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Sample records for uk space activity

  1. The link between perceived characteristics of neighbourhood green spaces and adults' physical activity in UK cities: analysis of the EURO-URHIS 2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omer; Di Nardo, Francesco; Harrison, Annie; Verma, Arpana

    2017-08-01

    Urban dwellers represent half the world's population and are increasing worldwide. Their health and behaviours are affected by the built environment and green areas may play a major role in promoting physical activity, thus decreasing the burden of chronic diseases, overweight and inactivity. However, the availability of green areas may not guarantee healthy levels of physical activity among the urban dwellers. It is therefore necessary to study how the perceived characteristics of green areas affect physical activity. Data from the EURO-URHIS 2 survey of residents of 13 cities across the UK were analyzed and a multivariable model was created in order to assess the association between their perceptions of the green areas in their neighbourhood and their engagement in physical activity. Results were adjusted for age, gender and other potential confounders. Those who felt unable to engage in active recreational activities in their local green spaces were significantly less likely to carry out moderate physical exercise for at least 60 min per week (adjusted OR: 0.50; 95% 0.37-0.68). Availability of green areas within walking distance did not affect engagement in physical activity. Other characteristics such as accessibility and safety may play an important role. This study showed that the presence of green space may not itself encourage the necessary preventative health behaviours to tackle physical inactivity in urban populations. Development of more appropriate green spaces may be required. Further research is needed to shed light on the types green spaces that are most effective. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Verification of space weather forecasts at the UK Met Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, S.; Sharpe, M.; Jackson, D.; Murray, S.

    2017-12-01

    The UK Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) has produced space weather guidance twice a day since its official opening in 2014. Guidance includes 4-day probabilistic forecasts of X-ray flares, geomagnetic storms, high-energy electron events and high-energy proton events. Evaluation of such forecasts is important to forecasters, stakeholders, model developers and users to understand the performance of these forecasts and also strengths and weaknesses to enable further development. Met Office terrestrial near real-time verification systems have been adapted to provide verification of X-ray flare and geomagnetic storm forecasts. Verification is updated daily to produce Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and Reliability diagrams, and rolling Ranked Probability Skill Scores (RPSSs) thus providing understanding of forecast performance and skill. Results suggest that the MOSWOC issued X-ray flare forecasts are usually not statistically significantly better than a benchmark climatological forecast (where the climatology is based on observations from the previous few months). By contrast, the issued geomagnetic storm activity forecast typically performs better against this climatological benchmark.

  3. The UK Ecosystem for Fostering Innovation in the Earth & Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The UK national government supports an ecosystem of government-funded organisations that carry a specific remit for innovation. By specifically cultivating the commercialisation of research where appropriate, the UK demonstrates a forward-thinking and coordinated approach to deriving economic and societal impact from scientific research activities. This presentation provides an overview of innovation activities at government-backed organisations that support the Earth and space science communities. At the broadest and highest levels, the UK has a whole-of-government approach to fostering innovation. The government also has a designated innovation agency - Innovate UK - which works with people, companies, and partner organisations to find and drive the science & technology innovations that will grow the UK economy. A primary source of scientific funding to UK-based researchers comes from the Research Councils UK (RCUK), which has seven constituent Research Councils. Along with funding activities that support basic research, innovation is supported through a variety of activities. The National Environmental Research Council (NERC), the UK's leading public funder for Earth & environmental science, has brought to market a wide variety of ideas and innovations, including by helping to register patents, negotiating licensing deals, and setting up spin-out companies or joint ventures with commercial organisations. Case studies of NERC commercialization successes will be given, as well as an overview of mechanisms by which NERC supports innovation. These include 'Pathfinder' awards that help enable researchers to develop a greater understanding of the commercial aspects and possibilities of their research. Complementary 'Follow-on Fund' awards provide proof-of-concept funding to support the commercialisation of ideas arising from NERC-funded research. Early-career researchers are also eligible for NERC's Environment Young Entrepreneurs Scheme. Innovation activity, like

  4. Preaching to the converted? An analysis of the UK public for space exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entradas, Marta; Miller, Steve; Peters, Hans Peter

    2013-04-01

    This article presents the results of a survey carried out at two space outreach events in the UK aimed at characterising "the public for space exploration" and measuring public support for space exploration. Attitude towards space exploration and policy preferences were used as measures of public support. The sample involved 744 respondents and was mainly composed of adults between 25 and 45 years old, with men slightly over-represented compared with women. Findings revealed that males appeared to be stronger supporters than females - men had a more positive attitude towards space exploration and stronger space policy preferences. Because mixed groups tend to come together to such events we argue that male respondents would be more likely to be part of the "attentive" and "interested" public who come to outreach activities and bring a less interested public with them.

  5. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  6. Is Communications a Strategic Activity in UK Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory paper investigates whether communications/public relations is regarded by opinion formers in UK education as a strategic business activity or a tactical marketing tool. It is based upon depth interviews with 16 senior managers with strategic roles in UK higher or further education, or Government bodies, conducted…

  7. Spaces for sustainable innovation : solar photovoltaic electricity in the UK.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.G.; Kern, F.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Verhees, B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper engages with recent research concerning the roles of niche spaces in the strategic management of sustainable innovations. Whilst a growing body of empirical investigation looks to developments within these spaces, it is surprising how little pauses to consider how the spaces themselves

  8. Spaces for sustainable innovation: solar photovoltaic electricity in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Adrian; Kern, Florian; Raven, Rob; Verhees, Bram

    2014-01-01

    This paper engages with recent research concerning the roles of niche spaces in the strategic management of sustainable innovations. Whilst a growing body of empirical investigation looks to developments within these spaces, it is surprising how little pauses to consider how the spaces themselves

  9. Earthbound mission how UK funding fails to match enthusiasm for space exploration

    CERN Multimedia

    Nordling, L

    2004-01-01

    Article discussing the UK governments reluctance to fund space research projects. An example is the ESA Aurora programme which is aiming to put humans on Mars by 2030, with interim visits to the moon and a series of unmanned probes preparing the way for interplanetary manned missions (1 page)

  10. Testing Realistic Disaster Scenarios for Space Weather: The Economic Impacts of Electricity Transmission Infrastructure Failure in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, M.; Oughton, E. J.; Hapgood, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The socio-economic impacts of space weather have been under-researched, despite this threat featuring on the UK's National Risk Register. In this paper, a range of Realistic Disaster Scenarios due to failure in electricity transmission infrastructure are tested. We use regional Geomagnetically Induced Current (GIC) studies to identify areas in the UK high-voltage power system deemed to be high-risk. The potential level of disruption arising from a large geomagnetic disturbance in these `hot spots' on local economic activity is explored. Electricity is a necessary factor of production without which businesses cannot operate, so even short term power loss can cause significant loss of value. We utilise a spatially disaggregated approach that focuses on quantifying employment disruption by industrial sector, and relating this to direct Gross Value Added loss. We then aggregate this direct loss into a set of shocks to undertake macroeconomic modelling of different scenarios, to obtain the total economic impact which includes both direct and indirect supply chain disruption effects. These results are reported for a range of temporal periods, with the minimum increment being a one-hour blackout. This work furthers our understanding of the economic impacts of space weather, and can inform future reviews of the UK's National Risk Register. The key contribution of the paper is that the results can be used in the future cost-benefit analysis of investment in space weather forecasting.

  11. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Operational Space Weather Monitoring Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichas, Markos; Gibbs, Mark; Harrison, Richard; Green, Lucie; Eastwood, Jonathan; Bentley, Bob; Bisi, Mario; Bogdanova, Yulia; Davies, Jackie; D'Arrigo, Paolo; Eyles, Chris; Fazakerley, Andrew; Hapgood, Mike; Jackson, David; Kataria, Dhiren; Monchieri, Emanuele; Windred, Phil

    2015-06-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) has carried out a study to investigate the possibilities for an operational space weather mission, in collaboration with the Met Office, RAL, MSSL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for 24/7 operational forecasting needs. We have focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 (Earth trailing) offers the greatest benefit for the earliest possible warning on hazardous SWE events and the most accurate SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to cover all UK Met Office/NOAA's users priorities for L5 using instruments with extensive UK/US heritage, consisting of: heliospheric imager, coronograph, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform and subsystems are based on extensive re-use from past Airbus Defence and Space spacecraft to minimize the development cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could be achieved by 2020, assuming Phase A kick-off in 2015-2016. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  12. Carrington-L5: The UK/US Space Weather Operational Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Trichas, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airbus Defence and Space (UK) have carried out a study for an operational L5 space weather mission, in collaboration with RAL, the UK Met Office, UCL and Imperial College London. The study looked at the user requirements for an operational mission, a model instrument payload, and a mission/spacecraft concept. A particular focus is cost effectiveness and timelineness of the data, suitable for operational forecasting needs. The study focussed on a mission at L5 assuming that a US mission to L1 will already occur, on the basis that L5 offers the greatest benefit for SWE predictions. The baseline payload has been selected to address all MOSWOC/SWPC priorities using UK/US instruments, consisting of: a heliospheric imager, coronagraph, EUV imager, magnetograph, magnetometer, solar wind analyser and radiation monitor. The platform is based on extensive re-use from Airbus' past missions to minimize the cost and a Falcon-9 launcher has been selected on the same basis. A schedule analysis shows that the earliest launch could occur in 2020, assuming Phase A KO in 2015. The study team have selected the name "Carrington" for the mission, reflecting the UK's proud history in this domain.

  13. China's early space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilin, Zhu

    1994-05-01

    China's space exploration began in the late 1950s in response to the launch of the Soviet Sputnik. The Chinese Academy of Science formed a team which was responsible for establishing three design institutes. The Shanghai Institute for Machine and Electricity Design was established. When the plan for the other design institutes was abandoned, the Shanghai Institute began to develop a sounding rocket. In 1960 the liquid-propellant sounding rocket 'T-7' was launched. The T-7 was modified and improved. A series of interplanetary flight symposia were held to discuss developmental approaches to Chinese space technology. Academic research results and technical development achievements laid a solid foundation for the launch in 1970 of the first artificial satellite.

  14. Nuclear cardiology in the UK: activity and practice 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvulovich, Elizabeth; Metcalfe, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 251 nuclear medicine centres asking for details of nuclear medicine activity, and nuclear cardiology activity and practice in 1997. One hundred and seventy-one (68%) centres replied. Nuclear medicine activity was estimated at 11.8 studies/1,000 population/year, and 9.5% of these studies were within cardiology (1.12 studies/1,000/year). Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies accounted for 77% and radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for 22% of all nuclear cardiology. On a national basis this represents activity levels of 0.86 and 0.25 studies/1,000/year for MPI and RNV, respectively. Of the 171 responding centres, 102 (60%) performed MPI studies and 81 (79%) of these reported that activity was increasing. However, MPI activity was unevenly distributed between hospitals. Two centres accounted for 13% of total MPI; others had far lower activity rates, and 51/102 (50%) centres performed less than 200 MPI studies/year. Comparison with previous surveys showed that nuclear medicine activity had almost doubled since 1990 (it was 6.0 studies/1,000 population in 1990, 9.3 studies/1,000 in 1994 and 11.8 studies/1,000 in 1997). Over the same period, nuclear cardiology activity had also risen, the greatest increase being seen for the last 3 years (it was 0.7 studies/1,000 population in 1990, 0.82 studies/1,000 in 1994 and 1.12 studies/1,000 in 1997). Despite these encouraging figures, MPI activity for 1997 remained well below that recommended by the British Cardiac Society in 1994 (2.6 studies/1,000/year) as adequate to serve the needs of patients with cardiac disease in the UK; it was also below the European average activity for the same year (2.2 studies/1,000/year). The anticipated increased workload for nuclear cardiology is encouraging despite the wide and varied practice of nuclear cardiology around the UK. The nuclear medicine community now needs to address the issues that will prevent it keeping up with demand, such as restricted camera

  15. IASM: Individualized activity space modeler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh, Kamyar

    2018-01-01

    Researchers from various disciplines have long been interested in analyzing and describing human mobility patterns. Activity space (AS), defined as an area encapsulating daily human mobility and activities, has been at the center of this interest. However, given the applied nature of research in this field and the complexity that advanced geographical modeling can pose to its users, the proposed models remain simplistic and inaccurate in many cases. Individualized Activity Space Modeler (IASM) is a geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, written in Python programming language using ESRI's Arcpy module, comprising four tools aiming to facilitate the use of advanced activity space models in empirical research. IASM provides individual-based and context-sensitive tools to estimate home range distances, delineate activity spaces, and model place exposures using individualized geographical data. In this paper, we describe the design and functionality of IASM, and provide an example of how it performs on a spatial dataset collected through an online map-based survey.

  16. Active Space Debris Removal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele GUERRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of the space era, more than 5000 launches have been carried out, each carrying satellites for many disparate uses, such as Earth observation or communication. Thus, the space environment has become congested and the problem of space debris is now generating some concerns in the space community due to our long-lived belief that “space is big”. In the last few years, solutions to this problem have been proposed, one of those is Active Space Debris Removal: this method will reduce the increasing debris growth and permit future sustainable space activities. The main idea of the method proposed below is a drag augmentation system: use a system capable of putting an expanded foam on a debris which will increase the area-to-mass ratio to increase the natural atmospheric drag and solar pressure. The drag augmentation system proposed here requires a docking system; the debris will be pushed to its release height and then, after un-docking, an uncontrolled re-entry takes place ending with a burn up of the object and the foam in the atmosphere within a given time frame. The method requires an efficient way to change the orbit between two debris. The present paper analyses such a system in combination with an Electric Propulsion system, and emphasizes the choice of using two satellites to remove five effective rockets bodies debris within a year.

  17. Measuring of physical activity of UK FTVS and Palestra students using IPAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Hronková, Ilona

    2011-01-01

    Title: Measuring of physical activity of UK FTVS and Palestra students using IPAQ Aims: - find out the range of physical activity of students from schools mentioned above - compare the results with each other and also with other researches - confirm or disconfirm hypotheses - set down conclusions Methods: questionnaire Results: - students of both schools are highly physically active (in comparison with ordinary population) - UK FTVS students are more active in all kinds of physical activity p...

  18. Hubble space telescope servicing mission joint ESA/BAE UK technical press briefing Wednesday 10 March 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    On Wednesday 10 March 1993 astronauts from ESA and NASA will be at British Aerospace Space Systems Limited, Filton, Bristol, UK, training on the replacement set of solar arrays which they are scheduled to fit to the Hubble Space Telescope at year end. You are invited to attend a technical briefing on that day, which will be given by senior representatives of the European Space Agency and British Aerospace. The briefing will include details of the design modifications and status of the solar arrays, together with a brief overview of the scientific results already achieved by the teams of astronomers using the telescope. There will be an opportunity for interviews with the mission specialists in the crew of NASA's Space Shuttle flight STS-61, who will be carrying out the servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope in a series of "Extra-Vehicular Activities - EVA' (space-walks). Five astronauts are expected : Story Musgrave, Colonel Tom Akers, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Kathryn C. Thornton from NASA and Claude Nicollier from ESA. There will also be a chance to view the solar arrays in the British Aerospace clean room area where the astronauts are working on their familiarisation programme. The briefing will take place on Wednesday 10 March 1993 at British Aerospace Space Systems, Filton, Bristol, UK (on the northern outskirts of the city of Bristol). The event will begin at 10h30 a.m. and end with a buffet lunch running from approximately 01h30 p.m. to 02h30 p.m. In order to assists with arrangements for travel to and from bristol, British Aerospace proposes to run a free coach from and to London Victoria Coach Station - if there proves to be sufficient press interest. This coach would depart from London at approximately 07h50 a.m. and arrive back at around 05h30 p.m. Further details will be available on request when numbers are known. In order to gain access to the site and the briefing it is essential that all attendees are expected and their names are provided in

  19. Quantitative differences in think tank dissemination activities in Germany, Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    2017-01-01

    in a quantitative design which compares publications, events and newspaper mentionings of samples of think tanks from a coordinated (Germany), liberal (UK) and mixed (Denmark) system in 2012. The analysis indicates that think tanks in the UK have the highest level of dissemination on all three activities when...

  20. Building HIA approaches into strategies for green space use: an example from Plymouth's (UK) Stepping Stones to Nature project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J; Goss, Z; Pratt, A; Sharman, J; Tighe, M

    2013-12-01

    The health and well-being benefits of access to green space are well documented. Research suggests positive findings regardless of social group, however barriers exist that limit access to green space, including proximity, geography and differing social conditions. Current public health policy aims to broaden the range of environmental public health interventions through effective partnership working, providing opportunities to work across agencies to promote the use of green space. Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is a combination of methods and procedures to assess the potential health and well-being impacts of policies, developments and projects. It provides a means by which negative impacts can be mitigated and positive impacts can be enhanced, and has potential application for assessing green space use. This paper describes the application of a HIA approach to a multi-agency project (Stepping Stones to Nature--SS2N) in the UK designed to improve local green spaces and facilitate green space use in areas classified as having high levels of deprivation. The findings suggest that the SS2N project had the potential to provide significant positive benefits in the areas of physical activity, mental and social well-being. Specific findings for one locality identified a range of actions that could be taken to enhance benefits, and mitigate negative factors such as anti-social behaviour. The HIA approach proved to be a valuable process through which impacts of a community development/public health project could be enhanced and negative impacts prevented at an early stage; it illustrates how a HIA approach could enhance multi-agency working to promote health and well-being in communities.

  1. The International Active Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    -Danish students receive the basic international and intercultural skills and knowledge they need in current society. The English-language masters’ seminars I teach at the Department of Political Science are international in terms of students and teacher, but they are also Active Learning seminars......-Danish students (and sometimes teachers) rarely speak to each other or learn each other’s names. In the international AL spaces I create, students must work together on joint tasks which require interaction to address tasks and integration in order to benefit from the multinational activity groups. Planning AL...... that complete the seminar soon become vocal advocates of international AL. Ultimately, enriching student learning through immersing Danish and international students in an international AL space is, for me, the best way of ensuring an internationalised learning outcome, rather than just international mobility....

  2. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  3. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  4. Trends in space activities in 2014: The significance of the space activities of governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paikowsky, Deganit; Baram, Gil; Ben-Israel, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the principal events of 2014 in the field of space activities, and extrapolates from them the primary trends that can be identified in governmental space activities. In 2014, global space activities centered on two vectors. The first was geopolitical, and the second relates to the matrix between increasing commercial space activities and traditional governmental space activities. In light of these two vectors, the article outlines and analyzes trends of space exploration, human spaceflights, industry and technology, cooperation versus self-reliance, and space security and sustainability. It also reviews the space activities of the leading space-faring nations.

  5. NASA Space Environments Technical Discipline Team Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, J. I.; Nicholas, A. C.; Parker, L. N.; Xapsos, M.; Walker, P. W.; Stauffer, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Space Environment Technical Discipline Team (TDT) is a technical organization led by NASA's Technical Fellow for Space Environments that supports NASA's Office of the Chief Engineer through the NASA Engineering and Safety Center. The Space Environments TDT conducts independent technical assessments related to the space environment and space weather impacts on spacecraft for NASA programs and provides technical expertise to NASA management and programs where required. This presentation will highlight the status of applied space weather activities within the Space Environment TDT that support development of operational space weather applications and a better understanding of the impacts of space weather on space systems. We will first discuss a tool that has been developed for evaluating space weather launch constraints that are used to protect launch vehicles from hazardous space weather. We then describe an effort to better characterize three-dimensional radiation transport for CubeSat spacecraft and processing of micro-dosimeter data from the International Space Station which the team plans to make available to the space science community. Finally, we will conclude with a quick description of an effort to maintain access to the real-time solar wind data provided by the Advanced Composition Explorer satellite at the Sun-Earth L1 point.

  6. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  7. Stargate GTM: Bridging Descriptor and Activity Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Héléna A; Baskin, Igor I; Marcou, Gilles; Horvath, Dragos; Varnek, Alexandre

    2015-11-23

    Predicting the activity profile of a molecule or discovering structures possessing a specific activity profile are two important goals in chemoinformatics, which could be achieved by bridging activity and molecular descriptor spaces. In this paper, we introduce the "Stargate" version of the Generative Topographic Mapping approach (S-GTM) in which two different multidimensional spaces (e.g., structural descriptor space and activity space) are linked through a common 2D latent space. In the S-GTM algorithm, the manifolds are trained simultaneously in two initial spaces using the probabilities in the 2D latent space calculated as a weighted geometric mean of probability distributions in both spaces. S-GTM has the following interesting features: (1) activities are involved during the training procedure; therefore, the method is supervised, unlike conventional GTM; (2) using molecular descriptors of a given compound as input, the model predicts a whole activity profile, and (3) using an activity profile as input, areas populated by relevant chemical structures can be detected. To assess the performance of S-GTM prediction models, a descriptor space (ISIDA descriptors) of a set of 1325 GPCR ligands was related to a B-dimensional (B = 1 or 8) activity space corresponding to pKi values for eight different targets. S-GTM outperforms conventional GTM for individual activities and performs similarly to the Lasso multitask learning algorithm, although it is still slightly less accurate than the Random Forest method.

  8. 'Flying markets': activating public spaces in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.; Sezer, C.

    2013-01-01

    Marketplaces can be used by city planners as urban development strategies because they have the potential to turn open spaces in the city into public space, thereby improving both the social and the spatial qualities of those spaces. In Amsterdam, however, marketplaces currently fail to activate

  9. Space activities and global popular music culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Allison Rae; Collins, Patrick

    During the "space age" era, space activities appear increasingly as a theme in Western popular music, as they do in popular culture generally. In combination with the electronics and tele-communications revolution, "pop/rock" music has grown explosively during the space age to become an effectively global culture. From this base a number of trends are emerging in the pattern of influences that space activities have on pop music. The paper looks at the use of themes and imagery in pop music; the role of space technology in the modern "globalization" of pop music; and current and future links between space activities and pop music culture, including how public space programmes are affected by its influence on popular attitudes.

  10. On risk assessment in the petroleum activities on the Norwegian and UK continental shelves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avena, Terje; Pitblado, Robin

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses some key principles and tools of safety management, with focus on risk analyses, risk interpretation, risk acceptance criteria and risk communication, as well as emergency preparedness. The starting point for the discussion is the experience from the activity on the Norwegian and UK continental shelves, and the implementation of new safety regulations in particular

  11. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  12. Responding to the Challenges of Active Citizenship through the Revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    The revised UK Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) now places a stronger emphasis on personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as one of its three prime areas. PSED has three characteristics of learning: active learning, creating and thinking critically, and playing and exploring. These aspects of the revised EYFS closely align with the…

  13. History and Evolution of Active Learning Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichner, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter examines active learning spaces as they have developed over the years. Consistently well-designed classrooms can facilitate active learning even though the details of implementing pedagogies may differ.

  14. Corporate responsibility for childhood physical activity promotion in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Liliana; Ling, Tom; Baldassarre, Laura; Barnett, Lisa M; Capranica, Laura; Pesce, Caterina

    2016-12-01

    The alarming epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity at paediatric age urges societies to rise to the challenge of ensuring an active lifestyle. As one response to this, business enterprises are increasingly engaged in promoting sport and physical activity (PA) initiatives within the frame of corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, comparative analyses among industry sectors of CSR strategies for PA promotion with a particular focus on children are still lacking. This study aimed to explore (i) what are the CSR strategies for PA promotion adopted in different industry sectors and (ii) whether corporate engagement in promoting PA for children is supportive of children's rights to play and be physically active. Corporate pledges pertaining to CSR initiatives to promote PA were analysed. The hypothesis was that companies from different sectors employ different CSR strategies and that companies with a higher profile as regard to public health concerns for children tend to legitimate their action by adopting a compensatory strategy. Results show that the issue of PA promotion is largely represented within CSR commitments. CSR strategies for PA promotion vary across industry sectors and the adoption of a compensatory strategy for rising childhood obesity allows only a limited exploitation of the potential of CSR commitments for the provision of children's rights to play and be physically active. Actors within the fields of public health ethics, human rights and CSR should be considered complementary to develop mainstreaming strategies and improve monitoring systems of PA promotion in children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Yearbook on space policy 2015 access to space and the evolution of space activities

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina; Hulsroj, Peter; Lahcen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    The Yearbook on Space Policy, edited by the European Space Policy Institute (ESPI), is the reference publication analysing space policy developments. Each year it presents issues and trends in space policy and the space sector as a whole. Its scope is global and its perspective is European. The Yearbook also links space policy with other policy areas. It highlights specific events and issues, and provides useful insights, data and information on space activities. The first part of the Yearbook sets out a comprehensive overview of the economic, political, technological and institutional trends that have affected space activities. The second part of the Yearbook offers a more analytical perspective on the yearly ESPI theme and consists of external contributions written by professionals with diverse backgrounds and areas of expertise. The third part of the Yearbook carries forward the character of the Yearbook as an archive of space activities. The Yearbook is designed for government decision-makers and agencies...

  16. Space activities in 2009/2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagkratis, Spyros

    2011-09-01

    The global financial crisis of 2008 has created an economic environment unfavourable to public and corporate economic activity alike, which could not have left space activities unaffected. However, the effects of the crisis upon the space sector have been so far less damaging than anticipated. The following paper presents recent developments in the field of space policies, institutional budgets and commercial activity worldwide, in an effort to improve the understanding of the new trends in commercial and public space activities. It particularly explores the strategies followed by space stakeholders in different countries and regions in order to pursue their planned space programmes in view of difficult financial conditions. Finally, it highlights the differences in the outlook of space activities between established and emerging space-faring nations and attempts to explore their medium-term consequences on an international level. For this purpose, it was based on research conducted in the framework of a recent ESPI report on "Space Policies, Issues and trends in 2009/2010".

  17. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley; Mann, Jake P

    2015-09-19

    To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students' work-life balance. A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study.

  18. Optimisation of the Management of Higher Activity Waste in the UK - 13537

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Ciara; Buckley, Matthew [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    The Upstream Optioneering project was created in the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (UK) to support the development and implementation of significant opportunities to optimise activities across all the phases of the Higher Activity Waste management life cycle (i.e. retrieval, characterisation, conditioning, packaging, storage, transport and disposal). The objective of the Upstream Optioneering project is to work in conjunction with other functions within NDA and the waste producers to identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste. Historically, optimisation may have occurred on aspects of the waste life cycle (considered here to include retrieval, conditioning, treatment, packaging, interim storage, transport to final end state, which may be geological disposal). By considering the waste life cycle as a whole, critical analysis of assumed constraints may lead to cost savings for the UK Tax Payer. For example, it may be possible to challenge the requirements for packaging wastes for disposal to deliver an optimised waste life cycle. It is likely that the challenges faced in the UK are shared in other countries. It is therefore likely that the opportunities identified may also apply elsewhere, with the potential for sharing information to enable value to be shared. (authors)

  19. Strategies for Implementing Activity-Based Costing in the UK Manufacturing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Wai Ming; Tan, Kian; Tan, Swee; Sutton, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the findings with a case study on why activity based costing lacks impact in the UK manufacturing industry. Activity based costing was performed on selected MT range subsystems of an electrical power generator to compare with the current UNN UK’s conven-tional costing system. The results have found that the current costing system works well for the MT products and thus change of costing system is not necessary for these products. The activity based costi...

  20. Activity-Based Collaboration for Interactive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Esbensen, Morten; Tabard, Aurélien

    2017-01-01

    , folder, documents, etc., users are able to interact with ‘activities’ which encapsulate files and other low-level resources. In ABC an ‘activity’ can be shared between collaborating users and can be accessed on different devices. As such, ABC is a framework that suits the requirements of designing...... interactive spaces. This chapter provides an overview of ABC with a special focus on its support for collaboration (‘Activity Sharing’) and multiple devices (‘Activity Roaming’). These ABC concepts are illustrated as implemented in two different interactive spaces technologies; ReticularSpaces [1] and the e......LabBench [2, 3]. The chapter discusses the benefits of activity-based collaboration support for these interactive spaces, while also discussing limitations and challenges to be addressed in further research....

  1. The LAM space active optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  2. Activities of NICT space weather project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  3. New British feminisms, UK Feminista and young women’s activism

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Nickie; Wadia, Khursheed

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of feminist activism in the UK with young women becoming increasingly interested in feminist ideas as a means of making sense of their lives. This is accompanied by claims from media commentators that we are witnessing a third or even fourth wave of feminism, and debates within feminist theory over the meaning of the wave metaphor and whether it is helpful in understanding the temporality of feminist activism. In this paper we engage with this debat...

  4. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  5. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari, L.

    these developments in way or another. In addition to national EIA regulations, there are also international agreements on EIA (i.a. the Espoo Convention) which establish their own EIA systems. In international law of outer space, environmental impact assessment is, however, not a well-established tool. The UN space treaties were drafted during a time when such consideratio ns were still not among the highest ranking items on national agendas. Therefore, these instruments fail to contain provisions regarding impact assessment, and also rest of the environmental content found in them is rather modest. The nearest equivalent to any impact assessment is contained in the Outer Space Treaty Article IX, namely the requirement of prior consultations in case of planned space activity or experiment that might cause "potentially harmful interference" with space activities of other St ates Parties. There also exist some applicable provisions on national level, such as the requirement of "formal assessment" on NASA programs of "[orbital] debris generation potential and debris mitigation options" in NASA Policy for Limiting Orbital Debris Generation (Art. 1.b). Also the national legislation of some space faring countries provides at least for the supply of some kind of information assessing the possible environmental consequences of proposed space activities. For instance, the Russian Statute on Lisencing Space Operations requires that for obtaining a license for space operation in the Russian Federation, the applicant has to supply, i.a. "documents confirming the safety of space operations (including ecological, fire and explosion safety) and the reliability of space equipment'"(Art.5.h). However, such provisions are obviously not enough for ensuring effective international regulation of the issue. The goal of this paper is to consider the usefulness of international environmental impact assessment for space activities. The space environment, however, is a unique arena in many ways

  6. The impact of European research ethics legislation on UK radiology research activity: a bibliometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.A.; Toms, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there is evidence of a reduction in radiology research activity in the UK following the implementation of the European research ethics legislation, which came in to force in 2001 and has been widely criticised as an impediment to research. Materials and methods: A bibliometric analysis was performed by searching PubMed for all first-author publications from UK departments of 'radiology' or 'medical imaging' between 1995 and 2007. Results were subcategorized into those papers published in the highest cited general radiology journals and by publication type: original research, reviews, and case reports. Results: From 1995 to 2007 the total number of publications rose by 6.5% from 137 to 146 with the increase occurring in non-general radiology journals. Original articles fell from 18 in 1995 to 12 in 2003, but then rose to 24 by 2007 (33% rise). This dip was paralleled by a fall and then recovery in case report publications. The most dramatic change has been in the number of review articles, which has increased more than eightfold from seven in 1995 to 65 in 2007 to become the most common form of publication. Conclusion: The overall number of original scientific articles, published by first-author UK radiologists, has increased slightly over the last 12 years despite a temporary fall associated with the introduction of new research ethics legislation.

  7. Near-space airships against terrorist activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesenek, Ceylan

    2014-06-01

    Near-space is a region surrounding the earth which is too dense for a satellite to fly and also too thin for air breathing vehicles to fly. The near-space region which is located between 65,000 and 325,000 feet is really underutilized despite its unique potential. Near-Space airships can be used to exploit the potential of near space. Such a system can supply not only a great deal of information using ISR (Intelligence Surveillance Reconnaissance) sensors on board but also serve as a communication/data relay. Airships used in near space can cover a very wide footprint area for surveillance missions. Free of orbital mechanics these near-space assets can continue its mission for long period of time with a persistence of days and months. These assets can provide persistent intelligence for fight against terrorist activities. Terrorism is a non-state threat and doesn't have a static hierarchical structure. To fight against such an adversary an overwhelming intelligence activity must be applied. Therefore, intelligence collection and surveillance missions play a vital role in counter terrorism. Terrorists use asymmetric means of threat that require information superiority. In this study exploitation of near space by airships is analyzed for fight against terrorism. Near-space airships are analyzed according to the operational effectiveness, logistic structure and cost. Advantages and disadvantages of airships are argued in comparison with satellites and airplanes. As a result, by bridging the gap between the air and space, nearspace airships are considered to be the most important asset of warfighter especially with its operational effectiveness.

  8. Review of UK participation in ASSET activities 1995/96 for the annual workshop on ASSET experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, C R

    1997-12-31

    With the restructuring of the Nuclear Generation Industry in the UK over the last 12 months it has been difficult to provide support to international activities including ASSET. This is likely to continue for a further 12 months whilst consolidation of the privatised part of the industry takes place and Magnox Electric plc is merged with British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. Having made that statement I would confirm that the UK is fully supportive of the ASSET methodology and will continue to be a participant in as many ASSET activities as possible. It was noted that during 1995 ASSET completed its 100th mission and the UK would like to congratulate the staff in the IAEA on this achievement. Discussions are at present ongoing within Magnox Electric plc, regarding the possibility of hosting an ASSET Peer Review mission, at one of the UK`s Magnox plants, in 1997/98. During the 1995/96 period the UK participated in a number of ASSET activities as detailed below.

  9. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Reiher, Markus, E-mail: markus.reiher@phys.chem.ethz.ch [Laboratorium für Physikalische Chemie, ETH Zürich, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Janowski, Tomasz; Pulay, Peter, E-mail: pulay@uark.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Fulbright College of Arts and Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2015-06-28

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F{sub 2}, ozone, and NO{sub 2}), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr{sub 2}). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions

  10. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Reiher, Markus; Janowski, Tomasz; Pulay, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F 2 , ozone, and NO 2 ), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr 2 ). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions are discussed

  11. Selection of active spaces for multiconfigurational wavefunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sebastian; Boguslawski, Katharina; Janowski, Tomasz; Reiher, Markus; Pulay, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The efficient and accurate description of the electronic structure of strongly correlated systems is still a largely unsolved problem. The usual procedures start with a multiconfigurational (usually a Complete Active Space, CAS) wavefunction which accounts for static correlation and add dynamical correlation by perturbation theory, configuration interaction, or coupled cluster expansion. This procedure requires the correct selection of the active space. Intuitive methods are unreliable for complex systems. The inexpensive black-box unrestricted natural orbital (UNO) criterion postulates that the Unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) charge natural orbitals with fractional occupancy (e.g., between 0.02 and 1.98) constitute the active space. UNOs generally approximate the CAS orbitals so well that the orbital optimization in CAS Self-Consistent Field (CASSCF) may be omitted, resulting in the inexpensive UNO-CAS method. A rigorous testing of the UNO criterion requires comparison with approximate full configuration interaction wavefunctions. This became feasible with the advent of Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) methods which can approximate highly correlated wavefunctions at affordable cost. We have compared active orbital occupancies in UNO-CAS and CASSCF calculations with DMRG in a number of strongly correlated molecules: compounds of electronegative atoms (F2, ozone, and NO2), polyenes, aromatic molecules (naphthalene, azulene, anthracene, and nitrobenzene), radicals (phenoxy and benzyl), diradicals (o-, m-, and p-benzyne), and transition metal compounds (nickel-acetylene and Cr2). The UNO criterion works well in these cases. Other symmetry breaking solutions, with the possible exception of spatial symmetry, do not appear to be essential to generate the correct active space. In the case of multiple UHF solutions, the natural orbitals of the average UHF density should be used. The problems of the UNO criterion and their potential solutions are discussed

  12. Edible Earth and Space Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, D.; Shupla, C.

    2014-07-01

    In this workshop we describe using Earth and Space Science demonstrations with edible ingredients to increase student interest. We show how to use chocolate, candy, cookies, popcorn, bagels, pastries, Pringles, marshmallows, whipped cream, and Starburst candy for activities such as: plate tectonics, the interior structure of the Earth and Mars, radioactivity/radioactive dating of rocks and stars, formation of the planets, lunar phases, convection, comets, black holes, curvature of space, dark energy, and the expansion of the Universe. In addition to creating an experience that will help students remember specific concepts, edible activities can be used as a formative assessment, providing students with the opportunity to create something that demonstrates their understanding of the model. The students often eat the demonstrations. These demonstrations are an effective teaching tool for all ages, and can be adapted for cultural, culinary, and ethnic differences among the students.

  13. What is the meaning and nature of active play for today's children in the UK?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Rowan; Fox, Kenneth R; Jago, Russell

    2011-03-07

    Preventing the decline in physical activity which occurs around 10-11 years of age is a public health priority. Physically active play can make unique contributions to children's development which cannot be obtained from more structured forms of physical activity. Encouraging active play in children's leisure time has potential to increase physical activity levels while promoting optimal child development. Aspired wisdom states that contemporary British children no longer play outdoors, but systematic evidence for this is lacking. We need to build a more informed picture of contemporary children's play before we consider interventions to increase it. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: 1) children's perceptions of 'play'; 2) how much of their play is active play; and 3) contexts of children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Children's perceptions of play were broad and included both physically active and sedentary behaviours. Children reported that they frequently engaged in active play and valued both the physical and social benefits it provided. Whereas boys frequently reported having a 'kick about' or riding bikes as their preferred forms of active play, girls were less likely to report a specific activity. Additionally, boys reported greater independent mobility in their active play compared to girls. Finally, boys were more likely to report playing with neighbourhood friends but girls more frequently reported playing with family members. Promoting active play in children's leisure time may increase the physical activity of children, but interventions may need to be tailored according to gender.

  14. What is the meaning and nature of active play for today's children in the UK?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jago Russell

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventing the decline in physical activity which occurs around 10-11 years of age is a public health priority. Physically active play can make unique contributions to children's development which cannot be obtained from more structured forms of physical activity. Encouraging active play in children's leisure time has potential to increase physical activity levels while promoting optimal child development. Aspired wisdom states that contemporary British children no longer play outdoors, but systematic evidence for this is lacking. We need to build a more informed picture of contemporary children's play before we consider interventions to increase it. Methods Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: 1 children's perceptions of 'play'; 2 how much of their play is active play; and 3 contexts of children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Results Children's perceptions of play were broad and included both physically active and sedentary behaviours. Children reported that they frequently engaged in active play and valued both the physical and social benefits it provided. Whereas boys frequently reported having a 'kick about' or riding bikes as their preferred forms of active play, girls were less likely to report a specific activity. Additionally, boys reported greater independent mobility in their active play compared to girls. Finally, boys were more likely to report playing with neighbourhood friends but girls more frequently reported playing with family members. Conclusions Promoting active play in children's leisure time may increase the physical activity of children, but interventions may need to be tailored according to gender.

  15. Perceived and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among South Asian women in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Whitney Babakus; Duda, Joan L; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-03-16

    Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA) women fail to meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST). There is limited research on SA women's understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as "keeping busy" or "being healthy", and of ST as "lazy" or "resting in old age". Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity), with none able to estimate duration of ST. Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily activities (e.g., walking, housework) and reducing ST in this population.

  16. Seasonal variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in a sample of UK adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sophie E; Griffiths, Paula L; Clemes, Stacy A

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), sleep and diet have all been associated with increased risk for chronic disease. Seasonality is often overlooked as a determinant of these behaviours in adults. Currently, no study has simultaneously monitored these behaviours in UK adults to assess seasonal variation. The present study investigated whether PA, SB, sleep and diet differed over season in UK adults. Forty-six adults (72% female; age = 41.7 ± 14.4 years, BMI = 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)) completed four 7-day monitoring periods; one during each season of the year. The ActiGraph GT1M was used to monitor PA and SB. Daily sleep diaries monitored time spent in bed (TIB) and total sleep time (TST). The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessed diet. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to identify seasonal differences in behaviours. Light-intensity PA was significantly higher in summer and spring (p diet (p > 0.05). Findings support the concept that health promotion campaigns need to encourage year-round participation in light intensity PA, whilst limiting SB, particularly during the winter months.

  17. Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 1-N-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propyl)kanamycin B (UK-31,214).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, K; Brammer, K W; Jevons, S; Plews, R M; Wright, J R

    1979-10-01

    1-N-(1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propyl)kanamycin B was prepared and its in vitro activity against aminoglycoside-sensitive and aminoglycoside-resistant organisms was compared with that of kanamycin B and gentamicin. This kanamycin B derivative (code No. UK-31,214) demonstrated potent activity in all of these tests and gave good protection in experimental infections in mice.

  18. A Comparison of Free Time Activity Choices of Third Culture Kids in Albania and Children in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdon, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to consider children's perspectives about free time activity choices. Through the use of drawings, favourite free time activities of third culture kids in Albania are compared with those of children in the UK. The sample comprises four boys and three girls from four to eight years from each country. Further conversations reveal…

  19. The mobile GeoBus outreach project: hands-on Earth and Mars activities for secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruth; Pike, Charlotte; Roper, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Just under 35,000 pupils have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities since the project began in 2012, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run 50 - 80 minute workshops, and half- or whole-day Enterprise Challenges and field excursions. Workshops are aimed at a class of up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are increasingly popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. Enterprise Challenge are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Topics include "Journey to Mars", "Scotland's Rocks", "Drilling for Oil", and "Renewable Energy". Both of the energy Enterprise Challenges were designed to incorporates ideas and

  20. Review of UK participation in ASSET activities 1995/96 for the annual workshop on ASSET experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phipps, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    With the restructuring of the Nuclear Generation Industry in the UK over the last 12 months it has been difficult to provide support to international activities including ASSET. This is likely to continue for a further 12 months whilst consolidation of the privatised part of the industry takes place and Magnox Electric plc is merged with British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. Having made that statement I would confirm that the UK is fully supportive of the ASSET methodology and will continue to be a participant in as many ASSET activities as possible. It was noted that during 1995 ASSET completed its 100th mission and the UK would like to congratulate the staff in the IAEA on this achievement. Discussions are at present ongoing within Magnox Electric plc, regarding the possibility of hosting an ASSET Peer Review mission, at one of the UK's Magnox plants, in 1997/98. During the 1995/96 period the UK participated in a number of ASSET activities as detailed below

  1. Antifungal activity of tioconazole (UK-20,349), a new imidazole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, S; Gymer, G E; Brammer, K W; Cox, D A; Leeming, M R

    1979-04-01

    Tioconazole (UK-20,349), a new antifungal imidazole derivative, was compared with miconazole for activity in vitro against Candida spp., Torulopsis glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus spp., and dermatophyte fungi (Trichophyton spp. and Microsporum spp.). Tioconazole was more active than miconazole against all the fungal species examined except Aspergillus, against which both agents showed similar activity. Both tioconazole and miconazole inhibited the growth of all fungi examined at concentrations well below their quoted minimum inhibitory concentrations. Their activity against fungi in vivo was investigated in mice infected systemically with Candida albicans. Both agents significantly reduced the numbers of viable Candida cells recoverable from the kidneys of infected animals, with tioconazole producing a generally more marked reduction. After administration of a single oral dose (25 mg/kg) to beagle dogs or white mice, higher and more sustained circulating levels of bioactive drug were detectable of tioconazole than of miconazole. These observations suggest that tioconazole may have potential in the treatment of both superficial and systemic mycoses in humans.

  2. Latin American space activities based on different infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Ruth

    The paper deals with recent basic space research and space applications in several Latin-American countries. It links space activities with national scientific and institutional infrastructures and stresses the importance of interdisciplinary space programs, that can play a major role in the developing countries achievement of self reliance in space matters.

  3. Perceived and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among South Asian Women in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Babakus Curry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA women fail to meet physical activity (PA recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST. There is limited research on SA women’s understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. Methods: 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Results: Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as “keeping busy” or “being healthy”, and of ST as “lazy” or “resting in old age”. Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity, with none able to estimate duration of ST. Discussion: Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily

  4. NASA's current activities in free space optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Bernard L.

    2017-11-01

    NASA and other space agencies around the world are currently developing free space optical communication systems for both space-to-ground links and space-to-space links. This paper provides an overview of NASA's current activities in free space optical communications with a focus on Near Earth applications. Activities to be discussed include the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration, the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration, and the commercialization of the underlying technology. The paper will also briefly discuss ongoing efforts and studies for Deep Space optical communications. Finally the paper will discuss the development of international optical communication standards within the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems.

  5. Physical activity education in the undergraduate curricula of all UK medical schools. Are tomorrow's doctors equipped to follow clinical guidelines?

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Richard; Chew, Stephen; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of disease prevention and treatment. There is, however, a considerable disparity between public health policy, clinical guidelines and the delivery of physical activity promotion within the National Health Service in the UK. If this is to be addressed in the battle against non-communicable diseases, it is vital that tomorrow's doctors understand the basic science and health benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the provision...

  6. Physical activity education in the undergraduate curricula of all UK medical schools: are tomorrow's doctors equipped to follow clinical guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Chew, Stephen; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of disease prevention and treatment. There is, however, a considerable disparity between public health policy, clinical guidelines and the delivery of physical activity promotion within the National Health Service in the UK. If this is to be addressed in the battle against non-communicable diseases, it is vital that tomorrow's doctors understand the basic science and health benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the provision of physical activity teaching content in the curricula of all medical schools in the UK. Our results, with responses from all UK medical schools, uncovered some alarming findings, showing that there is widespread omission of basic teaching elements, such as the Chief Medical Officer recommendations and guidance on physical activity. There is an urgent need for physical activity teaching to have dedicated time at medical schools, to equip tomorrow's doctors with the basic knowledge, confidence and skills to promote physical activity and follow numerous clinical guidelines that support physical activity promotion.

  7. Estimating hourly variation in photosynthetically active radiation across the UK using MSG SEVIRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankaew, P; Milton, E J; Dash, J

    2014-01-01

    The amount of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) reaching the Earth's surface is a key input variable in most gross primary productivity models. However, poor representation of PAR due to large pixel size or limited temporal sampling is one of the main sources of uncertainty in such models. This paper presents a method to estimate PAR at up to 1 km spatial resolution at a regional to global scale. The method uses broadband radiance data (400–1100nm) and per-pixel estimates of relative cloud cover from a geostationary satellite to estimate the amount of PAR reaching the Earth's surface at high spatial and temporal resolution (1–2 km and hourly). The method was validated using data from 54 pyranometers located at sites across the UK. Hourly averaged PAR over the range 400–1400 μmol m −2 s −1 was estimated with a mean bias error = 5.01 μmol m −2 s −1 (R 2 = 0.87), providing a source of accurate data for high resolution models of gross primary productivity

  8. Physical activity patterns of ethnic children from low socio-economic environments within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael Joseph; Birch, Samantha Louise; Cox, Valerie; Blackett, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Many children fail to meet physical activity (PA) guidelines for health benefits. PA behaviours are complex and depend on numerous interrelated factors. The study aims to develop current understanding of how children from low Socio-economic environments within the UK use their surrounding built environments for PA by using advanced technology. The environment was assessed in 96 school children (7-9 years) using global positioning system (GPS) monitoring (Garmin Forerunner, 305). In a subsample of 46 children, the environment and PA were assessed using an integrated GPS and heart rate monitor. The percentage of time spent indoor, outdoor, in green and non-green environments along with time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in indoor and outdoor environments were assessed. A 2-by-2 repeated measures analysis of covariance, controlling for body mass index, BF%, assessed the environmental differences. The findings show that 42% of children from deprived wards of Coventry fail to meet PA guidelines, of which 43% was accumulated during school. Children engaged in more MVPA outdoor than indoor environments (P outdoors was negatively associated with BF%. In conclusion, outdoor environments are important for health-enhancing PA and reducing fatness in deprived and ethnic children.

  9. Potential for exposure to radon in non-uranium mines and other activities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.W.; Gooding, T.D.

    1996-01-01

    Radon levels in UK mines have been investigated in several surveys over the last decade and have shown that greatest potential for exposure in in mines other than coal mines ('non-coal mines' for brevity). These and associated studies have also shown that there is is potential for significant exposure in mines even after mineral extraction has ceased, for example, during their use for secondary commercial purposes, such as tourism of storage. Even after all work has been abandoned, mines can be a focus for some leisure activities such as industrial archaeology or mineral collecting. A key element of protection for employees and members of the public who enter mines is a programme of area monitoring. The diverse range of conditions from continuous occupancy and forces ventilation, to sporadic entry into naturally ventilated systems, places stringent demands on monitoring programmes and methods of dose estimation. In particular, the use of intermittent ventilation can have unexpected and adverse effects on radon levels and the implications of such phenomena for dose limitation and monitoring programmes are considered for the various stages in the life of a mine. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  10. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klompmaker, Jochem O.; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D.; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H.; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A.H.

