecem, em geral, pelo livre arbítrio dos proprietários. Por parte do setor público, foi verificada ausência de estruturas físicas adequadas para a gestão dos resíduos sólidos, assim como de critérios claros para o tratamento e destinação destes resíduos e a falta de orientações efetivas aos empresários. Management of Solid Waste and Tourism: The Treatment Given by Lodging Facilities and by the Public Sector in Ilha do Mel, Paraná State, Brazil - Ilha do Mel, a well-known touristic destination in the coast of Paraná, in the South of Brazil, ensnares two preservation areas and has gone through some important environmental and economic changes from the 1980s, due to the increased demand of tourists. Tourism development has caused the emergence of over 100 hotels and inns within the island, which became a serious problem to the public management of the solid waste. Based on that, this research aims to analyze how the solid waste

  2. Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) are compared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greneche, D.

    2014-01-01

    This article compares the 2 types of light water reactors that are used to produce electricity: the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). Historically the BWR concept was developed after the PWR concept. Today 80% of light water reactors operating in the world are of PWR-type. This comparison is comprehensive and detailed. First the main technical features are reviewed and compared: reactor architecture, core and fuel design, reactivity control, reactor vessel, cooling systems and reactor containment. Secondly, various aspects concerning reactor operations like reactor control, fuel management, maintenance, inspections, radiation protection, waste generation and reactor reliability are presented and compared for both reactors. As for the issue of safety, it is highlighted that the accidental situations are too different for the 2 reactors to be compared. The main features of reactor safety are explained for both reactors

  3. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsbedt, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    This patent describes a sodium cooled reactor of the type having a reactor hot pool, a slightly lower pressure reactor cold pool and a reactor vessel liner defining a reactor vessel liner flow gap separating the hot pool and the cold pool along the reactor vessel sidewalls and wherein the normal sodium circuit in the reactor includes main sodium reactor coolant pumps having a suction on the lower pressure sodium cold pool and an outlet to a reactor core; the reactor core for heating the sodium and discharging the sodium to the reactor hot pool; a heat exchanger for receiving sodium from the hot pool, and removing heat from the sodium and discharging the sodium to the lower pressure cold pool; the improvement across the reactor vessel liner comprising: a jet pump having a venturi installed across the reactor vessel liner, the jet pump having a lower inlet from the reactor vessel cold pool across the reactor vessel liner and an upper outlet to the reactor vessel hot pool

  4. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, J.C.; Zaetta, A.; Johner, J.; Mathoniere, G.

    2000-01-01

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  5. Reactor noise analysis of experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Hideji; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    1980-01-01

    As a part of dynamics tests in experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'', reactor noise tests were carried out. The reactor noise analysis techniques are effective for study of plant characteristics by determining fluctuations of process signals (neutron signal, reactor inlet temperature signals, etc.), which are able to be measured without disturbances for reactor operations. The aims of reactor noise tests were to confirm that no unstable phenomenon exists in ''JOYO'' and to gain initial data of the plant for reference of the future data. Data for the reactor noise tests treated in this paper were obtained at 50 MW power level. Fluctuations of process signals were amplified and recorded on analogue tapes. The analysis was performed using noise code (NOISA) of digital computer, with which statistical values of ASPD (auto power spectral density), CPSD (cross power spectral density), and CF (coherence function) were calculated. The primary points of the results are as follows. 1. RMS value of neutron signal at 50 MW power level is about 0.03 MW. This neutron fluctuation is not disturbing reactor operations. 2. The fluctuations of A loop reactor inlet temperatures (T sub(AI)) are larger than the fluctuations of B loop reactor inlet temperature (T sub(BI)). For this reason, the major driving force of neutron fluctuations seems to be the fluctuations of T sub(AI). 3. Core and blanket subassemblies can be divided into two halves (A and B region), with respect to the spacial motion of temperature in the reactor core. A or B region means the region in which sodium temperature fluctuations in subassembly are significantly affected by T sub(AI) or T sub(BI), respectively. This phenomenon seems to be due to the lack of mixing of A and B loop sodium in lower plenum of reactor vessel. (author)

  6. Evaluación de la mineralización de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Evaluation of mineralization rates of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los biosólidos procedentes del tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales tienen alto potencial de aplicación agrícola por sus contenidos de materia orgánica y nutrientes. En esta investigación se evaluó la mineralización de los biosólidos provenientes de la Planta de tratamiento de Aguas Residuales de Cañaveralejo, Cali- Colombia, mediante el ajuste de modelos de regresión; se realizó el seguimiento del contenido de NH4+, NO3- y NO2- durante 126 días para tres tipos de biosólidos: deshidratado, secado térmicamente y alcalinizado, los cuales fueron aplicados a un suelo Vertic Endoaquepts en dosis de 35.4, 36.4 y 54.5 t ha-1 respectivamente. Para el ajuste de las curvas de regresión, se consideraron los modelos simple exponencial, doble exponencial, hiperbólico, parabólico y algunos modelos estadísticos regulares. Los resultados mostraron que el modelo parabólico propuesto por Broadbent presentó el mejor ajuste para describir el proceso de mineralización del suelo evaluado; el modelo exponencial de Stanford & Smith, se mostró como una segunda opción de modelación, permitiendo corroborar el incremento del nitrógeno orgánico N0 cuando se realiza la aplicación de los biosólidos y el incremento de la mineralización con relación al tratamiento testigo.The biosolids from wastewater Treatment plants have high potential of agricultural application due to the contents of organic matter and nutrients. The mineralization of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo Wastewater Treatment Plant, Cali-Colombia, was evaluated by fitting regression models. The content of NH4+, NO3- and NO2- were monitored during 126 days for three types of biosolids: dehydrated, thermally dried and alkalinized, which were applied to a Vertic Endoaquepts soil using doses of 35.4, 36.4 and 54.5 t ha-1 respectively. To adjust the regression curves, the models used were: simple exponential, double exponential, hyperbolic, parabolic and some regular statistical

  7. ANÁLISE DE CONFIABILIDADE ESTRUTURAL DE PROBLEMAS BASEADOS NA MECÂNICA DOS SÓLIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Favaretto Defiltro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A Mecânica dos Sólidos, a partir de hipóteses simplificadoras, fornece modelos de cálculo que podem ser aplicados a vários problemas estruturais e estabelece as bases e o entendimento para o desenvolvimento de teorias e a construção de modelos mais complexos. Entretanto, dentro deste contexto, é comum desprezar as incertezas inerentes às propriedades dos materiais envolvidos, às condições de contorno e à geometria do problema. Neste artigo, ferramentas da Teoria da Confiabilidade Estrutural são aplicadas a problemas estruturais baseados na Mecânica dos Sólidos no intuito de analisá-los considerando algumas das incertezas envolvidas. Para isso, o método de Simulação de Monte Carlo é empregado na análise de confiabilidade de duas vigas. No estudo da primeira estrutura, busca-se investigar a influência da correlação entre variáveis aleatórias na probabilidade de falha do elemento estrutural. Na segunda estrutura, analisa-se o efeito da utilização de materiais com diferentes comportamentos (frágeis ou dúcteis e, consequentemente, diferentes critérios de ruptura, sobre a probabilidade de falha estimada. Verifica-se que as análises de confiabilidade estrutural podem fornecer muitas informações que estão fora do escopo das soluções determinísticas. Tais informações permitem uma avaliação mais precisa da segurança estrutural e podem também levar a um melhor entendimento do modelo estrutural em questão. ABSTRACT: The Solid Mechanics, from simplifying assumptions, provides calculation models that can be applied to various structural problems and establishes the foundation and the understanding for the development of theories and the construction of more complex models. However, within this context, it is common to despise the uncertainties inherent to the properties of the materials involved, the boundary conditions and the geometry of the problem. In this article, Structural Reliability Theory tools

  8. Directrices para la gestión de residuos sólidos em ambientes de alta montaña : estudio de caso em la Cordillera de Huayhuash - Perú = Diretrizes para a gestão de resíduos sólidos em ambientes de alta montanha: estudo de caso na Cordilheira de Huayhuash - Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Omar Milton Romero Catacora

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar questões relacionadas à gestão e gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos em regiões montanhosas, desde sua geração impulsionada pelo aumento desenfreado do turismo nessas regiões, até sua disposição final. Esse processo desenfreado do turismo está deixando um enorme impacto ambiental nas geleiras e nas cabeceiras de bacias hidrográficas que são regiões de abastecimento de água localizadas ao pé das montanhas. Foi realizada uma análise de padrões mais ...

