WorldWideScience

Sample records for uk national nuclear

  1. Magnetic imaging: a new tool for UK national nuclear security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Brendan J; Watson, Joe C; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-22

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications.

  2. Magnetic Imaging: a New Tool for UK National Nuclear Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrer, Brendan J.; Watson, Joe C.; Bartlett, Paul; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-01-01

    Combating illicit trafficking of Special Nuclear Material may require the ability to image through electromagnetic shields. This is the case when the trafficking involves cargo containers. Thus, suitable detection techniques are required to penetrate a ferromagnetic enclosure. The present study considers techniques that employ an electromagnetic based principle of detection. It is generally assumed that a ferromagnetic metallic enclosure will effectively act as a Faraday cage to electromagnetic radiation and therefore screen any form of interrogating electromagnetic radiation from penetrating, thus denying the detection of any eventual hidden material. In contrast, we demonstrate that it is actually possible to capture magnetic images of a conductive object through a set of metallic ferromagnetic enclosures. This validates electromagnetic interrogation techniques as a potential detection tool for National Nuclear Security applications.

  3. Some Recent Technology Developments From The Uk's National Nuclear Laboratory To Enable Hazard Characterisation For Nuclear Decommissioning Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-01-01

    Under its programme of self investment Internal Research and Development (IR and D), the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is addressing the requirement for development in technology to enable hazard characterisation for nuclear decommissioning applications. Three such examples are described here: (1) RadBall developed by the NNL (patent pending) is a deployable baseball-sized radiation mapping device which can, from a single location, locate and quantify radiation hazards. RadBall offers a means to collect information regarding the magnitude and distribution of radiation in a given cell, glovebox or room to support the development of a safe, cost effective decontamination strategy. RadBall requires no electrical supplies and is relatively small, making it easy to be deployed and used to map radiation hazards in hard to reach areas. Recent work conducted in partnership with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is presented. (2) HiRAD (patent pending) has been developed by the NNL in partnership with Tracerco Ltd (UK). HiRAD is a real-time, remotely deployed, radiation detection device designed to operate in elevated levels of radiation (i.e. thousands and tens of thousands of Gray) as seen in parts of the nuclear industry. Like the RadBall technology, the HiRAD system does not require any electrical components, the small dimensions and flexibility of the device allow it to be positioned in difficult to access areas (such as pipe work). HiRAD can be deployed as a single detector, a chain, or as an array giving the ability to monitor large process areas. Results during the development and deployment of the technology are presented. (3) Wireless Sensor Network is a NNL supported development project led by the University of Manchester (UK) in partnership with Oxford University (UK). The project is concerned with the development of wireless sensor network technology to enable the underwater deployment and communication of miniaturised probes allowing pond

  4. UK nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    Regulations and conditions for the commissioning of nuclear power plants in the UK, their siting, licence conditions, design safety assessment, inspection during construction and conditions for safety in operation are listed. (J.P.)

  5. Spent fuel reprocessing and minor actinide partitioning safety related research at the UK National Nuclear Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrott, Michael; Flint, Lauren; Gregson, Colin; Griffiths, Tamara; Hodgson, Zara; Maher, Chris; Mason, Chris; McLachlan, Fiona; Orr, Robin; Reilly, Stacey; Rhodes, Chris; Sarsfield, Mark; Sims, Howard; Shepherd, Daniel; Taylor, Robin; Webb, Kevin; Woodall, Sean; Woodhead, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of advanced separation processes for spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and minor actinide recycling is an essential component of international R and D programmes aimed at closing the nuclear fuel cycle around the middle of this century. While both aqueous and pyrochemical processes are under consideration internationally, neither option will gain broad acceptance without significant advances in process safety, waste minimisation, environmental impact and proliferation resistance; at least when compared to current reprocessing technologies. The UK National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is developing flowsheets for innovative aqueous separation processes. These include advanced PUREX options (i.e. processes using tributyl phosphate as the extractant for uranium, plutonium and possibly neptunium recovery) and GANEX (grouped actinide extraction) type processes that use diglycolamide based extractants to co-extract all transuranic actinides. At NNL, development of the flowsheets is closely linked to research on process safety, since this is essential for assessing prospects for future industrialisation and deployment. Within this context, NNL is part of European 7. Framework projects 'ASGARD' and 'SACSESS'. Key topics under investigation include: hydrogen generation from aqueous and solvent phases; decomposition of aqueous phase ligands used in separations prior to product finishing and recycle of nitric acid; dissolution of carbide fuels including management of organics generated. Additionally, there is a strong focus on use of predictive process modelling to assess flowsheet sensitivities as well as engineering design and global hazard assessment of these new processes. (authors)

  6. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  7. Nuclear prospects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Robert

    1993-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s the UK government decided to privatise the UK electricity supply industry. In order to introduce competition into the generation side of the business it was decided that the large generating boards - the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board and North of Scotland Hydro Board, - should be split up into smaller companies. In England and Wales two companies were proposed. The larger company National Power would include the nuclear generating business in England and Wales, the smaller company, Power Gen would use fossil generation only. Scotland was also to have two companies, Scottish Power - including Scotland's nuclear stations - and Scottish Hydro. But these were troubled times for the UK nuclear industry. A lot of misinformation was being issued by its opponents, in particular about decommissioning and fuel reprocessing costs. Looking back I can see there were reasons for that. Both National Power and Scottish Power wanted to be absolutely certain that they got the best possible deal and that every imaginable, and unimaginable, cost that may ever arise would be taken care of. This attitude resulted in the estimate of huge liabilities and 'unprecedented guarantees' that the then Secretary of State for Energy in the UK, could not accept

  8. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  9. UK National Data Centre archive of seismic recordings of (presumed) underground nuclear tests 1964-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John; Peacock, Sheila

    2016-04-01

    The year 1996 has particular significance for forensic seismologists. This was the year when the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) was signed in September at the United Nations, setting an international norm against nuclear testing. Blacknest, as a long time seismic centre for research into detecting and identifying underground explosions using seismology, provided significant technical advice during the CTBT negotiations. Since 1962 seismic recordings of both presumed nuclear explosions and earthquakes from the four seismometer arrays Eskdalemuir, Scotland (EKA), Yellowknife, Canada (YKA), Gauribidanur, India (GBA), and Warramunga, Australia (WRA) have been copied, digitised, and saved. There was a possibility this archive would be lost. It was decided to process the records and catalogue them for distribution to other groups and institutions. This work continues at Blacknest but the archive is no longer under threat. In addition much of the archive of analogue tape recordings has been re-digitised with modern equipment, allowing sampling rates of 100 rather than 20 Hz.

  10. Nuclear power and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, St.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides describes the policy of the UK government concerning nuclear power. In January 2008 the UK Government published the White Paper on the Future of Nuclear Power. The White Paper concluded that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in this country's future energy mix. The role of the Government is neither to build nuclear power plants nor to finance them. The White Paper set out the facilitative actions the Government planned to take to reduce regulatory and planning risks associated with investing in new nuclear power stations. The White Paper followed a lengthy period of consultation where the UK Government sought a wide variety of views from stakeholders and the public across the country on the future of nuclear power. In total energy companies will need to invest in around 30-35 GW of new electricity generating capacity over the next two decades. This is equivalent to about one-third of our existing capacity. The first plants are expected to enter into service by 2018 or sooner. The Office for Nuclear Development (OND) has been created to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK while the Nuclear Development Forum (NDF) has been established to lock in momentum to secure the long-term future of nuclear power generation in the UK. (A.C.)

  11. SOME RECENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENTS FROM THE UK'S NATIONAL NUCLEAR LABORATORY TO ENABLE HAZARD CHARACTERISATION FOR NUCLEAR DECOMMISSIONING APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Foley, T.

    2010-02-11

    Under its programme of self investment Internal Research and Development (IR&D), the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) is addressing the requirement for development in technology to enable hazard characterisation for nuclear decommissioning applications. Three such examples are described here: (1) RadBall developed by the NNL (patent pending) is a deployable baseball-sized radiation mapping device which can, from a single location, locate and quantify radiation hazards. RadBall offers a means to collect information regarding the magnitude and distribution of radiation in a given cell, glovebox or room to support the development of a safe, cost effective decontamination strategy. RadBall requires no electrical supplies and is relatively small, making it easy to be deployed and used to map radiation hazards in hard to reach areas. Recent work conducted in partnership with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is presented. (2) HiRAD (patent pending) has been developed by the NNL in partnership with Tracerco Ltd (UK). HiRAD is a real-time, remotely deployed, radiation detection device designed to operate in elevated levels of radiation (i.e. thousands and tens of thousands of Gray) as seen in parts of the nuclear industry. Like the RadBall technology, the HiRAD system does not require any electrical components, the small dimensions and flexibility of the device allow it to be positioned in difficult to access areas (such as pipe work). HiRAD can be deployed as a single detector, a chain, or as an array giving the ability to monitor large process areas. Results during the development and deployment of the technology are presented. (3) Wireless Sensor Network is a NNL supported development project led by the University of Manchester (UK) in partnership with Oxford University (UK). The project is concerned with the development of wireless sensor network technology to enable the underwater deployment and communication of miniaturised probes allowing pond

  12. The UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, nuclear power plants are operated by three companies: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN), and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The state-operated power industry was privatized in 1989 with the exception of nuclear power generation activities, which were made part of the newly founded (state-owned) NE and SN. At the same time, a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants was agreed. Only Sizewell B, the first plant in the UK to be equipped with a pressurized water reactor, was to be completed. That unit was first synchronized with the power grid on February 14, 1995. Another decision in 1989 provided for a review to be conducted in 1994 of the future of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the country. The results of the review were presented by the government in a white paper on May 9, 1995. Accordingly, NE and SN will be merged and privatized in 1996; the headquarters of the new holding company will be in Scotland. The review does not foresee the construction of more nuclear power plants. However, NE hopes to gain a competitive edge over other sources of primary energy as a result of this privatization, and advocates construction of a dual-unit plant identical with Sizewell B so as to avoid recurrent design and development costs. Outside the UK, the company plans to act jointly with the reactor vendor, Westinghouse, especially in the Pacific region; a bid submitted by the consortium has been shortisted by the future operator of the Lungmen nuclear power plant project in Taiwan. In upgrading the safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, the new company will be able to work through existing contacts of SN. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear physics in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear physics is the study of the heavy but tiny nucleus that lies at the centre of all atoms and makes up 99.9 per cent by weight of everything we see. There are many applications of nuclear physics including direct contributions to medicine and industry, such as the use of radioactive isotopes as diagnostic tracers, or of beams of nuclei for tailoring the properties of semiconductors. More indirectly, ideas and concepts of nuclear physics have influence in many corners of modern science and technology. Physicists in the UK have a long tradition in nuclear physics, and have developed a world-wide reputation for the excellence of their work. This booklet explains more about this rich field of study, its applications, its role in training, and its future directions. (author)

  14. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basic nuclear data requirements for industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC), covering half-lives, decay data, fission yields and the content of computerised data files. While the UKCNDC Request list was reviewed at the end of 1989 to reveal new and continued requirements, funding problems have increased during the year. Difficulties in the UK nuclear power industry are reflected in the decline in experimental studies, although evaluation efforts have been maintained. (author)

  15. U.K. nuclear data progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, D.J.S.; Cookson, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    The report summarises nuclear data research in the United Kingdom between January and December 1984. The nuclear data presented includes contributions from government research laboratories and Universities, as well as from various collaborations. The section on nuclear data forum includes three individual papers (being processed separately), these are: the DIMPLE criticality experiments, the potential use of criticality benchmark experiments in nuclear data evaluation, and the use of benchmark experiments for the validation of nuclear data. (U.K.)

  16. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee: progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    Studies of the basic nuclear data for commercial and industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC). Such data are defined on the basis of chemical methods of analysis, and include half-lives, decay parameters and fission yields. Work undertaken within this area is described in this document for information. (author)

  17. Influence on UK Nuclear Regulation from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the UKs response to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident and highlights the influence that this has had on UK nuclear regulation since March 2011. ONR’s Incident Suite was staffed from the first day of the accident and remained active on a 24 hours basis for over two weeks. The purpose was to provide advice to the UK government specifically prompt assurance of why this accident couldn’t take place in the UK and practical advice in relation to the 17,000 UK nationals in Japan at that time. In the early phase of the accident ONR took part in international cooperation with the US, Canadian and French regulators in order to determine the actual technical status of the Fukushima Daiichi power plant units. The UK Secretary of State requested that the ONR Chief Inspector identify any lessons to be learnt by the UK nuclear industry and in doing so cooperate and coordinate with international colleagues. The Interim report was produced (May 2011) this focused on civil NPP’s, provided background to radiation, technology and regulations. This report compared the Japan situation with the UK and identified 11 conclusions and 26 recommendations.

  18. UK experience of planning the nuclear contribution to the UK power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, S.; Jenkin, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper outlines U.K. experience in planning nuclear programmes. It examines the factors which have determined the size of such programmes together with those factors which have influenced their implementation. The paper also discusses the role which the utility has played in the deployment of nuclear power in the U.K. At present, nuclear energy can only be utilised on a large scale via the electricity route and the forecasting of electricity demand is therefore a key element in determining the size of the nuclear programme. Other important issues which affect the nuclear contribution are: national fuel policies, discontinuities in price and availability of imported fossil fuels, plant capital costs, fuel price relativities, plant siting, rate of introduction of new nuclear systems, manufacturer's capability, public attitudes towards nuclear power and financing. These issues are dealt with in some detail including their relative importance in the U.K. The paper also discusses the contribution of the various nuclear bodies in the U.K. in securing the implementation of the nuclear programmes. From the inception of nuclear power in the U.K., it has been recognised that a major utility has a central role to play not only in commercial operation but also in the procurement of plant and materials. As explained in the paper this ''informed buyer'' approach, which is being increasingly adopted by other major utilities, calls for an organisation and technical infrastructure far more complex than is the case for fossil plants. The requirements of safety, which is unambiguously the responsibility of the utility, and of high availability of plant operation demand a rigorous approach to design, quality assurance, project management, construction and operation. To this must be added sound research and development and staff training facilities. The paper explains how experience in these vital areas has been built up

  19. UK nuclear medicine survey, 1989/90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, A.T.; Shields, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A postal survey of UK nuclear medicine departments was carried out to obtain information on activity during the year 1989/90. A rise of 14% in the number of administrations of radiopharmaceuticals was found compared to 1982: a rise of 22% in imaging studies was offset by a 30% decrease in the number of nonimaging investigations. The estimated total number of administrations in the UK was 430 000. (author)

  20. UK strategy for nuclear industry LLW - 16393

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Matthew; Fisher, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the UK Government and devolved administrations (for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, from here on referred to as 'Government') published their policy for the management of solid low level waste ('the Policy'). The Policy sets out a number of core principles for the management of low level waste (LLW) and charges the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority with developing a UK-wide strategy in the case of LLW from nuclear sites. The UK Nuclear Industry LLW Strategy has been developed within the framework of the principles set out in the policy. A key factor in the development of this strategy has been the strategic partnership the NDA shares with the Low Level Waste Repository near Drigg (LLWR), who now have a role in developing strategy as well as delivering an optimised waste management service at the LLWR. The strategy aims to support continued hazard reduction and decommissioning by ensuring uninterrupted capability and capacity for the management and disposal of LLW in the UK. The continued availability of a disposal route for LLW is considered vital by both the nuclear industry and non-nuclear industry low level waste producers. Given that the UK will generate significantly more low level waste (∼ 3.1 million m 3 ) than there is capacity at the LLWR (∼0.75 million m 3 ), developing alternative effective ways to manage LLW is critical. The waste management hierarchy is central to the strategy, which includes strategic goals at all levels of the hierarchy to improve its application across the industry. (authors)

  1. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  2. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.; Harris, D.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK

  3. UK nuclear power: gone but not forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in Britain will not now be privatised. The future of nuclear power in the UK is discussed. In Scotland the South of Scotland Electricity Board will be expecting to sell some of its electricity to Britain. The structure of the new electricity supply industry in Scotland will also be unusual with most of the country's electricity being produced by a state-run company, while two private companies produce the rest and sell it on to customers. The situation in England is uncertain mainly because of the policy and potential costs involved in decommissioning of the Magnox stations as they are shutdown at the end of their service life. The privatisation of the electricity industry has highlighted the problems of decommissioning. It has also shown that the nuclear industry assumed itself to be immortal and has also assumed that money is not important, an attitude which has alarmed the City financiers. (UK)

  4. Resilience improvements to UK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Following the events at Fukushima, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK nuclear safety regulator, undertook a series of reviews into the resilience of UK nuclear power plants to severe events. These reviews highlighted a number of areas in relation to electrical infrastructure where it considered licensees should review their arrangements, considering both onsite and offsite infrastructure as well as the ability to recover following a complete loss of site infrastructure. In response, UK licensees have been exploring four parallel approaches to improving the resilience for each of their sites. Firstly, through modifications on-site such as enhancements to the installed diesel generators and related systems. Secondly through improvements to the resilience of essential instrumentation to Station Black Out events. Thirdly, through the provision of off-site backup equipment that can be deployed to any site following a severe event. Finally, the provision of event qualified connection points on site to enable timely restoration of long term essential electrical supplies and cooling to key systems. This last item gives a central focus to the issues of switchboard availability and the resilience of the whole network to large potentially common cause internal and external hazards. This paper will discuss the electrically related findings of the ONR reviews, explore the reasoning behind those decisions, and describe the approaches being taken by UK licensees. (authors)

  5. Nuclear skills and education training in the UK through the Dalton nuclear institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Clegg

    2006-01-01

    The UK demand for nuclear skills and research requirements is showing signs of a significant upturn. More capacity is being needed to support the UK's national programmes on clean-up and decommissioning, keeping the nuclear option open, and longer term advanced reactors technology. In response to this, The University of Manchester has launched the Dalton Nuclear Institute. The Institute is working with government and industry to strengthen and develop the UK's strategic nuclear skills base in the university sector. The Institute's scope covers the broad entirety of the UK's nuclear requirements spanning reactors, fuel cycles, decommissioning, disposal, social policy and regulation, and with connections into nuclear medicine and fusion. The rational behind the setting up of the Dalton Nuclear Institute including its research and education strategies are explained below, together with a description of the areas of current strength and the areas where major university investment is being targeted to uplift UK capacity and infrastructure. A big driver is also to forge links with other world leading centres internationally that will complement Manchester's in house capability. In the UK, the Dalton Nuclear Institute is working in partnership with Nexia Solutions and the NDA (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority) to match the Institute's plans with end-user industry and sector requirements. A key driver is to maximize the utilisation of the UK's specialist research facilities, notably the new Sellafield Technology Centre in West Cumbria. Discussions are underway with Nexia Solutions and the NDA to grant academic access for the Dalton Nuclear Institute and its collaborators to the Sellafield Technology Centre, to utilize it along the lines akin to a 'teaching hospital' model. The paper also explains the steps Dalton has taken by setting up and leading a consortium with ten other higher education providers in the UK, to launch a national programme for postgraduate

  6. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  7. The UK nuclear programme: The Sizewell experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the Sizewell 'B' PWR programme and the effect on it of the proposed privatisation of U.K electricity generation is reviewed. Departures from and additions to the Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS) reference plant design are given. These include Reactor Coolant System overpressure protection and the addition of an Emergency Charging System and an Emergency Boration System. Improvements in monitoring Reactor Coolant System water level during refuelling and maintenance shutdown operations are presented. (author)

  8. Behind the UK nuclear flip-flop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Because it failed to attract commercial investors on acceptable terms, the British government has exempted the nation's nuclear powerplants from privatization, lopping off about 8,000 MW from National Power - the larger of the two successors to the broken-up Central Electricity Generating Board - and whipping up an antiprivatization political storm in the process. A new state company - to be called the Nuclear Electric Co - will be set up to control nuclear powerplants

  9. U.K. nuclear data progress report January-December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, M.R.; Cookson, J.A.

    1987-06-01

    The paper is the United Kingdom Nuclear Data (UKND) progress report, and summarises nuclear data research in the UK between January and December 1986. The contents of the report contains nuclear data work presented by:- UKAEA Harwell, UKAEA Winfrith, National Physical Laboratory, and the Universities of Birmingham, Edinburgh and Oxford. Included in these contributions are collaborative studies involving institutions in Holland, Italy, West Germany and the United States. The report also contains contributions on Chemical Nuclear Data, as well as the summaries of three invited lectures presented at the 19th UK Nuclear Data Form, Harwell Laboratory, 1986. (U.K.)

  10. Privatisation of the UK's nuclear power industry: nuclear's triple challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, W.R.I.

    1997-01-01

    At the British Nuclear Congress in December 1996, Lord Fraser of Caryllie, then UK energy minister, set out the three key issues the nuclear industry must tackle for a successful future: (1) increased competition from other energy sources, (2) a growing world market for its skills and (3) a continuing tough regulatory regime. Nuclear power, with electricity generated in the UK rising to 25%, has responded well to competition from other energy sources, and also to the further competition generated by privatisation which has already generated benefits for the public. As other countries with nuclear programmes diversify and upgrade their technology this will create new export opportunities for Britain over and above those already in existence, notably by BNFL in Japan. Other areas that Britain has to offer relate to safety improvements, notably in eastern Europe, and decommissioning, in which Magnox Electric is one of the few operators in the world with experience in decommissioning a full scale commercial reactor. The regulatory framework for the nuclear industry will continue to be as rigorous as ever, but, however the industry is structured, it should be noted that commercial success and continued safe operations are inextricably linked. The industry must operate within the framework of the development of international treaties and agreements in the nuclear field. The Government will continue to take a close interest in the safety, security and prosperity of the nuclear industry, and help Britain as a whole to be a successful and influential player in the international nuclear community. (UK)

  11. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee request list - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-03-01

    The 1986 UK request list for chemical nuclear data has been reviewed in detail by members of the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee. New requirements for data measurements and evaluations have been identified, and specific requests have been withdrawn. A new UK request list has evolved, and is given in the form of tabulations covering measurements and evaluations. (author)

  12. Second study of UK nuclear test participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.; Doll, R.; Kendall, G.

    1994-01-01

    A second epidemiological analysis of mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear tests and associated experimental programmes has provided broadly reassuring results. Overall death rates in test participants are lower than those in the general population and similar to those in a closely matched control group. Observations in the extended period of follow-up suggest that the excess of multiple myeloma seen in the first analysis was a chance finding. The extended follow-up does not provide any new evidence to support the finding of apparent excess of leukaemia found in the first analysis. However, the possibility that test participation may have caused a small risk of leukaemia in the early years after the tests cannot be ruled out. (author)

  13. Nuclear safety in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The regulation of nuclear installations in the UK works through a licensing system. Licences are granted by the HSE (Health and Safety Executive), through HMNII (HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate). HMNII's approach to the assessment of installations follows a set of Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs). Originally two sets of SAPs were produced, one for nuclear power reactors and the other for chemical plants (reprocessing etc..). During the 1980's it was found possible to combine the principles for all types of installation into one document with the earlier total of about 700 principles being reduced to 333. The new SAPs published in 1992 include a refinement of the approach to licensing which comprises a standard set of conditions for each site. The conditions usually set some objective, either for a physical feature or for maintenance. This paper describes the mechanics of the licensing process, the Tolerability of Risk (TOR) principle, and the SAPs. (J.S.). 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Harris, D.W.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK. (author)

  15. Nuclear power in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Electric was formed in the public sector to operate only nuclear power plant, and the Company has been foremost in developing the UK's capability for PWR design and construction. It is now obliged to compete on equal terms with privately-owned generators, and we have made it clear that we would invest in further nuclear plant only if the terms were commercially attractive to the company. The competitive environment in which we now operate has led us to recognise that the priority for the Company in the Nuclear Review is to seek the commercial flexibility which accompanies privatisation. Accordingly, our evidence to the Government in the Nuclear Review has shown that the problems of confidence which surrounded nuclear power in 1989 have been substantially resolved. The improved accounting costs and low avoidable costs of the existing stations make the commercial case for their continued operation. The completion of Szewell B has not only given us a gist class new, profitable power plant, but given confidence in the costs and performance of any follow-on PWRs. In the longer term, a greater recognition of the external environmental costs of fossil-fuel generation may swing the market in favour of nuclar power construction. (orig.) [de

  16. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  17. IAEA Mission Concludes Peer Review of UK's Nuclear Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    that all organizations, with responsibility for safety, involved in decommissioning activities and in the management of radioactive waste, are held accountable for their responsibilities; and ONR should review its approach to authorising decommissioning plans and its guidance for de-commissioning. The mission team delivered its initial findings to the ONR. A final report will be submitted in about three months, and ONR informed the team that it will make the report public. The mission included site visits to facilities to observe inspections and a series of interviews and discussions with ONR staff and other organizations. The IRRS missions to the UK in 2006 and 2009 reviewed a broad spectrum of nuclear legal and regulatory framework, resulting in recommendations in order to fully comply with the IAEA safety standards and suggestions for further possible improvement of the regulatory framework. The IAEA encourages countries that have hosted initial IRRS missions to invite follow-up missions two to four years after the initial missions. Quick Facts The UK has 16 operating nuclear power reactors at nine sites, 27 units in permanent shutdown or decommissioning state. As of 2012, nuclear contributed about 16 per cent to the country's electricity production. The UK has a large variety of different intermediate- and high-level radioactive wastes, coming from national programmes to develop nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Most of the UK's higher-activity radioactive waste is currently held in temporary storage at Sellafield. About IRRS Missions IRRS missions are designed to strengthen and enhance the effectiveness of the national nuclear regulatory infrastructure of States, while recognizing the ultimate responsibility of each State to ensure safety in this area. This is done through consideration of both regulatory, technical and policy issues, with comparisons against IAEA safety standards and, where appropriate, good practices elsewhere. (IAEA)

  18. Comparing nuclear decommissioning in the UK and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, J.; Garcier, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we will compare the decommissioning policies in the UK and France. Both countries have a long nuclear history and decommissioning has taken place since the 1960. However, the proposed decommissioning of Magnox and AGR sites in the UK and of UNGG sites in France brings decommissioning efforts to a new level. Whilst we explore in detail the approaches and methodologies adopted in each country we remain sensitive to the effects that political and economic history play in shaping the policy response. In this paper we draw upon interviews conducted with a range of key stakeholders including: national regulators, companies involved in decommissioning, local politicians and community representatives. We also analyse key academic and non academic literature. (authors)

  19. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  20. Regulation of nuclear power in the UK after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The essential philosophy underlying safe nuclear power in the UK is to establish a safe design and then monitor the manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance to ensure that the safe design intent is not violated either deliberately or unintentionally. In the UK any commercial nuclear installation must have a nuclear site licence. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) is the agency responsible for granting licences and ensuring the safe design and operation of the installation by the licensee. The way in which the NII does this for the 27 licensed sites that it regulates in the UK is explained. This covers plant assessment and site inspection. Following the accident at Chernobyl the NII reviewed the way in which it regulates nuclear power in the UK. Some changes in specific areas were recommended but no changes in the general philosophy were considered necessary. (UK)

  1. UK Nuclear Science Forum. Progress report: Data studies during 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    2001-06-01

    The UK Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) now meets once per year to discuss issues of direct relevance to forum members, and to review nuclear data for application in the UK nuclear industry. Links are also maintained through the year, mainly through e-mail and the normal postal system. Work of immediate interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g., half-lives and gamma-ray emission probabilities), fission yields and thermal neutron cross sections; all known UK studies in 2000 are summarised in this document. Specific applications and international links of relevance in the field of nuclear data are also described

  2. A nuclear inspector's perspective on decommissioning at UK nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.F.

    1999-01-01

    The legislative framework used to regulate decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the UK is described. Pre-licensing requirements are outlined and the operation of a nuclear site licence is described. Mention is made of safety assessment and the published principles which are NII's view of what constitutes good practice within the nuclear industry. HSE's approach to the regulation of nuclear decommissioning is described before discussing issues associated with optioneering, the timing of decommissioning, occupational doses and public doses. It is noted that the professional approach taken by the nuclear industry within the framework of the existing regulatory requirements has resulted in considerable reductions in occupational dose over the last few years. The de-licensing process is described in the context of terminating a licensee's period of responsibility for safety, and principles by which 'no danger' may be judged are described. Impending new legislation on environmental impact assessment in relation to decommissioning nuclear reactors is mentioned. It is concluded that a powerful and flexible method of regulatory control is in place with regard to nuclear decommissioning. (author)

  3. The spread of nuclear weapons among nations: militarization or development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.Q.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reviews nuclear proliferation among nations. Nuclear weapons promotion and proliferation are discussed, including both motivation and lack of motivation to manufacture nuclear weapons. The failure of the Non-Proliferation Treaty is examined with respect to vertical and horizontal proliferation, and the containment of horizontal proliferation. Risks of nuclear war by accident are outlined, as well as nuclear weapon development. (UK)

  4. Managing the nuclear legacy n the UK: Progress towards the establishment of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, R.M.

    2003-01-01

    In November 2001, the British Government announced its intention to undertake a radical revision of the arrangements for managing public sector civil nuclear liabilities in the UK. Its proposals for this transformation were published in a White Paper 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy - A Strategy for Action' published on 4 July 2002. This calls for the formation of a new organisation, originally referred to as the Liabilities Management Authority, but since renamed the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), responsible to Government and with a remit to ensure that the UK's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways which protect the environment. The NDA will be responsible for some twenty-one UK nuclear sites comprising about 85% of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. These sites are those currently operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), and amongst other things include many facilities from the early years of nuclear power etc in the UK, liabilities associated with the Joint European Torus (JET) fusion research project at UKAEA's Culham site, the Magnox nuclear power stations, and the associated facilities at Sellafield for reprocessing as well as those associated with the UK's fast reactor programme based at Dounreay. The challenge is to decommission and dismantle these facilities, package the radioactive wastes ready for disposal and remedy the sites, taking into account the uncertainties associated with many of the older facilities and the potential technical novelty of the processes that will have to be deployed to achieve this. This paper is concerned with the work of the Liabilities Management Unit (LMU) in preparing the way for the NDA and what it has achieved in its first eighteen months. The following issues are addressed: The Liabilities Management Unit and its remit (which presents the LMU Functional Groups and their responsibilities); Acquiring a detailed

  5. Nuclear cardiology in the UK: activity and practice 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prvulovich, Elizabeth; Metcalfe, Malcolm J.

    2002-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 251 nuclear medicine centres asking for details of nuclear medicine activity, and nuclear cardiology activity and practice in 1997. One hundred and seventy-one (68%) centres replied. Nuclear medicine activity was estimated at 11.8 studies/1,000 population/year, and 9.5% of these studies were within cardiology (1.12 studies/1,000/year). Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies accounted for 77% and radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) for 22% of all nuclear cardiology. On a national basis this represents activity levels of 0.86 and 0.25 studies/1,000/year for MPI and RNV, respectively. Of the 171 responding centres, 102 (60%) performed MPI studies and 81 (79%) of these reported that activity was increasing. However, MPI activity was unevenly distributed between hospitals. Two centres accounted for 13% of total MPI; others had far lower activity rates, and 51/102 (50%) centres performed less than 200 MPI studies/year. Comparison with previous surveys showed that nuclear medicine activity had almost doubled since 1990 (it was 6.0 studies/1,000 population in 1990, 9.3 studies/1,000 in 1994 and 11.8 studies/1,000 in 1997). Over the same period, nuclear cardiology activity had also risen, the greatest increase being seen for the last 3 years (it was 0.7 studies/1,000 population in 1990, 0.82 studies/1,000 in 1994 and 1.12 studies/1,000 in 1997). Despite these encouraging figures, MPI activity for 1997 remained well below that recommended by the British Cardiac Society in 1994 (2.6 studies/1,000/year) as adequate to serve the needs of patients with cardiac disease in the UK; it was also below the European average activity for the same year (2.2 studies/1,000/year). The anticipated increased workload for nuclear cardiology is encouraging despite the wide and varied practice of nuclear cardiology around the UK. The nuclear medicine community now needs to address the issues that will prevent it keeping up with demand, such as restricted camera

  6. Nuclear power and public acceptance in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; UK nuclear experience (experience of the Central Electricity Generating Board; impartial assessment); Sizewell inquiry (into proposal to construct a PWR based plant as Sizewell B; inquiry process; ground covered; economics and safety; project management); public acceptance (sociological studies); long-term programme. (U.K.)

  7. Why nuclear power failed the market test in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesshire, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Conservative Party's manifesto for the general election of May 1987 contained two pledges of relevance to the UK electricity supply industry (ESI). These were to privatize the industry; and to continue to support the development of civil nuclear power in the private sector. As anticipated by some independent commentators, in the event these objectives proved incompatible. The costs of nuclear power have long been a vexed issue and UK nuclear costs have been higher than those in many other countries. While most of the UK ESI has now been privatized, nuclear generation remains in the public sector. This article seeks to explore the reasons for this fundamental and politically embarrassing policy reversal, a rarity under three successive Conservative administrations since 1979. It would be incorrect to argue that private ownership and nuclear power are inherently incompatible. Rather the specific - competitive - form of privatization proposed for the UK failed to provide sufficient guarantees for the London capital market. Thus, at least in this specific case, nuclear power failed the market test. The implications of this for the UK nuclear industry have been profound. As a result, the UK case has wider international lessons as the pressures for privatization, liberalization and greater cost transparency bear down upon electric utilities in other countries. (author)

  8. National nuclear scientific program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Matausek, M.V.; Neskovic, N.

    2001-01-01

    National scientific program of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Reactors And Radioactive Waste comprises research and development in the following fields: application of energy of nuclear fission, application of neutron beams, analyses of nuclear safety and radiation protection. In the first phase preparatory activities, conceptual design and design of certain processes and facilities should be accomplished. In the second phase realization of the projects is expected. (author)

  9. U.K. policy responses to international influences - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of U.K. participation in international discussions directed towards the safe development and application of nuclear power. Particular attention is given to the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), which is stated to be looking at the whole question of proliferation and the merits and disadvantages of a range of alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies. A summary is also given of U.K. participation in work on radiological protection (through the I.C.R.P.) and radioactive waste disposal. International cooperation in research and development is mentioned. Public involvement in policy making is also discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  10. Deregulation of electricity supply and nuclear energy privatization in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    For two years the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has been preparing for the most comprehensive changes the UK electricity industry has ever had to face, namely privatization. The aim of this paper is to take you through these changes, and to demonstrate that, whilst the environment in which it will be operating will be quite different, the CEGB, and our successor company, National Power, remain convinced that nuclear power in the UK has an exciting future. (author)

  11. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion. The present status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest report of the Nuclear Ship Stearing Group which deals with three important aspects; economic assessments, international safety and operating procedures for nuclear ships, and the industrial capability of the UK shipbuilding and nuclear industries, is discussed. The integral design concept for a pressurised water reactor for use as a marine reactor is considered. The operational safety aspects of such reactors and of the attendant refuelling facilities are discussed. U.K. capability in the whole nuclear merchant ship propulsion project is considered; reference being made to the design and construction of small PWR reactors, the development, design and supply of the nuclear propulsion unit, financial aspects, and the requirement for cooperation between industrial interests and governmental research units. (U.K.)

  12. The status of ISI in the UK nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bann, T.; Rogerson, A. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom). Nuclear NDE Services

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the status of in-service inspection (ISI) in UK nuclear power generation industry through the experience of its nuclear utilities. The paper is intended to be a summary of some of the most recent and relevant ISI issues facing the utilities and the solutions devised to address those issues. (orig.)

  13. UK is leading the way with clear strategy for nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The UK is Europe's most prominent leader in nuclear development because of the government's clear strategy of supporting nuclear energy as part of its future energy mix, a senior official from US-based nuclear equipment manufacturer Westinghouse Electric Company said. Mr Kirst told that the UK government's decision to support the financing of new energy projects, including nuclear, by way of a contract for difference scheme was a breakthrough. Additionally potential for nuclear development in other EU member states is possible in Poland and the Czech Republic where also new nuclear capacities are possible. Potential exists also in non-EU countries like Turkey and the Ukraine.

  14. UK is leading the way with clear strategy for nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraev, Kamen

    2018-01-01

    The UK is Europe's most prominent leader in nuclear development because of the government's clear strategy of supporting nuclear energy as part of its future energy mix, a senior official from US-based nuclear equipment manufacturer Westinghouse Electric Company said. Mr Kirst told that the UK government's decision to support the financing of new energy projects, including nuclear, by way of a contract for difference scheme was a breakthrough. Additionally potential for nuclear development in other EU member states is possible in Poland and the Czech Republic where also new nuclear capacities are possible. Potential exists also in non-EU countries like Turkey and the Ukraine.

  15. Financing nuclear power in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) are responsible for bulk supplies of electricity to the 12 Area Boards responsible for retailing in England and Wales. As such, the Board are responsible for over 90% of total generation in the UK and are therefore the body principally concerned with the financing of nuclear power growth. The author first looks at the problem of financing nuclear power from the point of view of the CEGB. Thereafter the situation in the UK is dealt with more generally and in that section reference is also made to the total call on the UK's resources involved in financing energy growth in general and nuclear power in particular. (author)

  16. Stakeholder involvement facilitates decision making for UK nuclear accident recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Burt, R; Nisbet, A F

    2005-01-01

    The importance of major stakeholders participating in the formulation of strategies for maintaining food safety and agricultural production following a nuclear accident has been successfully demonstrated by the UK 'Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group' (AFCWG). The organisation, membership and terms of reference of the group are described. Details are given of the achievements of the AFCWG and its sub-groups, which include agreeing management options that would be included in a recovery handbook for decision-makers in the UK and tackling the disposal of large volumes of contaminated milk, potentially resulting from a nuclear accident.

  17. U.K. nuclear data progress report for the period January - December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, E.W.

    1981-06-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the United Kingdom Nuclear Data Committee and presents contributions from the Harwell and Winfrith laboratories of the UKAEA, the National Physical Laboratory, the National Radiological Protection Board, the University of Birmingham and the University of Edinburgh. Work is included from various collaborations between laboratories of Harwell, Dounreay, Winfrith, Windscale, MOD Aldermaston, Imperial College and Manchester University. Contributions on Chemical Nuclear Data gathered by the Chemical Nuclear Data Committee are grouped under that heading. (U.K.)

  18. Nuclear power costs in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, C [Polytechnic of the South Bank, London (UK)

    1978-06-01

    An attempt is made to assess the available evidence on nuclear power costs, to evaluate the adequacy of published statistics, and to determine where the balance of advantage lies. The case rests on four factors - the load factor, calculations of fuel and capital costs, research and development costs, and most importantly, whether there is net benefit over costs. It is felt that if the flow of information concerning the difficult and confusing position in which the nuclear power industry finds itself could be increased then the quality of research in the field of costing nuclear programmes and evaluating their social overhead costs could be improved.

  19. Nuclear and renewable energies, master cards of UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    UK's greenhouse gas emissions have increased in 2004 and 2005 and the country is no longer self-sufficient with respect to energy supplies. In front of global warming and energy security threats, UK is reconsidering its energy policy. Based on low carbon solutions, the UK energy economy tries to valorize renewable energies: recovery of methane, combined combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, development of offshore wind and wave power, etc. One reason is also for UK to locally recover part of its lost autonomy thanks to energy decentralization. Since 2006, public hearings have been launched to consider a renewal of the present nuclear park, a development of offshore gas storage and LNG terminal facilities and a promotion of cogeneration systems. (J.S.)

  20. Trends in occupational exposure within the UK civil nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    The UK civil nuclear industry was established in the 1950s and workers in the industry have received occupational radiation exposures since that time. Data on occupational exposures over this period show a reduction in annual doses. This trend was initiated by more restrictive statutory dose limitation requirements, and was achieved by greater emphasis on radiation protection methods. (Author)

  1. New nuclear power generation in the UK: Cost benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, David

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an economic analysis of possible nuclear new build in the UK. It compares costs and benefits of nuclear new build against conventional gas-fired generation and low carbon technologies (CCS, wind, etc.). A range of scenarios are considered to allow for uncertainty as regards nuclear and other technology costs, gas prices and carbon prices. In the base case, the analysis suggests that there is a small cost penalty for new nuclear generation relative to conventional gas-fired generation, but that this is offset by environmental and security of supply benefits. More generally nuclear new build has a positive net benefit for a range of plausible nuclear costs, gas prices and carbon prices. This supports the UK policy of developing an enabling framework for nuclear new build in a market-based context. To the extent that assumptions in the analysis are not borne out in reality (e.g. as regards nuclear cost), this is a no regrets policy, given that the market would not invest in nuclear if it is prohibitively costly. (author)

  2. The UK nuclear regulator's view of external influences on safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past forty or so years, significant changes have taken place in the UK nuclear industry and the pace of change is continually increasing. As a consequence, the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), the UK's nuclear regulator, has also had to change. This paper describes some of the challenges to safety that have arisen in recent years and how NII's style of regulation has had to adapt to ensure that safety is maintained and improved. NII's approach has been to: be proactive in its relations with Government and market regulators; adopt new competencies to equip it for the challenges it faces; strive to improve its efficiency and effectiveness; and develop new approaches to regulating changes in licensees' organisations and ways of working. Importantly, NII seeks to anticipate change rather than react to it. (author)

  3. Nuclear energy. Towards a re-launching in the UK?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marante, W.

    2006-01-01

    While the country recently started a debate about energy, United Kingdom is questioning about a re-launching of its nuclear energy. Even if UK's history of atomic energy is rather old (first nuclear power plant, Calder Hall, built in 1953), the lack of standardization of british plants, the fear of terrorism, the uncertainties about radioactive wastes, and a series of incidents at the Sellafield reprocessing plant have calmed down the infatuations of the past. This paper makes a brief overview of the energy prospects of a country where nuclear energy is in standby since 10 years. (J.S.)