    Introduction In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data

  11. Estimation of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure during Free-Living from Wrist Accelerometry in UK Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom White

    Full Text Available Wrist-worn accelerometers are emerging as the most common instrument for measuring physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies, though little is known about the relationship between wrist acceleration and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE.1695 UK adults wore two devices simultaneously for six days; a combined sensor and a wrist accelerometer. The combined sensor measured heart rate and trunk acceleration, which was combined with a treadmill test to yield a signal of individually-calibrated PAEE. Multi-level regression models were used to characterise the relationship between the two time-series, and their estimations were evaluated in an independent holdout sample. Finally, the relationship between PAEE and BMI was described separately for each source of PAEE estimate (wrist acceleration models and combined-sensing.Wrist acceleration explained 44-47% between-individual variance in PAEE, with RMSE between 34-39 J•min-1•kg-1. Estimations agreed well with PAEE in cross-validation (mean bias [95% limits of agreement]: 0.07 [-70.6:70.7] but overestimated in women by 3% and underestimated in men by 4%. Estimation error was inversely related to age (-2.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per 10y and BMI (-0.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per kg/m2. Associations with BMI were similar for all PAEE estimates (approximately -0.08 kg/m2 per J•min-1•kg-1.A strong relationship exists between wrist acceleration and PAEE in free-living adults, such that irrespective of the objective method of PAEE assessment, a strong inverse association between PAEE and BMI was observed.

  12. Occupational Physical Activity Habits of UK Office Workers: Cross-Sectional Data from the Active Buildings Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee; Sawyer, Alexia; Gardner, Benjamin; Seppala, Katri; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Lally, Pippa; Fisher, Abi

    2018-06-09

    Habitual behaviours are learned responses that are triggered automatically by associated environmental cues. The unvarying nature of most workplace settings makes workplace physical activity a prime candidate for a habitual behaviour, yet the role of habit strength in occupational physical activity has not been investigated. Aims of the present study were to: (i) document occupational physical activity habit strength; and (ii) investigate associations between occupational activity habit strength and occupational physical activity levels. A sample of UK office-based workers ( n = 116; 53% female, median age 40 years, SD 10.52) was fitted with activPAL accelerometers worn for 24 h on five consecutive days, providing an objective measure of occupational step counts, stepping time, sitting time, standing time and sit-to-stand transitions. A self-report index measured the automaticity of two occupational physical activities (“being active” (e.g., walking to printers and coffee machines) and “stair climbing”). Adjusted linear regression models investigated the association between occupational activity habit strength and objectively-measured occupational step counts, stepping time, sitting time, standing time and sit-to-stand transitions. Eighty-one per cent of the sample reported habits for “being active”, and 62% reported habits for “stair climbing”. In adjusted models, reported habit strength for “being active” were positively associated with average occupational sit-to-stand transitions per hour (B = 0.340, 95% CI: 0.053 to 0.627, p = 0.021). “Stair climbing” habit strength was unexpectedly negatively associated with average hourly stepping time (B = −0.01, 95% CI: −0.01 to −0.00, p = 0.006) and average hourly occupational step count (B = −38.34, 95% CI: −72.81 to −3.88, p = 0.030), which may reflect that people with stronger stair-climbing habits compensate by walking fewer steps overall. Results suggest that stair-climbing and

  13. Research activities of the nuclear graphite research group at the University of Manchester, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, B.J.; Fok, A.S.L.; Marrow, J.; Mummery, P.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) decided to underwrite the Nuclear Graphite Research Group (NGRG) at the University of Manchester, UK with the aim of providing a source of independent research and advice to the HSE (NSD). Since then the group has rapidly expanded to 16 members and attracted considerable funding from the nuclear power industry and the regulator for a wide range of research and consultancy work. It is now also part of the Material Performance Centre within the BNFL Universities Research Alliance. Extensive collaboration exists between the group and other nuclear research institutes, both in the UK and overseas. This paper briefly describes some of the research programmes being carried out by the NGRG at Manchester. (author)

  14. Activities of the Center for Space Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at the University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The college has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction is prominent evidence of this record. At the inception of CSC, the center was primarily founded on the need for research on in-space construction of large space systems like space stations and interplanetary space vehicles. The scope of CSC's research has now evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. Within this broadened scope, our research projects seek to impact the underlying technological basis for such spacecraft as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites, and other special purpose spacecraft, as well as the technological basis for large space platforms. The center's research focuses on three areas: spacecraft structures, spacecraft operations and control, and regolith and surface systems. In the area of spacecraft structures, our current emphasis is on concepts and modeling of deployable structures, analysis of inflatable structures, structural damage detection algorithms, and composite materials for lightweight structures. In the area of spacecraft operations and control, we are continuing our previous efforts in process control of in-orbit structural assembly. In addition, we have begun two new efforts in formal approach to spacecraft flight software systems design and adaptive attitude control systems. In the area of regolith and surface systems, we are continuing the work of characterizing the physical properties of lunar

  15. Guidance on radiation received in space activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this report, therefore, are to: re-examine the current guidelines and the philosophy adopted by NASA, estimate the risks to both men and women exposed to radiation in space, re-examine the estimates of radiation risks in outer space with special attention to SPE and to exposure to HZE particles, and examine what information may still be required and what research is needed. This report incorporates the changes in estimates of terrestrial radiation risks made since 1970 that appear to be acceptable and appropriate to the particular case of space missions. Since plans for a space station have been established and are a priority for NASA, this space mission will be used as one example for reference. The likely altitude and orbit for the proposed space station are 450 km and 28.5 degree, respectively. Therefore, estimates of the radiation environment for this mission can be made with more confidence than for some of the other missions. In this report, we have chosen to write more fully about certain subjects, for example, the eye, because they are of concern and because they have not been dealt with in such detail in other reports on radiation risks and protection. Since this report covers a number of different disciplines and specialized areas of research, a glossary is included. Radiation protection in space is as international a task as is the protection of radiation workers and the general population on earth. Kovalev, 1983, has noted that radiation protection in space is a pressing but complex problem. The recommendations in this report will require modifications as we learn more about the radiation environment in space and how to estimate radiation risks with greater precision. 450 refs

  16. Space transportation activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    1994-01-01

    The status of the existing space transportation systems in the U.S. and options for increased capability is being examined in the context of mission requirements, options for new vehicles, cost to operate the existing vehicles, cost to develop new vehicles, and the capabilities and plans of other suppliers. This assessment is addressing the need to build and resupply the space station, to maintain necessary military assets in a rapidly changing world, and to continue a competitive commercial space transportation industry. The Department of Defense (DOD) and NASA each conducted an 'access to space' study using a common mission model but with the emphasis on their unique requirements. Both studies considered three options: maintain and improve the existing capability, build a new launch vehicle using contemporary technology, and build a new launch vehicle using advanced technology. While no decisions have been made on a course of action, it will be influenced by the availability of funds in the U.S. budget, the changing need for military space assets, the increasing competition among space launch suppliers, and the emerging opportunity for an advanced technology, low cost system and international partnerships to develop it.

  17. Understanding urban green space as a health resource: a qualitative comparison of visit motivation and derived effects among park users in Sheffield, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Katherine N; Warber, Sara L; Devine-Wright, Patrick; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-01-22

    With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users' own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users' responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  18. Understanding Urban Green Space as a Health Resource: A Qualitative Comparison of Visit Motivation and Derived Effects among Park Users in Sheffield, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Gaston

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing interest in the use of urban green space to promote human health, there is a need to understand the extent to which park users conceptualize these places as a resource for health and well-being. This study sought to examine park users’ own reasons for and benefits from green space usage and compare these with concepts and constructs in existing person-environment-health theories and models of health. Conducted in 13 public green spaces in Sheffield, UK, we undertook a qualitative content analysis of 312 park users’ responses to open-ended interview questions and identified a breadth, depth and salience of visit motivators and derived effects. Findings highlight a discrepancy between reasons for visiting and derived effects from the use of urban green space. Motivations emphasized walking, green space qualities, and children. Derived effects highlighted relaxation, positive emotions within the self and towards the place, and spiritual well-being. We generate a taxonomy of motivations and derived effects that could facilitate operationalization within empirical research and articulate a conceptual framework linking motivators to outcomes for investigating green space as a resource for human health and well-being.

  19. Effects of text messaging in addition to emails on physical activity among university and college employees in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Suzanne; Blake, Holly; Bardus, Marco; Lloyd, Scott

    2013-04-01

    To test the effects of adding text messages to weekly email communications on recipients' total physical activity (leisure-time; workplace; domestic and garden; and active transportation) in employees of universities and colleges in the UK. A randomised trial with two study groups (email only or email plus text messaging for 12 weeks) was implemented at five workplaces. Data were collected at baseline, immediately after, and four weeks after the intervention. Intervention effects on physical activity were evaluated using latent growth modelling. Total physical activity decreased over time in both groups but the decrease was non-significant. The only significant difference between groups was found for workplace physical activity, with the group receiving emails and text messages having a linear decrease of 2.81 Metabolic Equivalent h/week (β = -0.31, p = 0.035) compared to the email only group. Sending employees two additional text messages resulted in less physical activity. Further investigation is needed to understand whether text messaging may play a beneficial role in promoting physical activity in workplace settings. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. German activities in optical space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, G.

    2018-04-01

    In the years of space exploration since the mid-sixties, a wide experience in optical space instrumentation has developed in Germany. This experience ranges from large telescopes in the 1 m and larger category with the accompanying focal plane detectors and spectrometers for all regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum (infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays), to miniature cameras for cometary and planetary explorations. The technologies originally developed for space science. are now also utilized in the fields of earth observation and even optical telecommunication. The presentation will cover all these areas, with examples for specific technological or scientific highlights. Special emphasis will be given to the current state-of-the-art instrumentation technologies in scientific institutions and industry, and to the future perspective in approved and planned projects.

  1. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....

  2. ACOSS-16 (Active Control of Space Structures)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    intensity is I. Step 7: Compute K(s) = Kc(SI - A + BKc+ KfC ) _K "Step 8: If K(s)G(s) has desired bandwidth and loop gain, quit. Otherwise, increase q...1293B M/s 230 Hampton, VA 23665 NASA Johnson Space Center ’ 39 Attn: Robert Piland Ms. EA Houston, TX 77058 McDonald Douglas CorpAttn: Mr. Read Johnson

  3. Qualitative GIS and the Visualization of Narrative Activity Space Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael J; Cao, Yinghui

    Qualitative activity space data, i.e. qualitative data associated with the routine locations and activities of individuals, are recognized as increasingly useful by researchers in the social and health sciences for investigating the influence of environment on human behavior. However, there has been little research on techniques for exploring qualitative activity space data. This research illustrates the theoretical principles of combining qualitative and quantitative data and methodologies within the context of GIS, using visualization as the means of inquiry. Through the use of a prototype implementation of a visualization system for qualitative activity space data, and its application in a case study of urban youth, we show how these theoretical methodological principles are realized in applied research. The visualization system uses a variety of visual variables to simultaneously depict multiple qualitative and quantitative attributes of individuals' activity spaces. The visualization is applied to explore the activity spaces of a sample of urban youth participating in a study on the geographic and social contexts of adolescent substance use. Examples demonstrate how the visualization may be used to explore individual activity spaces to generate hypotheses, investigate statistical outliers, and explore activity space patterns among subject subgroups.

  4. Planetary Data Archiving Activities in Indian Space Research Organisation (isro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopala Krishna, Barla; Srivastava, Pradeep Kumar

    The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has launched its first planetary mission to Moon viz., Chandrayaan-1 on October 22, 2008. The basic objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission are photoselenological and chemical mapping of the Moon with improved spatial and spectral resolution. The payloads in this mission are: (i) Terrain mapping stereo camera (TMC) with 20km swath (400-900 nm band) for 3D imaging of lunar surface at a spatial resolution of 5m (ii) Hyper Spectral Imager (HySI) in the 400-920 nm band with 64 channels and spatial resolution of 80m (20km swath) for mineralogical mapping (iii) High-energy X-ray (30-270 keV) spectrometer having a footprint of 40km for study of volatile transport on Moon and (iv) Laser ranging instrument with vertical resolution of 5m (v) Miniature imaging radar instrument (Mini-SAR) from APL, NASA to look for presence of ice in the polar region (vi) Near infrared spectrometer (SIR-2) from Max Plank Institute, Germany (vii)Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) from JPL, NASA for mineralogical mapping in the infra-red regions (0.7 -3.0 micron) (viii) Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) from Sweden, India and Japan for detection of low energy neutral atoms emanated from the lunar surface (ix) Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM) from Bulgaria for monitoring energetic particle flux in the lunar environment and (x) Collimated low energy (1-10keV) X-ray spectrometer (C1XS) with a field of view of 20km for chemical mapping of the lunar surface from RAL, UK. A wealth of data has been collected (November 2008 to August 2009) from the above instru-ments during the mission life of Chandrayaan-1 and the science data from these instruments is being archived at Indian Space Science Data Centre (ISSDC). ISRO Science Data Archive (ISDA) identified at ISSDC is the primary data archive for the payload data of current and future Indian space science missions. The data center (ISSDC) is responsible for the Ingest, Archive, and Dissemination of the payload

  5. Autonomous Motion Learning for Intra-Vehicular Activity Space Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yutaka; Yairi, Takehisa; Machida, Kazuo

    Space robots will be needed in the future space missions. So far, many types of space robots have been developed, but in particular, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) space robots that support human activities should be developed to reduce human-risks in space. In this paper, we study the motion learning method of an IVA space robot with the multi-link mechanism. The advantage point is that this space robot moves using reaction force of the multi-link mechanism and contact forces from the wall as space walking of an astronaut, not to use a propulsion. The control approach is determined based on a reinforcement learning with the actor-critic algorithm. We demonstrate to clear effectiveness of this approach using a 5-link space robot model by simulation. First, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control including contact phase in two dimensional case. Next, we simulate that a space robot learn the motion control changing base attitude in three dimensional case.

  6. History of UK contribution to astronautics: Politics and government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks CB, Colin

    2009-12-01

    In all developed countries, once it emerged from the amateur era, Space (and especially rocketry) moved on the public agenda because of its potential significance for both the civil and military policies of governments (coupled with its appetite for new money). In the UK the policy treatment of Space broadly paralleled that in other countries until the post-Empire trauma, the burn-out of the White-Hot Technological revolution of Harold Wilson, and the financial crises of the 1970s exhausted the public appetite for large scale publicly funded projects in high technology. The culmination for Space of these pressures came in 1986-1987 when the UK rejected the emerging international consensus and, almost alone, stayed outside the manned space commitments which developed into the International Space Station. In this paper, Colin Hicks will review the UK political developments which led up to the 1986-1987 decision and how the politics and organisation of UK space activity have developed since then to the point where in 2008 a major government review of the UK involvement in manned space was commissioned.

  7. Development of a Generic Environmental Safety Case for the Disposal of Higher Activity Wastes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy; Hicks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The UK generic ESC demonstrates safe disposal of higher activity wastes, by providing: • A demonstration of how environmental safety can be achieved by a variety of disposal concepts based on systems of multiple engineered and natural barriers, providing multiple safety functions; • An understanding of expected barrier performance and how conditions in a disposal system will evolve, based on research findings presented in RWM’s knowledge base; • An approach to safety assessment based on multiple lines of reasoning, involving both qualitative and quantitative analysis; • Complementary insight modelling and total system modelling used to develop understanding of how different components of the engineered and natural barrier system contribute to safety

  8. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  9. Automated entry technologies for confined space work activities: A survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Lucia; Ferrari, Emilio; Mora, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Work in confined spaces poses a significant risk to workers and rescuers involved in the emergency response when an accident occurs. Despite several standards and regulations define the safety requirements for such activities, injuries, and fatalities still occur. Furthermore, the on-site inspections after accidents often reveal that both employers and employees fail to implement safe entry procedures. Removing the risk is possible by avoiding the worker entry, but many activities require the presence of the operator inside the confined space to perform manual tasks. The following study investigates the available technologies for hazardous confined space work activities, e.g., cleaning, inspecting, and maintenance tasks. The aim is to provide a systematic review of the automated solutions for high-risk activities in confined spaces, considering the non-man entry as the most effective confined space safety strategy. Second, this survey aims to provide suggestions for future research addressing the design of new technologies. The survey consists of about 60 papers concerning innovative technologies for confined space work activities. The document review shows that several solutions have been developed and automation can replace the workers for a limited number of hazardous tasks. Several activities still require the manual intervention due to the complex characteristics of confined spaces, e.g., to remove the remains of the automatic cleaning process from the bottom of a tank. The results show that available technologies require more flexibility to adapt to such occupational environments and further research is needed.

  10. Green space definition affects associations of green space with overweight and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Jochem O; Hoek, Gerard; Bloemsma, Lizan D; Gehring, Ulrike; Strak, Maciej; Wijga, Alet H; van den Brink, Carolien; Brunekreef, Bert; Lebret, Erik; Janssen, Nicole A H

    2018-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, exposure to green space is inconsistently associated with being overweight and physical activity, possibly because studies differ widely in their definition of green space exposure, inclusion of important confounders, study population and data analysis. We evaluated whether the association of green space with being overweight and physical activity depended upon definition of greenspace. We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from a Dutch national health survey of 387,195 adults. Distance to the nearest park entrance and surrounding green space, based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) or a detailed Dutch land-use database (TOP10NL), was calculated for each residential address. We used logistic regression analyses to study the association of green space exposure with being overweight and being moderately or vigorously physically active outdoors at least 150min/week (self-reported). To study the shape of the association, we specified natural splines and quintiles. The distance to the nearest park entrance was not associated with being overweight or outdoor physical activity. Associations of surrounding green space with being overweight or outdoor physical activity were highly non-linear. For NDVI surrounding greenness, we observed significantly decreased odds of being overweight [300m buffer, odds ratio (OR) = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.91] and increased odds for outdoor physical activity [300m buffer, OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.17] in the highest quintile compared to the lowest quintile. For TOP10NL surrounding green space, associations were mostly non-significant. Associations were generally stronger for subjects living in less urban areas and for the smaller buffers. Associations of green space with being overweight and outdoor physical activity differed considerably between different green space definitions. Associations were strongest for NDVI surrounding greenness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by

  11. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  12. Trajectory data analyses for pedestrian space-time activity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-25

    It is well recognized that human movement in the spatial and temporal dimensions has direct influence on disease transmission(1-3). An infectious disease typically spreads via contact between infected and susceptible individuals in their overlapped activity spaces. Therefore, daily mobility-activity information can be used as an indicator to measure exposures to risk factors of infection. However, a major difficulty and thus the reason for paucity of studies of infectious disease transmission at the micro scale arise from the lack of detailed individual mobility data. Previously in transportation and tourism research detailed space-time activity data often relied on the time-space diary technique, which requires subjects to actively record their activities in time and space. This is highly demanding for the participants and collaboration from the participants greatly affects the quality of data(4). Modern technologies such as GPS and mobile communications have made possible the automatic collection of trajectory data. The data collected, however, is not ideal for modeling human space-time activities, limited by the accuracies of existing devices. There is also no readily available tool for efficient processing of the data for human behavior study. We present here a suite of methods and an integrated ArcGIS desktop-based visual interface for the pre-processing and spatiotemporal analyses of trajectory data. We provide examples of how such processing may be used to model human space-time activities, especially with error-rich pedestrian trajectory data, that could be useful in public health studies such as infectious disease transmission modeling. The procedure presented includes pre-processing, trajectory segmentation, activity space characterization, density estimation and visualization, and a few other exploratory analysis methods. Pre-processing is the cleaning of noisy raw trajectory data. We introduce an interactive visual pre-processing interface as well as an

  13. Playful Interactions Stimulating Physical Activity in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero

    In this position paper we describe our vision on designing playful interactions to persuade people to be physically active in public spaces. Social embeddedness and playful interaction are the core elements of this vision. We illustrate how our design vision is incorporated into innovative concepts...... to motivate each other to be physically active by creating challenges for each other. Designing playful solutions for public spaces asks for low-threshold solutions that support easy stepping in and stepping out solutions....

  14. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Paul J; Wijndaele, Katrien; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Dunn, Valerie; Goodyer, Ian; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren

    2014-02-24

    Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0 ± 0.30 years), by 4 days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (physical activity/d). During awake hours (15.8 ± 0.9 hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517 min/d) and sedentary time (364 min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in less vigorous intensity physical activity

  15. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Methods Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0 ± 0.30 years), by 4 days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (physical activity/d). Results During awake hours (15.8 ± 0.9 hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517 min/d) and sedentary time (364 min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in less

  16. Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Walter W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The lessons and activities in this guide will engage your students in the excitement of space life science investigations after the Neurolab Spacelab mission. It is the authors' goal that the information in this guide will inspire both you and your students to become interested and active participants in this space mission. Few experiences can compare with the excitement and thrill of watching a Shuttle launch. This guide provides an opportunity for you and your students to go one step further by conducting the experiments on Earth that are relevent to the research conducted in space.

  17. Multilayer active shell mirrors for space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, John; Jackson, Kathryn; Pellegrino, Sergio; Redding, David; Wallace, J. Kent; Bradford, Samuel Case; Barbee, Troy

    2016-07-01

    A novel active mirror technology based on carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) substrates and replication techniques has been developed. Multiple additional layers are implemented into the design serving various functions. Nanolaminate metal films are used to provide a high quality reflective front surface. A backing layer of thin active material is implemented to provide the surface-parallel actuation scheme. Printed electronics are used to create a custom electrode pattern and flexible routing layer. Mirrors of this design are thin (traditional optics. Such mirrors could be used as lightweight primaries for small CubeSat-based telescopes or as meter-class segments for future large aperture observatories. Multiple mirrors can be produced under identical conditions enabling a substantial reduction in manufacturing cost and complexity. An overview of the mirror design and manufacturing processes is presented. Predictions on the actuation performance have been made through finite element simulations demonstrating correctabilities on the order of 250-300× for astigmatic modes with only 41 independent actuators. A description of the custom metrology system used to characterize the active mirrors is also presented. The system is based on a Reverse Hartmann test and can accommodate extremely large deviations in mirror figure (> 100 μm PV) down to sub-micron precision. The system has been validated against several traditional techniques including photogrammetry and interferometry. The mirror performance has been characterized using this system, as well as closed-loop figure correction experiments on 150 mm dia. prototypes. The mirrors have demonstrated post-correction figure accuracies of 200 nm RMS (two dead actuators limiting performance).

  18. Interprofessional Education (IPE and Pharmacy in the UK. A Study on IPE Activities across Different Schools of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Interprofessional education (IPE has been recognised internationally as a way to improve healthcare professional interactions and team working in order to enhance patient care. Since pharmacists are increasingly part of multi-professional healthcare teams and are expanding their clinical roles, many pharmacy regulators have stipulated IPE must be included in educational curricula. This study aimed to examine how different Schools of Pharmacy (SOPs in the UK implement IPE within their pharmacy course. Information about IPE was mainly obtained through interviews with staff from various SOPs. Nine telephone interviews were conducted which were analysed using a thematic analysis approach in order to derive common categories. These were identified as students, activities, barriers and facilitators and benefits of IPE. It was found that teaching methods used for IPE varied across SOPs. No standard strategy to deliver IPE was identified. Students were thought to value the IPE experience, especially the interaction with other professionals. The main barriers to implementing IPE arose from limited financial and organisational support. In general, many SOPs in the UK are undertaking IPE but challenges remain in establishing it as a routine part of the course, something which seems to echo difficulties in implementation of IPE both nationally and internationally.

  19. Development of magnetostrictive active members for control of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce G.; Avakian, Kevin M.; Fenn, Ralph C.; Gaffney, Monique S.; Gerver, Michael J.; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Boudreau, Donald J.

    1992-08-01

    The goal of this Phase 2 Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) project was to determine the technical feasibility of developing magnetostrictive active members for use as truss elements in space structures. Active members control elastic vibrations of truss-based space structures and integrate the functions of truss structure element, actively controlled actuator, and sensor. The active members must control structural motion to the sub-micron level and, for many proposed space applications, work at cryogenic temperatures. Under this program both room temperature and cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive active members were designed, fabricated, and tested. The results of these performance tests indicated that room temperature magnetostrictive actuators feature higher strain, stiffness, and force capability with lower amplifier requirements than similarly sized piezoelectric or electrostrictive active members, at the cost of higher mass. Two different cryogenic temperature magnetostrictive materials were tested at liquid nitrogen temperatures, both with larger strain capability than the room temperature magnetostrictive materials. The cryogenic active member development included the design and fabrication of a cryostat that allows operation of the cryogenic active member in a space structure testbed.

  20. Critical issues related to registration of space objects and transparency of space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhu, Ram S.; Jasani, Bhupendra; McDowell, Jonathan C.

    2018-02-01

    The main purpose of the 1975 Registration Convention is to achieve transparency in space activities and this objective is motivated by the belief that a mandatory registration system would assist in the identification of space objects launched into outer space. This would also consequently contribute to the application and development of international law governing the exploration and use of outer space. States Parties to the Convention furnish the required information to the United Nations' Register of Space Objects. However, the furnished information is often so general that it may not be as helpful in creating transparency as had been hoped by the drafters of the Convention. While registration of civil satellites has been furnished with some general details, till today, none of the Parties have described the objects as having military functions despite the fact that a large number of such objects do perform military functions as well. In some cases, the best they have done is to indicate that the space objects are for their defense establishments. Moreover, the number of registrations of space objects is declining. This paper addresses the challenges posed by the non-registration of space objects. Particularly, the paper provides some data about the registration and non-registration of satellites and the States that have and have not complied with their legal obligations. It also analyses the specific requirements of the Convention, the reasons for non-registration, new challenges posed by the registration of small satellites and the on-orbit transfer of satellites. Finally, the paper provides some recommendations on how to enhance the registration of space objects, on the monitoring of the implementation of the Registration Convention and consequently how to achieve maximum transparency in space activities.

  1. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribby, Calvin P; Miller, Harvey J; Brown, Barbara B; Werner, Carol M; Smith, Ken R

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces : the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals' trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time.

  2. Automated Construction of Molecular Active Spaces from Atomic Valence Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayfutyarova, Elvira R; Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Knizia, Gerald

    2017-09-12

    We introduce the atomic valence active space (AVAS), a simple and well-defined automated technique for constructing active orbital spaces for use in multiconfiguration and multireference (MR) electronic structure calculations. Concretely, the technique constructs active molecular orbitals capable of describing all relevant electronic configurations emerging from a targeted set of atomic valence orbitals (e.g., the metal d orbitals in a coordination complex). This is achieved via a linear transformation of the occupied and unoccupied orbital spaces from an easily obtainable single-reference wave function (such as from a Hartree-Fock or Kohn-Sham calculations) based on projectors to targeted atomic valence orbitals. We discuss the premises, theory, and implementation of the idea, and several of its variations are tested. To investigate the performance and accuracy, we calculate the excitation energies for various transition-metal complexes in typical application scenarios. Additionally, we follow the homolytic bond breaking process of a Fenton reaction along its reaction coordinate. While the described AVAS technique is not a universal solution to the active space problem, its premises are fulfilled in many application scenarios of transition-metal chemistry and bond dissociation processes. In these cases the technique makes MR calculations easier to execute, easier to reproduce by any user, and simplifies the determination of the appropriate size of the active space required for accurate results.

  3. European Identity through Space Space Activities and Programmes as a Tool to Reinvigorate the European Identity

    CERN Document Server

    Baranes, Blandina

    2013-01-01

    Space activities are one particularly visible area, where Europe can shape its identity. This publication investigates the effect space activities have already had on building a European “spirit” (e.g. through European missions or European astronauts). It also looks into the effects that activities labelled “national” have on the emergence of a European identity. Based on this analysis, the book's intention is to identify creative ways and means for how to further use space for shaping the European identity. For this purpose the focus is not only on policy analysis but also on expertise from the fields of cultural science and the arts in order to tap their creative potential and also their theoretical approaches to the topic. Selecting this theme provides ESPI with another opportunity to develop its trans-disciplinary approach.

  4. Do classic blood biomarkers of JSLE identify active lupus nephritis? Evidence from the UK JSLE Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E M D; Jorgensen, A L; Beresford, M W

    2017-10-01

    Background Lupus nephritis (LN) affects up to 80% of juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients. The value of commonly available biomarkers, such as anti-dsDNA antibodies, complement (C3/C4), ESR and full blood count parameters in the identification of active LN remains uncertain. Methods Participants from the UK JSLE Cohort Study, aged modeling, with stepAIC function applied to select a final model. Receiver-operating curve analysis was used to assess diagnostic accuracy. Results A total of 370 patients were recruited; 191 (52%) had active LN and 179 (48%) had inactive LN. Binary logistic regression modeling demonstrated a combination of ESR, C3, white cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes and IgG to be best for the identification of active LN (area under the curve 0.724). Conclusions At best, combining common classic blood biomarkers of lupus activity using multivariate analysis provides a 'fair' ability to identify active LN. Urine biomarkers were not included in these analyses. These results add to the concern that classic blood biomarkers are limited in monitoring discrete JSLE manifestations such as LN.

  5. Low socio-economic environmental determinants of children's physical activity in Coventry, UK: A Qualitative study in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Cox, V M

    2014-01-01

    Children's physical activity (PA) is affected by socio-economic status (SES) and the environment. Children are not fully autonomous in their decision making; parental decisions thus affect how children utilise their surrounding environments for PA. The aim was to examine environmental influences on children's PA from a qualitative perspective in parents from low SES wards in Coventry, UK. 59 parents of children in year 4 (aged 8-9years) completed the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. 16 of these parents took part in focus group discussions examining environmental facilitators and barriers to their child's PA (March-April, 2013). Emerging themes related to physical (i.e. poor access, safety and quality of the neighbourhood) and social environment (i.e. 'rough' neighbourhood due to crime and anti-social behaviour) influences on the PA behaviour of children. The parents believed these environmental factors resulted in the children engaging in greater sedentary activity (watching TV) indoors. The school environment was perceived as a supportive physical environment for children's PA behaviour. Parent's perceptions of an unsupportive physical and social environment restrict children's opportunities to play outside and be physically active and may lead to increased body fat (BF). Schools provide a supportive environment for children from low SES to be physically active in.

  6. Collaborative Human Engineering Work in Space Exploration Extravehicular Activities (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Lena; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on extravehicular activities in space exploration in collaboration with other NASA centers, industries, and universities is shown. The topics include: 1) Concept of Operations for Future EVA activities; 2) Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS); 3) Advanced EVA Walkback Test; 4) Walkback Subjective Results; 5) Integrated Suit Test 1; 6) Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS); 7) Flex PLSS Design Process; and 8) EVA Information System; 9)

  7. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  8. Radiation Protection Studies of International Space Station Extravehicular Activity Space Suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A. (Editor); Shavers, Mark R. (Editor); Saganti, Premkumar B. (Editor); Miller, Jack (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    This publication describes recent investigations that evaluate radiation shielding characteristics of NASA's and the Russian Space Agency's space suits. The introduction describes the suits and presents goals of several experiments performed with them. The first chapter provides background information about the dynamic radiation environment experienced at ISS and summarized radiation health and protection requirements for activities in low Earth orbit. Supporting studies report the development and application of a computer model of the EMU space suit and the difficulty of shielding EVA crewmembers from high-energy reentrant electrons, a previously unevaluated component of the space radiation environment. Chapters 2 through 6 describe experiments that evaluate the space suits' radiation shielding characteristics. Chapter 7 describes a study of the potential radiological health impact on EVA crewmembers of two virtually unexamined environmental sources of high-energy electrons-reentrant trapped electrons and atmospheric albedo or "splash" electrons. The radiological consequences of those sources have not been evaluated previously and, under closer scrutiny. A detailed computational model of the shielding distribution provided by components of the NASA astronauts' EMU is being developed for exposure evaluation studies. The model is introduced in Chapters 8 and 9 and used in Chapter 10 to investigate how trapped particle anisotropy impacts female organ doses during EVA. Chapter 11 presents a review of issues related to estimating skin cancer risk form space radiation. The final chapter contains conclusions about the protective qualities of the suit brought to light form these studies, as well as recommendations for future operational radiation protection.

  9. Neighbourhood food and physical activity environments in England, UK: does ethnic density matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molaodi Oarabile R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In England, obesity is more common in some ethnic minority groups than in Whites. This study examines the relationship between ethnic concentration and access to fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities. Methods Data on ethnic concentration, fast food outlets, supermarkets and physical activity facilities were obtained at the lower super output area (LSOA (population average of 1500. Poisson multilevel modelling was used to examine the association between own ethnic concentration and facilities, adjusted for area deprivation, urbanicity, population size and clustering of LSOAs within local authority areas. Results There was a higher proportion of ethnic minorities residing in areas classified as most deprived. Fast food outlets and supermarkets were more common and outdoor physical activity facilities were less common in most than least deprived areas. A gradient was not observed for the relationship between indoor physical activity facilities and area deprivation quintiles. In contrast to White British, increasing ethnic minority concentration was associated with increasing rates of fast food outlets. Rate ratios comparing rates of fast food outlets in high with those in low level of ethnic concentration ranged between 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.55 (Bangladeshi and 2.62, 1.46-4.70 (Chinese. Similar to White British, however, increasing ethnic minority concentration was associated with increasing rate of supermarkets and indoor physical activity facilities. Outdoor physical activity facilities were less likely to be in high than low ethnic concentration areas for some minority groups. Conclusions Overall, ethnic minority concentration was associated with a mixture of both advantages and disadvantages in the provision of food outlets and physical activity facilities. These issues might contribute to ethnic differences in food choices and engagement in physical activity.

  10. Revitalization and ITS Impact on Public. Space Organization A Case Study of Manchester in UK, Lyon in France and Łódź in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Kazimierczak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Process of deindustrialization of downtowns in most of well-developed Western European countries has been undertaken since 1960’s while in post-socialist countries just from last 25 years, after political and economic transitions in Central and Eastern Europe.  As far as urban structure is concerned, a new type of inner-city sites has appeared as a consequence of the collapse of industrial activities in second half of 20th century.  In vast majority of cases newly developed morhological units (e.g. run-down post-industrial have been unavailable to the public. As a reult, “classical” public space organization of European cities has been significantly changed. However, revitalization of post-industrial urban areas creates opportunities to reorganize public space according to current inhabitants and other urban space users’ needs. All transitions undertaken as a part of re-developement of brownfields sites are focused on impovements in physical and functional dimension of urban space quality to increase the standard of living condition. According to the concept of smat cities it is relaeted to “smart living” in sustainable urban environment. As a matter of fact, post-socialist cities in Central and Eastern Europe where interval of central planning was present in second half of 20th century and “classical” capitalist cites of Western Europe represent different patterns of public space transitions due to distinct historical development process of central space. In the paper a comparative study of Manchester, Lyon and Łódź is presented. The aim of the research is to indicate the reorganization of historically shaped public space structre in central space of analyzed cities after revitalization of post-industrial urban areas and new central space creation.

  11. Using mobile phone data records to determine criminal activity space

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available : International GIS Crime Mapping Brussels, Belgium 25 and 26 September 2007 Conference was organised by IQPC, UK Report by Peter Schmitz Introduction The conference was organised by IQPC, UK for European police agencies to demonstrate new trends in crime...

  12. Recent Activities on the Embrace Space Weather Regional Warning Center: the New Space Weather Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dal Lago, Alisson; Mendes, Odim; Batista, Inez S.; SantAnna, Nilson; Gatto, Rubens; Takahashi, Hisao; Costa, D. Joaquim; Banik Padua, Marcelo; Campos Velho, Haroldo

    2016-07-01

    On August 2007 the National Institute for Space Research started a task force to develop and operate a space weather program, which is known by the acronyms Embrace that stands for the Portuguese statement "Estudo e Monitoramento BRAasileiro de Clima Espacial" Program (Brazilian Space Weather Study and Monitoring program). The mission of the Embrace/INPE program is to monitor the Solar-Terrestrial environment, the magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere and the ground induced currents to prevent effects on technological and economic activities. The Embrace/INPE system monitors the physical parameters of the Sun-Earth environment, such as Active Regions (AR) in the Sun and solar radiation by using radio telescope, Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) information by satellite and ground-based cosmic ray monitoring, geomagnetic activity by the magnetometer network, and ionospheric disturbance by ionospheric sounders and using data collected by four GPS receiver network, geomagnetic activity by a magnetometer network, and provides a forecasting for Total Electronic Content (TEC) - 24 hours ahead - using a version of the SUPIM model which assimilates the two latter data using nudging approach. Most of these physical parameters are daily published on the Brazilian space weather program web portal, related to the entire network sensors available. Regarding outreach, it has being published a daily bulletin in Portuguese and English with the status of the space weather environment on the Sun, the Interplanetary Medium and close to the Earth. Since December 2011, all these activities are carried out at the Embrace Headquarter, a building located at the INPE's main campus. Recently, a comprehensive data bank and an interface layer are under commissioning to allow an easy and direct access to all the space weather data collected by Embrace through the Embrace web Portal. The information being released encompasses data from: (a) the Embrace Digisonde Network (Embrace DigiNet) that monitors

  13. Legal regime of human activities in outer space law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda, Carlo

    1994-01-01

    Current developments in space activities increasingly involve the presence of humans on board spacecraft and, in the near future, on the Moon, on Mars, on board Space Stations, etc. With respect to these challenges, the political and legal issues connected to the status of astronauts are largely unclear and require a new doctrinal attention. In the same way, many legal and political questions remain open in the structure of future space crews: the need for international standards in the definition and training of astronauts, etc.; but, first of all, an international uniform legal definition of astronauts. Moreover, the legal structure for human life and operations in outer space can be a new and relevant paradigm for the definition of similar rules in all the situations and environments in which humans are involved in extreme frontiers. The present article starts from an overview on the existing legal and political definitions of 'astronauts', moving to the search of a more useful definition. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete problems created by human space activities, and the legal and political responses to them (the need for a code of conduct; the structure of the crew and the existing rules in the US and ex-USSR; the new legal theories on the argument; the definition and structure of a code of conduct; the next legal problems in fields such as privacy law, communications law, business law, criminal law, etc.).

  14. Last results of MADRAS, a space active optics demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Lopez, Céline; Chazallet, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the MADRAS project (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) is to highlight the interest of Active Optics for the next generation of space telescope and instrumentation. Wave-front errors in future space telescopes will mainly come from thermal dilatation and zero gravity, inducing large lightweight primary mirrors deformation. To compensate for these effects, a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror has been designed to be inserted in a pupil relay. Within the project, such a system has been optimized, integrated and experimentally characterized. The system is designed considering wave-front errors expected in 3m-class primary mirrors, and taking into account space constraints such as compactness, low weight, low power consumption and mechanical strength. Finite Element Analysis allowed an optimization of the system in order to reach a precision of correction better than 10 nm rms. A dedicated test-bed has been designed to fully characterize the integrated mirror performance in representative conditions. The test set up is made of three main parts: a telescope aberrations generator, a correction loop with the MADRAS mirror and a Shack-Hartman wave-front sensor, and PSF imaging. In addition, Fizeau interferometry monitors the optical surface shape. We have developed and characterized an active optics system with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements. All the conducted tests tend to demonstrate the efficiency of such a system for a real-time, in situ wave-front. It would allow a significant improvement for future space telescopes optical performance while relaxing the specifications on the others components.

  15. Effects of Solar Activity and Space Environment in 2003 Oct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Seok Cho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a good example of extreme solar and geomagnetic activities from October to November, 2003. These activities are characterized by very large sunspot groups, X-class solar flares, strong particle events, and huge geomagnetic storms. We discuss ground-based and space-based data in terms of space weather scales. Especially, we present several solar and geomagnetic disturbance data produced in Korea : sunspots, geo-magnetograms, aurora, Ionogram, and Total Electron Content (TEC map by GPS data. Finally, we introduce some examples of the satellite orbit and communication effects caused by these activities; e.g., the disturbances of the KOMPSAT-1 operational orbit and HF communication.

  16. U.K. physicians' attitudes toward active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, George E; Lancaster, Carol J; Clark, David; Ahmedzai, Sam H; Noble, William

    2002-01-01

    A comparison of the views of geriatric medicine physicians and intensive care physicians in the United Kingdom on the topics of active voluntary euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide revealed rather different attitudes. Eighty percent of geriatricians, but only 52% of intensive care physicians, considered active voluntary euthanasia as never justified ethically. Gender and age did not play a major part in attitudinal differences of the respondents. If the variability of attitudes of these two medical specialties are anywhere near illustrative of other physicians in the United Kingdom, it would be difficult to formulate and implement laws and policies concerning euthanasia and assisted suicide. In addition, ample safeguards would be required to receive support from physicians regarding legalization.

  17. Activities of daily living and quality of life across different stages of dementia: a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Sutcliffe, Caroline; Challis, David

    2015-01-01

    People with dementia (PwD) require an increasing degree of assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), and dependency may negatively impact on their well-being. However, it remains unclear which activities are impaired at each stage of dementia and to what extent this is associated with variations in quality of life (QoL) across the different stages, which were the two objectives of this study. The sample comprised 122 PwD, and their carers, either living at home or recently admitted to long-term care. Measures of cognition and QoL were completed by the PwD and proxy measures of psychopathology, depression, ADLs and QoL were recorded. Using frequency, correlation and multiple regression analysis, data were analysed for the number of ADL impairments across mild, moderate and severe dementia and for the factors impacting on QoL. ADL performance deteriorates differently for individual activities, with some ADLs showing impairment in mild dementia, including dressing, whereas others only deteriorate later on, including feeding. This decline may be seen in the degree to which carers perceive ADLs to explain the QoL of the PwD, with more ADLs associated with QoL in severe dementia. RESULTS of the regression analysis showed that total ADL performance however was only impacting on QoL in moderate dementia. Knowledge about performance deterioration in different ADLs has implications for designing interventions to address specific activities at different stages of the disease. Furthermore, findings suggest that different factors are important to consider when trying to improve or maintain QoL at different stages.

  18. Comparative costs and activity from a sample of UK clinical trials units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Daniel; Reeves, Barnaby C; Bathers, Sarah; Bray, Christopher; Corkhill, Andrea; Hayward, Christopher; Harper, Lynda; Napp, Vicky; Norrie, John; Speed, Chris; Tremain, Liz; Keat, Nicola; Bradburn, Mike

    2017-05-02

    The costs of medical research are a concern. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) need to better understand variations in the costs of their activities. Representatives of ten CTUs and two grant-awarding bodies pooled their experiences in discussions over 1.5 years. Five of the CTUs provided estimates of, and written justification for, costs associated with CTU activities required to implement an identical protocol. The protocol described a 5.5-year, nonpharmacological randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted at 20 centres. Direct and indirect costs, the number of full time equivalents (FTEs) and the FTEs attracting overheads were compared and qualitative methods (unstructured interviews and thematic analysis) were used to interpret the results. Four members of the group (funding-body representatives or award panel members) reviewed the justification statements for transparency and information content. Separately, 163 activities common to trials were assigned to roles used by nine CTUs; the consistency of role delineation was assessed by Cohen's κ. Median full economic cost of CTU activities was £769,637 (range: £661,112 to £1,383,323). Indirect costs varied considerably, accounting for between 15% and 59% (median 35%) of the full economic cost of the grant. Excluding one CTU, which used external statisticians, the total number of FTEs ranged from 2.0 to 3.0; total FTEs attracting overheads ranged from 0.3 to 2.0. Variation in directly incurred staff costs depended on whether CTUs: supported particular roles from core funding rather than grants; opted not to cost certain activities into the grant; assigned clerical or data management tasks to research or administrative staff; employed extensive on-site monitoring strategies (also the main source of variation in non-staff costs). Funders preferred written justifications of costs that described both FTEs and indicative tasks for funded roles, with itemised non-staff costs. Consistency in role delineation was fair (κ

  19. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Reitz, G. [DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Linder Hohe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment

  20. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V.; Reitz, G.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment were

  1. History of Los Alamos Participation in Active Experiments in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongratz, Morris B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    Beginning with the Teak nuclear test in 1958, Los Alamos has a long history of participation in active experiments in space. The last pertinent nuclear tests were the five explosions as part of the Dominic series in 1962. The Partial Test Ban Treaty signed in August 1963 prohibited all test detonations of nuclear weapons except for those conducted underground. Beginning with the “Apple” thermite barium release in June 1968 Los Alamos has participated in nearly 100 non-nuclear experiments in space, the last being the NASA-sponsored “AA-2” strontium and europium doped barium thermite releases in the Arecibo beam in July of 1992. The rationale for these experiments ranged from studying basic plasma processes such as gradientdriven structuring and velocity-space instabilities to illuminating the convection of plasmas in the ionosphere and polar cap to ionospheric depletion experiments to the B.E.A.R. 1-MeV neutral particle beam test in 1989. This report reviews the objectives, techniques and diagnostics of Los Alamos participation in active experiments in space.

  2. A 12 years brazilian space education activity experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancato, Fernando; Gustavo Catalani Racca, João; Ballarotti, MaurícioG.

    2001-03-01

    A multidisciplinary group of students from the university and latter also from the high school was formed in 1988 with the objective to make them put in practice their knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics and engineering fields in experimental rocketry. The group was called "Grupo de Foguetes Experimentais", GFE. Since that time more than 150 students passed throw the group and now many of them are in the space arena. The benefits for students in a space hands-on project are many: More interest in their school subjects is gotten as they see an application for them; Interrelation attitudes are learned as space projects is a team activity; Responsibility is gained as each is responsible for a part of a critical mission project; Multidisciplinary and international experience is gotten as these are space project characteristics; Learn how to work in a high stress environment as use to be a project launch. This paper will cover the educational experiences gotten during these years and how some structured groups work. It is explained the objectives and how the group was formed. The group structure and the different phases that at each year the new team passes are described. It is shown the different activities that the group uses to do from scientific seminars, scientific club and international meetings to technical tours and assistance to rocket activities in regional schools. It is also explained the group outreach activities as some launches were covered by the media in more then 6 articles in newspaper and 7 television news. In 1999 as formed an official group called NATA, Núcleo de Atividades Aerospaciais within the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, UEL, by some GFE members and teachers from university. It is explained the first group project results.

  3. Maritime Activities: Requirements for Improving Space Based Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragnolini, A.; Miguel-Lago, M.

    2005-03-01

    Maritime initiatives cannot be pursued only within their own perimeter. Sector endeavours and the policies which rule over them have wide range implications and several links with other sectors of activity. A well- balanced relationship of sea exploitation, maritime transportation, environmental protection and security ruled by national or international laws, will be a main issue for the future of all kind of maritime activities. Scientific research and technology development, along with enlightened and appropriate institutional regulations are relevant to ensure maritime sustainability.The use of satellite technology for monitoring international agreements should have a close co- ordination and be based on institutional consensus. Frequently, rules and new regulations set by policy makers are not demanding enough due to lack of knowledge about the possibilities offered by available technologies.Law enforcement actions could bring space technology new opportunities to offer solutions for monitoring and verification. Operators should aim at offering space data in a more operational and user-friendly way, providing them with useful and timely information.This paper will analyse the contribution of satellite technology to deal with the specificity of maritime sector, stressing the conditions for both an adequate technology improvement and an effective policy implementation.After analysing the links between maritime activities, space technologies and the institutional environment, the paper identifies some boundary conditions of the future developments. Conclusions are basically a check list for improving the present situation, while a road map is suggested as a matter of a way to proceed.