  9. Reactor physics and reactor computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronen, Y.; Elias, E.

    1994-01-01

    Mathematical methods and computer calculations for nuclear and thermonuclear reactor kinetics, reactor physics, neutron transport theory, core lattice parameters, waste treatment by transmutation, breeding, nuclear and thermonuclear fuels are the main interests of the conference

  10. Survey of radiological protection in the A.E.A.: 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomer, W.M.

    1979-10-01

    The practices and achievements of the radiological protection systems of the U.K.A.E.A. have been critically examined in the light of the report made by Sir Edward Pochin on Aldermaston practices. Aspects examined include the responsibilities and organisation for health and safety, sources of potential exposure, working procedures and monitoring, and health physics staffing and training. It is found that many of the criticisms made in Pochin's report do not apply to the existing conditions in the U.K.A.E.A. Several points are identified where procedures should be re-examined by managements and where improvements might be sought. The U.K.A.E.A. standards of monitoring and procedures meet all regulatory limits. Finally, a list of detailed recommendations is given. (U.K.)

  11. Reactor water spontaneous circulation structure in reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazumi

    1998-01-01

    The gap between the inner wall of a reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor and a reactor core shroud forms a down comer in which reactor water flows downwardly. A feedwater jacket to which feedwater at low temperature is supplied is disposed at the outer circumference of the pressure vessel just below a gas/water separator. The reactor water at the outer circumferential portion just below the air/water separator is cooled by the feedwater jacket, and the feedwater after cooling is supplied to the feedwater entrance disposed below the feedwater jacket by way of a feedwater introduction line to supply the feedwater to the lower portion of the down comer. This can cool the reactor water in the down comer to increase the reactor water density in the down comer thereby forming strong downward flows and promote the recycling of the reactor water as a whole. With such procedures, the reactor water can be recycled stably only by the difference of the specific gravity of the reactor water without using an internal pump. In addition, the increase of the height of the pressure vessel can be suppressed. (I.N.)

  12. Residuos Sólidos Urbanos y nuevas políticas en el territorio metropolitano de Buenos Aires: 2002-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Saidón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio examina un proceso de cambio institucional en la gestión de los Residuos Sólidos Urbanos en el territorio de la Región Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, entre 2002 y 2015. La agenda pública se ha ido orientando incipientemente hacia la recuperación de materiales y el manejo integral de los residuos, a partir de coyunturas críticas, lo cual requirió de un lento proceso de aprendizaje y reacomodamiento de los actores involucrados. Si bien a las nuevas instituciones se opone una gran resistencia de viejas alianzas que obstaculizan un cambio radical inmediato, la emergencia de múltiples actores en la escena —que promueven un cambio de modelo y cuentan con herramientas jurídicas—, genera una apertura del campo de negociación en la que los viejos actores se ven obligados a generar acuerdos, a incorporar nuevas estrategias y a reconfigurar sus modelos de negocios.

  13. Modelo de recolección de residuos sólidos botellas plásticas y latas utilizando como aliado el sistema de transporte masivo en Bogotá

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Briceño, María Camila; García Jimenez, Giovanny

    2014-01-01

    En las grandes ciudades, la disposición de residuos se ha convertido en un problema ambiental de magnitud mundial con impacto negativo por el manejo inadecuado de los residuos sólidos diarios. El propósito es utilizar el sistema de transporte publico de Bogotá (Transmilenio) como punto de recolección de botellas plásticas y latas, para crear un proyecto de responsabilidad ambiental el cual tendrá resultados positivos a nivel cultural, social, y a largo plazo, financieramente. A trav...

  14. Gestión del manejo integral de los desechos sólidos en el hospital Alemán Nicaragüense de Managua Gestión del manejo integral de los desechos sólidos en el hospital Alemán Nicaragüense de Managua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Jacqueline Blandón Rivera

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The study was the management of Hospital Solid Waste (HSW at the Nicaraguan German Hospital (NGH. The general objective proposed was a system of management of hospital waste solid waste (both non-hazardous but excluding radioactive generated by the NGH. A quantification of the HSW was carried out during the assessment period and a list of HSW was formulated. The current problems in the handling of waste were identified and a proposal for the safe handling of waste was put forward, those under consideration are: an integrated plan for handling of HSW to include all waste (non-hazardous and hazardous but excluding radioactive a proposal for adequate equipment for the internal and external collection and transportation of HSW. A proposal for the construction of an internal temporary storage area for HSW and a proposal for a treatment system and definitive alternative for the disposal of HSW produced by NGH.La gestión de los desechos sólidos hospitalarios (DSH del Hospital Alemán Nicaragüense (HAN fue estudiada. El objetivo general propuesto fue un sistema de gestión de los desechos sólidos hospitalarios (comunes y peligrosos sin incluir los radiactivos, generados en el HAN. Se efectuó la cuantificación de los DSH durante el periodo de muestreo, elaboración de un listado de los DSH, se identificaron problemas existentes en el manejo actual de éstos desechos, y se elaboró una propuesta de plan de manejo seguro de los mismos, la que contempla: Plan integral de manejo de DSH que incluye todos los desechos (comunes y peligrosos, sin incluir los radiactivos, una propuesta de equipo adecuado para recolección y transporte interno y externo de DSH; propuesta de construcción de depósito para almacenamiento temporal interno de los DSH; y una propuesta de sistema de tratamiento y disposición final alternativo para los DSH/P generados en el HAN.

  15. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  16. Reactor Physics Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2007-01-01

    University courses in nuclear reactor physics at the universities consist of a theoretical description of the physics and technology of nuclear reactors. In order to demonstrate the basic concepts in reactor physics, training exercises in nuclear reactor installations are also desirable. Since the number of reactor facilities is however strongly decreasing in Europe, it becomes difficult to offer to students a means for demonstrating the basic concepts in reactor physics by performing training exercises in nuclear installations. Universities do not generally possess the capabilities for performing training exercises. Therefore, SCK-CEN offers universities the possibility to perform (on a commercial basis) training exercises at its infrastructure consisting of two research reactors (BR1 and VENUS). Besides the organisation of training exercises in the framework of university courses, SCK-CEN also organizes theoretical courses in reactor physics for the education and training of nuclear reactor operators. It is indeed a very important subject to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. In this framework, an understanding of the fundamental principles of nuclear reactor physics is also necessary for reactor operators. Therefore, the organisation of a basic Nuclear reactor physics course at the level of reactor operators in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The objectives this activity are: (1) to provide training and education activities in reactor physics for university students and (2) to organise courses in nuclear reactor physics for reactor operators

  17. FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kimitaka; Fukuie, Ken; Iijima, Tooru; Shimpo, Masakazu.

    1994-01-01

    In an FBR type reactor for exchanging fuels by pulling up reactor core upper mechanisms, a connection mechanism is disposed for connecting the top of the reactor core and the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms. In addition, a cylindrical body is disposed surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, and a support member is disposed to the cylindrical body for supporting an intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms. Then, the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is connected to the top of the reactor core. Same displacements are caused to both of them upon occurrence of earthquakes and, as a result, it is possible to eliminate mutual horizontal displacement between a control rod guide hole of the reactor core upper mechanisms and a control rod insertion hole of the reactor core. In addition, since the intermediate portion of the reactor core upper mechanisms is supported by the support member disposed to the cylindrical body surrounding the reactor core upper mechanisms, deformation caused to the lower end of the reactor core upper mechanisms is reduced, so that the mutual horizontal displacement with respect to the control rod insertion hole of the reactor core can be reduced. As a result, performance of control rod insertion upon occurrence of the earthquakes is improved, so that reactor shutdown is conducted more reliably to improve reactor safety. (N.H.)