  4. National nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa A, D.

    1980-01-01

    The basic concepts of the Nuclear program that Mexico plans are presented, to develop pointing out that it constitutes an outstanding event within the history of the country, that will result in an equilibrated profit of the resources of oil exploitation consolidating each step of its technical evolution; all of this represents a challenge since it establishes a qualitative transformation in the very roots of the National economy. Being certain that oil is a non renovable natural resource, the author points out that Mexican Government has emphasized the promotion of the research of alternate resource of energy in the future. According to this panorama, the quidelines that Mexico must undertake regarding production, distribution and consumption of nuclear energy, will point primarily to a global program, which will avoid the imports of equipment and technicians, to achieve maximum advantages for the Country. It stresses the fact that this program cannot start from zero; since first, Mexico, has to import foreign technology, which once assimilated, will give to the Mexican technicians the starting point to establish the proper solution to the foreseen objectives. Therefore, any kind of International cooperation must tend to accelerate the nuclear development and to obtain the transference to technology, within a frame of respect to Mexican sovereignity. The conclusion is that the task at which Mexico aims must be based on the existing human potentiality and on the one that will be prepared in the future, and also on the knowledge and adequate exploitation of the uranium reserves, having the ININ a prominent role of creating the necessary human infrastructure, the development of a Mexican nuclear energy can be achieved in a medium term. (author)

  5. The real costs of nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The UK Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) has recently published figures which appear to show that nuclear generated electricity is 20% cheaper than electricity from coal stations. It is argued here that these figures cannot be used to make a case for nuclear power since they are based on an accounting convention which fails to give due consideration to inflation. In effect the convention used assumes that capital costs are paid in depreciated currency and become an artificially small part of total operating costs. By suitably adjusting the CEGB figures the author aims to provide a more realistic comparison of generating costs. (author)

  6. Cost estimates for nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Grant; Heptonstall, Phil; Gross, Robert; Handley, David

    2013-01-01

    Current UK Government support for nuclear power has in part been informed by cost estimates that suggest that electricity from new nuclear power stations will be competitive with alternative low carbon generation options. The evidence and analysis presented in this paper suggests that the capital cost estimates for nuclear power that are being used to inform these projections rely on costs escalating over the pre-construction and construction phase of the new build programme at a level significantly below those that have been experienced by past US and European programmes. This paper applies observed construction time and cost escalation rates to the published estimates of capital costs for new nuclear plant in the UK and calculates the potential impact on levelised cost per unit of electricity produced. The results suggest that levelised cost may turn out to be significantly higher than expected which in turn has important implications for policy, both in general terms of the potential costs to consumers and more specifically for negotiations around the level of policy support and contractual arrangements offered to individual projects through the proposed contract for difference strike price. -- Highlights: •Nuclear power projects costs can rise substantially during the construction period. •Pre-construction and construction time can be much longer than anticipated. •Adjusting estimates for observed experience increases levelised costs significantly. •Higher costs suggest that more policy support than envisaged may be required

  7. U.K. nuclear data progress report for the period April 1975 to March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayther, D.B.

    1976-08-01

    The Progress Report describes the activities of the UK Nuclear Data Committee, lists the UK data in a CINDA type index, and reports briefly on each UK activity under the organization concerned (AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith, NPL, AWRE Aldermaston, University of Aston in Birmingham, University of Edinburgh, University of London Reactor Centre). (U.K.)

  8. The establishment of the Dalton Nuclear Institute by the University of Manchester in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The University of Manchester (UoM) is taking a pioneering step in the UK by identifying nuclear research and education as one of its strategic priorities and establishing the Dalton Nuclear Institute. The UoM was created in 2004 from the merger of the Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology) which both had distinguished histories dating back more than 180 years. The new University has a bold strategic vision to become over the next decade one of the world's top universities. The Institute will work with government and industry to protect and develop the UK's strategic nuclear skills base. Its scope covers the broad entirety of nuclear requirements spanning reactors, fuel cycles, decommissioning, social policy and regulation, and with connections into nuclear medicine and fusion. Existing nuclear research strengths will be integrated and new capabilities grown in areas of weakness. Two initial appointments are underway in radiation sciences and decommissioning engineering with others being planned. The Institute has also established NTEC (Nuclear Technology Education Consortium) in collaboration with other supporting universities which, with government and industry support, is launching a new national programme for postgraduate-level nuclear learning. (author)

  9. A comparative analysis of nuclear plant regulation in the US and UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, J.; Openshaw, S.

    1987-01-01

    Regulatory reform should be a priority issue in both the US and UK. A two-tier system of review in this paper seems to be sensible. The generic issues of national importance should be the subject of specific national and state policy objectives and cannot really be left to utilities to sort out. In the UK this would imply that central government would take on the responsibility for safety review and designate sites from which the utilities could then choose. The local inquiry would deal with matters of local relevancy including emergency preparedness. The authors advocate that the UK safety authorities should adhere more closely to the revised licensing system that the NRC has recommended to Congress. This would encourage far greater public participation at a much earlier stage than at present. Indeed if PWR approval is given at Sizewell, then the UK safety authorities should review their siting and safety philosophy, which is now more than 16 years old and more relevant to gas-cooled reactors with their greater levels of intrinsic safety. The longevity and the irreversibility of many of the nuclear decisions makes the switch to a more publicly defensible licensing system absolutely essential, if nuclear power is to have a future in a democracy

  10. Preservation and re-use of nuclear knowledge in the UK nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for the UK nuclear industry to preserve knowledge generated during the 6 decades of its existence for re-use by future generations. It outlines the major government restructuring of the industry and its impact on knowledge preservation. Work within British Nuclear Fuels plc to meet the knowledge preservation requirements of its business is described. The focus is shown to be the alignment of tacit knowledge - gained through interviews with key specialists - with the explicit knowledge contained within the major knowledge base (Corporate Memory). The creation of knowledge packages to hold key knowledge on core technologies and nuclear plants is described. The paper also covers developments in securing the nuclear skill base through University Research Alliances and the Dalton Nuclear Institute. Returning to the major new challenges ahead it is shown how a knowledge portal could be implemented, linking the knowledge repositories present within the organisations that will feature in the restructured UK nuclear industry in 2005. The UK nuclear industry is facing its greatest challenge in terms of its organisation and commercial interests, at a time when the technical challenges presented by the decommissioning of old nuclear plants and the remediation of its nuclear sites are building up. In terms of knowledge preservation there has never been a greater need to ensure that knowledge associated with the key technologies that underpin the nuclear plants, and the plants themselves, is made available for use now and in the future. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority [NDA] - a new government body that will come into being in April 2005 - will own the liabilities (the nuclear plants). Those organisations bidding to operate and decommission plants on the UK nuclear sites will utilise the assets to best effect as Site Licensing Companies [SLC] under contract to the NDA. The key asset is knowledge. Knowledge is present in explicit forms within

  11. Collective doses from airborne discharges by the UK nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, G.N.

    1981-01-01

    Small quantities of radionuclides are discharged in airborne effluents during the normal operation of nuclear installations. The dispersion of these nuclides in the atmosphere and their subsequent transfer through various sectors of the environment leads to the irradiation of the population. The collective dose to the UK population from airborne discharges in one particular year, 1978, from UK nuclear installations is estimated. The discharges in that year are typical of those in the recent past. Consideration is given to the contribution made by each type of establishment (eg, nuclear power stations, reprocessing plants) and the nuclides which contribute significantly to the collective dose are identified. The distributions of the collective dose in time and among individuals in the exposed population are important features in determining the significance attached to it and both aspects are discussed. The collective dose can be used as a measure of the health detriment associated with the discharge practices considered and is one of several quantities to be taken into account in assessing them. The collective doses from airborne discharges are finally contrasted with those from other sources of exposure of the population. (author)

  12. The prospects for nuclear power in the UK. Conclusions of the Government's nuclear review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The conclusions of the United Kingdom government's review of the nuclear industry in Britain were presented to Parliament in May 1995. The provision of public sector support for a new nuclear power station is deemed unwarranted against the background of the current electricity market. In reaching this conclusion the government considered possible environmental and strategic advantages, the question of diversity of fuel sources, and wider economic benefits. It is intended to privatize parts of Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear in 1996 as subsidiaries of a single holding company to take over the UK's AGR and PWR stations together with a significant level of their associated liabilities. A publicly owned company will continue to run the magnox stations and retain their liabilities. British Nuclear Fuels Ltd (BNFL) will continue to offer nuclear fuel services and to receive government support in developing business in overseas markets. Since their formation in 1990, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear have improved their financial performance significantly. At privatisation the nuclear component of the fossil fuel levy will cease to be paid to Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear will no longer receive the current premium price paid under the Nuclear Energy Agreement. The current regulatory regime and rigorous safety standards for nuclear power will remain substantially unchanged. (UK)

  13. Public information on nuclear safety and incidents at nuclear installations in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausen, R.; Gronow, W.S.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years public interest in the safety aspects of the use of nuclear energy has been increasing in the UK as in other countries. The Government considers public involvement on this subject to be important and has taken action to promote and encourage public debate. As a result of a Government requirement, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) now publish a quarterly statement which gives particulars of incidents at nuclear installations reported to the HSE under the Nuclear Installations Act 1965, Dangerous Occurrences Regulations and under conditions attached to nuclear site licences granted that Act. The range of incidents covered in the quarterly statement and the present state and background of the public debate on nuclear energy in the UK are described. (author)

  14. Factors determining the UK's back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.; Ainsworth, Z.E.

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction. The AGRs and the UK's only PWR, Sizewell B, are operated by British Energy Generation Ltd (BEGL) and British Energy Generation (UK) Ltd (BEG(UK)L), who are subsidiaries of British Energy plc (BE) which was privatised in July 1996. Ownership of the Magnox stations, which were excluded from this privatisation, has now been transferred to BNFL.Government policy on spent fuel management in the UK is that it is for the owners of the spent fuel to decide on the appropriate spent fuel management options, based on their own commercial judgement, subject to meeting the necessary regulatory requirements. The main factors which have predominantly determined UK utility decisions on spent fuel management, to date, have been based on the technical considerations of the spent fuel characteristics, economic attractiveness of the options and at reactor site spent fuel storage capacities. To date, reprocessing has been the dominant form of spent fuel treatment in the UK. Spent fuel storage facilities consist of a mixture of at-reactor stores and large, centralised ponds associated with the reprocessing activities which take place at the Sellafield site. BEGL and BEG(UK)L have contracts for the lifetime arisings of AGR fuel which allow for all AGR spent fuel to be sent to Sellafield for reprocessing or long-term storage. The prompt reprocessing of all Magnox fuel will continue, and spent PWR fuel will continue to be stored at the reactor site in the short to medium term. It is likely that a combination of factors, which are discussed later in this paper, will continue to affect back-end nuclear fuel cycle strategy and future nuclear systems. (author)

  15. Managing the nuclear legacy in the UK - Progress towards the establishment of the nuclear decommissioning authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, Robin M.

    2003-01-01

    In November 2001, the British Government announced its intention to undertake a radical change in the arrangements for managing public sector civil nuclear liabilities in the UK. The UK Government's proposals for this transformation were published in a White Paper Managing the Nuclear Legacy - A Strategy for Actions published on 4 July 2002. This envisages the establishment of a new organisation, the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), responsible to Government and with a remit to ensure that the UK's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways which protect the environment. The NDA will be responsible for some twenty UK nuclear sites comprising about 85% of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. These sites are those currently operated by the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL), and amongst other things include many facilities from the early years of nuclear power etc in the UK, liabilities associated with the Joint European Torus (JET) fusion research project at UKAEA's Culham site, the Magnox nuclear power stations, and the associated facilities at Sellafield for reprocessing. The challenge is to decommission and demolish these facilities, package the radioactive wastes ready for disposal and remediate the sites, taking into account the uncertainties associated with many of the older facilities and the potential technical novelty of the processes that will have to be deployed to achieve this. To prepare the way for the NDA, a special team has been established within the UK Department of Trade and Industry. This team, known as the Liabilities Management Unit (LMU), includes staff from both private and public sectors, and is supported by a partner contractor (Bechtel Management Company Ltd) who bring high quality, experienced project management skills to the team. LMU's principal tasks are: - Acquiring a detailed knowledge of BNFL and UKAEA liabilities; - Establishing common

  16. A regulatory view of nuclear containment on UK licensed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, P.M.; McNair, I.J.

    1997-01-01

    Members of the UK regulatory body, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) have previously presented conference papers and official reports which have dealt separately with either reactor applications or chemical plant applications. The objective of this paper is to draw together a brief overview of the role of containment in protecting against potential radiological and related hazards, and to describe the factors which influence the NII's assessment of containment safety cases. It draws upon the NII's experience of regulating many types of nuclear facility, from those designed in the late 1940s through to the modern plants, such as Sizewell 'B' and THORP. The paper reviews the legislative and regulatory background within which the facilities exist and are operated. Finally, the paper reviews recent, ongoing and planned research in the field of containment, which has been designed to behave under challenge. (author)

  17. BTC the UK focus for nuclear fission R and D in the post NDA era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, T.G.; Carpenter, J.C.; Williamson, R.

    2005-01-01

    The BNFL Technology Centre at Sellafield, UK, will provide the focal point for nuclear fission R and D in the UK for the 21th Century. The facility provides a range of non-active, trace active, plutonium active and high active facilities enabling NSTS to support the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's remit to manage the UK's nuclear legacy and other requirements The facilities also provide an environment for academic research and foster the development of University Research Alliances. (Author)

  18. Risk concepts in UK nuclear safety decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brighton, P.W.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of risk as understood in the UK, with particular reference to the use of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in nuclear safety decision making. The way 'risk' appears in UK fundamental legislation means that the concept cannot be limited to evaluation of numerical probabilities of physical harm. Rather the focus is on doing all that is reasonably practicable to reduce risks: this entails applying relevant good practice and then seeking further safety measures until the money, time and trouble required are grossly disproportionate to the residual risk. PSA is used to inform rather than dictate such decisions. This approach is reinforced by considering how far any practical PSA can be said to measure risk. The behaviour of complex socio-technical systems such as nuclear power stations does not meet the conditions under which probability theory can be applied in an absolutely objective statistical sense. Risk is not an intrinsic real property of such systems. Rather PSA is a synthesis of data and subjective expert judgements, dependent on the extent of detailed knowledge of the plant. There are many other aspects of engineering judgement involved in safety decisions which cannot be so captured. (author)

  19. The new nuclear nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, L.

    1985-01-01

    Using 251 pages of text, 66 pages of references and 26 pages of appendixes, Spector delves into a world of new nuclear suppliers whose voracious hunger for profits may lead them to provide unwise assistance to countries that are unduly interested in nuclear weaponry. He assails a new dragon, a 'nuclear netherworld' that would illicitly supply such items for profit or political gain. Spector's book tells of covert dealings in nuclear technologies and materials. For him, the buyers have but one goal: '... to gain possession of the knowledge and materials necessary for development of nuclear weapons'. He warns of dangers from this illicit trade, of the loopholes in existing controls and the need to close them. His warnings come wrapped in stories of undercover transactions, many about Pakistan's efforts to get what it needs for its centrifuge enrichment plant. Recognizing the tightening of controls over nuclear trade since the 1970s, including those for dual-use items, Spector is nonetheless pessimistic that these efforts are sufficient to irradicate the nuclear netherworld or to deter newcomers from it

  20. Nuclear installations and childhood cancer in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The report in November 1983 of a cluster of childhood leukemia cases in the vicinity of the Sellafield (Windscale) nuclear facility on the west coast of England has led to a substantial effort to study possible excess cancer in the vicinity of British nuclear installations. Although some additional excesses were found, the causal relationship with radionuclides was thought unlikely because the estimated doses were below those established as causal of increase in human leukemia. Since 1956, we have known that diagnostic x-rays during pregnancy are associated with increased risks from childhood cancer, especially leukemia. Gardner et al. showed that excess cases near Sellafield were in children born there, and no excess occurred among in-migrants. Roman et al. showed that significant elevations in leukemia among children living near three nuclear installations in the Midlands were only at 0-5 y, suggesting that the relevant exposure was prenatal. We identify and discuss a set of epidemiological, dosage estimation, and modeling problems relevant to interpretation of such data. We conclude that: (1) a red bone marrow-based model for brief, high-level exposures of adults associated with myelogenous leukemia is inappropriate for evaluating the impact of internal emitters, relatively continuous exposures in perinatal periods in association with acute lymphatic leukemia; (2) incidence of mortality rates of childhood leukemia should be evaluated in the vicinity of nuclear installations in many countries; and (3) in contrast to nuclear reprocessing and nuclear weapons installations, there is little evidence of excess childhood leukemia among residents in areas adjacent to nuclear power installations in the U.K

  1. The Challenges of Maintaining Nuclear Cultures. US and UK Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Linton; McKane, Tom

    2016-01-01

    After the world entered the nuclear age, civilian and military organizations have witnessed the slow emergence of nuclear cultures, defined as the set of values and knowledge, shared among the national security community, about the relative importance of nuclear weapons in the country's defense posture, the distinctive features of nuclear weapons in terms of security, safety and operational requirements, and the workings of deterrence. Nuclear cultures have helped to ensure some level of coherence in policy-making and, most importantly, to maintain safe and effective deterrents. At a national level, however, each nuclear culture is confronted with significant challenges, such as generational change, decreasing levels of understanding or attention among the political and military leadership, insufficient funding or a growing inability to meet manpower requirements in both the nuclear weapons complexes and the armed forces. This paper looks at the United States and United Kingdom's recent efforts to maintain their nuclear culture, and at the key challenges these two countries face while pursuing this aim. (authors)

  2. National Nuclear Technology Map Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J. I.; Lee, T. J.; Yoon, S. W.

    2005-03-01

    The objective of NuTRM is to prepare a plan of nuclear R and D and technological innovations which is very likely to make nuclear technology a promising power source for future national developments. The NuTRM finds out systematically the nuclear R and D vision and the high-value-added strategic technologies to be developed by the efficient cooperation of actors including government, industry, academy and research institute by 2020. In other words, NuTRM aims at a long-term strategic planning of nuclear R and D and technological innovation in order to promote the socio-economic contributions of nuclear science and technology for the nation's future competitiveness and sustainable development and to raise the global status of the Korean nuclear R and D and Industry

  3. Nuclear Medicine National Headquarter System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Nuclear Medicine National HQ System database is a series of MS Excel spreadsheets and Access Database Tables by fiscal year. They consist of information from all...

  4. National Nuclear Physics Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 2016 National Nuclear Physics Summer School (NNPSS) will be held from Monday July 18 through Friday July 29, 2016, at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The summer school is open to graduate students and postdocs within a few years of their PhD (on either side) with a strong interest in experimental and theoretical nuclear physics. The program will include the following speakers: Accelerators and Detectors - Elke-Caroline Aschenauer, Brookhaven National Laboratory Data Analysis - Michael Williams, MIT Double Beta Decay - Lindley Winslow, MIT Electron-Ion Collider - Abhay Deshpande, Stony Brook University Fundamental Symmetries - Vincenzo Cirigliano, Los Alamos National Laboratory Hadronic Spectroscopy - Matthew Shepherd, Indiana University Hadronic Structure - Jianwei Qiu, Brookhaven National Laboratory Hot Dense Nuclear Matter 1 - Jamie Nagle, Colorado University Hot Dense Nuclear Matter 2 - Wilke van der Schee, MIT Lattice QCD - Sinead Ryan, Trinity College Dublin Neutrino Theory - Cecil...

  5. Navajos and National Nuclear Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom

    1979-01-01

    Describes the history of nuclear development in New Mexico, notes the cumulative detrimental effect on the Navajo Nation, and emphasizes federal inaction regarding health and safety standards and regulation in the nuclear power industry. Journal availability: see RC 503 522. (SB)

  6. Control and data processing systems in UK nuclear power plant and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.A.; Wall, D.N.

    1997-01-01

    This note identifies some of the data processing and control systems in UK nuclear power plant, with emphasis on direct digital control systems and sequence control. A brief indication is also given of some of the associated research activities on control systems and software. (author). 2 figs

  7. Control and data processing systems in UK nuclear power plant and nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J A; Wall, D N [AEA Technology, Winfrith, Dorchester (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    This note identifies some of the data processing and control systems in UK nuclear power plant, with emphasis on direct digital control systems and sequence control. A brief indication is also given of some of the associated research activities on control systems and software. (author). 2 figs.

  8. Taking the UK's national LLW programme from strategy development to implementation - 59059

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiter, David; O'Donnell, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 UK Nuclear Waste Management Ltd (UKNWM) became the Parent Body Organisation (PBO) at the Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) in the UK. LLWR is the primary disposal facility for the UK's LLW, supporting a wide range of industries across the nuclear power generation, reprocessing, defence, health care, education, and oil and gas sectors. One of the key tasks following the appointment of the new PBO was to work with the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to develop a national strategy for LLW generated in the UK, predominantly in the NDA estate. The new National Strategy for LLW was required to address the gap between the forecast waste arisings and predicted capacity at LLWR. The National Strategy for LLW Management was published in August 2010 following an 18 month development period. The main focus of the strategy is on three areas: - Application of the waste management hierarchy to extend the life of LLWR and ensure waste is managed in a risk-based, fit-for-purpose manner - Making best use of existing assets such as transport, packaging, treatment and disposal facilities - Opening up new fit-for-purpose waste management routes to divert waste away from LLWR Developing a robust strategy is vital to provide strategic direction to Government, waste producers, regulators, and stakeholders. Once the strategy is developed and approved, the key challenge is then to implement the strategy on a national scale in an efficient and cost-effective manner that delivers maximum value for money to the UK taxpayer. As well as developing the strategy, LLWR has been actively working to develop the enablers to implement the strategy. Since the publication of the strategy in August 2010 LLWR has been re-organised to reflect the shift in focus, from strategy development to implementation and delivery of the strategy. New resources have been brought in with international waste management experience to help integrate delivery with waste producers. This paper covers the

  9. Safety experts complete second IAEA regulatory review of UK nuclear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear safety experts today concluded a 10-day mission to peer-review the UK Nuclear Regulator: Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Nuclear Directorate (ND). At the request of the UK Government, the International Atomic Energy Agency assembled a team of ten high-level regulatory experts from eight nations to conduct the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission. The mission was the second of three planned IRRS missions for the United Kingdom. The first was held in March 2006 to begin a process to assess the nation's readiness to regulate and license new reactor designs, considered as a result of the Energy Policy review initiated by the British Prime Minister and the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry (DTI) in 2005. The IRRS team leader Mr. William Borchardt, Executive Director of Operations from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, stated, ''The IAEA IRRS serves an important role in both benchmarking against its safety standards and in promoting dialogue between nuclear safety regulators from around the world.'' During the 2nd mission the IRRS the team reviewed HSE/ND progress since the first IRRS mission and recent regulatory developments, the regulation of operating power plants and fuel cycle facilities, the inspection and enforcement programme for nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities, and the emergency preparedness and response programme. The IAEA found that HSE/ND has made significant progress toward improving its effectiveness in regulating existing nuclear power plants and in preparing to license new nuclear reactors designs. Many of the findings identified in the 2006 report had been fully addressed and therefore could be considered closed, the others are being addressed in accordance with a comprehensive action plan. IRRS team members visited the Heysham 1 Nuclear Power Plant near Lancaster, the Sellafield site at Cumbria and the Strategic Control Centre at Hutton, and they met senior managers from HSE and a UK

  10. National Nuclear Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    data The EXFOR project EXFOR Basics Short guide Codes Checking & utility codes Reaction codes -development ENDF-6 Format Manual (not yet available) Introduction to ENDF Formats ADVANCE ENDF continuous Educational Links ABC of Nuclear Science Brief Introduction History of Chemical Elements IUPAC Periodic Table

  11. Nuclear technology and national participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueray, B. S.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution from the initial turnkey approach into a split-package and eventually into a multiple-package approach requires a firm long-term policy for the nuclear program together with careful planning and realistic assessment. Definition of the possible areas and the extent for the national participation is a critical determining factor for the implementation of the program. In this study; importance of a throughout survey with its elementary methods and objectives is presented. Extent of national participation together with its evolutionary aspects investigated through analysis of some countries' experiences and IAEA guides. The beneficial effect of national participation in a nuclear power program is underlined

  12. The Windscale Inquiry - A U.K. Exercise in Nuclear Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, Harold.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the Public Inquiry opened on 14 June 1977 concerning extenssion of the Windscale plant and the events preceding it. Four issues were considered: the implications of the proposed development for public safety; those for other aspects of the national interest; those of plant construction and operation for the environment: the measures that could be adopted under existing U.K. legislation, particularly under the Radioactive Substances Act 1960 to control waste disposal, and under the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 to provide for the safety of operations, and finally, other implications for the locality. (NEA) [fr

  13. Deterrence at Three: US, UK and French Nuclear Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Tertrais, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Following Russia's annexation of Crimea and aggression against Ukraine, members of NATO are again pondering the strength of Western deterrence. Over the course of the Ukraine crisis, President Vladimir Putin has repeatedly emphasised the potency of Russian nuclear weapons, announced new nuclear-weapons programmes and brushed off accusations that Russia is cheating on a number of arms-control agreements. Most ominously, Putin has declared that he would have been prepared to place Russian nuclear forces on alert - which implies threatening their use - had the annexation of Crimea met with serious resistance. The three NATO nuclear-weapons states - the United States, United Kingdom and France - must again contemplate how best to ensure that their very different nuclear forces strengthen NATO's nuclear deterrence against Russian aggression. There is a tendency among Western defence analysts to assume that, in the event of a major crisis, the three NATO nuclear-weapons states would be able to effectively coordinate their deterrence policies and communications. The stakes are so high, so the thinking goes, that the three parties would find a way to successfully manage the crisis together. Yet, recent experience in terms of trilateral crisis management and strategic communications is not encouraging. In 2013, the United States, the United Kingdom and France attempted to deter Syria from using chemical weapons. This ended up being one of the biggest deterrence fiascos in recent memory - a textbook example of how not to prevent adversaries from embarking on large-scale aggression. The president of the United States announced a 'red line' regarding Syrian use of chemical weapons. Although the red line was apparently drawn extemporaneously, at a press conference on 20 August 2012, London and Paris presumed that Washington was committed to the red line and followed suit with their own statements. Over the course of several months, Syria appears to have

  14. Nuclear methods in national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume of the proceedings of the First National Conference on Nuclear Methods held at Kongo Conference Hotel Zaria from 2-4 September 1993, contains the full text of about 30 technical papers and speeches of invited dignitaries presented at the conference. The technical papers are original or review articles containing results and experiences in nuclear and related analytical techniques. Topics treated include neutron generator operation and control, nuclear data, application of nuclear techniques in environment, geochemistry, medicine, biology, agriculture, material science and industries. General topics in nuclear laboratory organization and research experiences were also covered. The papers were fully discussed during the conference and authors were requested to make changes in the manuscripts where necessary. However, they were further edited. The organizing committee wishes to thank all authors for their presentation and cooperation in submitting their manuscripts promptly and the participants for their excellent contribution during the conference

  15. Nuclear emergency preparedness: national organisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Messaoudi, M.; Essadki, H.; Lferde, M.; Moutia, Z. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Rabat (Morocco)

    2006-07-01

    As in all other industries, the nuclear facilities can be the object of accidents whose consequences go beyond the limits of their site and consequently radioactive releases would be issued in the environment justifying the protection measures of population. Even if all the precautions were taken during the stages from the design to the operation, to reduce the risk of accident in nuclear installations, this risk can not be completely suppressed. For the radiological risk, as for the other major risks, the protection of the public always was taken in consideration by public power. The nuclear emergency plan gives the opportunity to have a quick appropriate reaction to a sudden event, which has (or might have) direct consequences for the population. The Moroccan public authorities had proceeded to reinforce at the national level, the control of nuclear safety and protection against radiation by the set up of a new nuclear safety authority. Evidently, the organization and the management of a nuclear and/or radiological emergency were at centre of this reform. Taking into account the subjective risk of radiological terrorism, the authorities should reinforce measurements guaranteeing radiological safety and security, and elaborate the appropriate emergency plans. The aim of this paper is to give a progress report on nuclear emergency plan aspects and to present a corresponding organization which could be applied by national authority. (authors)

  16. Nuclear emergency preparedness: national organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Messaoudi, M.; Essadki, H.; Lferde, M.; Moutia, Z.

    2006-01-01

    As in all other industries, the nuclear facilities can be the object of accidents whose consequences go beyond the limits of their site and consequently radioactive releases would be issued in the environment justifying the protection measures of population. Even if all the precautions were taken during the stages from the design to the operation, to reduce the risk of accident in nuclear installations, this risk can not be completely suppressed. For the radiological risk, as for the other major risks, the protection of the public always was taken in consideration by public power. The nuclear emergency plan gives the opportunity to have a quick appropriate reaction to a sudden event, which has (or might have) direct consequences for the population. The Moroccan public authorities had proceeded to reinforce at the national level, the control of nuclear safety and protection against radiation by the set up of a new nuclear safety authority. Evidently, the organization and the management of a nuclear and/or radiological emergency were at centre of this reform. Taking into account the subjective risk of radiological terrorism, the authorities should reinforce measurements guaranteeing radiological safety and security, and elaborate the appropriate emergency plans. The aim of this paper is to give a progress report on nuclear emergency plan aspects and to present a corresponding organization which could be applied by national authority. (authors)

  17. UK chemical nuclear data committee progress report: data studies during 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basic nuclear data requirements for industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC), covering half-lives, decay data, fission yields and the content of computerised data files. While the UKCNDC Request List was reviewed at the end of 1989 to reveal new and continued requirements, funding problems have increased during the year. Difficulties in the UK nuclear power industry are reflected in the decline in experimental studies, although evaluation efforts have been maintained. (author)

  18. Separating civil and military nuclear programmes in the UK and France; a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, David

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable concern shown by the general public and the trade unions over the connection between the civil and military nuclear programmes. This paper is the result of research to determine the feasibility of separating the two in the UK and France. The result of the study is that it is technically and economically feasible to adopt a policy of separation. The costs are not overwhelming, rather the difficulty lies in assessing the intangible benefits of such a programme, and in overcoming any political impediments to its adoption. The major political fear is that adopting a separation programme would put that nation at a disadvantage with respect to other nuclear weapon states. (author)

  19. The UK's National Programme for IT: Why was it dismantled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinia, Taghreed

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses the UK's National Programme for IT (NPfIT), which was an ambitious programme launched in 2002 with an initial budget of some £6.2 billion. It attempted to implement a top-down digitization of healthcare in England's National Health Service (NHS). The core aim of the NPfIT was to bring the NHS' use of information technology into the 21st century, through the introduction of an integrated electronic patient record systems, and reforming the way that the NHS uses information, and hence to improve services and the quality of patient care. The initiative was not trusted by doctors and appeared to have no impact on patient safety. The project was marred by resistance due to the inappropriateness of a centralized authority making top-down decisions on behalf of local organizations. The NPfIT was officially dismantled in September 2011. Deemed the world's largest civil IT programme, its failure and ultimate demise sparked a lot of interest as to the reasons why. This paper summarises the underlying causes that lead to dismantling the NPfIT. At the forefront of those circumstances were the lack of adequate end user engagement, the absence of a phased change management approach, and underestimating the scale of the project.

  20. UK-Nuclear decommissioning authority and US Salt-stone waste management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, William; Whitton, John

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: We update two case studies of stakeholder issues in the UK and US. Earlier versions were reported at Waste Management 2006 and 2007 and at ICEM 2005. UK: The UK nuclear industry has begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. Historically, methods of engagement within the industry have varied, however, recent discussions have generally been carried out with the explicit understanding that engagement with stakeholders will be 'dialogue based' and will 'inform' the final decision made by the decision maker. Engagement is currently being carried out at several levels within the industry; at the national level (via the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority's (NDA) National Stakeholder Group (NSG)); at a local site level (via Site Stakeholder Groups) and at a project level (usually via the Best Practicable Environmental Option process (BPEO)). This paper updates earlier results by the co-author with findings from a second questionnaire issued to the NSG in Phase 2 of the engagement process. An assessment is made regarding the development of stakeholder perceptions since Phase 1 towards the NDA process. US: The US case study reviews the resolution of issues on salt-stone by Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) Citizens Advisory Board (CAB), in Aiken, SC. Recently, SRS-CAB encouraged DOE and South Carolina's regulatory Department of Health and Environmental Control (SC-DHEC) to resolve a conflict preventing SC-DHEC from releasing a draft permit to allow SRS to restart salt-stone operations. It arose with a letter sent from DOE blaming the Governor of South Carolina for delay in restarting salt processing. In reply, the Governor blamed DOE for failing to assure that Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) would be built. SWPF is designed to remove most of the radioactivity from HLW prior to vitrification, the remaining fraction destined for salt-stone. (authors)

  1. Nuclear information services at the National Nuclear Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Tuli, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The numeric and bibliographic nuclear data bases maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center and access to these data bases will be described. The U.S. Nuclear Data and Reaction Data Networks will also be briefly described

  2. Professor Jeffery on the real cost of nuclear electricity in the UK: a note; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, A.; Barclay, R.S.; Jeffery, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Two letters published in reply to an earlier article on the real cost of nuclear electricity in the U.K. criticize the use of the Retail Price Index as a price deflator and the attempts to convert capital charges from historical to a current cost basis. Corrections are made to the corresponding results. The author of the original article replies. (U.K.)

  3. Radiation safety in the nuclear medicine department: impact of the UK Ionising Radiations Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    The new 1985 regulations and guidance on radiation protection in the U.K. are discussed in relation to the needs for controlled areas in the nuclear medicine department and patient wards, admittance to hospital to comply with legislation, classification of workers, patient waiting rooms, handling flood sources, pregnancy and breast feeding. (U.K.)

  4. Future of the UK nuclear industry...and a review of the principal alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A report on the 'Future of the UK Nuclear Industry and a Review of the Principal Alternatives' was published by the Institution in December 1992. It was circulated widely including the major participants in the UK power industry and its fuel suppliers, the professional institutions, engineering consultancies in the field, academics, local and national government, opposition politicians, government departments, agencies and individuals known to be involved. Criticisms and comments on the report have been received from a considerable number of such sources. These have been collected together and edited as a supplement to the original report which considered not only nuclear power but also power generation by burning coal, oil and gas, the prospects for hydroelectric power, wind power, tidal power waste, incineration and other renewables. The comments and contributions are listed in simple numerical order of paragraphs, against the chapter concerned, for easy identification and reference. Energy Board comments are indicated clearly throughout. They are interposed mainly to offer a linkage throughout, with further technical comment restricted severely. (Author)

  5. UK public attitudes to the nuclear industry: the effect of the Sellafield visitor centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.; Rogers, J.

    1993-01-01

    Public support for the nuclear industry appears to be growing in the UK at a time when environmental awareness is also prominent. Perceived advantages from nuclear power range from conservation of scare fossil reserves through to maintaining a worldwide technical competitiveness. Within the UK, the Sellafield Visitors Centre has proved to be a large tourist attraction, as well as successfully presenting information in a form that is easy to understand. (author)

  6. UK's promising future with change of nuclear fortune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    In January 2014, Toshiba became the latest overseas company to set its sights on building new nuclear reactor units in the UK - announcing that it had secured agreements to see it take a majority 60 percent stake in NuGeneration Limited (NuGen). That makes a total of 11 new units planned or proposed in the UK to date. Whatever the future holds for nuclear in the UK, there is a long road ahead. Main aspects and developments during the past eight years are summarised and explained by the author. (orig.)

  7. China's nuclear safety regulatory body: The national nuclear safety administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shiguan

    1991-04-01

    The establishment of an independent nuclear safety regulatory body is necessary for ensuring the safety of nuclear installations and nuclear fuel. Therefore the National Nuclear Safety Administration was established by the state. The aim, purpose, organization structure and main tasks of the Administration are presented. At the same time the practical examples, such as nuclear safety regulation on the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, safety review and inspections for the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant during the construction, and nuclear material accounting and management system in the nuclear fuel fabrication plant in China, are given in order to demonstrate the important roles having been played on nuclear safety by the Administration after its founding

  8. Perspectives of nuclear power in the UK - the view of a utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golby, P.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear energy is back on the agenda in UK due to the discussion about climate change and security of supply. First, the UK has to face up to the challenges of reducing its greenhouse gas emissions. The UK Government has adopted a clear leadership position on climate change internationally. Second, UK is facing some fundamental questions about the future security of the energy supplies. The decline of UKs' gas reserves in the North Sea is bringing to an end the years in which the UK could afford to be relatively relaxed energy and energy policy almost took care of itself. We are expecting the next major milestone with the UK Government due to publish an 'Energy Withe Paper'. Alongside that document they are also due to launch a new consultation on nuclear power and whether it should have a role in the UK market. For investment in nuclear to be a credible economic option for investors a number of issues will need to be addressed by the UK Government. These issues include the public and political acceptance, the management of the waste by the Government, and an efficient regulatory and licensing framework for new plants. Two words should be addressed to the UK Government at the moment - urgency and partnership. Urgency - because we desperately need to see progress on energy policy over the next 12 months. It is 5 minutes to midnight and the clock is ticking. Partnership - because investors are ready to make the necessary investments but we need in the UK the long-term policy framework that will underpin and support the scale of the investment we need to see. (orig.)

  9. The radiation exposure of the UK population from liquid effluents discharged from civil nuclear installations in the UK in 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camplin, W.C.; Clark, M.J.; Delow, C.E.

    1982-04-01

    The collective effective dose equivalent commitment to the UK population from routine liquid discharges by civil nuclear establishments during 1978 has been estimated at 134 man Sv. The major pathway considered in the assessment was the consumption of seafoods, because most discharges were made directly to sea. Over 90% of this collective dose commitment will be delivered within a few years of the discharges, and caesium-137 from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facility at Windscale (now known as Sellafield) will have made the main contribution to this commitment. These discharges were primarily due to corrosion of nuclear fuel during storage at the reprocessing plant, and there is no simple relationship between the level of collective dose commitment and the amount of energy generated by nuclear means during 1978. (author)

  10. Organisation of radiation protection at Sizewell Nuclear Power Plant in the UK. Report n. 290

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouail, P.; Jeannin, B.; Lefaure, C.; Panisset, L.

    2004-01-01

    This report first describes the organisation and management of radiation protection at Sizewell Nuclear Power Plant (UK): general organisation, organisation of the radiation protection department, goals of radiation protection at plant and corporate levels, measurement of radiation protection performance, presence of health physicists in the plant, national and international comparisons. Then, it addresses the training of workers and radiation protection specialists with respect to radiation protection, the management of zoning and surveillance (action to address the radiation risk and the contamination risk). It describes the relationships of Health physicists with contractors and other workers teams, and the relationships with safety authorities. It indicates the different outages of this organisation: general planning, information sheets, physicists work planning, reviews and meetings. It describes the management of personal dosimetry with radiation work permits and actions aimed at the reduction of doses during various operations. The last part proposes a feedback experience report and evokes the generated database, and addresses events reporting

  11. Constructing a National Higher Education Brand for the UK: Positional Competition and Promised Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie; Papatsiba, Vassiliki; Naidoo, Rajani

    2018-01-01

    This article examines national branding of UK higher education, a strategic intent and action to collectively brand UK higher education with the aim to attract prospective international students, using a Bourdieusian approach to understanding promises of capitals. We trace its development between 1999 and 2014 through a sociological study, one of…

  12. National Nuclear Research Institute Annual Report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The report highlights the activities of the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission for the year 2013, grouped under the following headings: Centres under the institute namely Nuclear Reactors Research Centre (NRRC); Accelerator Research Centre (ARC); Engineering Services Centre (ESC); National Radioactive Waste Management Centre (NRWMC); Nuclear Chemistry and Environmental Research Centre (NCERC); Nuclear Applications Centre (NAC) and National Data Centre (NDC). (A. B.)

  13. Nuclear information services at the National Nuclear Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Tuli, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory has maintained and disseminated data from several numeric and bibliographic data bases for many years. These data bases now cover most of low- and medium-energy nuclear physics and are produced by the NNDC and other groups belonging to various international and national networks. The numeric and bibliographic nuclear data bases maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center and access to these data bases is described. The U.S. Nuclear Data and Reaction Data Networks is also briefly described. (author)

  14. National Nuclear Corporation Limited report and financial statements 31 March 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The paper contains the directors' annual report and the audited financial statements of the National Nuclear Corporation Limited, 1985/6. The company is engaged in designing and constructing power stations and nuclear power reactors, and other related work, and in associated research and development. (U.K.)

  15. National Nuclear Corporation Limited report and financial statements 31 March 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The paper contains the directors' annual report and the audited financial statements of the National Nuclear Corporation Limited, 1985/6. The company is engaged in designing and constructing power stations and nuclear power reactors, and other related work, and in associated research and development. (U.K.).

  16. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I.; Summerell, I.; Totland, M.; Jonkmans, G.; Whitlock, J.; El-jaby, A.; Inrig, E.