  4. Does Early Decompressive Craniectomy Improve Outcome? Experience from an Active UK Recruiter Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The results of the recent DECRA study suggest that although craniectomy decreases ICP and ICU length of stay, it is also associated with worst outcomes. Our experience, illustrated by these two striking cases, supports that early decompressive craniectomy may significantly improve the outcome in selected patients. Case Reports. The first patient, a 20-year-old man who suffered severe brain contusion and subarachnoid haemorrhage after a fall downstairs, with refractory ICP of 35 mmHg, despite maximal medical therapy, eventually underwent decompressive craniectomy. After 18 days in intensive care, he was discharged for rehabilitation. The second patient, a 23-year-old man was found at the scene of a road accident with a GCS of 3 and fixed, dilated pupils who underwent extensive unilateral decompressive craniectomy for refractory intracranial hypertension. After three weeks of cooling, paralysis, and neuroprotection, he eventually left ICU for rehabilitation. Outcomes. Four months after leaving ICU, the first patient abseiled 40 m down the main building of St. Mary’s Hospital to raise money for the Trauma Unit. He has returned to part-time work. The second patient, was decannulated less than a month later and made a full cognitive recovery. A year later, with a titanium skull prosthesis, he is back to part-time work and to playing football. Conclusions. Despite the conclusions of the DECRA study, our experience of the use of early decompressive craniectomy has been associated with outstanding outcomes. We are currently actively recruiting patients into the RESCUEicp trial and have high hopes that it will clarify the role of the decompressive craniectomy in traumatic brain injury and whether it effectively improves outcomes.

  5. Associations between objectively measured physical activity and later mental health outcomes in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jane V; Sera, Francesco; Cummins, Steven; Flouri, Eirini

    2018-02-01

    The beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on mental health in adults is well established, but less is known about this relationship in children. We examine associations between objectively measured sedentary time, PA and mental health in 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). Longitudinal data from MCS sweeps 4 (age 7) and 5 (age 11) were used (n=6153). Accelerometer data were collected at MCS4, and mental health was measured at MCS4 and MCS5 using subscales (peer, emotional, conduct, hyperactivity) of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between mean daily PA minutes at different intensities (sedentary, light, moderate-to-vigorous) at MCS4 and SDQ outcomes at MCS5 (score range 0-10) were estimated using multiple linear regression models, adjusting for SDQ at MCS4 and individual and family characteristics, and stratified by gender. In fully adjusted models, increased PA at MCS4 was associated with fewer peer problems in boys and girls at MCS5. For each additional 15 min in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), peer problems decreased -0.077 points (95% CI -0.133 to -0.022) in boys. For girls, light PA was associated with decreased peer problems (-0.071 points/30 min, 95% CI -0.130 to -0.013). Greater sedentary time was associated with more peer problems and fewer hyperactivity symptoms in boys and girls. Increased MVPA was associated with more conduct and hyperactivity problems in boys and more hyperactivity in girls. Increased sedentary time is associated with more peer problems in children, and PA, generally, is beneficial for peer relations in children aged 11. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Habitat composition and connectivity predicts bat presence and activity at foraging sites in a large UK conurbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, James D; Fairbrass, Alison J; Matthews, Tom J; Sadler, Jon P

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization is characterized by high levels of sealed land-cover, and small, geometrically complex, fragmented land-use patches. The extent and density of urbanized land-use is increasing, with implications for habitat quality, connectivity and city ecology. Little is known about densification thresholds for urban ecosystem function, and the response of mammals, nocturnal and cryptic taxa are poorly studied in this respect. Bats (Chiroptera) are sensitive to changing urban form at a species, guild and community level, so are ideal model organisms for analyses of this nature. We surveyed bats around urban ponds in the West Midlands conurbation, United Kingdom (UK). Sites were stratified between five urban land classes, representing a gradient of built land-cover at the 1 km(2) scale. Models for bat presence and activity were developed using land-cover and land-use data from multiple radii around each pond. Structural connectivity of tree networks was used as an indicator of the functional connectivity between habitats. All species were sensitive to measures of urban density. Some were also sensitive to landscape composition and structural connectivity at different spatial scales. These results represent new findings for an urban area. The activity of Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber 1774) exhibited a non-linear relationship with the area of built land-cover, being much reduced beyond the threshold of ∼60% built surface. The presence of tree networks appears to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization for this species. Our results suggest that increasing urban density negatively impacts the study species. This has implications for infill development policy, built density targets and the compact city debate. Bats were also sensitive to the composition and structure of the urban form at a range of spatial scales, with implications for land-use planning and management. Protecting and establishing tree networks may improve the resilience of some bat

  7. Habitat composition and connectivity predicts bat presence and activity at foraging sites in a large UK conurbation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Hale

    Full Text Available Urbanization is characterized by high levels of sealed land-cover, and small, geometrically complex, fragmented land-use patches. The extent and density of urbanized land-use is increasing, with implications for habitat quality, connectivity and city ecology. Little is known about densification thresholds for urban ecosystem function, and the response of mammals, nocturnal and cryptic taxa are poorly studied in this respect. Bats (Chiroptera are sensitive to changing urban form at a species, guild and community level, so are ideal model organisms for analyses of this nature.We surveyed bats around urban ponds in the West Midlands conurbation, United Kingdom (UK. Sites were stratified between five urban land classes, representing a gradient of built land-cover at the 1 km(2 scale. Models for bat presence and activity were developed using land-cover and land-use data from multiple radii around each pond. Structural connectivity of tree networks was used as an indicator of the functional connectivity between habitats. All species were sensitive to measures of urban density. Some were also sensitive to landscape composition and structural connectivity at different spatial scales. These results represent new findings for an urban area. The activity of Pipistrellus pipistrellus (Schreber 1774 exhibited a non-linear relationship with the area of built land-cover, being much reduced beyond the threshold of ∼60% built surface. The presence of tree networks appears to mitigate the negative effects of urbanization for this species.Our results suggest that increasing urban density negatively impacts the study species. This has implications for infill development policy, built density targets and the compact city debate. Bats were also sensitive to the composition and structure of the urban form at a range of spatial scales, with implications for land-use planning and management. Protecting and establishing tree networks may improve the resilience of some

  8. NASA Aerosciences Activities to Support Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has been a critical element of the United State's human space flight program for over 50 years. It is the home to NASA s Mission Control Center, the astronaut corps, and many major programs and projects including the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station Program, and the Orion Project. As part of JSC's Engineering Directorate, the Applied Aeroscience and Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch is charted to provide aerosciences support to all human spacecraft designs and missions for all phases of flight, including ascent, exo-atmospheric, and entry. The presentation will review past and current aeroscience applications and how NASA works to apply a balanced philosophy that leverages ground testing, computational modeling and simulation, and flight testing, to develop and validate related products. The speaker will address associated aspects of aerodynamics, aerothermodynamics, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator systems, involving both spacecraft vehicle design and analysis, and operational mission support. From these examples some of NASA leading aerosciences challenges will be identified. These challenges will be used to provide foundational motivation for the development of specific advanced modeling and simulation capabilities, and will also be used to highlight how development activities are increasing becoming more aligned with flight projects. NASA s efforts to apply principles of innovation and inclusion towards improving its ability to support the myriad of vehicle design and operational challenges will also be briefly reviewed.

  9. Associations of Fitness, Physical Activity, Strength, and Genetic Risk With Cardiovascular Disease: Longitudinal Analyses in the UK Biobank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Emmi; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ingelsson, Erik

    2018-04-09

    Background -Observational studies have shown inverse associations among fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about these associations in individuals with elevated genetic susceptibility for these diseases. Methods -We estimated associations of grip strength, objective and subjective physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular events and all-cause death in a large cohort of 502635 individuals from the UK Biobank (median follow-up, 6.1 years; interquartile range, 5.4-6.8 years). Then we further examined these associations in individuals with different genetic burden by stratifying individuals based on their genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation. We compared disease risk among individuals in different tertiles of fitness, physical activity, and genetic risk using lowest tertiles as reference. Results -Grip strength, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness showed inverse associations with incident cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease: hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77- 0.81; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97; and HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.74, per SD change, respectively; atrial fibrillation: HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73- 0.76; HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.95; and HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.65, per SD change, respectively). Higher grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with lower risk of incident coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation in each genetic risk score group ( P trend fitness were associated with 49% lower risk for coronary heart disease (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69) and 60% lower risk for atrial fibrillation (HR, 0.40; 95%, CI 0.30-0.55) among individuals at high genetic risk for these diseases. Conclusions - Fitness and physical activity demonstrated inverse associations with incident cardiovascular disease in the general population, as well as in individuals with elevated genetic risk for these diseases.

  10. Activating Public Space: How to Promote Physical Activity in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewska, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle. The quality and equipment of urban public space plays an important role in promoting physical activity among people (residents, tourists). In order for recreation and sports activities to be undertaken willingly, in a safe and comprehensive manner, certain spatial conditions and requirements must be met. The distinctive feature of contemporary large cities is the disappearance of local, neighbourly relations, and the consequent loneliness, alienation, and atomization of the residents. Thus, the design of public spaces should be an expression of the values of social inclusion and integration. A properly designed urban space would encourage people to leave their homes and integrate, also by undertaking different forms of physical activities. This, in turn, can lead to raising the quality of the space, especially in the context of its “familiarization” and “domestication”. The aim of the research was to identify the architectural and urban features of the public spaces of contemporary cities that can contribute to the promotion of physical activity. The paper presents the research results and the case studies of such spatial solutions and examples of good practices, which invite residents to undertake different forms of physical activities in public spaces. The issue of the integrating, inclusionary, and social function of physical recreation and sport is discussed as well, and so are the possibilities of translating these values into physical characteristics of an urban space. The main conclusions are that taking into account the diverse needs of different social groups, participation in the design and construction process, aesthetic and interesting design, vicinity of the residence, open access for all age groups and the disabled would be the most important spatial determinants of a properly designed, physically activating public space. Strategies of planning the sports and recreation

  11. A Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre for ESA's Space Situational Awareness Space Weather Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D.; Perry, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    The Heliospheric Weather Expert Service Centre (H-ESC) is one of five thematic virtual centres that are currently being developed as part of ESA's Space Situational Awareness pre-operational Space Weather service. In this presentation we introduce the current products and service that the H-ESC is providing. The immediate and downstream user groups that the centre is aiming to support are discussed. A description is provided on how the H-ESC is largely built on adoption and tailoring of federated products from expert groups around Europe and how these can be used to add value to the overall system. Having only recently been established the H-ESC is continuing to address gaps in its capabilities. Some of the priorities for products, their assessment, validation and integration into the system are discussed together with plans for bespoke development activities tailored to specific end-user group needs.

  12. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  13. Contamination control research activities for space optics in JAXA RANDD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Contamination control research activities for space optics projects in JAXA R&D are described. More accurate contamination control techniques are requested because of intensified recent science mission requirements. One approach to control the contamination effects is analysis by software. JAXA has been developing a contamination analytical tool "J-SPICE" (Japanese Spacecraft Induced Contamination analysis software) as well as experiment facilities to improve the J-SPICE. A reflection model in J-SPICE has been experimentally verified and outgassing model data has been acquired by a facility. JAXA has developed a facility which could determine the influence of the contamination at a specific wavelength by combining a vacuum chamber with an I-R spectrometer and performed an experiment to inspect the effect of baking. Space material exposure experiment results reveal the actual thickness of the contamination layer in ISS orbit.

  14. Perspectives on enhancing physical activity and diet for health promotion among at-risk urban UK South Asian communities: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Cross-Bardell, Laura; George, Tracey; Bhoday, Mandeep; Tuomainen, Helena; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives \\ud \\ud To explore perspectives on enhancing physical activity and diet among South Asians in urban deprived communities at high risk of chronic disease and to inform development of culturally appropriate health promotion intervention. \\ud \\ud Design\\ud \\ud Qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one and family group interviews with thematic analysis of data. \\ud \\ud \\ud Setting \\ud \\ud Urban disadvantaged communities in the East Midlands of the UK. \\ud \\ud \\ud Participants \\...

  15. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  16. Innovative hand exoskeleton design for extravehicular activities in space

    CERN Document Server

    Freni, Pierluigi; Randazzo, Luca; Ariano, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Environmental conditions and pressurized spacesuits expose astronauts to problems of fatigue during lengthy extravehicular activities, with adverse impacts especially on the dexterity, force and endurance of the hands and arms. A state-of-the-art exploration in the field of hand exoskeletons revealed that available products are unsuitable for space applications because of their bulkiness and mass. This book proposes a novel approach to the development of hand exoskeletons, based on an innovative soft robotics concept that relies on the exploitation of electroactive polymers operating as sensors and actuators, on a combination of electromyography and mechanomyography for detection of the user’s will and on neural networks for control. The result is a design that should enhance astronauts’ performance during extravehicular activities. In summary, the advantages of the described approach are a low-weight, high-flexibility exoskeleton that allows for dexterity and compliance with the user’s will.

  17. What is 'protective space'? Exploring the politics of niche development in sustainability transitions : the case of solar electricity in the UK and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, F.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Smith, A.G.; Veraart, F.C.A.; Verhees, B.

    2011-01-01

    Transitions theory emphasizes the important role of niches as sources of sustainable innovation. A defining niche characteristic is the provision of ‘protective space’. It is surprising that the concept of ‘niche protection’ has received little systematic attention to date. Drawing upon UK and

  18. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Summary The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , the UK's strategic science investment agency, today announced that the government of the United Kingdom is making funds available that provide a baseline for this country to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO) . The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , and the ESO Community warmly welcome this move towards fuller integration in European astronomy. "With the UK as a potential member country of ESO, our joint opportunities for front-line research and technology will grow significantly", she said. "This announcement is a clear sign of confidence in ESO's abilities, most recently demonstrated with the construction and operation of the unique Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal. Together we will look forward with confidence towards new, exciting projects in ground-based astronomy." It was decided earlier this year to place the 4-m UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) at Paranal, cf. ESO Press Release 03/00. Following negotiations between ESO and PPARC, a detailed proposal for the associated UK/ESO Agreement with the various entry modalities will now be presented to the ESO Council for approval. Before this Agreement can enter into force, the ESO Convention and associated protocols must also be ratified by the UK Parliament. Research and key technologies According to the PPARC press release, increased funding for science, announced by the UK government today, will enable UK astronomers to prepare for the next generation of telescopes and expand their current telescope portfolio through membership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The uplift to its baseline budget will enable PPARC to enter into final negotiations for UK membership of the ESO. This will ensure that UK astronomers, together with their colleagues in the ESO member states, are actively involved in global scale preparations for the next generation of astronomy facilities. among these are ALMA

  19. Activism in Brazil: hacker spaces as spaces of resistance and free education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Renno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many emerging cultural practices assisted or constituted by digital media were fostered in Brazil by the Cultural Points Project (Pontos de Cultura, initially proposed by the former Brazilian Minister of Culture of President Lula da Silva’s, Gilberto Gil. With Dilma Rousseff, Pontos de Cultura was considered of lesser importance, but the same cannot be said of the group of activists that are working across the country disseminating and building knowledge from digital culture. Groups that were organized horizontally and composed in a large sense by youngsters, developed e-waste recovery projects and computer programming (mainly based on free software in permanent or ephemeral workshops and hackerspaces that were assembled in unique spaces such as offices in malls, classrooms, indigenous villages, Umbanda worship places (Afro-Brazilian worship houses and houses in slums (favelas. Some initiatives in different cities in Brazil (Porto Alegre, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Recife were analysed in the present paper. The selected examples show different ways of sharing knowledge that update the democratization of the education proposal based on a horizontal communication and conjoint experience. In these spaces, the hierarchical spatial structure of the typical classroom was replaced to the shared space of the workshop; the image of the teacher was replaced by the image of the colleague with whom we can learn and teach at the same time; there are no homogeneous age groups, gender or social class; activities are not conducted according to the content or skills instead of that they are based on the projects and objectives defined by the student. At the same time, a space is created in which the traditional and digital culture are not in opposite positions, but instead of that, they complement each other. The use of free software and technological waste recovery questions the relationship between the access to technology and the power consumption, the

  20. Space Human Activity and Education of Spiritual Persons of Space Other Planetary Future in the Third Millennium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Polischuk

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In clause an object of research are prospects of the further space human activity and education of spiritual persons аnother the planetary future, knowledge of the Universe and social progress of a human civilization during an anthropological space age. Proves, that only in unity of reason and spirituality of mankind probably space other planetary future of a human civilization. It is found out, that the strategic purpose of philosophy of formation – is a formation of space other planetary type of the person as image of the person of the future. The concept of the perfect high spiritual moral person as image of the person of space other planetary future which education system and philosophy of formation should bring up already today is offered. Also new anthropological space concepts which can be used in philosophy of formation and to space science are entered.

  1. Computer modeling of active experiments in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollens, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The understanding of space plasmas is expanding rapidly. This is, in large part, due to the ambitious efforts of scientists from around the world who are performing large scale active experiments in the space plasma surrounding the earth. One such effort was designated the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) and consisted of a series of plasma releases that were completed during 1984 and 1985. What makes the AMPTE experiments particularly interesting was the occurrence of a dramatic anomaly that was completely unpredicted. During the AMPTE experiment, three satellites traced the solar-wind flow into the earth's magnetosphere. One satellite, built by West Germany, released a series of barium and lithium canisters that were detonated and subsequently photo-ionized via solar radiation, thereby creating an artificial comet. Another satellite, built by Great Britain and in the vicinity during detonation, carried, as did the first satellite, a comprehensive set of magnetic field, particle and wave instruments. Upon detonation, what was observed by the satellites, as well as by aircraft and ground-based observers, was quite unexpected. The initial deflection of the ion clouds was not in the ambient solar wind's flow direction (rvec V) but rather in the direction transverse to the solar wind and the background magnetic field (rvec V x rvec B). This result was not predicted by any existing theories or simulation models; it is the main subject discussed in this dissertation. A large three dimensional computer simulation was produced to demonstrate that this transverse motion can be explained in terms of a rocket effect. Due to the extreme computer resources utilized in producing this work, the computer methods used to complete the calculation and the visualization techniques used to view the results are also discussed

  2. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  3. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual’s environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. “When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct – whichever emphasis you prefer – only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level.”Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141). “…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size.”Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18) “A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not

  4. Overview of global space activities in 2007/2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicolas; Delmotte, Raphaëlle

    2009-08-01

    The period ranging from July 2007 to June 2008 has been marked by significant trends and issues in the space sector, particularly under the impulsion of space-faring countries. The internationalisation and globalisation of the space sector which started a few years ago have been gaining momentum as well. As a consequence, the size of the space sector has been growing, as well as the global competition for market shares.

  5. Constraining slip rates and spacings for active normal faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Patience A.; Roberts, Gerald P.

    2001-12-01

    Numerous observations of extensional provinces indicate that neighbouring faults commonly slip at different rates and, moreover, may be active over different time intervals. These published observations include variations in slip rate measured along-strike of a fault array or fault zone, as well as significant across-strike differences in the timing and rates of movement on faults that have a similar orientation with respect to the regional stress field. Here we review published examples from the western USA, the North Sea, and central Greece, and present new data from the Italian Apennines that support the idea that such variations are systematic and thus to some extent predictable. The basis for the prediction is that: (1) the way in which a fault grows is fundamentally controlled by the ratio of maximum displacement to length, and (2) the regional strain rate must remain approximately constant through time. We show how data on fault lengths and displacements can be used to model the observed patterns of long-term slip rate where measured values are sparse. Specifically, we estimate the magnitude of spatial variation in slip rate along-strike and relate it to the across-strike spacing between active faults.

  6. Utilisation of Wearable Computing for Space Programmes Test Activities Optimasation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, V.; Lazzari, D.; Alemanni, M.

    2004-08-01

    New technologies are assuming a relevant importance in the Space business domain also in the Assembly Integration and Test (AIT) activities allowing process optimization and capability that were unthinkable only few years ago. This paper has the aim to describe Alenia Spazio (ALS) gained experience on the remote interaction techniques as a results of collaborations established both on European Communities (EC) initiatives, with Alenia Aeronautica (ALA) and Politecnico of Torino (POLITO). The H/W and S/W components performances increase and costs reduction due to the home computing massive utilization (especially demanded by the games business) together with the network technology possibility (offered by the web as well as the hi-speed links and the wireless communications) allow today to re-think the traditional AIT process activities in the light of the multimedia data exchange: graphical, voice video and by sure more in the future. Aerospace business confirm its innovation vocation which in the year '80 represents the cradle of the CAD systems and today is oriented to the 3D data visualization/ interaction technologies and remote visualisation/ interaction in collaborative way on a much more user friendly bases (i.e. not for specialists). Fig. 1 collects AIT extended scenario studied and adopted by ALS in these years. ALS experimented two possibilities of remote visualization/interaction: Portable [e.g. Fig.2 Personal Digital Assistant (PDA), Wearable] and walls (e.g.VR-Lab) screens as both 2D/3D visualisation and interaction devices which could support many types of traditional (mainly based on EGSE and PDM/CAD utilisation/reports) company internal AIT applications: 1. design review support 2. facility management 3. storage management 4. personnel training 5. integration sequences definition 6. assembly and test operations follow up 7. documentation review and external access to AIT activities for remote operations (e.g. tele-testing) EGSE Portable Clean room

  7. Less is more: Sampling chemical space with active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin S.; Nebgen, Ben; Lubbers, Nicholas; Isayev, Olexandr; Roitberg, Adrian E.

    2018-06-01

    The development of accurate and transferable machine learning (ML) potentials for predicting molecular energetics is a challenging task. The process of data generation to train such ML potentials is a task neither well understood nor researched in detail. In this work, we present a fully automated approach for the generation of datasets with the intent of training universal ML potentials. It is based on the concept of active learning (AL) via Query by Committee (QBC), which uses the disagreement between an ensemble of ML potentials to infer the reliability of the ensemble's prediction. QBC allows the presented AL algorithm to automatically sample regions of chemical space where the ML potential fails to accurately predict the potential energy. AL improves the overall fitness of ANAKIN-ME (ANI) deep learning potentials in rigorous test cases by mitigating human biases in deciding what new training data to use. AL also reduces the training set size to a fraction of the data required when using naive random sampling techniques. To provide validation of our AL approach, we develop the COmprehensive Machine-learning Potential (COMP6) benchmark (publicly available on GitHub) which contains a diverse set of organic molecules. Active learning-based ANI potentials outperform the original random sampled ANI-1 potential with only 10% of the data, while the final active learning-based model vastly outperforms ANI-1 on the COMP6 benchmark after training to only 25% of the data. Finally, we show that our proposed AL technique develops a universal ANI potential (ANI-1x) that provides accurate energy and force predictions on the entire COMP6 benchmark. This universal ML potential achieves a level of accuracy on par with the best ML potentials for single molecules or materials, while remaining applicable to the general class of organic molecules composed of the elements CHNO.

  8. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  9. Variation in activity levels amongst dogs of different breeds: results of a large online survey of dog owners from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickup, Emily; German, Alexander J; Blackwell, Emily; Evans, Mark; Westgarth, Carri

    2017-01-01

    Regular physical activity is an important means of promoting health, both in people and their pets. Walking is the most common method used for dogs, but there is a lack of clarity on how much daily activity different breeds of dog require. Data from an online survey of UK dog owners were collected between June and August in 2014. The University of Liverpool Ethics Committee approved the project, and owners consented to data use. The initial dataset (17 028 dogs) was first cleaned to remove erroneous data, and then edited to remove mixed breed dogs, leaving a total of 12 314 dogs from known pedigree breeds. Other information collected included sex, age, neuter status, breed, and amount and frequency of exercise. Exercise frequency and duration were estimated across different breeds, and compared with Kennel Club recommendations, using χ 2 tests and binary logistic regression. The online survey data indicated differences amongst breeds in the amount of walking reported ( P  hounds were the least exercised breed, whilst breeds reportedly exercised most included: English setter, foxhound, Irish setter and Old English sheepdog. Gundogs were most likely to be walked once per d or more ( P  dogs were more likely to meet their UK Kennel Club guidelines for dog walking ( P  dog walking varies both within and amongst breeds, and many do not currently receive the recommended amount of exercise. This may constitute a canine welfare problem and also have an impact on the physical activity levels of their owners.

  10. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  11. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  12. Distance to green space and physical activity: a danish national representative survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, Mette; Ekholm, Ola; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated.......This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated....

  13. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  14. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  15. Association Between Lipid Biomarkers, Physical Activity, and Socioeconomic Status in a Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather; Becker, Frauke; Antwi, Kofi

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of global death. Physical activity can help individuals reduce their CVD risk. However, the biological mechanisms explaining the link between physical activity and CVD risk and how they may be mediated by socioeconomic status are not well understood. We use cross-sectional data from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey, UK, to investigate the association between two biomarkers for CVD risk: cholesterol ratio and triglyceride levels and four different measures of physical activity: moderate, mild, self-reported activity rating, and walking 30 min or more a week using multivariate logistic regression. The analysis investigates if this association is mediated by socioeconomic status and difficulty accessing sports facilities. Results from multivariate regressions show that moderate and self-reported activity rating are significantly associated with cholesterol ratio and triglycerides for both men and women. A weaker association was found for walking 30 min or more a week. No association was found between mild physical activity and the two biomarkers. There is some evidence that socioeconomic status mediates the relationship between the biomarkers and physical activity. A significant association between socioeconomic status variables and the biomarkers was found only for women. We provide some evidence of the mechanisms explaining the link between CVD risk and physical activity by finding an association with traditional lipid biomarkers. We also find that intensity of physical activity matters. Socioeconomic status especially for women is important which may explain some of the inequalities in CVD risk.

  16. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Country report for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, T.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the status of the UK nuclear industry, activities concerning fast reactor are reviewed. There is no government funded program except for decommissioning work at Dounrey. Major activities are concerned with knowledge preservation, fuel cycle modelling and scenario studies, and gas-cooled fast reactor feasibility studies. European, international and BNFL collaboration are also reviewed

  18. The association between physical activity and risk of mortality is modulated by grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness: evidence from 498 135 UK-Biobank participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Lyall, Donald M.; Anderson, Jana; Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Fan, Yu; Ntuk, Uduakobong E.; Mackay, Daniel F.; Pell, Jill P.; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Aims It is unclear whether the potential benefits of physical activity differ according to level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or strength. The aim of this study was to determine whether the association between physical activity and mortality is moderated by CRF and grip strength sufficiently to inform health promotion strategies. Methods and results 498 135 participants (54.7% women) from the UK Biobank were included (CRF data available in 67 702 participants). Exposure variables were grip strength, CRF, and physical activity. All-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events were the outcomes. 8591 died over median 4.9 years [IQR 4.3–5.5] follow-up. There was a significant interaction between total physical activity and grip strength (P interaction with CRF did not reach statistical significance but the pattern was similar. The association between physical activity and mortality was larger among those in the lowest tertile of CRF (HR:1.13 [1.02–1.26]) than those in the highest (HR:1.03 [0.91–1.16]). The pattern for CVD events was similar. Conclusions These data provide novel evidence that strength, and possibly CRF, moderate the association between physical activity and mortality. The association between physical activity and mortality is strongest in those with the lowest strength (which is easily measured), and the lowest CRF, suggesting that these sub-groups could benefit most from interventions to increase physical activity. PMID:28158566

  19. Update of KSC activities for the space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper is a status report on the facilities and planned operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) that will support Space Shuttle launches. The conversion of KSC facilities to support efficient and economical checkout and launch operations in the era of the Space Shuttle is nearing completion. The driving force behind the KSC effort has been the necessity of providing adequate and indispensable facilities and support systems at minimum cost. This required the optimum utilization of existing buildings, equipment and systems, both at KSC and at Air Force property on Cape Canaveral, as well as the construction of two major new facilities and several minor ones. The entirely new structures discussed are the Shuttle Landing Facility and Orbiter Processing Facility. KSC stands ready to provide the rapid reliable economical landing-to-launch processing needed to ensure the success of this new space transportation system.

  20. Large aperture telescope technology: a design for an active lightweight multi-segmented fold-out space mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. J.; Doel, A. P.; Whalley, M.; Edeson, R.; Edeson, R.; Tosh, I.; Poyntz-Wright, O.; Atad-Ettedgui, E.; Montgomery, D.; Nawasra, J.

    2017-11-01

    Large aperture telescope technology (LATT) is a design study for a differential lidar (DIAL) system; the main investigation being into suitable methods, technologies and materials for a 4-metre diameter active mirror that can be stowed to fit into a typical launch vehicle (e.g. ROKOT launcher with 2.1-metre diameter cargo) and can self-deploy - in terms of both leaving the space vehicle and that the mirrors unfold and self-align to the correct optical form within the tolerances specified. The primary mirror requirements are: main wavelength of 935.5 nm, RMS corrected wavefront error of λ/6, optical surface roughness better than 5 nm, areal density of less than 16 kg/m2 and 1-2 mirror shape corrections per orbit. The primary mirror consists of 7 segments - a central hexagonal mirror and 6 square mirror petals which unfold to form the 4-meter diameter aperture. The focus of the UK LATT consortium for this European Space Agency (ESA) funded project is on using lightweighted aluminium or carbon-fibre-composite materials for the mirror substrate in preference to more traditional materials such as glass and ceramics; these materials have a high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, significantly reducing risk of damage due to launch forces and subsequent deployment in orbit. We present an overview of the design, which includes suitable actuators for wavefront correction, petal deployment mechanisms and lightweight mirror technologies. Preliminary testing results from manufactured lightweight mirror samples will also be summarised.

  1. Habit Discontinuity, Self-Activation, and the Diminishing Influence of Context Change: Evidence from the UK Understanding Society Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Owen Thomas

    Full Text Available Repeated behaviours in stable contexts can become automatic habits. Habits are resistant to information-based techniques to change behaviour, but are contextually cued, so a change in behaviour context (e.g., location weakens habit strength and can facilitate greater consideration of the behaviour. This idea was demonstrated in previous work, whereby people with strong environmental attitudes have lower car use, but only after recently moving home. We examine the habit discontinuity hypothesis by analysing the Understanding Society dataset with 18,053 individuals representative of the UK population, measuring time since moving home, travel mode to work, and strength of environmental attitudes. Results support previous findings where car use is significantly lower among those with stronger environmental views (but only after recently moving home, and in addition, demonstrate a trend where this effects decays as the time since moving home increases. We discuss results in light of moving into a new home being a potential 'window of opportunity' to promote pro-environmental behaviours.

  2. Habit Discontinuity, Self-Activation, and the Diminishing Influence of Context Change: Evidence from the UK Understanding Society Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gregory Owen; Poortinga, Wouter; Sautkina, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Repeated behaviours in stable contexts can become automatic habits. Habits are resistant to information-based techniques to change behaviour, but are contextually cued, so a change in behaviour context (e.g., location) weakens habit strength and can facilitate greater consideration of the behaviour. This idea was demonstrated in previous work, whereby people with strong environmental attitudes have lower car use, but only after recently moving home. We examine the habit discontinuity hypothesis by analysing the Understanding Society dataset with 18,053 individuals representative of the UK population, measuring time since moving home, travel mode to work, and strength of environmental attitudes. Results support previous findings where car use is significantly lower among those with stronger environmental views (but only after recently moving home), and in addition, demonstrate a trend where this effects decays as the time since moving home increases. We discuss results in light of moving into a new home being a potential 'window of opportunity' to promote pro-environmental behaviours.

  3. Standardization by ISO to Ensure the Sustainability of Space Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, A.; Lazare, B.; Oltrogge, D.; Stokes, H.

    2013-08-01

    The ISO / Technical Committee 20 / Sub-committee 14 develops debris-related standards and technical reports to mitigate debris and help ensure mission and space sustainability. While UN Guidelines and the IADC Guidelines encourage national governments and agencies to promote debris mitigation design and operation, the ISO standards will help the global space industry promote and sustain its space-related business. In this paper the scope and status of each ISO standard is discussed within an overall framework. A comparison with international guidelines is also provided to demonstrate the level of consistency. Finally, as a case study, the ISO standards are applied to a CubeSat mission, thus demonstrating their usability on a relatively recent and popular class of satellite.

  4. Access to public spaces and physical activity for Mexican adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ietza Bojorquez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to explore the association between access to public spaces and physical activity for adult women, controlling and testing interactions with sociodemographic and public spaces characteristics. We combined sociodemographic data from a survey with the adult (18-65 years of age women population of Tijuana, Mexico, conducted in 2014 (N = 2,345; with data from a 2013 study on public spaces in the same city. We evaluated access to public spaces by the presence and total area of public spaces in buffers of 400, 800, 1,000 and 1,600m around the participants’ homes. We measured physical activity with the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short. We employed multinomial logistic models to evaluate the association between access to public spaces and physical activity, and tested for interactions between access to public spaces and public spaces quality and sociodemographic characteristics. We observed no interaction between access to public spaces and public spaces quality in their effect on physical activity. There was an association between the presence of public spaces in the 400m buffer, and higher odds of being in the low physical activity level (as opposed to being in the moderate level (coefficient: 0.50; 95%CI: 0.13; 0.87. Participants who used public transport were less likely to be in the low physical activity level (coefficient: -0.57; 95%CI: -0.97; -0.17. We suggest that, in this population, the access to public spaces might be less relevant for physical activity than other elements of the urban environment and sociodemographic characteristics.

  5. Conscientization and Third Space: A Case Study of Tunisian Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumlik, Habiba; Schwartz, Joni

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines, "Al Bawsala," a nongovernmental organization and a female cyber social activist, Amira Yahyaoui, in the aftermath of Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution through the lens of adult education. The theoretical frameworks of conscientization and third space are employed to describe Yahyaoui's development of the watchdog…

  6. Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation

  7. Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonvik Hallgeir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8% doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement, stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut, and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure, as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant

  8. Vocation and avocation: leisure activities correlate with professional engagement, but not burnout, in a cross-sectional survey of UK doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Jonvik, Hallgeir; Richards, Peter; Paice, Elisabeth

    2011-08-30

    Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem.Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation/Leisure activities. Popular

  9. A cross-sectional study examining predictors of visit frequency to local green space and the impact this has on physical activity levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott P. Flowers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of physical activity (PA is a growing public health concern. There is a growing body of literature that suggests a positive relationship may exist between the amount of local green space near one’s home and PA levels. For instance, park proximity has been shown to predict PA levels amongst certain populations. However, there is little evidence for the role of relatedness towards nature and perceptions of local green space on this relationship. The aim of this study was to examine, in a National UK sample, whether subjective indices associated with local green space were better predictors of visit frequency to local green space and PA levels compared to objectively measured quantity of local green space. Methods A cross-sectional survey was designed. From a random sample, 2079 working age adults responded to an online survey in September 2011. Demographics, self-reported PA, objective measures of the local environment (including local green space, road coverage, and environmental deprivation, were assessed in conjunction with perceptions of local green space and nature relatedness. Quantity of local green space was assessed by cross-referencing respondents’ home postcodes with general land use databases. Regression models were conducted to assess which of our independent variables best predicted visit frequency to local green space and/or meeting PA guidelines. In addition, an ordinal regression was run to examine the relationship between visit frequency to local green space and the likelihood of meeting national PA guidelines. Results Nature relatedness was the strongest predictor for both visit frequency to local green space and meeting PA guidelines. Results show that perceived quality is a better predictor of visit frequency to local green space than objective quantity of local green space. The odds of achieving the recommended amount of PA was over four times greater for people who visited local green space once

  10. Physical activity among adolescents and barriers to delivering physical education in Cornwall and Lancashire, UK: A qualitative study of heads of PE and heads of schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walters Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent initiatives have been introduced by the UK government into secondary schools to increase pupils' access to physical activity (PA. Despite this, not enough is known about pupils' levels of physical activity or whether the delivery of these initiatives in schools facilitates or creates a barrier for pupils' PA. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of adolescents PA levels from the perspective of those responsible for delivering physical education (PE in schools; heads of PE (HOPE and heads of school (HS. Methods Seventeen semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a snowball sample of HOPE and HS in schools in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Thematic data analysis using NVIVO was used to identify emergent themes. Results 17 core themes were generated, 12 of which confirmed the findings from similar research. However, five themes relating to 'ethos of performance/elitism', 'lower fitness leads to lower ability', 'undervaluing activities within PE dept' or school as a whole', 'role of the school' and 'PE department doing all it can' offer valuable new insight into the factors which may encourage or prevent PA inside or outside the curriculum. Conclusion Despite many positive perceptions of the delivery of PE in schools, it is evident that barriers still exist within that delivery which discourages physical activity. More research is needed to particularly address the complex issues of elitism and the ethos of PA in schools.

  11. Physical activity among adolescents and barriers to delivering physical education in Cornwall and Lancashire, UK: a qualitative study of heads of PE and heads of schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Spencer Earl; Jones, Georgina L; Walters, Stephen J

    2008-08-01

    Recent initiatives have been introduced by the UK government into secondary schools to increase pupils' access to physical activity (PA). Despite this, not enough is known about pupils' levels of physical activity or whether the delivery of these initiatives in schools facilitates or creates a barrier for pupils' PA. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of adolescents PA levels from the perspective of those responsible for delivering physical education (PE) in schools; heads of PE (HOPE) and heads of school (HS). Seventeen semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out with a snowball sample of HOPE and HS in schools in the Northwest and Southwest of England. Thematic data analysis using NVIVO was used to identify emergent themes. 17 core themes were generated, 12 of which confirmed the findings from similar research. However, five themes relating to 'ethos of performance/elitism', 'lower fitness leads to lower ability', 'undervaluing activities within PE dept' or school as a whole', 'role of the school' and 'PE department doing all it can' offer valuable new insight into the factors which may encourage or prevent PA inside or outside the curriculum. Despite many positive perceptions of the delivery of PE in schools, it is evident that barriers still exist within that delivery which discourages physical activity. More research is needed to particularly address the complex issues of elitism and the ethos of PA in schools.

  12. Application of the French Space Operation Act and the Development of Space Activities in the Field of Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahuzac, F.; Biard, A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of space activities has led France to define a new legal framework: French Space Operation Act (FSOA). The aim of this act, is to define the conditions according to which the French government authorizes and checks the spatial operations under its jurisdiction or its international responsibility as State of launch, according to the international treaties of the UN on space, in particular the Treaty (1967) on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, the Convention ( 1972 ) on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects, and the Convention (1975) on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space. The main European space centre is the Guiana Space Centre (CSG), settled in France. A clarification of the French legal framework was compulsory to allow the arrival of new launchers (Soyuz and Vega). This act defines the competent authority, the procedure of authorization and licenses, the regime for operations led from foreign countries, the control of spatial objects, the enabling of inspectors, the delegation of monitoring to CNES, the procedure for urgent measures necessary for the safety, the registration of spatial objects. In this framework, the operator is fully responsible of the operation that he leads. He is subjected to a regime of authorization and to governmental technical monitoring delegated to CNES. In case of litigation, the operator gets the State guarantee above a certain level of damage to third party. The introduction of FSOA has led to issue a Technical Regulation set forth, in particular for the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. This general regulation is completed by a specific regulation applicable to CSG that covers the preparation phase of the launch, and all specificities of the launch range, as regards the beginning of the launch. The Technical Regulation is based on 30 years of Ariane's activities and on the

  13. Low socio-economic environmental determinants of children's physical activity in Coventry, UK: A Qualitative study in parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.L.J. Eyre

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Parent's perceptions of an unsupportive physical and social environment restrict children's opportunities to play outside and be physically active and may lead to increased body fat (BF. Schools provide a supportive environment for children from low SES to be physically active in.

  14. Active charge, passive discharge floor space heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salt, H.; Mahoney, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    This space heating system has a rockbed beneath and in contact with the floor of a dwelling, which is heated by radiation and convection from the floor. The ability of the heating system to maintain comfort conditions with no additional energy input is discussed and it is shown that the system is more suitable for use in mild climates than severe ones. Experimental work on horizontal air flow rockbeds is reported and shows that shallow beds can be designed in the same way as vertical air flow beds. The influence of natural convection on the effective thermal conductivity of the experimental rockbeds is reported.

  15. Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. L.; Kursinski, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes determinations of atmospheric profiles from space-based radio measurements and the retrieval methodology used, with special attention given to the measurement procedure and the characteristics of the soundings. It is speculated that reliable profiles of the terrestrial atmosphere can be obtained by the occultation technique from the surface to a height of about 60 km. With the full complement of 21 the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and one GPS receiver in sun synchronous polar orbit, a maximum of 42 soundings could be obtained for each complete orbit or about 670 per day, providing almost uniform global coverage.

  16. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  17. Money Allocation to Out-of-Home Leisure Activities and the Organization of These Activities in Time and Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, Gamze; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P; Ettema, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Monetary budgets influence activity participation and related travel as they demarcate limits on how people organize their activities in time and space. In this paper, we are interested in money allocation to out-of-home leisure activities and how this is affected by duration, sociodemographics, and

  18. Virtual Reality: Developing a VR space for Academic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimaris, D.; Stylianidis, E.; Karanikolas, N.

    2014-05-01

    Virtual reality (VR) is extensively used in various applications; in industry, in academia, in business, and is becoming more and more affordable for end users from the financial point of view. At the same time, in academia and higher education more and more applications are developed, like in medicine, engineering, etc. and students are inquiring to be well-prepared for their professional life after their educational life cycle. Moreover, VR is providing the benefits having the possibility to improve skills but also to understand space as well. This paper presents the methodology used during a course, namely "Geoinformatics applications" at the School of Spatial Planning and Development (Eng.), Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, to create a virtual School space. The course design focuses on the methods and techniques to be used in order to develop the virtual environment. In addition the project aspires to become more and more effective for the students and provide a real virtual environment with useful information not only for the students but also for any citizen interested in the academic life at the School.

  19. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  20. Perspectives on enhancing physical activity and diet for health promotion among at-risk urban UK South Asian communities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross-Bardell, Laura; George, Tracey; Bhoday, Mandeep; Tuomainen, Helena; Qureshi, Nadeem; Kai, Joe

    2015-02-27

    To explore perspectives on enhancing physical activity and diet among South Asians in urban deprived communities at high risk of chronic disease and to inform development of culturally appropriate health promotion intervention. Qualitative study using semistructured one-to-one and family group interviews with thematic analysis of data. Urban disadvantaged communities in the East Midlands of the UK. 45 respondents, including 34 people of South Asian origin (16 at-risk individuals, six family groups involving 18 relatives), of mainly Pakistani and Indian origin, including 16 non-English speakers; and 11 health professionals working locally with communities of concern. South Asian participants underlined the challenges of requiring family members across generations to engage in modifying dietary behaviours, and the central role of communal eating of traditional 'Asian' food in their cultural lives. Barriers to increasing physical activity included cost, personal safety and lack of time outside of long working hours and carer commitments. However, increasing walking activity was regarded as feasible by both community and health professional participants. Respondents emphasised using a social approach for potential interventions, undertaking activity with family or friends and with bilingual community peers to facilitate engagement, motivation and support. Spoken content and delivery of interventions was favoured, including personal stories and multilingual audio-visual information; within local informal rather than provider settings, including the home; and aided by pedometers for self-monitoring. Focusing on physical activity by increasing walking may hold promise as health promotion in this deprived South Asian community context. Further intervention development, with exploration of feasibility and acceptability of the social approach and elements suggested, is merited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  1. INCORPORATING ROUTINE ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITY SPACES, AND SITUATIONAL DEFINITIONS INTO THE SOCIAL SCHEMATIC THEORY OF CRIME*

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARR, ASHLEY B.; LEI, MAN-KIT; STEWART, ERIC

    2014-01-01

    Simons and Burt’s (2011) social schematic theory (SST) of crime posits that adverse social factors are associated with offending because they promote a set of social schemas (i.e., a criminogenic knowledge structure) that elevates the probability of situational definitions favorable to crime. This study extends the SST model by incorporating the role of contexts for action. Furthermore, the study advances tests of the SST by incorporating a measure of criminogenic situational definitions to assess whether such definitions mediate the effects of schemas and contexts on crime. Structural equation models using 10 years of panel data from 582 African American youth provided strong support for the expanded theory. The results suggest that childhood and adolescent social adversity fosters a criminogenic knowledge structure as well as selection into criminogenic activity spaces and risky activities, all of which increase the likelihood of offending largely through situational definitions. Additionally, evidence shows that the criminogenic knowledge structure interacts with settings to amplify the likelihood of situational definitions favorable to crime. PMID:26392633

  2. The pore space scramble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Alexandra; Bentham, Michelle; Vermeylen, Saskia; Markusson, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and energy security continue to be the context of the transition to a secure, affordable and low carbon energy future, both in the UK and beyond. This is reflected in for example, binding climate policy targets at the EU level, the introduction of renewable energy targets, and has also led to an increasing interest in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technology with its potential to help mitigate against the effects of CO2 emissions from fossil fuel burning. The UK has proposed a three phase strategy to integrate CCS into its energy system in the long term focussing on off-shore subsurface storage (DECC, 2014). The potential of CCS therefore, raises a number of challenging questions and issues surrounding the long-term storage of CO2 captured and injected into underground spaces and, alongside other novel uses of the subsurface, contributes to opening a new field for discussion on the governance of the subsurface. Such 'novel' uses of the subsurface have lead to it becoming an increasingly contested space in terms of its governance, with issues emerging around the role of ownership, liability and property rights of subsurface pore space. For instance, questions over the legal ownership of pore space have arisen with ambiguity over the legal standpoint of the surface owner and those wanting to utilise the pore space for gas storage, and suggestions of whether there are depths at which legal 'ownership' becomes obsolete (Barton, 2014). Here we propose to discuss this 'pore space scramble' and provide examples of the competing trajectories of different stakeholders, particularly in the off-shore context given its priority in the UK. We also propose to highlight the current ambiguity around property law of pore space in the UK with reference to approaches currently taken in different national contexts. Ultimately we delineate contrasting models of governance to illustrate the choices we face and consider the ethics of these models for the common good

  3. Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1980 plague has been a human threat in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. However, the spatial-temporal pattern of plague occurrence remains poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to gain understanding of human activity patterns in relation to spatial distribution of fleas in Lushoto ...

  4. Emergent Public Spaces: Generative Activities on Function Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Guadalupe; Dominguez, Angeles; Krause, Gladys; Duran, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This study highlights ways in which generative activities may be coupled with network-based technologies in the context of teacher preparation to enhance preservice teachers' cognizance of how their own experience as students provides a blueprint for the learning environments they may need to generate in their future classrooms. In this study, the…

  5. Young Scientists Explore Inner & Outer Space. Book 6--Intermediate Level. A Good Apple Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruin, Jerry

    Designed to develop creativity in young learners, this book contains interdisciplinary activities which focus on the theme of space (inner and outer). Activity pages are provided that can serve as front and back covers of a student booklet and the suggested activities can be duplicated for insertion between the covers resulting in a booklet for…

  6. Integrated Modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Project: Structural Analysis Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, John; Mosier, Mark; Howard, Joe; Hyde, Tupper; Parrish, Keith; Ha, Kong; Liu, Frank; McGinnis, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs about structural analysis activities and integrated modeling for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The topics include: 1) JWST Overview; 2) Observatory Structural Models; 3) Integrated Performance Analysis; and 4) Future Work and Challenges.

  7. Active Vibration Control Method for Space Truss Using Piezoelectric Actuators and Finite Elements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pantling, Carey

    1999-01-01

    .... With the use of a dSPACE data acquisition and processing system, quartz force transducer and piezoelectric actuator, active controls using an integral plus double integral control law were used...

  8. Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura

    2016-07-12

    A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.