  18. RB Research nuclear reactor RB reactor, Annual report for 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    2000-12-01

    Report on RB reactor operation during 2000 contains 3 parts. Part one contains a brief description of reactor operation and reactor components, relevant dosimetry data and radiation protection issues, personnel and financial data. Part two is devoted to maintenance of the reactor components, namely, fuel, heavy water, reactor vessel, heavy water circulation system, absorption rods and heavy water level-meters, maintenance of electronic, mechanical, electrical and auxiliary equipment. Part three contains data concerned with reactor operation and utilization with a comprehensive list of publications resulting from experiments done at the RB reactor. It contains data about reactor operation during previous 14 years, i.e. from 1986 - 2000

  19. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masami; Nishio, Masahide.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the rupture of the dry well even when the melted reactor core drops into a reactor pedestal cavity. Constitution: In a reactor container in which a dry well disposed above the reactor pedestal cavity for containing the reactor pressure vessel and a torus type suppression chamber for containing pressure suppression water are connected with each other, the pedestal cavity and the suppression chamber are disposed such that the flow level of the pedestal cavity is lower than the level of the pressure suppression water. Further, a pressure suppression water introduction pipeway for introducing the pressure suppression water into the reactor pedestal cavity is disposed by way of an ON-OFF valve. In case if the melted reactor core should fall into the pedestal cavity, the ON-OFF valve for the pressure suppression water introduction pipeway is opened to introduce the pressure suppression water in the suppression chamber into the pedestal cavity to cool the melted reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  20. Transporte de Materia con Reducción de Volumen en el Interior de Sólidos Paralelepípedos Mass Transport with Shrinkage Inside Parallelepiped Solids

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. S Nascimento; B. J. T. Mederos; F. A. Belo; A. G. B. de Lima

    2005-01-01

    Se describe un modelo matemático tridimensional transitorio aplicado al fenómeno de difusión de agua en el interior de sólidos paralelepípedos. Se utilizó el método de los volúmenes finitos considerando propiedades térmica y mecánicas constantes, equilibrio en la superficie y reducción de volumen del material. El modelo fue utilizado para estudiar el proceso de secado de un ladrillo de cerámica. Se muestran los resultados de la cinética de secado y la distribución del contenido de humedad en ...

  1. Transportes turísticos no contexto do desenvolvimento sustentável: a gestão de resíduos sólidos aeroportuários.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaciel Gustavo Kunz; Suzana Maria De Conto

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es discurrir acerca de la relevancia de la gestión de residuos sólidos en aeropuertos y su interface con el turismo, tomando por base la discusión del desarrollo sustentable, principalmente en su dimensión ambiental. El trabajo es resultado de una investigación bibliográfica, de carácter exploratorio, que se constituyó en una revisión de la literatura relativa a los ejes temáticos propuestos para la discusión. Con base em los resultados es posible reafirmar: (a) l...

  2. Inventario de los residuos sólidos generados en las empresas antioqueñas pertenecientes a los principales sectores económicos del departamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Ángela Hoyos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra los resultados de una investigación sobre la producción de residuos sólidos generados por las empresas Antioqueñas. Investigación que fue desarrollada por la Universidad de San Buenaventura, la Universidad de Medellín y la Universidad de Antioquia dentro del programa Expedición Antioquia 2013. Para lo cual, se evaluó la producción de residuos generados en empresas pertenecientes a las actividades económicas; agricultura, ganadería, caza y silvicultura; Explotación de minas y canteras; Industrias manufactureras y Construcción. El propósito del estudio fue conocer la tipología, cantidad e impacto ambiental de los residuos generados en el departamento en los sectores seleccionados, constituyéndose en una base para futuras investigaciones, orientadas a determinar el potencial aprovechamiento de los residuos para la elaboración de nuevos productos. La zona de estudio corresponde al 80,8% de la superficie del departamento de Antioquia, subregiones, Bajo Cauca, Nordeste, Norte, Oriente, Suroeste, Urabá y Valle de Aburrá; las cuales concentran las zonas industriales, mineras y agropecuarias más representativas del departamento, además de ser subregiones altamente pobladas con un crecimiento en infraestructura, representado en un sector de construcción fortalecido. La metodología utilizada fue la construcción de bases de datos de las empresas de los sectores seleccionados para posteriormente obtener información de la generación de residuos sólidos por medio de encuestas realizadas por un aplicativo web, personal o telefónicamente.

  3. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  4. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Raedt, C.

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  5. Highlights of the UKAEA Underlying Research Programme: April 1988-March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Investment in fundamental research is essential to the success of any organisation whose business is the selling of research and development and the services relating to it. The resulting scientific and technical excellence is the hall-mark of a major contract research and development organisation and its main product. Fundamental research in the AEA is co-ordinated through the Underlying Research Programme. The Programme has to keep closely in touch with all the applied projects, in order to identify within these the problems that are hindering progress and might therefore benefit from further investigation. It also has the responsibility for developing new skills and techniques across the AEA. This brochure highlights some of the projects undertaken as part of the Underlying Research Programme. The Programme is organised into fifteen different areas of research, with the research projects not obviously fitting into any of these areas having a separate section to themselves. The text introduces each of these areas in turn, and then describes two or three examples of the sort of work undertaken within it. The areas are radiation effects, fracture studies, chemical effects at surfaces, surface physics and corrosion, fluid mechanics and heat transfer, nuclear studies, neutron beam studies, theoretical sciences, instrumentation, reactor physics and control, fabrication processes, laser isotope separation, nuclear fuel cycle studies, quantum electronics and radiological protection. (author)

  6. Demografia do consumo urbano: um estudo sobre a geração de resíduos sólidos domiciliares no município de Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho explora relações entre fatores socioeconômicos e demográficos e a produção de resíduos sólidos domiciliares - o lixo doméstico -, para o município de Belo Horizonte em 2002. A proposta foi investigar se diferenciais socioeconômicos (especificamente renda e educação e demográficos (especificamente estrutura etária e domiciliar são importantes na definição do volume de resíduos gerado em sub-regiões do município. O consumo, nesse sentido, é visto como o elo entre as dimensões "população" e "geração de resíduos". A fonte de dados sobre a geração de resíduos sólidos é a Superintendência de Limpeza Urbana (SLU, responsável pela coleta e sistematização das informações em uma malha cartográfica digital. Tal representação espacial das informações permitiu concatená-las com os dados da malha digital das Áreas de Ponderação do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE, referentes ao Censo Demográfico 2000. Métodos estatísticos multivariados foram empregados para investigar as associações entre variáveis populacionais e a produção de resíduos. O trabalho se destaca no cenário dos estudos de população no Brasil pelo uso inédito de informações produzidas sobre resíduos sólidos urbanos e a interação de sua produção com aspectos socioeconômicos e demográficos. Os resultados indicam que a concentração de domicílios unipessoais, população e chefes com 60 anos e mais, e idade média elevada, algo como um "perfil demográfico urbano-contemporâneo", surge recorrentemente como aspecto demográfico central na diferenciação de áreas de maior geração per capita. Estes fatores são associados constantemente à renda e escolaridade elevadas.

  7. Atomic Energy Authority Act 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Under this Act the UKAEA is given power to borrow so that it can finance its capital expenditure programme, and will undertake a debt to the Secretary of State for Energy representing its assets. Power is given for the Government to guarantee such borrowing. The UKAEA has been organised financially on the basis of a trading fund. The Act came into force on 1 April 1986. (NEA) [fr

  8. COMPORTAMIENTO DE COLIFORMES FECALES COMO INDICADORES BACTERIANOS DE CONTAMINACIÓN FECAL EN DIFERENTES MEZCLAS DE BIOSÓLIDO Y ESTÉRILES UTILIZADOS PARA LA RESTAURACIÓN ECOLÓGICA DE LA CANTERA SORATAMA, BOGOTÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fuccz-Gamboa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El biosólido de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales “El Salitre”, contiene una importante concentración de materia orgánica y nutrientes, los cuales pueden ser utilizados como enmienda orgánica en la agricultura, reforestación y recuperación de terrenos disturbados por el hombre. Su aplicación se encuentra condicionada a la concentración de microorganismos patógenos presentes, ya que generan un riesgo sanitario para las personas que lo manipulan o entran en contacto directo con él. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el comportamiento de los coliformes fecales, como indicadores bacterianos de contaminación fecal en mezclas de biosólido y estériles en diferentes proporciones utilizadas para la restauración ecológica de la cantera de “Soratama” en un período de 60 días. Se realizaron tres tratamientos (T1 8:1; T2 4:1 y T3 2:1, v/v de estériles-biosólido con tres réplicas cada uno y un control negativo, únicamente con estériles. Se tomaron un total de 60 muestras y se analizaron de acuerdo con el protocolo de la EPA/625/R92/013(1999, técnica de filtración por membrana. La concentración final de coliformes fecales fue de 2.3 x 103UFC/g de PS para T1, 1.6 x 102 UFC/g de PS para T2 y 1.2 x 101 UFC/g de PS para T3; con un porcentaje de reducción de 38,1, 53,8 y 78,5% respectivamente. La radiación solar, la temperatura ambiente, la humedad y la precipitación influyeron significativamente en la reducción de la concentración de colifor- mes fecales.