    2015-01-01

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  17. Canadian national nuclear forensics capability project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Dimayuga, I., E-mail: joanne.ball@cnl.ca [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Summerell, I. [Royal Canadian Mounted Police, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Totland, M. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Whitlock, J. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); El-jaby, A. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Inrig, E. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Following the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit, Canada expanded its existing capability for nuclear forensics by establishing a national nuclear forensics laboratory network, which would include a capability to perform forensic analysis on nuclear and other radioactive material, as well as on traditional evidence contaminated with radioactive material. At the same time, the need for a national nuclear forensics library of signatures of nuclear and radioactive materials under Canadian regulatory control was recognized. The Canadian Safety and Security Program, administered by Defence Research and Development Canada's Centre for Security Science (DRDC CSS), funds science and technology initiatives to enhance Canada's preparedness for prevention of and response to potential threats. DRDC CSS, with assistance from Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, formerly Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is leading the Canadian National Nuclear Forensics Capability Project to develop a coordinated, comprehensive, and timely national nuclear forensics capability. (author)

  18. The case for the UK nuclear power industry and the implications of its closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke, D.H.; Caley, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    The Chernobyl accident has produced calls for a moratorium on further nuclear power development and construction in the UK or, in the extreme, a phasing out of existing nuclear power stations. Some suggestions as to how to counteract these demands have been collected using published information wherever possible. (author)

  19. Research activities of the nuclear graphite research group at the University of Manchester, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, B.J.; Fok, A.S.L.; Marrow, J.; Mummery, P.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) decided to underwrite the Nuclear Graphite Research Group (NGRG) at the University of Manchester, UK with the aim of providing a source of independent research and advice to the HSE (NSD). Since then the group has rapidly expanded to 16 members and attracted considerable funding from the nuclear power industry and the regulator for a wide range of research and consultancy work. It is now also part of the Material Performance Centre within the BNFL Universities Research Alliance. Extensive collaboration exists between the group and other nuclear research institutes, both in the UK and overseas. This paper briefly describes some of the research programmes being carried out by the NGRG at Manchester. (author)

  20. A National Nuclear Fund was created

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svolik, S.

    2006-01-01

    National Nuclear Fund for Decommissioning of the Nuclear Equipment and for Treatment of the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radio Active Wastes - this is the full name of the newly established fund, because the State Fund of Liquidation of the Nuclear and Energetic Equipment has been cancelled by course of law. (author)

  1. The UK national response plan: An 'all-risk' approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englefield, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The UK has been using and regulating radioactive materials for many years. The law, and the regulatory systems to implement it have developed over time, to meet the perceived need. More recently, the threat of inadvertent movements of, and illicit trafficking in radioactive materials has become apparent. This relatively new challenge cannot be met by a single U.K. law enforcement body. There will be Police and security services interest in any cases that arise of deliberate trafficking in fissile materials, and there will be statutory concerns for Customs and Excise. At the operational level, they do not have radioanalytical services and radiation protection support immediately available, as the frequency of occurrence of such incidents is extremely low. However, the typical case is an inadvertent movement. These usually involve orphaned sources, where none of the above law enforcement bodies have a statutory locus. In such cases, it is the UK environment agencies that take the lead (as regulators of radioactive substances), together with Health and Safety Executive as regulators of radiation safety. However they do not have all the statutory powers needed to intervene. This is in contrast to the position in some other countries. The UK paper at the International Conference of Regulators in Buenos Aires in December 2000 described the UK's co-ordination work to create synergies between law enforcement bodies and potentially affected industry groups. This was described as an 'All Risk Approach'. This is seen as the best way to manage an effective response to the challenge, given that the legislation cannot at present provide all the necessary powers. This new paper will describe the UK Response Plan and how it is designed to cover all risk: radiological and socio-economic. It will also describe how the Plan is being tested and validated as a project. The plan draws on UK Emergency Planning policy, as well as IAEA guidance on the Prevention, Detection and

  2. Fuel cycle options and sustainability for new nuclear build in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesketh, Kevin; Thomas, Michael; Worrall, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    After a long period of stagnation in the UK, Europe and the USA, there is now a real expectation that new nuclear plants will be under construction shortly. Several factors have contributed to this change of position in the UK: the growing realisation that effective action is needed to offset greenhouse gas emissions; higher prices for fossil fuels; increasing reliance on overseas supplies of oil and gas; the limitations of wind and wave power and distribution; security of supply; the gradual realisation in the deregulated electricity generation market that nuclear power is competitive and the pending closure of most of the UK's nuclear fleet within less than 15 years. All these factors have led to a reversal of the UK Government's attitude to nuclear power, which has now ruled in favour of allowing a new generation of nuclear plants being built. This paper summarises some of the arguments that have led to this decision and the ramifications of it. In particular, the potential of the New Build reactor to re-use the UK's stocks of separated plutonium and reprocessed uranium (Rep U) is considered in detail. (authors)

  3. ELIXIR-UK role in bioinformatics training at the national level and across ELIXIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, L; Hendricusdottir, R; Attwood, T K; Bacall, F; Beard, N; Bellis, L J; Dunn, W B; Hancock, J M; Nenadic, A; Orengo, C; Overduin, B; Sansone, S-A; Thurston, M; Viant, M R; Winder, C L; Goble, C A; Ponting, C P; Rustici, G

    2017-01-01

    ELIXIR-UK is the UK node of ELIXIR, the European infrastructure for life science data. Since its foundation in 2014, ELIXIR-UK has played a leading role in training both within the UK and in the ELIXIR Training Platform, which coordinates and delivers training across all ELIXIR members. ELIXIR-UK contributes to the Training Platform's coordination and supports the development of training to address key skill gaps amongst UK scientists. As part of this work it acts as a conduit for nationally-important bioinformatics training resources to promote their activities to the ELIXIR community. ELIXIR-UK also leads ELIXIR's flagship Training Portal, TeSS, which collects information about a diverse range of training and makes it easily accessible to the community. ELIXIR-UK also works with others to provide key digital skills training, partnering with the Software Sustainability Institute to provide Software Carpentry training to the ELIXIR community and to establish the Data Carpentry initiative, and taking a lead role amongst national stakeholders to deliver the StaTS project - a coordinated effort to drive engagement with training in statistics.

  4. Mortality and cancer incidence 1952-1998 in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapons tests and experimental programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Bingham, D.; Haylock, R.G.E.; O'Hagan, J.A.; Goodill, A.A.; Berridge, G.L.C.; English, M.A.; Hunter, N.; Kendall, G.M.

    2003-01-01

    An updated analysis has been conducted of mortality and cancer incidence among men from the United Kingdom who took part in the UK atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and experimental programmes in Australia and the Pacific between 1952 and 1967. Rates of multiple myeloma, leukaemia, other cancers, and non-cancer causes of death were studied, as in previous analyses of these men. Based on a total of 21,357 test participants and 22,333 controls identified from the same Ministry of Defence (MOD) archives, information was obtained on deaths and cancer registrations up to the end of 1998. Compared with national mortality rates, rates of deaths from all causes increased to a similar extent in both test participants and controls with longer follow-up, with Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) of 89 and 88 respectively over the full follow-up period and a relative risk of 1.01 (90% confidence interval (Cl) 0.98-1.05). For all cancers, the corresponding SMRs were 93 for test participants and 92 for controls, with a relative risk of 1.01 (90% Cl 0.96-1.08) for all cancers. Mortality from multiple myeloma was consistent with national rates both for test participants and controls, and the relative risk of myeloma incidence among test participants relative to controls was 1.14 (90% Cl 0.74-1.74) over the full follow up period and 0.79 (90% Cl 0.45-1.38) during the extended period of follow up (1991-98). Over the full follow-up period, leukaemia mortality among test participants was consistent with national rates, whilst rates among controls were significantly lower (SMR 68), and there was a suggestion of a raised risk among test participants relative to controls (relative risk 1.45 (0.96-2.17), one-sided p=0.07, two-sided p=0.14); the corresponding relative risk for leukaemia incidence was 1.33 (0.97-1.84), one-sided p==0.07, two-sided p=0.14. After excluding chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), which is not thought to be radiation-inducible, the relative risk of leukaemia

  5. Nuclear industry calls on UK to avoid disruption of 'disorderly' withdrawal from Euratom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, David [NucNet, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-07-15

    The UK will need to set priorities for Brexit talks if it is to avoid disruption in the nuclear sector and the possibility of a disorderly withdrawal from the Euratom Treaty affecting ambitious plans to build new nuclear reactors, Tom Greatrex, chief executive of the London-based Nuclear Industry Association (NIA), said. Mr Greatrex, a former Labour MP and shadow energy minister, warned that a lack of prioritisation in Brexit talks could lead to problems related to moving nuclear-purpose components and difficulties collaborating with counties in nuclear R and D projects with significant economic, industrial and scientific impact.

  6. The allocation of liability for nuclear risks - the UK standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, J.W.L.

    1983-01-01

    While nuclear legislation in most countries channels liability for nuclear damage solely to the operator of a nuclear installation, contractors supplying equipment and services in the United Kingdom and abroad may be liable for nuclear risks in certain circumstances. This paper discusses the risks for which a contractor may be held liable and the uncertainties in their respect. It also suggests some steps that can be taken to ensure that such risks are borne by those who can most readily bear them. (NEA) [fr

  7. Nuclear Arms and National Security. 1983 National Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Appropriate for secondary school social studies, this booklet outlines approaches for dealing with the threat of nuclear warfare in six sections. The first section, "Learning to Live with Nuclear Weapons," introduces the topic and considers what can be done to decrease the risk of nuclear warfare without jeopardizing the nation's security. "Arms…

  8. 1976 compilation of national nuclear data committees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This list of currently existing National Nuclear Data Committees, and their memberships, is published with the object of promoting the interaction and enhance the awareness of nuclear data activities in IAEA Member States. The following Member States have indicated the existence of a nuclear data committee in their countries: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bulgaria, France, Hungary, India, Japan, Romania, Sweden, USSR, United Kingdom, USA, Yugoslavia

  9. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  10. Managing the nation's nuclear waste. Overview: Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-10-01

    Signed into law by the President on January 7, 1983, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act established a national policy for safely storing, transporting, and disposing of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This overview presents the following information on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act: (1) background; (2) permanent repository; (3) siting guidelines and mission plan; (4) monitored retrievable storage; and (5) nuclear waste funds. (DT)

  11. National Student Feedback Surveys in Distance Education: An Investigation at the UK Open University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Alison; Richardson, John T. E.; Woodley, Alan

    2011-01-01

    National student feedback surveys are administered in a number of countries, and several of these encompass both campus-based and distance learning students. The UK Open University achieves a high ranking in the annual National Student Survey (NSS), but there are some anomalies in the results. The NSS questionnaire was administered to three…

  12. Session 31B - Panel: Opportunities in the UK with the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benda, Gary; Hayes, David; Gorham, Ron; Wareing, Mark; Simper, Adrian; Selby, Terry

    2006-01-01

    The NDA participated in a panel session 31B on Wednesday afternoon starting at 3:15. The NDA is a non-departmental public body, set up in April 2005 under the Energy Act 2004 to take strategic responsibility for the UK's nuclear legacy. Details of their organization and history are located on their web site at www.nda.gov.uk. Also copies of their Power Point presentations made at WM'06 are available on their web site. Their core objective is to ensure that the 20 civil public sector nuclear sites under our ownership are decommissioned and cleaned up safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment for this and future generations. They lead the development of a unified and coherent decommissioning strategy, working in partnership with regulators and site licensees to achieve best value, optimum impact on local communities, and the highest environmental standards. The NDA's main task is the decommissioning and clean up of civil nuclear sites. If the Government decides it is necessary, however, the Energy Act 2004 allows the NDA to take responsibility for sites currently operated by, or on behalf of, the Ministry of Defence (MoD). Resources will then be transferred from the MoD to meet the costs of clean up. The NDA made a number of presentations to allow conference delegates the opportunity to understand some of the major aspects of their work and to interact with NDA staff. These included the following topics and gave opportunity for audience discussion: - A brief presentation to update on progress by the NDA; - Outline of low level waste management and the prioritisation process; - Discussion of the competition schedule related to low level waste management and the Drigg site. The following presentations and handout were delivered in various sessions of the conference as noted below and are available on their web page including the WM'06 Plenary Session presentation by Sir Anthony Cleaver, Chairman of the NDA. During Session 31B, the

  13. UK safety and standards for radioactive waste management and decommissioning on nuclear licensed sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the regulation of radioactive waste and decommissioning in the United Kingdom and identifies the factors considered by HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate in examining the adequacy arrangements for their management on nuclear licensed sites. The principal requirements are for decommissioning to be undertaken as soon as reasonably practicable and that radioactive wastes should be minimised, disposed of or contained and controlled by storage in a passively safe form. However, these requirements have to be considered in the context of major organisational changes in the UK nuclear industry and the non-availability of disposal routes for some decommissioning wastes. The legislative framework used to regulate decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the UK is described. Reference is made to radioactive waste and decommissioning strategies, quinquennial reviews criteria for delicensing and the forthcoming Environmental Impact Assessment Regulations. (author)

  14. The application of contrast explanation to energy policy research: UK nuclear energy policy 2002–2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper advances the application of the methodology, contrast explanation, to energy policy research. Research in energy policy is complex and often involves inter-disciplinary work, which traditional economic methodologies fail to capture. Consequently, the more encompassing methodology of contrast explanation is assessed and its use in other social science disciplines explored in brief. It is then applied to an energy policy research topic—in this case, nuclear energy policy research in the UK. Contrast explanation facilitates research into policy and decision-making processes in energy studies and offers an alternative to the traditional economic methods used in energy research. Further, contrast explanation is extended by the addition of contested and uncontested hypotheses analyses. This research focuses on the methods employed to deliver the new nuclear programme of the UK government. In order to achieve a sustainable nuclear energy policy three issues are of major importance: (1) law, policy and development; (2) public administration; and (3) project management. Further, the research identifies that policy in the area remains to be resolved, in particular at an institutional and legal level. However, contrary to the literature, in some areas, the research identifies a change of course as the UK concentrates on delivering a long-term policy for the nuclear energy sector and the overall energy sector. - Highlights: ► Energy policy research is interdisciplinary and needs additional methodological approaches. ► New method of contrast explanation advanced for energy policy research. ► This methodology is based on dialectical learning which examines conflict between sources of data. ► Research example used here is of UK nuclear energy policy. ► Major issues in UK nuclear energy policy are planning law, public administration, and project management

  15. UK national guidelines on the management of syphilis 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, M; French, P; Higgins, S; McQuillan, O; Sukthankar, A; Stott, C; McBrien, B; Tipple, C; Turner, A; Sullivan, A K; Radcliffe, Keith; Cousins, Darren; FitzGerald, Mark; Fisher, Martin; Grover, Deepa; Higgins, Stephen; Kingston, Margaret; Rayment, Michael; Sullivan, Ann

    2016-05-01

    These guidelines are an update for 2015 of the 2008 UK guidelines for the management of syphilis. The writing group have piloted the new BASHH guideline methodology, notably using the GRADE system for assessing evidence and making recommendations. We have made significant changes to the recommendations for screening infants born to mothers with positive syphilis serology and to facilitate accurate and timely communication between the teams caring for mother and baby we have developed a birth plan. Procaine penicillin is now an alternative, not preferred treatment, for all stages of syphilis except neurosyphilis, but the length of treatment for this is shortened. Other changes are summarised at the start of the guideline. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. The UK health and safety executive's policies on information relating to nuclear safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.

    1994-01-01

    How a message is transmitted can be as important as what is said. To be effective a message has to be timely, targeted and clear. People do not always remember what was said, by how and when it was said. This paper discusses some of the tools which the Nuclear Safety Division (NSD), the UK's nuclear regulator, has used and emphasizes the need to recognize the importance of a recipient interest in attempting to transmit a message. (author). 4 refs

  17. What future for Euratom as the UK prepares for its 'nuclear independence'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2017-01-01

    UK government ministers have been keeping European leaders guessing over what their negotiating position will be when formal talks start about the 'divorce' from the European Union. However, for the nuclear energy community, there was one very certain statement in recent weeks about what Brexit will also mean: withdrawal from the Euratom Treaty.

  18. What future for Euratom as the UK prepares for its 'nuclear independence'?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-15

    UK government ministers have been keeping European leaders guessing over what their negotiating position will be when formal talks start about the 'divorce' from the European Union. However, for the nuclear energy community, there was one very certain statement in recent weeks about what Brexit will also mean: withdrawal from the Euratom Treaty.

  19. Safety assurance for nuclear chemical plants - regulatory practice in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.; Charlesworth, F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the legislation and licensing requirements for nuclear installations as well as the related safety assurance procedures in the UK. Developments in safety assurance practice are identified and discussed in relation to the role of the regulator and of the operator. (NEA) [fr

  20. National nuclear safety report 2005. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the 3rd. Review meeting. In general the information contained in the report are: Highlights / Themes; Follow-up from 2nd. Review meeting; Challenges, achievements and good practices; Planned measures to improve safety; Updates to National report to 3rd. Review meeting; Questions from peer review of National Report; and Conclusions

  1. Engineering - a key aspect of the UK nuclear policy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, J.L.; Butcher, Sally

    1993-01-01

    In anticipation of the forthcoming nuclear review, a forum on issues relevant to the industry was held at the Institution of Electrical Engineers HQ in London, in association with the Institute of Energy and the Watt Committee on Energy. The forum was divided into five sections, dealing with energy policy, the environment, industry, economics and safety. (author)

  2. Nuclear medicine in developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nofal, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Agency activities in nuclear medicine are directed towards effectively applying techniques to the diagnosis and management of patients attending nuclear medicine units in about 60 developing countries. A corollary purpose is to use these techniques in investigations related to control of parasitic diseases distinctive to some of these countries. Through such efforts, the aim is to improve health standards through better diagnosis, and to achieve a better understanding of disease processes as well as their prevention and management. Among general trends observed for the region: Clinical nuclear medicine; Radiopharmaceuticals; Monoclonal antibodies; Radioimmunoassay (RIA); Nuclear imaging

  3. The UK National Prolapse Survey: 10 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Swati; Cutner, Alfred; Moran, Paul

    2018-06-01

    To assess trends in the surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) amongst UK practitioners and changes in practice since a previous similar survey. An online questionnaire survey (Typeform Pro) was emailed to British Society of Urogynaecology (BSUG) members. They included urogynaecologists working in tertiary centres, gynaecologists with a designated special interest in urogynaecology and general gynaecologists. The questionnaire included case scenarios encompassing contentious issues in the surgical management of POP and was a revised version of the questionnaire used in the previous surveys. The revised questionnaire included additional questions relating to the use of vaginal mesh and laparoscopic urogynaecology procedures. Of 516 BSUG members emailed, 212 provided completed responses.. For anterior vaginal wall prolapse the procedure of choice was anterior colporrhaphy (92% of respondents). For uterovaginal prolapse the procedure of choice was still vaginal hysterectomy and repair (75%). For posterior vaginal wall prolapse the procedure of choice was posterior colporrhaphy with midline fascial plication (97%). For vault prolapse the procedure of choice was sacrocolpopexy (54%) followed by vaginal wall repair and sacrospinous fixation (41%). The laparoscopic route was preferred for sacrocolpopexy (62% versus 38% for the open procedure). For primary prolapse, vaginal mesh was used by only 1% of respondents in the anterior compartment and by 3% in the posterior compartment. Basic trends in the use of native tissue prolapse surgery remain unchanged. There has been a significant decrease in the use of vaginal mesh for both primary and recurrent prolapse, with increasing use of laparoscopic procedures for prolapse.

  4. National directory of nuclear services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-09-01

    This directory contains information on nuclear services which can be provided in South Africa. These services have to do with the application of nuclear materials and techniques in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, etc. A list of locally manufactured radioisotopes is given

  5. Institutional adaptation in the UK nuclear technology industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.

    1986-01-01

    Public inquiries into controversial development proposals have themselves become increasing controversial in recent years. Despite their increasing length and cost, such proceedings remain part of the administrative process - the Inspector's report serving to 'inform the minister's mind'. This paper examines certain features of the Sizewell B Inquiry and draws attention to the ability of the applicants to respond to criticisms raised at the hearings through various forms of institutional adaptation. Changes to the Central Electricity Generating Board's case on the organization of project management, to the management of the nuclear site licensing process, and to provisions for future nuclear reactor choice are highlighted. Significantly, each of these areas had been the subject of particular investigations undertaken at the behest of the inquiry Inspector. The paper concludes by raising a number of questions concerning the implications of this singularly interactive process. (author)

  6. Training at the masters degree level in physics and technology of nuclear reactors in the uk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the current situation of university-based training for the nuclear power industry in the UK, drawing on information gathered as part of the survey for a review currently being undertaken by the Committee for Technical and Economic Studies on Nuclear Energy Development and Fuel Cycle (NDC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the OECD. A particular focus will be the Physics and Technology of Nuclear Reactors MSc course at the University of Birmingham. In the past there were other similar MSc courses in the UK, but through the evolution of time the Birmingham course is now unique in its role of providing masters level training so specifically aimed at the commercial nuclear programme. Mention will, however, be made of other training at the postgraduate level elsewhere in the UK. A description is given of the need to consider a new form of relationship between industry and university in order to provide optimise the provision of masters level training. (author)

  7. The economics of nuclear power and competing technologies in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, B.L.; Jones, P.M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of civil nuclear policy in the UK with reference to the factors that have influenced the past programme. The privatisation of the UK's electricity supply industry has radically altered the way in which decisions on new capacity are made, resulting in a dash for gas and problems for both coal-fired and nuclear generators. Analyses undertaken for the 1993 Government Review show new nuclear plants to be economically competitive, but market choices based on financial criteria may not reflect this. Wider factors will be considered in the review but whether and how the Government will allow for them in its market based philosophy remains unclear. (authors). 7 figs., 5 tabs., 13 refs

  8. Wythenshawe boiler rig. Thirty years of support to the UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, Andy; Woolsey, Ian S.; Moore, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Wythenshawe Boiler Rig in Manchester, UK, recently celebrated thirty years of operation in support of the UK nuclear power industry. The Boiler Rig, owned by EDF Energy and operated on EDF Energy's behalf by Serco plc, is a full scale once-through boiler test facility for the investigation of chemistry and corrosion related topics. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the Boiler Rig together with some of the technical highlights from its thirty years of operation, many of which have relevance to power plant operations beyond those plants for which the work was performed. (orig.)

  9. Regulatory experience with ALARP investigation reports at some UK nuclear sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.F.; Turton, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the UK regulatory requirements placed on employers regarding the investigation of whether doses incurred are as low as reasonably practicable. It discusses the operational experience gained by an inspection Branch of the HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the Health and Safety Executive which is the UK regulatory body responsible for the enforcement of these requirements. The general approach taken by employers to preparing investigation reports is discussed, and the form and content of the reports is considered. An aspect of the employers approach to dose restriction is discussed, and the NII's response to investigation reports is described. (Author)

  10. Political culture, national identity and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, F.

    2013-01-01

    The paper 'Political culture, national identity and nuclear energy. The austrian controversy on nuclear energy between 1978 and 1986 within the national assembly' identifies the roots of the broad rejection of nuclear technologies in contemporary Austria within the controversy on neclear energy in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The close result of the referendum in November 1978 on the commissioning of the nuclear power plant in Zwentendorf - understood as a moment of severe polarisation - serves as a starting point for the investigation. In recent studies the explosion of the reactor in Chernobyl in April 1986 is considered the turning point of the austrian controversy and therefore marks the end of the examined period. Reviewing the history of nuclear energy in Austria the paper sheds light on events and aspects which turn out to be important for the rejection of nuclear technologies in contemporary Austria. On the one hand the analysis of the nuclear debate within the national assembly focuses on ways in which nuclear technologies were made sense of and ascribed with meaning and describes them as a sociotechnical imaginary. Next to highlighting the construction of national identity within these processes the analysis on the other hand explores the role of consensus and mutual action within the political culture of the Second Republic and its implications for the nuclear controversy. The integration of different perspectives enables to pinpoint several key aspects of the austrian nuclear controversy for the development of a broad rejection of nuclear technologies in the post-chernobyl era: the obligation to reach a consensus between the political parties, a specific set of ideas described as the imaginary of a ‘nuclear free Austria’ and its specific relations to national identity. (author) [de

  11. 'Strategy is a commodity, implementation is an art' - 2 years of implementation of the UK national LLW strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassidy, Helen; Rossiter, David

    2013-01-01

    The Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is the primary facility for disposal of Low Level Waste (LLW) in the United Kingdom (UK), serving the UK nuclear industry and a diverse range of other sectors. Management of LLW in the UK historically was dominated by disposal to the LLWR. The value of the LLWR as a national asset was recognised by the 2007 UK Governmental Policy on management of solid LLW. At this time, analysis of the projected future demand for disposal at LLWR against facility capacity was undertaken identifying a credible risk that the capacity of LLWR would be insufficient to meet future demand if existing waste management practices were perpetuated. To mitigate this risk a National Strategy for the management of LLW in the UK was developed by the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), partnered with LLW Repository Ltd. (the organisation established in 2008 to manage the LLWR on behalf of NDA). This strategy was published in 2010 and identified three mechanisms for protection of the capacity of LLWR - application of the Waste Hierarchy by waste producers; optimised use of existing assets for LLW management; and opening of new waste treatment and disposal routes to enable diversion of waste away from the LLWR. (authors)

  12. National aspects of nuclear standardisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1984-01-01

    The article first introduces the German Standards Institute (DIN) in figures and in its work, and gives details of the Nuclear Technology Committee (NK) which works with the Nuclear Committee. The German regulations consist of a total of about 220 documents, which cost about 18 million DM per annum. The use of nuclear standardisation can be seen in 1) a standardized, high safety level; 2) speeding up and simplifying the authorisation process; 3) improved acceptance; 4) means of technology transfer; 5) simplified trace across borders and 6) standardized requirements for plant near the border. (HSCH) [de

  13. Establishing a National Nuclear Security Support Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    The responsibility for creating and sustaining a nuclear security regime for the protection of nuclear and other radiological material clearly belongs to the State. The nuclear security regime resembles the layers of an onion, with the equipment and personnel securing the borders and ports representing the outer layer, and nuclear power, research reactors and nuclear medicine facilities representing the inner layers, and the actual target material representing the core. Components of any nuclear security regime include not only technological systems, but the human resources needed to manage, operate, administer and maintain equipment, including hardware and software. This publication provides practical guidance on the establishment and maintenance of a national nuclear security support centre (NSSC) as a means to ensure nuclear security sustainability in a State. An NSSC's basic purpose is to provide a national focal point for passing ownership of nuclear security knowledge and associated technical skills to the competent authorities involved in nuclear security. It describes processes and methodologies that can be used by a State to analyse the essential elements of information in a manner that allows several aspects of long term, systemic sustainability of nuclear security to be addressed. Processes such as the systematic approach to training, sometimes referred to as instructional system design, are the cornerstone of the NSSC concept. Proper analysis can provide States with data on the number of personnel requiring training and instructors needed, scale and scope of training, technical and scientific support venues, and details on the type and number of training aids or simulators required so that operational systems are not compromised in any way. Specific regulatory guidance, equipment or technology lists, or specifications/design of protection systems are not included in this publication. For such details, the following IAEA publications should be consulted

  14. Nuclear power costs in the UK, and reply by Sweet, C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, H.

    1978-01-01

    The criticisms made by Sweet in his article 'Nuclear Power Costs in the UK' (Energy Policy; 6:107 (1978)) that assessments of nuclear power costs have been based on incorrect methods and assumptions are here answered. The particular points in the original analysis considered are; inflation, forecasts, load factors, generating costs, R and D costs, and benefits from a nuclear programme. It is stated that the published literature shows that nuclear power costs have for a long time been critically compared with the cost of alternatives, using well tried systems-analysis techniques and that the charge that 'mistaken' techniques have been employed is simply not sustained by the evidence. In reply Sweet objects that although his estimates have been criticised yet neither a direct rebuttal nor any alternative figures have been offered and significantly, his estimate that the official figures understate the true costs of nuclear power was not challenged. Particular aspects of the argument considered are; escalation of nuclear building costs, coal and nuclear generating costs, recovering R and D costs, and the 100 GW programme. (U.K.)

  15. The development of regulatory expectations for computer-based safety systems for the UK nuclear programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P. J. [HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Marine Engineering Submarines Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator Serco Assurance Redgrave Court, Merton Road, Bootle L20 7HS (United Kingdom); Westwood, R.N; Mark, R. T. [FLEET HQ, Leach Building, Whale Island, Portsmouth, PO2 8BY (United Kingdom); Tapping, K. [Serco Assurance,Thomson House, Risley, Warrington, WA3 6GA (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) of the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) has completed a review of their Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs) for Nuclear Installations recently. During the period of the SAPs review in 2004-2005 the designers of future UK naval reactor plant were optioneering the control and protection systems that might be implemented. Because there was insufficient regulatory guidance available in the naval sector to support this activity the Defence Nuclear Safety Regulator (DNSR) invited the NII to collaborate with the production of a guidance document that provides clarity of regulatory expectations for the production of safety cases for computer based safety systems. A key part of producing regulatory expectations was identifying the relevant extant standards and sector guidance that reflect good practice. The three principal sources of such good practice were: IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-1.1 (Software for Computer Based Systems Important to Safety in Nuclear Power Plants), European Commission consensus document (Common Position of European Nuclear Regulators for the Licensing of Safety Critical Software for Nuclear Reactors) and IEC nuclear sector standards such as IEC60880. A common understanding has been achieved between the NII and DNSR and regulatory guidance developed which will be used by both NII and DNSR in the assessment of computer-based safety systems and in the further development of more detailed joint technical assessment guidance for both regulatory organisations. (authors)

  16. Nuclear installations and childhood cancer in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Data on cancer incidence and mortality near nuclear installations in England and Wales have been published, covering the period 1959-1980. Several age classes and a number of cancer sites have been included. Systematic analysis has so far been limited to cancer mortality. This suggests that childhood leukemia is unusually frequent near some types of installations and the excess is greater for years 0-9 than for later ages. In the earlier decade, 1959-1969, there was questionable consistency of incidence reporting. This report uses the incidence and mortality data only for the period 1971-1980; leukemia and non-leukemia cancer data for those 0-9 years are analyzed, and consistency of incidence reporting is evaluated by comparing incidence and mortality. For comparison with reported data for grouped local authority areas (LAAs) near to 21 different installations, 2 sources of expected incidence are used. The first is based on regional data, and the second is based on a group of LAAs similar in location, urban/rural character and population size. The results of this study confirm Cook-Mozaffari et al.'s findings by mortality analysis for the group of installations involved in non-power producing nuclear technology. This study sheds no light on the possible basis for the association, which remains to be clarified. Initial steps have been taken by Gardner et al. using case-referent methods. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Evolution of the Business Environment Surrounding the UK's Nuclear Site Cleanup Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskimin, P.A.; Lees, P.M.; Wall, C.E.E.

    2006-01-01

    In April 2005 twenty civil nuclear sites in the United Kingdom became the responsibility of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), a new organization created by the British Government to manage the cleanup of these sites. As a key part of this transition, the NDA became the owner and manager of these sites, which formerly were owned by the site operators, British Nuclear Fuels Limited plc (BNFL) and the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). This was one of the most significant events in the history of the United Kingdom's nuclear industry and represented a true sea change, affecting many aspects of life and business on and around these sites as well as nationally. The NDA's budget for the cleanup of the twenty sites and the management of the overall cleanup program is approximately pounds 2 Billion per annum, almost $4 Billion. It is important to note that approximately half of this amount is spent with the supply chains which serve the management and operations contractors, including pounds 500 million at Sellafield alone. Additionally, the site management and operations contractors receive most of the pounds 2 Billion through contracts between the NDA and the various site management companies. This represents a lot of government money moving through contracts between entities, which invokes procurement and contracting rules and regulations, that while not new, have not previously been this broadly applied to nuclear site cleanup activities throughout the UK. The current estimate for the total life cycle cleanup costs for all twenty civil nuclear sites is pounds 56 Billion, a figure that is likely to increase further. The first rules to mention are the European Union Procurement Guidelines, which are designed to help ensure that procurements involving government funds are conducted in an open, fair, and transparent environment. While it is difficult to argue with the intent of these rules, at least for now they are having a slowing down effect on

  18. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  19. Literacy: State of the Nation--A Picture of Literacy in the UK Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jama, Deeqa; Dugdale, George

    2012-01-01

    Literacy is the combination of reading, writing, speaking and listening skills we all need to fulfil our potential. These life skills are essential to the happiness, health and wealth of individuals and society. "Literacy: State of the Nation" provides a coherent picture of literacy in the UK today. It reveals that: (1) One in six people…

  20. A New Measurement and Ranking System for the UK National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, John

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous criticisms of the UK National Student Survey (NSS) institutional managers still strongly support its use in informing student choice, quality and assurance and quality enhancement activities. This article outlines a granular and nuanced benchmarking system for the NSS which provides both a "raw" score (weighted student…

  1. Credentialism, National Targets, and the Learning Society: Perspectives on Educational Attainment in the UK Steel Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

    1999-01-01

    The UK's National Learning Targets for Education and Training, embracing 11- to 21-year-olds, adults, and employers, promote a credentialist approach to economic and social development. This article shows how the steel industry measures up. Using qualifications-based targets as a proxy for adult workforce capability is misguided. (Contains 40…

  2. UK nuclear data progress report for the period January - December 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, E.W.

    1982-06-01

    Summaries are given of work by AERE Harwell, AEEW Winfrith, National Physical Laboratory, NRPB, Birmingham Radiation Centre and the Universities of Birmingham and Edinburgh. A paper on fission product decay heat from 235 U and 239 Pu is included. (U.K.)

  3. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. National Issues Forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Greg; Melville, Keith

    Designed to stimulate thinking about United States-Soviet relationships in terms of nuclear weapons and national security, this document presents ideas and issues that represent differing viewpoints and positions. Chapter 1, "Rethinking the U.S.-Soviet Relationship," considers attempts to achieve true national security, and chapter 2,…

  4. Revised estimates of the radiological impact of the transport of irradiated nuclear fuels within the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, H.F.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents revised estimates of individual and collective doses associated with irradiated fuel movements from CEGB and SSEB nuclear power stations within the UK. In particular, earlier estimates of transport doses have been updated to take account of recent changes in the patterns of rail traffic. This results in a reduction in the estimated maximum individual doses to members of the public living near marshalling yards where flasks stop en route and also to rail workers incidentally exposed at these locations. The maximum levels of individual dose associated with irradiated fuel transport within the UK are in general low compared with those due to natural background radiation. Further, the associated collective doses are small compared with other sources of dose arising in the nuclear fuel cycle and represent -4 % of the natural background radiation dose to the UK population. In absolute terms the maximum contributions to the annual transport collective doses from Magnox, AGR and projected PWR fuel movements are estimated to be 18, 9 and 0.7 man mSv · a -1 respectively. These results neglect any reduction in doses due to the effects of shielding by buildings or natural obstacles such as railway cuttings or tunnels. Inclusion of these effects has been estimated to reduce the annual transport collective doses to 13, 6 and 0.45 man mSv · a -1 for Magnox, AGR and PWR fuels respectively. (U.K.)

  5. National standards for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laing, W.R.; Corbin, L.T.

    1981-01-01

    Standards needs for the nuclear industry are being met by a number of voluntary organizations, such as ANS, ASTM, AWS, ASME, and IEEE. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) coordinates these activities and approves completed standards as American National Standards. ASTM has two all-nuclear committees, E-10 and C-26. A C-26 subcommittee, Test Methods, has been active in writing analytical chemistry standards for twelve years. Thirteen have been approved as ANSI standards and others are ready for ballot. Work is continuing in all areas of the nuclear fuel cycle

  6. Managing for safety and safety culture within the UK nuclear industry. A regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrer, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the basis of the legal system for the regulation of health and safety at work within the United Kingdom (UK), and in particular, the regulation of the nuclear industry. The framework, formulated by the regulator, which has been published as a practical guide for directors, managers, health and safety professionals and employee representatives for the successful management of health and safety is explained. This guidance, however, concentrates, to a large extent, on management systems and only addresses in part the types of issues, such as behaviours, values, attitudes and beliefs which contribute to the safety culture of an organization. The regulator of the UK nuclear industry has considered research, and other work, carried out by several organizations in this area, notably the Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (ACSNI) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and produced its own framework for managing for safety at nuclear installations. As a regulator, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), and its inspectorate responsible for regulation of the nuclear industry, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (HMNII), are not the appropriate organization to assess the safety culture of an organization, but positively encourage organizations to both carry out this assessment themselves and to monitor their performance. To this end, HSE has developed, and made available, the Health and Safety Climate Tool which is aimed at providing organizations with information which can be used as part of a continuous improvement process. (author)

  7. National Nuclear Corporation Limited report and financial statements 31 March 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the annual report and audited financial statements of the National Nuclear Corporation Limited, 31 March 1987. The company is engaged in designing and constructing power stations and nuclear power reactors and other related work. A review of the development work carried out on power stations is briefly given, along with the research and development work on reactors. Future prospects concerning the Sizewell-'B' project are briefly outlined. (U.K.)

  8. Nuclear data services of the Nuclear Data Centers Network available at the National Nuclear Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLane, V.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Data Centers Network provides low and medium energy nuclear reaction data to users around the world. Online retrievals are available through the U.S. National Nuclear Data Center, the Nuclear Energy Agency Data Bank, and the IAEA Nuclear Data Section from these extensive bibliographic, experimental data, and evaluated data files. In addition to nuclear reaction data, the various databases also provide nuclear structure and decay data, and other information of interest to users. The WorldWideWeb sites at the National Nuclear Data Center and the NEA Data Bank provide access to some of the Centers' files. (orig.)

  9. Implanting a Discipline: The Academic Trajectory of Nuclear Engineering in the USA and UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Sean F.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear engineer emerged as a new form of recognised technical professional between 1940 and the early 1960s as nuclear fission, the chain reaction and their applications were explored. The institutionalization of nuclear engineering--channelled into new national laboratories and corporate design offices during the decade after the war, and…

  10. National Policy on Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    National policy on nuclear fuel cycle is aimed at attaining the expected condition, i.e. being able to support optimality the national energy policy and other related Government policies taking into account current domestic nuclear fuel cycle condition and the trend of international nuclear fuel cycle development, the national strength, weakness, thread and opportunity in the field of energy. This policy has to be followed by the strategy to accomplish covering the optimization of domestic efforts, cooperation with other countries, and or purchasing licences. These policy and strategy have to be broken down into various nuclear fuel cycle programmes covering basically assesment of the whole cycle, performing research and development of the whole cycle without enrichment and reprocessing being able for weapon, as well as programmes for industrialization of the fuel cycle stepwisery commencing with the middle part of the cycle and ending with the edge of the back-end of the cycle

  11. Fire fighting at Chernobyl and fire protection at UK nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The fire fighting measures undertaken by the fire crews at the Chernobyl reactor accident are described. This information highlights the need to develop engineering equipment which will give a far greater degree of personnel protection to fire crews and others in radiological accidents. The British position on fire protection at nuclear power stations is outlined. The general levels of radiation exposure which would be used as a guide to persons in the vicinity of a radiation accident are also given. (UK)

  12. Review of drivers and barriers for nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Christine; Azapagic, Adisa

    2009-01-01

    There has been resurgence in interest in new nuclear power stations over the last couple of years. The UK Government has taken steps to encourage the private sector to build new stations in the UK, a change in its previous neutral stance toward nuclear power. This paper examines the change in government policy asking what drivers have led to this decision and what barriers were preventing new nuclear power in the past and what barriers are still faced by both government and industry. Three main drivers are discussed: security of energy supply; diminishing energy generation capacity; and climate change. The paper also examines other key factors that play a part in facilitating a shift in government policy, namely economics, public perception and waste management policy. Barriers are identified through examination of public perception, and policy. The changes to the planning system are also discussed. The paper concludes by comparing drivers and barriers for other technologies and contrasting the UK experience with that of other countries.

  13. The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM: Psychometric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Specialist Rehabilitation following a Stroke from the National UK Clinical Dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Nayar

    Full Text Available The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS. We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation. For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907. All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p0.5. Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 p<0.001, while LHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 p<0.001. To conclude, the UK FIM+FAM has a three-factor structure in stroke, similar to the general neurorehabilitation population. It is responsive to change during in-patient rehabilitation, and distinguishes

  14. The effect of trade between China and the UK on national and global carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You; Hewitt, C.N.

    2008-01-01

    We estimate the amount of carbon dioxide embodied in bi-lateral trade between the UK and China in 2004. Developing and applying the method of Shui and Harriss [2006. The role of CO 2 embodiment in US-China trade. Energy Policy 34, 4063-4068], the most recently available data on trade and CO 2 emissions have been updated and adjusted to calculate the CO 2 emissions embodied in the commodities traded between China and the UK. It was found that through trade with China, the UK reduced its CO 2 emissions by approximately 11% in 2004, compared with a non-trade scenario in which the same type and volume of goods are produced in the UK. In addition, due to the greater carbon-intensity and relatively less efficient production processes of Chinese industry, China-UK trade resulted in an additional 117 Mt of CO 2 to global CO 2 emissions in the same one year period, compared with a non-trade scenario in which the same type and volume of goods are produced in the UK. This represents an additional 19% to the reported national CO 2 emissions of the UK (555 Mt/y in 2004) and 0.4% of global emissions. These findings suggest that, through international trade, very significant environmental impacts can be shifted from one country to another, and that international trade can (but does not necessarily) result in globally increased greenhouse gas emissions. These results are additional to the environmental consequences of transporting goods, which are not robustly quantified here. (author)

  15. The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM): Psychometric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Specialist Rehabilitation following a Stroke from the National UK Clinical Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Meenakshi; Vanderstay, Roxana; Siegert, Richard J; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM) is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS). We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation). For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge) was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907). All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p0.5). Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 pLHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 pLHS and RHS. This tool extends stroke outcome measurement beyond physical disability to include cognitive, communication and psychosocial function.