  9. Geothermal heat pumps - gaining ground in the UK and worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Robin

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies examines the geothermal heat pump sector, and discusses the technology involved, installations of geothermal heat pumps, the activity in the UK market with increased interest in UK geothermal heat pump products from abroad, and developments in the building sector. The UK government's increased support for the industry including its sponsorship of the Affordable Warmth programme, and the future potential of ground source systems are discussed

  10. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity: a qualitative case study among the least physical active schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-06

    Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already physically active. This study was conducted to explore the least physically active children's "lived experiences" within four existential lifeworlds linked to physical activity during recess: space, body, time, and relations. The study builds on ethnographic fieldwork in a public school in Denmark using a combination of participatory photo interviews and participant observation. Thirty-seven grade five children (11-12 years old) were grouped in quartiles based on their objectively measured daily physical activity levels. Eight children in the lowest activity quartile (six girls) were selected to participate in the study. To avoid stigmatising and to make generalisations more reliable we further recruited eight children from the two highest activity quartiles (four girls) to participate. An analysis of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of space, body, time and relations revealed several key factors influencing their recess physical activity: perceived classroom safety, indoor cosiness, lack of attractive outdoor facilities, bodily dissatisfaction, bodily complaints, tiredness, feeling bored, and peer influence. We found that the four existential lifeworlds provided an in-depth understanding of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of recess physical activity. Our findings imply that specific intervention strategies might be needed to increase the least physically active children's physical activity level. For example, rethinking the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and

  11. 'Demand pull' government policies to support Product-Service System activity: The case of Energy Service Companies in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Hannon, MJ; Foxon, TJ; Gale, WF

    2015-01-01

    Product-Service Systems (PSSs) constitute a family of service-based business models designed to satisfy our societal needs in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner. To date however PSS application has remained niche due to a variety of critical barriers. This paper explores how ‘demand pull’ national government policies could support PSS activity by addressing these barriers and cultivating market demand. Lessons are drawn from a case study of how regulatory, economic incenti...

  12. Correlates of home and neighbourhood-based physical activity in UK 3-4-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatiuk, Jill A; Hesketh, Kathryn R; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2016-12-01

    Identifying context-specific correlates of home- and neighbourhood-based physical activity in preschool-aged children may help improve intervention program development for these settings. A total of 153 3-4-year-old children were recruited through preschool settings in Cambridgeshire (January-July 2013). Children wore Actiheart accelerometers for ≤7 days to assess their sedentary time (ST), light-(LPA) and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). A parent-completed questionnaire assessed correlates across the ecological model and the child's preschool attendance during the measurement week. Only accelerometer data for times when children were at home were used. Multilevel models (Level 1: days; Level 2: child) examined associations between maternal-reported exposure variables and each outcome (children's home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA) (main analysis). Further analyses included the subsample of children with complete paternal correlates data (father analysis). In the main analyses, children with older siblings engaged in less ST. Children whose mothers reported being 'moderately inactive' or 'active' (vs. inactive) engaged in less LPA, while children whose mothers worked >35 h week -1 engaged in less MVPA. More equipment at home was associated with lower LPA but greater MVPA. In the father analysis, father's television viewing before 6 pm was associated with greater ST and less MVPA in children; the negative association between mother's activity and children's LPA was retained. Family demographics and parental behaviours appear to have the strongest association with children's home- and neighbourhood-based ST, LPA and MVPA. This study further highlights the importance of examining both maternal and paternal behaviours. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Assessment of MSFCs Process for the Development and Activation of Space Act Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Space Act Agreements (SAAs) are contractual agreements that NASA utilizes to form partnerships with researchers, industry, and academia to stimulate cutting-edge innovation within the science and technology communities. center dot This study assessed the current SAA development and activation process at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to determine if improvements could be implemented to increase productivity, decrease time to activation, and improve the quality of deliverables.

  14. Exploring Association between Morphology of Tree Planting and User Activities in Urban Public Space; An opportunity of Urban Public Space Revitalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    This paper discusses the association between the morphology of tree planting in urban riverside brown field and user activities. With the growth of popularity, the revitalisation of urban public space is also promising. This research used drone photography and mapping to systematically surveys sample sites. An original observation study of user activities proceed in four sample public spaces in Sheffield. The study results found there are huge popularity and duration difference of user activities between various tree planting morphologies and typologies. The public space with lawn and rounded by mature trees attracted most users with the most activity types; the neat and silent public space is the favourite choice of lunch and reading, meanwhile it got the longest activity duration; but the space with sparse morphology and small trees are more likely be forgotten and abandoned. This finding offered a great opportunity for urban public space revitalisation in post-industrial cities.

  15. Redefining neighborhoods using common destinations: social characteristics of activity spaces and home census tracts compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Malia; Pebley, Anne R

    2014-06-01

    Research on neighborhood effects has focused largely on residential neighborhoods, but people are exposed to many other places in the course of their daily lives-at school, at work, when shopping, and so on. Thus, studies of residential neighborhoods consider only a subset of the social-spatial environment affecting individuals. In this article, we examine the characteristics of adults' "activity spaces"-spaces defined by locations that individuals visit regularly-in Los Angeles County, California. Using geographic information system (GIS) methods, we define activity spaces in two ways and estimate their socioeconomic characteristics. Our research has two goals. First, we determine whether residential neighborhoods represent the social conditions to which adults are exposed in the course of their regular activities. Second, we evaluate whether particular groups are exposed to a broader or narrower range of social contexts in the course of their daily activities. We find that activity spaces are substantially more heterogeneous in terms of key social characteristics, compared to residential neighborhoods. However, the characteristics of both home neighborhoods and activity spaces are closely associated with individual characteristics. Our results suggest that most people experience substantial segregation across the range of spaces in their daily lives, not just at home.

  16. U.K. nuclear data progress report for the period April 1975 to March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayther, D.B.

    1976-08-01

    The Progress Report describes the activities of the UK Nuclear Data Committee, lists the UK data in a CINDA type index, and reports briefly on each UK activity under the organization concerned (AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith, NPL, AWRE Aldermaston, University of Aston in Birmingham, University of Edinburgh, University of London Reactor Centre). (U.K.)

  17. Successive and discrete spaced conditioning in active avoidance learning in young and aged zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Kajiwara, Riki; Tonoki, Ayako; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2018-05-01

    We designed an automated device to study active avoidance learning abilities of zebrafish. Open source tools were used for the device control, statistical computing, and graphic outputs of data. Using the system, we developed active avoidance tests to examine the effects of trial spacing and aging on learning. Seven-month-old fish showed stronger avoidance behavior as measured by color preference index with discrete spaced training as compared to successive spaced training. Fifteen-month-old fish showed a similar trend, but with reduced cognitive abilities compared with 7-month-old fish. Further, in 7-month-old fish, an increase in learning ability during trials was observed with discrete, but not successive, spaced training. In contrast, 15-month-old fish did not show increase in learning ability during trials. Therefore, these data suggest that discrete spacing is more effective for learning than successive spacing, with the zebrafish active avoidance paradigm, and that the time course analysis of active avoidance using discrete spaced training is useful to detect age-related learning impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Incorporating activity-travel time uncertainty and stochastic space-time prisms in multistate supernetworks for activity-travel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liao, F.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Multistate supernetwork approach has been advanced recently to study multimodal, multi-activity travel behavior. The approach allows simultaneously modeling multiple choice facets pertaining to activity-travel scheduling behavior, subject to space-time constraints, in the context of full daily

  19. The Clubbers' Guide: A Treasure Trove of Science Activities/A Treasure Hunt through Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Sue; Scott, Linda; Carter, Liz

    2013-01-01

    This issue of Clubbers' Guide contains an article written by Liz Carter, Senior Science Technician at the Warwick School, Redhill, Surrey (UK), describing some of the wide variety of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) based activities that her school puts on during an eight-day summer school in the holidays for prospective…

  20. A randomised control trial of physical activity in a perceived environment on self-esteem and mood in UK adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carly; Angus, Caroline; Pretty, Jules; Sandercock, Gavin; Barton, Jo

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed whether exercising whilst viewing natural or built scenes affected self-esteem (SE) and mood in adolescents. Twenty-five adolescents participated in three exercise tests on consecutive days. A graded exercise test established the work rate equivalent to 50% heart rate reserve for use in subsequent constant load tests (CLTs). Participants undertook two 15-min CLTs in random order viewing scenes of either natural or built environments. Participants completed Rosenberg's SE scale and the adolescent profile of mood states questionnaire pre- and post-exercise. There was a significant main effect for SE (F(1) = 6.10; P 0.05). Short bouts of moderate physical activity can have a positive impact on SE and mood in adolescents. Future research should incorporate field studies to examine the psychological effects of contact with real environments.

  1. Design performances and chemistry program supporting the FA3/UK-EPR (TM) Activity Management: Experience and Modelling Balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigeras, A.; Bachet, M.; Bremmes, O.; Berger, M.; Clinard, M.H.; Jolivet, P.; Chahma, F.

    2012-01-01

    Several methodologies have been applied to evaluate the source term in the primary circuit and to define the appropriate chemistry conditioning for the EPR reactor. These methodologies are based on nuclear power plant (NPP) feedback experience, laboratory data and modelling considerations. It is concluded that the activity risks are understood and can be managed with EPR design options. A strategy for the chemical conditioning of the primary coolant has been defined through the specifications for 3 parameters: pH, Zn and H 2 whose target and limit values are based on NPP feedback, international experimental data from laboratory tests, theoretical studies and numerical simulations. The material inventory selected for the primary components will allow low dose rates and low crud formation despite the high power level of the EPR reactor

  2. Audit of annual medical appraisal and revalidation activity across the UK Defence Medical Services 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Louisa E; Withnall, Rdj

    2017-02-01

    To provide the first annual audit of Defence Medical Services (DMS) medical appraisal and revalidation activity. A questionnaire-based survey of appraisal and revalidation activity within the 2013-2014 appraisal year (1 April 2013 - 1 March 2014) across the Royal Navy (RN), Army, Royal Air Force (RAF) and Ministry of Defence (MOD) and Defence Postgraduate Medical Deanery (DPMD) Designated Bodies (DBs). Mandatory annual medical appraisal of all DMS doctors was introduced in 2002. The General Medical Council (GMC) introduced licences to practise in November 2011. Revalidation went live in December 2012. In the 2013-2014 appraisal year, there were 1379 DMS doctors. The Responsible Officers (ROs) of the RN, Army, RAF, MOD and Defence Postgraduate Medical Deanery (DPMD) provide appraisal and revalidation services for doctors within their DBs. In the 2013-2014 appraisal year, 82% of DMS doctors completed an annual appraisal. ROs provided positive revalidation recommendations for 90% of DMS doctors without the need for additional supporting information. Additional supporting evidence was required for 10% of DMS trained doctors, but ultimately 100% of DMS doctors due revalidation in the 2013-2014 appraisal year received a positive recommendation. To assist DMS compliance with GMC quality assurance requirements, HQ Surgeon General now maintains a central database of appraisal and revalidation data across the five DMS DBs. Appropriately targeted appraiser training and 'revalidation ready top-up' training should be provided to ensure the demand for military appraisers is met, and that DMS appraisers appropriately maintain their skills. MOD now maintains a central live database for ongoing appraisal and revalidation monitoring. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a Potent, Orally Bioavailable, and Selective Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Chemokine Receptor CCR5 with Broad-Spectrum Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades a...

  4. ‘I’m a feminist, I’m not ashamed and I’m proud’ : young people’s activism and feminist identities in Estonia, Spain and the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Nickie; Wadia, Khursheed; Ferrer-Fons, Mariona; Allaste, Airi-Alina

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the upsurge in young people's activism across Europe by drawing on three ethnographic studies of feminist and LGBT activism. The studies include a feminist organisation, UK Feminista, in a stable liberal democracy, the Feministes Indignades in post-fascist Spain, and the LGBT movement in post-communist Estonia. The paper argues that feminist identities, both individual and collective, are critical to the feminist and LGBT movements studied; that affect, both positive and n...

  5. Community occupational therapy for people with dementia and family carers (COTiD-UK) versus treatment as usual (Valuing Active Life in Dementia [VALID] programme): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenborn, Jennifer; Hynes, Sinéad; Moniz-Cook, Esme; Mountain, Gail; Poland, Fiona; King, Michael; Omar, Rumana; Morris, Steven; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Challis, David; Michie, Susan; Russell, Ian; Sackley, Catherine; Graff, Maud; O'Keeffe, Aidan; Crellin, Nadia; Orrell, Martin

    2016-02-03

    A community-based occupational therapy intervention for people with mild to moderate dementia and their family carers (Community Occupational Therapy in Dementia (COTiD)) was found clinically and cost effective in the Netherlands but not in Germany. This highlights the need to adapt and implement complex interventions to specific national contexts. The current trial aims to evaluate the United Kingdom-adapted occupational therapy intervention for people with mild to moderate dementia and their family carers living in the community (COTiD-UK) compared with treatment as usual. This study is a multi-centre, parallel-group, pragmatic randomised trial with internal pilot. We aim to allocate 480 pairs, with each pair comprising a person with mild to moderate dementia and a family carer, who provides at least 4 hours of practical support per week, at random between COTiD-UK and treatment as usual. We shall assess participants at baseline, 12 and 26 weeks, and by telephone at 52 and 78 weeks (first 40% of recruits only) after randomisation. The primary outcome measure is the Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) at 26 weeks. Secondary outcome measures will include quality of life, mood, and resource use. To assess intervention delivery, and client experience, we shall collect qualitative data via audio recordings of COTiD-UK sessions and conduct semi-structured interviews with pairs and occupational therapists. COTiD-UK is an evidence-based person-centred intervention that reflects the current priority to enable people with dementia to remain in their own homes by improving their capabilities whilst reducing carer burden. If COTiD-UK is clinically and cost effective, this has major implications for the future delivery of dementia services across the UK. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN10748953 Date of registration: 18 September 2014.

  6. Space activity in the 21 st century forum at unispace III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Karl H.; Zhdanovich, Olga V.

    2000-07-01

    During the 21st Century, space activity will have a profound influence on life on Earth and on the development of society. Space activity will touch ever more firmly on the provision of the necessities and qualities of life and will accelerate the movement of nations towards the concept of the global village. A study by Prospective 2100, a group identifying major global trends for the next century, ranked space activity as one of the twelve most important factors for shaping the next century, alongside such items as education, ocean cities, the planetary garden, caring and sharing. The International Space University, ISU, the International Astronautical Federation, IAF, and Prospective 2100 joined forces to study in detail how this influence of space activity would be manifested in the next century. The one-day forum at UNISPACE III was one of a number of international, intercultural and interdisciplinary fora held during the past year to consider what would be the most appropriate space activity for the next century to meet the needs of humanity. The findings and recommendations of the forum are presented in this report.

  7. Social Gradients and Physical Activity Trends in an Obesogenic Dietary Pattern: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura; Toumpakari, Zoi; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2018-03-22

    An energy-dense, high-fat, low-fibre dietary pattern has been prospectively associated with the development of obesity in childhood but is population-specific, which limits translating the pattern into interventions. We explored the generalisability and correlates of this obesogenic dietary pattern in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) for the first time. Data came from participants ( n = 4636 children and n = 4738 adults) with 4-day food diaries in NDNS 2008-2014. Reduced rank regression was applied to 51 food groups to explain variation in energy density, fibre and fat intake. Consistency of the pattern in population subgroups (according to sex, age, occupation and income) was compared with the whole sample pattern using coefficients of congruence (COC). Pattern correlates (sociodemographic, survey year, physical activity and eating related behaviours) were explored using multiple linear regression. Food group loadings were similar to the previously identified obesogenic dietary pattern and were generalisable across all sub-groups (COC: 0.93-0.99). An obesogenic diet was associated with eating takeaways, being omnivorous, a manual household occupation and lower household income in both adults and children ( p pattern could be used to monitor the effectiveness of obesity prevention policies or develop personalised interventions.

  8. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  9. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  10. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  11. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottrill, C; Liverman, D; Boykoff, M

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO 2 e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO 2 e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO 2 e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  12. A concept of active mount for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleille, A.; Lampert, T.; Lafarga, V.; Hellegouarch, S.; Rondineau, A.; Rodrigues, G.; Collette, C.

    2018-06-01

    Sensitive payloads mounted on top of launchers are subjected to many sources of disturbances during the flight. The most severe dynamic loads arise from the ignition of the motors, gusts, pressure fluctuations in the booster and from the separation of the boosters. The transmission of these dynamic forces can be reduced by mounting payloads on passive isolators, which comes at the expense of harmful amplifications of the motion at low frequency due to suspension resonances. To bypass this shortcoming, this paper presents a novel concept of active mount for aerospace payloads, which is easy to install, and meets two objectives. The first one is a high damping authority on both suspension resonances and flexible resonances without compromising the isolation and large stability margins of the closed loop system due to the collocation of the actuator and the sensor. The second one is a broadband reduction of the dynamic force transmitted to the payload, which was achieved in terms of 16 dB. The concept is presented in the first part of the paper and studied numerically and experimentally on a single degree of freedom isolator. A commercial isolator has been chosen for the purpose of the demonstration. The second part of the paper is dedicated to experimental validations on multi-degree of freedom scaled test benches. It is shown that the force feedback allows damping of both suspension and flexible modes (first and second modes, respectively), and significantly reducing the force transmitted in some broad frequency ranges.

  13. A concept of active mount for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souleille, A.; Lampert, T.; Lafarga, V.; Hellegouarch, S.; Rondineau, A.; Rodrigues, G.; Collette, C.

    2017-10-01

    Sensitive payloads mounted on top of launchers are subjected to many sources of disturbances during the flight. The most severe dynamic loads arise from the ignition of the motors, gusts, pressure fluctuations in the booster and from the separation of the boosters. The transmission of these dynamic forces can be reduced by mounting payloads on passive isolators, which comes at the expense of harmful amplifications of the motion at low frequency due to suspension resonances. To bypass this shortcoming, this paper presents a novel concept of active mount for aerospace payloads, which is easy to install, and meets two objectives. The first one is a high damping authority on both suspension resonances and flexible resonances without compromising the isolation and large stability margins of the closed loop system due to the collocation of the actuator and the sensor. The second one is a broadband reduction of the dynamic force transmitted to the payload, which was achieved in terms of 16 dB. The concept is presented in the first part of the paper and studied numerically and experimentally on a single degree of freedom isolator. A commercial isolator has been chosen for the purpose of the demonstration. The second part of the paper is dedicated to experimental validations on multi-degree of freedom scaled test benches. It is shown that the force feedback allows damping of both suspension and flexible modes (first and second modes, respectively), and significantly reducing the force transmitted in some broad frequency ranges.

  14. Making Space for Water: A review of SUstainable Drainage systems (SUDs) in a rural/urban area of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Paul; Tellier, Sebastien; Wilkinson, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Expansion of the city of Newcastle included a new development of over 3000 houses and an associated commercial area on agricultural land. The development firmly signed up to the notion that the new estate should adhere to full SUDs design and implementation. In essence there should be no loss of floodplain capacity, the total runoff from the new housing should not increase flood risk downstream and benefits to ecology, recreation and amenity should be fully maximised. Credit must be given to Newcastle City Council, the Environment Agency, the local water company and the developers themselves as a full set of large scale SUDs now exist and they are clearly an asset to the city. However, such a large scale landscape engineering endeavour has not been without direct and indirect problems. This paper reviews some of the experiences, problems and lessons learnt from SUDs implementation, the function of SUDs during flood events and the perception of SUDs by the public. During the life of the project several older estates close to the new development suffered from two major flood events; including foul water inundation, the drowning out of sewer overflows and intense flash flooding. These floods at first gave rise to the public perception that the new development had caused the flooding. During a research project entitled 'making space for water', the instrumentation of the river in the area and the SUDs took place. The hydrological data this produced has given rise to a mixture of positive and negative aspects of SUDs implementation. The cause of one flood was due to the drowning out of key sewer overflows by locally generated by urban flood flow arising from an upstream estate. The second flood was caused by a 48 hour storm event giving rise to high runoff from the rural area again drowning out key sewer overflows. The SUDs were found to perform well during storm events and do not increase runoff from the new estates. The main fundamental complaint is that despite such

  15. Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aero-Space Technology (OAST) has established three major goals, referred to as, "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies Under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Core Technologies Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. One of the main activities over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. This year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies will be awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion.

  16. Online Shopping In The UK

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Ramachandran; K. K. Karthick; M. Saravana Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper will contribute to current academic literature in the area of online retailing and consumer behaviour. Our research outlines a survey conducted with respondents from the UK to ascertain their attitudes to grocery shopping both off and online. The findings indicate that, whilst the vast majority of our sample has experience of online shopping, few actively engage in online grocery shopping. Some of the reasons for this are highlighted and the key issues relate to consumer trust and ...

  17. Associations of discretionary screen time with mortality, cardiovascular disease and cancer are attenuated by strength, fitness and physical activity: findings from the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Lyall, Donald M; Steell, Lewis; Gray, Stuart R; Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Anderson, Jana; Mackay, Daniel F; Welsh, Paul; Yates, Thomas; Pell, Jill P; Sattar, Naveed; Gill, Jason M R

    2018-05-24

    Discretionary screen time (time spent viewing a television or computer screen during leisure time) is an important contributor to total sedentary behaviour, which is associated with increased risk of mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the associations of screen time with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality were modified by levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, grip strength or physical activity. In total, 390,089 participants (54% women) from the UK Biobank were included in this study. All-cause mortality, CVD and cancer incidence and mortality were the main outcomes. Discretionary television (TV) viewing, personal computer (PC) screen time and overall screen time (TV + PC time) were the exposure variables. Grip strength, fitness and physical activity were treated as potential effect modifiers. Altogether, 7420 participants died, and there were 22,210 CVD events, over a median of 5.0 years follow-up (interquartile range 4.3 to 5.7; after exclusion of the first 2 years from baseline in the landmark analysis). All discretionary screen-time exposures were significantly associated with all health outcomes. The associations of overall discretionary screen time with all-cause mortality and incidence of CVD and cancer were strongest amongst participants in the lowest tertile for grip strength (all-cause mortality hazard ratio per 2-h increase in screen time (1.31 [95% confidence interval: 1.22-1.43], p fitness (lowest fitness tertile: all-cause mortality 1.23 [1.13-1.34], p = 0.002 and CVD 1.10 [1.02-1.22], p = 0.010; highest fitness tertile: all-cause mortality 1.12 [0.96-1.28], p = 0.848 and CVD 1.01 [0.96-1.07], p = 0.570). Similar findings were found for physical activity for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. The associations between discretionary screen time and adverse health outcomes were strongest in those with low grip strength, fitness and physical activity and

  18. Creating Inclusive Physical Activity Spaces: The Case of Body-Positive Yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Andrew C; Cunningham, George B

    2017-09-01

    Within the modern cultural climate, those in larger bodies face high levels of weight stigma, particularly in sport and physical activity spaces, which serves as a strong barrier to their participation. However, given the strong link between physical activity and general health and well-being for participants, it is important to explore strategies that encourage participation of these individuals. Thus, the current research examined strategies that physical activity instructors use to develop inclusive exercise spaces for all body sizes. This study employed a series of semistructured qualitative interviews (n = 9) with instructors of body-inclusive yoga classes to explore the ways in which they encourage participation for those in larger bodies. Emergent themes from the current study suggested support for 6 factors for creating body-inclusive physical activity spaces: authentic leadership, a culture of inclusion, a focus on health, inclusive language, leader social activism, and a sense of community. This study revealed that leaders must intentionally cultivate inclusion in their spaces to encourage those in nonconforming bodies to participate. These findings have important health and management implications for the sport and physical activity context and provide a basic outline of practical strategies that practitioners can use to foster inclusion in their spaces.

  19. Systematic Expansion of Active Spaces beyond the CASSCF Limit: A GASSCF/SplitGAS Benchmark Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos D; Li Manni, Giovanni; Stoneburner, Samuel J; Ma, Dongxia; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-07-14

    The applicability and accuracy of the generalized active space self-consistent field, (GASSCF), and (SplitGAS) methods are presented. The GASSCF method enables the exploration of larger active spaces than with the conventional complete active space SCF, (CASSCF), by fragmentation of a large space into subspaces and by controlling the interspace excitations. In the SplitGAS method, the GAS configuration interaction, CI, expansion is further partitioned in two parts: the principal, which includes the most important configuration state functions, and an extended, containing less relevant but not negligible ones. An effective Hamiltonian is then generated, with the extended part acting as a perturbation to the principal space. Excitation energies of ozone, furan, pyrrole, nickel dioxide, and copper tetrachloride dianion are reported. Various partitioning schemes of the GASSCF and SplitGAS CI expansions are considered and compared with the complete active space followed by second-order perturbation theory, (CASPT2), and multireference CI method, (MRCI), or available experimental data. General guidelines for the optimum applicability of these methods are discussed together with their current limitations.

  20. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronauts Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ram K.

    2016-01-01

    This report describes the research completed during 2011 for the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) project. The research is motivated by the desire to safely send humans in deep space missions and to keep radiation exposures within permitted limits. To this end current material shielding, developed for low earth orbit missions, is not a viable option due to payload and cost penalties. The active radiation shielding is the path forward for such missions. To achieve active space radiation shielding innovative large lightweight gossamer space structures are used. The goal is to deflect enough positive ions without attracting negatively charged plasma and to investigate if a charged Gossamer structure can perform charge deflections without significant structural instabilities occurring. In this study different innovative configurations are explored to design an optimum active shielding. In addition, to establish technological feasibility experiments are performed with up to 10kV of membrane charging, and an electron flux source with up to 5keV of energy and 5mA of current. While these charge flux energy levels are much less than those encountered in space, the fundamental coupled interaction of charged Gossamer structures with the ambient charge flux can be experimentally investigated. Of interest are, will the EIMS remain inflated during the charge deflections, and are there visible charge flux interactions. Aluminum coated Mylar membrane prototype structures are created to test their inflation capability using electrostatic charging. To simulate the charge flux, a 5keV electron emitter is utilized. The remaining charge flux at the end of the test chamber is measured with a Faraday cup mounted on a movable boom. A range of experiments with this electron emitter and detector were performed within a 30x60cm vacuum chamber with vacuum environment capability of 10-7 Torr. Experiments are performed with the charge flux aimed at the electrostatically inflated

  1. Centralising Space: The Physical Education and Physical Activity Experiences of South Asian, Muslim Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stride, Annette

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the physical education (PE) and physical activity experiences of a group of South Asian, Muslim girls, a group typically marginalised in PE and physical activity research. The study responds to ongoing calls for research to explore across different spaces in young people's lives. Specifically, I draw on a…

  2. Research use and support needs, and research activity in social care: a cross-sectional survey in two councils with social services responsibilities in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jo; Bacigalupo, Ruth; Halladay, Linsay; Norwood, Hayley

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of research activity, research use, research interests and research skills in the social care workforce in two UK councils with social service responsibilities (CSSRs). A cross-sectional survey was conducted of the social care workforce in two CSSRs (n = 1512) in 2005. The sample was identified in partnership with the councils, and included employees with professional qualifications (social workers and occupational therapists); staff who have a role to assess, plan and monitor care; service managers; commissioners of services; and those involved with social care policy, information management and training. The survey achieved a response rate of 24% (n = 368). The Internet was reported as an effective source of research information; conversely, research-based guidelines were reported to have a low impact on practice. Significant differences were found in research use, by work location, and postgraduate training. Most respondents saw research as useful for practice (69%), and wanted to collaborate in research (68%), but only 11% were planning to do research within the next 12 months. Having a master's degree was associated with a greater desire to lead or collaborate in research. A range of research training needs, and the preferred modes of delivery were identified. Support to increase research activity includes protected time and mentorship. The study concludes that a range of mechanisms to make research available for the social care workforce needs to be in place to support evidence-informed practice. Continual professional development to a postgraduate level supports the use and production of evidence in the social care workforce, and promotes the development of a research culture. The term research is used to include service user consultations, needs assessment and service evaluation. The findings highlight a relatively large body of the social care workforce willing to collaborate and conduct research

  3. Does the Association between Depressive Symptomatology and Physical Activity Depend on Body Image Perception? A Survey of Students from Seven Universities in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study assessed the association between depression and PA in university students of both genders and the role of body image perception as a potential effect modifier. Undergraduate students (N = 3706 from seven universities in the UK completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic information; a range of health, health behaviour and health awareness related factors; the modified version of Beck’s Depression Inventory (M-BDI; educational achievement, and different levels of physical activity (PA, such as moderate PA (at least 5 days per week moderate exercise of at least 30 minutes, and vigorous PA (at least 3 days per week vigorous exercise of at least 20 minutes. Only 12.4% of the sample achieved the international recommended level for moderate PA, and 33.1% achieved the recommendations for vigorous PA. Both moderate and vigorous PA were inversely related to the M-BDI score. Physically active students, regardless of the type of PA, were significantly more likely to perceive their health as good, to have higher health awareness, to perform strengthening exercises, and to be males. The stratified analyses indicated that the association between depression and PA differed by body image. In students perceiving their body image as ‘just right’, moderate (>4th percentile and high (>5th percentile M-BDI scores were inversely related to vigorous PA. However, in students who perceived their body image as ‘overweight’, the inverse association was only significant in those with high M-BDI scores. We conclude that the positive effect of PA on depression could be down modulated by the negative impact of a ‘distorted’ body image on depression. The practical implications of these findings are that PA programmes targeting persons with depressive symptoms should include effective components to enhance body image perception.

  4. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  5. Meeting at the Edges: Spaces, Places and Grassroots Governance Activism in Delhi

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Through ethnography of activist organisations promoting transparency, accountability and active citizenship, and comprising coalitions of the city’s middle classes and urban poor, this article explores the spaces in which activists from different social backgrounds meet and carry out their work. By locating the positions of meeting rooms, offices and activists’ homes in urban space, I open up a view of the everyday practices of grassroots governance initiatives aimed at producing shared citiz...

  6. Smart SPHERES: A Telerobotic Free-Flyer for Intravehicular Activities in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Micire, Mark J.; Morse, Ted; Park, Eric; Provencher, Chris; To, Vinh; Wheeler, D. W.; Mittman, David; Torres, R. Jay; Smith, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Smart SPHERES is a prototype free-flying space robot based on the SPHERES platform. Smart SPHERES can be remotely operated by astronauts inside a spacecraft, or by mission controllers on the ground. We developed Smart SPHERES to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station (ISS). These IVA tasks include environmental monitoring surveys (radiation, sound levels, etc.), inventory, and mobile camera work. In this paper, we first discuss the motivation for free-flying space robots. We then describe the development of the Smart SPHERES prototype, including avionics, software, and data communications. Finally, we present results of initial flight tests on-board the ISS.

  7. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  8. UK nuclear medicine survey, 1989/90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, A.T.; Shields, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A postal survey of UK nuclear medicine departments was carried out to obtain information on activity during the year 1989/90. A rise of 14% in the number of administrations of radiopharmaceuticals was found compared to 1982: a rise of 22% in imaging studies was offset by a 30% decrease in the number of nonimaging investigations. The estimated total number of administrations in the UK was 430 000. (author)

  9. Propulsion/ASME Rocket-Based Combined Cycle Activities in the Advanced Space Transportation Program Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe; Turner, James

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Office Of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) has establish three major coals. "The Three Pillars for Success". The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville,Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Advanced Reusable Technologies (ART) Project, part of ASTP, focuses on the reusable technologies beyond those being pursued by X-33. The main activity over the past two and a half years has been on advancing the rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. In June of last year, activities for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) airframe and propulsion technologies were initiated. These activities focus primarily on those technologies that support the year 2000 decision to determine the path this country will take for Space Shuttle and RLV. In February of this year, additional technology efforts in the reusable technologies were awarded. The RBCC effort that was completed early this year was the initial step leading to flight demonstrations of the technology for space launch vehicle propulsion. Aerojet, Boeing-Rocketdyne and Pratt & Whitney were selected for a two-year period to design, build and ground test their RBCC engine concepts. In addition, ASTROX, Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and University of Alabama in Huntsville also conducted supporting activities. The activity included ground testing of components (e.g., injectors, thrusters, ejectors and inlets) and integrated flowpaths. An area that has caused a large amount of difficulty in the testing efforts is the means of initiating the rocket combustion process. All three of the prime contractors above were using silane (SiH4) for ignition of the thrusters. This follows from the successful use of silane in the NASP program for scramjet ignition. However, difficulties were immediately encountered when silane (an 80/20 mixture of hydrogen/silane) was used for rocket

  10. Geo-spatial Cognition on Human's Social Activity Space Based on Multi-scale Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Weixin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Widely applied location aware devices, including mobile phones and GPS receivers, have provided great convenience for collecting large volume individuals' geographical information. The researches on the human's society behavior space has attracts an increasingly number of researchers. In our research, based on location-based Flickr data From 2004 to May, 2014 in China, we choose five levels of spatial grids to form the multi-scale frame for investigate the correlation between the scale and the geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space. The HT-index is selected as the fractal inspired by Alexander to estimate the maturity of the society activity on different scales. The results indicate that that the scale characteristics are related to the spatial cognition to a certain extent. It is favorable to use the spatial grid as a tool to control scales for geo-spatial cognition on human's social activity space.

  11. Interference Mitigation Technique Using Active Spaceborne Sensor Antenna in EESS (Active) and Space Research Service (Active) for Use in 500 MHz Bandwidth Near 9.6 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huneycutt, Bryan L.

    2005-01-01

    This document presents an interference mitigation technique using the active spaceborne sensor SAR3 antenna in the Earth Exploration-Satellite Service (active) and Space Research Service (active) for use in a 500 MHz bandwidth near 9.6 GHz. The purpose of the document is present antenna designs which offer lower sidelobes and faster rolloff in the sidelobes which in turn mitigates the interference to other services from the EESS (active) and SRS (active) sensors.

  12. Effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Justin W.; McMurtry , Dan; Blass, Chad R.; Walter, W. David; Beringer, Jeff; VerCauterren, Kurt C.

    2016-01-01

    Abundance and distribution of feral swine (Sus scrofa) in the USA have increased dramatically during the last 30 years. Effective measures are needed to control and eradicate feral swine populations without displacing animals over wider areas. Our objective was to investigate effects of repeated simulated removal activities on feral swine movements and space use. We analyzed location data from 21 feral swine that we fitted with Global Positioning System harnesses in southern MO, USA. Various removal activities were applied over time to eight feral swine before lethal removal, including trapped-and-released, chased with dogs, chased with hunter, and chased with helicopter. We found that core space-use areas were reduced following the first removal activity, whereas overall space-use areas and diurnal movement distances increased following the second removal activity. Mean geographic centroid shifts did not differ between pre- and post-periods for either the first or second removal activities. Our information on feral swine movements and space use precipitated by human removal activities, such as hunting, trapping, and chasing with dogs, helps fill a knowledge void and will aid wildlife managers. Strategies to optimize management are needed to reduce feral swine populations while preventing enlarged home ranges and displacing individuals, which could lead to increased disease transmission risk and human-feral swine conflict in adjacent areas.

  13. Costs and effectiveness of fingolimod versus alemtuzumab in the treatment of highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in the UK: re-treatment, discount, and disutility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Stephen M; Kusel, Jeanette; Nicholas, Richard; Adlard, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) treated with disease modifying therapies (DMTs) who continue to experience disease activity may be considered for escalation therapies such as fingolimod, or may be considered for alemtuzumab. Previous economic modeling used Markov models; applying one alternative technique, discrete event simulation (DES) modeling, allows re-treatment and long-term adverse events (AEs) to be included in the analysis. A DES was adapted to model relapse-triggered re-treatment with alemtuzumab and the effect of including ongoing quality-adjusted life year (QALY) decrements for AEs that extend beyond previous 1-year Markov cycles. As the price to the NHS of fingolimod in the UK is unknown, due to a confidential patient access scheme (PAS), a variety of possible discounts were tested. The interaction of re-treatment assumptions for alemtuzumab with the possible discounts for fingolimod was tested to determine which DMT resulted in lower lifetime costs. The lifetime QALY results were derived from modeled treatment effect and short- and long-term AEs. Most permutations of fingolimod PAS discount and alemtuzumab re-treatment rate resulted in fingolimod being less costly than alemtuzumab. As the percentage of patients who are re-treated with alemtuzumab due to experiencing a relapse approaches 100% of those who relapse whilst on treatment, the discount required for fingolimod to be less costly drops below 5%. Consideration of treatment effect alone found alemtuzumab generated 0.2 more QALYs/patient; the inclusion of AEs up to a duration of 1 year reduced this advantage to only 0.14 QALYs/patient. Modeling AEs with a lifetime QALY decrement found that both DMTs generated very similar QALYs with the difference only 0.04 QALYs/patient. When the model captured alemtuzumab re-treatment and long-term AE decrements, it was found that fingolimod is cost-effective compared to alemtuzumab, assuming application of only a modest level of

  14. Radon remediation of a two-storey UK dwelling by active sub-slab depressurization: observations on hourly Radon concentration variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Radon concentration levels in a two-storey detached single-family dwelling in Northamptonshire, UK, were monitored at hourly intervals throughout a 5-week period during which sub-slab depressurization remediation measures, including an active sump system, were installed. Remediation of the property was accomplished successfully, with the mean radon levels upstairs and downstairs greatly reduced and the prominent diurnal variability in radon levels present prior to remediation almost completely removed. Following remediation, upstairs and downstairs radon concentrations were 32% and 16% of their pre-remediation values respectively. The mean downstairs radon concentration was lower than that upstairs, with pre-and post-remediation values of the upstairs/downstairs concentration ratio, R U/D , of 0.93 and 1.76 respectively. Cross-correlation between upstairs and downstairs radon concentration time-series indicates a time-lag of the order of 1 hour or less, suggesting that diffusion of soil-derived radon from downstairs to upstairs either occurs within that time frame or forms a relatively insignificant contribution to the upstairs radon level. Cross-correlation between radon concentration time-series and the corresponding time-series for local atmospheric parameters demonstrated correlation between radon concentrations and internal/external pressure-difference prior to remediation. This correlation disappears following remediation, confirming the effectiveness of the remediation procedure in mitigating radon ingress from the ground via the stack-effect. Overall, these observations provide further evidence that radon emanation from building materials makes a not insignificant contribution to radon concentration levels within the building. Furthermore, since this component remains essentially unaffected by sub-slab depressurization, its proportional contribution to the total radon levels in the home increases following remediation, leading to the conclusion that where

  15. Space-Time Dependent Transport, Activation, and Dose Rates for Radioactivated Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazza, Sergio

    Two methods are developed to calculate the space - and time-dependent mass transport of radionuclides, their production and decay, and the associated dose rates generated from the radioactivated fluids flowing through pipes. The work couples space- and time-dependent phenomena, treated as only space- or time-dependent in the open literature. The transport and activation methodology (TAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent transport and activation of radionuclides in fluids flowing through pipes exposed to radiation fields, and volumetric radioactive sources created by radionuclide motions. The computer program Radionuclide Activation and Transport in Pipe (RNATPA1) performs the numerical calculations required in TAM. The gamma ray dose methodology (GAM) is used to numerically calculate space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose equivalent rates from the volumetric radioactive sources determined by TAM. The computer program Gamma Ray Dose Equivalent Rate (GRDOSER) performs the numerical calculations required in GAM. The scope of conditions considered by TAM and GAM herein include (a) laminar flow in straight pipe, (b)recirculating flow schemes, (c) time-independent fluid velocity distributions, (d) space-dependent monoenergetic neutron flux distribution, (e) space- and time-dependent activation process of a single parent nuclide and transport and decay of a single daughter radionuclide, and (f) assessment of space- and time-dependent gamma ray dose rates, outside the pipe, generated by the space- and time-dependent source term distributions inside of it. The methodologies, however, can be easily extended to include all the situations of interest for solving the phenomena addressed in this dissertation. A comparison is made from results obtained by the described calculational procedures with analytical expressions. The physics of the problems addressed by the new technique and the increased accuracy versus non -space and time-dependent methods

  16. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  17. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  18. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e. distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g. resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation. PMID:26657240

  19. UK nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    Regulations and conditions for the commissioning of nuclear power plants in the UK, their siting, licence conditions, design safety assessment, inspection during construction and conditions for safety in operation are listed. (J.P.)

  20. UK victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Burgoyne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.

  1. Non-orthogonal internally contracted multi-configurational perturbation theory (NICPT): Dynamic electron correlation for large, compact active spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähler, Sven; Olsen, Jeppe

    2017-11-01

    A computational method is presented for systems that require high-level treatments of static and dynamic electron correlation but cannot be treated using conventional complete active space self-consistent field-based methods due to the required size of the active space. Our method introduces an efficient algorithm for perturbative dynamic correlation corrections for compact non-orthogonal MCSCF calculations. In the algorithm, biorthonormal expansions of orbitals and CI-wave functions are used to reduce the scaling of the performance determining step from quadratic to linear in the number of configurations. We describe a hierarchy of configuration spaces that can be chosen for the active space. Potential curves for the nitrogen molecule and the chromium dimer are compared for different configuration spaces. Already the most compact spaces yield qualitatively correct potentials that with increasing size of configuration spaces systematically approach complete active space results.

  2. The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

  3. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    ways. Method 1 adjusted PLAB pass marks to equate median performance of PLAB and UK graduates. Method 2 divided PLAB graduates into 12 equally spaced groups according to PLAB performance, and compared these with mean performance of graduates from individual UK medical schools, assessing which PLAB groups were equivalent in MRCP(UK) and MRCGP performance to UK graduates. The two methods produced similar results. To produce equivalent performance on the MRCP and MRGP examinations, the pass mark for PLAB1 would require raising by about 27 marks (13%) and for PLAB2 by about 15-16 marks (20%) above the present standard. Conclusions PLAB is a valid assessment of medical knowledge and clinical skills, correlating well with performance at MRCP(UK) and MRCGP. PLAB graduates’ knowledge and skills at MRCP(UK) and MRCGP are over one standard deviation below those of UK graduates, although differences in training quality cannot be taken into account. Equivalent performance in MRCGP(UK) and MRCGP would occur if the pass marks of PLAB1 and PLAB2 were raised considerably, but that would also reduce the pass rate, with implications for medical workforce planning. Increasing IELTS requirements would have less impact on equivalence than raising PLAB pass marks. PMID:24742473

  4. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard

    2014-04-17

    and UK graduates. Method 2 divided PLAB graduates into 12 equally spaced groups according to PLAB performance, and compared these with mean performance of graduates from individual UK medical schools, assessing which PLAB groups were equivalent in MRCP(UK) and MRCGP performance to UK graduates. The two methods produced similar results. To produce equivalent performance on the MRCP and MRGP examinations, the pass mark for PLAB1 would require raising by about 27 marks (13%) and for PLAB2 by about 15-16 marks (20%) above the present standard. PLAB is a valid assessment of medical knowledge and clinical skills, correlating well with performance at MRCP(UK) and MRCGP. PLAB graduates' knowledge and skills at MRCP(UK) and MRCGP are over one standard deviation below those of UK graduates, although differences in training quality cannot be taken into account. Equivalent performance in MRCGP(UK) and MRCGP would occur if the pass marks of PLAB1 and PLAB2 were raised considerably, but that would also reduce the pass rate, with implications for medical workforce planning. Increasing IELTS requirements would have less impact on equivalence than raising PLAB pass marks.

  5. Compound Structure-Independent Activity Prediction in High-Dimensional Target Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfer, Jenny; Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-08-01

    Profiling of compound libraries against arrays of targets has become an important approach in pharmaceutical research. The prediction of multi-target compound activities also represents an attractive task for machine learning with potential for drug discovery applications. Herein, we have explored activity prediction in high-dimensional target space. Different types of models were derived to predict multi-target activities. The models included naïve Bayesian (NB) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers based upon compound structure information and NB models derived on the basis of activity profiles, without considering compound structure. Because the latter approach can be applied to incomplete training data and principally depends on the feature independence assumption, SVM modeling was not applicable in this case. Furthermore, iterative hybrid NB models making use of both activity profiles and compound structure information were built. In high-dimensional target space, NB models utilizing activity profile data were found to yield more accurate activity predictions than structure-based NB and SVM models or hybrid models. An in-depth analysis of activity profile-based models revealed the presence of correlation effects across different targets and rationalized prediction accuracy. Taken together, the results indicate that activity profile information can be effectively used to predict the activity of test compounds against novel targets. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. OCCAMS: Optically Controlled and Corrected Active Meta-material Space Structures (Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photons weigh nothing. Why must even small space telescopes have high mass? Our team has demonstrated this is not the case using a completely novel approach to...

  7. Beyond advertising : large displays for supporting people’s needs and activities in public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanis, Marije; Groen, Maarten; Meys, Wouter; Slakhorst, Wout; Veenstra, Mettina

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how displays can be used to support human needs and activities in public spaces rather than be employed for commercial purposes only. Based on our analysis of screen usage around the world, eight different categories of usage are described and motivated. For the purpose of

  8. Active and reactive power control of a current-source PWM-rectifier using space vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, M.; Tuusa, H. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). Department of Electrical Engineering, Power Electronics

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the current-source PWM-rectifier with active and reactive power control is presented. The control system is realized using space vector methods. Also, compensation of the reactive power drawn by the line filter is discussed. Some simulation results are shown. (orig.) 8 refs.

  9. Activities report of the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory for the period 1988/1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the activities performed in the period 1988/1989 by the National Space Research Institute (INPE/SCT) Plasma Laboratory (LAP). The report presents the main results in the following research lines: plasma physics, plasma technology, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. (author). 49 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Leveraging Faculty Reflective Practice to Understand Active Learning Spaces: Flashbacks and Re-Captures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Guo, Xiuyan; Pursel, Barton K.

    2017-01-01

    Although learning spaces research is not new, research approaches that target the specific teaching and learning experiences of faculty and students who occupy active learning classrooms (ALCs) is nascent. We report on two novels data collection approaches: Flashbacks and Re-Captures. Both leverage faculty reflective practice and provide windows…

  11. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    , will act as the main European press centre. The Huygens Principal Investigators, the ESA Huygens Mission Manager and Project Scientist will be at ESA/ESOC and available for interviews. If you wish to attend the media activities at ESOC, please return the attached accreditation form. Press Contacts: Jocelyne Landeau-Constantin jocelyne.landeau-constantin@esa.int (+49(0)6151.90.2696) Bernhard von Weyhe Bernhard.von.Weyhe@esa.int (+49(0)6151.90.2516). 17:00-17:30 CET - Press briefing at ESA/ESOC Control Centre. Televised on ESA TV - This event can also be followed remotely by phone : +49(0)69.4035.9681. Friday 14 January Media briefings originated at ESA/ESOC will also be retransmitted to several ESA establishments and across Europe: Cité des Sciences/ La Villette in Paris (F), (event hosted in coordination with ESA and CNES), ESA/ESTEC in Noordwijk (NL), ESA/ESRIN Frascati (I), ESA/ESAC in Villafranca (E), Central London (event hosted by PPARC). ESA specialists will be on hand at the various locations for interviews. If you wish to attend the briefings at one of these venues, please contact the local Communication services directly. ESA for Cité des Sciences, Paris (F): Anne-Marie Rémondin (Anne-Marie.Remondin@esa.int), + 33(0)1.5369.7155 or Brigitte Kolmsee (Brigitte.Kolmsee@esa.int), + 33(0)1.5369.7299 ESA/ESTEC,Noorwijk Space Expo (NL): + 31(0)71.565.3006- Wil Spangenberg (Wil.Spangenberg@esa.int) ESA/ESRIN, Frascati (I): + 39 06 9418 0951- Franca Morgia (Franca.Morgia@esa.int) ESA/ESAC, Villafranca (E): + 34 91 813 11 00- Monica Oerke (Monica.Oerke@esa.int) PPARC, London (UK) : Peter Barratt + 44 (0)1793 44 20 25 (Peter.Barratt@pparc.ac.uk) ESA TV Broadcast schedule for 14 January 2005 09:00-09:30 CET - ESA TV broadcast - Cassini turns to Huygens - Feeds from ESA/ESOC main Control Room 11:00-12:15 CET - ESA TV Broadcast - Probe activation to parachute deployment and status of tracking by radio-telescope 13:30-14:00 CET - Press briefing at ESA/ESOC: Huygens descent

  12. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Tikhon

    2010-03-01

    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  13. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2012-01-01

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA

  14. Comparative measurement of inorganic elements in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Baek, Sung Ryel; Sun, Gwang Min; Moon, Jong Hwa; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she brought special space versions of traditional Korean dishes such as kimchi, boiled rice, hot red pepper paste, soybean paste soup, ginseng tea, green tea, and ramyun. To date, seventy kinds of Korean space foods (KSFs) have been developed by KAERI. The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutrition, as well as a quality control of food and diet. In particular, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth to compensate a decrease in taste and nutrition by hygienic sterilization processing as well as strong cosmic rays, a state of non gravitation, low pressure, and an enclosed space environment. An accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is serious work for analytical data quality. An neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non destructive, multi elemental analytical method without loss and contamination of a sample by chemical pre treatment. The aim of this study is to identify and to compare the distribution of concentrations for essential and functional inorganic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI in 2011 using INAA.