  9. Nuclear reactors. Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiron, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the 'nuclear reactors' volume of the Engineers Techniques collection. It gives a general presentation of the different articles of the volume which deal with: the physical basis (neutron physics and ionizing radiations-matter interactions, neutron moderation and diffusion), the basic concepts and functioning of nuclear reactors (possible fuel-moderator-coolant-structure combinations, research and materials testing reactors, reactors theory and neutron characteristics, neutron calculations for reactor cores, thermo-hydraulics, fluid-structure interactions and thermomechanical behaviour of fuels in PWRs and fast breeder reactors, thermal and mechanical effects on reactors structure), the industrial reactors (light water, pressurized water, boiling water, graphite moderated, fast breeder, high temperature and heavy water reactors), and the technology of PWRs (conceiving and building rules, nuclear parks and safety, reactor components and site selection). (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear reactor, reactor core thereof, and device for constituting the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, Masashi.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor core is constituted by charging coolants (light water) in a reactor pressure vessel and distributing fuel assemblies, reflecting material sealing pipes, moderator (heavy water and helium gas) sealing pipes, and gas sealing pipes therein. A fuel guide tube is surrounded by a cap and the gap therebetween is made hollow and filled with coolant steams. The cap is supported by a baffle plate. The moderator sealing pipe is disposed in a flow channel of coolants in adjacent with the cap. The position of the moderator sealing tube in the reactor core is controlled by water stream from a hydraulic pump with a guide tube extending below the baffle plate being as a guide. Then, the position of the moderator sealing tube is varied to conduct power control, burnup degree compensation, and reactor shut down. With such procedures, moderator cooling facility is no more necessary to simplify the structure. Further, heat generated from the moderator is transferred to the coolants thereby improving heat efficiency of the reactor. (I.N.)

  11. Slurry reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuerten, H; Zehner, P [BASF A.G., Ludwigshafen am Rhein (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-08-01

    Slurry reactors are designed on the basis of empirical data and model investigations. It is as yet not possible to calculate the flow behavior of such reactors. The swarm of gas bubbles and cluster formations of solid particles and their interaction in industrial reactors are not known. These effects control to a large extent the gas hold-up, the gas-liquid interface and, similarly as in bubble columns, the back-mixing of liquids and solids. These hydrodynamic problems are illustrated in slurry reactors which constructionally may be bubble columns, stirred tanks or jet loop reactors. The expected effects are predicted by means of tests with model systems modified to represent the conditions in industrial hydrogenation reactors. In his book 'Mass Transfer in Heterogeneous Catalysis' (1970) Satterfield complained of the lack of knowledge about the design of slurry reactors and hence of the impossible task of the engineer who has to design a plant according to accepted rules. There have been no fundamental changes since then. This paper presents the problems facing the engineer in designing slurry reactors, and shows new development trends.

  12. Optimal reactor strategy for commercializing fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji; Nagano, Koji

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a fuel cycle optimization model developed for analyzing the condition of selecting fast breeder reactors in the optimal reactor strategy is described. By dividing the period of planning, 1966-2055, into nine ten-year periods, the model was formulated as a compact linear programming model. With the model, the best mix of reactor types as well as the optimal timing of reprocessing spent fuel from LWRs to minimize the total cost were found. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. Fast breeder reactors could be introduced in the optimal strategy when they can economically compete with LWRs with 30 year storage of spent fuel. In order that fast breeder reactors monopolize the new reactor market after the achievement of their technical availability, their capital cost should be less than 0.9 times as much as that of LWRs. When a certain amount of reprocessing commitment is assumed, the condition of employing fast breeder reactors in the optimal strategy is mitigated. In the optimal strategy, reprocessing is done just to meet plutonium demand, and the storage of spent fuel is selected to adjust the mismatch of plutonium production and utilization. The price hike of uranium ore facilitates the commercial adoption of fast breeder reactors. (Kako, I.)

  13. Computerized reactor monitor and control for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, L.

    1982-01-01

    The analysis of a computerized process control system developed by Transelektro-KFKI-Videoton (Hangary) for a twenty-year-old research reactor in Budapest and or a new one in Tajura (Libya) is given. The paper describes the computer hardware (R-10) and the implemented software (PROCESS-24K) as well as their applications at nuclear reactors. The computer program provides for man-machine communication, data acquisition and processing, trend and alarm analysis, the control of the reactor power, reactor physical calculations and additional operational functions. The reliability and the possible further development of the computerized systems which are suitable for application at reactors of different design are also discussed. (Sz.J.)

  14. Proyecto de desarrollo de un sistema regional de desechos sólidos en las ciudades de: Machala, pasaje y El Guabo de la provincia de El Oro

    OpenAIRE

    Arguello Torres, Yadira; Calle Abril, Monica; Zurita Erazo, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    Las ciudades de Machala, Pasaje y El Guabo están atravesando un momento extremadamente difícil en lo que se relaciona con el sistema del manejo de desechos sólidos, situación que ha generado un creciente malestar ciudadano, dañando seriamente la imagen de estas ciudades produciendo condiciones inapropiadas para la salud de sus habitantes. Por otro lado, se ha creado situaciones de extremo riesgo en los sitios de disposición final, que atenta contra la vida de los pobladores del sector, la sa...

  15. Safeguarding research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The report is organized in four sections, including the introduction. The second section contains a discussion of the characteristics and attributes of research reactors important to safeguards. In this section, research reactors are described according to their power level, if greater than 25 thermal megawatts, or according to each fuel type. This descriptive discussion includes both reactor and reactor fuel information of a generic nature, according to the following categories. 1. Research reactors with more than 25 megawatts thermal power, 2. Plate fuelled reactors, 3. Assembly fuelled reactors. 4. Research reactors fuelled with individual rods. 5. Disk fuelled reactors, and 6. Research reactors fuelled with aqueous homogeneous fuel. The third section consists of a brief discussion of general IAEA safeguards as they apply to research reactors. This section is based on IAEA safeguards implementation documents and technical reports that are used to establish Agency-State agreements and facility attachments. The fourth and last section describes inspection activities at research reactors necessary to meet Agency objectives. The scope of the activities extends to both pre and post inspection as well as the on-site inspection and includes the examination of records and reports relative to reactor operation and to receipts, shipments and certain internal transfers, periodic verification of fresh fuel, spent fuel and core fuel, activities related to containment and surveillance, and other selected activities, depending on the reactor

  16. Control of reactor coolant flow path during reactor decay heat removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsbedt, Anstein N.

    1988-01-01

    An improved reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system for a sodium cooled nuclear reactor is disclosed. The sodium cooled nuclear reactor is of the type having a reactor vessel liner separating the reactor hot pool on the upstream side of an intermediate heat exchanger and the reactor cold pool on the downstream side of the intermediate heat exchanger. The improvement includes a flow path across the reactor vessel liner flow gap which dissipates core heat across the reactor vessel and containment vessel responsive to a casualty including the loss of normal heat removal paths and associated shutdown of the main coolant liquid sodium pumps. In normal operation, the reactor vessel cold pool is inlet to the suction side of coolant liquid sodium pumps, these pumps being of the electromagnetic variety. The pumps discharge through the core into the reactor hot pool and then through an intermediate heat exchanger where the heat generated in the reactor core is discharged. Upon outlet from the heat exchanger, the sodium is returned to the reactor cold pool. The improvement includes placing a jet pump across the reactor vessel liner flow gap, pumping a small flow of liquid sodium from the lower pressure cold pool into the hot pool. The jet pump has a small high pressure driving stream diverted from the high pressure side of the reactor pumps. During normal operation, the jet pumps supplement the normal reactor pressure differential from the lower pressure cold pool to the hot pool. Upon the occurrence of a casualty involving loss of coolant pump pressure, and immediate cooling circuit is established by the back flow of sodium through the jet pumps from the reactor vessel hot pool to the reactor vessel cold pool. The cooling circuit includes flow into the reactor vessel liner flow gap immediate the reactor vessel wall and containment vessel where optimum and immediate discharge of residual reactor heat occurs.