  16. A postal survey of quality assurance in nuclear medicine imaging in the UK during 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, E.D.; Harding, L.K.; McKillop, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to all the estimated 200 hospital departments providing nuclear medicine imaging services in the UK. Replies were received from 162 (81%). The questionnaire was brief, but covered a wide range of aspects of a nuclear medicine service. While all responses showed departments to have some quality control procedures in operation, they were often not used correctly. In most departments there appears to be scope for improvement so that departmental managers can monitor more closely the quality of service provided. (author)

  17. Validation of seismic soil structure interaction (SSI) methodology for a UK PWR nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llambias, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The seismic loading information for use in the seismic design of equipment and minor structures within a nuclear power plant is determined from a dynamic response analysis of the building in which they are located. This dynamic response analysis needs to capture the global response of both the building structure and adjacent soil and is commonly referred to as a soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis. NNC have developed a simple and cost effective methodology for the seismic SSI analysis of buildings in a PWR nuclear power station at a UK soft site. This paper outlines the NNC methodology and describes the approach adopted for its validation

  18. Idaho national laboratory - a nuclear research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi Mohammed, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is committed to providing international nuclear leadership for the 21st Century, developing and demonstrating compelling national security technologies, and delivering excellence in science and technology as one of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) multi program national laboratories. INL runs three major programs - Nuclear, Security and Science. Nuclear programs covers the Advanced test reactor, Six Generation IV technology concepts selected for Rand D, targeting tumors - Boron Neutron Capture therapy. Homeland Security establishes the Control System Security and Test Center, Critical Infrastructure Test Range evaluates technologies on a scalable basis, INL conducts high performance computing and visualization research and science. To provide leadership in the education and training, INL has established an Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (INSE) under the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES) and the Idaho State University (ISU). INSE will offer a four year degree based on a newly developed curriculum - two year of basic science course work and two years of participation in project planning and development. The students enrolled in this program can continue to get a masters or a doctoral degree. This summer INSE is the host for the training of the first international group selected by the World Nuclear University (WNU) - 75 fellowship holders and their 30 instructors from 40 countries. INL has been assigned to provide future global leadership in the field of nuclear science and technology. Here, at INL, we keep safety first above all things and our logo is 'Nuclear leadership synonymous with safety leadership'. (author)

  19. Snakebite enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service: 2004-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, James Michael; Cooper, Gillian; Krishna, Channarayapatna; Thompson, John Paul

    2013-11-01

    To describe trends regarding snakebite enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) from 2004 to 2010. The NPIS telephone enquiry database, the UK Poisons Information Database, was interrogated for enquiries to the four NPIS units from 2004 to 2010. Search terms used were 'snake' and 'snakebite'. Information from the national dataset was available from Cardiff and Edinburgh units from 2004 onwards, Birmingham from June 2005 and Newcastle from September 2006. Five hundred and ten cases were identified, of which 69% were male and 31% female. Average age of cases was 32 years (±1 95% CI). The snake was identified as follows: British Adder in 52% of cases, an exotic species in 26%, unknown in 18% and another UK snake in 4%. 82% of cases occurred between the months of April and September. Cases peaked during August (19%). Forty-two per cent of enquiries involved features of envenoming. Eighty-five cases were assessed as requiring antivenom. Eighty-four cases received treatment with antivenom. No adverse reactions to the antivenom were reported and resolution of clinical features was reported in all treated cases. Advice to use an antidote was followed in 98.8% of cases. Snakebites account for one to two NPIS cases per week. Adder bites account for over half of cases. A quarter of cases were due to non-UK snakes kept in captivity within the UK. Envenoming was said to have occurred in just under half of all cases. Advice given by the NPIS appears to closely reflect national practice guidelines.

  20. National nuclear plan - Present and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, Serban Constantin; Popescu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The Romanian Research, Development and Innovation Plan (PNCDI) contains programmes aiming at: strengthening the national research and development capacity as well as enhancing the employment of scientific and technologic potential; obtaining national scientific excellency in the frame of globalization; achieving valuable results in specific objectives of importance for national economy and foreign policy; European integration of the national research potential. In the frame of PNCDI there are sub-programmes oriented toward nuclear field as follows: PC6 EURATIOM, with EU; Technical Cooperation projects with IAEA; basic and applied research projects with JINR, Dubna and CERN, Geneva as well with other international organizations. These sub-programs have also domestic-oriented objectives as for instance: boosting the reform in the nuclear sector; alignment the specific legislation with the European legislation; preserving the high-skilled human resources; strengthening the safety of nuclear facilities; strengthening the radiation protection of occupational personnel, population and environment; ensuring the management of radioactive waste with final disposal; enhancing the nuclear industry competitiveness; developing innovative concepts of new NPP types; formation and training of young specialists; ensuring the access on large scale to the European nuclear installations; organizing and intensifying the technology transport, as well as, simulation of small and average scale enterprises, boosting the cooperation between industrial and scientific organization enhancing the exchange the scientific information. All nuclear activities in Romania are peaceful and subject to a severe control of the state and of the habilitated international organisms. For Cernavoda NPP Romania chose the CANDU PHW project as a successful project developed in Canada and world wide. The performances concerning nuclear safety are highest while the costs of nuclear electricity is competitive with

  1. National nuclear safety report 1998. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Argentine Republic subscribed the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved by a Diplomatic Conference in Vienna, Austria, in June 17th, 1994. According to the provisions in Section 5th of the Convention, each Contracting Party shall submit for its examination a National Nuclear Safety Report about the measures adopted to comply with the corresponding obligations. This Report describes the actions that the Argentine Republic is carrying on since the beginning of its nuclear activities, showing that it complies with the obligations derived from the Convention, in accordance with the provisions of its Article 4. The analysis of the compliance with such obligations is based on the legislation in force, the applicable regulatory standards and procedures, the issued licenses, and other regulatory decisions. The corresponding information is described in the analysis of each of the Convention Articles constituting this Report. The present National Report has been performed in order to comply with Article 5 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, and has been prepared as much as possible following the Guidelines Regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety, approved in the Preparatory Meeting of the Contracting Parties, held in Vienna in April 1997. This means that the Report has been ordered according to the Articles of the Convention on Nuclear Safety and the contents indicated in the guidelines. The information contained in the articles, which are part of the Report shows the compliance of the Argentine Republic, as a contracting party of such Convention, with the obligations assumed

  2. National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Wan Ki

    2006-01-01

    The National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA) is an independent agency for safeguards and material control for nuclear activities in the Republic of Korea. Formerly subordinate to the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), it is temporarily associated with the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). In mid-2006 it will become fully independent. The NNCA is responsible for safeguards within the ROK, cooperates with the IAEA, and supports technical needs of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). In addition, it has responsibilities in export controls and physical protection. In the future the NNCA expects to become a national 'think tank' for nuclear control and nonproliferation issues. This presentation enumerated the many responsibilities of the NNCA and explained the structure and staffing of the organization. (author)

  3. National symposium on electrochemistry in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    A National Symposium on Electrochemistry in Nuclear Technology (NASENT-94) was held at Kalpakkam, India during January 5-7, 1994. The subjects covered a wide range of topics in electrochemistry, such as electrochemical production, refining, analysis and corrosion of metals, electrochemical monitors and sensors, solid state electrochemistry, applications of electrochemical processes and measurement techniques in nuclear technology etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  4. New nuclear power in the UK: A strategy for energy security?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Jim; Scott, Alister

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent to which the construction of new nuclear power plants in the UK can safeguard or enhance energy security. The paper starts with a discussion of energy security, and breaks it down into four main categories of threat. These include threats due to fossil fuel scarcity and external disruptions, problems due to a lack of investment in infrastructure, threats due to technology or infrastructure failure, and risks due to domestic activism or terrorism. The paper then discusses one of the most common strategies put forward to improve security-the promotion of diversity within energy systems. Following this, the paper assesses the potential for new nuclear investment to ameliorate security threats in each of the four categories introduced earlier in the paper. The paper concludes that whilst nuclear investment can help to mitigate some threats to UK energy security, the government's case for supporting this investment ignores some equally important security issues. As a result, the energy security case for nuclear power has not yet been made.

  5. New nuclear power in the UK. A strategy for energy security?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jim; Scott, Alister [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, The Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent to which the construction of new nuclear power plants in the UK can safeguard or enhance energy security. The paper starts with a discussion of energy security, and breaks it down into four main categories of threat. These include threats due to fossil fuel scarcity and external disruptions, problems due to a lack of investment in infrastructure, threats due to technology or infrastructure failure, and risks due to domestic activism or terrorism. The paper then discusses one of the most common strategies put forward to improve security - the promotion of diversity within energy systems. Following this, the paper assesses the potential for new nuclear investment to ameliorate security threats in each of the four categories introduced earlier in the paper. The paper concludes that whilst nuclear investment can help to mitigate some threats to UK energy security, the government's case for supporting this investment ignores some equally important security issues. As a result, the energy security case for nuclear power has not yet been made. (author)

  6. New nuclear power in the UK: A strategy for energy security?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jim, E-mail: w.j.watson@sussex.ac.u [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Scott, Alister [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to explore the extent to which the construction of new nuclear power plants in the UK can safeguard or enhance energy security. The paper starts with a discussion of energy security, and breaks it down into four main categories of threat. These include threats due to fossil fuel scarcity and external disruptions, problems due to a lack of investment in infrastructure, threats due to technology or infrastructure failure, and risks due to domestic activism or terrorism. The paper then discusses one of the most common strategies put forward to improve security-the promotion of diversity within energy systems. Following this, the paper assesses the potential for new nuclear investment to ameliorate security threats in each of the four categories introduced earlier in the paper. The paper concludes that whilst nuclear investment can help to mitigate some threats to UK energy security, the government's case for supporting this investment ignores some equally important security issues. As a result, the energy security case for nuclear power has not yet been made.

  7. National Nuclear Data Center status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This paper is the status report of the US National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven. It describes the new NDS approach to customer services, which is based on users initiating wish lists on topics of interest with the possibility to receive reports in hardcopy or electronically forms. After completion within the next two years of the multi platform software for management and data retrievals from shared databases, users will have the opportunity to install directly their own local nuclear data center for desktop applications. The paper describes the computer facilities, the nuclear reaction data structure, the database migration and the customer services. (a.n.)

  8. National report of Brazil. Nuclear Safety Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  9. The UK National Quantum Technologies Hub in sensors and metrology (Keynote Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongs, K.; Boyer, V.; Cruise, M. A.; Freise, A.; Holynski, M.; Hughes, J.; Kaushik, A.; Lien, Y.-H.; Niggebaum, A.; Perea-Ortiz, M.; Petrov, P.; Plant, S.; Singh, Y.; Stabrawa, A.; Paul, D. J.; Sorel, M.; Cumming, D. R. S.; Marsh, J. H.; Bowtell, R. W.; Bason, M. G.; Beardsley, R. P.; Campion, R. P.; Brookes, M. J.; Fernholz, T.; Fromhold, T. M.; Hackermuller, L.; Krüger, P.; Li, X.; Maclean, J. O.; Mellor, C. J.; Novikov, S. V.; Orucevic, F.; Rushforth, A. W.; Welch, N.; Benson, T. M.; Wildman, R. D.; Freegarde, T.; Himsworth, M.; Ruostekoski, J.; Smith, P.; Tropper, A.; Griffin, P. F.; Arnold, A. S.; Riis, E.; Hastie, J. E.; Paboeuf, D.; Parrotta, D. C.; Garraway, B. M.; Pasquazi, A.; Peccianti, M.; Hensinger, W.; Potter, E.; Nizamani, A. H.; Bostock, H.; Rodriguez Blanco, A.; Sinuco-Leon, G.; Hill, I. R.; Williams, R. A.; Gill, P.; Hempler, N.; Malcolm, G. P. A.; Cross, T.; Kock, B. O.; Maddox, S.; John, P.

    2016-04-01

    The UK National Quantum Technology Hub in Sensors and Metrology is one of four flagship initiatives in the UK National of Quantum Technology Program. As part of a 20-year vision it translates laboratory demonstrations to deployable practical devices, with game-changing miniaturized components and prototypes that transform the state-of-the-art for quantum sensors and metrology. It brings together experts from the Universities of Birmingham, Glasgow, Nottingham, Southampton, Strathclyde and Sussex, NPL and currently links to over 15 leading international academic institutions and over 70 companies to build the supply chains and routes to market needed to bring 10-1000x improvements in sensing applications. It seeks, and is open to, additional partners for new application development and creates a point of easy open access to the facilities and supply chains that it stimulates or nurtures.

  10. National strategy of nuclear power intellectual property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Huaitao

    2008-01-01

    The IP strategy includes four strategic levels: international level, national level, industry level and enterprise level. The national nuclear power IP strategy is an industry level strategy, which is also one part of national IP strategy, permeating with the IP strategy of the international level and enterprise level mutually. Commencing from the angles of the national level and the industry level, the author tries to provide a reference for IP strategy by an initial study about IP strategy in nuclear power industry.. The author holds that independent innovation is at the root of strategic establishment; enterprise is the main body for strategic implementation; and evaluating index must be consummated in the strategic evaluation. (authors)

  11. The DTI FSU Nuclear legacy programme: UK experience of radiation protection at Andreeva Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammon, C.; Parker, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The United Kingdom (UK) has committed substantial long term funding to the Former Soviet Union (FSU) to assist with their nuclear legacy as part of the UK contribution to the G8 Global Partnership. The budget is managed by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and RWE NUKEM are the programme management consultants for the Nuclear Legacy programme, which includes the Andreeva Bay project. The fundamental driver for the DTI is to improve the safety, security and non-proliferation of fissile material and RWE NUKEM is working closely with the DTI to achieve this. Andreeva Bay is located in the extreme north -west of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. The site was established in the 1960's to be used for the interim storage of used nuclear fuel, and solid and liquid radioactive wastes arising from the operation of nuclear powered submarines and icebreakers. However, leakage in the spent fuel pond storage facility during the late 1970's resulted in the emergency transfer of the fuel (20,000 spent fuel assemblies) to 3 dry storage tanks, which are now in very poor condition, and a highly contaminated pond storage facility, Building 5. The objectives of the project are to identify and implement solutions for the existing safety, security and environmental problems of SNF. One of the tasks at Andreeva Bay was to work together with the Russian site operators with the aim of improving standards of radiation protection on the site. This is being achieved by providing the Russians with funding to enable them to implement measures to improve radiological safety. The following measures have been put in place so far: the introduction of a Radiation Management System, the provision of mobile and permanent staff change room facilities, the provision of decontamination facilities, the provision of radiation protection instrumentation, the provision of laboratory facilities, the provision of secondary waste storage containers, the provision of

  12. The transportation of British nuclear weapons by road. Hiroshima is waiting to happen in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.J.

    1993-01-01

    This leaflet describes the transportation of nuclear weapons on United Kingdom roads. The author seeks to question the safety and desirability of such activities, and points out the potential hazards to humans and the environment should convoy accidents occur. Correspondence is included between the author and various Government sources to illustrate the difficulty of obtaining full, accurate information on the design and safety of weapons transportation vehicles and the reasons and frequency of weapons convoys. The author contrasts these difficulties with the free available government information in the United States of America because of the Freedom of Information Act. Readers are urged to contribute to monitoring the routes and occurrence of UK weapons convoys to assist in data collection. (UK)

  13. Nuclear accident dosimetry systems: U.K. measurements at the sixteenth intercomparison at O.R.N.L. August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafield, H.J.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Holt, P.D.; Harrison, K.G.

    1980-04-01

    The results are presented of the measurements made by the A.E.R.E., Harwell participants at the Intercomparison of Nuclear Accident Dosimetry Systems held at the Dosimetry Applications Research Facility (DOSAR) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA from 13 - 17 August 1979. The source of pulsed radiation used was the Health Physics Research Reactor which was operated bare for pulse 1, and shielded by concrete (20cm thickness) and steel (5cm thickness) for pulses 2 and 3 respectively. Measurements are reported which were made using personnel dosimeters (both in free-air and on phantoms) and a threshold detector system and compared with the provisional results given by the DOSAR group at the meeting. (U.K.)

  14. International and national organizations within nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstroem, S.

    1975-03-01

    A survey is given of the organization, objective and action of international and national organizations working with nuclear energy. Five types of organizations are treated: international governmental organizations, international non-governmental organizations, international organizations dealing with ionizing radiation, nordic organizations, and Swedish organizations. Special attention is payed to the Swedish participation in the different organizations. (K.K)

  15. Idaho National Laboratory - Nuclear Research Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The Idaho National Laboratory is committed to the providing international nuclear leadership for the 21st Century, developing and demonstrating compiling national security technologies, and delivering excellence in science and technology as one of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) multiprogram national laboratories. INL runs three major programs - Nuclear, Security and Science. nuclear programs covers the Advanced test reactor, Six Generation technology concepts selected for R and D, Targeting tumors - Boron Neutron capture therapy. Homeland security - Homeland Security establishes the Control System Security and Test Center, Critical Infrastructure Test Range evaluates technologies on a scalable basis, INL conducts high performance computing and visualization research and science - INL facility established for Geocentrifuge Research, Idaho Laboratory, a Utah company achieved major milestone in hydrogen research and INL uses extremophile bacteria to ease bleaching's environmental cost. To provide leadership in the education and training, INL has established an Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (Inset). The institute will offer a four year degree based on a newly developed curriculum - two year of basic science course work and two years of participation in project planning and development. The students enrolled in this program can continue to get a masters or a doctoral degree. This summer Inset is the host for the training of the first international group selected by the World Nuclear University (WNU) - 75 fellowship holders and their 30 instructors from 40 countries. INL has been assigned to provide future global leadership in the field of nuclear science and technology. Here, at INL, we keep safety first above all things and our logo is 'Nuclear leadership synonymous with safety leadership'

  16. National Deployment of Domestic Geothermal Heat Pump Technology: Observations on the UK Experience 1995–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rees

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Uptake of geothermal heat pump technology in the UK and corresponding development of a domestic installation industry has progressed significantly in the last decade. This paper summarizes the growth process and reviews the research that has been specifically concerned with conditions in the UK. We discuss the driving forces behind these developments and some of the supporting policy initiatives that have been implemented. Publically funded national trials were completed to assess the performance and acceptance of the technology and validate design and installation standards. We comment on both the technical and non-technical findings of the trials and the related academic research and their relevance to standards development. A number of technical issues can be identified—some of which may be particular to the UK—and we suggest a number of research and development questions that need to be addressed further. Current national support for the technology relies solely on a tariff mechanism and it is uncertain that this will be effective enough to ensure sufficient growth to meet the national renewable heat target in 2020. A broader package of support that includes mandatory measures applied to future housing development and retrofit may be necessary to ensure long-term plans for national deployment and decarbonization of heat are achieved. Industry needs to demonstrate that efficiency standards can be assured, capital costs reduced in the medium-term and that national training schemes are effective.

  17. National Nuclear Safety Report 2001. Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The First National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the first review meeting of the Nuclear Safety Convention. At that time it was concluded that Argentina met the obligations of the Convention. This second National Nuclear Safety Report is an updated report which includes all safety aspects of the Argentinian nuclear power plants and the measures taken to enhance the safety of the plants. The present report also takes into account the observations and discussions maintained during the first review meeting. The conclusion made in the first review meeting about the compliance by Argentina of the obligations of the Convention are included as Annex 1. In general, the information contained in this Report has been updated since March 31, 1998 to March 31, 2001. Those aspects that remain unchanged were not addressed in this second report with the objective of avoiding repetitions and in order to carry out a detailed analysis considering article by article. As a result of the above mentioned detailed analysis of all the Articles, it can be stated that the country fulfils all the obligations imposed by the Nuclear Safety Convention

  18. National nuclear safety report 2004. Convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The second National Nuclear Safety Report was presented at the second review meeting of the Nuclear Safety Convention. At that time it was concluded that Argentina met the obligations of the Convention. This third National Nuclear Safety Report is an updated report which includes all safety aspects of the Argentinian nuclear power plants and the measures taken to enhance the safety of the plants. The present report also takes into account the observations and discussions maintained during the second review meeting. The conclusion made in the first review meeting about the compliance by Argentina of the obligations of the Convention are included as Annex I and those belonging to the second review meeting are included as Annex II. In general, the information contained in this Report has been updated since March 31, 2001 to April 30, 2004. Those aspects that remain unchanged were not addressed in this third report. As a result of the detailed analysis of all the Articles, it can be stated that the country fulfils all the obligations imposed by the Nuclear Safety Convention. The questions and answers originated at the Second Review Meeting are included as Annex III

  19. A national UK survey of radiology trainees special interest choices: what and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Nassim; Bhuva, Shaheel

    2017-11-01

    A national survey was designed to better understand factors influencing special interest choices, future aspirations of UK radiology trainees and perceptions of breast radiology. A SurveyMonkey questionnaire was developed and distributed to all radiology trainees in the UK through the British Institute of Radiology, RCR Junior Radiologists Forum and by directly contacting UK training schemes as well as by social media between December 2015 and January 2016. From 21 training schemes across the UK, 232 responses were received. Over half entered radiology after foundation training and 62% were ST1-3; one-fifth of trainees intended to leave the NHS. The most popular special interests were musculoskeletal (18%), abdominal imaging (16%) and neuroradiology (13%). Gynaecological and oncological imaging proved to be the least popular. Strong personal interest, a successful rotation during training, a mix of imaging modalities, direct impact on patient care and job prospects were the most popular factors influencing career choice. Research and potential for private income were the least influential factors. Respondents detailed their perceptions of breast radiology, selecting an awareness of career prospects (41%) and a better trainee experience (36%) as factors that would increase their interest in pursuing it as a career. Understanding the factors that influence special interest choice is essential to addressing the alarming staffing shortfalls that will befall certain radiology special interests. Addressing trainee's preconceptions and improving the trainee experience are key to attracting trainees to breast radiology. Advances in knowledge: This is the first survey of its kind in the UK literature designed to evaluate special interest career choices and the factors that influence those among radiology trainees.

  20. Nuclear engineering in the National Polytechnic Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Valle G, E.

    2008-12-01

    In the National Polytechnic Institute the bachelor degree in physics and mathematics, consists of 48 subjects in the common trunk. For the nuclear engineering option, from the fifth semester undergoing 9 specific areas within the Nuclear Engineering Department : introduction to nuclear engineering, power cycles thermodynamics, heat transfer, two courses of nuclear reactors theory, two of nuclear engineering, one course of laboratory and other of radiation protection. There is also a master in nuclear engineering aims train human resources in the area of power and research nuclear reactors to meet the needs of the nuclear industry in Mexico, as well as train highly qualified personnel in branches where are used equipment involving radiation and radioisotopes tale as Medicine, Agriculture and Industry. Among its compulsory subjects are: radiation interaction with the matter, measurements laboratory, reactor physics I and II, reactor engineering, reactor laboratory and thesis seminar. Optional, are: engineering of the radiation protection, computers in the nuclear engineering, nuclear systems dynamics, power plants safety, flow in two phases, reliability and risk analysis, nuclear power systems design, neutron transport theory. Many graduates of this degree have been and are involved in various phases of the nuclear project of Laguna Verde. The Nuclear Engineering Department has a subcritical nuclear reactor of light water and natural uranium and one isotopic source of Pu-Be neutrons of 5 Ci. It also has a multichannel analyzers, calibrated sources of alpha, beta and gamma radiation, a gamma spectrometer of high resolution and low background, a specialized library and one data processing center. In relation particularly to radiation protection, it is clear that there is a lack of specialists, as reflected in radiological control problems in areas such as medicine and industry. Given this situation, it is perceived to be required post-graduate studies at Master and Ph

  1. UK National Audit of Sexual History-taking: case-notes audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, C; McClean, H; Bhaduri, S; Gokhale, R; Sethi, G; Daniels, D

    2009-05-01

    A national audit of sexual history-taking was conducted in genitourinary medicine clinics in the UK in 2008. Data were aggregated by region and clinic, allowing practice to be compared between regions, as well as to national averages and against national Guidelines. In this paper the case-notes of 4121 patients were audited. A high proportion of the case-notes were deemed to be completely legible. In other respects there is considerable inter-regional variation in the adherence to national Guidelines. Interventions are especially required to improve documentation of practice in discussing condom use, HIV risk assessment, offer of a chaperone and assessment for hepatitis B vaccination and hepatitis C testing, and issues concerning sexual contacts.

  2. Nuclear Waste Management R and D - A Perspective from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ian Hudson; Graham Fairhall

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A radical change to the management of the nuclear legacy in the UK has been implemented following the publication of the 2002 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A strategy for Action'. The white paper noted that decommissioning the UK's civil public sector nuclear legacy has not always received the attention it deserves. In 2004 the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) was established, charged with cleaning up the UK's civil public sector nuclear legacy safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that safeguard the environment for this and future generations. The 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy' White paper and the Energy Act 2004 commits the NDA to play a role in R and D related to cleanup and decommissioning programmes. Specifically the Act defines these functions: carrying out research into matters relating to the decommissioning of nuclear installations, the cleaning- up of nuclear sites and other activities in relation to which it has functions; promoting the carrying out of research by others into these matters; distributing information about those matters; The NDA's intends to fund Research and Development (R and D) activities to support clean up and decommissioning at our sites either via direct contracts with research organisations or through the Site License Companies (SLC) in relation to their programmes of work. The NDA funded programme forms the majority of the UK civil waste management R and D programme. The NDA has entered into contracts with Nexia Solutions for R and D support and NiRex to support work on waste packaging and longer term waste management arrangements. The NDA plan to spend in the region of pounds 20 M on directly funded R and D and once SLC R and D activities are included the total is in the region of pounds 130 M i.e approximately 6% of the NDA budget. A key driver for the NDA is the support of innovative solutions to the management of current liabilities at the sites. Whilst the industry is mature

  3. Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document presents the Dutch National Plan combat nuclear accidents (NPK). Ch. 2 discusses some important starting points which are determining for the framework and the performance of the NPK, in particular the accident typology which underlies the plan. Also the new accident-classification system for the Dutch nuclear power plants, the standardization for the measures to be taken and the staging around nuclear power plants are pursued. In ch. 3 the legal framework of the combat nuclear accidents is described. In particular the Nuclear-power law, the Accident law and the Municipality law are pursued. Also the role of province and municipality are described. Ch. 4 deals with the role of the owner/licensee of the object where the accident occurs, in the combat of accident. In ch. 5 the structure of the nuclear-accident combat at national level is outlined, subdivided in alarm phase, combat phase and the winding-up phase. In ch.'s 6-12 these phases are elaborated more in detail. In ch.'s 10-13 the measures to be taken in nuclear accidents, are described. These measures are distinguished with regard to: protection of the population and medical aspects, water economy, drinking-water supply, agriculture and food supply. Ch. 14 describes the responsibility of the burgomaster. Ch.'s 15 and 16 present an overview of the personnel, material, procedural and juridical modifications and supplements of existing structures which are necessary with regard to the new and modified parts of the structure. Ch. 17 indicates how by means of the appropriate education and exercise it can be achieved that all personnel, services and institutes concerned possess the knowledge and experience necessary for the activities from the NKP to be executed as has been described. Ch. 18 contains a survey of activities to be performed and a proposal how these can be realized. (H.W.). figs.; tabs

  4. Energy policy, the energy price fallacy and the role of nuclear energy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.

    1978-01-01

    The widely held belief that the world energy problem will be solved by rising prices - closing the energy gap by reducing demand and bringing in new, large, previously overcostly energy sources is rejected by the author who feels that high prices are the problem and not the solution. It is argued that supply and demand will be brought into balance at some price, and the objective of energy policy should be to make it as low as possible, by concentrating on the exploitation of large, low-cost energy sources. The role of nuclear energy in this discussion is considered with respect to three specific points: the currently identified reserves of low-cost uranium, if used in fast reactors, represent an energy source greater than all other energy sources put together; nuclear power is the cheapest, safest and cleanest way of producing electricity; and electricity production accounts for a very large part of total primary energy consumption. (U.K.)

  5. UK intussusception audit: A national survey of practice and audit of reduction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, Edward; Williams, Rhianydd; Allan, Rosemary; Okoye, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To define current UK reduction practice and the reductions rates achieved. Materials and methods: Electronic surveys were sent to radiologists at 26 UK centres. This assessed methods of reduction, equipment, personnel, and protocol usage. Standardized audit proforma were also sent to evaluate all reductions performed in 2011. Results: Twenty-two of 26 centres (85%) replied. All used air enema under fluoroscopic guidance. Equipment was not standardized but could be broadly categorized into hand-pumped air-supply systems (seven centres) and pressurized air systems (15 centres). Seventeen centres followed a protocol based on British Society of Paediatric Radiologists (BSPR) guidelines. In 21 of the 22 centres a consultant paediatric radiologist led reductions and only 12 centres reported a surgeon being present. Three hundred and ten cases were reported across 22 centres. Cases per centre ranged from 0–31 (median 14). Reduction rates varied from 38–90% (median 71%). The overall perforation rate was 2.5%. Caseload did not significantly correlate with reduction rate, and there was no significant difference between the two types of equipment used. Median reduction rates were 15% higher in centres with a surgeon present at reduction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Intussusception care in the UK lacks standardization of equipment and personnel involved. National reduction rates are lower than in current international literature. Improved standardization may lead to an improvement in reduction rates and a surgeon should always be present at reduction

  6. A national survey of services for the prevention and management of falls in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter Rachel

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Health Service (NHS was tasked in 2001 with developing service provision to prevent falls in older people. We carried out a national survey to provide a description of health and social care funded UK fallers services, and to benchmark progress against current practice guidelines. Methods Cascade approach to sampling, followed by telephone survey with senior member of the fall service. Characteristics of the service were assessed using an internationally agreed taxonomy. Reported service provision was compared against benchmarks set by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE. Results We identified 303 clinics across the UK. 231 (76% were willing to participate. The majority of services were based in acute or community hospitals, with only a few in primary care or emergency departments. Access to services was, in the majority of cases, by health professional referral. Most services undertook a multi-factorial assessment. The content and quality of these assessments varied substantially. Services varied extensively in the way that interventions were delivered, and particular concern is raised about interventions for vision, home hazard modification, medication review and bone health. Conclusion The most common type of service provision was a multi-factorial assessment and intervention. There were a wide range of service models, but for a substantial number of services, delivery appears to fall below recommended NICE guidance.

  7. National energy planning with nuclear option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soetrisnanto, Arnold Y.; Hastowo, Hudi; Soentono, Soedyartomo

    2002-01-01

    National energy planning with nuclear option. Energy planning development is a part of the sustainable development that supports the attainment of national development goals. The objective of the study is to support the national planning and decision-making process in the energy and electric sector in Indonesia with nuclear option for period of 1998-2027. This study performs the provision of detailed economic sector and regional energy demand projection by MAED simulation model based on the economic and population scenarios. The optimization of the future energy supply such as electricity supply taking all known Indonesian energy sources and all relevant technologies into consideration by MARKAL Model. The results shows that Indonesia's need for final energy is forecasted to increase two times, from 4028,4 PJ at the beginning of study become 8145,6 PJ at the end of study. Performing the sensitivity study, it is predicted that nuclear energy could be introduced in the Java-Bali electricity grid about year 2016

  8. The UK chemical nuclear data library: a summary of the data available in ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, B.S.J.

    1981-11-01

    The UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee files have been considerably revised and extended. The files now embrace: fission yields (C31), fission product decay data (UKFPDD-2), activation product decay data (UKPADD-1), and heavy element decay data (UKHEDD-1). The fission yield data is based on Crouch's third round of adjustment and includes yields to isometric states. The decay data files include data on half-life, decay modes, branching ratios and alpha, beta and gamma radiation energies and intensities. The data have all been recommended by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee for use in the UK reactor programme; they are stored on magnetic tape at AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith and CEGB Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories. (author)

  9. The Los Alamos National Laboratory nuclear vision project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jnr.

    1996-01-01

    The aims, methodology and approach of the Nuclear Vision Project are described. It is not an attempt to predict the future but aims to explore alternative futures and their implications. Some essential elements of the study are: the future of nuclear power and other civil applications; nuclear weapons and proliferation; the institutions associated with, and public opinions about, nuclear science and technology; and environment-related issues. The overall objective is to create a ''global vision'' of how to balance the benefits and dangers of nuclear technology. (6 figures; 12 references). (UK)

  10. The Choice of thermal reactor systems. A report by the National Nuclear Corporation Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report to the Secretary of State in Great Britain by the National Nuclear Corporation following their assessment of the three thermal reactor systems, the AGR, PWR and SGHWR type reactors, which was performed in order to assist in the decision on the choice of thermal reactors for the U.K., is in three parts. Part I is an assessment of the three systems. It comprises: a description of the general method of assessment; a commentary in which are summarised discussions on the most important issues influencing reactor choice, i.e. safety, component failure, operational characteristics, development programme, construction programme; implications for the U.K. industry; costs; and reference design of each system. Part II consists of related questions and answers accompanied by commentaries on public acceptability and views from industry. Part III contains some conclusions including an analysis on the implications of the choices open and a summary of the main features of the assessment. (U.K.)

  11. Assessing the impact of framing on the comparative favourability of nuclear power as an electricity generating option in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Christopher R.; Eiser, J. Richard; Gamble, Tim R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the UK government's public consultation on the future of nuclear power courted much criticism. Three studies were conducted to assess whether key arguments used by government within this consultation might have influenced public opinion about the technology. Participants first read a passage of text that made salient certain positive (climate change mitigation, increased energy security) or negative (nuclear waste) aspects of the nuclear debate. Participants then completed a task that required them to create an electricity mix for the UK by varying the contributions made by each of five energy sources (coal, gas, nuclear, renewables and electric import). Study 1 seemed to indicate that pitching the debate in terms of climate change mitigation was effective in increasing endorsement of nuclear power. The results of studies 2 and 3, however, contested this conclusion, suggesting that these arguments were having little direct impact upon participants' preferences for nuclear power. The results of these studies hold implications for UK energy policy and attitude assessment and can contribute to the understanding of how the arguments used by government in the 2007 consultation might have influenced public opinion. - Highlights: ► Three studies investigate the acceptability of nuclear power in response to ‘framing’ used by government in 2007 UK consultation. ► Acceptability of nuclear power was compared against four energy sources in an ‘electricity calculator’ task. ► Study 1 showed an apparent increase in the endorsement of nuclear following climate change ‘framing’. ► Studies 2 and 3 contradict this finding, suggesting that ‘framing’ had a limited direct effect on preferences for nuclear power.

  12. Assessing national nutrition security: The UK reliance on imports to meet population energy and nutrient recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Clark, Heather; Whybrow, Stephen; de Ruiter, Henri; McNeill, Geraldine

    2018-01-01

    Nutrition security describes the adequacy of the food supply to meet not only energy but also macronutrient and micronutrient requirements for the population. The aim of this study was to develop a method to assess trends in national nutrition security and the contribution of imports to nutrition security, using the UK as a case study. Food supply data from FAO food balance sheets and national food composition tables were used to estimate the nutrient content of domestically produced food, imported food and exported food. Nutrition security was defined as the total nutrient supply (domestic production, minus exports, plus imports) to meet population-level nutrient requirements. The results showed that the UK was nutrition secure over the period 1961-2011 for energy, macronutrients and key micronutrients, with the exception of total carbohydrates and fibre, which may be due to the loss of fibre incurred by processing cereals into refined products. The supply of protein exceeded population requirements and could be met with domestic production alone. Even excluding all meat there was sufficient protein for population requirements. The supply of total fat, saturated fat and sugar considerably exceeded the current dietary recommendation. As regards nutrition security in 2010, the UK was reliant on imported foods to meet energy, fibre, total carbohydrate, iron, zinc and vitamin A requirements. This analysis demonstrates the importance of including nutrients other than energy to determine the adequacy of the food supply. The methodology also provides an alternative perspective on food security and self-sufficiency by assessing the dependency on imports to meet population level nutritional requirements.

  13. The role of the National Physical Laboratory in monitoring and improving dosimetry in UK radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.A.S.; Duane, S.; McEwen, M.R.; Rosser, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the UK, the National Physical Laboratory, in collaboration with the Institute for Physics and Engineering in Medicine operates an audit programme to ensure national consistency in radiotherapy dosimetry. The present programme covers dosimetry of megavoltage photons and electrons (3-19 MeV) and low and medium energy (10-300 kV) photons. The aim of each audit is to verify the local measurement of absorbed dose at the radiotherapy centre. The audit measurements - principally beam quality and linac output - are made following the same protocol as the clinic but using different equipment. The audit is not an absolute measurement of the absorbed dose but amounts to a check that the equipment used by the centre is operating as expected and that the Code of Practice is being followed correctly. The protocols used in the UK are IPSM 1990 for high-energy photons, IPEMB 1996 for electrons and IPEMB 1996 for low energy photons. For the purpose of these audits, NPL maintains a set of calibrated ionisation chambers

  14. National Service Frameworks and UK general practitioners: street-level bureaucrats at work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath

    2004-11-01

    This paper argues that the past decade has seen significant changes in the nature of medical work in general practice in the UK. Increasing pressure to use normative clinical guidelines and the move towards explicit quantitative measures of performance together have the potential to alter the way in which health care is delivered to patients. Whilst it is possible to view these developments from the well-established sociological perspectives of deprofessionalisation and proletarianisation, this paper takes a view of general practice as work, and uses the ideas of Lipsky to analyse practice-level responses to some of these changes. In addition to evidence-based clinical guidelines, National Service Frameworks, introduced by the UK government in 1997, also specify detailed models of service provision that health care providers are expected to follow. As part of a larger study examining the impact of National Service Frameworks in general practice, the response of three practices to the first four NSFs were explored. The failure of NSFs to make a significant impact is compared to the practices' positive responses to purely clinical guidelines such as those developed by the British Hypertension Society. Lipsky's concept of public service workers as 'street-level bureaucrats' is discussed and used as a framework within which to view these findings.

  15. Vegaphobia: derogatory discourses of veganism and the reproduction of speciesism in UK national newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew; Morgan, Karen

    2011-03-01

    This paper critically examines discourses of veganism in UK national newspapers in 2007. In setting parameters for what can and cannot easily be discussed, dominant discourses also help frame understanding. Discourses relating to veganism are therefore presented as contravening commonsense, because they fall outside readily understood meat-eating discourses. Newspapers tend to discredit veganism through ridicule, or as being difficult or impossible to maintain in practice. Vegans are variously stereotyped as ascetics, faddists, sentimentalists, or in some cases, hostile extremists. The overall effect is of a derogatory portrayal of vegans and veganism that we interpret as 'vegaphobia'. We interpret derogatory discourses of veganism in UK national newspapers as evidence of the cultural reproduction of speciesism, through which veganism is dissociated from its connection with debates concerning nonhuman animals' rights or liberation. This is problematic in three, interrelated, respects. First, it empirically misrepresents the experience of veganism, and thereby marginalizes vegans. Second, it perpetuates a moral injury to omnivorous readers who are not presented with the opportunity to understand veganism and the challenge to speciesism that it contains. Third, and most seriously, it obscures and thereby reproduces exploitative and violent relations between human and nonhuman animals. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  16. Data on Income inequality in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, and other affluent nations, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorling, Danny

    2015-12-01

    This data article contains information on the distribution of household incomes in the five most populous European countries as surveyed in 2012, with data released in 2014 and published here aggregated and so further anonymized in 2015. The underlying source data is the already anonymized EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EUSILC) Microdata. The data include the annual household income required in each country to fall within the best-off 1% in that country, median and mean incomes, average (mean) incomes of the best off 1%, 0.1% and estimates for the 0.01%, 0.001% and so on for the UK, and of the 90% and worse-off 10%, the best-off 10% and best-off 1% of households for all countries. Average income from the state is also calculated by these income categories and the number of people working in finance and receiving over €1,000,000 a year in income is reported from other sources (the European Banking Authority). Finally income distribution data is provided from the USA and the rest of Europe in order to allow comparisons to be made. The data revealed the gross household (simple unweighted) median incomes in 2012 to have been (in order from best-off country by median to worse-off): France €39,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €36,300, Italy €33,400 and Spain €27,000. However the medians, once households are weighted to reflect the nation populations do differ although they are in the same order: France €36,000, Germany: €33,400, UK: €31,300, Italy €31,000 and Spain €23,700. Thus weighting to increase representativeness of the medians reduces each by €3000, €0, €5000, €3300 and €3300 respectively. In short, the middle (weighted median) French household is €4700 a year better off than the middle UK family, and that is before housing costs are considered. This Data in Brief article accompanies Dorling, D. (2015) Income Inequality in the UK: Comparisons with five large Western European countries and the USA [1].