  15. COMMUNAL SPACE IN ISLAMIC ACTIVITY OF DUKUH KRAJAN, DESA KROMENGAN,KABUPATEN MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winarni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dukuh Krajan settlement is a one of the settlement that still hold and maintain the value of tradition, social and cultural  in the  daily and social life. Nowadays, the  phenomena that  happens in the  social-cultural community is the decrement of life pattern of the rural community consist of the value of togetherness and mutual cooperation. This transformation will affect changes of common space. It still needs a deeper research about the formed common spaces especially in the relation with Islamic activity in regular nor incidentally basis. With purpose so that the formed common space can be benficial to grow some communal senses and mutual cooperation in the next generation. The research using qualitative with rationalistic approach. With the data acquired from the filed observation and interview with social figure and the residence. Common space is a common area that formed from the participation of the residence. Space as a base of common life grow from the alliance by building those spaces for a joint interest. the physical room of the Islamic activity consist of two namely residence house Islamic activity and public facility Islamic activity. Those function can transform when the Islamic activity being held. Semi public spaces, semi private, and private will change into common space function. This is affected by the activity, user, time and the room atribute inside. The space application of one activity has a sequence which give the activity and the user a interpretation, in this case togetherness and communality.   Keywords:  Common Space, Islamic Activity, Rural Settlement     Abstrak Permukiman Dukuh Krajan merupakan salah satu pedesaan yang  masih memegang dan mempertahankan nilai- nilai tradisi, sosial dan budaya baik dalam kehidupan sehari-hari maupun kehidupan sosial. Dalam kehidupan sosial-budaya masyarakat  desa saat ini corak kehidupan masyarakat desa yang berupa nilai-nilai kebersamaan dan kegotong

  16. Using Space to Inspire and Engage Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Allan

    2015-01-01

    The European Space Education Resources Office (ESERO-UK) is a project of the European Space Agency (ESA) and national partners including the Department for Education (DfE), The UK Space Agency (UKSA) and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The key objective of the project is to promote space as an exciting inspirational context…

  17. Conceptualization and measurement of environmental exposure in epidemiology: accounting for activity space related to daily mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchoux, Camille; Chaix, Basile; Cummins, Steven; Kestens, Yan

    2013-05-01

    A considerable body of literature has investigated how environmental exposures affect health through various pathways. These studies have generally adopted a common approach to define environmental exposures, focusing on the local residential environment, using census tracts or postcodes to delimit exposures. However, use of such administrative units may not be appropriate to evaluate contextual effets on health because they are generally not a 'true' representation of the environments to which individuals are exposed. Recent work has suggested that advances may be made if an activity-space approach is adopted. The present paper investigates how various disciplines may contribute to the refinement of the concept of activity space for use in health research. In particular we draw on seminal work in time geography, which provides a framework to describe individual behavior in space and time, and can help the conceptualization of activity space. In addition we review work in environmental psychology and social networks research, which provides insights on how people and places interact and offers new theories for improving the spatial definition of contextual exposures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Earth observation space programmes, SAFISY activities, strategies of international organisations, legal aspects. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume is separated in four sessions. First part is on earth observation space programmes (international earth observation projects and international collaboration, the ERS-1, SPOT and PRIRODA programmes, the first ESA earth observation polar platform and its payload, the future earth observation remote sensing techniques and concepts). The second part is on SAFISY activities (ISY programmes, education and applications, demonstrations and outreach projects). The third part is on programme and strategies of international organisations with respect to earth observation from space. The fourth part is on legal aspects of the use of satellite remote sensing data in Europe. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  19. Human Activity Behavior and Gesture Generation in Virtual Worlds for Long- Duration Space Missions. Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; Damer, Bruce; Brodsky, Boris; vanHoff, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A virtual worlds presentation technique with embodied, intelligent agents is being developed as an instructional medium suitable to present in situ training on long term space flight. The system combines a behavioral element based on finite state automata, a behavior based reactive architecture also described as subsumption architecture, and a belief-desire-intention agent structure. These three features are being integrated to describe a Brahms virtual environment model of extravehicular crew activity which could become a basis for procedure training during extended space flight.

  20. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    2001-01-01

    If you go to the country, far from city lights, you can see about 3,000 stars on a clear night. If your eyes were bigger, you could see many more stars. With a pair of binoculars, an optical device that effectively enlarges the pupil of your eye by about 30 times, the number of stars you can see increases to the tens of thousands. With a medium-sized telescope with a light-collecting mirror 30 centimeters in diameter, you can see hundreds of thousands of stars. With a large observatory telescope, millions of stars become visible. This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outer space. It is not intended to serve as a curriculum. Instead, teachers should select activities from this guide that support and extend existing study. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. It tells, rather, the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities for the particular needs of their students. When selected activities from this guide are used in conjunction with traditional astronomy curricula, students benefit from a more complete experience.

  1. Principles of accounting in the information space of foreign economic activity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Yu. Gordopolov

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents scientific results confirming the influence of the external environment on the need for revision of accounting principles in accordance with the characteristics of economic activity. A model of the relationship between the management system and the subsystem of accounting of the subject of foreign economic activity was developed. The study substantiates the approach to the formation of information in accounting, which indirectly depends on how the system of management of foreign economic activity at the enterprise is constructed. The influence of accounting information support on creation of the communication space of the system of management of foreign economic activity is determined. The directions of transformation of accounting principles of foreign economic operations in the context of the influence of the management system of foreign economic activity of the enterprise are presented. The article presents the proposed changes in the part of the transformation of accounting principles of foreign economic activity.

  2. 14 CFR 1266.104 - Cross-waiver of liability for launch agreements for science or space exploration activities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consequential damage. (4) The term “launch vehicle” means an object, or any part thereof, intended for launch... activities related to ground support, test, training, simulation, or guidance and control equipment and... different space objects, between two different locations on the same space object, or between a space object...

  3. Manned space activity and psychological problems and issues; Yujin uchu katsudo to shinrigakuteki shomondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper considers psychological problems and issues for crews living in a space station for an extended period of time. The problems and issues may be divided largely into decline in mental functions such as neural fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased mental work functions, and aggravation in mental state such as anxiety, weariness, hostility, and declined morale. Factors for causing psychological problems may include zero gravity environment, radiation, limited space, vibration, being present under all eyes fixed on oneself, physical restrictions, space-sickness, living in a group, and work contents. These are classified into problems of mental functions that occur from situations specific to space and problems of metal state that come from inner part of the individuals. Life under space environment has neither been studied systematically nor organizationally. The following new criteria for human factors would be required: personality factors that demand individual`s natural gifts, crew factors that view group activities of crews importantly, operation factors that consider quality and amount of operations, and check of mental soundness of the crews. Themes that require further studies would include establishment of psychological aptitude selection criteria and development of psychological group training programs. 7 refs.

  4. Active learning in the space engineering education at Technical University of Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Jacobo; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Lapuerta, Victoria; Ezquerro Navarro, Jose Miguel; Cordero-Gracia, Marta

    This work describes the innovative activities performed in the field of space education at the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), in collaboration with the center engaged by the European Space Agency (ESA) in Spain to support the operations for scientific experiments on board the International Space Station (E-USOC). These activities have been integrated along the last academic year of the Aerospatiale Engineering degree. A laboratory has been created, where the students have to validate and integrate the subsystems of a microsatellite by using demonstrator satellites. With the acquired skills, the students participate in a training process centered on Project Based Learning, where the students work in groups to perform the conceptual design of a space mission, being each student responsible for the design of a subsystem of the satellite and another one responsible of the mission design. In parallel, the students perform a training using a ground station, installed at the E-USOC building, which allow them to learn how to communicate with satellites, how to download telemetry and how to process the data. This also allows students to learn how the E-USOC works. Two surveys have been conducted to evaluate the impact of these techniques in the student engineering skills and to know the degree of satisfaction of students with respect to the use of these learning methodologies.

  5. UK Mission to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  6. Effect of major school playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: Camden active spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hamer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children’s physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design. Methods Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer at one year follow up. Pupils’ impressions of the new playground were qualitatively assessed post construction. Results A total of 347 pupils (mean age = 8 years, 55% boys; 36% Caucasian were recruited into the study at baseline; 303 provided valid baseline Actigraph data. Of those, 231 (76% completed follow-up (n = 169 intervention; n = 62 control and 77.4% of the sample recorded at least 4 days of Actigraph wear. In mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, ratio activity or sedentary/wear time at baseline, wear time at follow up, and school, no differences were observed in total moderate – vigorous activity (B = −1.4, 95% CI, −7.1, 4.2 min/d, light activity (B = 4.1, 95% CI, −17.9, 26.1, or sedentary time (B = −3.8, 95% CI, −29.2, 21.6 min/d between groups. There were significant age interactions for sedentary (p = 0.002 and light intensity physical activity (p = 0.008. We observed significant reductions in total sedentary (−28.0, 95% CI, −1.9, −54.1 min/d, p = 0.037 and increases in total light intensity activity (24.6, 95% CI, 0.3, 48.9 min/d, p = 0.047 for children aged under 9 yrs. old in the intervention. Conclusion Major playground reconstruction had limited effects on physical activity, but reduced sedentary time was observed in younger children. Qualitative data suggested that the children enjoyed the new

  7. Novel strategy to implement active-space coupled-cluster methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolik, Zoltán; Kállay, Mihály

    2018-03-01

    A new approach is presented for the efficient implementation of coupled-cluster (CC) methods including higher excitations based on a molecular orbital space partitioned into active and inactive orbitals. In the new framework, the string representation of amplitudes and intermediates is used as long as it is beneficial, but the contractions are evaluated as matrix products. Using a new diagrammatic technique, the CC equations are represented in a compact form due to the string notations we introduced. As an application of these ideas, a new automated implementation of the single-reference-based multi-reference CC equations is presented for arbitrary excitation levels. The new program can be considered as an improvement over the previous implementations in many respects; e.g., diagram contributions are evaluated by efficient vectorized subroutines. Timings for test calculations for various complete active-space problems are presented. As an application of the new code, the weak interactions in the Be dimer were studied.

  8. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow

    2015-01-01

    advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun......Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D...... structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant...

  9. Features of public open spaces and physical activity among children: findings from the CLAN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Giles-Corti, Billie; Crawford, David; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Ball, Kylie; Salmon, Jo; Hume, Clare

    2008-11-01

    To examine associations between features of public open spaces, and children's physical activity. 163 children aged 8-9 years and 334 adolescents aged 13-15 years from Melbourne, Australia participated in 2004. A Geographic Information System was used to identify all public open spaces (POS) within 800 m of participants' homes and their closest POS. The features of all POS identified were audited in 2004/5. Accelerometers measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) after school and on weekends. Linear regression analyses examined associations between features of the closest POS and participants' MVPA. Most participants had a POS within 800 m of their home. The presence of playgrounds was positively associated with younger boys' weekend MVPA (B=24.9 min/day; pPOS were associated with participants' MVPA, although mixed associations were evident. Further research is required to clarify these complex relationships.

  10. Adolescents who engage in active school transport are also more active in other contexts: A space-time investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tom; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Although active school travel (AST) is important for increasing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), it is unclear how AST is related to context-specific physical activity and non-school travel. This study investigated how school travel is related to physical activity and travel behaviours across time- and space-classified domains. A total of 196 adolescents wore a Global Positioning System receiver and an accelerometer for 7 days. All data were classified into one of four domains: home, school, transport, or leisure. Generalized linear mixed models were used to compare domain-specific PA and non-school trips between active and passive school travellers. Active travellers accumulated 13 and 14 more min of MVPA on weekdays and weekend days, respectively. They also spent 15min less time in vehicular travel during non-school trips, and accrued an additional 9min of MVPA while walking on weekend days. However, those with no AST still achieved most of their MVPA in the transport domain. AST is related to out-of-school physical activity and transportation, but transport is also important for those who do not use AST. As such, future studies should consider overall mobility and destinations other than school when assessing travel and physical activity behaviours. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geothermal resources of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that geothermal energy applications and research are being actively pursued in the United Kingdom despite the relatively normal heat flow regime. The cumulative expenditure on geothermal activity from 1975 to 1989 has been approximately Brit-pounds 46 million of 32% of the Renewable Energy Research Budget to date. The first practical application is a 2 MWt scheme at Southampton as part of a district heating scheme. Commercial operation started in February 1988 and further expansion is planned. The UK's enthusiasm for Hot Dry Rock has dimmed slightly as the entire program is reappraised and the long heralded deep exploration hole has yet to materialize. Future activity looks likely to focus on geothermal opportunities that have multiple uses or applications for the fluids in small scale schemes and Hot Dry Rock research will probably be linked to a pan-European program based in France

  12. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  13. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  14. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  15. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoki, Motohiro; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.; Nagashima, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.

  16. Anti-hierarchical evolution of the active galactic nucleus space density in a hierarchical universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enoki, Motohiro [Faculty of Business Administration, Tokyo Keizai University, Kokubunji, Tokyo 185-8502 (Japan); Ishiyama, Tomoaki [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Nagashima, Masahiro, E-mail: enokimt@tku.ac.jp [Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Nagasaki 852-8521 (Japan)

    2014-10-10

    Recent observations show that the space density of luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs) peaks at higher redshifts than that of faint AGNs. This downsizing trend in the AGN evolution seems to be contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario. In this study, we present the AGN space density evolution predicted by a semi-analytic model of galaxy and AGN formation based on the hierarchical structure formation scenario. We demonstrate that our model can reproduce the downsizing trend of the AGN space density evolution. The reason for the downsizing trend in our model is a combination of the cold gas depletion as a consequence of star formation, the gas cooling suppression in massive halos, and the AGN lifetime scaling with the dynamical timescale. We assume that a major merger of galaxies causes a starburst, spheroid formation, and cold gas accretion onto a supermassive black hole (SMBH). We also assume that this cold gas accretion triggers AGN activity. Since the cold gas is mainly depleted by star formation and gas cooling is suppressed in massive dark halos, the amount of cold gas accreted onto SMBHs decreases with cosmic time. Moreover, AGN lifetime increases with cosmic time. Thus, at low redshifts, major mergers do not always lead to luminous AGNs. Because the luminosity of AGNs is correlated with the mass of accreted gas onto SMBHs, the space density of luminous AGNs decreases more quickly than that of faint AGNs. We conclude that the anti-hierarchical evolution of the AGN space density is not contradictory to the hierarchical structure formation scenario.

  17. Three typical examples of activation of the international charter space and major disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, J.; Bequignon, J.; Mahmood, A.

    The purpose of the International Charter is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery for users affected by disasters, to promote co - operation between space agencies and space system operators and to allow participation in the organisation of emergency assistance or subsequent operations. The Charter which is officially in operation since November 1, 2000 was signed on June 20, 2000 by CNES (1) and ESA (2) and enlarged later on with the membership of the CSA (3) in October 2000 and of the NOAA (4) and the ISRO (5), both in September 2001. All Partner agencies undertake to co-operate on a voluntary basis with no exchange of funds between them in the event of a major natural or man-induced disaster. This paper, after a brief description of the Charter organisation and of its implementation procedures, addresses three typical cases of Charter activation and the lessons learned to date. The first example will deal with the major earthquakes in January and February 2001 in El Salvador for the benefit of the Salvadorian National Register Centre, the second concerning flooding in the North East of France early 2002 with quick delivery of flood maps to the French Civil Protection Authority and the last one will focus on the Nyiragongo volcanic eruption near the town of Goma in the Democratic Republic of Congo. It will include feedback from the Authorised Users concerning the usefulness of the Charter and the suggested improvements in terms of response time, sensors capability and resolution, delivered products (scale and ease of operational utilisation) and adapted scenarios.(1) Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, (2) European Space Agency, (3) Canadian Space Agency, (4) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration , (5) Indian Space Research Organisation

  18. Meeting the Grand Challenge of Protecting Astronaut's Health: Electrostatic Active Space Radiation Shielding for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study will seek to test and validate an electrostatic gossamer structure to provide radiation shielding. It will provide guidelines for energy requirements,...

  19. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Wharton, N. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Ellett, W. T.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Over two decades, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provided global observations of tropical lightning for an impressive 17 years before that mission came to a close in April 2015. Now a space-qualified LIS, built as the flight spare for TRMM, has been installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum two year mission following its SpaceX launch on February 19, 2017. The LIS, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission, was robotically installed in an Earth-viewing position on the outside of the ISS, providing a great opportunity to not only extend the 17-year TRMM LIS record of tropical lightning measurements but also to expand that coverage to higher latitudes missed by the TRMM mission. Since its activation, LIS has continuously observed the amount, rate, and radiant energy lightning within its field-of-view as it orbits the Earth. A major focus of this mission is to better understand the processes which cause lightning, as well as the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events. This understanding is a key to improving weather predictions and saving lives and property here in the United States and around the world. The LIS measurements will also help cross-validate observations from the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) operating on NOAA's newest weather satellite GOES-16. An especially unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational forecasting and warning applications over data sparse regions such

  20. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  1. Space suit bioenergetics: framework and analysis of unsuited and suited activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Christopher E; Newman, Dava J

    2007-11-01

    Metabolic costs limit the duration and intensity of extravehicular activity (EVA), an essential component of future human missions to the Moon and Mars. Energetics Framework: We present a framework for comparison of energetics data across and between studies. This framework, applied to locomotion, differentiates between muscle efficiency and energy recovery, two concepts often confused in the literature. The human run-walk transition in Earth gravity occurs at the point for which energy recovery is approximately the same for walking and running, suggesting a possible role for recovery in gait transitions. Muscular Energetics: Muscle physiology limits the overall efficiency by which chemical energy is converted through metabolism to useful work. Unsuited Locomotion: Walking and running use different methods of energy storage and release. These differences contribute to the relative changes in the metabolic cost of walking and running as gravity is varied, with the metabolic cost of locomoting at a given velocity changing in proportion to gravity for running and less than in proportion for walking. Space Suits: Major factors affecting the energetic cost of suited movement include suit pressurization, gravity, velocity, surface slope, and space suit configuration. Apollo lunar surface EVA traverse metabolic rates, while unexpectedly low, were higher than other activity categories. The Lunar Roving Vehicle facilitated even lower metabolic rates, thus longer duration EVAs. Muscles and tendons act like springs during running; similarly, longitudinal pressure forces in gas pressure space suits allow spring-like storage and release of energy when suits are self-supporting.

  2. Active pore space utilization in nanoporous carbon-based supercapacitors: Effects of conductivity and pore accessibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seredych, Mykola; Koscinski, Mikolaj; Sliwinska-Bartkowiak, Malgorzata; Bandosz, Teresa J.

    2012-12-01

    Composites of commercial graphene and nanoporous sodium-salt-polymer-derived carbons were prepared with 5 or 20 weight% graphene. The materials were characterized using the adsorption of nitrogen, SEM/EDX, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and potentiometric titration. The samples' conductivity was also measured. The performance of the carbon composites in energy storage was linked to their porosity and electronic conductivity. The small pores (<0.7) were found as very active for double layer capacitance. It was demonstrated that when double layer capacitance is a predominant mechanism of charge storage, the degree of the pore space utilization for that storage can be increased by increasing the conductivity of the carbons. That active pore space utilization is defined as gravimetric capacitance per unit pore volume in pores smaller than 0.7 nm. Its magnitude is affected by conductivity of the carbon materials. The functional groups, besides pseudocapacitive contribution, increased the wettability and thus the degree of the pore space utilization. Graphene phase, owing to its conductivity, also took part in an insitu increase of the small pore accessibility and thus the capacitance of the composites via enhancing an electron transfer to small pores and thus imposing the reduction of groups blocking the pores for electrolyte ions.

  3. Using observational methods to evaluate public open spaces and physical activity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino A A, F; Reis, Rodrigo S; Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Brownson, Ross C; Fermino, Rogerio C

    2010-07-01

    Open public spaces have been identified as important facilities to promote physical activity (PA) at the community level. The main goals of this study are to describe open public spaces user's characteristics and to explore to what extent these characteristics are associated with PA behavior. A system of direct observation was used to evaluate the PA levels on parks and squares (smaller parks) and users's characteristics (gender and age). The 4 parks and 4 squares observed were selected from neighborhoods with different socioeconomic status and environmental characteristics. The settings were observed 3 times a day, 6 days per week, during 2 weeks. More men than women were observed in parks (63.1%) and squares (70.0%) as well as more adults and adolescents than older adults and children. Users were more physically active in parks (men = 34.1%, women = 36.1%) than in squares (men = 25.5%, women 22.8%). The characteristics of public open spaces may affect PA in the observed places. Initiatives to improve PA levels in community settings should consider users' characteristics and preferences to be more effective and reach a larger number of people.

  4. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  5. Using spaced retrieval and Montessori-based activities in improving eating ability for residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Chan; Huang, Ya-Ju; Su, Su-Gen; Watson, Roger; Tsai, Belina W-J; Wu, Shiao-Chi

    2010-10-01

    To construct a training protocol for spaced retrieval (SR) and to investigate the effectiveness of SR and Montessori-based activities in decreasing eating difficulty in older residents with dementia. A single evaluator, blind, and randomized control trial was used. Eighty-five residents with dementia were chosen from three special care units for residents with dementia in long-term care facilities in Taiwan. To avoid any confounding of subjects, the three institutions were randomized into three groups: spaced retrieval, Montessori-based activities, and a control group. The invention consisted of three 30-40 min sessions per week, for 8 weeks. After receiving the intervention, the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia (EdFED) scores and assisted feeding scores for the SR and Montessori-based activity groups were significantly lower than that of the control group. However, the frequencies of physical assistance and verbal assistance for the Montessori-based activity group after intervention were significantly higher than that of the control group, which suggests that residents who received Montessori-based activity need more physical and verbal assistance during mealtimes. In terms of the effects of nutritional status after intervention, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in the SR group was significantly higher than that of the control group. This study confirms the efficacy of SR and Montessori-based activities for eating difficulty and eating ability. A longitudinal study to follow the long-term effects of SR and Montessori-based activities on eating ability and nutritional status is recommended. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Statement about UK referendum on the EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many people have expressed their concerns about the consequences of the 23 June vote in the UK for CERN, and for the UK’s relationship with CERN. CERN is an intergovernmental organisation subject to its own treaty. We are not part of the European Union, and several of our Member States, including Switzerland, in which we are headquartered, are not EU Members. Britain’s membership of CERN is not affected by the UK electorate’s vote to leave the European Union. We look forward to continuing the very constructive relationship we have shared with the UK, one of our founding members, long into the future. CERN was founded on the principle of international collaboration, and our success over the years is built on that. We will continue to work proactively to encourage ever-greater international collaboration in particle physics, and to help ensure that the UK continues to play a very active role. UK nationals remain eligible for all categories of employment at CERN, a...

  7. Spaced sessions of avoidance extinction reduce spontaneous recovery and promote infralimbic cortex activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapias-Espinosa, Carles; Kádár, Elisabet; Segura-Torres, Pilar

    2018-01-15

    Extinction-based therapies (EBT) are the psychological treatments of choice for certain anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. However, some patients relapse and suffer spontaneous recovery (SR) of anxiety symptoms and persistence of avoidance behaviour, which underlines the need for improving EBT. In rats, recent evidence has highlighted the relevance of the temporal distribution of extinction sessions in reducing SR of auditory fear conditioning, although it has seldom been studied in procedures involving proactive avoidance responses, such as two-way active avoidance conditioning (TWAA). We examined whether the temporal distribution of two extinction sessions separated by 24h or 7days (contiguous versus spaced extinction paradigms, respectively), influences SR after 28days of a TWAA task. c-Fos expression, as a marker of neuronal activation, was also measured by immunohistochemistry 90min after the SR test in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex. The temporal distribution of extinction sessions did not affect the degree of extinction learning. However, only the rats that underwent the 7-day spaced extinction paradigm maintained the level of extinction in the long term, showing no SR in TWAA. This behavioural finding was consistent with a greater number of c-Fos-labelled neurons in the infralimbic cortex in the 7-day group, and in the Lateral and Central nuclei of the amygdala in the 24-hour group. These findings show that a time-spaced extinction paradigm reduces the spontaneous recovery of active avoidance behaviour, and that this behavioural advantage appears to be related to the activation of the infralimbic cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Space potential fluctuations during MHD activities in the Compact Helical System (CHS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, H.; Fujisawa, A.; Crowley, T.P.

    1998-02-01

    Local space potential fluctuations have been measured during MHD activities in a low-beta NBI heated plasma in the Compact Helical System (CHS) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). Two types of MHD modes with accompanying potential oscillations are observed. One appears in periodic bursts with relatively low frequency (< 40 kHz) and large amplitude (20-40 volts), and is localized around the q=2 surface (average minor radius ρ ∼ 0.7). The other appears in continuous and coherent oscillation with higher frequency (105-125 kHz) and smaller amplitude (∼5 volts). This oscillation also has spatial structure. Possible interpretation for the space potential oscillations is presented. (author)

  9. Comparison of elemental contents of Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Sam Chung; Sun Ha Kim; Gwang Min Sun; Jong Myoung Lim; Jong Hwa Moon; Kye Hong Lee; Young Jin Kim; Jong Il Choi; Ju Woon Lee

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mineral contents in space foods is needed to obtain an information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as the investigation on the effects of human nutrition and health based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. Recently, six items of new Korean space foods (KSFs) such as kimchi, bibimbap, bulgogi, a ramen, a mulberry beverage and a fruit punch which was developed by the KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were examined by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Five biological certified reference materials, NIST SRM were used for analytical quality control. The results were compared with those of common Korean foods reported, and these results will be applied toward the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  10. Understanding the distribution of activities of urban dwellers using the Space Time Cube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Kraak, Menno-Jan; Ahas, Rein

    2012-01-01

    Urban geographers study the development of cities, and seek to understand the fac-tors that influence human movements over space and time. New communication tech-nologies are significantly impacting these studies, especially in field of data collec-tion. The use case presented here is based...... with a typical temporal nature: ‘Is there a difference in distribution of activi-ties between weekdays and weekends?’ and ‘Are there differences during the day?’ To answer these questions a visual problem solving approach was followed where different graphic representations of the data were used. The choice...... of the maps and diagrams is based on the questions to be answered, for instance a map for the domi-nant where-questions, and the Space Time Cube (STC) for the dominant when-questions. All graphics were integrated in a single multiple coordinated view envi-ronment which allows one to see the impact...

  11. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  12. What can the annual 10Be solar activity reconstructions tell us about historic space weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Luke; McCracken, Ken G.; Owens, Mat J.; Lockwood, Mike

    2018-04-01

    Context: Cosmogenic isotopes provide useful estimates of past solar magnetic activity, constraining past space climate with reasonable uncertainty. Much less is known about past space weather conditions. Recent advances in the analysis of 10Be by McCracken & Beer (2015, Sol Phys 290: 305-3069) (MB15) suggest that annually resolved 10Be can be significantly affected by solar energetic particle (SEP) fluxes. This poses a problem, and presents an opportunity, as the accurate quantification of past solar magnetic activity requires the SEP effects to be determined and isolated, whilst doing so might provide a valuable record of past SEP fluxes. Aims: We compare the MB15 reconstruction of the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF), with two independent estimates of the HMF derived from sunspot records and geomagnetic variability. We aim to quantify the differences between the HMF reconstructions, and speculate on the origin of these differences. We test whether the differences between the reconstructions appear to depend on known significant space weather events. Methods: We analyse the distributions of the differences between the HMF reconstructions. We consider how the differences vary as a function of solar cycle phase, and, using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we compare the distributions under the two conditions of whether or not large space weather events were known to have occurred. Results: We find that the MB15 reconstructions are generally marginally smaller in magnitude than the sunspot and geomagnetic HMF reconstructions. This bias varies as a function of solar cycle phase, and is largest in the declining phase of the solar cycle. We find that MB15's excision of the years with very large ground level enhancement (GLE) improves the agreement of the 10Be HMF estimate with the sunspot and geomagnetic reconstructions. We find no statistical evidence that GLEs, in general, affect the MB15 reconstruction, but this analysis is limited by having too few samples. We do find

  13. Socioeconomic Segregation of Activity Spaces in Urban Neighborhoods: Does Shared Residence Mean Shared Routines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Browning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Residential segregation by income and education is increasing alongside slowly declining black-white segregation. Segregation in urban neighborhood residents’ nonhome activity spaces has not been explored. How integrated are the daily routines of people who live in the same neighborhood? Are people with different socioeconomic backgrounds that live near one another less likely to share routine activity locations than those of similar education or income? Do these patterns vary across the socioeconomic continuum or by neighborhood structure? The analyses draw on unique data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey that identify the location where residents engage in routine activities. Using multilevel p2 (network models, we analyze pairs of households in the same neighborhood and examine whether the dyad combinations across three levels of SES conduct routine activities in the same location, and whether neighbor socioeconomic similarity in the co-location of routine activities is dependent on the level of neighborhood socioeconomic inequality and trust. Results indicate that, on average, increasing SES diminishes the likelihood of sharing activity locations with any SES group. This pattern is most pronounced in neighborhoods characterized by high levels of socioeconomic inequality. Neighborhood trust explains a nontrivial proportion of the inequality effect on the extent of routine activity sorting by SES. Thus stark, visible neighborhood-level inequality by SES may lead to enhanced effects of distrust on the willingness to share routines across class.

  14. Exploring sets of molecules from patents and relationships to other active compounds in chemical space networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunimoto, Ryo; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    Patents from medicinal chemistry represent a rich source of novel compounds and activity data that appear only infrequently in the scientific literature. Moreover, patent information provides a primary focal point for drug discovery. Accordingly, text mining and image extraction approaches have become hot topics in patent analysis and repositories of patent data are being established. In this work, we have generated network representations using alternative similarity measures to systematically compare molecules from patents with other bioactive compounds, visualize similarity relationships, explore the chemical neighbourhood of patent molecules, and identify closely related compounds with different activities. The design of network representations that combine patent molecules and other bioactive compounds and view patent information in the context of current bioactive chemical space aids in the analysis of patents and further extends the use of molecular networks to explore structure-activity relationships.

  15. Utilizing Participatory Mapping and GIS to Examine the Activity Spaces of Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Pearson, L; Lehrwyn, Josephine M; Prophet, Nicole T; Trauernicht, Mareike

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have informed our understanding of certain aspects of youth homelessness, few studies have critically examined the spatial and social environments utilized by youth as they navigate life on the streets. This study employed participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine the activity spaces of homeless youth as they relate to sense of community and psychological well-being. Participants were 28 youth experiencing homelessness in Portland, Oregon, USA. Results suggest that youth engage most frequently in service-related activities, and their activity participation is significantly associated with sense of community and psychological well-being. The utility of innovative participatory methods for better understanding the diverse experiences of homeless youth is discussed alongside examination of their practical implications. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  16. Tracking and visualization of space-time activities for a micro-scale flu transmission study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feng; Du, Fei

    2013-02-07

    Infectious diseases pose increasing threats to public health with increasing population density and more and more sophisticated social networks. While efforts continue in studying the large scale dissemination of contagious diseases, individual-based activity and behaviour study benefits not only disease transmission modelling but also the control, containment, and prevention decision making at the local scale. The potential for using tracking technologies to capture detailed space-time trajectories and model individual behaviour is increasing rapidly, as technological advances enable the manufacture of small, lightweight, highly sensitive, and affordable receivers and the routine use of location-aware devices has become widespread (e.g., smart cellular phones). The use of low-cost tracking devices in medical research has also been proved effective by more and more studies. This study describes the use of tracking devices to collect data of space-time trajectories and the spatiotemporal processing of such data to facilitate micro-scale flu transmission study. We also reports preliminary findings on activity patterns related to chances of influenza infection in a pilot study. Specifically, this study employed A-GPS tracking devices to collect data on a university campus. Spatiotemporal processing was conducted for data cleaning and segmentation. Processed data was validated with traditional activity diaries. The A-GPS data set was then used for visual explorations including density surface visualization and connection analysis to examine space-time activity patterns in relation to chances of influenza infection. When compared to diary data, the segmented tracking data demonstrated to be an effective alternative and showed greater accuracies in time as well as the details of routes taken by participants. A comparison of space-time activity patterns between participants who caught seasonal influenza and those who did not revealed interesting patterns. This study

  17. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenboon, Nutcha; Zanello, Giacomo; Mayxay, Mayfong; Reed-Tsochas, Felix; Jones, Caroline O H; Kosaikanont, Romyen; Praphattong, Pollavat; Manohan, Pathompong; Lubell, Yoel; Newton, Paul N; Keomany, Sommay; Wertheim, Heiman F L; Lienert, Jeffrey; Xayavong, Thipphaphone; Warapikuptanun, Penporn; Khine Zaw, Yuzana; U-Thong, Patchapoom; Benjaroon, Patipat; Sangkham, Narinnira; Wibunjak, Kanokporn; Chai-In, Poowadon; Chailert, Sirirat; Thavethanutthanawin, Patthanan; Promsutt, Krittanon; Thepkhamkong, Amphayvone; Sithongdeng, Nicksan; Keovilayvanh, Maipheth; Khamsoukthavong, Nid; Phanthasomchit, Phaengnitta; Phanthavong, Chanthasone; Boualaiseng, Somsanith; Vongsavang, Souksakhone; Greer, Rachel C; Althaus, Thomas; Nedsuwan, Supalert; Intralawan, Daranee; Wangrangsimakul, Tri; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Ariana, Proochista

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. RQ1: What are the manifestations and determinants of problematic antibiotic use in patients’ healthcare-seeking pathways? RQ2: Will people’s exposure to antibiotic awareness activities entail changed behaviours that diffuse or dissipate within a network of competing healthcare practices? RQ3: Which proxy indicators facilitate the detection of problematic antibiotic behaviours across and within communities? Methods We apply an interdisciplinary analytical framework that draws on the public health, medical anthropology, sociology and development economics literature. Our research involves social surveys of treatment-seeking behaviour among rural dwellers in northern Thailand (Chiang Rai) and southern Lao PDR (Salavan). We sample approximately 4800 adults to produce district-level representative and social network data. Additional 60 cognitive interviews facilitate survey instrument development and data interpretation. Our survey data analysis techniques include event sequence analysis (RQ1), multilevel regression (RQ1–3), social network analysis (RQ2) and latent class analysis (RQ3). Discussion Social research in AMR is nascent, but our unprecedentedly detailed data on microlevel treatment-seeking behaviour can contribute an understanding of behaviour beyond awareness and free choice, highlighting, for example, decision-making constraints, problems of marginalisation and lacking access to healthcare and competing ideas about desirable behaviour. Trial registration number NCT

  18. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P., E-mail: jsbridge@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  19. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  20. DISENTANGLING AGN AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFT USING HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridge, Joanna S.; Zeimann, Gregory R.; Trump, Jonathan R.; Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Fox, Derek; Schneider, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and star formation in z ∼ 2 galaxies is difficult because traditional methods, such as line-ratio diagnostics, change with redshift, while multi-wavelength methods (X-ray, radio, IR) are sensitive to only the brightest AGNs. We have developed a new method for spatially resolving emission lines using the Hubble Space Telescope /Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism spectra and quantifying AGN activity through the spatial gradient of the [O iii]/H β line ratio. Through detailed simulations, we show that our novel line-ratio gradient approach identifies ∼40% more low-mass and obscured AGNs than obtained by classical methods. Based on our simulations, we developed a relationship that maps the stellar mass, star formation rate, and measured [O iii]/H β gradient to the AGN Eddington ratio. We apply our technique to previously studied stacked samples of galaxies at z ∼ 2 and find that our results are consistent with these studies. This gradient method will also be able to inform other areas of galaxy evolution science, such as inside-out quenching and metallicity gradients, and will be widely applicable to future spatially resolved James Webb Space Telescope data.

  1. Actively mode-locked diode laser with a mode spacing stability of ∼6 × 10{sup -14}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharyash, V F; Kashirsky, A V; Klementyev, V M [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-31

    We have studied mode spacing stability in an actively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser. It has been shown that, in the case of mode spacing pulling to the frequency of a highly stable external microwave signal produced by a hydrogen standard (stability of 4 × 10{sup -14} over an averaging period τ = 10 s), this configuration ensures a mode spacing stability of 5.92 × 10{sup -14} (τ = 10 s). (control of radiation parameters)

  2. Active pixel sensors: The sensor of choice for future space applications

    OpenAIRE

    Leijtens, J.; Theuwissen, A.; Rao, P.R.; Wang, X.; Xie, N.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally known that active pixel sensors (APS) have a number of advantages over CCD detectors if it comes to cost for mass production, power consumption and ease of integration. Nevertheless, most space applications still use CCD detectors because they tend to give better performance and have a successful heritage. To this respect a change may be at hand with the advent of deep sub-micron processed APS imagers (< 0.25-micron feature size). Measurements performed on test structures at t...

  3. Assessing the impact of national level interventions on workplace respiratory disease in the UK: part 2--regulatory activity by the Health and Safety Executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, S J; McNamee, R; Turner, S; Carder, M; Agius, R M

    2013-07-01

    To investigate whether interventions implemented by the UK Health and Safety Executive addressing exposure to isocyanate-based spray paints in motor vehicle repair (MVR), flour dust in craft bakeries, rosin-based solder flux fume (RBSFF) in the electronics industry, metalworking fluids and wood dust coincided with a decline in incidence of work-related short latency respiratory disease (SLRD) or asthma in the target groups. Changes in the incidence of SLRD reported to a UK-based surveillance scheme were compared using a longitudinal, negative binomial regression model with β distributed random effects. An interrupted time series design was used and comparisons according to inclusion or exclusion in the target group were made by including a statistical interactions expressed as a ratio of incidence rate ratios (RIRRs) in the model. The incidence of SLRD attributed to flour dust significantly increased relative to all other agents (RIRR: 1.10; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.16) whereas SLRD attributed to RBSFF significantly declined relative to all other agents (0.94; 0.90 to 0.99). No significant changes in the incidence of SLRD attributed to wood dust (1.03; 0.91 to 1.16) or spray paints (1.03; 0.95 to 1.11) relative to all other agents were observed. A higher proportion of reports originated from the industries targeted by the intervention for RBSFF (65/107; 61%) than spray painting (27/93; 27%) or wood dust (16/42; 38%). These data support a beneficial effect of interventions to reduce exposure to RBSFF but an increase in SLRD attributed to flour dust may indicate increased exposure or increased awareness of the problem.

  4. Measurement of activity coefficients of mixtures by head-space gas chromatography: general procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Patricia; Wouters, Christine; Van der Bruggen, Bart; Sandler, Stanley I

    2013-08-09

    Head-space gas chromatography (HS-GC) is an applicable method to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements and determine activity coefficients. However, the reproducibility of the data may be conditioned by the experimental procedure concerning to the automated pressure-balanced system. The study developed in this work shows that a minimum volume of liquid in the vial is necessary to ensure the reliability of the activity coefficients since it may become a parameter that influences the magnitude of the peak areas: the helium introduced during the pressurization step may produce significant variations of the results when too small volume of liquid is selected. The minimum volume required should thus be evaluated prior to obtain experimentally the concentration in the vapor phase and the activity coefficients. In this work, the mixture acetonitrile-toluene is taken as example, requiring a sample volume of more than 5mL (about more than 25% of the vial volume). The vapor-liquid equilibrium and activity coefficients of mixtures at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 molar fraction) and four temperatures (35, 45, 55 and 70°C) have been determined. Relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5% have been obtained, indicating the good reproducibility of the method when a sample volume larger than 5mL is used. Finally, a general procedure to measure activity coefficients by means of pressure-balanced head-space gas chromatography is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multifunctional spaces in slum settlements and their relation to activity pattern case study of Kampung Sangkrah, Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobirin, Abyzhar; Ramadhanty, Almira Husna; Hardiana, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Surakarta is a rapidly urbanized city and it causes the limitation of the availability of land within its urban area. This entangled problem is resulting in the development of slum settlements that spread across the city. One of the slum concentration areas is located on Pepe riverbanks downstream area that belongs to Kampung Sangkrah administrative boundaries. Slum settlements are characterized as a densely-populated area lacking of, or absence of, open space. This condition forces slum inhabitants to effectively use their available spaces, even multi-functionally. This research aims to observe how slum inhabitants multi-functionally use the spaces around their houses and determine the typology of multifunctional space and also the factors that influence it. To understand this phenomenon, this research used activity pattern perspectives. The scope of observation covers in-house (internal) space utilizations and neighborhood-level (external) space utilization. The data used for this research were collected primarily through site observations and interviews, using sampling to conduct data collection for in-house activities and space utilization. The analysis was conducted using descriptive method qualitatively. The research concluded that there are three types of multifunctional space utilization within slum settlements, and the utilization of spaces, whether internal or external utilization also varies depending on the inhabitants' economic-related activities.

  6. State of Art in space weather observational activities and data management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Iwona

    One of the primary scientific and technical goals of space weather is to produce data in order to investigate the Sun impact on the Earth and its environment. Studies based on data mining philosophy yield increase the knowledge of space weather physical properties, modelling capabilities and gain applications of various procedures in space weather monitoring and forecasting. Exchanging tailored individually and/or jointly data between different entities, storing of the databases and making data accessible for the users is the most important task undertaken by investigators. National activities spread over Europe is currently consolidated pursuant to the terms of effectiveness and individual contributions embedded in joint integrated efforts. The role of COST 724 Action in animation of such a movement is essential. The paper focuses on the analysis of the European availability in the Internet near-real time and historical collections of the European ground based and satellite observations, operational indices and parameters. A detailed description of data delivered is included. The structure of the content is supplied according to the following selection: (1) observations, raw and/or corrected, updated data, (2) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (3) products, as the results of models and theory including (a) maps, forecasts and alerts, (b) resolution, availability of real-time and historical data, (4) platforms to deliver data. Characterization of the networking of stations, observatories and space related monitoring systems of data collections is integrated part of the paper. According to these provisions operational systems developed for these purposes is presented and analysed. It concerns measurements, observations and parameters from the theory and models referred to local, regional collections, European and worldwide networks. Techniques used by these organizations to generate the digital content are identified. As the reference pan

  7. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... “launch vehicle” means an object, or any part thereof, intended for launch, launched from Earth, or... services; and (ii) All activities related to ground support, test, training, simulation, or guidance and... persons or both between two different space objects, between two different locations on the same space...

  8. Design and performance of an integrated ground and space sensor web for monitoring active volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahusen, Richard; Song, Wenzhan; Kedar, Sharon; Shirazi, Behrooz; Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Davies, Ashley; Webb, Frank; Dzurisin, Dan; Pallister, John

    2010-05-01

    An interdisciplinary team of computer, earth and space scientists collaborated to develop a sensor web system for rapid deployment at active volcanoes. The primary goals of this Optimized Autonomous Space In situ Sensorweb (OASIS) are to: 1) integrate complementary space and in situ (ground-based) elements into an interactive, autonomous sensor web; 2) advance sensor web power and communication resource management technology; and 3) enable scalability for seamless addition sensors and other satellites into the sensor web. This three-year project began with a rigorous multidisciplinary interchange that resulted in definition of system requirements to guide the design of the OASIS network and to achieve the stated project goals. Based on those guidelines, we have developed fully self-contained in situ nodes that integrate GPS, seismic, infrasonic and lightning (ash) detection sensors. The nodes in the wireless sensor network are linked to the ground control center through a mesh network that is highly optimized for remote geophysical monitoring. OASIS also features an autonomous bidirectional interaction between ground nodes and instruments on the EO-1 space platform through continuous analysis and messaging capabilities at the command and control center. Data from both the in situ sensors and satellite-borne hyperspectral imaging sensors stream into a common database for real-time visualization and analysis by earth scientists. We have successfully completed a field deployment of 15 nodes within the crater and on the flanks of Mount St. Helens, Washington. The demonstration that sensor web technology facilitates rapid network deployments and that we can achieve real-time continuous data acquisition. We are now optimizing component performance and improving user interaction for additional deployments at erupting volcanoes in 2010.

  9. Studies on urokinase (UK) therapy of thromboembolic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Ryuji; Satake, Kisaburo; Hisamatsu, Tokugoro; Fukase, Masaichi

    1974-01-01

    In order to determine the urokinase (UK) concentration in blood, a radioimmunoassay method was developed, in which a radioactive material labeled with 125 I-Na was used. In this method, the movement of UK in blood and the relationship between the UK concentration and fibrinolytic activity were studied with the following results: 1) The concentration of UK in normal human blood was found to be 6.84 +- 2.53 PKU early in the morning with an apparent daily rythmic fluctuation in concentration. 2) With an intravenous drip of 20,000 to 30,000 PKU, the UK concentration increased 6 to 8 PKU/ml above the early morning value, then in one to two hours it returned to the previous value once again. In some of the cases, a slight, transient decrease occurred. 3) Following the UK drip, UK concentration in the blood and fibrinolytic activity varied in a parallel fashion. Plasminogen and antiplasmin levels were not altered by administration of only 20,000 to 30,000 PKU of UK. Fibrinogen was lowered, but the fluctuation was within the physiological range. (S. Oyama)

  10. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  11. Blood troponin levels in acute cardiac events depends on space weather activity components (a correlative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Radishauskas, Richardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Tamoshiunas, Abdonas; Virvichiute, Daiva

    2018-02-05

    Many biological processes are influenced by space weather activity components such as solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and cosmic ray activity (CRA). Examples are total mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke (cerebrovascular accident), sudden cardiac death, some congenital maladies (congenital heart disease and Down syndrome), many events in neonatology, ophtalmology, blood pressure regulation, blood coagulation, inflammation, etc. The aim of this study was to check if the level of blood troponins (Tns) - markers of myocardial damage and recognized components of modern description of AMI - is connected with the mentioned space weather parameters. Patients admitted to a 3000-bed tertiary university hospital in Kaunas, Lithuania, with suspected AMI were the object of the study. Data for the time between 2008 and 2013 - 72 consecutive months - were studied. Of the patients, 1896 (1398 male, 498 female) had elevated troponin I (Tn I) or troponin T (Tn T, sensitive Tn) levels. Normal values were 0.00-0.03 ng/mL for Tn I and 0.00-14.00 ng/mL for Tn T. Monthly means and standard deviation of Tn I and Tn T were compared with monthly markers of SA, GMA and CRA. Pearson correlation coefficients and their probabilities were established (in addition to the consecutive graphs of both comparing physical and biological data). The cosmophysical data came from space service institutions in the United States, Russia and Finland. AMI was diagnosed in 1188 patients (62.66%), and intermediate coronary syndrome in 698 patients (36.81%). There were significant links of the Tn blood levels with four SA indices and CRA (neutron activity in imp/min); there was no significant correlation with GMA indices Ap and Cp (p=0.27 and p=0.235). Tn T levels significantly correlated with the GMA indices and not with the SA and CRA levels (Ap: r=0.77, p=0.0021; Cp: r=0.729, p=0.0047). First, the monthly level of blood Tn I in ACS is significantly correlated with the indices

  12. CREAM - a Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor for space experiments: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapper, D.; Stephen, J.H.; Farren, J.; Stimpson, B.P.; Bolus, D.J.; Ellaway, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    A detailed account is given of the design and construction of the experimental CREAM packages, intended for flight in the mid-deck area of the Space Transport System (Shuttle) Mission in 1986. The complete experiment involved; 1) a self-contained and battery powered activation monitor for measuring energy losses of charged particles; 2) CR-39 and Kapton polymer solid state nuclear track detectors for the detection of ionising particles; 3) metal foils of nickel, titanium and gold for neutron monitoring; and 4) thermoluminescent detectors for dosimetry measurements of the radiation background. The circuit design and detailed functioning of the active monitor is fully described, together with a complete discussion of the principles and operation of the passive monitors. (author)

  13. Source-space EEG neurofeedback links subjective experience with brain activity during effortless awareness meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lutterveld, Remko; Houlihan, Sean D; Pal, Prasanta; Sacchet, Matthew D; McFarlane-Blake, Cinque; Patel, Payal R; Sullivan, John S; Ossadtchi, Alex; Druker, Susan; Bauer, Clemens; Brewer, Judson A

    2017-05-01

    Meditation is increasingly showing beneficial effects for psychiatric disorders. However, learning to meditate is not straightforward as there are no easily discernible outward signs of performance and thus no direct feedback is possible. As meditation has been found to correlate with posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) activity, we tested whether source-space EEG neurofeedback from the PCC followed the subjective experience of effortless awareness (a major component of meditation), and whether participants could volitionally control the signal. Sixteen novice meditators and sixteen experienced meditators participated in the study. Novice meditators were briefly trained to perform a basic meditation practice to induce the subjective experience of effortless awareness in a progressively more challenging neurofeedback test-battery. Experienced meditators performed a self-selected meditation practice to induce this state in the same test-battery. Neurofeedback was provided based on gamma-band (40-57Hz) PCC activity extracted using a beamformer algorithm. Associations between PCC activity and the subjective experience of effortless awareness were assessed by verbal probes. Both groups reported that decreased PCC activity corresponded with effortless awareness (Pneurofeedback to link an objective measure of brain activity with the subjective experience of effortless awareness, and suggest potential utility of this paradigm as a tool for meditation training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Examples of learning activities for Earth and Space Sciences in the new Italian National curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Maddalena

    2016-04-01

    In the last few years, starting from 2010, science curricula were changed dramatically in the secondary Italian school as consequence of a radical law reform. In particular, Earth Science and Astronomy subjects have been shifted from the last to the previous school years; in addition, these subjects have been integrated with other natural sciences learning, such as biology and chemistry. As a consequence, Italian teachers felt forced to totally revise their teaching methods for all of these disciplines. The most demanding need was adapting content to younger learners, as those of the first years are, who usually do have neither pre-knowledge in physics nor high level maths skills. Secondly, content learning was progressively driven toward a greater attention to environmental issues in order to raise more awareness in learners about global changes as examples of fragile equilibrium of our planet. In this work some examples of activities are shown, to introduce students to some astronomical phenomena in a simpler way, which play a key role in influencing other Earth's events, in order to make pupils more conscious about how and to what extent our planet depends on space, at different time scales. The activities range from moon motions affecting tides, to secondary Earth motions, which are responsible for climate changes, to the possibility to find life forms in other parts of the Universe, to the possibility for humans to live in the space for future space missions. Students are involved in hands-on inquiry-based laboratories that scaffold both theoretic knowledge and practical skills for a deeper understanding of cause-effect relationships existing in the Earth.