  17. Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano Moluscos; anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces de Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, en la región de Santa Marta, caribe colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes Rosalba

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative and quantitative study of the community of macro invertebrates associated to the submerged stilt roots of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, 1753, was carried out trimonthly between December 1988 and September 1989, in three stations at the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM and three at the Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahia de Chengue, Bahia de Nenguange, Colombian Caribbean. 181 species were determined: 99 crustaceans, 50 molluscs and 32 annellids. Most of the 26.729 individuals counted were crustaceans (12.213 moluscs (11.635 and annellids (2.881. The lowest diversity and evenness values, and the highest dominance values were found at the CGSM, while the opposite occurred at the PNNT. Moreover, cluster analysis showed that at the CGSM temporal variations in community composition were greater than spatial ones, while at the PNNT spatial differences were stronger. Other factors that could be importantin determinig community structure were detected, such as vecinity to other ecosystems and/or species- specific biological aspects as adaptations to fluctuating conditions, reproductive acti vities, feeding habits and migration to protected and shaded habitats. Se realizó un estudio trimestral cualitativo y cuantitativo de la comunidad de moluscos, anélidos y crustáceos asociados a las raíces sumergidas del mangle rojo, Rhizophora mangle Linnaeus, entre diciembre de 1988 y septiembre de 1989, en tres estaciones en la Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta (CGSM y tres en el Parque Nacional Natural Tayrona (PNNT, Bahía de Chengue y Bahía de Nenguange, Caribe colombiano. Se determinaron 181 especies: 99 crustáceos, 50 moluscos y 32 anélidos. En total se contaron 26.729 individuos: 12.213 crustáceos, 11.635 moluscos y 2.881 anélidos. Los valores más bajos de diversidad y equitatividad, y los mayores valores de dominancia, se encontraron en la CGSM, mientras que lo opuesto ocurrió en el PNNT. El análisis de

  18. Gestão de resíduos sólidos em restaurante escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Peruchin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas ambientais da atualidade é a excessiva geração de resíduos e a sua destinação final ambientalmente adequada. As Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES são importantes fontes geradoras devido à diversidade de atividades de ensino, pesquisa e extensão realizadas no seu âmbito. Os Restaurantes Escola (RE atendem à comunidade acadêmica dos campi universitários, e caracterizam-se por produzir resíduos similares aos domésticos, mas em maior quantidade. Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar a composição gravimétrica dos resíduos produzidos em um RE de uma IES localizada no sul do país, bem como conhecer a situação atual do gerenciamento dos resíduos. Os dados foram obtidos através da caracterização dos resíduos do RE durante cinco dias, de entrevista com os gestores responsáveis pelo estabelecimento e da observação direta no local. Averiguou-se a inexistência de um Plano de Gerenciamento dos Resíduos Sólidos no RE, bem como a ausência de práticas efetivas relacionadas ao manejo destes. A segregação dos resíduos é prejudicada devido à falta de lixeiras específicas e a sobrecarga dos funcionários quanto às atividades desempenhadas. Ao longo do período experimental foram caracterizados 547,068 Kg de resíduos, dos quais mais de 80% corresponderam à matéria orgânica. Conclui-se que o montante de resíduo orgânico gerado pode ser destinado à compostagem. Recomenda-se a implantação de uma infraestrutura adequada para o manejo dos resíduos, que pode ser feita através da elaboração e aplicação de um plano de gestão integrada dos resíduos sólidos no RE.Abstract Nowadays, the amount of waste generated and its proper final destination is one of the greatest environmental issues. Higher education institutions are an important source of waste due to the diversity of teaching, researching and extension activities performed in their facilities. The university

  19. Reactor operations Brookhaven medical research reactor, Brookhaven high flux beam reactor informal monthly report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptman, H.M.; Petro, J.N.; Jacobi, O.

    1995-04-01

    This document is the April 1995 summary report on reactor operations at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor and the Brookhaven High Flux Beam Reactor. Ongoing experiments/irradiations in each are listed, and other significant operations functions are also noted. The HFBR surveillance testing schedule is also listed

  20. Dounreay: more is at stake than just the fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1988-01-01

    The British government's policy on nuclear power is to support and encourage an expansion of the nuclear energy programme. However, the Conservative government has said it will withdraw its funding from the fast breeder reactor research programme based at Dounreay in Scotland. Once the Electricity supply industry has been privatised it will not finance the fast breeder reactor programme either. So it seems likely that the research will be discontinued after 5 years and the reprocessing plant planned for Dounreay will never be built. This highlights the basic ambiguity that has existed for a long time over the fast breeder programme and has forced a decision. A similar problem exists generally with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority which has continued to thrive despite many failures. The reasons for this are explained. Privatisation may be the spur to the demise of the UKAEA so it no longer enjoys such a favoured position. The decision to kill off the FBR is just one consequence of this. Others may be a change of attitude to the decommissioning of the Windscale prototype advanced gas cooled reactor, and the fusion project, including JET. (U.K.)

  1. An integrated nuclear enterprise with 30 years' experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1978-01-01

    Over three decades the nuclear industry in Britain has evolved from a research organisation, the United Kingdon Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), into an organisation capable of manufacturing, constructing and operating nuclear stations, together with fuel manufacture and reprocessing. Large reserves of coal together with the discovery and exploitation of oil and natural gas in the North Sea have enabled the country to avoid the need for a rapid expansion of nuclear power, but as worldwide reserves of fossil fuels decline towards the end of the century its importance can be expected to incease. The physical capability of the construction industry is therefore being strengthened by the ordering of two further advanced gas cooled reactor (AGR) stations and continued investigation of the pressurised water reactor (PWR) in anticipation of future orders. Within the fuel supply industry further enrichment (centrifuge) capacity has been constructed and a decision has been made to build the THORP plant for the reprocessing of oxide fuel. For the longer term the fast breeder reactor is being developed and the problems here are seen to be social rather than technical, concerned mainly with the question of public acceptability. (Auth.)

  2. Reactor core for FBR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomoko; Watanabe, Hisao; Kasai, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Tsugio; Matsumoto, Hiroshi.

    1996-01-01

    In a gas-sealed assembly for a FBR type reactor, two or more kinds of assemblies having different eigen frequency and a structure for suppressing oscillation of liquid surface are disposed in a reactor core. Coolant introduction channels for introducing coolants from inside and outside are disposed in the inside of structural members of an upper shielding member to form a shielding member-cooling structure in the reactor core. A structure for promoting heat conduction between a sealed gas in the assembly and coolants at the inner side or the outside of the assembly is disposed in the reactor core. A material which generates heat by neutron irradiation is disposed in the assembly to heat the sealed gases positively by radiation heat from the heat generation member also upon occurrence of power elevation-type event to cause temperature expansion. Namely, the coolants flown out from or into the gas sealed-assemblies cause differential fluctuation on the liquid surface, and the change of the capacity of a gas region is also different on every gas-sealed assemblies thereby enabling to suppress fluctuation of the reactor power. Pressure loss is increased by a baffle plate or the like to lower the liquid surface of the sodium coolants or decrease the elevating speed thereof thereby suppressing fluctuation of the reactor power. (N.H.)

  3. Space-time reactor kinetics for heterogeneous reactor structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1969-11-15

    An attempt is made to formulate time dependent diffusion equation based on Feinberg-Galanin theory in the from analogue to the classical reactor kinetic equation. Parameters of these equations could be calculated using the existing codes for static reactor calculation based on the heterogeneous reactor theory. The obtained kinetic equation could be analogues in form to the nodal kinetic equation. Space-time distribution of neutron flux in the reactor can be obtained by solving these equations using standard methods.

  4. Nuclear Reactor RA Safety Report, Vol. 4, Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    RA research reactor is thermal heavy water moderated and cooled reactor. Metal uranium 2% enriched fuel elements were used at the beginning of its operation. Since 1976, 80% enriched uranium oxide dispersed in aluminium fuel elements were gradually introduced into the core and are the only ones presently used. Reactor core is cylindrical, having diameter 40 cm and 123 cm high. Reaktor core is made up of 82 fuel elements in aluminium channels, lattice is square, lattice pitch 13 cm. Reactor vessel is cylindrical made of 8 mm thick aluminium, inside diameter 140 cm and 5.5 m high surrounded with neutron reflector and biological shield. There is no containment, the reactor building is playing the shielding role. Three pumps enable circulation of heavy water in the primary cooling circuit. Degradation of heavy water is prevented by helium cover gas. Control rods with cadmium regulate the reactor operation. There are eleven absorption rods, seven are used for long term reactivity compensation, two for automatic power regulation and two for safety shutdown. Total anti reactivity of the rods amounts to 24%. RA reactor is equipped with a number of experimental channels, 45 vertical (9 in the core), 34 in the graphite reflector and two in the water biological shield; and six horizontal channels regularly distributed in the core. This volume include detailed description of systems and components of the RA reactor, reactor core parameters, thermal hydraulics of the core, fuel elements, fuel elements handling equipment, fuel management, and experimental devices [sr

  5. Evaluación de métodos de extracción y purificación de enzimas pectinolíticas obtenidas por fermentación en estado semisólido del Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Muñoz, Víctor René

    2009-01-01

    El presente estudio se llevó a cabo para evaluar diferentes métodos de bioseparación orientados a la recuperación de exopoligalacturonasas (exo-PG) y endopoligalacturonasas (endo-PG) contenidas en el extracto enzimático procedente de la fermentación en medio semisólido de Aspergillus niger utilizando cáscara de naranja para la preparación de los sustratos.