  17. Consultations to formulate a UK perspective for planning of the Sixth Framework Nuclear (Fission) Energy Programme. Policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, L.; Moscrop, R.; Smedley, C.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides advice to the DETR and the Health and Safety Executive on the policy aspects of the Sixth European Framework Programme (FP6) for research and technological development. This advice is based on a consultation within the UK and other Member States and covers the areas of reactor safety, decommissioning and radioactive waste management. It is concluded that there is general support for FP6 across the UK nuclear industry. The specific benefits are seen to be improvements in the competitiveness of the UK nuclear industry through research on plant life extension, improvements to the safety of existing plants and research on radioactive waste management. The broad structure of FP5 does not appear to require fundamental change for FP6 to meet the requirements of the UK, with funding staying at roughly the same level. There is agreement on the need to improve on programme organisation and management to ensure better quality of output and value for money. There is also scope for improving the organisation of UK participation to maximise the UK benefit. Further work has been undertaken under a parallel phase of this project to identify the technical requirements for FP6. (author)

  18. Creating a National Nuclear Regulatory Authority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.

    2010-01-01

    For a number of reasons, countries throughout the world are now considering the development of new nuclear power programs. Whether it is to meet increased power requirements, lack of indigenous resources or environmental concerns, these countries are looking at nuclear power as a solution to their increasing energy needs. Such an undertaking will require a concerted effort by national industrial firms and several branches of government. This paper will look the various phases that encompass the development of a nuclear power program from the perspective of the human resources development. In short it will consider the following issues: Planning a Human Resource Development strategy; Establishing organization, roles and responsibilities; Establishing an Human Resource Development vision, mission, goals and objectives; Collecting and evaluating data for an HRD needs and resource assessment; Conducting a Human Resource Development needs and resource assessment; Determining short-, medium-, and long-term needs; Developing an implementation plan to address education, training, recruitment, retention and knowledge management; Establishing systems that monitor, evaluate and anticipate HRD needs as the nuclear program evolves; Funding and financing short- and long-term Human Resource Development efforts

  19. Exemption and clearance of radioactive waste from non-nuclear industry: A UK regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.O.

    1997-01-01

    In the UK radioactive substances are regulated by means of registrations and authorizations issued under the Radioactive Substances Act. For certain practices and types of radioactive materials, there are orders which allow exemption from registration/authorization, conditionally or unconditionally. The seventeen Exemption Orders in force cover a wide variety of types of radioactive materials and practices. Conditional Exemption Orders allow a degree of regulatory control without imposing undue burdens on users of radioactivity. For most orders, radiation doses to individuals would be about 1OμSv or less, and collective doses would be less than 1 man - Sievert. The UK is reviewing the exemption orders against the requirements of the 1996 Euratom Basic Safety Standards Directive. It intends to develop a coherent strategy for exemption and to rationalize the current orders. Recently there has been a degree of public concern over the release of items from the nuclear industry. Careful presentation of exemption and clearance concepts is necessary if public confidence in the regulatory system is to be maintained. (author)

  20. National emergency plan for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    The national emergency plan for nuclear accidents is a plan of action designed to provide a response to accidents involving the release or potential release of radioactive substances into the environment, which could give rise to radiation exposure to the public. The plan outlines the measures which are in place to assess and mitigate the effects of nuclear accidents which might pose a radiological hazard in ireland. It shows how accident management will operate, how technical information and monitoring data will be collected, how public information will be provided and what measures may be taken for the protection of the public in the short and long term. The plan can be integrated with the Department of Defence arrangements for wartime emergencies

  1. 100 years of STIs in the UK: a review of national surveillance data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Blomquist, Paula; Ogaz, Dana; Duffell, Stephen; Furegato, Martina; Checchi, Marta; Irvine, Neil; Wallace, Lesley A; Thomas, Daniel Rhys; Nardone, Anthony; Dunbar, J Kevin; Hughes, Gwenda

    2018-04-13

    The 1916 Royal Commission on Venereal Diseases was established in response to epidemics of syphilis and gonorrhoea in the UK. In the 100 years since the Venereal Diseases Act (1917), the UK has experienced substantial scientific, economic and demographic changes. We describe historical and recent trends in STIs in the UK. We analysed surveillance data derived from STI clinics' statistical returns from 1917 to 2016. Since 1918, gonorrhoea and syphilis diagnoses have fluctuated, reflecting social, economic and technological trends. Following spikes after World Wars I and II, rates declined before re-emerging during the 1960s. At that time, syphilis was more common in men, suggestive of transmission within the men who have sex with men (MSM) population. Behaviour change following the emergence of HIV/AIDS in the 1980s is thought to have facilitated a precipitous decline in diagnoses of both STIs in the mid-1980s. Since the early 2000s, gonorrhoea and syphilis have re-emerged as major public health concerns due to increased transmission among MSM and the spread of antimicrobial-resistant gonorrhoea. Chlamydia and genital warts are now the most commonly diagnosed STIs in the UK and have been the focus of public health interventions, including the national human papillomavirus vaccination programme, which has led to substantial declines in genital warts in young people, and the National Chlamydia Screening Programme in England. Since the 1980s, MSM, black ethnic minorities and young people have experienced the highest STI rates. Although diagnoses have fluctuated over the last century, STIs continue to be an important public health concern, often affecting more marginalised groups in society. Prevention must remain a public health priority and, as we enter a new era of sexual healthcare provision including online services, priority must be placed on maintaining prompt access for those at greatest risk of STIs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  2. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report presents results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out by DRPS during 1988. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). (author)

  3. Nuclear power plant decommissioning and radioactive waste management in the U.K.. A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, W.M.

    1993-01-01

    Effective control of the decommissioning and radioactive waste management of nuclear power plant in United Kingdom are introduced. The Government established the legislative framework and national strategy, operators provided the necessary skills and equipment for implementation, and the regulators used the legislative controls to ensure a safe system of work is achieved and maintained

  4. U.K. nuclear data progress report for the period January-December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, D.J.S.

    1983-04-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the United Kingdom Nuclear data Committee and presents contributions from the Harwell and Winfrith Laboratories of the UKAEA, the National Physical Laboratory, the Birmingham Radiation Centre, the University of Birmingham, the University of Aston in Birmingham, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Liverpool. The report includes work from various collaborations between Harwell, Winfrith, the Universities of Birmingham, Manchester and Guelph (Canada) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, and between the National Physical Laboratory, the Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik (Vienna) and the Institute of Atomic Energy (Beijing). Contributions on ''Chemical Nuclear Data'' gathered by the Chemical Nuclear Data Committee are grouped under that heading. (author)

  5. Improving National Capability in Biogeochemical Flux Modelling: the UK Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVOp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, P.; Greene, S.; Freer, J. E.; Bloomfield, J.; Macleod, K.; Reaney, S. M.; Odoni, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    The best outcomes from watershed management arise where policy and mitigation efforts are underpinned by strong science evidence, but there are major resourcing problems associated with the scale of monitoring needed to effectively characterise the sources rates and impacts of nutrient enrichment nationally. The challenge is to increase national capability in predictive modelling of nutrient flux to waters, securing an effective mechanism for transferring knowledge and management tools from data-rich to data-poor regions. The inadequacy of existing tools and approaches to address these challenges provided the motivation for the Environmental Virtual Observatory programme (EVOp), an innovation from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). EVOp is exploring the use of a cloud-based infrastructure in catchment science, developing an exemplar to explore N and P fluxes to inland and coastal waters in the UK from grid to catchment and national scale. EVOp is bringing together for the first time national data sets, models and uncertainty analysis into cloud computing environments to explore and benchmark current predictive capability for national scale biogeochemical modelling. The objective is to develop national biogeochemical modelling capability, capitalising on extensive national investment in the development of science understanding and modelling tools to support integrated catchment management, and supporting knowledge transfer from data rich to data poor regions, The AERC export coefficient model (Johnes et al., 2007) has been adapted to function within the EVOp cloud environment, and on a geoclimatic basis, using a range of high resolution, geo-referenced digital datasets as an initial demonstration of the enhanced national capacity for N and P flux modelling using cloud computing infrastructure. Geoclimatic regions are landscape units displaying homogenous or quasi-homogenous functional behaviour in terms of process controls on N and P cycling

  6. Management of gout by UK rheumatologists: a British Society for Rheumatology national audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roddy, Edward; Packham, Jon; Obrenovic, Karen; Rivett, Ali; Ledingham, Joanna M

    2018-05-01

    To assess the concordance of gout management by UK rheumatologists with evidence-based best-practice recommendations. Data were collected on patients newly referred to UK rheumatology out-patient departments over an 8-week period. Baseline data included demographics, method of diagnosis, clinical features, comorbidities, urate-lowering therapy (ULT), prophylaxis and blood tests. Twelve months later, the most recent serum uric acid level was collected. Management was compared with audit standards derived from the 2006 EULAR recommendations, 2007 British Society for Rheumatology/British Health Professionals in Rheumatology guideline and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence febuxostat technology appraisal. Data were collected for 434 patients from 91 rheumatology departments (mean age 59.8 years, 82% male). Diagnosis was crystal-proven in 13%. Of 106 taking a diuretic, this was reduced/stopped in 29%. ULT was continued/initiated in 76% of those with one or more indication for ULT. One hundred and fifty-eight patients started allopurinol: the starting dose was most commonly 100 mg daily (82%); in those with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min the highest starting dose was 100 mg daily. Of 199 who started ULT, prophylaxis was co-prescribed for 94%. Fifty patients started a uricosuric or febuxostat: 84% had taken allopurinol previously. Of 44 commenced on febuxostat, 18% had a history of heart disease. By 12 months, serum uric acid levels ⩽360 and <300 μmol/l were achieved by 45 and 25%, respectively. Gout management by UK rheumatologists concords well with guidelines for most audit standards. However, fewer than half of patients achieved a target serum uric level over 12 months. Rheumatologists should help ensure that ULT is optimized to achieve target serum uric acid levels to benefit patients.

  7. Seismic risk control of nuclear power plants using seismic protection systems in stable continental regions: The UK case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medel-Vera, Carlos, E-mail: cbmedel@uc.cl; Ji, Tianjian, E-mail: tianjian.ji@manchester.ac.uk

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Strategies to reduce seismic risk for nuclear power stations in the UK are analysed. • Efficiency of devices to reduce risk: viscous-based higher than hysteretic-based. • Scenario-based incremental dynamic analysis is introduced for use in nuclear stations. • Surfaces of seismic unacceptable performance for nuclear stations are proposed. - Abstract: This article analyses three different strategies on the use of seismic protection systems (SPS) for nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the UK. Such strategies are based on the experience reported elsewhere of seismically protected nuclear reactor buildings in other stable continental regions. Analyses are conducted using an example of application based on a 1000 MW Pressurised Water Reactor building located in a representative UK nuclear site. The efficiency of the SPS is probabilistically assessed to achieve possible risk reduction for both rock and soil sites in comparison with conventionally constructed NPPs. Further analyses are conducted to study how the reduction of risk changes when all controlling scenarios of the site are included. This is done by introducing a scenario-based incremental dynamic analysis aimed at the generation of surfaces for unacceptable performance of NPPs as a function of earthquake magnitude (M{sub w}) and distance-to-site (R{sub epi}). General guidelines are proposed to potentially use SPS in future NPPs in the UK. Such recommendations can be used by the British nuclear industry in the future development of 12 new reactors to be built in the next two decades to generate 16 GWe of new nuclear capacity.

  8. Enacting open disclosure in the UK National Health Service: A qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; Birks, Yvonne; Bosanquet, Kate; Iedema, Rick

    2017-08-01

    Open and honest discussion between healthcare providers and patients and families affected by error is considered to be a central feature of high quality and safer patient care, evidenced by the implementation of open disclosure policies and guidance internationally. This paper discusses the perceived enablers that UK doctors and nurses report as facilitating the enactment of open disclosure. Semistructured interviews with 13 doctors and 22 nurses from a range of levels and specialities from 5 national health service hospitals and primary care trusts in the UK were conducted and analysed using a framework approach. Five themes were identified which appear to capture the factors that are critical in supporting open disclosure: open disclosure as a moral and professional duty, positive past experiences, perceptions of reduced litigation, role models and guidance, and clarity. Greater openness in relation to adverse events requires health professionals to recognise candour as a professional and moral duty, exemplified in the behaviour of senior clinicians and that seems more likely to occur in a nonpunitive, learning environment. Recognising incident disclosure as part of ongoing respectful and open communication with patients throughout their care is critical. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The impact of the UK National Minimum Wage on mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kronenberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an emerging literature, there is still sparse and mixed evidence on the wider societal benefits of Minimum Wage policies, including their effects on mental health. Furthermore, causal evidence on the relationship between earnings and mental health is limited. We focus on low-wage earners, who are at higher risk of psychological distress, and exploit the quasi-experiment provided by the introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage (NMW to identify the causal impact of wage increases on mental health. We employ difference-in-differences models and find that the introduction of the UK NMW had no effect on mental health. Our estimates do not appear to support earlier findings which indicate that minimum wages affect mental health of low-wage earners. A series of robustness checks accounting for measurement error, as well as treatment and control group composition, confirm our main results. Overall, our findings suggest that policies aimed at improving the mental health of low-wage earners should either consider the non-wage characteristics of employment or potentially larger wage increases.

  10. The impact of the UK National Minimum Wage on mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Christoph; Jacobs, Rowena; Zucchelli, Eugenio

    2017-12-01

    Despite an emerging literature, there is still sparse and mixed evidence on the wider societal benefits of Minimum Wage policies, including their effects on mental health. Furthermore, causal evidence on the relationship between earnings and mental health is limited. We focus on low-wage earners, who are at higher risk of psychological distress, and exploit the quasi-experiment provided by the introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage (NMW) to identify the causal impact of wage increases on mental health. We employ difference-in-differences models and find that the introduction of the UK NMW had no effect on mental health. Our estimates do not appear to support earlier findings which indicate that minimum wages affect mental health of low-wage earners. A series of robustness checks accounting for measurement error, as well as treatment and control group composition, confirm our main results. Overall, our findings suggest that policies aimed at improving the mental health of low-wage earners should either consider the non-wage characteristics of employment or potentially larger wage increases.

  11. Earthquake response spectra for seismic design of nuclear power plants in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommer, Julian J.; Papaspiliou, Myrto; Price, Warren

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Seismic design of UK nuclear power plants usually based on PML response spectra. → We review derivation of PML spectra in terms of earthquake data used and procedure. → The data include errors and represent a small fraction of what is now available. → Seismic design loads in current practice are derived as mean uniform hazard spectra. → The need to capture epistemic uncertainty makes use of single equation indefensible. - Abstract: Earthquake actions for the seismic design of nuclear power plants in the United Kingdom are generally based on spectral shapes anchored to peak ground acceleration (PGA) values obtained from a single predictive equation. Both the spectra and the PGA prediction equation were derived in the 1980s. The technical bases for these formulations of seismic loading are now very dated if compared with the state-of-the-art in this field. Alternative spectral shapes are explored and the options, and the associated benefits and challenges, for generating uniform hazard response spectra instead of fixed shapes anchored to PGA are discussed.

  12. Leukaemia mortality in three UK nuclear industry workforces: comparison with the BEIR V model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, Lucy; Higgins, Craig; Douglas, Allison; Fraser, Patricia; Smith, Peter; Omar, Rumana; Beral, Valerie

    1995-01-01

    Our previous comparison of risk of death from leukaemia associated with external radiation dose in over 75000 UK nuclear industry workers with that for adult Japanese atomic bomb survivors reported by UNSCEAR in 1988, suggested that the estimated excess relative risk per Sv in the two populations was similar (ratio of risks = 1.1, 90% confidence interval +0.2 to +3.1). The further analysis described here, which compares leukaemia risk in the workers with that predicted by the linear term of the BEIR V model for leukaemia, resulted in a ratio of 1.3 (90% confidence interval -0.2 to +4.5). Leukaemia risk in this population of nuclear industry workers is therefore consistent with that predicted by the BEIR V model. That our data are also compatible with risks from zero to around five times those predicted by this model demonstrates that even a very substantial occupational cohort such as ours can provide only a limited amount of information about the magnitude of leukaemia risks in adults exposed to low doses of external radiation relative to those exposed to high doses and high dose rates. (author)

  13. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Casey, E.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by Defence Radiological Protection Service (DRPS) during 1989. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1989 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. These findings have been confirmed by independent monitoring undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. (author)

  14. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by DRPS during 1991. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS and, as an Appendix, a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1991 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  15. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Casey, E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by Defence Radiological Protection Service (DRPS) during 1990. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS and, as an Appendix, a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1990 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  16. International coal and the future of nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The future international price of coal is a central issue in the economic comparison of coal-fired and nuclear power stations. However, this is very difficult to estimate as prices are uncertain and subject to wide margins of error. Recent trends are discussed. The increase in the seaborne steam coal trade is one trend. Although only about 5% of steam coal is traded, this is mainly in the Far East and in Western Europe. It is steam coal prices which are relevant in considering nuclear economies. The structure of the international steam coal market is explained. An assessment of future prices of steam coal considers both demand and supply. The delivered cost of steam coal to N.W. Europe in 1986 is shown - the main suppliers being Australia, Colombia, South Africa and the USA. China and Poland are also exporters of steam coal. Currently, there is an over-supply which is keeping the price low. However, as demand increases prices are likely to rise in the 1990s but with upper limits depending on the total volume of trade. Thirteen graphs or maps illustrate the figures on which the discussion and conclusions are based. (UK)

  17. Proposed Nuclear Power Plants in the UK-Potential Radiological Implications for Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahon, C.; Kelleher, K.; McGinnity, P.; Organo, C.; Smith, K.; Currivan, L.; Ryan, T.

    2013-05-15

    The UK Government has identified up to eight locations for the construction of new nuclear power plants by 2025. Five of these locations are on the Irish Sea coast. The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, RPII was requested by the Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government to undertake an assessment of the potential radiological impacts on Ireland from this New Build Programme. This report presents the findings of the potential impacts on Ireland of both the anticipated routine radioactive discharges and of a range of postulated nuclear accident scenarios. The following points are the principal findings of the report. Given the prevailing wind direction in Ireland, radioactive contamination in the air, either from routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants or accidental releases, will most often be transported away from Ireland. The routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants will have no measurable radiological impact on Ireland or the Irish marine environment. The severe accident scenarios assessed ranged in their estimated frequency of occurrance from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 33 million per year. The assessment used a weather pattern that maximised the transfer of radioactivity to Ireland. For the severe accident scenarios assessed, food controls or agriculture protective measures would generally be required in Ireland to reduce exposure of the population so as to mitigate potential long-term health effects. In the accident scenario with an estimated 1 in 33 million chance of occurring, short-term measures such as staying indoors would also be advised as a precautionary measure. In general, the accidents with higher potential impact on Ireland are the ones least likely to occur. Regardless of the radiological impact, any accident at the proposed nuclear power plants leading to an increase of radioactivity levels in Ireland would have a socio-economic impact on Ireland. A major accidental release of radioactivity to

  18. Proposed Nuclear Power Plants in the UK-Potential Radiological Implications for Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, C.; Kelleher, K.; McGinnity, P.; Organo, C.; Smith, K.; Currivan, L.; Ryan, T.

    2013-05-01

    The UK Government has identified up to eight locations for the construction of new nuclear power plants by 2025. Five of these locations are on the Irish Sea coast. The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, RPII was requested by the Minister for the Environment, Community and Local Government to undertake an assessment of the potential radiological impacts on Ireland from this New Build Programme. This report presents the findings of the potential impacts on Ireland of both the anticipated routine radioactive discharges and of a range of postulated nuclear accident scenarios. The following points are the principal findings of the report. Given the prevailing wind direction in Ireland, radioactive contamination in the air, either from routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants or accidental releases, will most often be transported away from Ireland. The routine operation of the proposed nuclear power plants will have no measurable radiological impact on Ireland or the Irish marine environment. The severe accident scenarios assessed ranged in their estimated frequency of occurrance from 1 in 50,000 to 1 in 33 million per year. The assessment used a weather pattern that maximised the transfer of radioactivity to Ireland. For the severe accident scenarios assessed, food controls or agriculture protective measures would generally be required in Ireland to reduce exposure of the population so as to mitigate potential long-term health effects. In the accident scenario with an estimated 1 in 33 million chance of occurring, short-term measures such as staying indoors would also be advised as a precautionary measure. In general, the accidents with higher potential impact on Ireland are the ones least likely to occur. Regardless of the radiological impact, any accident at the proposed nuclear power plants leading to an increase of radioactivity levels in Ireland would have a socio-economic impact on Ireland. A major accidental release of radioactivity to

  19. A national survey of the effects of fatigue on trainees in anaesthesia in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, L; Holland, J; Lomas, J-P; Redfern, N; Plunkett, E

    2017-09-01

    Long daytime and overnight shifts remain a major feature of working life for trainees in anaesthesia. Over the past 10 years, there has been an increase in awareness and understanding of the potential effects of fatigue on both the doctor and the patient. The Working Time Regulations (1998) implemented the European Working Time Directive into UK law, and in August 2009 it was applied to junior doctors, reducing the maximum hours worked from an average of 56 per week to 48. Despite this, there is evidence that problems with inadequate rest and fatigue persist. There is no official guidance regarding provision of a minimum standard of rest facilities for doctors in the National Health Service, and the way in which rest is achieved by trainee anaesthetists during their on-call shift depends on rota staffing and workload. We conducted a national survey to assess the incidence and effects of fatigue among the 3772 anaesthetists in training within the UK. We achieved a response rate of 59% (2231/3772 responses), with data from 100% of NHS trusts. Fatigue remains prevalent among junior anaesthetists, with reports that it has effects on physical health (73.6% [95%CI 71.8-75.5]), psychological wellbeing (71.2% [69.2-73.1]) and personal relationships (67.9% [65.9-70.0]). The most problematic factor remains night shift work, with many respondents commenting on the absence of breaks, inadequate rest facilities and 57.0% (55.0-59.1) stating they had experienced an accident or near-miss when travelling home from night shifts. We discuss potential explanations for the results, and present a plan to address the issues raised by this survey, aiming to change the culture around fatigue for the better. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Climate change, energy security, and risk-debating nuclear new build in Finland, France and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraevaeinen, Tuula; Lehtonen, Markku; Martiskainen, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about climate change and energy security have been major arguments used to justify the recent return of nuclear power as a serious electricity generation option in various parts of the world. This article examines the recent public discussion in Finland, France, and the UK - three countries currently in the process of constructing or planning new nuclear power stations. To place the public discussion on nuclear power within the relationship between policy discourses and contexts, the article addresses three interrelated themes: the justifications and discursive strategies employed by nuclear advocates and critics, the similarities and differences in debates between the three countries, and the interaction between the country-specific state orientations and the argumentation concerning nuclear power. Drawing from documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews, the article identifies and analyses key discursive strategies and their use in the context of the respective state orientations: 'technology-and-industry-know-best' in Finland, 'government-knows-best' in France, and 'markets-know-best' in the UK. The nuclear debates illustrate subtle ongoing transformations in these orientations, notably in the ways in which the relations between markets, the state, and civil society are portrayed in the nuclear debates. - Highlights: → Focus on argumentation on new nuclear power in Finland, France, and the UK. → Nuclear power is justified by climate change, energy security, and independence. → The credibility of discursive strategies varies across countries. → Country-specific state orientations shape the success of discursive strategies. → Discursive strategies contain normative claims about state-society relations.

  1. Prostatic pathology reporting in the UK: development of a national external quality assurance scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnden, P; Coleman, D; Moss, S; Kodikara, S; Patnick, J; Melia, J

    2008-01-01

    To develop a baseline picture of prostatic pathology reporting in the UK, identify areas of particular difficulty and assess the feasibility of a national external quality assurance scheme based on prostatic biopsy specimens using the same format as the National Health Service breast pathology scheme, as recommended by the National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Eight expert uropathologists and 32 randomly selected pathologists participated in four circulations each of 12 cases of prostatic biopsy specimens. A fixed text proforma was developed and responses were analysed for interobserver agreement using kappa statistics. Consistency of reporting the main diagnostic categories of benign and invasive carcinoma was good (kappa values 0.77 and 0.88, respectively), but only after excluding 19% of cases for which the experts did not reach 75% agreement. Areas of difficulty included the diagnosis of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and small foci of cancer. Prognostic factor reporting was more variable, with lower overall kappas for the assessment of Gleason grading (experts 0.55, others 0.50), perineural invasion (experts 0.64, others 0.50) and number of positive cores (experts 0.74, others 0.61). Given the difficulties in diagnosis of prostatic biopsy specimens and the assessment of prognostic factors, the expansion of the scheme could deliver important educational benefits.

  2. Current and future delivery of diagnostic electron microscopy in the UK: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Tracey; Furness, Peter

    2012-04-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) remains essential to delivering several specialist areas of diagnosis, especially the interpretation of native renal biopsies. However, there is anecdotal evidence of EM units struggling to survive, for a variety of reasons. The authors sought to obtain objective evidence of the extent and the causes of this problem. An online survey was undertaken of Fellows of the Royal College of Pathologists who use EM in diagnosis. A significant number of EM units anticipate having to close and hence outsource their EM work in the coming years. Yet most existing units are working to full capacity and would be unable to take on the substantial amounts of extra work implied by other units outsourcing their needs. Equipment and staffing are identified by most EM units as the major barriers to growth and are also the main reasons cited for units facing potential closure. In the current financial climate it seems unlikely that units will be willing to make the large investment in equipment and staff needed to take on extra work, unless they can be reasonably confident of an acceptable financial return as a result of increased external referral rates. The case is thus made for a degree of national coordination of the future provision of this specialist service, possibly through the National Commissioning Group or the new National Commissioning Board. Without this, the future of diagnostic EM services in the UK is uncertain. Its failure would pose a threat to good patient care.

  3. An overview of course offered by the USA, UK and France to support Nuclear Power Program (NPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2012-01-01

    In her presentation, speaker address a topic on nuclear education that offered by USA, UK and France to support nuclear power program. Her presentation actually assist students that are willing to explore several courses related to nuclear energy and its application. The speaker also explained briefly the impact of major nuclear accidents such as Fukushima that can influence the participation of students to study in these fields. She also outlines several nuclear stake holders and also some activities to support nuclear application such as planning, research, engineering, environmental impact assessment and others. She also explain in detail the needs to develop human capital especially for this field. At the end of her lectures, she tried to suggest several recommendations so that the audients can use in order to review their own strategies and planning for future training and studies. (author)

  4. 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ning; Zhou, Shan-Gui; Nuclear Structure in China 2014; NSC2014

    2016-01-01

    This volume is a collection of the contributions to the 15th National Conference on Nuclear Structure in China (NSC2014), held on October 25-28, 2014 in Guilin, China and hosted by Guangxi Normal University. It provides an important updated resource in the nuclear physics literature for researchers and graduate students studying nuclear structure and related topics. Recent progress made in the study of nuclear spectroscopy of high-spin states, nuclear mass and half-life, nuclear astrophysics, super-heavy nuclei, unstable nuclei, density functional theory, neutron star and symmetry energy, nuclear matter, and nuclear shell model are covered.

  5. Radiological protection and radioactive waste management aspects of the decommissioning of redundant nuclear facilities at the Rosyth Dockyard, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, Robert W.; Murdo Murray; Hunter Common

    2008-01-01

    The Rosyth Dockyard is located near the city of Edinburgh in Scotland. The dockyard's nuclear activities centred around the refuelling and refitting of submarines, as well as some submarine decommissioning. In 1993, submarine refitting work was transferred to Devonport in Southern England. This meant that there were a number of facilities at the Rosyth Dockyard that were now redundant. In accordance with UK government policy a programme of works was instigated to allow for the decommissioning of these nuclear liabilities. This paper provides a brief overview of work activities performed to allow physical decommissioning to take place. Topics covered include radiological characterisation activities, development of monitoring protocols for decommissioning, obtaining relevant environmental authorisations, developing a decommissioning safety case, gaining the UK's Nuclear Installations Inspectorate approval to proceed with decommissioning and an overview of some of the post operative clean out (POCO) activities performed. Edmund Nuttall Ltd were contracted to perform the physical decommissioning of the redundant nuclear facilities, that have been subject to POCO, and this work commenced in February 2006. As part of this contract they were to provide a radiological protection infrastructure including dosimetry and health physics monitoring. This paper discusses the radiological protection infrastructure established by the decommissioning contractor, the radiological protection aspects of the decommissioning work, some of the tools and techniques utilised to date during the nuclear decommissioning, and the radioactive waste management processes established for the project. All activities are referenced to relevant aspects of UK nuclear industry best practice and to the Scottish, UK and European regulatory framework. The progress to date is discussed and lessons that have been learnt are highlighted. (author)

  6. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  7. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library

  8. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library.

  9. The role of the University in relation to the nuclear industry is apparently very different in the U.S. and U.K. - is this appropriate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.S.; Young, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    We do not set out to provide answers but hope to stimulate discussion in those areas where we think that there could be a change in the role of the University in relation to the Nuclear Industry. The development of the U.S. and U.K. Nuclear Industries is briefly reviewed to illustrate differences in the funding, organisation and implementation of the research, design and construction, operation and regulation functions in the two countries. The centralised British scene contrasts strongly with the American one, and it is suggested that in limited but important technical areas there is scope for significantly closer association between the Industry and the Universities in the country. This would lead to a broader based national framework with which to meet the growing pressures for independent assessment, comment and advice. There are potential dangers in an indiscriminate or unbalanced association, and these are identified. (author)

  10. Hazard of household cleaning products: a study undertaken by the UK National Poisons Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Hayley; Moyns, Emma; Bateman, D Nicholas; Thomas, Simon H L; Thompson, John P; Vale, J Allister

    2012-09-01

    To ascertain the reported toxicity of current United Kingdom (UK) household products following the launch of new products, such as liquid detergent capsules, and the manufacture of more concentrated formulations. Between 1 March 2008 and 30 April 2009 the UK National Poisons Information Service (NPIS) collected prospectively 5939 telephone enquiries relating to household products, approximately 10% of all telephone enquiries received over this period. The majority of enquiries (n = 3893; 65.5%) concerned children 5 years of age or less and were received predominantly from hospitals (n = 1905; 32.1%), general practitioners (n = 1768; 29.8%) and NHS Direct/NHS 24 (n = 1694; 28.5%). The majority of exposures occurred at home (n = 5795; 97.6%); most exposures were accidental (n = 5561; 93.6%). Liquid detergent capsules were most commonly involved (n = 647), followed by bleaches (n = 481), air fresheners (n = 429), multipurpose cleaners (n = 408), dishwasher products (n = 399) and descalers (n = 397). Exposure to household products occurred mainly as a result of ingestion (n = 4616; 75.8%), with eye contact (n = 513; 8.4%), inhalation (n = 420; 6.9%) and skin contact (n = 187; 3.1%) being less common; 5.1% (n = 313) of enquiries involved multiple routes of exposure. The most commonly reported features were vomiting (ingestion), pain (eye contact), dyspnoea (inhalation) and burns (skin contact). In 5840 of 5939 enquiries the Poisoning Severity Score (PSS) was known. The majority of patients (n = 4117; 70.5%) were asymptomatic (PSS 0), 28.0% (n = 1638) developed minor features (PSS 1), 1.3% (75 patients) developed moderate features (PSS 2) and 0.15% (nine patients) developed serious features (PSS 3). Four of these nine patients made a complete recovery, two died from exposure to drain cleaner and PVC solvent cleaner; the outcome in three was unknown. In the UK, advice from the NPIS is sought commonly regarding household products, but such exposures only rarely result in

  11. UK national clinical audit: management of pregnancies in women with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Raffe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential for HIV transmission between a pregnant woman and her unborn child was first recognized in 1982. Since then a complex package of measures to reduce risk has been developed. This project aims to review UK management of HIV in pregnancy as part of the British HIV Association (BHIVA audit programme. Methods The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC, a population-based surveillance study, provided data for pregnancies with an expected delivery date from 1/1/13 - 30/6/14. Services also completed a survey on local management policies. Data were audited against the 2012 BHIVA pregnancy guidelines. Results During the audit period 1483 pregnancies were reported and 112 services completed the survey. Use of dedicated multidisciplinary teams was reported by 99% although 26% included neither a specialist midwife nor nurse. 17% of services reported delays >1 week for HIV specialist review of women diagnosed antenatally. Problematic urgent HIV testing had been experienced by 9% of services although in a further 49% the need for urgent testing had not arisen. Delays of >2 h in obtaining urgent results were common. Antiretroviral therapy (ART was started during pregnancy in 37% women with >94% regimens in accordance with guidelines. Late ART initiation was common, particularly in those with a low CD4 count or high viral load. Eleven percent of services reported local policy contrary to guidelines regarding delivery mode for women with a VL <50 copies/mL at ≥36 weeks. According to NSHPC reports 27% of women virologically eligible for vaginal delivery planned to deliver by CS. Conclusions Pregnant women in the UK are managed largely in accordance with BHIVA guidelines. Improvements are needed to ensure timely referral and ART initiation to ensure the best possible outcomes.

  12. General framework and key technologies of national nuclear emergency system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Feng; Li Xudong; Zhu Guangying; Song Yafeng; Zeng Suotian; Shen Lifeng

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear emergency is the important safeguard for the sustainable development of nuclear energy, and is the significant part of national public crisis management. The paper gives the definition of nuclear emergency system explicitly based on the analysis of the characteristics of the nuclear emergency, and through the research of the structure and general framework, the general framework of the national nuclear emergency management system (NNEMS) is obtained, which is constructed in four parts, including one integrative platform, six layers, eight applications and two systems, then the paper indicate that the architecture of national emergency system that should be laid out by three-tiers, i.e. national, provincial and organizations with nuclear facilities, and also describe the functions of the NNEMS on the nuclear emergency's workflow. Finally, the paper discuss the key technology that NNIEMS needed, such as WebGIS, auxiliary decision-making, digitalized preplan and the conformity and usage of resources, and analyze the technical principle in details. (authors)

  13. Does national scale economic and environmental indicators spur logistics performance? Evidence from UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Syed Abdul Rehman; Qianli, Dong

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between national economic and environmental indicators with green logistics performance in a time series data of UK since 1981 to 2016. The research used autoregressive distributed lag method to understand the long-run and short-run relationships of national scale economic (foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, per capita income) and environmental indicators (total greenhouse gases, fossil fuel, and renewable energy) on green logistics. In the short run, the research findings indicate that the green logistics and renewable energy have positive relationship, while fossil fuel is negatively correlated with green logistics operations. On the other hand, in the long run, the results show that FDI inflows, renewable energy sources, and per capita income have statistically significant and positive association with green logistics activities, while foreign investments attracted by environmental friendly policies and practices adopted in global logistics operations, which not only increase the environmental sustainability but also enhance economic activities with greater export opportunities in the region.

  14. Proceedings of 8. national conference on nuclear electronic and nuclear detection technology: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 8th National Conference on Nuclear Electronics and Nuclear Detection Technology was held during 2-7, 12, 1996 in Zhuhai, Guangdong, China. 184 pieces of papers were collected in the conference proceedings. The contents of the conference proceedings are: nuclear electronics, nuclear detectors, nuclear instruments and its application, nuclear medical electronics, computer applications in nuclear sciences and technology, measurement of nuclear monitoring and nuclear explosion, radiation hardened electronics, liquid scintillation counting techniques and miscellaneous. Reported hereafter is the first part of the proceedings

  15. Approach for Establishing a National Nuclear Forensics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Hyung, Sangcheol

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number could give rise to posing a potential threat to national infrastructure which is very vulnerable to radiological sabotage with the materials. International community has been emphasizing the importance of nuclear forensics through the Nuclear Security Summit process as a countermeasure against nuclear terrorism. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT) and nuclear forensics International Technology Working Group(ITWG) suggest the establishment of national nuclear forensics system which has a law enforcement for forensic management and maintenance of nuclear forensics database including nuclear material and other radioactive materials. We suggest the legal and institutional system through this paper in an effort to set up a multi expert group and the nuclear forensics DB which can contribute to effective Core capabilities

  16. Approach for Establishing a National Nuclear Forensics System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaekwang; Hyung, Sangcheol [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The increasing number could give rise to posing a potential threat to national infrastructure which is very vulnerable to radiological sabotage with the materials. International community has been emphasizing the importance of nuclear forensics through the Nuclear Security Summit process as a countermeasure against nuclear terrorism. Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT) and nuclear forensics International Technology Working Group(ITWG) suggest the establishment of national nuclear forensics system which has a law enforcement for forensic management and maintenance of nuclear forensics database including nuclear material and other radioactive materials. We suggest the legal and institutional system through this paper in an effort to set up a multi expert group and the nuclear forensics DB which can contribute to effective Core capabilities.

  17. Nuclear terrorism: Identifying and combating the risks. International conference on nuclear security, 16 March 2005, London, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2005-01-01

    Security strategies, for many centuries, have been based on boundaries: the strategic placement of cities and borders to take advantage of natural barriers; defences that relied on walls, trenches and armadas; and the use of ethnic, religious or other groupings to distinguish friend from foe. In the 20th Century, the advent of airplanes, submarines and ballistic missiles began to undermine this approach to security by enabling the remote delivery of destruction on a scale previously not envisioned. But the change that has altered the international security landscape the most drastically is, in fact, globalization. The global community has become interdependent, with the constant movement of people, ideas and goods. Many aspects of modern life, communication, the global marketplace and, most recently, the rise in international terrorism - clearly indicate that our understanding of and approaches to national and international security must be adjusted, in keeping with new realities. This statement discusses: Nuclear Security and the Protection Against Nuclear Terrorism, IAEA Nuclear Security Plan of Activities founded on measures to guard against thefts of nuclear and other radioactive material and to protect related facilities against malicious acts; cooperation with other organizations and efforts

  18. Virtual colonoscopy training and accreditation: a national survey of radiologist experience and attitudes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burling, D.; Moore, A.; Taylor, S.; La Porte, S.; Marshall, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Expert consensus recommends directed training and possibly in the future, formal accreditation before independent virtual colonoscopy (VC) reporting. We surveyed radiologists' experience of VC training, compared with barium enema, and assessed attitudes towards accreditation. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was sent to 78 consultant radiologists from 72 centres (65 National Health Service hospitals; seven independent primary screening centres) offering a VC service. Results: Fifty-four (69%) eligible radiologists responded. They had interpreted 18,152 examinations (range 3-1500) in total versus 232,350 (13 times more) barium enemas. Twenty-two (41%) deemed their VC training as inadequate [including five (45%) of screening centre radiologists], and only 14 (26%) had attended a training workshop due to lack of availability (54%) or financial/study leave constraints (24%). Eleven (20%) radiologists routinely double-reported VC examinations versus 37 (69%) barium enemas, yet 21 (39%) considered requirements for VC training were greater than barium enema. Thirty-eight (70%) favoured accreditation beyond internal audit for VC versus 15(28%) for barium enema. Of these 38, seven (18%) favoured 'one-off,' and 18 (47%) periodic testing, with 16 (42%) favouring external audit alone or in combination with testing. Overall, 42 (78%) considered specific accreditation for reporting screening examinations appropriate and 45 (83%) respondents preferred a national radiological organization to regulate such a scheme. Conclusion: There is wide variability in reporting experience and recommendations for VC training have not been widely adopted, in part due to limited access to dedicated workshops. UK radiologists are generally in favour of VC accreditation, governed by a national radiology organization

  19. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I.

    2004-01-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea

  20. Regional, national and international security requirements for the transport of nuclear cargo by sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, P.A.; Barnwell, I. [Marine Operations, BNFL International Transport and British Nuclear Group Security (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nuclear age in the 1940's, the world has focused on the immense possibilities of nuclear power with both its destructive and productive capabilities. The civil nuclear industry in the UK, as in most nuclear weapons states, grew from the military facilities built in the post war years under the political climate of the Cold War. In the early years of the industry, civil and defence nuclear facilities were inextricably linked both in public perceptions and the regulatory infrastructure under which they operated. The nuclear arms race and the spread of communism overshadowed people's perceptions of there being two separate uses of nuclear material. This was a double edged sword which initially allowed the industry to develop largely unhindered by public concerns but latterly meant the industry could not break away from its roots and to many is still perceived as a dangerous and destructive force. Regulatory frameworks governing all aspects of the industry have developed both nationally and internationally driven by valid public concerns, political agendas and an international consensus that the unregulated use of nuclear material has catastrophic possibilities on an international scale. With the internationalisation of the civil nuclear industry and the costs associated with developing facilities to fully support each stage of the fuel cycle, from enrichment, fuel manufacturing, reprocessing and waste remediation, it became inevitable that a transport infrastructure would develop to make best use of the facilities. Regulations, both national and international are implicit in ensuring the security of nuclear material in transit. Due to the physical size of many of the irradiated fuel packages and implications of the changes to transport safety regulations, international transports of nuclear material, other than within mainland Europe, is predominantly carried out by sea.