  15. Start small, dream big: Experiences of physical activity in public spaces in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; González, Silvia Alejandra; Ríos, Ana Paola; Páez, Diana C; Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2017-10-01

    Multi-sectoral strategies to promote active recreation and physical activity in public spaces are crucial to building a "culture of health". However, studies on the sustainability and scalability of these strategies are limited. This paper identifies the factors related to the sustainability and scaling up of two community-based programs offering physical activity classes in public spaces in Colombia: Bogotá's Recreovía and Colombia's "Healthy Habits and Lifestyles Program-HEVS". Both programs have been sustained for more than 10years, and have benefited 1455 communities. We used a mixed-methods approach including semi-structured interviews, document review and an analysis of data regarding the programs' history, characteristics, funding, capacity building and challenges. Interviews were conducted between May-October 2015. Based on the sustainability frameworks of Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone and Scheirer, we developed categories to independently code each interview. All information was independently analyzed by four of the authors and cross-compared between programs. Findings showed that these programs underwent adaptation processes to address the challenges that threatened their continuation and growth. The primary strategies included flexibility/adaptability, investing in the working conditions and training of instructors, allocating public funds and requesting accountability, diversifying resources, having community support and champions at different levels and positions, and carrying out continuous advocacy to include physical activity in public policies. Recreovía and HEVS illustrate sustainability as an incremental, multi-level process at different levels. Lessons learned for similar initiatives include the importance of individual actions and small events, a willingness to start small while dreaming big, being flexible, and prioritizing the human factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of MSFCs Process for the Development and Activation of Space Act Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    A Space Act Agreement (SAA) is a contractual vehicle that NASA utilizes to form partnerships with non-NASA entities to stimulate cutting-edge innovation within the science and technology communities while concurrently supporting the NASA missions. SAAs are similar to traditional contracts in that they involve the commitment of Agency resources but allow more flexibility and are more cost effective to implement than traditional contracts. Consequently, the use of SAAs to develop partnerships has greatly increased over the past several years. To facilitate this influx of SAAs, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed a process during a kaizen event to streamline and improve the quality of SAAs developed at the Center level. This study assessed the current SAA process to determine if improvements could be implemented to increase productivity, decrease time to activation, and improve the quality of deliverables. Using a combination of direct procedural observation, personnel interviews, and statistical analysis, elements of the process in need of remediation were identified and potential solutions developed. The findings focus primarily on the difficulties surrounding tracking and enforcing process adherence and communication issues among stakeholders. Potential solutions include utilizing customer relationship management (CRM) software to facilitate process coordination and co-locating or potentially merging the two separate organizations involved in SAA development and activation at MSFC.

  17. The effect of space microgravity on the physiological activity of mammalian resident cardiac stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belostotskaya, Galina; Zakharov, Eugeny

    Prolonged exposure to weightlessness during space flights is known to cause depression of heart function in mammals. The decrease in heart weight and its remodeling under the influence of prolonged weightlessness (or space microgravity) is assumed to be due to both morphological changes of working cardiomyocytes and their progressive loss, as well as to possible depletion of resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) population, or their inability to self-renewal and regeneration of muscle tissue under conditions of weightlessness. We have previously shown that the presence of different maturity clones formed by resident CSCs not only in culture but also in the mammalian myocardium can be used as an indicator of the regenerative activity of myocardial cells [Belostotskaya, et al., 2013: 2014]. In this study, we were interested to investigate whether the 30-day near-Earth space flight on the spacecraft BION-M1 affects the regenerative potential of resident CSCs. Immediately after landing of the spacecraft, we had examined the presence of resident c-kit+, Sca-1+ and Isl1+ CSCs and their development in suspension of freshly isolated myocardial cells of C57BL mice in comparison to controls. Cardiac cell suspension was obtained by enzymatic digestion of the heart [Belostotskaya and Golovanova, 2014]. Immunocytochemically stained preparations of fixed cells were analyzed with confocal microscope Leica TCS SP5 (Germany) in the Resource Center of St-Petersburg State University. CSCs were labeled with appropriate antibodies. CSCs differentiation into mature cardiomyocytes was verified using antibodies to Sarcomeric α-Actinin and Cardiac Troponin T. Antibodies to Connexin43 were used to detect cell-cell contacts. All antibodies were conjugated with Alexa fluorochromes (488, 532, 546, 568, 594 and/or 647 nm), according to Zenon-technology (Invitrogen). It has been shown that, under identical conditions of cell isolation, more complete digestion of heart muscle was observed in

  18. Sustainability in the UK domestic sector : A review and analysis of the sustainable energy innovations available to homeowners

    OpenAIRE

    Hultgren, Elin

    2015-01-01

    The UK Government has set an ambitious legislative goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % by 2050. Of the total energy used in the UK, 31 % is used in the domestic sector. In the domestic sector energy is used for space and hot water heating, lighting, appliances and cooking. Space and hot water heating make up 82 % of the total energy used in the UK domestic sector. Almost all of the energy used in the UK domestic sector originates from depletable resources. In order for the UK to...

  19. Association between activity space exposure to food establishments and individual risk of overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Kestens

    Full Text Available Environmental exposure to food sources may underpin area level differences in individual risk for overweight. Place of residence is generally used to assess neighbourhood exposure. Yet, because people are mobile, multiple exposures should be accounted for to assess the relation between food environments and overweight. Unfortunately, mobility data is often missing from health surveys. We hereby test the feasibility of linking travel survey data with food listings to derive food store exposure predictors of overweight among health survey participants.Food environment exposure measures accounting for non-residential activity places (activity spaces were computed and modelled in Montreal and Quebec City, Canada, using travel surveys and food store listings. Models were then used to predict activity space food exposures for 5,578 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey. These food exposure estimates, accounting for daily mobility, were used to model self-reported overweight in a multilevel framework. Median Odd Ratios were used to assess the proportion of between-neighborhood variance explained by such food exposure predictors.Estimates of food environment exposure accounting for both residential and non-residential destinations were significantly and more strongly associated with overweight than residential-only measures of exposure for men. For women, residential exposures were more strongly associated with overweight than non-residential exposures. In Montreal, adjusted models showed men in the highest quartile of exposure to food stores were at lesser risk of being overweight considering exposure to restaurants (OR = 0.36 [0.21-0.62], fast food outlets (0.48 [0.30-0.79], or corner stores (0.52 [0.35-0.78]. Conversely, men experiencing the highest proportion of restaurants being fast-food outlets were at higher risk of being overweight (2.07 [1.25-3.42]. Women experiencing higher residential exposures were at lower risk of overweight

  20. UK retail marketing survey 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  1. The development of Radiation Protection Training courses in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paynter, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers use of modern training materials and aids in radiation protection training activities. The development in the UK of training courses to satisfy the training requirements for Radiation Protection Advisers is also discussed. (Author)

  2. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  3. BTC the UK focus for nuclear fission R and D in the post NDA era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, T.G.; Carpenter, J.C.; Williamson, R.

    2005-01-01

    The BNFL Technology Centre at Sellafield, UK, will provide the focal point for nuclear fission R and D in the UK for the 21th Century. The facility provides a range of non-active, trace active, plutonium active and high active facilities enabling NSTS to support the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's remit to manage the UK's nuclear legacy and other requirements The facilities also provide an environment for academic research and foster the development of University Research Alliances. (Author)

  4. The Convergence of U.S. Military and Commercial Space Activities: Self-Defense and Cyber-Attack, 'Peace Use' and the Space Station, and the Need for Legal Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petras, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    The ever-increasing convergence of U.S. military and commercial space activities poses new challenges to the viability of the legal concepts that have traditionally governed the use of outer space, and particularly the military use...

  5. Promoting physical activity through the shared use of school recreational spaces: a policy statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah R; Spengler, John O; Frost, Natasha; Evenson, Kelly R; Vincent, Jeffrey M; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-09-01

    Most Americans are not sufficiently physically active, even though regular physical activity improves health and reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Those living in rural, non-White, and lower-income communities often have insufficient access to places to be active, which can contribute to their lower level of physical activity. The shared use of school recreational facilities can provide safe and affordable places for communities. Studies suggest that challenges to shared use include additional cost, liability protection, communication among constituencies interested in sharing space, and decision-making about scheduling and space allocation. This American Heart Association policy statement has provided recommendations for federal, state, and local decision-makers to support and expand opportunities for physical activity in communities through the shared use of school spaces.

  6. Influence on UK Nuclear Regulation from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the UKs response to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident and highlights the influence that this has had on UK nuclear regulation since March 2011. ONR’s Incident Suite was staffed from the first day of the accident and remained active on a 24 hours basis for over two weeks. The purpose was to provide advice to the UK government specifically prompt assurance of why this accident couldn’t take place in the UK and practical advice in relation to the 17,000 UK nationals in Japan at that time. In the early phase of the accident ONR took part in international cooperation with the US, Canadian and French regulators in order to determine the actual technical status of the Fukushima Daiichi power plant units. The UK Secretary of State requested that the ONR Chief Inspector identify any lessons to be learnt by the UK nuclear industry and in doing so cooperate and coordinate with international colleagues. The Interim report was produced (May 2011) this focused on civil NPP’s, provided background to radiation, technology and regulations. This report compared the Japan situation with the UK and identified 11 conclusions and 26 recommendations.

  7. Physical activity, obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in 9- to 10-year-old UK children of white European, South Asian and black African-Caribbean origin: the Child Heart And health Study in England (CHASE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, C G; Nightingale, C M; Rudnicka, A R; Sattar, N; Cook, D G; Ekelund, U; Whincup, P H

    2010-08-01

    Physical inactivity is implicated in unfavourable patterns of obesity and cardiometabolic risk in childhood. However, few studies have quantified these associations using objective physical activity measurements in children from different ethnic groups. We examined these associations in UK children of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white European origin. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,049 primary school children in three UK cities, who had standardised anthropometric measurements, provided fasting blood samples and wore activity monitors for up to 7 days. Data were analysed using multilevel linear regression and allowing for measurement error. Overall physical activity levels showed strong inverse graded associations with adiposity markers (particularly sum of skinfold thicknesses), fasting insulin, HOMA insulin resistance, triacylglycerol and C-reactive protein; for an increase of 100 counts of physical activity per min of registered time, levels of these factors were 12.2% (95% CI 10.2-14.1%), 10.2% (95% CI 7.5-12.8%), 10.2% (95% CI 7.5-12.8%), 5.8% (95% CI 4.0-7.5%) and 19.2% (95% CI 13.9-24.2%) lower, respectively. Similar increments in physical activity levels were associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (1.0 mmHg, 95% CI 0.6-1.5 mmHg) and LDL-cholesterol (0.04 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01-0.07 mmol/l), and higher HDL-cholesterol (0.02 mmol/l, 95% CI 0.01-0.04 mmol/l). Moreover, associations were broadly similar in strength in all ethnic groups. All associations between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk factors were reduced (albeit variably) after adjustment for adiposity. Objectively measured physical activity correlates at least as well with obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in South Asian and African-Caribbean children as in white European children, suggesting that efforts to increase activity levels in such groups would have equally beneficial effects.

  8. The UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, nuclear power plants are operated by three companies: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN), and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The state-operated power industry was privatized in 1989 with the exception of nuclear power generation activities, which were made part of the newly founded (state-owned) NE and SN. At the same time, a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants was agreed. Only Sizewell B, the first plant in the UK to be equipped with a pressurized water reactor, was to be completed. That unit was first synchronized with the power grid on February 14, 1995. Another decision in 1989 provided for a review to be conducted in 1994 of the future of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the country. The results of the review were presented by the government in a white paper on May 9, 1995. Accordingly, NE and SN will be merged and privatized in 1996; the headquarters of the new holding company will be in Scotland. The review does not foresee the construction of more nuclear power plants. However, NE hopes to gain a competitive edge over other sources of primary energy as a result of this privatization, and advocates construction of a dual-unit plant identical with Sizewell B so as to avoid recurrent design and development costs. Outside the UK, the company plans to act jointly with the reactor vendor, Westinghouse, especially in the Pacific region; a bid submitted by the consortium has been shortisted by the future operator of the Lungmen nuclear power plant project in Taiwan. In upgrading the safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, the new company will be able to work through existing contacts of SN. (orig.) [de

  9. Effects of Repetitive Shoulder Activity on the Subacromial Space in Manual Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Sheng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated (1 the effect of repetitive weight-relief raises (WR and shoulder external rotation (ER on the acromiohumeral distance (AHD among manual wheelchair users (MWUs and (2 the relationship between shoulder pain, subject characteristics, and AHD changes. Twenty-three MWUs underwent ultrasound imaging of the nondominant shoulder in an unloaded baseline position and while holding a WR position before and after the WR/ER tasks. Paired t-tests and Spearman correlational analysis were used to assess differences in the AHD before and after each task and the relationships between pain, subject characteristics, and the AHD measures. A significant reduction in the subacromial space (P<0.01 occurred when subjects performed a WR position compared to baseline. Individuals with increased years of disability had greater AHD percentage narrowing after WR (P=0.008. Increased shoulder pain was associated with AHD percentage narrowing after ER (P≤0.007. The results support clinical practice guidelines that recommend MWUs limit WR to preserve shoulder function. The isolated repetitive shoulder activity did not contribute to the changes of subacromial space in MWUs. The ultrasonographic measurement of the AHD may be a target for identifying future interventions that prevent pain.

  10. Solar activity during the space weather incident of Nov 4., 2015 - Complex data and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opgenoorth, Hermann; Pulkkinen, Antti; Buchert, Stephan; Monstein, Christian; Klein, Karl Ludwig; Marqué, Christophe; Krucker, Säm

    2016-04-01

    During the afternoon of November 4, 2015 most southern Swedish aviation radar systems experienced heavy disturbances, which eventually forced an outing of the majority of the radars. In consequence the entire southern Swedish aerospace had to be closed for incoming and leaving air traffic for about 2 hours. Immediately after the incident space weather anomalies were made responsible for the radar disturbances, but it took a very thorough investigation to differentiate disturbances from an ongoing magnetic storm caused by earlier solar activity, which had no disturbing effects on the flight radars, from a new and, indeed, extreme radio-burst on the Sun, which caused the Swedish radar anomalies. Other systems in various European countries also experienced major radio-disturbances during this extreme event, but they were not of the gravity as experienced in Sweden, or at least not causing a similar damage. One of the problems in reaching the right conclusions about the incident was that the extreme radio-burst around 1400 UT on Nov 4 (more than 50000 SFU at GHz frequencies), emerged from a medium size M3.7 Flare on the Sun, which did not trigger any immediate warnings. We will report about the analysis leading to the improved understanding of this extreme space weather event, evaluate the importance of solar radio observations, and discuss possible mitigation strategies for future events of similar nature.

  11. Detection of low-energy antinuclei in space using an active-target particle detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Thomas; Greenwald, Daniel; Konorov, Igor; Paul, Stephan [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Losekamm, Martin [Physics Department E18, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Institute of Astronautics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Measuring antimatter in space excellently probes various astrophysical processes. The abundances and energy spectra of antiparticles reveal a lot about the creation and propagation of cosmic-ray particles in the universe. Abnormalities in their spectra can reveal exotic sources or inaccuracies in our understanding of the involved processes. The measurement of antiprotons and the search for antideuterons and antihelium are optimal at low kinetic energies since background from high-energy cosmic-ray collisions is low. For this reason, we are developing an active-target particle detector capable of detecting ions and anti-ions in the energy range of 30-100 MeV per nucleon. The detector consists of 900 scintillating fibers coupled to silicon photomultipliers and is designed to operate on nanosatellites. The primary application of the detector will be the Antiproton Flux in Space (AFIS) mission, whose goal is the measurement of geomagnetically trapped antiprotons inside Earth's inner radiation belt. In this talk, we explain our particle identification technique and present results from first in-beam measurements with a prototype.

  12. Active pixel sensors: the sensor of choice for future space applications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; Theuwissen, Albert; Rao, Padmakumar R.; Wang, Xinyang; Xie, Ning

    2007-10-01

    It is generally known that active pixel sensors (APS) have a number of advantages over CCD detectors if it comes to cost for mass production, power consumption and ease of integration. Nevertheless, most space applications still use CCD detectors because they tend to give better performance and have a successful heritage. To this respect a change may be at hand with the advent of deep sub-micron processed APS imagers (< 0.25-micron feature size). Measurements performed on test structures at the University of Delft have shown that the imagers are very radiation tolerant even if made in a standard process without the use of special design rules. Furthermore it was shown that the 1/f noise associated with deep sub-micron imagers is reduced as compared to previous generations APS imagers due to the improved quality of the gate oxides. Considering that end of life performance will have to be guaranteed, limited budget for adding shielding metal will be available for most applications and lower power operations is always seen as a positive characteristic in space applications, deep sub-micron APS imagers seem to have a number of advantages over CCD's that will probably cause them to replace CCD's in those applications where radiation tolerance and low power operation are important

  13. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo; Xu Feng; Bai Yanqiang; Liu Hongtao; Jiang Rui; Ma Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power. (authors)

  14. Active space debris removal—A preliminary mission analysis and design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castronuovo, Marco M.

    2011-11-01

    The active removal of five to ten large objects per year from the low Earth orbit (LEO) region is the only way to prevent the debris collisions from cascading. Among the three orbital regions near the Earth where most catastrophic collisions are predicted to occur, the one corresponding to a sun-synchronous condition is considered the most relevant. Forty-one large rocket bodies orbiting in this belt have been identified as the priority targets for removal. As part of a more comprehensive system engineering solution, a space mission dedicated to the de-orbiting of five rocket bodies per year from this orbital regime has been designed. The selected concept of operations envisages the launch of a satellite carrying a number of de-orbiting devices, such as solid propellant kits. The satellite performs a rendezvous with an identified object and mates with it by means of a robotic arm. A de-orbiting device is attached to the object by means of a second robotic arm, the object is released and the device is activated. The spacecraft travels then to the next target. The present paper shows that an active debris removal mission capable of de-orbiting 35 large objects in 7 years is technically feasible, and the resulting propellant mass budget is compatible with many existing platforms.

  15. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing...... in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation......Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken...

  16. Electric space heating scheduling for real-time explicit power control in active distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bernstein, Andrey; Chamorro, Lorenzo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach for abstracting the flexibility of a building space heating system and using it within a composable framework for real-time explicit power control of microgrids and, more in general, active distribution networks. In particular, the proposed approach...... is developed within the context of a previously defined microgrid control framework, called COMMELEC, conceived for the explicit and real-time control of these specific networks. The designed control algorithm is totally independent from the need of a building model and allows exploiting the intrinsic thermal...... inertia for real-time control. The paper first discusses the general approach, then it proves its validity via dedicated simulations performed on specific case study composed by the CIGRE LV microgrid benchmark proposed by the Cigré TF C6.04.02....

  17. Comparison and determination of elemental composition in Korean space foods using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Gwang-Min Sun; Jong-Hwa Moon; Jong-Il Choi; Beom-Seok Song; Jae-Hun Kim

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of mineral contents in several kinds of foods is needed to obtain information on a comprehensive elemental composition as well as an investigation on the effects of human health and nutrition based on the dietary intake of mineral elements. In 2012, six kinds of new Korean space foods (KSF) such as sweet pumpkin porridge, dakgalbi (spicy grilled chicken), Manila clam porridge, ox leg bone-cabbage soup, ginseng-chicken porridge, and chicken curry rice were developed by KAERI, and the contents of more than 15 elements in the samples were determined using an instrumental neutron activation analysis. A certified reference material associated with a biological food sample was used for analytical quality control. The analytical results were evaluated according to the elemental concentrations with KSF samples and compared with the reported values. These results will be applied toward the identification of gamma-irradiated foods. (author)

  18. Entering the urban frame: early lesbian activism and public space in Montréal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podmore, Julie A; Chamberland, Line

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spatial strategies used by Montréal lesbian activists in the 1970s and 1980s to fight for the lesbian "right to the city." After situating lesbian public activism within Henri Lefebvre's ideal of spatial justice, this article provides case studies of four moments during which Montréal lesbian activists joined or initiated public demonstrations as lesbians. The focus is on the multiple ways in which lesbian activists performed politicized lesbian identities in urban public spaces. Their spatial strategies in this first era of the lesbian and gay rights movement provide an alternative account of claiming lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer rights to the heterosexual city.

  19. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  20. Irregular Polyomino-Shaped Subarrays for Space-Based Active Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Mailloux

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results showing the application of polyomino-based subarrays to limited field of view and wideband, wide-angle scanning. This technology can reduce the number of phase controls in arrays used for limited sector coverage or the number of time delay devices for wideband radar or communications, and so can reduce the cost of space-based active arrays. We concentrate on the wideband application. Results are presented by comparing the gain and peak sidelobe results of irregular polyomino subarray-based arrays with those of rectangular subarrays. It is shown that using irregular polyomino subarrays can result in a major decrease in sidelobes while presenting, in most cases, only a few tenths of a dB gain reduction compared to rectangular subarrays.

  1. Spots and activity of Pleiades stars from observations with the Kepler Space Telescope (K2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    Observations of the K2 continuation of Kepler Space Telescope program are used to estimate the spot coverage S (the fractional spotted area on the surface of an active star) for stars of the Pleiades cluster. The analysis is based on data on photometric variations of 759 confirmed clustermembers, together with their atmospheric parameters, masses, and rotation periods. The relationship between the activity ( S) of these Pleiades stars and their effective temperatures shows considerable change in S for stars with temperatures T eff less than 6100 K (this can be considered the limiting value for which spot formation activity begins) and a monotonic increase in S for cooler objects (a change in the slope for stars with Teff 3700 K). The scatter in this parameter ΔS about its mean dependence on the (V -Ks)0 color index remains approximately the same over the entire ( V- K s )0 range, including cool, fully convective dwarfs. The computated S values do not indicate differences between slowly rotating and rapidly rotating stars with color indices 1.1 Pleiades cluster), resulting in the first determination of the relationship between the spot-forming activity and masses of stars. For 27 stars with masses differing from the solarmass by nomore than 0.1 M⊙, themean spot coverage is S = 0.031±0.003, suggesting that the activity of candidate young Suns is more pronounced than that of the present-day Sun. These stars rotate considerably faster than the Sun, with an average rotation period of 4.3d. The results of this study of cool, low-mass dwarfs of the Pleiades cluster are compared to results from an earlier study of 1570 M stars.

  2. UK manufacturers construction joint venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the legal and commercial framework for UK manufacturers to collaborate in a construction venture for a small combustion/steam cycle power plant fueled with biomass. The integration of technology and project plan, the working capital and capitalisation, financial aspects, the market plan, turnkey packages, joint venture entities, and collaboration are discussed. (UK)

  3. Temperature dependence of active photonic band gap in bragg-spaced quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Zhiqiang; Wang Tao; Yu Chunchao; Xu Wei

    2011-01-01

    A novel all-optical polarization switch of active photonic band gap structure based on non-resonant optical Stark effect bragg-spaced quantum wells was investigated and it could be compatible with the optical communication system. The theory is based on InGaAsP/InP Bragg-spaced quantum wells (BSQWs). Mainly through the design of the InGaAsP well layer component and InP barrier thickness to make the quantum-period cycle meet the bragg condition and the bragg frequency is equal to re-hole exciton resonance frequency. When a spectrally narrow control pulse is tuned within the forbidden gap, such BSQWs have been shown to exhibit large optical nonlinearities and ps recovery times, which can form T hz switch. However, the exciton binding energy of InGaAsP will be automatically separate at room temperature, so the effect of all-optical polarization switching of active photonic band gap bragg structure quantum wells can only be studied at low temperature. By a large number of experiments, we tested part of the material parameters of BSQWs in the temperature range 10-300K. On this basis, the InGaAsP and InP refractive index changes with wavelength, InP thermal expansion coefficient are studied and a relationship equation is established. Experimental results show that the bragg reflection spectra with temperature mainly is effected by InP refractive index changes with temperature. Our theoretical study and experiment are an instruction as a reference in the designs and experiments of future practical optical switches.

  4. Temperature dependence of active photonic band gap in bragg-spaced quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Zhiqiang; Wang Tao; Yu Chunchao; Xu Wei, E-mail: huzhiqianghzq@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)

    2011-02-01

    A novel all-optical polarization switch of active photonic band gap structure based on non-resonant optical Stark effect bragg-spaced quantum wells was investigated and it could be compatible with the optical communication system. The theory is based on InGaAsP/InP Bragg-spaced quantum wells (BSQWs). Mainly through the design of the InGaAsP well layer component and InP barrier thickness to make the quantum-period cycle meet the bragg condition and the bragg frequency is equal to re-hole exciton resonance frequency. When a spectrally narrow control pulse is tuned within the forbidden gap, such BSQWs have been shown to exhibit large optical nonlinearities and ps recovery times, which can form T hz switch. However, the exciton binding energy of InGaAsP will be automatically separate at room temperature, so the effect of all-optical polarization switching of active photonic band gap bragg structure quantum wells can only be studied at low temperature. By a large number of experiments, we tested part of the material parameters of BSQWs in the temperature range 10-300K. On this basis, the InGaAsP and InP refractive index changes with wavelength, InP thermal expansion coefficient are studied and a relationship equation is established. Experimental results show that the bragg reflection spectra with temperature mainly is effected by InP refractive index changes with temperature. Our theoretical study and experiment are an instruction as a reference in the designs and experiments of future practical optical switches.

  5. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spreeuwenberg Peter

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (in general, and more specifically, walking and cycling during leisure time and for commuting purposes, sports and gardening is an underlying mechanism in the relationship between the amount of green space in people's direct living environment and self-perceived health. To study this, we first investigated whether the amount of green space in the living environment is related to the level of physical activity. When an association between green space and physical activity was found, we analysed whether this could explain the relationship between green space and health. Methods The study includes 4.899 Dutch people who were interviewed about physical activity, self-perceived health and demographic and socioeconomic background. The amount of green space within a one-kilometre and a three-kilometre radius around the postal code coordinates was calculated for each individual. Multivariate multilevel analyses and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed at two levels and with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and urbanicity. Results No relationship was found between the amount of green space in the living environment and whether or not people meet the Dutch public health recommendations for physical activity, sports and walking for commuting purposes. People with more green space in their living environment walked and cycled less often and fewer minutes during leisure time; people with more green space garden more often and spend more time on gardening. Furthermore, if people cycle for commuting purposes they spend more time on this if they live in a greener living environment. Whether or not people garden, the time spent on gardening and time spent on cycling for commuting purposes did not explain the relationship between green space and health. Conclusion Our study indicates that the amount of green space in the living environment is

  6. Antibiotics and activity spaces: protocol of an exploratory study of behaviour, marginalisation and knowledge diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Haenssgen, MJ; Charoenboon, N; Zanello, G; Mayxay, M; Reed-Tsochas, F; Jones, COH; Kosaikanont, R; Praphattong, P; Manohan, P; Lubell, Y; Newton, PN; Keomany, S; Wertheim, HFL; Lienert, J; Xayavong, T

    2018-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global health priority. Leading UK and global strategy papers to fight AMR recognise its social and behavioural dimensions, but current policy responses to improve the popular use of antimicrobials (eg, antibiotics) are limited to education and awareness-raising campaigns. In response to conceptual, methodological and empirical weaknesses of this approach, we study people’s antibiotic-related health behaviour through three research questions. ...

  7. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  8. Assessing the Associations Between Types of Green Space, Physical Activity, and Health Indicators Using GIS and Participatory Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, A.

    2017-11-01

    This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands) are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke). Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small), quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  9. ASSESSING THE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN TYPES OF GREEN SPACE, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, AND HEALTH INDICATORS USING GIS AND PARTICIPATORY SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akpinar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explores whether specific types of green spaces (i.e. urban green spaces, forests, agricultural lands, rangelands, and wetlands are associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. A sample of 8,976 respondents from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, conducted in 2006 in Washington State across 291 zip-codes, was analyzed. Measures included physical activity status, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence (i.e. heart attack, angina, and stroke. Percentage of green spaces was derived from the National Land Cover Dataset and measured with Geographical Information System. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to analyze the data while controlling for age, sex, race, weight, marital status, occupation, income, education level, and zip-code population and socio-economic situation. Regression results reveal that no green space types were associated with physical activity, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. On the other hand, the analysis shows that physical activity was associated with general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence. The findings suggest that other factors such as size, structure and distribution (sprawled or concentrated, large or small, quality, and characteristics of green space might be important in general health, quality of life, and cardiovascular disease prevalence rather than green space types. Therefore, further investigations are needed.

  10. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex N Tidd

    Full Text Available The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers' choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers' likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential

  11. Fishing for space: fine-scale multi-sector maritime activities influence fisher location choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidd, Alex N; Vermard, Youen; Marchal, Paul; Pinnegar, John; Blanchard, Julia L; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The European Union and other states are moving towards Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management to balance food production and security with wider ecosystem concerns. Fishing is only one of several sectors operating within the ocean environment, competing for renewable and non-renewable resources that overlap in a limited space. Other sectors include marine mining, energy generation, recreation, transport and conservation. Trade-offs of these competing sectors are already part of the process but attempts to detail how the seas are being utilised have been primarily based on compilations of data on human activity at large spatial scales. Advances including satellite and shipping automatic tracking enable investigation of factors influencing fishers' choice of fishing grounds at spatial scales relevant to decision-making, including the presence or avoidance of activities by other sectors. We analyse the determinants of English and Welsh scallop-dredging fleet behaviour, including competing sectors, operating in the eastern English Channel. Results indicate aggregate mining activity, maritime traffic, increased fishing costs, and the English inshore 6 and French 12 nautical mile limits negatively impact fishers' likelihood of fishing in otherwise suitable areas. Past success, net-benefits and fishing within the 12 NM predispose fishers to use areas. Systematic conservation planning has yet to be widely applied in marine systems, and the dynamics of spatial overlap of fishing with other activities have not been studied at scales relevant to fisher decision-making. This study demonstrates fisher decision-making is indeed affected by the real-time presence of other sectors in an area, and therefore trade-offs which need to be accounted for in marine planning. As marine resource extraction demands intensify, governments will need to take a more proactive approach to resolving these trade-offs, and studies such as this will be required as the evidential foundation for future

  12. Ideas of space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.

    1979-01-01

    An historical and chronological account of mathematics Familiarity with simple equations and elements of trigonometry is needed but no specialist knowledge is assumed although difficult problems are discussed. By discussion of the difficulties and confusions it is hoped to understand mathematics as a dynamic activity. Beginning with early Greek mathematics, the Eastern legacy and the transition to deductive and geometric thinking the problem of parallels is then encountered and discussed. The second part of the book takes the story from Wallis, Saccheri and Lambert through to its resolution by Gauss, Lobachevskii, Bolyai, Riemann and Bettrami. The background of the 19th century theory of surfaces is given. The third part gives an account of Einstein's theories based on what has gone before, moving from a Newtonian-Euclidean picture to an Einsteinian-nonEuclidean one. A brief account of gravitation, the nature of space and black holes concludes the book. (UK)

  13. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  14. Historic Frontier Processes active in Future Space-Based Mineral Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The forces that shaped historic mining frontiers are in many cases not bound by geographic or temporal limits. The forces that helped define historic frontiers are active in today's physical and virtual frontiers, and will be present in future space-based frontiers. While frontiers derived from position and technology are primarily economic in nature, non-economic conditions affect the success or failure of individual frontier endeavors, local "mining camps" and even entire frontiers. Frontiers can be defined as the line of activity that divides the established markets and infrastructure of civilization from the unclaimed resources and potential wealth of a wilderness. At the frontier line, ownership of resources is established. The resource can then be developed using capital, energy and information. In a mining setting, the resource is concentrated for economic shipment to the markets of civilization. Profits from the sale of the resource are then used to fund further development of the resource and/or pay investors. Both positional and technical frontiers develop as a series of generations. The profits from each generation of development provides the capital and/or investment incentive for the next round of development. Without profit, the self-replicating process of frontiers stops.

  15. Space Food and Nutrition: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburri, Angelo A.; Gardner, Cathy A.

    From John Glenn's mission to orbit Earth to the International Space Station program, space food research has met the challenge of providing food that tastes good and travels well in space. Early food dehydration was achieved by cutting meat, fish, and certain fruits into thin strips and drying them in sunlight. Rubbing food with salt or soaking it…

  16. Nuclear energy for space: Past CEA activities and ongoing OPUS studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raepsaet, Xavier; Marion, Denis; Valentian, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of space activities, solar and nuclear energy have been identified as the only available options for extended missions according to present knowledge. Both types have been used extensively for missions on Earth orbit, interplanetary space and planetary/lunar surface. However, the intensity of solar irradiation decreases with the square of the distance from the Sun. Future scientific and human explorations will take benefits of using a safe in-space nuclear reactor for providing both sufficient electric energy and efficient performance for a space propulsion. The first part of the paper presents a brief status of the different types of nuclear power sources, their characteristics and their field of applications. Previous CEA's projects of space nuclear fission reactors that have been studied in the past will also be discussed; the ERATO project in the 80's (design of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion system of 20 to 200 kWe) and the MAPS project in the 90's (definition of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion system of 300 MWth for 72 kN of thrust). According to the recent road-maps, CEA decided to maintain a waking state in its spatial nuclear activities by carrying out some conceptual design studies of Nuclear Electric Power systems in the range of 100-500 kWe. The second part of the paper describes the main characteristics of this Optimized Propulsion Unit System (OPUS studies) and its different components. These characteristics, the basic options of the OPUS system that have been selected and the reasons associated to those choices are examined. Especially, the nuclear reactor has been defined considering the possible synergies with the next generation of terrestrial nuclear reactor (International Generation IV Forum). After two successive sets of studies, two different versions of this nuclear system have emerged. The first one is a fast, high-temperature helium cooled reactor, coupled to a direct reheated Brayton cycle. This version is technically the

  17. Activity of aminotransferases in organs of rats during hypoxia of enclosed space of the action of thiamine bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сніжана Сергіївна Чернадчук

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is studied an aminotransferase activity during injection of thiamin bromide in rat tissues in normal and hypoxic enclosed space. After injection of thiamine bromide we have set reduction of AST and ALT activity, relative to control, except by the brain tissue, where there was an increase of investigated indicators. The decrease of activity of the investigated elements is occurred in animals which before hypoxia were injection of thiamine bromide

  18. Space dosimetry measurements in the stratosphere using different active and passive dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabori, Balazs; Hirn, Attila; Deme, Sandor; Apathy, Istvan; Csoke, Antal; Pazmandi, Tamas; Szanto, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Several measurements have been performed on the cosmic radiation field from the surface of the Earth up to the maximum altitudes of research aeroplanes. However, there is only limited information about that between 15 and 30 km altitudes. In order to study the radiation environment in the stratosphere, an experiment was built by students from Hungarian universities that flew on board the BEXUS (Balloon Experiments for University Students) stratospheric balloon in Northern Sweden, from the ESRANGE Space Center. The main technical goals of the experiment were to test at the first time the TRITEL 3D silicon detector telescope system in close to space conditions and to develop a balloon technology platform for advanced cosmic radiation and dosimetric measurements. The main scientific goals were to give an assessment of the cosmic radiation field at the altitude of the BEXUS balloons, to use the TRITEL system to determine dosimetric and radiation quantities during the balloon flight and to intercompare the TRITEL and Pille results to provide a correction factor for the Pille measurements. To fulfil the scientific and technological objectives, several different dosimeter systems were included in the experiment: an advanced version of the TRITEL silicon detector telescope, Geiger-Mueller (GM) counters and Pille thermoluminescent dosimeters. The float altitude of the BEXUS balloon was ∼28.6 km; the total flight time was ∼4 h. Measurement data from the active instruments were received in real time by the ground team during the mission. There were no failures in the operation of the system; everything worked as expected. This article presents the scientific goals and results in detail. From the TRITEL measurements, the linear energy transfer spectra, the average quality factor of the cosmic radiation as well as the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were determined. Estimations for the uncertainty in the TRITEL measurements were given. The deposited energy spectra

  19. Operational support to collision avoidance activities by ESA's space debris office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V.; Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Merz, K.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Funke, Q.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Space Debris Office provides a service to support operational collision avoidance activities. This support currently covers ESA's missions Cryosat-2, Sentinel-1A and -2A, the constellation of Swarm-A/B/C in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as missions of third-party customers. In this work, we describe the current collision avoidance process for ESA and third-party missions in LEO. We give an overview on the upgrades developed and implemented since the advent of conjunction summary messages (CSM)/conjunction data messages (CDM), addressing conjunction event detection, collision risk assessment, orbit determination, orbit and covariance propagation, process control, and data handling. We pay special attention to the effect of warning thresholds on the risk reduction and manoeuvre rates, as they are established through risk mitigation and analysis tools, such as ESA's Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (DRAMA) software suite. To handle the large number of CDMs and the associated risk analyses, a database-centric approach has been developed. All CDMs and risk analysis results are stored in a database. In this way, a temporary local "mini-catalogue" of objects close to our target spacecraft is obtained, which can be used, e.g., for manoeuvre screening and to update the risk analysis whenever a new ephemeris becomes available from the flight dynamics team. The database is also used as the backbone for a Web-based tool, which consists of the visualization component and a collaboration tool that facilitates the status monitoring and task allocation within the support team as well as communication with the control team. The visualization component further supports the information sharing by displaying target and chaser motion over time along with the involved uncertainties. The Web-based solution optimally meets the needs for a concise and easy-to-use way to obtain a situation picture in a very short time, and the support for

  20. Ethnographic exercises as activities in public space: Social Occupational Therapy in art, culture and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Galvani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethnographic exercises are discussed - as proposed by the Metuia Project/ USP between 2007 and 2013 - as an activity able to enhance the recognition of the compound, plural and sometimes contradictory knowledge, but produced creatively in the intellectual and social do, in the interaction among students, occupational therapists, researchers and homeless people. It starts from the need to develop an understanding of the significant activities of artists working in the public spaces in São Paulo, as it persists as a plurality of meanings that the street acquires amid disputes of interests and cultural tensions, but also interconnections and creativity. The itinerant life and social areas’ characteristics, combined with reflections of urban anthropology and ethnographic research favored the theoretical and practical teaching in dialogic territorial shares of social occupational therapy. This article is the result of reflections built from the research Circuits and religious practices in life trajectories of adult homeless people in city of São Paulo, associated with university extension project linked to Metuia Project/USP, called Point meeting and culture: social networks, culture and social occupational therapy. In conclusion, on the one hand, there is need for renewed reflection about the occupational therapist’s place, considering the asymmetries of the relations in the construction of knowledge. On the other hand, it indicates that the produced activities, necessarily, in dialogical relations, only share meanings when inserted into the experience of the difference in consistent proposals with its own plasticity and in the middle of specific social and cultural contexts.

  1. Mapping membrane activity in undiscovered peptide sequence space using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ernest Y; Fulan, Benjamin M; Wong, Gerard C L; Ferguson, Andrew L

    2016-11-29

    There are some ∼1,100 known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which permeabilize microbial membranes but have diverse sequences. Here, we develop a support vector machine (SVM)-based classifier to investigate ⍺-helical AMPs and the interrelated nature of their functional commonality and sequence homology. SVM is used to search the undiscovered peptide sequence space and identify Pareto-optimal candidates that simultaneously maximize the distance σ from the SVM hyperplane (thus maximize its "antimicrobialness") and its ⍺-helicity, but minimize mutational distance to known AMPs. By calibrating SVM machine learning results with killing assays and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we find that the SVM metric σ correlates not with a peptide's minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), but rather its ability to generate negative Gaussian membrane curvature. This surprising result provides a topological basis for membrane activity common to AMPs. Moreover, we highlight an important distinction between the maximal recognizability of a sequence to a trained AMP classifier (its ability to generate membrane curvature) and its maximal antimicrobial efficacy. As mutational distances are increased from known AMPs, we find AMP-like sequences that are increasingly difficult for nature to discover via simple mutation. Using the sequence map as a discovery tool, we find a unexpectedly diverse taxonomy of sequences that are just as membrane-active as known AMPs, but with a broad range of primary functions distinct from AMP functions, including endogenous neuropeptides, viral fusion proteins, topogenic peptides, and amyloids. The SVM classifier is useful as a general detector of membrane activity in peptide sequences.

  2. Active space of pheromone plume and its relationship to effective attraction radius in applied models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A

    2008-09-01

    The release rate of a semiochemical lure that attracts flying insects has a specific effective attraction radius (EAR) that corresponds to the lure's orientation response strength. EAR is defined as the radius of a passive sphere that intercepts the same number of insects as a semiochemical-baited trap. It is estimated by calculating the ratio of trap catches in the field in baited and unbaited traps and the interception area of the unbaited trap. EAR serves as a standardized method for comparing the attractive strengths of lures that is independent of population density. In two-dimensional encounter rate models that are used to describe insect mass trapping and mating disruption, a circular EAR (EAR(c)) describes a key parameter that affects catch or influence by pheromone in the models. However, the spherical EAR, as measured in the field, should be transformed to an EAR(c) for appropriate predictions in such models. The EAR(c) is calculated as (pi/2EAR(2))/F (L), where F (L) is the effective thickness of the flight layer where the insect searches. F (L) was estimated from catches of insects (42 species in the orders Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Thysanoptera) on traps at various heights as reported in the literature. The EAR(c) was proposed further as a simple but equivalent alternative to simulations of highly complex active-space plumes with variable response surfaces that have proven exceedingly difficult to quantify in nature. This hypothesis was explored in simulations where flying insects, represented as coordinate points, moved about in a correlated random walk in an area that contained a pheromone plume, represented as a sector of active space composed of a capture probability surface of variable complexity. In this plume model, catch was monitored at a constant density of flying insects and then compared to simulations in which a circular EAR(c) was enlarged until an equivalent rate was caught. This demonstrated that there is a

  3. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for laser-driven many-electron dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2013-01-01

    We present the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) theory as a framework for the time-dependent many-electron problem. The theory generalizes the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) theory by incorporating the restricted-active-space scheme...... well known in time-independent quantum chemistry. Optimization of the orbitals as well as the expansion coefficients at each time step makes it possible to construct the wave function accurately while using only a relatively small number of electronic configurations. In numerical calculations of high...

  4. Space Educational Opportunities and Outreach Activities at the Dawn of the 21st Century. A European Students Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, S.; Robinson, D.; Manfletti, C.; Amadori, K.; Boccalatte, A.; Alessandrini, M.; Bedogna, P.; Corradi, P.; Marcuccio, M.

    2002-01-01

    Taking part in space activities and participating in the development and growth of space project has now become an undeniable reality. Thanks to academic institutions and outreach activities space enthusiasts can engage in numerous and diverse yet unique opportunities. The ESA Outreach Office sees students of every background taking part in its activities. This unique mixture of students of diverse nationalities enthusiastically co-operating ensures the program's interdisciplinarity. The added value of such an environment to the programs is significant and must not be forgotten. The friendship that blossom, and lose with which cultural and language barriers are overcome during the time spent working on the projects offered to university student and young professionals are invaluable. The purpose of this abstract is to give our perspective to the space community and to the general public on the importance of developing a space culture. The academic value of the space research projects mainly in which the authors have participated, the importance of such projects for the future of European relations and personal and social development through experience of international teams are topics that will be addressed. The activities discussed are : Attending sessions of congresses around the world, making contacts of major companies and players in the space sector, dealing of topics such as space engineering, policy and law, life sciences, business and finance, satellite applications, the exhilaration of floating in zero-g, the interdisciplinary, international and intercultural approach, the chance of quickly learning about many new concepts are just some of the marvellous experiences and opportunities that these programs offer. Reaching out to the general public is the second purpose of these unique activities.Images, photos and reports can seep into every house thanks to the great instrument that is the media, thus informing almost everyone about the activities and

  5. Mainstream Issues of Education and Public Awareness of Space Activities and Sciences among universities and Scientific Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir

    This paper is an effort to study and analyze several constraints and issues of space technology and education that organizations other than governmental organizations face in awareness program. In recent years, advancements in technologies have made it possible for Volunteer and Technical Communities, non-government organizations, private agencies and academic research institutions to provide increasing support to space education management and emphasis on response efforts. Important cornerstones of this effort and support are the possibility to access and take advantage of satellite imagery as well as the use of other space-based technologies such as telecommunications satellites and global navigation satellite systems included in main curriculum plus the implementation of programs for use of high class sophisticated technologies used by industries to the students and researchers of non-space faring nations. The authors recognize the importance of such new methodologies for education and public Awareness. This paper demonstrates many hurdles universities and scientific institutions face including lack of access in terms of financial and technical resources for better support. A new model for coordinated private sector partnership in response to space sciences and education has been discussed. In depth analysis and techniques need to connect these pioneering communities with the space industry as well as the space governmental agencies, with special emphasis on financial constraints. The paper mandates its role to promote the use of space-based information; its established networks bringing together national institutions responsible for these space based activities, as well as other end users, and space solution experts; and its technical foundation, particularly in the area of information technologies. To help building a tighter cooperation and further understanding among all these communities, paper delivers an intensive report and solutions for future

  6. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  7. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  8. Nuclear Energy Gradients for Internally Contracted Complete Active Space Second-Order Perturbation Theory: Multistate Extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaisavljevich, Bess; Shiozaki, Toru

    2016-08-09

    We report the development of the theory and computer program for analytical nuclear energy gradients for (extended) multistate complete active space perturbation theory (CASPT2) with full internal contraction. The vertical shifts are also considered in this work. This is an extension of the fully internally contracted CASPT2 nuclear gradient program recently developed for a state-specific variant by us [MacLeod and Shiozaki, J. Chem. Phys. 2015, 142, 051103]; in this extension, the so-called λ equation is solved to account for the variation of the multistate CASPT2 energies with respect to the change in the amplitudes obtained in the preceding state-specific CASPT2 calculations, and the Z vector equations are modified accordingly. The program is parallelized using the MPI3 remote memory access protocol that allows us to perform efficient one-sided communication. The optimized geometries of the ground and excited states of a copper corrole and benzophenone are presented as numerical examples. The code is publicly available under the GNU General Public License.