  6. Feasible reactor power cutback logic development for an integral reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Soon-Kyoo; Lee, Chung-Chan; Choi, Suhn; Kang, Han-Ok

    2013-01-01

    Major features of integral reactors that have been developed around the world recently are simplified operating systems and passive safety systems. Even though highly simplified control system and very reliable components are utilized in the integral reactor, the possibility of major component malfunction cannot be ruled out. So, feasible reactor power cutback logic is required to cope with the malfunction of components without inducing reactor trip. Simplified reactor power cutback logic has been developed on the basis of the real component data and operational parameters of plant in this study. Due to the relatively high rod worth of the integral reactor the control rod assembly drop method which had been adapted for large nuclear power plants was not desirable for reactor power cutback of the integral reactor. Instead another method, the control rod assembly control logic of reactor regulating system controls the control rod assembly movements, was chosen as an alternative. Sensitivity analyses and feasibility evaluations were performed for the selected method by varying the control rod assembly driving speed. In the results, sensitivity study showed that the performance goal of reactor power cutback system could be achieved with the limited range of control rod assembly driving speed. (orig.)

  7. Propuesta de abordaje sobre determinantes sociales de la salud y cambio climático en comunidades dependientes de los desechos sólidos en Managua, Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes Gaitán, Yolanda; Martín, Miguel; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Departament de Pediatria, d'Obstetrícia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva

    2014-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Esta investigación elabora una propuesta de abordaje sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud y el cambio climático en una comunidad dependiente de los desechos sólidos en la ciudad de Managua, Nicaragua. Partiendo del análisis social y económico, tanto del país como de la comunidad en estudio, se plantean acciones sociales y económicas basadas en los determinantes sociales que inciden en la salud. DESCRIPCIÓN: Con base en el análisis social y económico hecho a la población dep...

  8. APLICACIÓN DEL MODELO VISUAL MODFLOW PARA LA EVALUACIÓN DE LA HIDRODINÁMICA DEL ACUÍFERO SUBYACENTE A UN VERTEDERO DE RESIDUOS SÓLIDOS URBANOS

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermina GÓMEZ-BELTRÁN

    2013-01-01

    El municipio de Mexicaltzingo, Estado de México, enfrenta actualmente la problemática de la disposición de los residuos sólidos. Esta disposición se ha venido realizando por más de 25 años en un sitio que no cuenta con las medidas de ingeniería necesarias para contener los lixiviados generados en el sitio. El presente trabajo se enfocó a la mode- lación del flujo de agua, tanto subsuperficial como profunda, utilizando el programa Visual Modflow 2010.1. Se estableció la malla de modelación, co...

  9. RA Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    In addition to basic characteristics of the RA reactor, organizational scheme and financial incentives, this document covers describes the state of the reactor components after 18 years of operation, problems concerned with obtaining the licence for operation with 80% fuel, problems of spent fuel storage in the storage pool of the reactor building and the need for renewal of reactor equipment, first of all instrumentation [sr

  10. Chief Constable's annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the UKAEA constabulary, its personnel, administration and training, are all covered in this report. The crimes recorded at the UKAEA and BNFL sites are analysed. Traffic problems, transport and communications are covered. Miscellaneous police functions (eg lost property), the constabulary social activities and visitors to nuclear establishments are mentioned. The report ends with a policy statement on the aims and objectives of the constabulary. The report covers 1986. (U.K.)

  11. The application of modern project management principles and processes in major nuclear decommissioning programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    The UKAEA has embarked upon an accelerated programme of decommissioning works. This has resulted in a review of its project management systems and processes. This paper describes these processes and their application to nuclear decommissioning and associated new build construction projects. Efficiencies from these processes are necessary. In addition this paper describes how UKAEA, where appropriate, utilizes modern forms of alliance contract so as to work in partnership with its contractors. (author)

  12. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  13. Reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruse, Yoshihiro.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of steel shell plates in a reactor container embedded in sand cussions is monitored to recognize the corrosion of the steel shell plates. That is, the reactor pressure vessel is contained in a reactor container shell and the sand cussions are disposed on the lower outside of the reactor container shell to elastically support the shell. A pit is disposed at a position opposing to the sand cussions for measuring the thickness of the reactor container shell plates. The pit is usually closed by a closing member. In the reactor container thus constituted, the closing member can be removed upon periodical inspection to measure the thickness of the shell plates. Accordingly, the corrosion of the steel shell plates can be recognized by the change of the plate thickness. (I.S.)

  14. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  15. Nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It's presented data about nuclear research reactors in the world, retrieved from the Sien (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: research reactors by countries; research reactors by type; research reactors by fuel and research reactors by purpose. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Metodología de diseño para la recogida de residuos sólidos urbanos mediante factores punta de generación: sistemas de caja fija (SCF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Zafra Mejía

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo económico y de la sociedad de consumo implica una gran producción de residuos sólidos en una localidad, hecho que se constituye en un serio problema ambiental si no se cuenta con la infraestructura adecuada para su gestión integral. En este artículo se presenta un desarrollo metodológico para el diseño de la recogida de residuos sólidos urbanos con sistemas de caja fija (SCF, considerando la variación temporal en las cantidades generadas y recolectadas. La variación temporal se ha in- cluido mediante el análisis de tres factores punta de generación: coeficiente punta semanal (Cps, coeficiente punta diario (Cpd y coeficiente punta diario de distribución heterogénea (Cpdh. Esta consideración temporal permite realizar diseños razonables que se ajusten a las tasas máximas de generación y recolección. El modelo propuesto considera la producción per cápita (PPC, el coeficiente punta semanal (Cps y el coeficiente punta de distribución heterogénea (Cpdh. Finalmente, la metodología pro- puesta puede ser utilizada para la selección del equipamiento y tamaño de las unidades de gestión integral de los residuos sóli- dos urbanos.

  17. Strategic planning for research reactors. Guidance for reactor managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance on how to develop a strategic plan for a research reactor. The IAEA is convinced of the need for research reactors to have strategic plans and is issuing a series of publications to help owners and operators in this regard. One of these covers the applications of research reactors. That report brings together all of the current uses of research reactors and enables a reactor owner or operator to evaluate which applications might be possible with a particular facility. An analysis of research reactor capabilities is an early phase in the strategic planning process. The current document provides the rationale for a strategic plan, outlines the methodology of developing such a plan and then gives a model that may be followed. While there are many purposes for research reactor strategic plans, this report emphasizes the use of strategic planning in order to increase utilization. A number of examples are given in order to clearly illustrate this function

  18. ANÁLISE DA GERAÇÃO DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS DA CONSTRUÇÃO CIVIL EM TERESINA, PIAUÍ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. G. Mesquita

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos sólidos da construção civil apresentam grandes problemas ambientais devido principalmente a grande quantidade produzida e destinação inadequada. Este trabalho objetiva conhecer as características dos entulhos gerados na cidade de Teresina, assim como a sua quantificação e possíveis impactos ambientais. O estudo foi realizado em uma construção de um prédio residencial de 19 pavimentos, durante as fases de revestimento (assentamento de contrapiso e concretagem (laje e rampa. Na fase de revestimento observou-se uma perda 0,66% do material utilizado. Na fase de concretagem o desperdício foi de 1,25%. Daí conclui-se que a indústria de construção civil de Teresina apresenta um patamar elevado de desperdício, considerando o custo desses elementos de obra e o grande impacto ambiental associado.

  19. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC [Nuclear Regulatory Commission] licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor

  20. Research reactors - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Multiregion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C. de; Nair, R.P.K.