  1. National report of Brazil on nuclear safety convention - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document was prepared for fulfilling the Brazilian obligations under the Convention on Nuclear Safety. Chapter 1 presents some historical aspects of the Brazilian nuclear policy, targets to be attained for increasing the nuclear energy contribution for the national production of electric energy

  2. Overview of nuclear export policies of major foreign supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The United States faces increased competition from foreign nuclear suppliers, including West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and possibly, in the near future, Japan. This general overview shows the differences and similarities in foreign nuclear supplier export requirements. It is based on summaries furnished by the Department of State covering the nuclear export policies and procedures of the major foreign supplier nations

  3. The Proceeding on National Seminar in Nuclear Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyeh Setiawan; Rochestri Sofyan; Nurlaila Z; Poppy Intan Tjahaja; Efrizon Umar; Muhayatun; Nanny K Oekar; Sudjatmi K Alfa; Dani Gustaman Syarif; Didi Gayani; Djoko Hadi P; Saeful Hidayat; Ari Darmawan Pasek; Nathanel P Tandian; Toto Hardianto

    2009-11-01

    The proceeding on national seminar in nuclear science and technology by National Atomic energy Agency held in Bandung on June 3, 2009. The topic of the seminar is the increasing the role of nuclear science and technology for the welfare. The proceeding consist of the article from BATAN participant as well as outside. (PPIN)

  4. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuras, Oliver, E-mail: oku@bgs.ac.uk [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Wilkinson, Paul B.; Meldrum, Philip I.; Oxby, Lucy S. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Uhlemann, Sebastian [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); ETH-Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute of Geophysics, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Chambers, Jonathan E. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Graham, James [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Smith, Nicholas T. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Central Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, Williamson Building, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Atherton, Nick [Sellafield Ltd, Albion Square, Swingpump Lane, Whitehaven CA28 7NE (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. - Graphical abstract: 3D fractional resistivity change (resistivity change Δρ divided by baseline resistivity ρ{sub 0}) image showing results of Stage 1 silo liquor simulant injection. The black line delineates the preferential flow path; green cylinders show regions of historic contamination found in sediment cores from ERT boreholes. - Highlights: • 4D geoelectrical monitoring at Sellafield detected and tracked simulated silo leaks. • ERT revealed likely pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the subsurface. • The method can reduce uncertainty in subsurface process models at nuclear sites. • Has been applied in this form at a UK nuclear licensed site for the first time • Study demonstrates value of 4D geophysics for nuclear decommissioning.

  5. The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security. Teacher's Guide. National Issues Forums in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tedd

    This teacher's guide is designed to accompany the National Issues Forums'"The Superpowers: Nuclear Weapons and National Security." Activities and ideas are provided to challenge students to debate and discuss the United States-Soviet related issues of nuclear weapons and national security. The guide is divided into sections that…

  6. Nuclear medicine at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Program at the Brookhaven National Laboratory seeks to develop new materials and methods for the investigation of human physiology and disease processes. Some aspects of this research are related to basic research of how radiopharmaceuticals work. Other aspects are directed toward direct applications as diagnostic agents. It is likely that cyclotron-produced positron emitting nuclides will assume greater importance in the next few years. This can be attributed to the ability to label biologically important molecules with high specific activity without affecting biological activity, using 11 C, 13 N, and 15 O. Large quantities of these short-lived nuclides can be administered without excessive radiation dose and newer instrumentation will permit reconstructive axial tomography, providing truly quantitative display of distribution of radioactivity. The 122 Xe- 122 I generator has the potential for looking at rapid dynamic processes. Another generator, the 68 Ge- 68 Ga generator produces a positron emitter for the use of those far removed from cyclotrons. The possibilities for 68 Ga radiopharmaceuticals are as numerous as those for /sup 99m/Tc diagnostic agents

  7. The UK National Health Service's 'innovation agenda': lessons on commercialisation and trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid; Cockbain, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The UK National Health Service (the 'NHS'), encouraged by the 2011 report Innovation Health and Wealth, Accelerating Adoption and Diffusion in the NHS, and empowered by the Health and Social Care Act 2012, is in the process of adopting a new agenda for stimulating innovation in healthcare. For this, the bodies, body materials, and confidential health information of NHS patients may be co-opted. We explain why this brings the NHS into a moral conflict with its basic goal of providing a universal healthcare service. Putting NHS databases at the disposal of industry, without addressing ethical concerns regarding the privacy, autonomy, and moral integrity of patients and without requiring a 'kick-back' to enhance the service that the NHS provides, is inappropriate. As this article shows, with reference to the commercial arena of direct-to-consumer genetic testing, it is crucial that patient and public trust in the NHS is not eroded. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The psychological contract: is the UK National Health Service a model employer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Sandra; Whiting, Fiona

    2007-05-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) is facing recruitment challenges that mean it will need to become an 'employer of choice' if it is to continue to attract high-quality employees. This paper reports the findings from a study focusing on allied health professional staff (n = 67), aimed at establishing the expectations of the NHS inherent in their current psychological contract and to consider whether the government's drive to make the NHS a model employer meets those expectations. The findings show that the most important aspects of the psychological contract were relational and based on the investment made in the employment relationship by both parties. The employment relationship was one of high involvement but also one where transactional contract items, such as pay, were still of some importance. Although the degree of employee satisfaction with the relational content of the psychological contract was relatively positive, there was, nevertheless, a mismatch between levels of importance placed on such aspects of the contract and levels of satisfaction, with employees increasingly placing greater emphasis on those items the NHS is having the greatest difficulty providing. Despite this apparent disparity between employee expectation and the fulfilment of those expectations, the overall health of the psychological contract was still high.

  9. Potential challenges facing distributed leadership in health care: evidence from the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Graeme; Beech, Nic; MacIntosh, Robert; Bushfield, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    The discourse of leaderism in health care has been a subject of much academic and practical debate. Recently, distributed leadership (DL) has been adopted as a key strand of policy in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, there is some confusion over the meaning of DL and uncertainty over its application to clinical and non-clinical staff. This article examines the potential for DL in the NHS by drawing on qualitative data from three co-located health-care organisations that embraced DL as part of their organisational strategy. Recent theorising positions DL as a hybrid model combining focused and dispersed leadership; however, our data raise important challenges for policymakers and senior managers who are implementing such a leadership policy. We show that there are three distinct forms of disconnect and that these pose a significant problem for DL. However, we argue that instead of these disconnects posing a significant problem for the discourse of leaderism, they enable a fantasy of leadership that draws on and supports the discourse. © 2014 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Proof of evidence by National Nuclear Corporation Limited for Sizewell 'B' public inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, N.L.

    1983-02-01

    The history, experience and capability of National Nuclear Corporation Limited (NNC) and the requirements for the Sizewell B PWR project are reviewed. A Joint Project Team comprising staff from NNC, Westinghouse, Bechtel and the CEGB has been formed to develop the design of the station and the safety case. It is concluded that Sizewell B will be economic in its own right and will equip NNC with expertise, experience and resources in PWR technology. The construction of Sizewell B will provide the experience on which future PWR projects can proceed with confidence. (U.K.)

  11. National Audit of Seizure management in Hospitals (NASH): results of the national audit of adult epilepsy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter A; Kirkham, Jamie J; Marson, Anthony G; Pearson, Mike G

    2015-03-31

    About 100,000 people present to hospitals each year in England with an epileptic seizure. How they are managed is unknown; thus, the National Audit of Seizure management in Hospitals (NASH) set out to assess prior care, management of the acute event and follow-up of these patients. This paper describes the data from the second audit conducted in 2013. 154 emergency departments (EDs) across the UK. Data from 4544 attendances (median age of 45 years, 57% men) showed that 61% had a prior diagnosis of epilepsy, 12% other neurological problems and 22% were first seizure cases. Each ED identified 30 consecutive adult cases presenting due to a seizure. Details were recorded of the patient's prior care, management at hospital and onward referral to neurological specialists onto an online database. Descriptive results are reported at national level. Of those with epilepsy, 498 (18%) were on no antiepileptic drug therapy and 1330 (48%) were on monotherapy. Assessments were often incomplete and witness histories were sought in only 759 (75%) of first seizure patients, 58% were seen by a senior doctor and 57% were admitted. For first seizure patients, advice on further seizure management was given to 264 (27%) and only 55% were referred to a neurologist or epilepsy specialist. For each variable, there was wide variability among sites that was not explicable. For the sites who partook in both audits, there was a trend towards better care in 2013, but this was small and dwarfed by the intersite variability. These results have parallels with the Sentinel Audit of Stroke performed a decade earlier. There is wide intersite variability in care covering the entire care pathway, and a need for better organised and accessible care for these patients. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - Value framework, its development and role in decision making - 16399

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, Mark

    2009-01-01

    As part of its day to day business NDA must be able to demonstrate that it is delivering value for money across its entire estate, as this is essential to securing funding from government and demonstrating to stakeholders that NDA is delivering on its mission. Value comes in many forms such as an improved environment, hazard reduction, changes in sky line, social amenities, money, employment etc. Depending on the perspective of the receiver, and their closeness to the affected area, the relative weighting they place on the different aspects of value will vary. Therefore the challenge to NDA has been how to get a consistent approach to measuring value that is broadly acceptable to stakeholders and allows the different aspects of value to be compared and decisions made on a national basis. This paper describes the work undertaken by NDA to develop a Value Framework to support decision making at both the strategic and tactical level and addresses the following topics: - The relationship between the value framework and UK government guidance on business case development and options appraisal - The development of the value framework tool kit including previous work on the NDA prioritisation process and the derivation of Safety and Environmental Detriment scores - How NDA uses the value framework in its decision making processes. (author)

  13. Nuclear power - international and national dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanev, Ya.

    1994-01-01

    A strong internationalization of nuclear problems is observed recently. International links have acted as a powerful force for improvement of safety standards and plant performance. The prospects for nuclear industry, its safety and excellent operation, its acceptance and tolerance from society in general will strongly influence the future of nuclear power generation in Bulgaria. The most important problems of Bulgarian nuclear energy are: implementation of safety upgrading program; building and operating new nuclear units; developing infrastructure which will permit safe and reliable operation of the existing units and solve the fuel cycle problems in a reliable and acceptable by the society manner. (I.P.)

  14. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Vision Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.; Wagner, R.L. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a project to examine possible futures associated with the global nuclear enterprise over the course of the next 50 years. All major components are included in this study--weapons, nonproliferation, nuclear power, nuclear materials, and institutional and public factors. To examine key issues, the project has been organized around three main activity areas--workshops, research and analyses, and development of linkages with other synergistic world efforts. This paper describes the effort--its current and planned activities--as well as provides discussion of project perspectives on nuclear weapons, nonproliferation, nuclear energy, and nuclear materials focus areas

  15. Nuclear energy development and national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukami, Hiroaki

    1982-01-01

    The utilization and development of nuclear power in Japan are now advanced on the basis of a fact that nuclear power generation has taken root in the country. The scale of nuclear power generation is currently a total of 22 power plants with aggregate capacity over 15,500 MW, 16% of the total power generation. There are still two alternate arguments: i.e. whether nuclear energy can be a complete substitute of petroleum or not, because the consumption of petroleum is necessary for the fuel cycle. Due to the rise of petroleum price, the nuclear power generation is now positively economical. On the other hand, the promotion of nuclear power can lead to the saving in foreign currency. While the economy in nuclear power is through the use of LWRs presently, the research and development efforts in ATRs, FBRs, etc. are essential for the future. (Mori, K.)

  16. Acute myocardial infarction: a comparison of short-term survival in national outcome registries in Sweden and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Gedeborg, Rolf; Nicholas, Owen; James, Stefan; Jeppsson, Anders; Wolfe, Charles; Heuschmann, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Deanfield, John; Timmis, Adam; Jernberg, Tomas; Hemingway, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background International research for acute myocardial infarction lacks comparisons of whole health systems. We assessed time trends for care and outcomes in Sweden and the UK. Methods We used data from national registries on consecutive patients registered between 2004 and 2010 in all hospitals providing care for acute coronary syndrome in Sweden and the UK. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality 30 days after admission. We compared effectiveness of treatment by indirect casemix standardisation. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01359033. Findings We assessed data for 119 786 patients in Sweden and 391 077 in the UK. 30-day mortality was 7·6% (95% CI 7·4–7·7) in Sweden and 10·5% (10·4–10·6) in the UK. Mortality was higher in the UK in clinically relevant subgroups defined by troponin concentration, ST-segment elevation, age, sex, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus status, and smoking status. In Sweden, compared with the UK, there was earlier and more extensive uptake of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (59% vs 22%) and more frequent use of β blockers at discharge (89% vs 78%). After casemix standardisation the 30-day mortality ratio for UK versus Sweden was 1·37 (95% CI 1·30–1·45), which corresponds to 11 263 (95% CI 9620–12 827) excess deaths, but did decline over time (from 1·47, 95% CI 1·38–1·58 in 2004 to 1·20, 1·12–1·29 in 2010; p=0·01). Interpretation We found clinically important differences between countries in acute myocardial infarction care and outcomes. International comparisons research might help to improve health systems and prevent deaths. Funding Seventh Framework Programme for Research, National Institute for Health Research, Wellcome Trust (UK), Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation. PMID:24461715

  17. Nuclear Reaction and Structure Databases of the National Nuclear Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Arcilla, R.; Herman, M. W.; Oblozinsky, P.; Rochman, D.; Sonzogni, A. A.; Tuli, J. K.; Winchell, D. F.

    2006-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) collects, evaluates, and disseminates nuclear physics data for basic research and applied nuclear technologies. In 2004, the NNDC migrated all databases into modern relational database software, installed new generation of Linux servers and developed new Java-based Web service. This nuclear database development means much faster, more flexible and more convenient service to all users in the United States. These nuclear reaction and structure database developments as well as related Web services are briefly described

  18. Kenya National Presentation on Nuclear Power Infrastructure Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyanjui, B

    2010-01-01

    Kenya will factored 1200MW of nuclear energy in the period 2022-2023 of the national Least Cost Power Development Plan and 4200MW by 2030. A national nuclear power programme is now at inception. The National Economic and Social Council endorsed adoption of the nuclear programme in April 2010. Electricity demand is expected to rise from the current 1200 MW to over 15000 MW by 2030. The achievement of the Vision 2030 requires affordable and stable electricity tariffs. Formation of a Nuclear Power Committee to study and initially promote the development of the nuclear power program will be established e.g. Nuclear Power Committee - Kenyan version of Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization formed. The Nuclear Power Committee is expected to precede formation of the NEPIO. There was proposal to review of current laws –e.g. Energy Act, Radiation Protection Act, Environmental Management and Control Act, Penal Code, etc. Potential sites proposed along the Indian Ocean Coastal areas, near Lake Victoria and the central region near the main national hydropower plants, based on power grid layout and water bodies. Kenya is in Phase 1 of milestones- Consideration before a decision is taken to start a NPP. Capacity Building towards Development of a Nuclear Power Programme (NPP) in Kenya is underway. To implement the national least cost power development plan so as to increase the capacity from current 1,300MW to 18,000MW by 2030 to support achievement of the ‘Vision 2030’

  19. The Canadian nuclear industry - a national asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The economic importance of the Canadian nuclear industry in saving costs and creating jobs is expounded. The medical work of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is also extolled. The Canadian Nuclear Association urges the federal government to continue to support the industry at home, and to continue to promote nuclear exports. This report was prepared in response to the Federal Finance Minister's 'A New Direction for Canada'

  20. Needs of National Infrastructure for Nuclear Energy Program in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaushevski, A.; Poceva, S.N.; Spasevska, H.; Popov, N.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of a nuclear energy program is a major undertaking with significant implications for many aspects of national infrastructure, ranging from capacity of the power grid, access roads and production facilities, to the involvement of stakeholders and the development of human resources. For new comers countries without nuclear power, even for those who wish to realize substantial expansion of existing nuclear capacity, it can take up to 10-15 years to develop the necessary infrastructure. One of the crucial problems in nuclear energy implementation are human resources needs and educational infrastructure development in this field. No matter what will be the future energy scenario in the Republic of Macedonia, the nuclear educational program is the first step to have HR in the field of nuclear energy. This paper presents the proposed direction for having HR for establishing national infrastructure in nuclear energy program in Macedonia. This includes establishing and developing of MONEP (Macedonian NEPIO), and the enhancing the capabilities of the national regulatory body in the Republic of Macedonia. Keywords: NEP (Nuclear Energy Program), HR (Human Resources), NEPIO (Nuclear Energy Program Implementation Organization), MONEP Macedonian Organization for Nuclear Energy Program (Macedonian NEPIO), NRB (Nuclear Regulatory Body)

  1. Patient satisfaction and non-UK educated nurses: a cross-sectional observational study of English National Health Service Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germack, Hayley D; Griffiths, Peter; Sloane, Douglas M; Rafferty, Anne Marie; Ball, Jane E; Aiken, Linda H

    2015-12-02

    To examine whether patient satisfaction with nursing care in National Health Service (NHS) hospitals in England is associated with the proportion of non-UK educated nurses providing care. Cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2010 NHS Adult Inpatient Survey merged with data from nurse and hospital administrator surveys. Logistic regression models with corrections for clustering were used to determine whether the proportions of non-UK educated nurses were significantly related to patient satisfaction before and after taking account of other hospital, nursing and patient characteristics. 31 English NHS trusts. 12,506 patients 16 years of age and older with at least one overnight stay that completed a satisfaction survey; 2962 bedside care nurses who completed a nurse survey; and 31 NHS trusts. Patient satisfaction. The percentage of non-UK educated nurses providing bedside hospital care, which ranged from 1% to 52% of nurses, was significantly associated with patient satisfaction. After controlling for potential confounding factors, each 10-point increase in the percentage of non-UK educated nurses diminished the odds of patients reporting good or excellent care by 12% (OR=0.88), and decreased the odds of patients agreeing that they always had confidence and trust in nurses by 13% (OR=0.87). Other indicators of patient satisfaction also revealed lower satisfaction in hospitals with higher percentages of non-UK educated nurses. Use of non-UK educated nurses in English NHS hospitals is associated with lower patient satisfaction. Importing nurses from abroad to substitute for domestically educated nurses may negatively impact quality of care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Designing better medicines delivery in the UK National Health Services (NHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. John Clarkson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prescribed medicines are delivered through a variety ofroutes to patients in the UK National Health Service (NHSand are regulated by a host of health and trade related policy and law. These ensure the efficient and safe supply of medicines of appropriate quality from the pharmaceutical manufacturer through to the end-user, the patient. However, persisting medication errors and therecent discovery of counter feit medicines in the bona fide supply chain have meant there are growing concerns aboutthe timely, accurate and safe supply of medicines in the NHS. Methods: This study undertakes a systems design approach to processmodelling and understanding three key supply routes fromthe manufacturer through to the patient, across bothprimary and secondary care. A systems design approachwas deployed to investigate complex interactions betweenprofessionals, products and processes to improve patient safety in collaboration with twenty five clinical and non-linical stakeholders across the supply chain and six enduser patients.Results: Several system process models were developed from the literature, field observations and alongside the interviewees. The results reveal that risk to medication safety is perceived as occurring most at the patient-end ofthe medicines supply chain: the pharmacy and the ward.There are differences observed in the responses ofinterviewees when they engage with system models.Conclusions: This paper reflects on the use of a systems design, a mainly engineering approach, to understanding a health care domain problem of medication errors. The approach provided an enhanced insight into the complex set of system factors and interactions involved in generating medication errors. This study is among the first to develop asystems-wide view of the medicines supply process ‘as-is’and identify opportunities for re-design to improve patient safety.

  3. The UK National DNA Database: Implementation of the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amankwaa, Aaron Opoku; McCartney, Carole

    2018-03-01

    In 2008, the European Court of Human Rights, in S and Marper v the United Kingdom, ruled that a retention regime that permits the indefinite retention of DNA records of both convicted and non-convicted ("innocent") individuals is disproportionate. The court noted that there was inadequate evidence to justify the retention of DNA records of the innocent. Since the Marper ruling, the laws governing the taking, use, and retention of forensic DNA in England and Wales have changed with the enactment of the Protection of Freedoms Act 2012 (PoFA). This Act, put briefly, permits the indefinite retention of DNA profiles of most convicted individuals and temporal retention for some first-time convicted minors and innocent individuals on the National DNA Database (NDNAD). The PoFA regime was implemented in October 2013. This paper examines ten post-implementation reports of the NDNAD Strategy Board (3), the NDNAD Ethics Group (3) and the Office of the Biometrics Commissioner (OBC) (4). Overall, the reports highlight a considerable improvement in the performance of the database, with a current match rate of 63.3%. Further, the new regime has strengthened the genetic privacy protection of UK citizens. The OBC reports detail implementation challenges ranging from technical, legal and procedural issues to sufficient understanding of the requirements of PoFA by police forces. Risks highlighted in these reports include the deletion of some "retainable" profiles, which could potentially lead to future crimes going undetected. A further risk is the illegal retention of some profiles from innocent individuals, which may lead to privacy issues and legal challenges. In conclusion, the PoFA regime appears to be working well, however, critical research is still needed to evaluate its overall efficacy compared to other retention regimes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Gas reactor and associated nuclear experience in the UK relevant to high temperature reactor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, D.J.; May, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the UK, the NNC played a leading role in the design and build of all of the UK's commercial magnox reactors and advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs). It was also involved in the DRAGON project and was responsible for producing designs for large scale HTRs and other gas reactor designs employing helium and carbon dioxide coolants. This paper addresses the gas reactor experience and its relevance to the current HTR designs under development which use helium as the coolant, through the consideration of a representative sample of the issues addressed in the UK by the NNC in support of the AGR and other reactor programmes. Modern HTR designs provide unique engineering challenges. The success of the AGR design, reflected in the extended lifetimes agreed upon by the licensing authorities at many stations, indicates that these challenges can be successfully overcome. The UK experience is unique and provides substantial support to future gas reactor and high temperature engineering studies. (authors)

  5. Implementing national nuclear safety plan at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yabin; Cui Shaozhang; Pan Fengguo; Zhang Lizhen; Shi Yonggang

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses the importance of nuclear power project design and engineering methods at the preliminary stage of its development on nuclear power plant's operational safety from the professional view. Specifically, we share our understanding of national nuclear safety plan's requirement on new reactor accident probability, technology, site selection, as well as building and improving nuclear safety culture and strengthening public participation, with a focus on plan's implications on preliminary stage of nuclear power project development. Last, we introduce China Huaneng Group's work on nuclear power project preliminary development and the experience accumulated during the process. By analyzing the siting philosophy of nuclear power plant and the necessity of building nuclear safety culture at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development, this study explicates how to fully implement the nuclear safety plan's requirements at the preliminary stage of nuclear power project development. (authors)

  6. Measuring and monitoring fuel poverty in the UK: National and regional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, Christine; Morris, Chris; McKenzie, S.J.P.; Rae, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the industrialised world, fuel poverty is the most commonly accepted term with which to describe a household's inability to afford basic standards of heat, power and light. Whilst the term gained widespread acceptance with the publication of the UK's Fuel Poverty Strategy in 2001, little is known about the origins of the term itself. This paper traces the earliest formulations of the concept, focusing particularly on the 10% needs to spend threshold which was adopted in 1991 and remains in place some 20 years later. This paper argues that understanding more about the origins of this threshold yields a more critical understanding of why fuel poverty targets in the UK have not been reached, and enables a more informed approach to setting realistic targets for the future. It also provides an opportunity to explore regional disparities in UK fuel poverty prevalence, highlighting the extent to which rigid adherence to a 10% threshold has created an unstable regional mosaic of over-estimation and under-estimation. - Highlights: ► We highlight the origins of the 10% threshold used to define fuel poverty in the UK. ► This sheds new light on why fuel poverty targets in the UK have not been reached. ► It also helps interpret regional disparities in UK fuel poverty prevalence. ► The threshold has created an unstable mosaic of over- and under-estimation.

  7. The national law on nuclear activity: some consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Acosta, G.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the contents of the new National Law on Nuclear Activities of the Argentine Republic, analysing the functions of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) (former National Board of Nuclear Regulation -ENREN) and the privatisation of the nuclear power generation performed by the enterprise Nucleoelectrica Argentina S.A. (NASA). It also includes some comments about political and legislative records of the Law in the framework of the Nation's reorganization undertaken by the National Government for the privatisation of the rendering of public services, such as the production of energy and related activities. The Law was approved by Law 24.804 of April 2, 1997, and published in the Official Bulletin of the Argentine Republic on April 25, 1997. In accordance with the provisions of this Law, the National Government, through the above mentioned organisations, will fix the nuclear policy and the functions of research, development, surveillance and control of the nuclear activity. Also, as part of the execution of the nuclear policy, all the obligations accepted by Argentina as signatory party to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco Treaty), the Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (TNP), the Agreement between the Argentine Republic and the Federative Republic of Brazil through the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to enforce Safeguards, in addition to the commitments signed by Argentina as a member of the Suppliers Group and the National Control System for Sensitive Exports, shall be met [es

  8. Proceedings of national symposium on advanced instrumentation for nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The National Symposium on Advanced Instrumentation for Nuclear Research was held in Bombay during January 27-29, 1993 at BARC. Progress of modern nuclear research is closely related to the availability of state of the art instruments and systems. With the advancements in experimental techniques and sophisticated detector developments, the performance specifications have become more stringent. State of the art techniques and diverse applications of sophisticated nuclear instrumentation systems are discussed along with indigenous efforts to meet the specific instrumentation needs of research programs in nuclear sciences. Papers of relevance to nuclear science and technology are indexed separately. (original)

  9. 76 FR 51358 - National Nuclear Security Administration Amended Record of Decision: Disposition of Surplus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY National Nuclear Security Administration Amended Record of Decision... National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), a semi- autonomous agency within the U.S. Department of... Manager, Office of Fissile Materials Disposition, National Nuclear Security Administration, U.S...

  10. New Tool to Draft National Nuclear Laws. Second Nuclear Law Handbook Available Online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Drafting new national nuclear laws and reviewing existing laws and regulations requires extensive and specialized expertise. For many countries this represents a significant challenge. The IAEA's legislative assistance programme was established to help Member States adopt adequate national nuclear legislation. In 2003, the legistlative assistance programme published the Handbook on Nuclear Law. The reference text provides a fundamental understanding of the key elements and principles of national nuclear legislation. The Handbook is widely utilized by Member States, industry and experts. A second volume of the Handbook was released during the IAEA's 54th General Conference, which convened in Vienna from 20 to 24 September 2010.

  11. The national drill for deterrence and fighting nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cioflan, Constantin

    2006-01-01

    Full text: National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN) in cooperation with the Romanian Intelligence Service (SRI) organized the 'National Drill for Deterrence and Fighting the Nuclear Terrorism' which took place on May 10, 2006 in Cheile Rasnoavei, Brasov county, Romania. This event continues the activities undertaken by CNCAN, in its capacity of a national center ensuring the nuclear safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials as well as for preventing and fighting against illicit traffic with radioactive nuclear materials and deterring the terrorist actions menacing the security and nuclear safety of the nation. The drill consisted in simulating a terrorist attack against a shipment of nuclear fuel (made available by the Nuclear Fuel Plant at Pitesti). It was a good opportunity for testing the reacting and organizing technical capacity of the national institutions committed with physical protection in emergency situations generated by terrorist actions. The objectives of the drill was the deployment of a counter-terrorist intervention in case of a terrorist attack intending to hijack a special expedition of dangerous materials. Hostages were seized and the demand was issued for clearing the traffic up to the national boundary. The anti-terrorist brigade (SRI) organized an ambush on the route of displacement in order to capture and annihilate the terrorist unit and re-establishing the legal order. CNCAN participated in this drill with its mobile intervention unit which is a team of experts correspondingly equipped with specific instruments for detecting the nuclear materials, special equipment for communication and locating as well as with two marked vehicles. The SRI employed a number higher than 80 officers and military technicians from anti-terrorist brigade, constituted in negotiators, storming squads, paratroopers, pyrotechnic experts, communication technicians. PUMA and Alouette helicopters for launching air attacks were employed

  12. Basic components of a national control system for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabot, G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents the different aspects related to the organization and the functioning of a national control and accounting system for nuclear materials. The legal aspects and the relations with the IAEA are included

  13. Geoelectrical monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage to support high-hazard nuclear decommissioning at the Sellafield Site, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Oliver; Wilkinson, Paul B; Meldrum, Philip I; Oxby, Lucy S; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Chambers, Jonathan E; Binley, Andrew; Graham, James; Smith, Nicholas T; Atherton, Nick

    2016-10-01

    A full-scale field experiment applying 4D (3D time-lapse) cross-borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to the monitoring of simulated subsurface leakage was undertaken at a legacy nuclear waste silo at the Sellafield Site, UK. The experiment constituted the first application of geoelectrical monitoring in support of decommissioning work at a UK nuclear licensed site. Images of resistivity changes occurring since a baseline date prior to the simulated leaks revealed likely preferential pathways of silo liquor simulant flow in the vadose zone and upper groundwater system. Geophysical evidence was found to be compatible with historic contamination detected in permeable facies in sediment cores retrieved from the ERT boreholes. Results indicate that laterally discontinuous till units forming localized hydraulic barriers substantially affect flow patterns and contaminant transport in the shallow subsurface at Sellafield. We conclude that only geophysical imaging of the kind presented here has the potential to provide the detailed spatial and temporal information at the (sub-)meter scale needed to reduce the uncertainty in models of subsurface processes at nuclear sites. Copyright © 2016 British Geological Survey, NERC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards a synthesised network approach: An analysis of UK nuclear and renewable (wave) energy programme 1939-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watt, R.N.

    1998-05-01

    This thesis is concerned with two broad areas of interest: network interpretations of policy processes and alternative sources of energy. All three network interpretations examined (policy networks, actor networks and advocacy coalitions) stress different variables when examining policy processes. Equally, each can be criticised for over-emphasising their chosen variable. However, I shall argue that these flaws do not constitute grounds for dismissing any of these approaches. Several authors have suggested that we combine the merits of these network approaches but so far this has not been attempted. A central aim of this thesis is to develop a synthesis of the merits of each network approach which I argue offers a more robust means of interpreting policy processes. These ideas are then applied to an examination of the relationship between the UK civil nuclear programme (1939-1985) and the UK wave energy programme (1974-1985). Existing literature argues that the nuclear establishment used its considerable influence to undermine the wave energy programme. With the aid of a synthesised network approach, I argue that the nuclear conspiracy narrative is an over-simplification of this particular policy process. (author)

  15. 5. National Conference on Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuks, L.

    2009-01-01

    Held in Krakow-Przegorzaly (24-27 May 2009) 5. National Conference on Radiochemistry and Nuclear Chemistry focused on the following research topics: (a) radioanalytical methods; (b) environmental studies; (c) radiopharmacy; (d) isotopic effects; (e) nuclear safety. Participants presented 6 plenary lectures, 24 communications and 38 posters

  16. Proceedings of second national workshop on nuclear structure physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.; Jain, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Second National Workshop on Nuclear Structure Physics was held at Calcutta during February 7-10 1995. The topics discussed have been quite broad based and covered many areas of nuclear structure physics and radiochemistry. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  17. Development of a national neutron database for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igantyuk, A.V.; Kononov, V.N.; Kuzminov, B.D.; Manokhin, V.N.; Nikolaev, M.N.; Furzov, B.I.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the stages of a many years activities at the IPPE consisting of the measurement, theoretical description and evaluation of neutron data, and of the establishment of a national data bank of neutron data for nuclear technology. A list of libraries which are stored at the Nuclear Data Centre is given. (author). 16 refs, 14 tabs

  18. National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI) - Annual Report 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 report of the National Nuclear Research Institute (NNRI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) lists various programmes undertaken by the Institute under the following headings: Water resources programme, Energy Research programme, Environmental and Health Safety Programme, Digital Instrumentation programme, Nuclear Applications and Materals programme and Radiation Occupational safety programme. Also, included are abstracts of publications and technical reports.

  19. Development of Secure and Sustainable Nuclear Infrastructure in Emerging Nuclear Nations Such as Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipwash, Jacqueline L; Kovacic, Donald N

    2008-01-01

    The global expansion of nuclear energy will require international cooperation to ensure that nuclear materials, facilities, and sensitive technologies are not diverted to non-peaceful uses. Developing countries will require assistance to ensure the effective regulation, management, and operation of their nuclear programs to achieve best practices in nuclear nonproliferation. A developing nation has many hurdles to pass before it can give assurances to the international community that it is capable of implementing a sustainable nuclear energy program. In August of this year, the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam signed an arrangement for Information Exchange and Cooperation on the Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy. This event signals an era of cooperation between the U.S. and Vietnam in the area of nuclear nonproliferation. This paper will address how DOE is supporting the development of secure and sustainable infrastructures in emerging nuclear nations such as Vietnam

  20. National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakstan (NNC RK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    National Nuclear Centre is independent complex scientific and technical establishment of republic subordinate and it is attached to National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Kazakstan. Date of foundation - 1993. General Director - Cherepnin Yu.S., Scientific leader - Takibaev Zh.S. In it structure there are Inst. of Radiation Safety and Ecology, Inst. of Atomic Energy, Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Inst. Geophysical Researches, Regional Medical and Diagnostic Centre, Research Labs. of BN-350 industrial reactor (scientific leadership), Joint-Stock Co., industrial and commercial enterprises, scientific services of former Semipalatinsk test site, geophysical observatories etc. The main goals of the NNC: a conversion of former Semipalatinsk test site and using of it scientific and technical potential in the national economy; a liquidation of nuclear weapon test consequences; a development of safe nuclear power engineering in Kazakstan; a fundamental and applied researches in the different fields of nuclear science and technology; a carrying out the inspection to nuclear weapon testing and non-satanical nuclear explosions on the test sites of other countries; a training of highly skilled specialists for nuclear power engineering, nuclear science and technology

  1. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  2. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  3. Plan for national nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The responsibility for Denmark's preparedness for nuclear emergencies lies with the Ministry of the Interior and the Civil Defense administration. The latter is particularly responsible for the presented plan which clarifies the organization and the measures to be taken in order to protect the public where, in the event of such an emergency, it could be in danger of radiation from radioactive materials. The main specifications of the plan, the activation of which covers the whole country, are that daily monitoring should be carried out so that warnings of nuclear accidents can be immediately conveyed to the relevant parties and that immediate action can be taken. These actions should result in the best possible protection against nuclear radiation so that acute and chronic damage to the health of members of the public can be restricted. The public, and relevant authorities should be informed of the situation and it should be attempted to regulate the reactions of individuals and of the society in general in such a way that damage to health, or social and economical conditions, can be restricted as much as possible. Denmark has not itself any atomic power plants, but some are located in neighbour countries and there are other sources such as nuclear research reactors, passing nuclear-driven ships etc. The detailed plan also covers possible sources of radiation, the nature of related damage to health, international cooperation, legal aspects, and a very detailed description of the overall administration and of the responsibilities of the organizations involved. (AB)

  4. Senagal National Presentation on Nuclear Power Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutapha, S.T

    2010-01-01

    Regulatory Body (RB) implementation is in progress: decree defining Role, Responsibility and Mission of RB signed after IAEA Advisory Mission received 7-11 December 2009. Self-assessment on some topics of the Milestones will be done by Working Group (WG). The political statement from government Declaration of indentation to consider nuclear energy generation was read at IAEA General Conference). Decree 2008-1433 (December -12- 2008d) creates under the authority of the President de la République a Work Group for the Management and the realization of the Senegalese Nuclear Power Project in the horizon 2016. The Draft Law in preparation and the laws on Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (law 2004-17 and law 2009-14) provide for a Regulatory Body but ASRN is not yet fully established by decrees although the decree 2010-893 July 30 2010 defining the role and missions of ASRN has been signed by President

  5. Clinical leadership development in postgraduate medical education and training: policy, strategy, and delivery in the UK National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal R

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Reena Aggarwal,1,2 Tim Swanwick2 1Women's Health, Whittington Health, London, UK; 2Health Education England, North Central and East London, London, UK Abstract: Achieving high quality health care against a background of continual change, increasing demand, and shrinking financial resource is a major challenge. However, there is significant international evidence that when clinicians use their voices and values to engage with system delivery, operational efficiency and care outcomes are improved. In the UK National Health Service, the traditional divide between doctors and managers is being bridged, as clinical leadership is now foregrounded as an important organizational priority. There are 60,000 doctors in postgraduate training (junior doctors in the UK who provide the majority of front-line patient care and form an "operating core" of most health care organizations. This group of doctors is therefore seen as an important resource in initiating, championing, and delivering improvement in the quality of patient care. This paper provides a brief overview of leadership theories and constructs that have been used to develop a raft of interventions to develop leadership capability among junior doctors. We explore some of the approaches used, including competency frameworks, talent management, shared learning, clinical fellowships, and quality improvement. A new paradigm is identified as necessary to make a difference at a local level, which moves learning and leadership away from developing "leaders", to a more inclusive model of developing relationships between individuals within organizations. This shifts the emphasis from the development of a "heroic" individual leader to a more distributed model, where organizations are "leader-ful" and not just "well led" and leadership is centered on a shared vision owned by whole teams working on the frontline. Keywords: National Health Service, junior doctors, quality improvement, management, health care

  6. Comparison of UK and US screening criteria for detection of retinopathy of prematurity in a developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurbas, Silay Canturk; Gulcan, Hande; Canan, Handan; Ankarali, Handan; Torer, Birgin; Akova, Yonca Aydın

    2010-12-01

    To determine the incidence, risk factors, and appropriateness of differing guidelines in developed nations for screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in a single nursery in a large urban city in southern Turkey. The records of 260 premature infants born ≤34 weeks in a single tertiary unit were retrospectively reviewed for ROP risk factors and diagnosis. Applicability of UK and US criteria were assessed by the use of receiver operating characteristic curves. ROP of any stage was present in 60 infants (23%); ROP requiring treatment was seen in 30 (11.5%). Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship among the following factors: gestational age, birth weight, total duration of supplemental oxygen, duration of mechanical ventilation, respiratory distress syndrome, anemia, and intraventricular hemorrhage (p < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed gestational age (p = 0.039), birth weight (p = 0.05), respiratory distress syndrome (p = 0.05), and anemia (p = 0.004) as independent predictors of ROP requiring treatment. Area under curve for gestational age alone for diagnosing stage 2 or greater ROP was 0.824 ± 0.03 (p = 0.0001) and for birth weight alone was 0.808 ± 0.03 (p = 0.0001). UK screening criteria detected all stage 2 and greater ROP; US screening criteria missed 2 infants with stage 2 ROP but detected all treatment-requiring disease. Adoption of these screening criteria would have reduced unnecessary examinations by either 21% (UK) or 37% (US). UK and US criteria improved the detection accuracy for ROP requiring treatment in Turkey and should be studied for other developing nations. Copyright © 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil

  8. National report of Brazil: nuclear safety convention - September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This National Report was prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities in the field of nuclear safety, aiming the fulfilling the Convention of Nuclear Energy obligations. The Report contains a description of the Brazilian policy and programme on the safety of nuclear installations, and an article by article description of the measures Brazil is undertaking in order to implement the obligations described in the Convention. The last chapter describes plans and future activities to further enhance the safety of nuclear installations in Brazil.

  9. Personal nuclear accident dosimetry at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.C.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Burrows, R.

    1996-09-01

    DOE installations possessing sufficient quantities of fissile material to potentially constitute a critical mass, such that the excessive exposure of personnel to radiation from a nuclear accident is possible, are required to provide nuclear accident dosimetry services. This document describes the personal nuclear accident dosimeter (PNAD) used by SNL and prescribes methodologies to initially screen, and to process PNAD results. In addition, this report describes PNAD dosimetry results obtained during the Nuclear Accident Dosimeter Intercomparison Study (NAD23), held during 12-16 June 1995, at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Biases for reported neutron doses ranged from -6% to +36% with an average bias of +12%

  10. Sixth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has presented periodically its National Report prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities related to nuclear safety. Due to the implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, an Extraordinary National Report was presented in 2012. This Sixth National Report is an update of the Fifth National Report in relation to the Convention on Nuclear Safety articles and also an update of the Extraordinary Report with respect to the action taken related to lesson learned from the Fukushima accident. It includes relevant information for the period of 2010/2012. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  11. Sixth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Brazil has presented periodically its National Report prepared by a group composed of representatives of the various Brazilian organizations with responsibilities related to nuclear safety. Due to the implications of the Fukushima nuclear accident in 2011, an Extraordinary National Report was presented in 2012. This Sixth National Report is an update of the Fifth National Report in relation to the Convention on Nuclear Safety articles and also an update of the Extraordinary Report with respect to the action taken related to lesson learned from the Fukushima accident. It includes relevant information for the period of 2010/2012. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations.

  12. A National UK Census of Applied Behavior Analysis School Provision for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Fletcher, R.; Hastings, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    Over more than a decade, specialist Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) schools or classes for children with autism have developed in the UK and Ireland. However, very little is known internationally about how ABA is defined in practice in school settings, the characteristics of children supported in ABA school settings, and the staffing structures…

  13. Health information technology and sociotechnical systems: a progress report on recent developments within the UK National Health Service (NHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterson, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    This paper summarises some of the research that Ken Eason and colleagues at Loughborough University have carried out in the last few years on the introduction of Health Information Technologies (HIT) within the UK National Health Service (NHS). In particular, the paper focuses on three examples which illustrate aspects of the introduction of HIT within the NHS and the role played by the UK National Programme for Information Technology (NPfIT). The studies focus on stages of planning and preparation, implementation and use, adaptation and evolution of HIT (e.g., electronic patient records, virtual wards) within primary, secondary and community care settings. Our findings point to a number of common themes which characterise the use of these systems. These include tensions between national and local strategies for implementing HIT and poor fit between healthcare work systems and the design of HIT. The findings are discussed in the light of other large-scale, national attempts to introduce similar technologies, as well as drawing out a set of wider lessons learnt from the NPfIT programme based on Ken Eason's earlier work and other research on the implementation of large-scale HIT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  15. Career choices for radiology: national surveys of graduates of 1974-2002 from UK medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.; Lambert, T.W.; Goldacre, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To report on trends in career choices for radiology among UK medical graduates. Materials and methods: One and 3 years after graduation, and at longer time intervals thereafter, postal questionnaire surveys were sent to all doctors who graduated from UK medical schools in 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 and 2002. Doctors were asked to specify their choice of long-term career and to identify factors influencing their choice. Employment details were also collected. Results were analysed using χ 2 statistics and binary logistic regression. Results: Seventy-four percent (24,621/33,412) and 73% (20,720/28,459) of doctors responded 1 and 3 years after graduation. Choices for radiology in year 1 increased significantly over time (1.7% of 1974 graduates to 3.2% of 2002 graduates; χ 2 test for trend = 15.3, p < 0.001). In particular, there has been a steady increase from the cohorts of 1993 onwards. Thirty-eight percent of those who chose radiology in year 1, and 80% who chose radiology in year 3, were still working in radiology 10 years after graduation. Hours and working conditions influenced long-term career choices more for radiology than for other careers. Conclusions: The proportion of UK trained junior doctors who want to become radiologists has increased in recent years. However, although medical school intake and the numbers making an early choice for radiology have risen, it is unclear whether sufficient UK graduates will be attracted to radiology to fulfil future service requirements from UK trained graduates alone

  16. Economic analysis of nuclear power reactor dissemination to less developed nations with implications for nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavson, R.L.; Howard, J.S. II.