  9. Adaptable Single Active Loop Thermal Control System (TCS) for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Lee, Seunghyun; Hasan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will examine the development of a thermal control system (TCS) for future space missions utilizing a single active cooling loop. The system architecture enables the TCS to be reconfigured during the various mission phases to respond, not only to varying heat load, but to heat rejection temperature as well. The system will consist of an accumulator, pump, cold plates (evaporators), condenser radiator, and compressor, in addition to control, bypass and throttling valves. For cold environments, the heat will be rejected by radiation, during which the compressor will be bypassed, reducing the system to a simple pumped loop that, depending on heat load, can operate in either a single-phase liquid mode or two-phase mode. For warmer environments, the pump will be bypassed, enabling the TCS to operate as a heat pump. This presentation will focus on recent findings concerning two-phase flow regimes, pressure drop, and heat transfer coefficient trends in the cabin and avionics micro-channel heat exchangers when using the heat pump mode. Also discussed will be practical implications of using micro-channel evaporators for the heat pump.

  10. The NASA Heliophysics Active Final Archive at the Space Physics Data Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 NASA Heliophysics Science Data Management Policy re-defined and extended the responsibilities of the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project. Building on SPDF's established capabilities, the new policy assigned the role of active "Final Archive" for non-solar NASA Heliophysics data to SPDF. The policy also recognized and formalized the responsibilities of SPDF as a source for critical infrastructure services such as VSPO to the overall Heliophysics Data Environment (HpDE) and as a Center of Excellence for existing SPDF science-enabling services and software including CDAWeb, SSCWeb/4D Orbit Viewer, OMNIweb and CDF. We will focus this talk to the principles, strategies and planned SPDF architecture to effectively and efficiently perform these roles, with special emphasis on how SPDF will ensure the long-term preservation and ongoing online community access to all the data entrusted to SPDF. We will layout our archival philosophy and what we are advocating in our work with NASA missions both current and future, with potential providers of NASA and NASA-relevant archival data, and to make the data and metadata held by SPDF accessible to other systems and services within the overall HpOE. We will also briefly review our current services, their metrics and our current plans and priorities for their evolution.

  11. Scientific Considerations for Future Spectroscopic Measurements from Space of Activity on the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution UV and X-ray spectroscopy are important to understanding the origin and evolution of magnetic energy release in the solar atmosphere, as well as the subsequent evolution of heated plasma and accelerated particles. Electromagnetic radiation is observed from plasma heated to temperatures ranging from about 10 k K to above 10 MK, from accelerated electrons emitting photons primarily at X-ray energies, and from ions emitting in gamma rays. These observations require space-based instruments sensitive to emissions at wavelengths shorter than the near UV. This article reviews some recent observations with emphasis on solar eruptive events, the models that describe them, and the measurements they indicate are needed for substantial progress in the future. Specific examples are discussed demonstrating that imaging spectroscopy with a cadence of seconds or better is needed to follow, understand, and predict the evolution of solar activity. Critical to substantial progress is the combination of a judicious choice of UV, EUV, and soft X-ray imaging spectroscopy sensitive to the evolution of this thermal plasma combined with hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy sensitive to suprathermal electrons. The major challenge will be to conceive instruments that, within the bounds of possible technologies and funding, have the flexibility and field of view to obtain spectroscopic observations where and when events occur while providing an optimum balance of dynamic range, spectral resolution and range, and spatial resolution.

  12. Report on the activities of Space Science Department in 1978/1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.E.; Fitton, B.; Pedersen, A.; Taylor, B.G.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    1980-09-01

    In the chapters which follow each of the four Divisions, (Cosmic Ray Div., Space Plasma Div., Astronomy Div., and High Energy Astrophysic Div.) has described its work in the sequence: 'Support given to projects', 'Support given to studies', and 'Research activities'. The effort and time devoted to each area of work is by no means proportional to the length of text appearing in each area. Any attempt to fully describe support given to a project tends to result in what is merely a diary of meetings, tests, failures, re-scheduling efforts, repair of experiments, re-tests, compromise negotiation, inter-experimenter refereeing etc., and such diaries, although instructive, seemed inappropriate in this report. Reports on projects and studies therefore in general simply describe the project and say that it was supported. It should be mentioned, however, that major efforts, outside the normal role of SSD, have gone into the IUE and Exosat projects. The scientific operations of IUE were planned and are directed from the Astronomy Division to which the visiting scientists at Villafranca report. The design and production of the Exosat payload is being managed from the High Energy Astrophysics Division and plans are now being made for the operation of the Exosat Observatory and the distribution of the data

  13. From laggard to leader: Explaining offshore wind developments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, Florian; Smith, Adrian; Shaw, Chris; Raven, Rob; Verhees, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Offshore wind technology has recently undergone rapid deployment in the UK. And yet, up until recently, the UK was considered a laggard in terms of deploying renewable energy. How can this burst of offshore wind activity be explained? An economic analysis would seek signs for newfound competitiveness for offshore wind in energy markets. A policy analysis would highlight renewable energy policy developments and assess their contribution to economic prospects of offshore wind. However, neither perspective sheds sufficient light on the advocacy of the actors involved in the development and deployment of the technology. Without an account of technology politics it is hard to explain continuing policy support despite rising costs. By analysing the actor networks and narratives underpinning policy support for offshore wind, we explain how a fairly effective protective space was constructed through the enroling of key political and economic interests. - Highlights: • UK is world leader in offshore wind deployment. • Article explains boom in deployment by looking at the politics of renewable energy policy. • Offshore wind is supported by a variety of actors with aligned political and economic interests. • Analysis highlights the importance of a system builder

  14. NPP Grassland: Beacon Hill, U.K., 1972-1993, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two ASCII text files, one providing productivity measurements for a chalk grassland on Beacon Hill, West Sussex, U.K. (50.92 N, -0.85 W) and...

  15. Green Urban Space Utilization for Mild ICT-Based Touristic Activities: The Case of Pafsilipo Park in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos KARAGIANNIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of mild touristic activities in green urban landscapes. More specifically, it uses the case of Pasfilipo Park in the city of Karditsa, Greece, where a green urban landscape has been utilized for local life improvement and illustrates existing touristic activities in this area. For the purposes of strengthening landscape’s role, various touristic activities are proposed accompanied by Information and Communications Technologies (ICT. Moreover, this paper queries scientific issues with regard to the capitalization of green urban spaces for small scale touristic and ecological activities, which support local life and local economic growth. This study addresses the above modern requirements for urban development with respect to existing natural and human resources. It attempts to answer the following question: can green open spaces in cities be capitalized for touristic activities that support sustainable growth? In this order, green spaces in cities are recognized as areas for smart growth, where mild touristic activities can be undertaken without ecologic damages and can result in simultaneous economic activities that can lead to local development.

  16. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Active galactic nucleus and quasar science with aperture masking interferometry on the James Webb Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, K. E. Saavik; McKernan, Barry [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10007 (United States); Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Martel, André R.; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lafrenière, David [Département de Physique, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128 Succ. Centre-ville, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada); Parmentier, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    Due to feedback from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to play a key role in ΛCDM cosmology and galaxy formation. However, AGNs extreme luminosities and the small angular size of their accretion flows create a challenging imaging problem. We show that the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (JWST-NIRISS) Aperture Masking Interferometry (AMI) mode will enable true imaging (i.e., without any requirement of prior assumptions on source geometry) at ∼65 mas angular resolution at the centers of AGNs. This is advantageous for studying complex extended accretion flows around SMBHs and in other areas of angular-resolution-limited astrophysics. By simulating data sequences incorporating expected sources of noise, we demonstrate that JWST-NIRISS AMI mode can map extended structure at a pixel-to-pixel contrast of ∼10{sup –2} around an L = 7.5 point source, using short exposure times (minutes). Such images will test models of AGN feedback, fueling, and structure (complementary with ALMA observations), and are not currently supported by any ground-based IR interferometer or telescope. Binary point source contrast with NIRISS is ∼10{sup –4} (for observing binary nuclei in merging galaxies), significantly better than current ground-based optical or IR interferometry. JWST-NIRISS's seven-hole non-redundant mask has a throughput of 15%, and utilizes NIRISS's F277W (2.77 μm), F380M (3.8 μm), F430M (4.3 μm), and F480M (4.8 μm) filters. NIRISS's square pixels are 65 mas per side, with a field of view ∼2' × 2'. We also extrapolate our results to AGN science enabled by non-redundant masking on future 2.4 m and 16 m space telescopes working at long-UV to near-IR wavelengths.

  18. A repeated measures experiment of school playing environment to increase physical activity and enhance self-esteem in UK school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Carly; Gladwell, Valerie; Barton, Jo

    2014-01-01

    School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA) requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22) = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060) or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140). During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23) = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071). For lunch (F(1,22) = 24,11; Psex during lunch (F(1,22) = 11.56; Pschools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.

  19. SE83-9 'Chix in Space' student experimenter monitors STS-29 onboard activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger watches monitor in the JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Customer Support Room (CSR) during the STS-29 mission. Crewmembers are working with his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  20. A review of the UK fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picker, C.; Ainsworth, K.F.

    1998-01-01

    The general position with regard to nuclear power and fast reactors in the UK during 1996 is described. The main UK Government-funded fast reactor research and development programme was concluded in 1993, to be replaced by a smaller programme which is mainly funded and managed by British Nuclear Fuels plc. The main focus of this programme sustains the UK participation in the European Fast Reactor (EFR) collaboration and the broader international links built-up over the previous decades. The status of fast reactor studies made in the UK in 1996 is outlined and, with respect to the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay, a report of progress with the closure studies, fuel reprocessing and decommissioning activities is provided. (author)

  1. Large-scale parallel configuration interaction. I. Nonrelativisticand scalar-relativistic general active space implementationwith application to (Rb-Ba)+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fleig, Timo

    2008-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a string-driven general active space configuration interaction program for nonrelativistic and scalar-relativistic electronic-structure calculations. The code has been modularly incorporated in the DIRAC quantum chemistry program package. The implementation...

  2. Physical activity as a possible mechanism behind the relationship between green space and health: a multilevel analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.; Verheij, R.A.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical activity (in general, and more specifically, walking and cycling during leisure time and for commuting purposes, sports and gardening) is an underlying mechanism in the relationship between the amount of green space in people's

  3. A repeated measures experiment of school playing environment to increase physical activity and enhance self-esteem in UK school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Wood

    Full Text Available School playtime provides daily opportunities for children to be active outdoors, but only makes small contributions to physical activity (PA requirements. Natural environments facilitate unstructured PA and children report a preference for play in nature. Thus, play on the school field might encourage children to be more active during playtime. The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of the school playing environment on children's PA. Descriptive data and fitness were assessed in 25 children aged 8-9 years from a single primary school. Over two consecutive weeks participants were allocated to either play on the school field or playground during playtime. The order of play in the two areas was randomised and counterbalanced. Moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA was assessed during playtime on the last two days of each week using accelerometers. There was a significant interaction of environment and sex on MVPA during morning play (F(1,22 = 6.27; P0.05; np2 = 0.060 or all of playtime combined (P>0.05; np2 = 0.140. During morning play boys were significantly more active than girls on the playground (t(23 = 1.32; P0.05; n2 = 0.071. For lunch (F(1,22 = 24,11; P<0.001; np2 = 0.523 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 33.67; P<0.001; np2 = 0.616 there was a significant effect of environment. There was also a significant main effect of sex during lunch (F(1,22 = 11.56; P<0.01; np2 = 0.344 and all of playtime combined (F(1,22 = 12.37; P<0.01; np2 = 0.371. MVPA was higher on the field and boys were more active than girls. Play on the field leads to increases in MVPA, particularly in girls. The promising trend for the effect of the natural environment on MVPA indicates that interventions aimed at increasing MVPA should use the natural environment and that schools should encourage greater use of their natural areas to increase PA.

  4. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316

  5. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  6. Post 2000-swarm microearthquake activity in the principal focal zone of West Bohemia/Vogtland: space-time distribution and waveform similarity analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, Tomáš; Michálek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2008), s. 493-511 ISSN 0039-3169 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 105707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : earthquake swarms * relative location * waveform similarity * seismic activity * West Bohemia/Vogtland Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.770, year: 2008

  7. Extending TAM and IDT to Predict the Adoption of the Internet for B-to-B Marketing Activities: An Empirical Study of UK Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Riyad Eid

    2009-01-01

    There has been considerable Research into the usage of the Internet for Business-to-Business (B-to-B) marketing activities in recent years. The need to understand how and why B-to-B companies utilize the Internet is important for researchers and practitioners alike. This study combines Davis’ model-the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM)- and Roger’s Theory- the Innovation diffusion Theory (IDT) to understand the process of Internet adoption for marketing purposes. It makes a comprehensive ...

  8. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  9. Active shield technology for space craft protection revisited in new laboratory results and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, R.; Gibson, K. J.; Thornton, A. T.; Bradford, J.; Bingham, R.; Gargate, L.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.; Hapgood, M.; Norberg, C.; Todd, T.; Stamper, R.

    2009-04-01

    Energetic ions in the solar wind plasma are a known hazard to both spacecraft electronics and to astronaut's health. Of primary concern is the exposure to keV--MeV protons on manned space flights to the Moon and Mars that extend over long periods of time. Attempts to protect the spacecraft include active shields that are reminiscent of Star Trek "deflector" shields. Here we describe a new experiment to test the shielding concept of a dipole-like magnetic field and plasma, surrounding the spacecraft forming a "mini magnetosphere". Initial laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of a magnetized plasma barrier to be able to expel an impacting, low beta, supersonic flowing energetic plasma representing the Solar Wind. Optical and Langmuir probe data of the plasma density, the plasma flow velocity, and the intensity of the dipole field clearly show the creation of a narrow transport barrier region and diamagnetic cavity virtually devoid of energetic plasma particles. This demonstrates the potential viability of being able to create a small "hole" in a Solar Wind plasma, of the order of the ion Larmor orbit width, in which an inhabited spacecraft could reside in relative safety. The experimental results have been quantitatively compared to a 3D particle-in-cell ‘hybrid' code simulation that uses kinetic ions and fluid electrons, showing good qualitative agreement and excellent quantitative agreement. Together the results demonstrate the pivotal role of particle kinetics in determining generic plasma transport barriers. [1] [1] R Bamford et al., "The interaction of a flowing plasma with a dipole magnetic field: measurements and modelling of a diamagnetic cavity relevant to spacecraft protection." 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124025 (11pp) doi: 10.1088/0741-3335/50/12/124025

  10. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Srikishen, Jayanthi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula s "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA s National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA s SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT s experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  12. Freight from Space: Evaluating Freight Activity and Emissions Trends from Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, E.; Holloway, T.; Oberman, J.; Janssen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy duty diesel freight trucks are the fastest growing source of highway emissions in the U.S., with domestic freight tonnage projected to double by 2050. Highway diesel vehicles currently account for 42% of on-road emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 58% of on-road fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. Because most surface air quality monitors are located in densely populated areas and not rural highways, it is difficult to use ground-based observations to validate spatial trends in transportation emissions. Therefore, we have employed satellite retrievals from the OMI instrument to inform surface freight transportation inventory estimates by validating modeled tropospheric vertical column total nitrogen dioxide (NO2) against satellite observations. For this research we built a roadway-by-roadway bottom-up diesel truck emissions inventory using GIS, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) activity dataset, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES emissions model. We use freight rail emissions from the Eastern Regional Technical Advisory Committee (ERTAC), inventory emissions from the Lake Michigan's Air Directors Consortium (LADCO) and the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Qualiy (CMAQ) model to simulate ground-level and tropospheric column concentrations of NO2. We also use the combination of models and satellite data to evaluate weekday-weekend patterns of NO2 concentrations and the relative contributions of highway diesel vehicles, highway gasoline vehicles, and freight rail to transportation-related pollution. This research presents the first evaluation of surface freight transport from space-based observations. We find satellite retrievals of surface pollutants provide a useful data tool for evaluating air quality models and constraining emissions sources.

  13. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field theory for bosonic many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lévêque, Camille; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2017-01-01

    We develop an ab initio time-dependent wavefunction based theory for the description of a many-body system of cold interacting bosons. Like the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (MCTDHB), the theory is based on a configurational interaction Ansatz for the many-body wavefunction with time-dependent self-consistent-field orbitals. The theory generalizes the MCTDHB method by incorporating restrictions on the active space of the orbital excitations. The restrictions are specified based on the physical situation at hand. The equations of motion of this time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) theory are derived. The similarity between the formal development of the theory for bosons and fermions is discussed. The restrictions on the active space allow the theory to be evaluated under conditions where other wavefunction based methods due to exponential scaling in the numerical effort cannot, and to clearly identify the excitations that are important for an accurate description, significantly beyond the mean-field approach. For ground state calculations we find it to be important to allow a few particles to have the freedom to move in many orbitals, an insight facilitated by the flexibility of the restricted-active-space Ansatz . Moreover, we find that a high accuracy can be obtained by including only even excitations in the many-body self-consistent-field wavefunction. Time-dependent simulations of harmonically trapped bosons subject to a quenching of their noncontact interaction, show failure of the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii approach within a fraction of a harmonic oscillation period. The TD-RASSCF theory remains accurate at much reduced computational cost compared to the MCTDHB method. Exploring the effect of changes of the restricted-active-space allows us to identify that even self-consistent-field excitations are mainly responsible for the accuracy of the method. (paper)

  14. Aural localization of silent objects by active human biosonar: neural representations of virtual echo-acoustic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmeier, Ludwig; Kish, Daniel; Wiegrebe, Lutz; Flanagin, Virginia L

    2015-03-01

    Some blind humans have developed the remarkable ability to detect and localize objects through the auditory analysis of self-generated tongue clicks. These echolocation experts show a corresponding increase in 'visual' cortex activity when listening to echo-acoustic sounds. Echolocation in real-life settings involves multiple reflections as well as active sound production, neither of which has been systematically addressed. We developed a virtualization technique that allows participants to actively perform such biosonar tasks in virtual echo-acoustic space during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tongue clicks, emitted in the MRI scanner, are picked up by a microphone, convolved in real time with the binaural impulse responses of a virtual space, and presented via headphones as virtual echoes. In this manner, we investigated the brain activity during active echo-acoustic localization tasks. Our data show that, in blind echolocation experts, activations in the calcarine cortex are dramatically enhanced when a single reflector is introduced into otherwise anechoic virtual space. A pattern-classification analysis revealed that, in the blind, calcarine cortex activation patterns could discriminate left-side from right-side reflectors. This was found in both blind experts, but the effect was significant for only one of them. In sighted controls, 'visual' cortex activations were insignificant, but activation patterns in the planum temporale were sufficient to discriminate left-side from right-side reflectors. Our data suggest that blind and echolocation-trained, sighted subjects may recruit different neural substrates for the same active-echolocation task. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE ASTEROID 324P/La SAGRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David; Li, Jing [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Agarwal, Jessica [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Weaver, Harold [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, Maryland 20723 (United States); Mutchler, Max [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Larson, Stephen, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of active asteroid 324P/La Sagra near perihelion show continued mass loss consistent with the sublimation of near-surface ice. Isophotes of the coma measured from a vantage point below the orbital plane are best matched by steady emission of particles having a nominal size  of  a  ∼ 100 μ m. The inferred rate of mass loss, dM{sub d} / dt  ∼ 0.2 kg s{sup −1}, can be supplied by sublimation of water ice in thermal equilibrium with sunlight from an area as small as 930 m{sup 2}, corresponding to about 0.2% of the nucleus surface. Observations taken from a vantage point only 0.°6 from the orbital plane of 324P set a limit to the velocity of ejection of dust in the direction perpendicular to the plane, V {sub ⊥} < 1 m s{sup −1}. Short-term photometric variations of the near-nucleus region, if related to rotation of the underlying nucleus, rule-out periods ≤3.8 hr and suggest that rotation probably does not play a central role in driving the observed mass loss. We estimate that, in the previous orbit, 324P lost about 4 × 10{sup 7} kg in dust particles, corresponding to 6 × 10{sup −5} of the mass of a 550 m spherical nucleus of assumed density ρ  = 1000 kg m{sup −3}. If continued, mass loss at this rate would limit the lifetime of 324P to ∼1.6 × 10{sup 4} orbits (about 10{sup 5} years). To survive for the 100–400 Myr timescales corresponding to dynamical and collisional stability requires a duty cycle of 2 × 10{sup −4} ≤  f{sub d}  ≤ 8 × 10{sup −4}. Unless its time in orbit is overestimated by many orders of magnitude, 324P is revealed as a briefly active member of a vast population of otherwise dormant ice-containing asteroids.

  16. Cloud Computing Applications in Support of Earth Science Activities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, A.; Limaye, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, the NASA Nebula Cloud Computing Platform is available to Agency personnel in a pre-release status as the system undergoes a formal operational readiness review. Over the past year, two projects within the Earth Science Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center have been investigating the performance and value of Nebula's "Infrastructure as a Service", or "IaaS" concept and applying cloud computing concepts to advance their respective mission goals. The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center focuses on the transition of unique NASA satellite observations and weather forecasting capabilities for use within the operational forecasting community through partnerships with NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS). SPoRT has evaluated the performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model on virtual machines deployed within Nebula and used Nebula instances to simulate local forecasts in support of regional forecast studies of interest to select NWS forecast offices. In addition to weather forecasting applications, rapidly deployable Nebula virtual machines have supported the processing of high resolution NASA satellite imagery to support disaster assessment following the historic severe weather and tornado outbreak of April 27, 2011. Other modeling and satellite analysis activities are underway in support of NASA's SERVIR program, which integrates satellite observations, ground-based data and forecast models to monitor environmental change and improve disaster response in Central America, the Caribbean, Africa, and the Himalayas. Leveraging SPoRT's experience, SERVIR is working to establish a real-time weather forecasting model for Central America. Other modeling efforts include hydrologic forecasts for Kenya, driven by NASA satellite observations and reanalysis data sets provided by the broader meteorological community. Forecast modeling efforts are supplemented by short-term forecasts of convective initiation, determined by

  17. Investigation of unstable periodic space-time states in distributed active system with supercritical current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koronovskij, A.A.; Rempen, I.S.; Khramov, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The set of the unstable periodic space-time states, characterizing the chaotic space-time dynamics of the electron beam with the supercritical current in the Pierce diode is discussed. The Lyapunov indicators of the revealed instable space-time states of the chaotic dynamics of the distributed self-excited system are calculated. It is shown that change in the set of the unstable periodic states in dependence on the Pierce parameter is determined by change in the various orbits stability, which is demonstrated by the values of senior Lyapunov unstable state index [ru

  18. Essentials for profitable coalbed methane production in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, J.C.; Rollins, J.B. [Cawley, Gillespie & Associates, Inc. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The UK coalbed methane industry is now poised for a continuation of its growth. For this potential growth to be realized, coalbed methane production must be profitable for producers. Commercial viability of coalbed methane production in the UK depends on th fulfilment of essential technical, regulatory, and economic conditions. Technically, coalbed methane reservoirs must have an adequate thickness of permeable gas saturated coal. The regulatory environment must offer favorable treatment regarding taxation, royalties, and policies on well spacing, wellsite locations, and market accessibility. Economically, gas prices and initial capital costs must be sufficiently favorable to yield an acceptable rate of return. If these essential conditions can be fulfilled, UK coalbed methane production can be expected to be a commercially viable industry. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2005-11-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades and diverse geographic origin (geometric mean 90% inhibitory concentration of 2.0 nM). Maraviroc was active against 200 clinically derived HIV-1 envelope-recombinant pseudoviruses, 100 of which were derived from viruses resistant to existing drug classes. There was little difference in the sensitivity of the 200 viruses to maraviroc, as illustrated by the biological cutoff in this assay (= geometric mean plus two standard deviations [SD] of 1.7-fold). The mechanism of action of maraviroc was established using cell-based assays, where it blocked binding of viral envelope, gp120, to CCR5 to prevent the membrane fusion events necessary for viral entry. Maraviroc did not affect CCR5 cell surface levels or associated intracellular signaling, confirming it as a functional antagonist of CCR5. Maraviroc has no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and is highly selective for CCR5, as confirmed against a wide range of receptors and enzymes, including the hERG ion channel (50% inhibitory concentration, >10 microM), indicating potential for an excellent clinical safety profile. Studies in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models predicted maraviroc to have human pharmacokinetics consistent with once- or twice-daily dosing following oral administration. Clinical trials are ongoing to further investigate the potential of using maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS.

  20. Nuclear power and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, St.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides describes the policy of the UK government concerning nuclear power. In January 2008 the UK Government published the White Paper on the Future of Nuclear Power. The White Paper concluded that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in this country's future energy mix. The role of the Government is neither to build nuclear power plants nor to finance them. The White Paper set out the facilitative actions the Government planned to take to reduce regulatory and planning risks associated with investing in new nuclear power stations. The White Paper followed a lengthy period of consultation where the UK Government sought a wide variety of views from stakeholders and the public across the country on the future of nuclear power. In total energy companies will need to invest in around 30-35 GW of new electricity generating capacity over the next two decades. This is equivalent to about one-third of our existing capacity. The first plants are expected to enter into service by 2018 or sooner. The Office for Nuclear Development (OND) has been created to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK while the Nuclear Development Forum (NDF) has been established to lock in momentum to secure the long-term future of nuclear power generation in the UK. (A.C.)

  1. Can adding web-based support to UK primary care exercise referral schemes improve patients’ physical activity levels? Findings from an internal pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Taylor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Promoting physical activity (PA via primary care exercise referral schemes (ERS is common but there is no rigorous evidence for long term changes in PA (Pavey et al, 2011 among those with chronic conditions. From July 2015, for 15 months, the e-coachER trial began to recruit 1400 patients (in SW England, Birmingham and Glasgow with one or more chronic conditions including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, osteoarthritis, or depression, who are eligible and about to attend an ERS. The two-arm parallel RCT is powered to determine if the addition of a web-based, interactive, theory-driven and evidence-based support system called e-coachER (hosted on the ‘LifeGuide’ platform will result in at least 10% more patients who do 150 mins or more per week of accelerometer assessed moderate or vigorous physical activity (MVPA at 12 months. Recruitment into the trial is within primary care, using both mail-merged patient invitations and opportunistic GP invitations (and exercise referrals. Within the trial, after participants are screened, provide consent and complete baseline assessments, they are randomised to receive usual ERS at each site or usual ERS plus a mailed Welcome Pack with registration details to access e-coachER on-line. Inclusion criteria for entering the trial are: (1 Aged 16-74 years; (2 with one or more of the following: obesity (BMI 30-35, hypertension (SBP 140-179 or DBP 90-109, type 2 diabetes, lower limb osteoarthritis, recent history of treatment for depression; (3 Participants who are in the two lowest (of four groups using the GP Physical Activity Questionnaire; (4 have an e-mail address and access to the internet; (5 Eligible for an ERS. The intervention rationale, design and content are reported in another presentation. Aims: This presentation will provide initial findings from a 3 month internal pilot phase with a focus on trial recruitment and initial intervention engagement. We will present data on the

  2. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  3. Maps into projective spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle. Acknowledgements. This work was initiated during the author's visit to the Isaac Newton Institute, Cambridge,. UK as a visiting fellow to participate in the programme Moduli Spaces (MOS) during. June 2011. She would like to thank the Institute for hospitality and excellent working environment. References.

  4. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Williams, J.; Buck, C.

    1977-01-01

    Enriched uranium metal fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor has been reprocessed and refabricated in plants specifically designed for the purpose in the U.K. since 1961. Efficient and reliable fuel recycle is essential to the development of a plutonium based fast reactor system and the importance of establishing at an early stage fast reactor fuel reprocessing has been reinforced by current world difficulties in reprocessing high burn-up thermal reactor oxide fuel. In consequence, the U.K. has decided to reprocess irradiated fuel from the 250 MW(E) Prototype Fast Reactor as an integral part of the fast reactor development programme. Flowsheet and equipment development work for the small scale fully active demonstration plant have been carried out over the past 5 years and the plant will be commissioned and ready for active operation during 1977. In parallel, a comprehensive waste management system has been developed and installed. Based on this development work and the information which will arise from active operation of the plant a parallel development programme has been initiated to provide the basis for the design of a large scale fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant to come into operation in the late 1980s to support the projected U.K. fast reactor installation programme. The paper identifies the important differences between fast reactor and thermal reactor fuel reprocessing technologies and describes some of the development work carried out in these areas for the small scale P.F.R. fuel reprocessing operation. In addition, the development programme in aid of the design of a larger scale fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant is outlined and the current design philosophy is discussed

  5. A Survey of Soil Enzyme Activities along Major Roads in Beijing: The Implications for Traffic Corridor Green Space Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxin Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil quality is critical to the management of urban green space, in particular, along traffic corridors where traffic-related air pollution is significant. Soil quality can be evaluated by soil enzyme activities, which show quick responses to both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In this study, we investigated three soil enzyme activities (i.e., dehydrogenase, catalase and urease along the major roads in urban areas of Beijing. Results show the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease in urban samples were 58.8%, 68.2% and 48.5% less than the rural sample, respectively. The content of fluorescent amino acids as indicators of microbial activities was also consistently lower in urban samples than the rural. We observed two times greater exposure of particulate material along the roadsides in urban areas than rural areas. Although traffic air pollutants provide some nutrient sources to stimulate the URE activity, the exposure to traffic-related air pollution leads to the substantial decrease in enzyme activities. There were significant negative correlations for exposure to PM10 with DHA (r = −0.8267, p = 0.0017 and CAT (r = −0.89, p = 0.0002 activities. For the urban soils URE activity increased with the increasing of PM. We conclude that the degraded soil quality can negatively affect the target of developing plants and green spaces along the traffic corridors to mitigate the traffic impact. This study suggests the investigation of integrated strategies to restore the soil quality, reinforce the ecological service functions of green spaces along the traffic corridors and reduce the traffic pollutants.

  6. Impact of Location of the Central Activities on Development of Open Public Space in the City Centers of Small Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volgemut, Mateja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas of the central activities with mixed land use are crucial for the development of city center, even in small cities. In the last decades or two the attention is drawn on the retail and service activities that are usually located outside of cities near main roads. Municipalities had already detected this problem, but they are not implementing any of the measures (Rebernik, 2010. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the central activities in small cities in Slovenia are located in freestanding buildings, which is most appropriate in terms of forming the open public space in the city center. In this research we compared ten central activities (Vrišer, 1988, 1990, Kokole, 1971 in 34 small cities. We selected only those small cities (Prosen et al, 2008 which have among other activities a county court. The results showed the differences and commonalities of the central activities in selected small cities according to the indicators. Litija, Domžale and Sevnica are small cities, where activities that could articulate open public space are located in the larger building complexes. The phenomenon is similar to a modern machine, where action in it and indirectly the insight into the functioning of the society is invisible to the observer (Kos, 2008. We found out that in these tree cities the central activities are not forming the open public spaces in front of the public buildings (Vertelj Nared, 2014. The result is problematic image of the city and changed forces of the city life.

  7. An overview of space medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodkinson, P D; Anderton, R A; Posselt, B N; Fong, K J

    2017-12-01

    Space medicine is fundamental to the human exploration of space. It supports survival, function and performance in this challenging and potentially lethal environment. It is international, intercultural and interdisciplinary, operating at the boundaries of exploration, science, technology and medicine. Space medicine is also the latest UK specialty to be recognized by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK and the General Medical Council. This review introduces the field of space medicine and describes the different types of spaceflight, environmental challenges, associated medical and physiological effects, and operational medical considerations. It will describe the varied roles of the space medicine doctor, including the conduct of surgery and anaesthesia, and concludes with a vision of the future for space medicine in the UK.Space medicine doctors have a responsibility to space workers and spaceflight participants. These 'flight surgeons' are key in developing mitigation strategies to ensure the safety, health and performance of space travellers in what is an extreme and hazardous environment. This includes all phases from selection, training and spaceflight itself to post-flight rehabilitation and long-term health. The recent recognition of the speciality provides a pathway to train in this fascinating field of medicine and is a key enabler for the UK Government's commercial spaceflight ambition. © Crown copyright 2017.

  8. Can adding web-based support to UK primary care exercise referral schemes improve patients’ physical activity levels? Intervention development for the e-coachER study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Taylor

    2015-10-01

    -monitoring health behaviour and health, as well as modifiable options for local physical activity options. Conclusion: The Lifeguide platform for e-coachER is able to collect data on individual usage, and this will be used, along with semi-structured interviews, to conduct a process evaluation to fully understand if, for whom, and how the intervention facilitated long-term PA changes. Supported with funding from the NIHR (HTA Project: 13/25/20

  9. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Greene, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1 engine components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the objectives of this work are to demonstrate combustion stability and measure performance of a 500,000 lbf class Oxidizer-Rich Staged Combustion (ORSC) cycle main injector. A trade study was completed to investigate the feasibility, cost effectiveness, and technical maturity of a domestically-produced engine that could potentially both replace the RD-180 on Atlas V and satisfy NASA SLS payload-to-orbit requirements via an advanced booster application. Engine physical dimensions and performance parameters resulting from this study provide the system level requirements for the ORSC risk reduction test article

  10. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  11. Middle Eastern Christian spaces in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Hunter, Alistair; McCallum, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Despite little scholarly attention, Middle Eastern Christian Churches are a well-established element of the European religious landscape. Based on collaborative research, this article examines how three mutual field visits facilitated a deeper understanding of the complexity that characterises...... church establishment and activities among Iraqi, Assyrian/Syriac and Coptic Orthodox Christians in the UK, Sweden and Denmark. Exploring analytical dimensions of space, diversity, size, and minority position we identify three positions of Middle Eastern Christians: in London as the epitome of super...

  12. Preface: Terrestrial Fieldwork to Support in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and Robotic Resource Prospecting for Future Activities in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-05-01

    Finding, extracting, and using resources at the site of robotic and human exploration activities holds the promise of enabling sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids, and eventually allow humans to expand their economy and habitation beyond the surface of the Earth. Commonly referred to as in situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), mineral and volatile resources found in space can be converted into oxygen, water, metals, fuels, and manufacturing and construction materials (such as plastics and concrete) for transportation, power, life support, habitation construction, and part/logistics manufacturing applications. For every kilogram of payload landed on the surface of the Moon or Mars, 7.5-11 kg of payload (mostly propellant) needs to be launched into low Earth orbit. Therefore, besides promising long-term self-sufficiency and infrastructure growth, ISRU can provide significant reductions in launch costs and the number of launches required. Key to being able to use space resources is knowing where they are located, how much is there, and how the resources are distributed. While ISRU holds great promise, it has also never been demonstrated in an actual space mission. Therefore, operations and hardware associated with each ISRU prospecting, excavation, transportation, and processing step must be examined, tested, and finally integrated to enable the end goal of using space resources in future human space missions.

  13. How Are University Gyms Used by Staff and Students? A Mixed-Method Study Exploring Gym Use, Motivation, and Communication in Three UK Gyms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Rapport

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined university gym use by staff and students using mixed methods: participant observation and an e-survey. Research in three UK universities entailed 16 observation sessions and an e-survey that reached 3396 students and staff. The research focused on gym use, the gym environment, the presentation of the self, and social interaction within gym spaces. The gyms were found to have a difficult role to play in providing functionality for some, while helping others to be active and minimize feelings of isolation and lack of control. This led to these gyms developing spaces of exercise rather than therapeutic spaces, and divisions in use of space, with some areas rarely used and often highly gendered, resulting in contested meanings produced within Healthy University discourses and physical activities.

  14. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  15. Leisure time activities in space: A survey of astronauts and cosmonauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Alan D.; Kanas, Nick

    Questionnaires were returned from 54 astronauts and cosmonauts which addressed preferences for media and media-generated subjects that could be used to occupy leisure time in space. Ninety-three percent of the respondents had access to records or audio cassettes, and cosmonauts had greater access than astronauts to multiple media. Cosmonauts and long-duration space travelers reported that they missed various media more than their astronaut and short-duration counterparts. Media subjects that related to international events, national events and historical topics were rated as most preferable by all respondents and by several of the respondent groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for occupying free time during future long-duration manned space missions.

  16. Evaluation and Certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in Activated Carbon Ion Exchange Filters for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Cox, Trey; Larner, Katherine; Carter, Donald; Kouba, Coy

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the infiltration of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) and other organosilicon containing species through the Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds), an alternate activated carbon was found to replace the obsolete Barnabey Cheney 580-26 activated carbon. The carbon that removed the most organosilicon compounds in testing1 was a synthetic activated carbon named Schunk 4652 which later became Ambersorb 4652. Since activated carbon has a large capacity for iodine (I2), and is used in the Activated Carbon Ion Exchange (ACTEX) filters on the International Space Station (ISS), testing was performed on the Ambersorb 4652 carbon to determine the effectiveness of the material for use in ACTEX filters to remove iodine. This work summarizes the testing and the certification of Ambersorb 4652 for use in the ACTEX filters for the ISS.

  17. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  18. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  19. UK surplus source disposal programme - 16097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Gordon H.; Reeves, Nigel; Nisbet, Amy C.; Garnett, Andrew; Williams, Clive R.

    2009-01-01

    The UK Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP), managed by the Environment Agency, was designed to remove redundant radioactive sources from the public domain. The UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) was concerned that disused sources were being retained by hospitals, universities and businesses, posing a risk to public health and the environment. AMEC provided a range of technical and administrative services to support the SSDP. A questionnaire was issued to registered source holders and the submitted returns compiled to assess the scale of the project. A member of AMEC staff was seconded to the Environment Agency to provide technical support and liaise directly with source holders during funding applications, which would cover disposal costs. Funding for disposal of different sources was partially based on a sliding scale of risk as determined by the IAEA hazard categorisation system. This funding was also sector dependent. The SSDP was subsequently expanded to include the disposal of luminised aircraft instruments from aviation museums across the UK. These museums often hold significant radiological inventories, with many items being unused and in a poor state of repair. These instruments were fully characterised on site by assessing surface dose rate, dimensions, source integrity and potential contamination issues. Calculations using the Microshield computer code allowed gamma radiation measurements to be converted into total activity estimates for each source. More than 11,000 sources were disposed of under the programme from across the medical, industrial, museum and academic sectors. The total activity disposed of was more than 8.5 E+14 Bq, and the project was delivered under budget. (authors)

  20. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  1. Detection of Tuberculosis Infection Hotspots Using Activity Spaces Based Spatial Approach in an Urban Tokyo, from 2003 to 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyohiko Izumi

    Full Text Available Identifying ongoing tuberculosis infection sites is crucial for breaking chains of transmission in tuberculosis-prevalent urban areas. Previous studies have pointed out that detection of local accumulation of tuberculosis patients based on their residential addresses may be limited by a lack of matching between residences and tuberculosis infection sites. This study aimed to identify possible tuberculosis hotspots using TB genotype clustering statuses and a concept of "activity space", a place where patients spend most of their waking hours. We further compared the spatial distribution by different residential statuses and describe urban environmental features of the detected hotspots.Culture-positive tuberculosis patients notified to Shinjuku city from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-based cross-sectional study, and their demographic and clinical information, TB genotype clustering statuses, and activity space were collected. Spatial statistics (Global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics identified significant hotspots in 152 census tracts, and urban environmental features and tuberculosis patients' characteristics in these hotspots were assessed.Of the enrolled 643 culture-positive tuberculosis patients, 416 (64.2% were general inhabitants, 42 (6.5% were foreign-born people, and 184 were homeless people (28.6%. The percentage of overall genotype clustering was 43.7%. Genotype-clustered general inhabitants and homeless people formed significant hotspots around a major railway station, whereas the non-clustered general inhabitants formed no hotspots. This suggested the detected hotspots of activity spaces may reflect ongoing tuberculosis transmission sites and were characterized by smaller residential floor size and a higher proportion of non-working households.Activity space-based spatial analysis suggested possible TB transmission sites around the major railway station and it can assist in further comprehension of TB transmission

  2. Detection of Tuberculosis Infection Hotspots Using Activity Spaces Based Spatial Approach in an Urban Tokyo, from 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Kiyohiko; Ohkado, Akihiro; Uchimura, Kazuhiro; Murase, Yoshiro; Tatsumi, Yuriko; Kayebeta, Aya; Watanabe, Yu; Ishikawa, Nobukatsu

    2015-01-01

    Identifying ongoing tuberculosis infection sites is crucial for breaking chains of transmission in tuberculosis-prevalent urban areas. Previous studies have pointed out that detection of local accumulation of tuberculosis patients based on their residential addresses may be limited by a lack of matching between residences and tuberculosis infection sites. This study aimed to identify possible tuberculosis hotspots using TB genotype clustering statuses and a concept of "activity space", a place where patients spend most of their waking hours. We further compared the spatial distribution by different residential statuses and describe urban environmental features of the detected hotspots. Culture-positive tuberculosis patients notified to Shinjuku city from 2003 to 2011 were enrolled in this case-based cross-sectional study, and their demographic and clinical information, TB genotype clustering statuses, and activity space were collected. Spatial statistics (Global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* statistics) identified significant hotspots in 152 census tracts, and urban environmental features and tuberculosis patients' characteristics in these hotspots were assessed. Of the enrolled 643 culture-positive tuberculosis patients, 416 (64.2%) were general inhabitants, 42 (6.5%) were foreign-born people, and 184 were homeless people (28.6%). The percentage of overall genotype clustering was 43.7%. Genotype-clustered general inhabitants and homeless people formed significant hotspots around a major railway station, whereas the non-clustered general inhabitants formed no hotspots. This suggested the detected hotspots of activity spaces may reflect ongoing tuberculosis transmission sites and were characterized by smaller residential floor size and a higher proportion of non-working households. Activity space-based spatial analysis suggested possible TB transmission sites around the major railway station and it can assist in further comprehension of TB transmission dynamics in an

  3. Maturing safety in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, A.; Kovan, D.

    1994-01-01

    AEA Technology provides UK nuclear industry with technical services and R+D support, concentrating on plant performance, safety and environmental issues. Today, safety has a new set of priorities, reflected by a more demanding regulatory regime which takes account of concerns such as human factors, severe accidents, risks during plant outages, the need for improving safety culture, etc

  4. Nuclear prospects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Robert

    1993-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s the UK government decided to privatise the UK electricity supply industry. In order to introduce competition into the generation side of the business it was decided that the large generating boards - the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board and North of Scotland Hydro Board, - should be split up into smaller companies. In England and Wales two companies were proposed. The larger company National Power would include the nuclear generating business in England and Wales, the smaller company, Power Gen would use fossil generation only. Scotland was also to have two companies, Scottish Power - including Scotland's nuclear stations - and Scottish Hydro. But these were troubled times for the UK nuclear industry. A lot of misinformation was being issued by its opponents, in particular about decommissioning and fuel reprocessing costs. Looking back I can see there were reasons for that. Both National Power and Scottish Power wanted to be absolutely certain that they got the best possible deal and that every imaginable, and unimaginable, cost that may ever arise would be taken care of. This attitude resulted in the estimate of huge liabilities and 'unprecedented guarantees' that the then Secretary of State for Energy in the UK, could not accept

  5. Activity markers and household space in Swahili urban contexts: An integrated geoarchaeological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wynne-Jones, Stephanie; Sulas, Federica

    , this paper draws from recent work at a Swahili urban site to illustrate the potential and challenges of an integrated geoarchaeological approach to the study of household space. The site of Songo Mnara (14th–16thc. AD) thrived as a Swahili stonetown off the coast of Tanzania. Here, our work has concentrated...

  6. Sporadic radio emission connected with a definite manifestation of solar activity in the near Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnic, A. V.; Zaljubovski, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Sporadic radio emission of near Earth space at the frequency of 38 MHz is shown to appear in the event of a rapid development of instabilities in the ionospheric plasma. The instabilities are generated due to primary ionospheric disturbances occurring under the influence of solar chromospheric flares.

  7. Usurping Public Leisure Space for Protest. Social Activism in the digital and material commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis paper draws parallels between the use of public leisure spaces in the city such as parks and squares, and the use of certain forms of digital networks. Similarities between these two sorts of social contexts are worth considering, particularly their political dimension. This

  8. Crossing Boundaries in Facebook: Students' Framing of Language Learning Activities as Extended Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Vigmo, Sylvi; Bowen, Rhonwen

    2013-01-01

    Young people's interaction online is rapidly increasing, which enables new spaces for communication; the impact on learning, however, is not yet acknowledged in education. The aim of this exploratory case study is to scrutinize how students frame their interaction in social networking sites (SNS) in school practices and what that implies for…

  9. An analysis of the suitability of public spaces to physical activity practice in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Marcelo Carvalho; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne; da Silva, Cláudia Gonçalves Thaumaturgo

    2013-09-01

    To assess the physical characteristics of public spaces designed for sport/physical activity/leisure in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and their relationship to the socioeconomic indicators. Public spaces (n = 38) spread across the city were evaluated between December 2011 and January 2012 using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) instrument. Based on PARA results, a Quality Indicator (QI) was prepared and the sample was grouped into "High QI" and "Low QI" using a k-means clustering algorithm. The association between QI and the local Social Development Index (SDI) was tested using a Chi-square test. The average QI was 13.6 ± 4.91 and the median was equal to 13 points. The High QI group, composed of sites with a QI above median, reached 17.9 ± 2.35 points, while the Low QI group reached 9.3 ± 2.16 points. Pearson's Chi-square tests identified a significant association between QI and SDI when the value of SDI 0.7 was used as a criterion for separation (χ(2) = 17.84, p public spaces usually had a lower QI. Policies to encourage physical activity need to focus attention on the built environment also, particularly in socially vulnerable areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A BEME systematic review of UK undergraduate medical education in the general practice setting: BEME Guide No. 32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sophie; Khan, Nada F; Hampshire, Mandy; Knox, Richard; Malpass, Alice; Thomas, James; Anagnostelis, Betsy; Newman, Mark; Bower, Peter; Rosenthal, Joe; Murray, Elizabeth; Iliffe, Steve; Heneghan, Carl; Band, Amanda; Georgieva, Zoya

    2015-05-06

    General practice is increasingly used as a learning environment in undergraduate medical education in the UK. The aim of this project was to identify, summarise and synthesise research about undergraduate medical education in general practice in the UK. We systematically identified studies of undergraduate medical education within a general practice setting in the UK from 1990 onwards. All papers were summarised in a descriptive report and categorised into two in-depth syntheses: a quantitative and a qualitative in-depth review. 169 papers were identified, representing research from 26 UK medical schools. The in-depth review of quantitative papers (n = 7) showed that medical students learned clinical skills as well or better in general practice settings. Students receive more teaching, and clerk and examine more patients in the general practice setting than in hospital. Patient satisfaction and enablement are similar whether a student is present or not in a consultation, however, patients experience lower relational empathy. Two main thematic groups emerged from the qualitative in-depth review (n = 10): the interpersonal interactions within the teaching consultation and the socio-cultural spaces of learning which shape these interactions. The GP has a role as a broker of the interactions between patients and students. General practice is a socio-cultural and developmental learning space for students, who need to negotiate the competing cultures between hospital and general practice. Lastly, patients are transient members of the learning community, and their role requires careful facilitation. General practice is as good, if not better, than hospital delivery of teaching of clinical skills. Our meta-ethnography has produced rich understandings of the complex relationships shaping possibilities for student and patient active participation in learning.