    1979-08-01

    The study of reflected reactors can be done employing the multigroup diffusion method. The neutron conservation equations, inside the intervals, can be written by fluxes and group constants. A reflected reactor (one and two groups) for a slab geometry is studied, aplying the continuity of flux and current in the interface. At the end, the appropriated solutions for a infinite cylindrical reactor and for a spherical reactor are presented. (Author) [pt

  2. Development of the remediation strategy for the Dounreay intermediate level waste shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWhirter, A.F.

    1998-01-01

    The development of Fast Reactor Technology within the United Kingdom began in the mid 1950's and continued until 1994. It was concentrated at the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority site at Dounreay on the north coast of Scotland. During the construction of the site's low level liquid effluent discharge facility, a vertical access shaft was constructed which, when the discharge facility was completed, was sealed at the seaward end and allowed to fill naturally with water. It was then licensed by the Scottish Office Environmental Department as a disposal facility for what is now categorized as Intermediate Level Waste (ILW). Waste was disposed of to this facility from 1959 until 1977 when a hydrogen explosion in the air space above the shaft took place causing damage to the head works. Since that time UKAEA has maintained the shaft in a state of care and maintenance pending a decision on its long term future. During 1996 and 1997 detailed option studies were carried out which demonstrated that retrieval of the waste from the shaft and its subsequent above ground repackaging, conditioning and storage, represented the Best Practicable Environmental Option and UKAEA made this recommendation to the UK Government in November 1997. This recommendation was accepted by Government and, as a result, the present project to retrieve material has now begun. This paper describes the history of the facility, the options explored and the decision process by which the final strategy was determined. (author)

  3. Crescimento e capacidade de biosorção de metais por Pleurotus sajor-caju, em cultivo líquido e em cultivo sólido

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Stela Maris da

    2007-01-01

    Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se o crescimento e a capacidade de biosorção de metais de Pleurotus sajor-caju PS 2001, em meios de cultivo líquido e sólido, contendo sulfatos de cobre II, de ferro II, de alumínio, de zinco, de cromo II e de níquel II, em concentrações de 30 ou 60mg.100mL-1 . O crescimento e a massa micelial foram avaliados aos 7, 14 e 21 dias de desenvolvimento para cultivo líquido sendo que para cada etapa de desenvolvimento foram retiradas amostras que foram submetidas a metodol...

  4. Reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Toru; Murata, Ritsuko.

    1996-01-01

    In the present invention, a spent fuel storage pool of a BWR type reactor is formed at an upper portion and enlarged in the size to effectively utilize the space of the building. Namely, a reactor chamber enhouses reactor facilities including a reactor pressure vessel and a reactor container, and further, a spent fuel storage pool is formed thereabove. A second spent fuel storage pool is formed above the auxiliary reactor chamber at the periphery of the reactor chamber. The spent fuel storage pool and the second spent fuel storage pool are disposed in adjacent with each other. A wall between both of them is formed vertically movable. With such a constitution, the storage amount for spent fuels is increased thereby enabling to store the entire spent fuels generated during operation period of the plant. Further, since requirement of the storage for the spent fuels is increased stepwisely during periodical exchange operation, it can be used for other usage during the period when the enlarged portion is not used. (I.S.)

  5. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garabedian, G.

    1988-01-01

    A liquid reactor is described comprising: (a) a reactor vessel having a core; (b) one or more satellite tanks; (c) pump means in the satellite tank; (d) heat exchanger means in the satellite tank; (e) an upper liquid metal conduit extending between the reactor vessel and the satellite tank; (f) a lower liquid metal duct extending between the reactor vessel and satellite tanks the upper liquid metal conduit and the lower liquid metal duct being arranged to permit free circulation of liquid metal between the reactor vessel core and the satellite tank by convective flow of liquid metal; (g) a separate sealed common containment vessel around the reactor vessel, conduits and satellite tanks; (h) the satellite tank having space for a volume of liquid metal that is sufficient to dampen temperature transients resulting from abnormal operating conditions

  6. Reactor physics challenges in GEN-IV reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Michael K.; Hejzlar, Pavel [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MA (United States)

    2005-02-15

    An overview of the reactor physics aspects of GENeration Four (GEN-IV) advanced reactors is presented, emphasizing how their special requirements for enhanced sustainability, safety and economics motivates consideration of features not thoroughly analyzed in the past. The resulting concept-specific requirements for better data and methods are surveyed, and some approaches and initiatives are suggested to meet the challenges faced by the international reactor physics community. No unresolvable impediments to successful development of any of the six major types of proposed reactors are identified, given appropriate and timely devotion of resources.

  7. Reactor physics challenges in GEN-IV reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Michael K.; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the reactor physics aspects of GENeration Four (GEN-IV) advanced reactors is presented, emphasizing how their special requirements for enhanced sustainability, safety and economics motivates consideration of features not thoroughly analyzed in the past. The resulting concept-specific requirements for better data and methods are surveyed, and some approaches and initiatives are suggested to meet the challenges faced by the international reactor physics community. No unresolvable impediments to successful development of any of the six major types of proposed reactors are identified, given appropriate and timely devotion of resources

  8. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  9. Fuel behavior aspects of the interpretation of the SCARABEE fast reactor safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, F.; Matthews, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The main conclusions of the fuel behaviour analysis of 16 single pin and 8 seven-pin bundle experiments of the SCARABEE programme are presented as result of the tripartite interpretation agreement between CEA, UKAEA and KfK. From all partners it is stated that existing fuel behaviour codes calculate with adequate precison the temperature, structure and geometry under steady state conditions. The state of the SCARABEE fuel at the beginning of the transient phase (which determines the subsequent transient behaviour) can be considered to be well known. For the transient phase of the experiments a fairly good description is given for overpower conditions with single phase coolant flow. In and beyond two phase flow region the understanding of the fuel pin behaviour remained difficult. Failure prediction either by mechanical rupture or by clad melting is strongly linked to the thermohydraulic behaviour and dependent on failure criteria. (orig.)

  10. ESTUDO DA OXIDAÇÃO DE ÁLCOOL NATURAL POR MATERIAIS SÓLIDOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Gonçalves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Reações de oxidação para obter aldeídos, cetonas, ácidos carboxílicos e ésteres são reações de fundamental importância em síntese orgânica na indústria farmacêutica e química. A busca por reagentes seletivos, que possam ser utilizados em quantidades catalíticas, recicláveis, de fácil manuseio, não tóxicos, estáveis, bem como capazes de proporcionar reações com custo e tempo reduzidos, condições brandas e rendimentos elevados, tem sido objeto de intensos estudos. Recentemente uma inesperada atividade do ouro na oxidação de álcoois, colocando os materiais contendo nanopartículas de ouro suportadas entre os catalisadores mais promissores para essas reações devido a sua alta atividade e estabilidade. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um excelente processo de oxidação catalítica do natural, álcool cinâmico, em um sistema heterogêneo, utilizando matérias contendo nanopartículas de ouro em óxido de magnésio (Au/MgO. O processo apresenta um grande avanço tecnológico, pois as utilizações de catalisadores sólidos diminuem o tempo de separação do catalisador da reação, e desta forma minimiza-se o tempo de produção em uma escala industrial.

  11. Algunas reflexiones éticas sobre los trasplantes de órganos sólidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Patricio Burdiles, Dr.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Durante el año 2009 se evidenció una disminución en el número de donaciones de órganos en Chile, aún cuando las listas de espera de pacientes que requieren un trasplante de órganos sólidos han seguido aumentando. Estas materias contribuyen a generar gran preocupación en los pacientes, familiares y en los equipos de salud involucrados. La consolidación de los trasplantes como recursos terapéuticos probados y validados por varias décadas de experimentación y experiencias clínicas, trae como consecuencia que se anhele y promueva, desde distintos estamentos médicos, científicos y sociales, aumentar la tasa de donaciones. Sin embargo por ser de suyo un tema relativamente nuevo en nuestra sociedad, que involucra aspectos morales, espirituales y afectivos, es esperable que resulten en cuestionamientos y tensiones éticas. Esto mismo hace necesario que se genere, facilite y profundice en los actores sociales, un debate sobre esta materia, que toca en lo más profundo, nuestras concepciones respecto a la vida, la dignidad e integridad corporal y en torno a la muerte y a sus definiciones. La familiarización con estos temas y la comprensión de los principios y valores que fundamentan los trasplantes, contribuirá a reducir la paradójica realidad del discurso mayoritario a favor de la donación de órganos y el escaso número real de donaciones efectuadas en los últimos años.