    1979-09-01

    We have applied an economic model to the transfer of nuclear-power reactors from industrialized nations to the less developed nations. The model includes demand and supply factors and predicts the success of US nonproliferation positions and policies. We conclude that economic forces dominate the transfer of power reactors to less developed nations. Our study shows that attempts to either restrict or promote the spread of nuclear-power technology by ignoring natural economic incentives would have only limited effect. If US policy is too restrictive, less developed nations will seek other suppliers and thereby lower US Influence substantially. Allowing less developed nations to develop nuclear-power technology as dictated by economic forces will result in a modest rate of transfer that should comply with nuclear-proliferation objectives

  17. Economic analysis of nuclear power reactor dissemination to less developed nations with implications for nuclear proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, R.L.; Howard, J.S. II

    1979-09-01

    An economic model is applied to the transfer of nuclear-power reactors from industrialized nations to the less developed nations. The model includes demand and supply factors and predicts the success of US nonproliferation positions and policies. It is concluded that economic forces dominate the transfer of power reactors to less developed nations. Our study shows that attempts to either restrict or promote the spread of nuclear-power technology by ignoring natural economic incentives would have only limited effect. If US policy is too restrictive, less developed nations will seek other suppliers and thereby lower US Influence substantially. Allowing less developed nations to develop nuclear-power technology as dictated by economic forces will result in a modest rate of transfer that should comply with nuclear-proliferation objectives.

  18. 'Newcomer' nuclear nation leads way into new nuclear year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, St George' s Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2018-01-15

    At the start of a new year, it is appropriate that a 'newcomer' nuclear nation has launched work on building its first nuclear power plant. First nuclear safety-related concrete has been poured for the plant at Rooppur in Bangladesh - making the South Asia nation the first in 30 years to start building its first commercial reactor unit following the United Arab Emirates in 2012 and Belarus in 2013. Despite setbacks that nuclear has endured in recent years, there are nearly 60 reactors under construction around the world, mostly in Asia. Some 447 commercial reactor units are in operation in 30 countries.

  19. National Nuclear Data Center status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In September the NNDC hosted a workshop for international collaborators to discuss issues related to database migration and use of the relational database concept. It is expected that full migration will take four to five years. The preliminary design of the Nuclear Reaction Database has been completed by the Reaction Database Design Team. The nuclear structure team at NNDC has begun investigating options for the nuclear structure databases. A preliminary ENSDF database using Access is being tested. The NNDC continues to compile neutron and charged-particle reaction data produced in the US and Canada. In the period from June 2000 through May 2001, 6 neutron data transmission tapes (TRANS 1289-1294) and 13 charged-particle transmission tapes (C041-C049, P003, T006-T008) were sent containing new and corrected entries. The contract with Oak Ridge to compile neutron total cross section data has been completed. All recoverable data has been received by NNDC and are being processed or have already been added to the CSISRS database. NNDC continues to coordinate the work of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group. ENDF/B-VI, Release 7, was distributed in June 2000. Version 6.12 of the ENDF Utility codes was also distributed in April 2001. The ENDF-102 Data Formats and Procedures Manual has been updated and is available on the NNDC Web site. Cooperation with KAERI continued on fission product evaluations, focusing on the fast neutron energy range. Thirteen preliminary evaluations have been completed. Cooperation with LANL and IAEA NDS on the development of a modular code for nuclear reaction data evaluations was initiated. The pre-equilibrium Monte Carlo code HMS was extended to account for angular momentum conservation, of importance for modeling isomer and discrete gamma-ray production. The modular code Empire was extended by adding a module based on the exciton model code DEGAS, motivated by the need to handle direct/semi-direct capture in the fast neutron energy

  20. A perfect match: Nuclear energy and the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    In the course of developing the National Energy Strategy, the Department of Energy held 15 public hearings, heard from more than 375 witnesses and received more than 1000 written comments. In April 1990, the Department published an Interim Report on the National Energy Strategy, which compiles those public comments. The National Energy Strategy must be based on actual experience and factual analysis of our energy, economic and environmental situation. This report by the Nuclear Power Oversight committee, which represents electric utilities and other organizations involved in supplying electricity from nuclear energy to the American people, provides such an analysis. The conclusions here are based on hard facts and actual worldwide experience. This analysis of all the available data supports -- indeed, dictates -- expanded reliance on nuclear energy in this nation's energy supply to achieve the President's goals. 33 figs

  1. Nuclear energy related capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickering, Susan Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories' technology solutions are depended on to solve national and global threats to peace and freedom. Through science and technology, people, infrastructure, and partnerships, part of Sandia's mission is to meet the national needs in the areas of energy, climate and infrastructure security. Within this mission to ensure clean, abundant, and affordable energy and water is the Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs. The Nuclear Energy and Fuel Cycle Programs have a broad range of capabilities, with both physical facilities and intellectual expertise. These resources are brought to bear upon the key scientific and engineering challenges facing the nation and can be made available to address the research needs of others. Sandia can support the safe, secure, reliable, and sustainable use of nuclear power worldwide by incorporating state-of-the-art technologies in safety, security, nonproliferation, transportation, modeling, repository science, and system demonstrations.

  2. Field studies to determine acceptable levels of contamination at former UK nuclear testing sites, Maralinga and Emu in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Maralinga and Emu regions of South Australia were used between 1953 and 1961 for the UK nuclear weapon development program. Two types of trials were conducted - the major trials involved the detonation of fission weapons and the minor trials dealt with weapon design and operational safety. In 1986, as a result of the findings of the Royal Commission on Nuclear Testing in Australia, the UK and Australian governments agreed to set up a Technical Assessment Group (TAG) with one American, two Australian and two British members to review the Maralinga-Emu situation. TAG was to advise on a series of clean-up options and their associated costs and examine land-use options ranging from unrestricted use by the traditional Aboriginal land owners to options involving various degrees of administrative and physical control. In its interim report, presented in May 1986, TAG observed that the existing data base was inadequate and suggested a series of field and laboratory studies that would partly correct this situation. Six of these studies were concerned with redefining the existing levels of contamination and establishing acceptable levels of contamination for a range of land-use options. This paper discusses the rationale, organisational support, scope and experimental protocol adopted for each of the six studies

  3. ELIXIR-UK role in bioinformatics training at the national level and across ELIXIR [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Larcombe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ELIXIR-UK is the UK node of ELIXIR, the European infrastructure for life science data. Since its foundation in 2014, ELIXIR-UK has played a leading role in training both within the UK and in the ELIXIR Training Platform, which coordinates and delivers training across all ELIXIR members. ELIXIR-UK contributes to the Training Platform’s coordination and supports the development of training to address key skill gaps amongst UK scientists. As part of this work it acts as a conduit for nationally-important bioinformatics training resources to promote their activities to the ELIXIR community. ELIXIR-UK also leads ELIXIR’s flagship Training Portal, TeSS, which collects information about a diverse range of training and makes it easily accessible to the community. ELIXIR-UK also works with others to provide key digital skills training, partnering with the Software Sustainability Institute to provide Software Carpentry training to the ELIXIR community and to establish the Data Carpentry initiative, and taking a lead role amongst national stakeholders to deliver the StaTS project – a coordinated effort to drive engagement with training in statistics.

  4. Evaluation of the status of national nuclear infrastructure development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    An appropriate infrastructure is essential for the safe, reliable and peaceful use of nuclear power. The IAEA was encouraged to assess ways to meet infrastructure needs and to provide guidance to Member States considering the introduction of nuclear power. All of these countries face the challenge of building the necessary nuclear infrastructure for the first nuclear power plant. The IAEA is responding to this demand through increased technical assistance, missions and workshops, and with new and updated technical publications. A holistic view of the infrastructure for nuclear power was published in Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme (GOV/INF/2007), targeted mainly at policy makers. Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, an IAEA Nuclear Energy Series publication (No. NG-G-3.1) issued in 2007, provided more detailed guidance on the three phases of development outlined in Considerations to Launch a Nuclear Power Programme. It describes the sequential development through the three phases for each of 19 infrastructure issues, ranging from a government's national position on nuclear power to the procurement of items and services for the first nuclear power plant. Member States requested additional guidance on determining how to assess the progress of their infrastructure development for nuclear power programmes. This report was prepared in response to their request. It provides an evaluation approach for the status of national nuclear infrastructure development based upon the guidance presented in the Milestones publication mentioned above. The evaluation approach provides a comprehensive means to determine the status of the infrastructure conditions covering all of the 19 issues identified in the Milestones publication. This approach can be used by any interested Member State for self-evaluation in order to establish what additional work needs to be completed to develop the appropriate national infrastructure. In

  5. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-01-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968

  6. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills in UK adults: cross-sectional analysis of data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; Goffe, Louis; Adamson, Ashley J; Halligan, Joel; O'Brien, Nicola; Purves, Richard; Stead, Martine; Stocken, Deborah; White, Martin

    2015-08-05

    Poor cooking skills may be a barrier to healthy eating and a contributor to overweight and obesity. Little population-representative data on adult cooking skills has been published. We explored prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of cooking skills among adult respondents to wave 1 of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2008-9). Socio-demographic variables of interest were sex, age group, occupational socio-economic group and whether or not respondents had the main responsibility for food in their households. Cooking skills were assessed as self-reported confidence in using eight cooking techniques, confidence in cooking ten foods, and ability to prepare four types of dish (convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredients, a main meal from basic ingredients, and cake or biscuits from basic ingredients). Frequency of preparation of main meals was also reported. Of 509 respondents, almost two-thirds reported cooking a main meal at least five times per week. Around 90 % reported being able to cook convenience foods, a complete meal from ready-made ingredient, and a main dish from basic ingredients without help. Socio-demographic differences in all markers of cooking skills were scattered and inconsistent. Where these were found, women and main food providers were most likely to report confidence with foods, techniques or dishes, and respondents in the youngest age (19-34 years) and lowest socio-economic group least likely. This is the only exploration of the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of adult cooking skills using recent and population-representative UK data and adds to the international literature on cooking skills in developed countries. Reported confidence with using most cooking techniques and preparing most foods was high. There were few socio-demographic differences in reported cooking skills. Adult cooking skills interventions are unlikely to have a large population impact, but may have important individual effects

  7. The Ross Operation in Children and Young Adults: 12-Year Results and Trends From the UK National Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebele, Carlo; Chivasso, Pierpaolo; Sedmakov, Christo; Angelini, Gianni; Caputo, Massimo; Parry, Andrew; Stoica, Serban

    2014-07-01

    To determine UK national trends and results of the Ross operation in relation to all aortic valve interventions. Examination of the UK Congenital Central Cardiac Audit Database for all aortic valve procedures performed between 2000 and 2011 in children (0-16 years) and young adults (16-30 years). A total of 2,206 aortic valve procedures were performed in children and 1,824 in young adults, the proportions in the two groups being: Ross operation (19% vs 15%, respectively), surgical valvoplasty (9.5% vs 4%), surgical valvotomy (9.5% vs 1%), aortic valve replacement (AVR; 11% vs 55%), aortic root replacement (4% vs 18%), and balloon valvoplasty (47% vs 7%). The 30-day and 1-year survival after Ross is 99.3% and 98.7%, respectively, in the last four years achieving 100%. In children, the proportion of balloon valvoplasty increased from an average of 43% in 2000 to 2006 to 53% in 2007 to 2011, whereas the Ross operation decreased from 22% to 16% (P Ross (P Ross operations performed. The year-on-year changes show a significant decreasing trend locally and nationally. Despite an excellent track record, the Ross operation is performed less frequently in the United Kingdom. This report is a first step in comparing treatment modalities at national level. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The role of the national physical laboratory in monitoring and improving dosimetry in UK radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M.R.; Duane, S.; Thomas, R.A.S.; Rosser, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    There are approximately 60 radiotherapy centres in the UK. In 1999, these centres carried out over 102,000 treatments in 1.2 million fractions. These centres are organised by IPEM into eight geographical regions for the purpose of inter-departmental audits, which have been carried out on a regular basis to check the uniformity of dosimetry, treatment planning, record keeping, etc. Thwaites et al (1992) carried out a dosimetric intercomparison of megavoltage photon beams in all UK radiotherapy centres obtaining a mean value for the ratio audit/local dose of 1.003 with a standard deviation of 1.5%. The present programme covers dosimetry of megavoltage photons and electrons and low and medium energy (10-300 kV) photons. Megavoltage photon audits have the longest history, while electron audits began in 2000 and kV audits are only at the pilot stage

  9. Can EC and UK national methane emission inventories be verified using high precision stable isotope data?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.; Holmes, C.W.; Nisbet, E.G.; Rata, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The main anthropogenic sources of methane in industrialised countries (landfill/waste treatment, gas storage and distribution, coal) are far easier to reduce than CO 2 sources and the implementation of reduction strategies is potentially profitable. Statistical databases of methane emissions need independent external verification and carbon isotope data provide one way of estimating the expected source mix for each country if the main source types have been characterised isotopically. Using this method each country participating in the CORINAIR 94 database has been assigned an expected isotopic value for its emissions. The averaged δ 13 C of methane emitted from the CORINAIR region of Europe, based on total emissions of each country is -55.4 per mille for 1994. This European source mix can be verified using trajectory analysis for air samples collected at background stations. Methane emissions from the UK, and particularly the London region, have undergone more detailed analysis using data collected at the Royal Holloway site on the western fringe of London. If the latest emissions inventory figures are correct then the modelled isotopic change in the UK source mix is from -48.4 per mille in 1990 to -50.7 per mille in 1997. This represents a reduction in emissions of 25% over a 7-year period, important in meeting proposed UK greenhouse gas reduction targets. These changes can be tested by the isotopic analysis of air samples at carefully selected coastal background and interior sites. Regular sampling and isotopic analysis coupled with back trajectory analysis from a range of sites could provide an important tool for monitoring and verification of EC and UK methane emissions in the run-up to 2010. (author)

  10. Current management of pregnancy-related low back pain: a national cross-sectional survey of U.K. physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, A; Holden, M A; Ogollah, R O; Foster, N E

    2016-03-01

    Pregnancy-related low back pain (LBP) is very common. Evidence from a systematic review supports the use of exercise and acupuncture, although little is known about the care received by women with pregnancy-related back pain in the U.K. To describe current acupuncture and standard care management of pregnancy-related LBP by U.K. physiotherapists. Cross-sectional survey of physiotherapists with experience of treating women with pregnancy-related LBP from three professional networks of the Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. In total, 1093 physiotherapists were mailed a questionnaire. The questionnaire captured respondents' demographic and practice setting information, and experience of managing women with pregnancy-related back pain, and investigated the reported management of pregnancy-related LBP using a patient case vignette of a specific, 'typical' case. The overall response rate was 58% (629/1093). Four hundred and ninety-nine physiotherapists had experience of treating women with pregnancy-related LBP and were included in the analysis. Most respondents worked wholly or partly in the U.K. National Health Service (78%). Most respondents reported that they treat patients with pregnancy-related LBP in three to four one-to-one treatment sessions over 3 to 6 weeks. The results show that a range of management strategies are employed for pregnancy-related LBP, and multimodal management is common. The most common reported treatment was home exercises (94%), and 24% of physiotherapists reported that they would use acupuncture with the patient described in the vignette. This study provides the first robust data on the management of pregnancy-related LBP by U.K. physiotherapists. Multimodal management is common, although exercise is the most frequently used treatment for pregnancy-related LBP. Acupuncture is used less often for this patient group. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. National survey of clinical communication assessment in medical education in the United Kingdom (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Anita; Salisbury, Helen; Doherty, Eva M; Wiskin, Connie

    2014-01-13

    All medical schools in the UK are required to be able to provide evidence of competence in clinical communication in their graduates. This is usually provided by summative assessment of clinical communication, but there is considerable variation in how this is carried out. This study aimed to gain insight into the current assessment of clinical communication in UK medical schools. The survey was sent via e-mail to communication leads who then were asked to consult with all staff within their medical school involved in the assessment of communication. Results were obtained from 27 out of 33 schools (response rate 82%) and a total of 34 courses. The average number of assessments per year was 2.4 (minimum 0, maximum 10). The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) was the most commonly used method of assessment (53%). Other assessments included MCQ and workplace based assessments. Only nine courses used a single method of assessment. Issues raised included, logistics and costs of assessing mainly by OSCE, the robustness and reliability of such exams and integration with other clinical skills. It is encouraging that a variety of assessment methods are being used within UK medical schools and that these methods target different components of clinical communication skills acquisition.

  12. Characterisation: Challenges and Opportunities - A UK Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emptage, Matthew; Loudon, David; Mcleod, Richard; Milburn, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation plays a very important role in the nuclear industry supporting: the development and implementation of decommissioning strategies/plans (and the optimisation of associated costs through reduction in technical risks); regulatory compliance demonstration; waste prevention/minimisation; evaluation and optimisation of worker radiation doses; and maintaining public confidence. Recognising these important drivers, the UK regulators are working with the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to undertake a review of characterisation practice in the UK nuclear (decommissioning) industry. The objective of the characterisation review is to understand the current characterisation challenges and to determine strategic and tactical opportunities (including sharing of standards and guidance, capabilities, learning from experience, good practice, research and development, training, quality assurance) to optimise characterisation practice. The work is being undertaken through review of nuclear operator's characterisation practice, with input from the NDA, the UK regulators, nuclear operators and representatives from the supply chain, and through consideration of good practice case studies. To support this, a catalogue of relevant national/international guidance documents is also be compiled. Finally a workshop with representatives from all parties has taken place to consider the findings and establish a common understanding of challenges and opportunities and to start to consider how they can be addressed. The review is establishing a collective (UK regulator's, NDA; nuclear operator's and supply chain) understanding of opportunities to improve characterisation practice in the UK. The characterisation review process is described and early results are presented and discussed. Subsequent work in 2016 will be required to prioritise the opportunities and to build a consensus to facilitate development and implementation of an improvement plan. The aim

  13. Cast iron transport, storage and disposal containers for use in UK nuclear licensed sites - 59412

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viermann, Joerg; Messer, Matthias P.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Ductile Cast Iron Containers of the types GCVI (UK trademark -GNS YELLOW BOX R ) and MOSAIK R have been in use in Germany for transport, storage and disposal of intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW) for more than two decades. In 2009 a number of containers of these types were delivered to various Magnox sites as so called pathfinders to test their suitability for Magnox waste streams. The results were encouraging. Therefore the Letter of Compliance (LoC) procedure was started to prove the suitability of packages using these types of containers for the future UK Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) and a conceptual Letter of Compliance (cLoC) was obtained from RWMD in 2010. Waste stream specific applications for Interim Stage Letters of Compliance (ILoC) for a number of waste streams from different Magnox sites and from the UK's only pressurised water reactor, Sizewell B are currently being prepared and discussed with RWMD. In order to achieve a package suitable for interim storage and disposal the contents of a Ductile Cast Iron Container only has to be dried. Mobile drying facilities are readily available. Containers and drying facilities form a concerted system

  14. Optimalisation of national industry participation in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana

    2008-01-01

    A study of national industry participation based on recent data has already been conducted. The current industry data is used to estimate the optimum level of national industry participation in nuclear power plant (NPP) construction based on the prior study. The purpose of the study is to give a figure of the optimum level of national industry participation in NPP construction. The scope of the study is the NPP construction project in related to the potency of national industry to participate in the project. The methodology used in the study are literature study, web surfing for industrial data, and on-the-spot industry survey that are potential to participate in NPP construction. In addition to that, discussion with expertise of industrial practitioner was also conducted. The study concludes that (1) based on the recent national industry capability provided and compared to prior similar study, it is estimated that the level of national industry participation in the first NPP construction with the capacity of 1000 MWe PWR is about 40%. (2) to accelerate NPP technology transfer, we need to build a small size NPP. The nuclear island will be developed by BATAN in cooperation with national industry and the non-nuclear island will be developed by national industry. Universities and other academicians should be involved to support and keep the sustainability of man power availability in developing the NPP technology. (author)

  15. National and international nuclear material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    The status of nuclear materials in both the U.S. and Former Soviet Union is changing based upon the execution of agreements relative to weapons materials production and weapon dismantlement. The result of these activities is that a considerably different emphasis is being placed on how nuclear materials are viewed and utilized. Even though much effort is being expended on the final disposition of these materials, the interim need for storage and security of the material is increasing. Both safety and security requirements exist to govern activities when these materials are placed in storage. These requirements are intended to provide confidence that the material is not being misused and that the storage operations are conducted safely. Both of these goals can be significantly enhanced if technological monitoring of the material is performed. This paper will briefly discuss the traditional manual methods of U.S. and international material monitoring and then present approaches and technology that are available to achieve the same goals under the evolving environment

  16. Different approaches to the tasks of educating and training information systems professionals, within the National Health Service (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R M; Horkin, E J; Melhuish, P J; Norris, A C

    1998-06-01

    In 1994, La Sainte Union College of Higher Education (LSU) developed an MSc in Health Informatics course, in conjunction with Southampton University NHS Trust (SUHT). The original part-time, 1 day per week mode of delivery has since been broadened to include a distance leaning route and recently a block release mode, by which students combine usage of the distance learning materials with attendance in College for an intensive 2-day taught element. Because the course was designed in close co-operation with a major teaching hospital, it has always been 'market led' to meet the needs both of the individual students and of the organisations that they work for. At the same time, students acquire a quality-assured qualification from a premier UK university, a qualification that holds credence outside the National Health Service (NHS). At the same time as LSU and SUHT were developing the MSc in Health Informatics, the UK NHS Training Division (NHSTD) started to promote a professional qualification for health service professionals. the so-called 'Statement of Recognition' (SoR). In contrast to the academic format of an MSc, the SoR was not a formal course, but a combination of modules designed to help candidates demonstrate their competence and achievement at work by portfolio evidence. This approach has national standing throughout the UK in a set of qualifications known as NVQs (National Vocational Qualifications). The NHSTD, through its successor, the Institute of Health Care Development (IHCD), has further refined this competency based model, culminating in the launch in 1996 of the Diploma and Advanced Diploma in Information and Technology (Health). Professionals within the area of Information Management and Technology (IM&T) in the NHS now have the alternatives of an academic or a competency route to achieve their goals. This paper traces the development of and the relationship between, these two approaches to the educational and training of healthcare professionals

  17. Nuclear education and training related issues: Needs and lessons learned in national and international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubomir, Sklenka

    2010-01-01

    The paper is focused on nuclear education and training at research reactors and universities. Lack of experts and high educated and skilled professionals in nuclear engineering in the world caused by fast aging of the NPPs and research reactors staff and expected ''nuclear renaissance'' brings a new needs to the universities and research reactors. During the last few years some new trends in nuclear education became visible. Customers expect high quality nuclear education in wide range of knowledge and the complex services, which forces universities and research reactors to bring new challenges in the domain of education and training. State-of-the-art experimental equipment and methodologies specifically developed for the education, networking and dose cooperation between universities and research reactors at national and international levels, and sharing the experimental facilities are the trends which can be noticed today all over the world. Research reactors are suitable for education of students at all academic levels (BSc, MSc and PhD) not only in nuclear engineering, but also in various non-nuclear engineering studies (power engineering, electrical engineering, natural sciences, medical sciences, physical sciences, etc.). An effective way on how to provide the education and training at the research reactor should be started by evaluation of the initial students' background and then adaptation of the educational methodology to that level. Networking and closer co-operation between universities at national and international level in nuclear education started in late nineties in Europe and within a few years several networks were establish. The European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) as an European regional network with more than 40 European universities was inspiration for creating national networks in Europe (e.g. Belgium, UK, Czech Republic, etc.) and Non-European regional networks (Asia, North America, etc.). Research reactors play an important role in all

  18. Do nurses wish to continue working for the UK National Health Service? A comparative study of three generations of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Andrew; Robson, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    To identify the combination of variables that explain nurses' continuation intention in the UK National Health Service. This alternative arena has permitted the replication of a private sector Australian study. This study provides understanding about the issues that affect nurse retention in a sector where employee attrition is a key challenge, further exacerbated by an ageing workforce. A quantitative study based on a self-completion survey questionnaire completed in 2010. Nurses employed in two UK National Health Service Foundation Trusts were surveyed and assessed using seven work-related constructs and various demographics including age generation. Through correlation, multiple regression and stepwise regression analysis, the potential combined effect of various explanatory variables on continuation intention was assessed, across the entire nursing cohort and in three age-generation groups. Three variables act in combination to explain continuation intention: work-family conflict, work attachment and importance of work to the individual. This combination of significant explanatory variables was consistent across the three generations of nursing employee. Work attachment was identified as the strongest marginal predictor of continuation intention. Work orientation has a greater impact on continuation intention compared with employer-directed interventions such as leader-member exchange, teamwork and autonomy. UK nurses are homogeneous across the three age-generations regarding explanation of continuation intention, with the significant explanatory measures being recognizably narrower in their focus and more greatly concentrated on the individual. This suggests that differentiated approaches to retention should perhaps not be pursued in this sectoral context. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. South Africa and nuclear energy - national and international legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, G.N.

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an exposition of the national and international legal aspects of what appears to be a technological triumph for South Africa. The nuclear policy, facilities, aims and capabilities of the country are described, as well as its nuclear energy program and development. When the Nuclear Energy Act 92 of 1982 was promulgated, a new internal legal dispensation commenced. The main objects of the act, powers and functions of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd and the Council for Nuclear Safety are stated. South Africa's official viewpoint and attitude regarding the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the advantages and obstades to South Africa's signature and ratification of the Treaty are discussed

  20. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Y.M.; Kim, H.S.; Lee, K.S.; Lee, B.Y.; Lee, J.S.; Choi, Y.L.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to analyze international non-proliferation circumstances, to suggest national strategies and tactics for international meetings non-proliferation and peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to establish domestic non-proliferation systems for international credibility. This study suggests two revision proposals for the IAEA Statute Article VI as a means for the permanent membership in the Board, evaluates benefits and losses of the membership of the international export control regime, and suggests strategies for building a domestics nuclear export control system. This study contributes to enhancing international credibility and promoting self-reliance of nuclear technology in Korea. (Author)

  1. Proceedings of the 9. National Seminar on Technology and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antariksawan, Anhar R.; Soetrisnanto, Arnold Y; Aziz, Ferhat; Untoro, Pudji; Su'ud, Zaki; Zarkasi, Amin Santoso; Lasman, As Natio

    2003-08-01

    The ninth proceedings of seminar safety and technology of nuclear power plant and nuclear facilities held by National Nuclear Energy Agency and PLN-JTK. The aims of seminar is to exchange and disseminate information about Safety and Nuclear Power Plant Technology and Nuclear Facilities consist of Technology High Temperature Reactor and Application for National Development Sustainable and High Technology. This seminar cover all aspects Technology, Power Reactor, Research Reactor High Temperature Reactor and Nuclear Facilities. There are 20 articles have separated index

  2. The challenges and directions for nuclear energy policy in Japan. Japan's nuclear energy national plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanase, Tadao

    2007-01-01

    According to the 'framework for nuclear energy policy' (October, 2005 adopted by cabinet), basic goals of nuclear policy are (1) for nuclear energy to continue to meet more than around 30-40% of electricity supply, and also (2) to further promote a fuel cycle steadily aiming at commercial introduction of a fast breeder by 2050. In order to realize an aim of this framework for nuclear energy policy', the nuclear energy subcommittee of the METI advisory committee deliberated concrete actions and the subcommittee recommendations were drawn up as 'Japan's nuclear energy national plan' in August, 2006 and incorporated as main part of the revised 'basic plan on energy' adopted by the cabinet in March 2007. Backgrounds and directions of future actions for nuclear energy policy were described. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Paediatric post-burn scar management in the UK: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzi, Francesca; Chadwick, Sarah; Shah, Mamta

    2015-03-01

    Thermal injuries affect 250,000 people annually in the United Kingdom. As burn survival improves, good scar management is paramount to help individuals living with the resultant scars lead a life without restrictions. Post-burn hypertrophic scars can limit growth in children, interfere with function and cause psychological problems. In the current literature there is great variation in post-burn scar management across the world and in the evidence available for the efficacy of these management modalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the variances if any, in the management of post-burn scarring in children across the UK. A telephone survey of UK paediatric burn services was conducted to obtain information on post-burn scar management and advice given to patients/carers. Of the 19 burn services that participated, all advised moisturising of scars but with variable emphasis on massaging. Silicones and pressure therapy were used by 18 services but commencement of use varied from soon after healing to onset of hypertrophic scarring. Laser therapy, ultrasound therapy and steroid therapy were used sporadically. This study highlights the common modalities of post-burn scar management in children across the UK. However, there is marked variation in timing and selection of the commonly used modalities. Although this study did not investigate the outcomes of scar management, it clearly identifies the need for a well-designed multi-centred study to establish evidence-based best practice in the management of post-burn scarring in children as these modalities are time consuming and not without potential complications. Evidence based practice could potentially lead to significant financial savings to the health service. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Perceived causes of differential attainment in UK postgraduate medical training: a national qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Katherine; Rich, Antonia; Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann

    2016-11-25

    Explore trainee doctors' experiences of postgraduate training and perceptions of fairness in relation to ethnicity and country of primary medical qualification. Qualitative semistructured focus group and interview study. Postgraduate training in England (London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent Surrey and Sussex) and Wales. 137 participants (96 trainees, 41 trainers) were purposively sampled from a framework comprising: doctors from all stages of training in general practice, medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, psychiatry, radiology, surgery or foundation, in 4 geographical areas, from white and black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds, who qualified in the UK and abroad. Most trainees described difficult experiences, but BME UK graduates (UKGs) and international medical graduates (IMGs) could face additional difficulties that affected their learning and performance. Relationships with senior doctors were crucial to learning but bias was perceived to make these relationships more problematic for BME UKGs and IMGs. IMGs also had to deal with cultural differences and lack of trust from seniors, often looking to IMG peers for support instead. Workplace-based assessment and recruitment were considered vulnerable to bias whereas examinations were typically considered more rigorous. In a system where success in recruitment and assessments determines where in the country you can get a job, and where work-life balance is often poor, UK BME and international graduates in our sample were more likely to face separation from family and support outside of work, and reported more stress, anxiety or burnout that hindered their learning and performance. A culture in which difficulties are a sign of weakness made seeking support and additional training stigmatising. BME UKGs and IMGs can face additional difficulties in training which may impede learning and performance. Non-stigmatising interventions should focus on trainee-trainer relationships at work and organisational changes to

  5. Current practice and recommendations in UK epilepsy monitoring units. Report of a national survey and workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamandi, Khalid; Beniczky, Sandor; Diehl, Beate; Kandler, Rosalind H; Pressler, Ronit M; Sen, Arjune; Solomon, Juliet; Walker, Matthew C; Bagary, Manny

    2017-08-01

    Inpatient video-EEG monitoring (VEM) is an important investigation in patients with seizures or blackouts, and in the pre-surgical workup of patients with epilepsy. There has been an expansion in the number of Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMU) in the UK offering VEM with a necessary increase in attention on quality and safety. Previous surveys have shown variation across centres on issues including consent and patient monitoring. In an effort to bring together healthcare professionals in the UK managing patients on EMU, we conducted an online survey of current VEM practice and held a one-day workshop convened under the auspices of the British Chapter of the ILAE. The survey and workshop aimed to cover all aspects of VEM, including pre-admission, consent procedures, patient safety, drug reduction and reinstatement, seizure management, staffing levels, ictal testing and good data recording practice. This paper reports on the findings of the survey, the workshop presentations and workshop discussions. 32 centres took part in the survey and there were representatives from 22 centres at the workshop. There was variation in protocols, procedures and consent processes between units, and levels of observation of monitored patients. Nevertheless, the workshop discussion found broad areas of agreement on points. A survey and workshop of UK epilepsy monitoring units found that some variability in practice is inevitable due to different local arrangements and patient groups under investigation. However, there were areas of clear consensus particularly in relation to consent and patient safety that can be applied to most units and form a basis for setting minimum standards. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Patients' expectations of private osteopathic care in the UK: a national survey of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C M Janine; Mandy, Anne; Hankins, Matthew; Bottomley, Laura M; Cross, Vinette; Fawkes, Carol A; Fiske, Adam; Moore, Ann P

    2013-05-31

    Patients' expectations of osteopathic care have been little researched. The aim of this study was to quantify the most important expectations of patients in private UK osteopathic practices, and the extent to which those expectations were met or unmet. The study involved development and application of a questionnaire about patients' expectations of osteopathic care. The questionnaire drew on an extensive review of the literature and the findings of a prior qualitative study involving focus groups exploring the expectations of osteopathic patients. A questionnaire survey of osteopathic patients in the UK was then conducted. Patients were recruited from a random sample of 800 registered osteopaths in private practice across the UK. Patients were asked to complete the questionnaire which asked about 51 aspects of expectation, and post it to the researchers for analysis.The main outcome measures were the patients-perceived level of expectation as assessed by the percentage of positive responses for each aspect of expectation, and unmet expectation as computed from the proportion responding that their expectation "did not happen". 1649 sets of patient data were included in the analysis. Thirty five (69%) of the 51 aspects of expectation were prevalent, with listening, respect and information-giving ranking highest. Only 11 expectations were unmet, the most often unmet were to be made aware that there was a complaints procedure, to find it difficult to pay for osteopathic treatment, and perceiving a lack of communication between the osteopath and their GP. The findings reflected the complexity of providing osteopathic care and meeting patients' expectations. The results provided a generally positive message about private osteopathic practice. The study identified certain gaps between expectations and delivery of care, which can be used to improve the quality of care. The questionnaire is a resource for future research.

  7. Patients’ expectations of private osteopathic care in the UK: a national survey of patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients’ expectations of osteopathic care have been little researched. The aim of this study was to quantify the most important expectations of patients in private UK osteopathic practices, and the extent to which those expectations were met or unmet. Methods The study involved development and application of a questionnaire about patients’ expectations of osteopathic care. The questionnaire drew on an extensive review of the literature and the findings of a prior qualitative study involving focus groups exploring the expectations of osteopathic patients. A questionnaire survey of osteopathic patients in the UK was then conducted. Patients were recruited from a random sample of 800 registered osteopaths in private practice across the UK. Patients were asked to complete the questionnaire which asked about 51 aspects of expectation, and post it to the researchers for analysis. The main outcome measures were the patients-perceived level of expectation as assessed by the percentage of positive responses for each aspect of expectation, and unmet expectation as computed from the proportion responding that their expectation “did not happen”. Results 1649 sets of patient data were included in the analysis. Thirty five (69%) of the 51 aspects of expectation were prevalent, with listening, respect and information-giving ranking highest. Only 11 expectations were unmet, the most often unmet were to be made aware that there was a complaints procedure, to find it difficult to pay for osteopathic treatment, and perceiving a lack of communication between the osteopath and their GP. Conclusions The findings reflected the complexity of providing osteopathic care and meeting patients’ expectations. The results provided a generally positive message about private osteopathic practice. The study identified certain gaps between expectations and delivery of care, which can be used to improve the quality of care. The questionnaire is a resource for future research

  8. Clinical roles in clinical biochemistry: a national survey of practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sirazum M; Williams, Emma L; Barnes, Sophie C; Alaghband-Zadeh, Jamshid; Tan, Tricia M; Cegla, Jaimini

    2017-05-01

    Background Using an online survey, we collected data to present a picture of how clinical authorization is performed in the UK. Methods A 21-question survey was uploaded to www.surveymonkey.com , and responses were invited via the mail base of the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The questionnaire examined the intensity and function of the duty biochemist role and how different types of authorization are used to handle and release results. Results Of 70 responses received, 60 were suitable for analysis. Responses were received from every region of the UK. A typical duty biochemist shift started on average at 8:50, and finished at 17:25. The mean duration was 8 h 58 min. Clinical scientists are the most abundantly represented group on duty biochemist rotas. Higher banded clinical scientists and chemical pathologists covered out-of-hours shifts. Results were handled differently depending on the level of abnormality and the requesting area. Normal results tended to be released either directly from the analyser or after technical then autoauthorization (90%). A greater preference for clinical authorization was seen for abnormal and critical results originating from outpatients (49% and 69%, respectively) or general practice (51% and 71%) than for inpatients (33% and 53%) or A&E (25% and 37%). Conclusions The handling and authorization of biochemistry results varies greatly between laboratories. The role is clearly heterogeneous in the UK. Guidance from the Association for Clinical Biochemistry and Royal College of Pathologists may help to clarify the essential roles of the duty biochemist.

  9. Nuclear structure and radioactive decay resources at the US National Nuclear Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.A.; Burrows, T.W.; Pritychenko, B.; Tuli, J.K.; Winchell, D.F.

    2008-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center has a long tradition of evaluating nuclear structure and decay data as well as offering tools to assist in nuclear science research and applications. With these tools, users can obtain recommended values for nuclear structure and radioactive decay observables as well as links to the relevant articles. The main databases or tools are ENSDF, NSR, NuDat and the new Endf decay data library. The Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) stores recommended nuclear structure and decay data for all nuclei. ENSDF deals with properties such as: -) nuclear level energies, spin and parity, half-life and decay modes, -) nuclear radiation energy and intensity for different types, -) nuclear decay modes and their probabilities. The Nuclear Science References (NSR) is a bibliographic database containing nearly 200.000 nuclear sciences articles indexed according to content. About 4000 are added each year covering 80 journals as well as conference proceedings and laboratory reports. NuDat is a software product with 2 main goals, to present nuclear structure and decay information from ENSDF in a user-friendly way and to allow users to execute complex search operations in the wealth of data contained in ENSDF. The recently released Endf-B7.0 contains a decay data sub-library which has been derived from ENSDF. The way all these databases and tools have been offered to the public has undergone a drastic improvement due to advancements in information technology

  10. 2015 UK national guideline for the management of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokolo, Nneka C; Dragovic, Bojana; Patel, Sheel; Tong, C Y William; Barker, Gary; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-03-01

    This guideline offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests, treatment regimens and health promotion principles needed for the effective management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. It covers the management of the initial presentation, as well the prevention of transmission and future infection. The guideline is aimed at individuals aged 16 years and older presenting to healthcare professionals working in departments offering Level 3 care in sexually transmitted infections management within the UK. However, the principles of the recommendations should be adopted across all levels, using local care pathways where appropriate. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Disaggregation of collective dose-a worked example based on future discharges from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing site, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S R; Lambers, B; Stevens, A

    2004-01-01

    Collective dose has long been advocated as an important measure of the detriment associated with practices that involve the use of radioactivity. Application of collective dose in the context of worker protection is relatively straightforward, whereas its application in the context of discharges to the environment can yield radically different conclusions depending upon the population groups and integration times that are considered. The computer program PC-CREAM98 has been used to provide an indicative disaggregation into individual dose bands of the collective dose due to potential future radioactive discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing site at Sellafield in the UK. Two alternative discharge scenarios are considered, which represent a 'stop reprocessing early, minimum discharge' scenario and a 'reprocessing beyond current contracts' scenario. For aerial discharges, collective dose at individual effective dose rates exceeding 0.015 μSv y -1 is only incurred within the UK, and at effective dose rates exceeding 1.5 μSv y -1 is only incurred within about 20 km of Sellafield. The geographical distribution of collective dose from liquid discharges is harder to assess, but it appears that collective dose incurred outside the UK is at levels of individual effective dose rate below 1.5 μSv y -1 , with the majority being incurred at rates of 0.002 μSv y -1 or less. In multi-attribute utility analyses, the view taken on the radiological detriment to be attributed to the two discharge scenarios will depend critically on the weight or monetary value ascribed to collective doses incurred within the differing bands of individual dose rate

  12. Development of a CVD silica coating for UK advanced gas-cooled nuclear reactor fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, M.J.; Houlton, M.R.; Moore, D.A.; Foster, A.I.; Swidzinski, M.A.M.