  11. A monograph of the National Space Transportation System Office (NSTSO) integration activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for the EASE/ACCESS payload flown on STS 61-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassay, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The integration process of activities conducted at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) for the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular activity (EASE)/Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) payload is provided as a subset to the standard payload integration process used by the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) to fly payloads on the Space Shuttle. The EASE/ACCESS payload integration activities are chronologically reviewed beginning with the initiation of the flight manifesting and integration process. The development and documentation of the EASE/ACCESS integration requirements are also discussed along with the implementation of the mission integration activities and the engineering assessments supporting the flight integration process. In addition, the STS management support organizations, the payload safety process leading to the STS 61-B flight certification, and the overall EASE/ACCESS integration schedule are presented.

  12. Indian Diaspora In The UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author traces the history of formation of the Indian diaspora in the UK, evaluates the key trends that characterize the current state of diaspora. The article highlights the level of involvement and participation of diaspora in the evolution of the bilateral relations, as well as the influence of diaspora over home and foreign policy in the UK and India. The diaspora today is not just a unique vibrant connection between the two countries, it has also become a factor of influence over domestic, social and economic affairs in both the UK and India. There is a growing number of Indians among British statesmen and politicians. Indians occupy significant posts in various sectors in Britain, including business and finance. This contributes to strengthening of economic ties between the two countries, particularly important considering Britain’s forthcoming exit from the EU. As to internal political matters, though potential issues exist (those include, for instance, the possible transfer from India into Britain of problematic inter-caste relations, India’s criticism over unbalanced approach to teaching colonial history in British schools, the Indian diaspora due to its’ inherent tolerance and moderation generally plays a stabilizing role in the UK, especially on the background of radicalization of other ethnic communities. For the new India the diaspora today is not just an important source of financing, competences and know-how, it is also a significant lobbying and soft-power instrument. This article is part of a broader research, related to the contemporary relations between the United Kingdom and India. Indian diaspora in the UK is an integral part of the unique centuries-long history that connects the two countries. It is poised to remain a strong factor contributing to interdependence and cooperation between Britain and India in the XXI century.

  13. Spots and the Activity of Stars in the Hyades Cluster from Observations with the Kepler Space Telescope (K2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanov, I. S.; Dmitrienko, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    Observations of the K2 mission (continuing the program of the Kepler Space Telescope) are used to estimate the spot coverage S (the fractional area of spots on the surface of an active star) for stars of the Hyades cluster. The analysis is based on data on the photometric variations of 47 confirmed single cluster members, together with their atmospheric parameters, masses, and rotation periods. The resulting values of S for these Hyades objects are lower than those stars of the Pleiades cluster (on average, by Δ S 0.05-0.06). A comparison of the results of studies of cool, low-mass dwarfs in the Hyades and Pleiades clusters, as well as the results of a study of 1570 M stars from the main field observed in the Kepler SpaceMission, indicates that the Hyades stars are more evolved than the Pleiades stars, and demonstrate lower activity. The activity of seven solar-type Hyades stars ( S = 0.013 ± 0.006) almost approaches the activity level of the present-day Sun, and is lower than the activity of solar-mass stars in the Pleiades ( S = 0.031 ± 0.003). Solar-type stars in the Hyades rotate faster than the Sun ( = 8.6 d ), but slower than similar Pleiades stars.

  14. Which Space? Whose Space? An Experience in Involving Students and Teachers in Space Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Diogo; Di Napoli, Roberto; Leijon, Marie

    2018-01-01

    To date, learning spaces in higher education have been designed with little engagement on the part of their most important users: students and teachers. In this paper, we present the results of research carried out in a UK university. The research aimed to understand how students and teachers conceptualise learning spaces when they are given the…

  15. ‘Walled’ activism: transnational social movements and the politics of Chinese cyber-public space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyiri, P.D.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines China's cyber-activism in relation to the politics of making a transnational, Chinese public sphere in both the virtual world and real-life locations. By conceptualising Chinese cyber-activism as 'walled' activism, this article describes an invisible yet effective 'wall'

  16. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP-type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well…

  17. Purchasing Power Parity between the UK and the Euro Area

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Canarella; Stephen M. Miller; Stephen K. Pollard

    2012-01-01

    We use the Johansen cointegration approach to assess the empirical validity of the purchasing power parity (PPP) between the UK and the Euro Area, which we represent by Germany, the largest of its members. We conduct the empirical analysis in the context of the global financial crisis that began in 2007 and find that it directly affects the cointegration space. We fail to validate the Johansen and Juselius (1992) original hypothesis that nonstationarity of the PPP associates with the nonstati...

  18. SPACE for physical activity - a multicomponent intervention study: study design and baseline findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Peter L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the School site, Play Spot, Active transport, Club fitness and Environment (SPACE Study was to develop, document, and assess a comprehensive intervention in local school districts that promote everyday physical activity (PA among 11-15-year-old adolescents. The study is based on a social ecological framework, and is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. Methods/design The SPACE Study used a cluster randomized controlled study design. Twenty-one eligible schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were matched and randomized in seven pairs according to eight matching variables summarized in an audit tool (crow-fly distance from residence to school for 5-6th graders; area household income; area education level; area ethnicity distribution; school district urbanity; condition and characteristics of school outdoor areas; school health policy; and active transport in the local area. Baseline measurements with accelerometers, questionnaires, diaries, and physical fitness tests were obtained in Spring 2010 in 5-6th grade in 7 intervention and 7 control schools, with follow-up measurements to be taken in Spring 2012 in 7-8th grade. The primary outcome measure is objective average daily physical activity and will be supported by analyses of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity and time spent sedentary. Other secondary outcome measures will be obtained, such as, overweight, physical fitness, active commuting to/from school and physical activity in recess periods. Discussion A total of 1348 adolescents in 5-6th grade in the Region of Southern Denmark participated at baseline (n = 14 schools. The response rate was high in all type of measurements (72.6-97.4%. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups at baseline according to selected background variables and outcome measures: gender (p = .54, age (p = .17, BMI (p = .59, waist

  19. RECENT ACTIVITIES AT THE CENTER FOR SPACE NUCLEAR RESEARCH FOR DEVELOPING NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Robert C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power has been considered for space applications since the 1960s. Between 1955 and 1972 the US built and tested over twenty nuclear reactors/ rocket-engines in the Rover/NERVA programs. However, changes in environmental laws may make the redevelopment of the nuclear rocket more difficult. Recent advances in fuel fabrication and testing options indicate that a nuclear rocket with a fuel form significantly different from NERVA may be needed to ensure public support. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) is pursuing development of tungsten based fuels for use in a NTR, for a surface power reactor, and to encapsulate radioisotope power sources. The CSNR Summer Fellows program has investigated the feasibility of several missions enabled by the NTR. The potential mission benefits of a nuclear rocket, historical achievements of the previous programs, and recent investigations into alternatives in design and materials for future systems will be discussed.

  20. Astrocytic mechanisms explaining neural-activity-induced shrinkage of extraneuronal space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østby, Ivar; Øyehaug, Leiv; Einevoll, Gaute T

    2009-01-01

    Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS) between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions. Despite its possible implications for a proper understanding of basic aspects of potassium clearance and astr......Neuronal stimulation causes approximately 30% shrinkage of the extracellular space (ECS) between neurons and surrounding astrocytes in grey and white matter under experimental conditions. Despite its possible implications for a proper understanding of basic aspects of potassium clearance...... concentrations observed in connection with neuronal stimulation, the actions of the Na(+)/K(+)/Cl(-) (NKCC1) and the Na(+)/HCO(3) (-) (NBC) cotransporters appear to be critical determinants for achieving observed quantitative levels of ECS shrinkage. Considering the current state of knowledge, the model...

  1. Photometric Calibration of the Barium Cloud Image in a Space Active Experiment: Determining the Release Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Liang-Hai; Li Lei; Wang Jing-Dong; Tao Ran; Cheng Bing-Jun; Zhang Yi-Teng

    2014-01-01

    The barium release experiment is an effective method to explore the near-earth environment and to study all kinds of space physics processes. The first space barium release experiment in China was successfully carried out by a sounding rocket on April 5, 2013. This work is devoted to calculating the release efficiency of the barium release by analyzing the optical image observed during the experiment. First, we present a method to calibrate the images grey value of barium cloud with the reference stars to obtain the radiant fluxes at different moments. Then the release efficiency is obtained by a curve fitting with the theoretical evolution model of barium cloud. The calculated result is basically consistent with the test value on ground

  2. Study design and protocol for a mixed methods evaluation of an intervention to reduce and break up sitting time in primary school classrooms in the UK: The CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routen, Ash C; Biddle, Stuart J H; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Cale, Lorraine; Clemes, Stacy; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Glazebrook, Cris; Harrington, Deirdre M; Khunti, Kamlesh; Pearson, Natalie; Salmon, Jo; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-11-08

    Children engage in a high volume of sitting in school, particularly in the classroom. A number of strategies, such as physically active lessons (termed movement integration (MI)), have been developed to integrate physical activity into this learning environment; however, no single approach is likely to meet the needs of all pupils and teachers. This protocol outlines an implementation study of a primary school-based MI intervention: CLASS PAL (Physically Active Learning) programme. This study aims to (A) determine the degree of implementation of CLASS PAL, (B) identify processes by which teachers and schools implement CLASS PAL and (C) investigate individual (pupil and teacher) level and school-level characteristics associated with implementation of CLASS PAL. The intervention will provide teachers with a professional development workshop and a bespoke teaching resources website. The study will use a single group before-and-after design, strengthened by multiple interim measurements. Six state-funded primary schools will be recruited within Leicestershire, UK.Evaluation data will be collected prior to implementation and at four discrete time points during implementation: At measurement 0 (October 2016), school, teacher and pupil characteristics will be collected. At measurements 0 and 3 (June-July 2017), accelerometry, cognitive functioning, self-reported sitting and classroom engagement data will be collected. At measurements 1(December 2016-March 2017) and 3 , teacher interviews (also at measurement 4; September-October 2017) and pupil focus groups will be conducted, and at measurements 1 and 2 (April-May 2017), classroom observations. Implementation will be captured through website analytics and ongoing teacher completed logs. Ethical approval was obtained through the Loughborough University Human Participants Ethics Sub-Committee (Reference number: R16-P115). Findings will be disseminated via practitioner and/or research journals and to relevant regional and

  3. Use of TV in space science activities - Some considerations. [onboard primary experimental data recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, T. C.

    1977-01-01

    Advantages in the use of TV on board satellites as the primary data-recording system in a manned space laboratory when certain types of experiments are flown are indicated. Real-time or near-real-time validation, elimination of film weight, improved depth of field and low-light sensitivity, and better adaptability to computer and electronic processing of data are spelled out as advantages of TV over photographic techniques, say, in fluid dynamics experiments, and weightlessness studies.

  4. Estimating the active space of male koala bellows: propagation of cues to size and identity in a Eucalyptus forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Charlton

    Full Text Available Examining how increasing distance affects the information content of vocal signals is fundamental for determining the active space of a given species' vocal communication system. In the current study we played back male koala bellows in a Eucalyptus forest to determine the extent that individual classification of male koala bellows becomes less accurate over distance, and also to quantify how individually distinctive acoustic features of bellows and size-related information degrade over distance. Our results show that the formant frequencies of bellows derived from Linear Predictive Coding can be used to classify calls to male koalas over distances of 1-50 m. Further analysis revealed that the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing were the most stable acoustic features of male bellows as they propagated through the Eucalyptus canopy. Taken together these findings suggest that koalas could recognise known individuals at distances of up to 50 m and indicate that they should attend to variation in the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing when assessing the identity of callers. Furthermore, since the formant frequency spacing is also a cue to male body size in this species and its variation over distance remained very low compared to documented inter-individual variation, we suggest that male koalas would still be reliably classified as small, medium or large by receivers at distances of up to 150 m.

  5. Estimating the Active Space of Male Koala Bellows: Propagation of Cues to Size and Identity in a Eucalyptus Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D.; Reby, David; Ellis, William A. H.; Brumm, Jacqui; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Examining how increasing distance affects the information content of vocal signals is fundamental for determining the active space of a given species’ vocal communication system. In the current study we played back male koala bellows in a Eucalyptus forest to determine the extent that individual classification of male koala bellows becomes less accurate over distance, and also to quantify how individually distinctive acoustic features of bellows and size-related information degrade over distance. Our results show that the formant frequencies of bellows derived from Linear Predictive Coding can be used to classify calls to male koalas over distances of 1–50 m. Further analysis revealed that the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing were the most stable acoustic features of male bellows as they propagated through the Eucalyptus canopy. Taken together these findings suggest that koalas could recognise known individuals at distances of up to 50 m and indicate that they should attend to variation in the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing when assessing the identity of callers. Furthermore, since the formant frequency spacing is also a cue to male body size in this species and its variation over distance remained very low compared to documented inter-individual variation, we suggest that male koalas would still be reliably classified as small, medium or large by receivers at distances of up to 150 m. PMID:23028996

  6. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  7. Low-latitude active longitudes on the Sun and in interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumba, V.; Hejna, L.

    1991-01-01

    Following a short review of the history of the development of the active longitude concept, several graphs are given of the longitudinal distribution of various low-latitude phenomena of solar activity published by various authors. The inclinations of the active longitudes found were calculated. A summary picture of all these inclinations demonstrates the concentration of such active longitudes into two main directions. Two values of synodic rotation: 26.77 days and 27.16 days, correspond to these two types of low-latitude active longitudes, rotating faster than Carrington's rotation. The summary graph of all active longitudes belonging to these two types shows that active longitudes of different activity phenomena and from different authors overlap to a relatively high degree and that they run at least through three eleven-year cycles. The first of these active longitudes moves around the whole Sun in about 45-55 rotations and the second one in about 200 Carrington's rotations. It is believed that both these low-latitude active longitudes have their reflections in the two main inclinations of the interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries demonstrated by Svalgaard and Wilcox (1975), their synodic rotations being 26.84 days and 27.14 days. (author). 9 figs., 25 refs

  8. In vitro studies with UK-18,892, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, S; Cheeseman, H E; Brammer, K W

    1978-09-01

    The antibacterial activity of UK-18,892, a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside, was examined against aminoglycoside-susceptible and aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus. UK-18,892 had a similar degree of activity to those of amikacin and kanamycin A against aminoglycoside-susceptible bacteria but was less potent than gentamicin against all isolates except Providencia spp. UK-18,892 was highly active against aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria, inhibiting 93% of the 268 isolates examined at 12.5 mug/ml. Amikacin was similarly active, whereas gentamicin inhibited only 14% of these isolates at 12.5 mug/ml.

  9. An Exploration of the Relationship between Training Grants and Profitability of UK Construction Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Ison, Stephen G.; Hazlehurst, Guy

    2008-01-01

    A levy/grant system exists in the UK construction industry to provide financial support for companies undertaking training activities. With the current UK government skills policy, there is an emphasis on ensuring that training support provided to employers is aimed at enhancing companies' profitability. This paper explores the profitability of…

  10. Overview of NASA Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine technology activities applicable to space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jack G.

    1987-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the development and technological activities of the free-piston Stirling engine. The engine started as a small scale fractional horsepower engine which demonstrated basic engine operating principles and the advantages of being hermetically sealed, highly efficient, and simple. It eventually developed into the free piston Stirling engine driven heat pump, and then into the SP-100 Space Reactor Power Program from which came the Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE). The SPDE successfully operated for over 300 hr and delivered 20 kW of PV power to an alternator plunger. The SPDE demonstrated that a dynamic power conversion system can, with proper design, be balanced; and the engine performed well with externally pumped hydrostatic gas bearings.

  11. Sympathetic activity of S-(+-ketamine low doses in the epidural space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Mihaljevic

    2014-07-01

    ística. Conclusões: dose baixa de cetamina S-(+ administrada por via epidural não teve efeitos simpaticomiméticos; não alterou a pressão arterial, o pulso, os hormônios séricos ou o tempo de transição de pulso. Dose baixa de cetamina S-(+ administrada por via epidural não aprofundou o bloqueio simpático. A adição de 25 mg de cetamina S-(+ à bupivacaína a 0,5% não deprimiu o tônus simpático abaixo do nível do bloqueio peridural no momento máximo de bloqueio simpático e não tem efeito sobre o tônus simpático acima do nível do bloqueio. Keywords: S-(+-ketamine, Epidural space, Low doses, Sympathetic activity, Palavras-chave: Cetamina S-(+, Espaço epidural, Doses baixas, Atividade simpática

  12. Participation in the scientific activities of the Waves in Space Plasma (WISP) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Yakov L.; Grossi, Mario D.

    1994-01-01

    This is the Final Report for Contract NAG5-1925, that consisted of experiment design, for possible use by the space science mission called WISP (Waves in Space Plasma). This mission is under study by the Canadian Space Agency and by NASA. Two WISP configurations are contemplated, under the name of BICEPS: one is called BOLAS, and the other WISPRS. Both these configurations are meant to perform bistatic sounding of the ionosphere, at a height close to F(sub 2) H(sub max) (about 350 Km), with a pair of satellites, either tethered or in free flight. Investigation A (with Y.L. Alpert as P.I.) addresses the subject of parametric decay effects, expected to arise in a magnetoplasma under the influence of high-intensity HF fields. Criteria were formulated that could be used in searching for parametric instabilities and of electric fields in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, by in-situ satellites, such as the BICEPS Pair. Investigation B (with M.D.Grossi as P.I.) addressed the bistatic measurement, by the BICEPS pair,of ionospheric features, such as large-scale and small-scale disturbances, travelling ionospheric disturbances, electron density irregularities, spread-F phenomena, etc. These measurements by BICEPS could be correlated with the waveform distortion and degradation experienced by microwave links from geosynchronous height to ground, such as the ACTS satellite, expected to radiate pulses as short as 1 nanosecond in the band 20 to 30 GHz. These links are transionospheric and propagate e.m. waves in the volume of the ionosphere where BICEPS operates. It will be possible, therefore, to correlate the two classes of measurements, and learn the causative mechanisms that are responsible for the time-spread and frequency-spread nature of communications waveforms at microwave, in geosynchronous height to ground paths.

  13. Electrodynamic Tethers and E-Sails as Active Experiment Testbeds and Technologies in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, B. E.; Wiegmann, B.; Johnson, L.; Bilen, S. G.; Habash Krause, L.; Miars, G.; Leon, O.

    2017-12-01

    The use of small-to-large flexible structures in space such as tethers continues to be studied for scientific and technology applications. Here we will consider tether electrodynamic and electrostatic interactions with magneto-plasmas in ionospheres, magnetospheres, and interplanetary space. These systems are enabling fundamental studies of basic plasma physics phenomena, allowing direct studies of the space environment, and generating technological applications beneficial for science missions. Electrodynamic tethers can drive current through the tether based on the Lorenz force adding or extracting energy from its orbit allowing for the study of charged bodies or plasma plumes moving through meso-sonic magnetoplasmas [1]. Technologically, this also generates propulsive forces requiring no propellant and little or no consumables in any planetary system with a magnetic field and ionosphere, e.g., Jupiter [2]. Further, so called electric sails (E-sails) are being studied to provide thrust through momentum exchange with the hypersonic solar wind. The E-sail uses multiple, very long (10s of km) charged, mostly bare rotating conducting tethers to deflect solar wind protons. It is estimated that a spacecraft could achieve a velocity over 100 km/s with time [3,4]. 1. Banks, P.M., "Review of electrodynamic tethers for space plasma science," J. Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 234-239, 1989. 2. Talley, C., J. Moore, D. Gallagher, and L. Johnson, "Propulsion and power from a rotating electrodynamic tether at Jupiter," 38th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 2000. 3. Janhunen, P., "The electric sail—A new propulsion method which may enable fast missions to the outer solar system," J. British Interpl. Soc., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 322-325, 2008. 4. Wiegman, B., T. Scheider, A. Heaton, J. Vaughn, N. Stone, and K. Wright, "The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)—Design, trades, and analyses performed in a two-year NASA investigation

  14. Civic activation, vulnerable subjects and public space: the case of the park of Rione Traiano in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Esposito

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The woman, in every kind of human settlement, culture as well a time, plays a peculiar role in terms of active observation and multitasking actor of the urban form and their organization model. Studying urban phenomena through the filter of the gender interpretation and fostering a proactive participation of women in the process of urban planning could provide added value in terms of feasibility, effectiveness and efficiency. In this paper it was decided to dealing with this issue in the framework of public spaces through the construction of a case study centered on women-mothers and their contribution for interpreting and being proactive in a participatory process of urban regeneration. The expected result of this interactive process is twofold: developing a generalized methodology of interaction with communities for interpreting, in terms of space organization, the demand they express on the one hand as well as for dealing with specific context, with the involvement of activists and associations to define and share possible trajectories of transformation of public spaces, on the other hand. To pursue this goal we have chosen to deal with the specificities of a complex environment such as Naples and with a CEP district, the largest in Italy, whose construction was initiated in 1960: Rione Traiano. In this area has started a dialogue, with non-profit organizations operating in the area first and then with women in the community, in order to address the relationship between vulnerable people and public spaces, testing a methodology for interaction and civic activation finalized to collect, prioritize and translate into proposals instances as expressed by these subjects. The disciplinary horizon selected is the integration between established tools of community planning and project strategies typical of urban design.

  15. Safety assessment standards for modern plants in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbison, S.A.; Hannaford, J.

    1993-01-01

    The NII has revised its safety assessment principles (SAPs). This paper discusses the revised SAPs and their links with international standards. It considers the licensing of foreign designs of plant - a matter under active consideration in the UK -and discusses how the SAPs and the licensing process cater for that possibility. (author)

  16. Learning the Price of Poverty across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Thompson, Ian; Beckett, Lori; Egan, David; Leitch, Ruth; McKinney, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Commission on Poverty and Policy Advocacy brought together several academics from across the four jurisdictions of the UK already engaged in work on poverty, education and schooling. The aim of this BERA Commission was to build a network of research-active practitioners across the UK…

  17. UK Higher Education Institutions and the Third Stream Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Stephen; Bagley, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon the adoption and implementation of United Kingdom government support for third stream business-facing activities in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). The article, concerned with income generation and the creation and application of knowledge beyond the confines of the academy, draws on policy literature and…

  18. Factors determining UK album success

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Caroline; Simmons, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a recently compiled dataset on the UK album sales to determine which factors contribute to best-selling album sales success. We control for factors including length of time since release, nationality of artist, artist type and album type, testing the increasing returns to information hypothesis. Information on general public online review scores for the albums in the dataset allows for a strong test of the accuracy of online reviews in predicting music sales, as online revie...

  19. Radon exposures in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  20. Remote interest in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    1993-01-01

    The United Kingdom nuclear industry has moved on from its low-technology solutions to remote handling problems which were popular in the 1950s and 1960s. A change in attitude has occurred which means that users are looking for high-technology solutions to today's remote handling problems. This review focuses on the ways in which their needs are being met and on the demands for future development which they are generating. (UK)

  1. Design and implementation of a novel modal space active force control concept for spatial multi-DOF parallel robotic manipulators actuated by electrical actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chifu; Zhao, Jinsong; Li, Liyi; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2018-01-01

    Robotic spine brace based on parallel-actuated robotic system is a new device for treatment and sensing of scoliosis, however, the strong dynamic coupling and anisotropy problem of parallel manipulators result in accuracy loss of rehabilitation force control, including big error in direction and value of force. A novel active force control strategy named modal space force control is proposed to solve these problems. Considering the electrical driven system and contact environment, the mathematical model of spatial parallel manipulator is built. The strong dynamic coupling problem in force field is described via experiments as well as the anisotropy problem of work space of parallel manipulators. The effects of dynamic coupling on control design and performances are discussed, and the influences of anisotropy on accuracy are also addressed. With mass/inertia matrix and stiffness matrix of parallel manipulators, a modal matrix can be calculated by using eigenvalue decomposition. Making use of the orthogonality of modal matrix with mass matrix of parallel manipulators, the strong coupled dynamic equations expressed in work space or joint space of parallel manipulator may be transformed into decoupled equations formulated in modal space. According to this property, each force control channel is independent of others in the modal space, thus we proposed modal space force control concept which means the force controller is designed in modal space. A modal space active force control is designed and implemented with only a simple PID controller employed as exampled control method to show the differences, uniqueness, and benefits of modal space force control. Simulation and experimental results show that the proposed modal space force control concept can effectively overcome the effects of the strong dynamic coupling and anisotropy problem in the physical space, and modal space force control is thus a very useful control framework, which is better than the current joint

  2. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  3. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  4. Worldwide open access: UK leadership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Harnad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA to research but recently its leadership has been derailed by the joint influence of the publishing industry lobby from without and well-intentioned but premature and unhelpful over-reaching from within the OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive ‘Finch Report’ followed by a new draft of the Research Councils UK (RCUK OA mandate, downgrading the role of cost-free OA self-archiving of research publications (‘green OA’ in favor of paying subscription publishers over and above subscriptions, out of scarce research funds, in exchange for making single articles OA (‘hybrid gold OA’. The motivation of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY, but the likely effect would be researcher resistance, very little OA and a waste of research funds. There is still time to fix the RCUK mandate and restore the UK's leadership by taking a few very specific steps to clarify and strengthen the green component by adding a mechanism for monitoring and verifying compliance, with consequences for non-compliance, along lines also being adopted in the EC and the US.

  5. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  6. Long-term mercury dynamics in UK soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Wadsworth, R.A.; Norris, D.A.; Hall, J.R.; Ilyin, I.

    2011-01-01

    A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global. Average estimated deposition is 16 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural soils, 19 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural and non-rural soils combined. UK soils currently hold 2490 tonnes of reactive Hg, of which 2140 tonnes are due to anthropogenic deposition, mostly local in origin. Topsoil currently releases 5.1 tonnes of Hg 0 per annum to the atmosphere, about 50% more than the anthropogenic flux. Sorptive retention of Hg in the lower soil exerts a strong control on surface water Hg concentrations. Following decreases in inputs, soil Hg concentrations are predicted to decline over hundreds of years. - Highlights: → Spatial data for mercury in UK soils can be related to past atmospheric deposition. → The residence time of Hg (c. 400 years) depends on gaseous evasion and leaching. → UK soils currently contribute more Hg 0 to the atmosphere than human activities. → Sorption of Hg by deeper soil is a strong control on surface water concentrations. - Atmospherically-deposited anthropogenic mercury, mostly of local origin, has accumulated in UK soils, and is now a significant source of Hg 0 to the global circulation.

  7. UK strategy for radioactive discharges 2001-2020. Consultation document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This consultation draft of a strategy for radioactive discharges describes how the United Kingdom (UK) will implement the agreements reached at the 1998 Ministerial meeting of the OSPAR Commission, with regard to radioactive substances. It also provides a policy base for future reviews of discharge authorisations by the regulatory bodies and for strategic planning by the nuclear operators. The strategy sets a framework for radioactive discharges from UK installations over the next twenty years. Its aims are: progressive and substantial reductions in radioactive discharges from the UK as a whole and from each of the main sectors responsible for such discharges; progressive reduction of human exposure to ionising radiation resulting from radioactive discharges, so that no member of the general public in the UK will be exposed to a dose of more than 0.02 mSv a year, as a result of authorised radioactive discharges made from 2020 onwards; progressive reductions in concentrations of radionuclides in the marine environment resulting from radioactive discharges, such that by 2020 they add close to zero to historic levels. The scope of the UK strategy encompasses radioactive discharges from nuclear licensed sites, defence activities and other nuclear and non-nuclear sources of radioactive discharges. It covers both liquid and aerial discharges, although it is assumed that in general liquid discharges will have the largest and most measurable effects in the marine environment

  8. Social Justice Teacher Activism and Social Movement Unionism: Tensions, Synergies, and Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Weiner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Though the titles and acronyms of policies differ from one country to another, throughout the world a political project has taken root with the assumption that to reduce poverty and inequality, governments should privatize school systems, alter teaching from a career to contract labor, use standardized tests to make students and teachers accountable, and curtail the power and legal rights of teachers unions. This article explores how teacher activists might help reverse neoliberal educational politics by developing mutually-respectful collaborations among teachers, parents and youth in poor communities, in school-based and system-wide partnerships that involve teachers unions. Analyzing events as they were experienced and influenced by a New York City-based NGO of teachers committed to educational justice, the author examines the landscape of educational reform politics and the creation of new spaces and organizational forms not confined by collective bargaining jurisdictions and traditional bargaining demands. The study suggests that development of a social movement of teachers that might edge teachers unions in the direction of social movement teacher unionism may not occur in a linear fashion. Rather, a complex push-pull dynamic occurs with each change, opening and retracting space, remaking networks and influencing longstanding personal ties among activists.

  9. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  10. Driver ASIC Environmental Testing and Performance Optimization for SpaceBased Active Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia Prada, Camilo

    Direct imaging of Earth-like planets requires techniques for light suppression, such as coronagraphs or nulling interferometers, in which deformable mirrors (DM) are a principal component. On ground-based systems, DMs are used to correct for turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere in addition to static aberrations in the optics. For space-based observations, DMs are used to correct for static and quasi- static aberrations in the optical train. State-of-the-art, high-actuator count deformable mirrors suffer from external heavy and bulky electronics in which electrical connections are made through thousands of wires. We are instead developing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) capable of direct integration with the DM in a single small package. This integrated ASIC-DM is ideal for space missions, where it offers significant reduction in mass, power and complexity, and performance compatible with high-contrast observations of exoplanets. We have successfully prototyped and tested a 32x32 format Switch-Mode (SM) ASIC which consumes only 2mW static power (total, not per-actuator). A number of constraints were imposed on key parameters of this ASIC design, including sub-picoamp levels of leakage across turned-off switches and from switch-to-substrate, control resolution of 0.04 mV, satisfactory rise/fall times, and a near-zero on-chip crosstalk over a useful range of operating temperatures. This driver ASIC technology is currently at TRL 4. This Supporting Technology proposal will further develop the ASIC technology to TRL 5 by carrying on environmental tests and further optimizing performance, with the end goal of making ASICs suitable for space-based deployment. The effort will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in highcontrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions and in adaptive optic systems, and in design of DM driver electronics. Microscale, which developed the prototype of the ASICDM, will continue its development. We

  11. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  12. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  13. Altering existing buildings in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The profiles of both existing housing and existing public and commercial buildings show that many have very poor thermal efficiency. The UK housing stock is replaced at a low rate of about 1% a year, so to cut energy use it is essential to address the challenges of existing buildings. This will involve reducing energy demand through passive measures such as retrofitted insulation, replacement of windows and proper airtightness, while ensuring adequate ventilation. Active measures include upgrading improved boilers and adding locally produced energy from wind, biomass, solar power and other sources. The introduction of Display Energy Certificates will increase energy awareness but there will also need to be a programme of increased demolition for the worst-performing homes. In addition, buildings will need to be adapted to cope with worse weather, higher temperatures and increased flood risk as climate change takes effect. Overheating, rather than excessive cold, is set to become a growing problem for householders and employees in existing UK buildings

  14. Automated Mobility Transitions: Governing Processes in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Hopkins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary systems of mobility are undergoing a transition towards automation. In the UK, this transition is being led by (often new partnerships between incumbent manufacturers and new entrants, in collaboration with national governments, local/regional councils, and research institutions. This paper first offers a framework for analyzing the governance of the transition, adapting ideas from the Transition Management (TM perspective, and then applies the framework to ongoing automated vehicle transition dynamics in the UK. The empirical analysis suggests that the UK has adopted a reasonably comprehensive approach to the governing of automated vehicle innovation but that this approach cannot be characterized as sufficiently inclusive, democratic, diverse and open. The lack of inclusivity, democracy, diversity and openness is symptomatic of the post-political character of how the UK’s automated mobility transition is being governed. The paper ends with a call for a reconfiguration of the automated vehicle transition in the UK and beyond, so that much more space is created for dissent and for reflexive and comprehensive big picture thinking on (automated mobility futures.

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase during Extended Use in Complicated Pleural Space Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. McClune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase improves outcomes in patients with complicated pleural space infections. However, little data exists for the use of combination intrapleural therapy after the initial dosing period of six doses. We sought to describe the safety profile and outcomes of intrapleural therapy beyond this standard dosing. A retrospective review of patients receiving intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase was performed at two institutions. We identified 101 patients from January 2013 to August 2015 receiving intrapleural therapy for complicated pleural space infection. The extended use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and DNase therapy beyond six doses was utilized in 20% (20/101 of patients. The mean number of doses in those undergoing extended dosing was 9.8 (range of 7–16. Within the population studied there appears to be no statistically significant increased risk of complications, need for surgical referral, or outcome differences when comparing those receiving standard or extended dosing intrapleural therapy. Future prospective study of intrapleural therapy as an alternative option for patients who fail initial pleural drainage and are unable to tolerate/accept a surgical intervention appears a potential area of study.

  16. Space and Time Resolved Detection of Platelet Activation and von Willebrand Factor Conformational Changes in Deep Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasetti, Jacopo; Sampath, Kaushik; Cortez, Angel; Azhir, Alaleh; Gilad, Assaf A; Kickler, Thomas S; Obser, Tobias; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Katz, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Tracking cells and proteins' phenotypic changes in deep suspensions is critical for the direct imaging of blood-related phenomena in in vitro replica of cardiovascular systems and blood-handling devices. This paper introduces fluorescence imaging techniques for space and time resolved detection of platelet activation, von Willebrand factor (VWF) conformational changes, and VWF-platelet interaction in deep suspensions. Labeled VWF, platelets, and VWF-platelet strands are suspended in deep cuvettes, illuminated, and imaged with a high-sensitivity EM-CCD camera, allowing detection using an exposure time of 1 ms. In-house postprocessing algorithms identify and track the moving signals. Recombinant VWF-eGFP (rVWF-eGFP) and VWF labeled with an FITC-conjugated polyclonal antibody are employed. Anti-P-Selectin FITC-conjugated antibodies and the calcium-sensitive probe Indo-1 are used to detect activated platelets. A positive correlation between the mean number of platelets detected per image and the percentage of activated platelets determined through flow cytometry is obtained, validating the technique. An increase in the number of rVWF-eGFP signals upon exposure to shear stress demonstrates the technique's ability to detect breakup of self-aggregates. VWF globular and unfolded conformations and self-aggregation are also observed. The ability to track the size and shape of VWF-platelet strands in space and time provides means to detect pro- and antithrombotic processes.

  17. The effectiveness of spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities in improving the eating ability of residents with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hua Shan; Lin, Li Chan; Wu, Shiao Chi; Lin, Ke Neng; Liu, Hsiu Chih

    2014-08-01

    To explore the long-term effects of standardized and individualized spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities on the eating ability of residents with dementia. Eating difficulty is common in residents with dementia, resulting in low food intake, followed by eating dependence, weight loss and malnutrition. A single-blinded and quasi-experimental design with repeated measures. Ninety residents with dementia from four veterans' homes in Taiwan took part in this study. The intervention consisted of spaced retrieval combined with Montessori-based activities. Twenty-five participants in the standardized group received 24 intervention sessions over 8 weeks. Thirty-eight participants in the individualized group received tailored intervention sessions. The number of intervention sessions was adjusted according to the participant's recall responses in spaced retrieval. Twenty-seven participants in the control group received no treatment. The Chinese version of the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia was used, and eating amounts and body weight were measured pre-test, posttest and at 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Data were collected between July 2008-February 2010. Repeated measures of all dependent variables for the three groups were analysed by the linear mixed model. The standardized and individualized interventions could significantly decrease the scores for the Chinese version of the Edinburgh Feeding Evaluation in Dementia and increase the eating amount and body weight over time. Trained nurses in institutions can schedule the standardized or individualized intervention in usual activity time to ameliorate eating difficulty and its sequels. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A Cluster Of Activities On Coma From The Hubble Space Telescope, StarDate, And McDonald Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jogee, S.; Fricke, K.; Preston, S.

    2011-01-01

    With a goal of providing a vast audience of students, teachers, the general public, and Spanish-speakers with activities to learn about research on the Coma cluster of galaxies based on the HST ACS Treasury survey of Coma, McDonald Observatory used a many-faceted approach. Since this research offered an unprecedented legacy dataset, part of the challenge was to convey the importance of this project to a diverse audience. The methodology was to create different products for different (overlapping) audiences. Five radio programs were produced in English and Spanish for distribution on over 500 radio stations in the US and Mexico with a listening audience of over 2 million; in addition to the radio listeners, there were over 13,000 downloads of the English scripts and almost 6000 of the Spanish. Images were prepared for use in the StarDate Online Astronomy Picture of the Week, for ViewSpace (used in museums), and for the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. A high-school level activity on the Coma Cluster was prepared and distributed both on-line and in an upgraded printed version of the StarDate/Universo Teacher Guide. This guide has been distributed to over 1700 teachers nationally. A YouTube video about careers and research in astronomy using the Coma cluster as an example was produced. Just as the activities were varied, so were the evaluation methods. This material is based upon work supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant/Contract/Agreement No. HST-EO-10861.35-A issued through the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  19. Production of activation products in space-craft components by protons in low earth orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, E.; Johnson, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    A spacecraft orbiting the Earth through trapped radiation belts will be subject to an induced effect as well as to the direct irradiation by the protons and electrons of the trapped belts. This induced effect is activation of the spacecraft materials by the trapped belt protons. This activation will produce many radioisotopes having half-lives ranging from seconds to millions of years, and emitting various types of radiation. Of primary concern are radioisotopes that emit gamma rays and have half-lives of several years or less. Cross-section data sets are currently being compiled for proton-induced activation products by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Despite uncertainties in cross-section data, it is instructive to illustrate the magnitude of activation levels and the resulting dose rates calculated in an approximate manner. A number of simplifying assumptions are made

  20. Brain activation related to the representations of external space and body scheme in visuomotor control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, BM; van der Graaf, FHCE; Paans, AMJ

    2001-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow was assessed during reaching movements with either target or finger selection. Measurements were performed with positron emission tomography in normal subjects. We thus identified two patterns of cerebral activation representing parietal command functions based on either

  1. Does the Room Matter? Active Learning in Traditional and Enhanced Lecture Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Jon R.; Libarkin, Julie

    2016-01-01

    SCALE-UP–type classrooms, originating with the Student-Centered Active Learning Environment with Upside-down Pedagogies project, are designed to facilitate active learning by maximizing opportunities for interactions between students and embedding technology in the classroom. Positive impacts when active learning replaces lecture are well documented, both in traditional lecture halls and SCALE-UP–type classrooms. However, few studies have carefully analyzed student outcomes when comparable active learning–based instruction takes place in a traditional lecture hall and a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Using a quasi-experimental design, we compared student perceptions and performance between sections of a nonmajors biology course, one taught in a traditional lecture hall and one taught in a SCALE-UP–type classroom. Instruction in both sections followed a flipped model that relied heavily on cooperative learning and was as identical as possible given the infrastructure differences between classrooms. Results showed that students in both sections thought that SCALE-UP infrastructure would enhance performance. However, measures of actual student performance showed no difference between the two sections. We conclude that, while SCALE-UP–type classrooms may facilitate implementation of active learning, it is the active learning and not the SCALE-UP infrastructure that enhances student performance. As a consequence, we suggest that institutions can modify existing classrooms to enhance student engagement without incorporating expensive technology. PMID:27909018

  2. Living in Space. Book II. Levels D, E, F for Grades 4, 5, 6. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students which deal with space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 4 to 6 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  3. Living in Space. Book 1. Levels A, B, C for Grades 1, 2, 3. Operation Liftoff: Elementary School Space Program. A Resource Guide with Activities for Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sheila Briskin; Kirschenbaum, Audrey

    This guide contains teacher background information and activities for students that relate to space travel and is designed to encourage elementary school students to take a greater interest in mathematics and science. The activities in this guide are to be used with grades 1 to 3 and cover the topics of food, clothing, health, housing,…

  4. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  5. Public open space characteristics influencing adolescents' use and physical activity: A systematic literature review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Linde; Ghekiere, Ariane; Veitch, Jenny; Van Dyck, Delfien; Van Cauwenberg, Jelle; Clarys, Peter; Deforche, Benedicte

    2018-04-06

    The objective of this systematic review was to provide insight into the specific characteristics of public open spaces (POS) associated with adolescents' POS visitation and physical activity (PA). Qualitative research suggests many characteristics to be associated with POS visitation and PA. Quantitative evidence confirmed a positive association between presence of trails, playgrounds and specific types of sports fields (e.g. basketball) with POS visitation and PA, whereas safety and aesthetics seemed subordinate. Suggestions for future research, as well as some methodological recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mental health benefits of neighbourhood green space are stronger among physically active adults in middle-to-older age: evidence from 260,061 Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-11-01

    While many studies report that green spaces promote mental health, some suggest the psychological benefits of physical activity are amplified if participation occurs within greener environs. We investigated whether this relationship could be observed among adults in middle-to-older age. Multilevel logit regression was used to investigate association between green space and psychological distress (Kessler scores of 22+) among 260,061 Australians over 45 years old living in New South Wales (2006-2009). Physical activity was measured using the Active Australia survey. Percentage green space was estimated within a 1-kilometre of residence. In comparison to residents of the least green areas, those in the greenest neighbourhoods were at a lower risk of psychological distress (Odds Ratio 0.83, 95% CI: 0.76, 0.92) and were less sedentary (0.81: 0.77, 0.87). An interaction was observed between physical activity and green space (p=0.0028). More green space did not appear to benefit mental health among the least active (0.99: 0.85, 1.15), but there was a protective association for the more physically active (0.82: 0.67, 0.99). For adults in middle-to-older age, green spaces are not only important for promoting physical activity, but the mental health benefits of greener environs appear contingent upon those active lifestyles. © 2013.

  7. AQUARIUS: A Passive/Active Microwave Sensor to Monitor Sea Surface Salinity Globally from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Colomb, F. Raul; Chao, Yi

    2004-01-01

    Salinity is important for understanding ocean dynamics, energy exchange with the atmosphere and the global water cycle. Existing data is limited and much of the ocean has never even been sampled. Sea surface salinity can be measured remotely by satellite and a three year mission for this purpose called AquariudSAC-D has recently been selected by NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The objective is to map the salinity field globally with a spatial resolution of 100 km and a monthly average accuracy of 0.2 psu. The mission, scheduled for launch in 2008, is a partnership of the United States National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) and the Argentine Comision National de Actividades Epaciales (CONAE).

  8. Technology development activities for housing research animals on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Jeffrey W.; Garin, Vladimir M.; Nguyen, Frank D.

    1991-01-01

    The development and design of animal facilities are described in terms of the technological needs for NASA's Biological Flight Research Laboratory. Animal habitats are presented with illustrations which encompass waste-collection techniques for microgravity conditions that reduce the need for crew participation. The technology is intended to be highly compatible with animal morphology, and airflow is employed as the primary mechanism of waste control. The airflow can be utilized in the form of localized high-speed directed flow that simultaneously provides a clean animal habitat and low airflow rates. The design of an animal-habitat testbed is presented which capitalizes on contamination-control mechanisms and suitable materials for microgravity conditions. The developments in materials and technologies represent significant contributions for the design of the centrifuge facilities for the Space Station Freedom.

  9. History of the development of radiation protection standards for space activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1997-01-01

    Initial recommendations for limitations on radiation exposures in space were made in 1970 by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the Committee on Space Medicine, National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC). Using a risk-based approach and taking into consideration a range of factors, the Panel recommended an overall career limit of 4 Sv. Because it was assumed that only small numbers of people would be involved, most of whom would be in excess of 30 y of age, the question of genetic effects did not appear to be of concern. On the basis of subsequent epidemiological findings, the values of the risk coefficients were increased. As a result of this and other considerations, NASA in the early 1980s asked the NCRP to re-examine both the risks and the philosophy for protecting astronauts. In undertaking this task, the NCRP decided to treat the radiation exposures of crew members and payload specialists as an occupational hazard and to evaluate their risks in terms of those to radiation workers and to workers in other industries. Noting that in the less safe but not the most hazardous occupations, workers had an average lifetime risk of mortality of about three percent, the NCRP concluded that a reasonable career limit for astronauts should be based on a lifetime absolute excess risk of mortality of three percent. Using this as a base, the NCRP recommended a career limit for 25 y olds of 1 Sv for females and 1.5 Sv for males. Since the risk decreases the older the age at which the exposures begin, the limits culminated with a career limit of 3 Sv for females and 4 Sv for males whose initial exposure occurred at age 55. These recommendations were based on an assumed nominal value of a lifetime risk of fatal cancers for all ages of about 2 x 10 -2 Sv -1

  10. Manned space flight activities and sensory-motor coordinations; Yujin uchu katsudo tono hito no kankaku undokei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, K. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1996-03-05

    With an objective to elucidate relationship between human functions related to gravity in space and the gravity, simultaneous measurement was carried out on impulsive eyeball motions and antigravity muscles. The measurement used a non-polarized electrode mounted on a prescribed position on skin. The subject is a spacecraft crew who was subjected to an experiment in space in 1992. Data obtained during the flight were analyzed, and the following findings were obtained: the eyeball motions are performed accurately in terms of space and time; potential time relative to the target appearance time showed greater variation than in control conditions on the ground; activities of trapezius muscle as an antigravity muscle were suppressed, and electric discharge from the muscle was small even if the head is moved; the eyeballs move in coordination with the head when viewing an object; microgravity environment showed a head motion with very little muscle discharge possible as in the case where the head is held unmoved; and difference in motion patterns between the antigravity muscles and non-antigravity muscles may exist as a possible cause of spacesickness in addition to the conventional sensory disagreement theory. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Two- and four-component relativistic generalized-active-space coupled cluster method: implementation and application to BiH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lasse K; Olsen, Jeppe; Fleig, Timo

    2011-06-07

    A string-based coupled-cluster method of general excitation rank and with optimal scaling which accounts for special relativity within the four-component framework is presented. The method opens the way for the treatment of multi-reference problems through an active-space inspired single-reference based state-selective expansion of the model space. The evaluation of the coupled-cluster vector function is implemented by considering contractions of elementary second-quantized operators without setting up the amplitude equations explicitly. The capabilities of the new method are demonstrated in application to the electronic ground state of the bismuth monohydride molecule. In these calculations simulated multi-reference expansions with both doubles and triples excitations into the external space as well as the regular coupled-cluster hierarchy up to full quadruples excitations are compared. The importance of atomic outer core-correlation for obtaining accurate results is shown. Comparison to the non-relativistic framework is performed throughout to illustrate the additional work of the transition to the four-component relativistic framework both in implementation and application. Furthermore, an evaluation of the highest order scaling for general-order expansions is presented. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  12. Space-Based CO2 Active Optical Remote Sensing using 2-μm Triple-Pulse IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra; Refaat, Tamer; Ismail, Syed; Petros, Mulugeta

    2017-04-01

    Sustained high-quality column CO2 measurements from space are required to improve estimates of regional and global scale sources and sinks to attribute them to specific biogeochemical processes for improving models of carbon-climate interactions and to reduce uncertainties in projecting future change. Several studies show that space-borne CO2 measurements offer many advantages particularly over high altitudes, tropics and southern oceans. Current satellite-based sensing provides rapid CO2 monitoring with global-scale coverage and high spatial resolution. However, these sensors are based on passive remote sensing, which involves limitations such as full seasonal and high latitude coverage, poor sensitivity to the lower atmosphere, retrieval complexities and radiation path length uncertainties. CO2 active optical remote sensing is an alternative technique that has the potential to overcome these limitations. The need for space-based CO2 active optical remote sensing using the Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been advocated by the Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth (A-Scope) and Active Sensing of CO2 Emission over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) studies in Europe and the USA. Space-based IPDA systems can provide sustained, high precision and low-bias column CO2 in presence of thin clouds and aerosols while covering critical regions such as high latitude ecosystems, tropical ecosystems, southern ocean, managed ecosystems, urban and industrial systems and coastal systems. At NASA Langley Research Center, technology developments are in progress to provide high pulse energy 2-μm IPDA that enables optimum, lower troposphere weighted column CO2 measurements from space. This system provides simultaneous ranging; information on aerosol and cloud distributions; measurements over region of broken clouds; and reduces influences of surface complexities. Through the continual support from NASA Earth Science Technology Office