  12. The nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors and advanced pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1983-01-01

    A nuclear reactor strategy between fast breeder reactors (FBRs) and advanced pressurized water reactors (APWRs) is being studied. The principal idea of this strategy is that the discharged plutonium from light water reactors (LWRs) provides the inventories of the FBRs and the high-converter APWRs, whereby the LWRs are installed according to the derivative of a logistical S curve. Special emphasis is given to the dynamics of reaching an asymptotic symbiosis between FBRs and APWRs. The main conclusion is that if a symbiotic APWR-FBR family with an asymptotic total power level in the terawatt range is to exist in about half a century from now, we need a large number of FBRs already in an early phase

  13. Produtividade e teor de sólidos solúveis de frutos de cultivares de morangueiro em ambiente protegido Yield and soluble solids contents of fruits of strawberry cultivars in protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Tadeu V de Resende

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo protegido é uma alternativa para controlar variações climáticas em diferentes locais e épocas de plantio, entretanto, seus efeitos e interações com a cultura do morangueiro ainda são pouco conhecidos. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a influência de três sistemas de cultivo (túnel alto, túnel baixo e a campo na produtividade, massa média de frutos e no teor de sólidos solúveis dos frutos das cultivares de morango Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie e Oso Grande em Guarapuava-PR. Quanto à produtividade e massa média de frutos, a cultivar Camarosa foi a melhor nos cultivos em túnel, tanto alto quanto baixo, pelo seu excelente desempenho. Os frutos da cultivar Sweet Charlie apresentaram o maior teor de sólidos solúveis nos três ambientes de cultivo. A produtividade e a massa média dos frutos foram significativamente superiores nos cultivos em túneis, alto e baixo, quando comparados ao cultivo a campo. O ambiente que propiciou maior acúmulo de sólidos solúveis nos frutos foi o túnel alto, diferindo significativamente dos demais ambientes de cultivo.Protected cultivation is an alternative to control the climatic effects in different places and times of planting, however, its effects and interactions with the strawberry crop are little known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of three cropping systems (high tunnel, low tunnel and field on yield, mean fruit mass and the soluble solids contents of strawberry cultivars Dover, Camarosa, Sweet Charlie and Oso Grande in Guarapuava. Camarosa cultivar presents an excellent performance regarding yield and mean fruit mass in high and low tunnel cultivation; hence, these cropping system can be indicated. Fruits of Sweet Charlie cultivar had the highest content of soluble solids in all the cultivation environments. Yield and mean fruit mass obtained from high and low tunnels were significantly higher than in the field. The environment high tunnel allowed

  14. Increased SRP reactor power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacAfee, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    Major changes in the current reactor hydraulic systems could be made to achieve a total of about 1500 MW increase of reactor power for P, K, and C reactors. The changes would be to install new, larger heat exchangers in the reactor buildings to increase heat transfer area about 24%, to increase H 2 O flow about 30% per reactor, to increase D 2 O flow 15 to 18% per reactor, and increase reactor blanket gas pressure from 5 psig to 10 psig. The increased reactor power is possible because of reduced inlet temperature of reactor coolant, increased heat removal capacity, and increased operating pressure (larger margin from boiling). The 23% reactor power increase, after adjustment for increased off-line time for reactor reloading, will provide a 15% increase of production from P, K, and C reactors. Restart of L Reactor would increase SRP production 33%

  15. Perfil da sociedade natalense frente aos resíduos sólidos urbanos sob o olhar do gari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunna Soares Rodrigues

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo mostrar uma análise crítica referente a postura da sociedade da cidade do Natal/RN diante dos resíduos sólidos urbanos por meio do olhar do gari. As pesquisas se baseiam no estudo da percepção de garis que trabalham em quatro locais distintos, sendo estes: O Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio Grande do Norte - IFRN Campus Natal Central, o Parque das Dunas, o centro comercial do Alecrim e a praia de Ponta Negra, onde foram entrevistados individualmente tendo por base uma entrevista semi-estruturada. Através das análises das respostas obtidas percebeu-se que a população natalense seja ela infantil, jovem ou adulta necessita que uma educação ambiental seja trabalhada a fim de que o quadro relacionado aos resíduos mude, melhorando, portanto, a qualidade do meio ambiente e da vida das pessoas.

  16. Tokamak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of tokamak reactor studies with particular attention to commercial reactor concepts developed within the last three years. Emphasis is placed on DT fueled reactors for electricity production. A brief history of tokamak reactor studies is presented. The STARFIRE, NUWMAK, and HFCTR studies are highlighted. Recent developments that have increased the commercial attractiveness of tokamak reactor designs are discussed. These developments include smaller plant sizes, higher first wall loadings, improved maintenance concepts, steady-state operation, non-divertor particle control, and improved reactor safety features

  17. Computerized reactor monitor and control for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, L.; Vegh, E.

    1981-09-01

    The computerized process control system developed in the Central Research Institute for Physics, Budapest, Hungary, is described together with its special applications at research reactors. The nuclear power of the Hungarian research reactor is controlled by this computerized system, too, while in Lybia many interesting reactor-hpysical calculations are built into the computerized monitor system. (author)

  18. 1990 No. 1918. The Nuclear Installations Act 1965 (Repeal and Modifications) Regulations 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    These Regulations entered into force on 31 October 1990. They repeal part of Section (1) of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to remove the exemption of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) from licensing under the Act. The Regulations also amend the 1965 Act to ensure that the UKAEA's duties in respect of the safety of premises it occupies will continue to apply whether or not a nuclear site licence has been granted. (NEA) [fr

  19. Calculation of low-energy reactor neutrino spectra reactor for reactor neutrino experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyana, Eka Sapta; Suda, Shoya; Ishibashi, Kenji; Matsuura, Hideaki [Dept. of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Katakura, Junichi [Dept. of Nuclear System Safety Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Nuclear reactors produce a great number of antielectron neutrinos mainly from beta-decay chains of fission products. Such neutrinos have energies mostly in MeV range. We are interested in neutrinos in a region of keV, since they may take part in special weak interactions. We calculate reactor antineutrino spectra especially in the low energy region. In this work we present neutrino spectrum from a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor core. To calculate neutrino spectra, we need information about all generated nuclides that emit neutrinos. They are mainly fission fragments, reaction products and trans-uranium nuclides that undergo negative beta decay. Information in relation to trans-uranium nuclide compositions and its evolution in time (burn-up process) were provided by a reactor code MVP-BURN. We used typical PWR parameter input for MVP-BURN code and assumed the reactor to be operated continuously for 1 year (12 months) in a steady thermal power (3.4 GWth). The PWR has three fuel compositions of 2.0, 3.5 and 4.1 wt% {sup 235}U contents. For preliminary calculation we adopted a standard burn-up chain model provided by MVP-BURN. The chain model treated 21 heavy nuclides and 50 fission products. The MVB-BURN code utilized JENDL 3.3 as nuclear data library. We confirm that the antielectron neutrino flux in the low energy region increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel. The antielectron-neutrino spectrum in low energy region is influenced by beta emitter nuclides with low Q value in beta decay (e.g. {sup 241}Pu) which is influenced by burp-up level: Low energy antielectron-neutrino spectra or emission rates increase when beta emitters with low Q value in beta decay accumulate. Our result shows the flux of low energy reactor neutrinos increases with burn-up of nuclear fuel.

  20. Nuclear Reactor Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston M.

    2001-02-01

    An authoritative textbook and up-to-date professional's guide to basic and advanced principles and practices Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering, and as the first comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics to appear in a quarter century, this book fills a large gap in the professional literature. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a textbook for students new to the subject, for others who need a basic understanding of how nuclear reactors work, as well as for those who are, or wish to become, specialists in nuclear reactor physics and reactor physics computations. It is also a valuable resource for engineers responsible for the operation of nuclear reactors. Dr. Weston Stacey begins with clear presentations of the basic physical principles, nuclear data, and computational methodology needed to understand both the static and dynamic behaviors of nuclear reactors. This is followed by in-depth discussions of advanced concepts, including extensive treatment of neutron transport computational methods. As an aid to comprehension and quick mastery of computational skills, he provides numerous examples illustrating step-by-step procedures for performing the calculations described and chapter-end problems. Nuclear Reactor Physics is a useful textbook and working reference. It is an excellent self-teaching guide for research scientists, engineers, and technicians involved in industrial, research, and military applications of nuclear reactors, as well as government regulators who wish to increase their understanding of nuclear reactors.