    1983-04-01

    Vapour deposited silica coatings could extend the life of the 20% Cr/25% Ni niobium stabilised (20/25/Nb) stainless steel fuel cladding of the UK advanced gas cooled reactors. A CVD coating process developed originally to be undertaken at atmospheric pressure has now been adapted for operation at reduced pressure. Trials on the LP CVD process have been pursued to the production scale using commercial equipment. The effectiveness of the LP CVD silica coatings in providing protection to 20/25/Nb steel surfaces against oxidation and carbonaceous deposition has been evaluated. (author)

  13. Experience in installing a microprocessor-based protection system on a UK nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.D.; Smith, I.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a recently completed project to install a microprocessor-based reactor protection system on a twin reactor station in the United Kingdom. This represented the first application of digital technology as part of such a system in the UK. The background of the application and details of the chosen solution are provided. The experience gained during the installation, commissioning and early operation of the equipment is reviewed by the operators. Interactions between the utility and the regulatory body are outlined and the impact of the regulatory process on the utility's resources and the project timescales are discussed

  14. Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    In this short paper it has only been possible to deal in a rather general way with the standards of safety used in the UK nuclear industry. The record of the industry extending over at least twenty years is impressive and, indeed, unique. No other industry has been so painstaking in protection of its workers and in its avoidance of damage to the environment. Headings are: introduction; how a nuclear power station works; radiation and its effects (including reference to ICRP, the UK National Radiological Protection Board, and safety standards); typical radiation doses (natural radiation, therapy, nuclear power programme and other sources); safety of nuclear reactors - design; key questions (matters of concern which arise in the public mind); safety of operators; safety of people in the vicinity of a nuclear power station; safety of the general public; safety bodies. (U.K.)

  15. Is nuclear energy reasonable with national economic regards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, L.

    1989-01-01

    In answering the question of whether a nuclear phaseout can be acceptable with national economic respects, one is confronted with the following basic question: Are the risks associated with nuclear energy reasonable in terms of safety and the conservation of the environment. Effective and responsible action in this question presupposes a clear political will and judgment. Because of the necessity of having to put up in the case of nuclear energy - a basic innovation whose development has yet a long way to go - with nuclear legal terms, are faced with a dilemma. In the opinion of energy engineers and the energy industry, the central part of the controversy on nuclear power is about the problem of coming to terms on what will be acceptable to the population as necessary precautionary measures for the event of an accident. Obviously, it is for the legislator to decide on the compatibility and social adequacy of a risk, not for the judge to interpret it on the basis of nuclear legal terms. Our national economy is now and in the future challenged with the task to research, develop, and realize hazard-prone technologies in order to shape the future. Where readiness to accept risks can no longer be assumed in the future, development prospects will be curbed in parallel. What national economic consequences will result from this, and whether they will be acceptable with national econiomic regards, is a question that has not so far been dealt with by the studies on a phaseout of nuclear energy. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  17. Developments related to the National Nuclear Safety Authority of Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, Florin

    1998-01-01

    The contribution presents the status of the National Commission for Nuclear Activity Control (CNCAN) as indicated by the provisions of a Romanian Government Decision of May 1998. As specified in the art.3 the main tasks of the Commission are the following: to issue authorization and exercise permits of activities in nuclear field; to supervise the applications of the provisions stipulated by the law concerning development in safety conditions of nuclear activities; to develop instructions as well as nuclear safety regulations to ensure the quality assurance and functioning in safety conditions of the nuclear facilities and plants, the protection against nuclear radiation of the professionally exposed personnel, of the population, of the environment and of the material goods, the physical protection, the records, preservation and transport of radioactive material and of fissionable materials as well as the management of radioactive waste; organizes expert and is responsible for the state control concerning the integrated application of the law provisions in the field of quality constructions in which nuclear installations of national interest are located, during all the phases and for all the components of the quality system in this field; issues specialty and information documentation specific to its own activity, provides the information of the public through official publication, official statements to the press and other specific form of information; carries out any other tasks provided by law in the field of regulations and control of nuclear activity. Author presents also the CNCAN staff number evolution, the new structure, the staff distribution at headquarters, local agencies and national radiation monitoring network. Finally, the author discusses the legal provisions related to management manual procedures

  18. Transboundary data management for nuclear plants near national borders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narrog, J.; Obrecht, R.

    1998-01-01

    Transboundary data management was decided in the EU in case of incidents and accidents. The information is sent by codified messages in accordance with the Convention Information Structure (CIS). Within the international collaboration regarding nuclear installations near national borders, fixed telephone and tele-copy connections are used. In addition to that an online data exchange between France and Germany is being installed. This facilitates and accelerates ascertaining the radiological situation for both partners across the national borders. (author)

  19. Learning from Somaliland? Transferability of learning from volunteering to national health service practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillson, Esther; van Wees, Sibylle Herzig; McGowan, Charlotte; Franklin, Hannah; Jones, Helena; Bogue, Patrick; Aliabadi, Shirin; Baraitser, Paula

    2016-03-22

    Capacity building partnerships between healthcare institutions have the potential to benefit both partners particularly in staff development. Previous research suggests that volunteering can contribute to professional development but there is little evidence on how learning is acquired, the barriers and facilitators to learning in this context or the process of translation of learning to the home environment. Volunteers from a healthcare partnership between the UK and Somaliland reported learning in communication, interdisciplinary working, teaching, management, leadership and service development. This learning came from observing familiar practices in unfamiliar environments; alternative solutions to familiar problems; learning about Somali culture; opportunities to assume higher levels of responsibility and new professional relationships. There was variability in the extent of translation to NHS practice. Time and support available for reflection and mentoring were important facilitators of this process. The professional development outcomes documented in this study came directly from the experience of volunteering. Experiential learning theory suggests that this requires a complex process of critical reflection and new knowledge generation, testing and translation for use in new contexts. This process benefits from identification of learning as an important element of volunteering and support for reflection and the translation translation of learning to UK contexts. We suggest that missed opportunities for volunteer learning will remain until the volunteering process is overtly framed as part of continuing professional development.

  20. Digital pathology access and usage in the UK: results from a national survey on behalf of the National Cancer Research Institute's CM-Path initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bethany Jill; Lee, Jessica; Oien, Karin A; Treanor, Darren

    2018-05-01

    To canvass the UK pathology community to ascertain current levels of digital pathology usage in clinical and academic histopathology departments, and prevalent attitudes to digital pathology. A 15-item survey was circulated to National Health Service and academic pathology departments across the UK using the SurveyMonkey online survey tool. Responses were sought at a departmental or institutional level. Where possible, departmental heads were approached and asked to complete the survey, or forward it to the most relevant individual in their department. Data were collected over a 6-month period from February to July 2017. 41 institutes from across the UK responded to the survey. 60% (23/39) of institutions had access to a digital pathology scanner, and 60% (24/40) had access to a digital pathology workstation. The most popular applications of digital pathology in current use were undergraduate and postgraduate teaching, research and quality assurance. Investigating the deployment of digital pathology in their department was identified as a high or highest priority by 58.5% of institutions, with improvements in efficiency, turnaround times, reporting times and collaboration in their institution anticipated by the respondents. Access to funding for initial hardware, software and staff outlay, pathologist training and guidance from the Royal College of Pathologists were identified as factors that could enable respondent institutions to increase their digital pathology usage. Interest in digital pathology adoption in the UK is high, with usage likely to increase in the coming years. In light of this, pathologists are seeking more guidance on safe usage. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Digital pathology access and usage in the UK: results from a national survey on behalf of the National Cancer Research Institute’s CM-Path initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bethany Jill; Lee, Jessica; Oien, Karin A; Treanor, Darren

    2018-01-01

    Aim To canvass the UK pathology community to ascertain current levels of digital pathology usage in clinical and academic histopathology departments, and prevalent attitudes to digital pathology. Methods A 15-item survey was circulated to National Health Service and academic pathology departments across the UK using the SurveyMonkey online survey tool. Responses were sought at a departmental or institutional level. Where possible, departmental heads were approached and asked to complete the survey, or forward it to the most relevant individual in their department. Data were collected over a 6-month period from February to July 2017. Results 41 institutes from across the UK responded to the survey. 60% (23/39) of institutions had access to a digital pathology scanner, and 60% (24/40) had access to a digital pathology workstation. The most popular applications of digital pathology in current use were undergraduate and postgraduate teaching, research and quality assurance. Investigating the deployment of digital pathology in their department was identified as a high or highest priority by 58.5% of institutions, with improvements in efficiency, turnaround times, reporting times and collaboration in their institution anticipated by the respondents. Access to funding for initial hardware, software and staff outlay, pathologist training and guidance from the Royal College of Pathologists were identified as factors that could enable respondent institutions to increase their digital pathology usage. Conclusion Interest in digital pathology adoption in the UK is high, with usage likely to increase in the coming years. In light of this, pathologists are seeking more guidance on safe usage. PMID:29317516

  2. Implementing UK Autism Policy & National Institute for Health and Care Excellence Guidance--Assessing the Impact of Autism Training for Frontline Staff in Community Learning Disabilities Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alex; Browne, Sarah; Boardman, Liz; Hewitt, Lealah; Light, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    UK National Autism Strategy (Department of Health, 2010 and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance (NICE, 2012) states that frontline staff should have a good understanding of Autism. Fifty-six clinical and administrative staff from a multidisciplinary community Learning Disability service completed an electronic questionnaire…

  3. The U.S. national nuclear forensics library, nuclear materials information program, and data dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamont, Stephen Philip; Brisson, Marcia; Curry, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensics assessments to determine material process history requires careful comparison of sample data to both measured and modeled nuclear material characteristics. Developing centralized databases, or nuclear forensics libraries, to house this information is an important step to ensure all relevant data will be available for comparison during a nuclear forensics analysis and help expedite the assessment of material history. The approach most widely accepted by the international community at this time is the implementation of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, which would be developed and maintained by individual nations. This is an attractive alternative toan international database since it provides an understanding that each country has data on materials produced and stored within their borders, but eliminates the need to reveal any proprietary or sensitive information to other nations. To support the concept of National Nuclear Forensics libraries, the United States Department of Energy has developed a model library, based on a data dictionary, or set of parameters designed to capture all nuclear forensic relevant information about a nuclear material. Specifically, information includes material identification, collection background and current location, analytical laboratories where measurements were made, material packaging and container descriptions, physical characteristics including mass and dimensions, chemical and isotopic characteristics, particle morphology or metallurgical properties, process history including facilities, and measurement quality assurance information. While not necessarily required, it may also be valuable to store modeled data sets including reactor burn-up or enrichment cascade data for comparison. It is fully expected that only a subset of this information is available or relevant to many materials, and much of the data populating a National Nuclear Forensics library would be process analytical or material accountability

  4. Universities and national laboratory roles in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Engineering Education is being significantly challenged in the United States. The decline in enrollment generally and the reduction of the number of nuclear engineering departments has been well documented. These declines parallel a lack of new construction for nuclear power plants and a decline in research and development to support new plant design. Precisely at a time when innovation is is needed to deal with many issues facing nuclear power, the number of qualified people to do so is being reduced. It is important that the University and National Laboratory Communities cooperate to address these issues. The Universities must increasingly identify challenges facing nuclear power that demand innovative solutions and pursue them. To be drawn into the technology the best students must see a future, a need and identify challenges that they can meet. The University community can provide that vision with help from the National Laboratories. It has been a major goal within the reactor development program at Argonne National Laboratory to establish the kind of program that can help accomplish this

  5. Challenges in Implementing IAEA National Nuclear Safety Knowledge Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samba, R.N.; Simo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Integrated Management Systems and human resource development of nuclear knowledge have always been a challenge for developing countries. NRPA staff when trained by IAEA return and restitute with all colleagues the themes acquired in nuclear knowledge. NRPA became a member of Forum for Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA) in 2009. FNRBA organized with IAEA a workshop from 14th to 18th October 2013 in Nairobi, Kenya on Knowledge Safety Network. NRPA of Cameroon created the first National Nuclear Portail under FNRBA. This was linked to other national websites. During the IAEA review missions, most counterparts took opportunity from the thermatic site to share information and develop advance reference materials. The IAEA Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) team also shared materials that could not be transferred through email with national counterparts using the Global Nuclear Safety and Security Network (GNSSN) sharepoint website due to large file sizes.The regulatory documents have been uploaded on the platform and can be accessed through FNRBA and NRPA website (www.anrp.cm). UN organizations implementing projects in Cameroon are also linked to the platform. The action plans and progress reports for IAEA/AFRA projects are also available. Moreover, NRPA regulatory activities and licensing sources are available on this platform. (author

  6. Nuclear energy national plan. The directions for nuclear energy policy in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    Nuclear energy is a key attaining an integrated solution for energy security and global warming issues. Under the Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy Japan aims to (1) maintain the 30 to 40% or more share of nuclear energy on electricity generation up to 2030 and afterwards, (2) promote the nuclear fuel cycle and (3) commercialize the fast-breeder reactors. As for policies to realize the basic targets, the 'Nuclear Energy National Plan' was compiled in August 2006 as follows: (1) Investment to construct new nuclear power plants and replace existing reactors in an era of electric power liberalization, 2) Appropriate use of existing nuclear power plants with assuring safety as a key prerequisite, (3) Steady advancement of the nuclear fuel cycle and strategic reinforcement of nuclear fuel cycle industries, (4) Strategy to secure uranium supplied, (5) Early commercialization of the fast breeder reactor cycle, (6) Achieving and developing advanced, technologies, industries and personnel, (7) Assisting the Japanese nuclear industry in promoting the international development, (8) Involved in and/or creating international frameworks to uphold both nonproliferation and expansion of nuclear power generation, (9) Fostering trust between the sates and communities where plants are located by making public hearings and public relations highly detailed and (10) Steady promotion of measures for disposal of radioactive wastes. Implementation policies were presented in details in this book with relevant data and documents. (T. Tanaka)

  7. Nuclear power and national energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addae, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for energy in Ghana is expected to grow rapidly in the next couple of decades if the objectives of the Vision 2020 Programme are to become a reality. In particular, the demand for electric power is expected to increase 3 to 5 fold over 1997 levels by the year 2020.This calls for early planning. Adequate and dependable central station electric power supplies in the next couple of decades is therefore very critical to sustainable development and the achievement of the objective of the Vision 2020 Programme. Curtailment in electric power supplies cause disruption in economic activities and consequent economic losses. The recent cases in point are the 1983/84 and 1997/1998 power curtailments in Ghana due to low water levels in the Akosombo Reservoir. These led not only to substantial disruptions in economic activities but also to the erosion of invest confidence in the economy. It is, therefore, very essential that the country's central station electric power supply system should not continue to depend on hydro-electric power as in the past years but should be based on a mix of energy sources to provide an acceptable level of national energy security under all circumstances

  8. Preparedness and planning for nuclear accidents at national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiukshta, A.

    1998-01-01

    National plan for the protection of population in the case in nuclear accident at Ignalina NPP is presented. The plan was elaborated and approved in 1995, tested in a number of training and practical operations and positively evaluated by experts. The plan provides for measures of protection, their scope, schedule, executive officers and organizations and procedure of implementation

  9. National seminar on nuclear energy in everyday life: lectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    The document includes 8 lectures presented at the National Seminar on Nuclear Energy in Everyday Life organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) and the Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt) between 28-29 June 1994 in Cairo. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture.

  10. National seminar on nuclear energy in everyday life: lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The document includes 8 lectures presented at the National Seminar on Nuclear Energy in Everyday Life organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) and the Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt) between 28-29 June 1994 in Cairo. A separate abstract was prepared for each lecture

  11. Research investments for UK infectious disease research 1997-2013: A systematic analysis of awards to UK institutions alongside national burden of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Brown, Rebecca J; Clarke, Stuart C

    2018-01-01

    Infectious disease remains a significant burden in the UK and the focus of significant amounts of research investment each year. The Research Investments in Global Health study has systematically assessed levels of funding for infection research, and here considers investment alongside UK burden of individual infectious diseases. The study included awards to UK institutions between 1997 and 2013 that were related to infectious disease. Awards related to global health projects were excluded here. UK burden data (mortality, years lived with disability, and disability adjusted life years) was sourced from the Global Burden of Disease study (IHME, USA). Awards were categorised by pathogen, disease, disease area and by type of science along the research pipeline (pre-clinical, phase I-III trials, product development, public health, cross-disciplinary research). New metrics present relative levels of funding by comparing sum investment with measures of disease burden. There were 5685 relevant awards comprising investment of £2.4 billion. By disease, HIV received most funding (£369.7m; 15.6% of the total investment). Pre-clinical science was the predominant type of science (£1.6 billion, 68.7%), with the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) the largest funder (£714.8 million, 30.1%). There is a broad temporal trend to increased fundingper annum. Antimicrobial resistance received (£102.8 million, 4.2%), whilst sepsis received £23.6 million (1.0%). Compared alongside disease burden, acute hepatitis C and measles typically were relatively well-funded, whilst pneumonia, syphilis and gonorrhoea were poorly-funded. The UK has a broad research portfolio across a wide range of infectious diseases and disciplines. There are notable strengths including HIV, some respiratory infections and in pre-clinical science, though there was less funding for UK-relevant trials and public health research. Compared to the UK burden of disease, syphilis, gonorrhoea and pneumonia appear

  12. Nuclear Plant Analyzer development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laats, E.T.

    1986-10-01

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a state-of-the-art safety analysis and engineering tool being used to address key nuclear power plant safety issues. Under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the NPA has been developed to integrate the NRC's computerized reactor behavior simulation codes such as RELAP5, TRAC-BWR and TRAC-PWR, with well-developed computer color graphics programs and large repositories of reactor design and experimental data. An important feature of the NPA is the capability to allow an analyst to redirect a RELAP5 or TRAC calculation as it progresses through its simulated scenario. The analyst can have the same power plant control capabilities as the operator of an actual plant. The NPA resides on the dual Control Data Corporation Cyber 176 mainframe computers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Cray-1S computers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Kirtland Air Force Weapons Laboratory (KAFWL)

  13. Fifth national report of Brazil for the nuclear safety convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This Fifth National Report is a new update to include relevant information for the period of 2007/2009. This document represents the national report prepared as a fulfillment of the Brazilian obligations related to the Convention on Nuclear Safety. In chapter 2 some details are given about the existing nuclear installations. Chapter 3 provides details about the legislation and regulations, including the regulatory framework and the regulatory body. Chapter 4 covers general safety considerations as described in articles 10 to 16 of the Convention. Chapter 5 addresses to the safety of the installations during siting, design, construction and operation. Chapter 6 describes planned activities to further enhance nuclear safety. Chapter 7 presents the final remarks related to the degree of compliance with the Convention obligations

  14. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy

  15. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Bradley, D.J.; Fletcher, J.F.; Konzek, G.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Mitchell, S.J.; Molton, P.M.; Nightingale, R.E.

    1991-04-01

    Since 1976, the International Program Support Office (IPSO) at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has collected and compiled publicly available information concerning foreign and international radioactive waste management programs. This National Briefing Summaries is a printout of an electronic database that has been compiled and is maintained by the IPSO staff. The database contains current information concerning the radioactive waste management programs (with supporting information on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle) of most of the nations (except eastern European countries) that now have or are contemplating nuclear power, and of the multinational agencies that are active in radioactive waste management. Information in this document is included for three additional countries (China, Mexico, and USSR) compared to the prior issue. The database and this document were developed in response to needs of the US Department of Energy.

  16. Impact of Nuclear Technology to the National Socio-Economy: Technical Support by Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazmimi Kasim; Ainul Hayati Daud; Jamal Khaer Ibrahim; Alawiah Musa

    2011-01-01

    In Malaysia, the development of nuclear technology began in the year 1972. More than 30 years of application, today, the technology made impact to the national socio-economy through contribution to GDP and; improving quality of life and enhanced societal well-being. The application of nuclear technology both in public and private agencies in industrial, medical and agricultural sectors were considered. In 2008, the impact of nuclear technology shows the contribution of 0.032% to the total GDP. Industry sector shows an increasing trend and is the highest contributor, while agriculture sector remains the lowest. In this regard, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) played an important role as a technical support agency in nuclear technology, as a supplier and provider for the service, training and research for the industrial, medical and agricultural sectors. (author)

  17. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Clive; Burns, Philip; Wakerley, Malcolm; Watson, Isabelle; Cook, Marianne; Moloney, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11 000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10 14 Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of Pounds 7.14 million, nearly Pounds 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. (note)

  18. The UK's Surplus Source Disposal Programme: successful management of a national radioactive legacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Clive [Environment Agency, Block 1, Government Buildings, Burghill Road, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 6BF (United Kingdom); Burns, Philip [Formerly of the Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Solihull B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Wakerley, Malcolm [Formerly of the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Ergon House, 17 Smith Square, London SW1P 3JR (United Kingdom); Watson, Isabelle [Scottish Environment Protection Agency, 5 Redwood Crescent, Peel Park, East Kilbride G74 5PP (United Kingdom); Cook, Marianne [Scottish Government, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh EH6 6QQ (United Kingdom); Moloney, Barry [Safeguard International (now EnergySolutions), B168, Harwell Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QT (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Between 2004 and 2009, the Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP) arranged and subsidised the safe disposal or recycling of more than 11 000 unwanted radioactive items containing in total more than 8.5 x 10{sup 14} Bq of activity, from some 500 sites throughout the United Kingdom. Sources were removed principally from universities, schools and colleges, museums, and hospitals. SSDP was funded by the UK Government and managed by the Environment Agency. The programme was delivered at a total cost of Pounds 7.14 million, nearly Pounds 2 million less than its initial budget. This was a big success for health and safety, the environment, business and the public purse. Current legislative requirements under the High Activity Sealed Sources Directive, which came into effect during 2005, will prevent a build-up of high activity surplus sources in future. Continuing vigilance may be needed to avoid a build-up of lower activity disused sources. (note)

  19. Specialist perioperative allergy clinic services in the UK 2016: Results from the Royal College of Anaesthetists Sixth National Audit Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, W; Cook, T; Harper, N; Garcez, T; Marinho, S; Kong, K L; Nasser, S; Thomas, M; Warner, A; Hitchman, J; Floss, K

    2017-10-01

    Guidelines for investigation of perioperative drug allergy exist, but the quality of services is unknown. Specialist perioperative anaphylaxis services were surveyed through the Royal College of Anaesthetists 6 th National Audit Project. We compare self-declared UK practice in specialist perioperative allergy services with national recommendations. A SurveyMonkey™ questionnaire was distributed to providers of allergy services in the UK. Responses were assessed for adherence to the best practice recommendations of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI), the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidance on Drug Allergy-CG183. Over 1200 patients were evaluated in 44 centres annually. Variation in workload, waiting times, access, staffing and diagnostic approach was noted. Paediatric centres had the longest routine waiting times (most wait >13 weeks) in contrast to adult centres (most wait specialist nurses and 18/44 (41%) an anaesthetist] and provision of information [18/44 (41%) gave immediate information in clinic and 5/44 (11%) sign-posted support groups]. Most centres were able to provide diagnostic challenges to antibiotics [40/44 (91%]) and local anaesthetics [41/44 (93%)]. Diagnostic testing is not harmonized, with marked variability in the NMBA panels used to identify safe alternatives. Chlorhexidine and latex are not part of routine testing in many centres. Poor access to services and patient information provision require attention. Harmonization of diagnostic approach is desirable, particularly with regard to a minimum NMBA panel for identification of safe alternatives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Gambling and violence in a nationally representative sample of UK men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda; Coid, Jeremy; King, Robert; Murphy, Raegan; Turner, John; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Du Preez, Katie Palmer; Landon, Jason

    2016-12-01

    The relationship between violence and problem gambling in general population samples is under-researched and requires further attention to inform treatment and prevention efforts. We investigated the relationship between gambling problems and violence among men and sought to determine if the link can be accounted for by mental disorders, alcohol and drug dependence and impulsivity. A cross-sectional survey. A UK representative general population survey conducted in 2009. A total of 3025 UK men aged 18-64 years. Binary logistic regression was used to examine relationships. Outcome measures included gambling behaviour and self-reports of violence. Covariates included alcohol and drug dependence, mental illness, impulsivity and socio-demography. Problem gambling and probable pathological gambling were associated with increased odds of the perpetration of violence [adjusted odd ratios (AOR) = 3.09, confidence interval (CI) = 1.90-5.00 and 4.09, CI = 2.76-6.30, respectively] and a range of other behaviours, such as using a weapon (AORs = 4.93, CI = 2.52-9.63 and 6.33, CI = 3.52-11.38) and the perpetration of intimate partner violence (AOR = 9.80, CI =2.45-39.04). The results were attenuated when adjusted for comorbid mental illness and impulsivity, but remained statistically significant. Alcohol and drug dependence had the most impact; relationships were most attenuated when they added into the models, with the latter having the largest effect. Among men in the United Kingdom, self-reports of problem/pathological gambling remain predictive of a range of measures of violent behaviour after adjusting for alcohol and drug dependence, comorbid mental disorder and impulsivity; of the covariates, alcohol and drug dependence have the greatest effect in attenuating the gambling-violence association. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Trabeculectomy bleb needling and antimetabolite administration practices in the UK: a glaucoma specialist national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercieca, Karl; Drury, Brett; Bhargava, Archana; Fenerty, Cecilia

    2017-12-06

    To evaluate, describe and quantify the diversity in postoperative antimetabolite administration and bleb needling practices among glaucoma specialists performing trabeculectomy surgery within the UK and Ireland. A cross-sectional online survey was distributed to all consultant glaucoma specialists who are on the United Kingdom and Eire Glaucoma Society (UKEGS) contact list. Participants were asked specific questions about their current practices for post-trabeculectomy antimetabolite administration followed by questions directly related to bleb needling procedures. 60 (83%) of UKEGS glaucoma subspecialty consultants completed the survey. 70% of respondents administered 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in their clinic room while 30% used a separate treatment room. Doses of 5-FU varied considerably but 70% used 5 mg as standard. Techniques used to reduce corneal toxicity included precipitation with amethocaine (44%) or benoxinate (14%), saline wash (14%) and modified injection technique (8%). Topical antibiotics and/or betadine were used to prevent infection following 5-FU injection in just over 50%. Bleb needling was exclusively performed in operating theatre by 56% of respondents and solely at the slit lamp in the clinic room by 12%. A further 30% used a combination of both theatre and outpatient clinic rooms. Anti-metabolites used were 5-FU (72%) and mitomycin C (22%) with 12% using either of the two substances. There is a significantly wide variety of current practices for antimetabolite administration and bleb needling within the UK and Ireland. This may be influenced by a glaucoma surgeon's specific experience and audit results as well as particular clinical set-up, availability of antimetabolite and clinic room space. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. UK National Survey of Practice Patterns of Fluid Volume Management in Haemodialysis Patients: A Need for Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Indranil; Farrington, Ken; Davies, Simon J; Davenport, Andrew; Mitra, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Fluid management in haemodialysis (HD) affects patient experience, morbidity and mortality. Standards for best practice are lacking. A national survey of the United Kingdom was undertaken to define prevalent practice. An online questionnaire was distributed to all UK renal centres. Forty-five of 74 centres (173 dialysis units), serving 62% (n = 14,697) of UK HD population responded. Seventy-eight per cent had no agreed policy for managing fluid balance in patients on HD; 44% did not assess fluid status routinely. Clinical assessment was the norm; 27% used bio-impedance-based device. To achieve a target-weight, 53% reduced weight as far as tolerated. Twenty-two per cent measured residual renal function (RRF). Ninety-one per cent had no policy for fluid overload. Sixty-four per cent restricted salt and water. Ninety-three per cent used diuretics in patients with RRF. Thirty-eight per cent felt management was adequate; 77% felt there was a need for better evidence. Ninety-one per cent would participate in a study addressing this. There is an urgent need for establishing an evidence base on the optimal approaches to fluid management. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. What are the priorities for future success in critical care research in the UK? Report from a national stakeholder meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Tim; Brett, Stephen J

    2015-11-01

    Critical care in the United Kingdom is now well-established in terms of professional status, standards of clinical practice and training, and national audit through professional bodies and government representation. Research is fundamental to the further development and maturation of the specialty, to develop new therapies and technologies, more efficient and effective service organisation, and to improve patient and family experience and outcomes. Critical care research has expanded rapidly in the UK, and now has established organisations and infrastructure to share and develop ideas, through the UK Critical Care Research Forum and similar meetings. In September 2014, the Intensive Care Foundation and Critical Care Leadership Forum hosted a research colloquium to reflect, in part, on achievements, but more importantly plan for the future. With an invited list of participants the meeting explored firstly - the practical delivery of clinical research and secondly - the future financing landscape, from both academic funders' and commercial developers' perspectives. The following article summarises the important 'take home' messages from this meeting and suggests key issues for future strategy.

  4. Proceedings of the 8. National Seminar on Technology and Safety of Nuclear Power Plants and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antariksawan, Anhar R.; Soetrisnanto, Arnold Y.; Aziz, Ferhat; Untoro, Pudji; Su'ud, Zaki; Zarkasi, Amin Santosa; Umar, Faraz H.; Teguh Bambang; Hafnan, M.; Mustafa, Bustani; Rosfian, H.

    2002-10-01

    The eight proceeding of National Seminar on Technology and Safety of Nuclear Power Plant and Nuclear Facilities held by National Atomic Energy Agency and University of Trisakti. The aims of Seminar is to exchange and disseminate information about safety and nuclear Power Plant Temperature Reactor and Application for National Development sustain able and High Technology. This Seminar covers all aspect Technology, Power Reactor : Research Reactor; High Temperature Reactor and Nuclear Facilities. There are 33 articles have separated index

  5. Rosatom's Crisis Response Centre within the national nuclear safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, S.N.; Komarovskij, A.V.; Moskalev, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rosatom Corporation includes a number of subsidiaries associated with nuclear energy use as well as with the military, scientific, technological, nuclear and radiation safety management aspects. The Rosatom Corporation has a well-established and efficient industry-wide system of emergency prevention and response, whose purpose is to ensure safe functioning of the nuclear industry, protection of personnel, the public and nature from potential dangers; it is also a functional subsystem of the unified national system of emergency prevention and response. Overall management of the system is performed by Director General of the Rosatom Corporation, overall methodological management - by the Department of Licensing, Nuclear and Radiation Safety; everyday management of the emergency prevention and response system, round-the-clock monitoring and informational support - by the Rosatom Crisis and Response Centre (CRC). CRC acts as the national focal point for warning and communication in Russia, which provides continuous round-the-clock preparedness to cooperate with the IAEA's Incident and Emergency Centre using the formats of the ENATOM international emergency response system, similar national crisis response centres abroad [ru

  6. Opportunities for the UK nuclear industry in the Asia-Pacific Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardacre, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the background to the very dynamic nuclear market in the Asia-Pacific region. It summarizes what various countries in the region have attained and are planning. It is also useful to consider what is driving the market, what distinguishes it from other markets in the world and therefore where it will be going over the next few decades. (Author)

  7. ICT in supporting Nuclear Malaysia as National Technical Support Organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saaidi Ismail; Siti Nurbahyah Hamdan; Mohd Fauzi Haris

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) services are basic requirements in any organization during this information age. ICT is proven as a powerful enabler in organization due to its unique characteristics that improve communication, collaboration, and the exchange of information to strengthen and create new economic and social networks. As Malaysian Nuclear Agency is moving towards Technical Support Organization (TSO), the importance of ICT cannot simply be ignored. Being a TSO for national Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), Nuclear Malaysia is responsible for providing the technical and scientific basis for decisions and activities regarding nuclear technology and radiation safety. As a TSO, Nuclear Malaysia should utilize and collaborate data and information available from it activities and programs and use it to expedite the implementation of national NPP. Technical support also responsible to contribute an excellent operation by providing technical inputs and support for optimizing NPP component (such as plant procedures, operation and maintenance, technical assistance, training etc). These tasks can be performed more effectively and efficiently with the help of appropriate ICT services and solution. Therefore, the deployment and implementation of appropriate ICT requirement shall be made to fulfill agency needs. As initial step, existing ICT facilities should be reassessed. This is because the capacity of existing ICT services is very limited in terms of manpower, infrastructure, and applications. This paper however, will briefly discuss only to the requirement gap on existing ICT manpower and infrastructure with the requirement needed for TSO. The facts then will be used to improve ICT manpower and infrastructure in Nuclear Malaysia to provide reliable and high availability of technical support for national NPP. (author)

  8. Severe Maternal Sepsis in the UK, 2011–2012: A National Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Colleen D.; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Lucas, D. Nuala; Tuffnell, Derek J.; Sellers, Susan; Knight, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of increasing rates and severity of sepsis worldwide, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of, and describe the causative organisms, sources of infection, and risk factors for, severe maternal sepsis in the UK. Methods and Findings A prospective case-control study included 365 confirmed cases of severe maternal sepsis and 757 controls from all UK obstetrician-led maternity units from June 1, 2011, to May 31, 2012. Incidence of severe sepsis was 4.7 (95% CI 4.2–5.2) per 10,000 maternities; 71 (19.5%) women developed septic shock; and five (1.4%) women died. Genital tract infection (31.0%) and the organism Escherichia coli (21.1%) were most common. Women had significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of severe sepsis if they were black or other ethnic minority (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.82–2.51), were primiparous (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.17–2.20), had a pre-existing medical problem (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.01–1.94), had febrile illness or were taking antibiotics in the 2 wk prior to presentation (aOR = 12.07; 95% CI 8.11–17.97), or had an operative vaginal delivery (aOR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32–4.70), pre-labour cesarean (aOR = 3.83; 95% CI 2.24–6.56), or cesarean after labour onset (aOR = 8.06; 95% CI 4.65–13.97). Median time between delivery and sepsis was 3 d (interquartile range = 1–7 d). Multiple pregnancy (aOR = 5.75; 95% CI 1.54–21.45) and infection with group A streptococcus (aOR = 4.84; 2.17–10.78) were associated with progression to septic shock; for 16 (50%) women with a group A streptococcal infection there was anyone with suspected sepsis. Signs of severe sepsis in peripartum women, particularly with confirmed or suspected group A streptococcal infection, should be regarded as an obstetric emergency. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25003759

  9. Severe maternal sepsis in the UK, 2011-2012: a national case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Colleen D; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lucas, D Nuala; Tuffnell, Derek J; Sellers, Susan; Knight, Marian

    2014-07-01

    In light of increasing rates and severity of sepsis worldwide, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of, and describe the causative organisms, sources of infection, and risk factors for, severe maternal sepsis in the UK. A prospective case-control study included 365 confirmed cases of severe maternal sepsis and 757 controls from all UK obstetrician-led maternity units from June 1, 2011, to May 31, 2012. Incidence of severe sepsis was 4.7 (95% CI 4.2-5.2) per 10,000 maternities; 71 (19.5%) women developed septic shock; and five (1.4%) women died. Genital tract infection (31.0%) and the organism Escherichia coli (21.1%) were most common. Women had significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of severe sepsis if they were black or other ethnic minority (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.82-2.51), were primiparous (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.17-2.20), had a pre-existing medical problem (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.01-1.94), had febrile illness or were taking antibiotics in the 2 wk prior to presentation (aOR = 12.07; 95% CI 8.11-17.97), or had an operative vaginal delivery (aOR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32-4.70), pre-labour cesarean (aOR = 3.83; 95% CI 2.24-6.56), or cesarean after labour onset (aOR = 8.06; 95% CI 4.65-13.97). Median time between delivery and sepsis was 3 d (interquartile range = 1-7 d). Multiple pregnancy (aOR = 5.75; 95% CI 1.54-21.45) and infection with group A streptococcus (aOR = 4.84; 2.17-10.78) were associated with progression to septic shock; for 16 (50%) women with a group A streptococcal infection there was anyone with suspected sepsis. Signs of severe sepsis in peripartum women, particularly with confirmed or suspected group A streptococcal infection, should be regarded as an obstetric emergency. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  10. United Kingdom. Development plan for the eventual closure of the UK Drigg nuclear surface low level waste disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Drigg site, owned and operated by BNFL, is the UK's principal site for the disposal of low level radioactive waste. The site has operated since 1959 and receives wastes from a wide range of sources including nuclear power stations, nuclear fuel cycle facilities, isotope manufacturing sites, universities, general industry and cleanup of historically contaminated sites. Disposals until the late 1980s were solely by tipping essentially loose wastes into excavated trenches. More recently, trench disposals have been phased out in preference to emplacement of containerised, conditioned wastes in concrete vaults. The standardised wasteform consists of high force compacted (or non-compactable) waste immobilised within 20 m 3 steel overpack containers by the addition of cementitious grout. Larger items of wastes are grouted directly, in situ in the vault. The disposal trenches have been completed with an interim cap, as will the vaults when filled. It is currently estimated that sufficient capacity remains at Drigg for disposals to continue until at least 2050. Post-operations it is planned that the site will enter a phase including shut down of operational facilities, emplacement of long term site closure features including a final closure cap and then to an institutional management phase. Planning has therefore been carried out as to the strategy for eventual closure of the site. This closure strategy is also underpinned by an engineering evaluation studies programme to develop and evaluate appropriate closure measures including assessment of the long term performance of such measures. This appendix summarizes some of this work

  11. The UK National Air Quality Strategy: the effects of the proposed changes on Local Air Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, C.I.; Ling, K.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [Univ. of the West of England, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Bristol (GB)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    The UK has implemented a system of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) to tackle the many contemporary sources of air pollution, notably transport, industry and domestic fuel burning, in a holistic manner. The current legislation stems from the Environment Act 1995, which required a National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published outlining the Governments policies with respect to the assessment and management of air quality. The NAQS, originally published in March 1997, is on a rolling programme of reviews in order to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the economic and social issues involved. Following the first review (currently at consultation state), this paper will comment on how the proposed changes may affect the LAQM process. The proposed changes will also be summarised and discussed in the context of European Union air quality objectives and the economic analysis of NAQS.

  12. The peaceful use of nuclear energy: National legal implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guadarrama A, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses in broad sense the legal regime about the use, exploitation and improvement of the nuclear energy in Mexico and its relationship with the International confines . It was realized the study of the elemental concepts referred about the subject and it is described briefly the evolution of the figure in the frame of as National as International laws. The objective of this work finds its basis on the provisions which contemplate the in force statutory law of the 27 Constitutional article concerning Nuclear energy but before considering the legal nature and the main characteristics of this normative instrument. (Author)

  13. Conceptual design of the national nuclear emergency management information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingyu; Shi Zhongqi

    2003-01-01

    A Conceptual Design of the National Nuclear Emergency Management Information System was brought forward in this paper, based on the summarization of some emergency management information systems used in China and some other countries. The conceptual system should have four basic characteristics, that are (1) a graphic displaying and querying interface based on GIS (2) data and results shared with the assessment software of nuclear accident (3) a complete set of databases and (4) the capability of on-line data receiving or real-time distributing of the commands and information for emergency response

  14. The national nuclear technology conference, 6-9 September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The National nuclear technology conference was held under the aegis of industrial and institutional stake holders from 6 to 9 September 1998 in Mmabatho and hosted by the University of North West. Papers were divided into the following theme clusters: safety, waste management and radiation protection; prospects for nuclear energy generation; applications in mining; applications in industry; medical applications; medical technology and training; agriculture, food security and water resources management; redress, education, research and development; policy and legal framework. The 58 papers were published in summary form only

  15. Factors affecting UK medical students' decision to train in urology: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Nithish; Ahmed, Kamran; Challacombe, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Our aim was to understand the specific factors which influence medical students' choice to train in urology, in order to attract the best and the brightest into the specialty during a challenging time for surgical training in the United Kingdom A cross-sectional web-based survey was generated to evaluate: 1) perceptions of urology; 2) attitudes about urology as a career; 3) exposure to urology at medical school; and 4) proficiency in common urological procedures. The survey was sent to all 33 medical schools in the UK and advertised to all medical students. The survey received 488 responses were received from 14 medical schools; 59.8% of respondents did not consider a career in urology. Factors affecting a career choice in urology included: 1) year of study; 2) male gender; 3) favorable perceptions of urology; 4) favorable attitudes about urology as a career; 5) more hours of urology teaching in preclinical years; 6) attendance at urology theatre sessions; 7) confidence in performing urological procedures; and 8) more attempts at male catheterization. The commonest reason for not considering urology was inadequate exposure to urology. Students in Year 3 were more likely to consider urology than final-year students, due to multifactorial reasons. Year of study is a novel factor affecting students' consideration of urology as a career. This paper clearly shows that early and sustained exposure to urology positively correlated with considering a career in urology. Urologists must be more active in promoting the specialty to medical students.

  16. Comprehensive sequence analysis of nine Usher syndrome genes in the UK National Collaborative Usher Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quesne Stabej, Polona; Saihan, Zubin; Rangesh, Nell; Steele-Stallard, Heather B; Ambrose, John; Coffey, Alison; Emmerson, Jenny; Haralambous, Elene; Hughes, Yasmin; Steel, Karen P; Luxon, Linda M; Webster, Andrew R; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous with three distinctive clinical types (I-III) and nine Usher genes identified. This study is a comprehensive clinical and genetic analysis of 172 Usher patients and evaluates the contribution of digenic inheritance. The genes MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, USH2A, GPR98, WHRN, CLRN1 and the candidate gene SLC4A7 were sequenced in 172 UK Usher patients, regardless of clinical type. No subject had definite mutations (nonsense, frameshift or consensus splice site mutations) in two different USH genes. Novel missense variants were classified UV1-4 (unclassified variant): UV4 is 'probably pathogenic', based on control frequency A being the most common USH1 mutation in the cohort). USH2A was responsible for 79.3% of USH2 families and GPR98 for only 6.6%. No mutations were found in USH1G, WHRN or SLC4A7. One or two pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 86% of cases. No convincing cases of digenic inheritance were found. It is concluded that digenic inheritance does not make a significant contribution to Usher syndrome; the observation of multiple variants in different genes is likely to reflect polymorphic variation, rather than digenic effects.

  17. Human resource development, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karsono

    2007-01-01

    The development of an adequate national education and training infrastructure is the solution to solve the demand for qualified manpower to meet the national requirements of any nuclear program. Education and training activities were initiated in the year of 1981 with the forming of the Education and Training Center (ETC). The aging of manpower and the government policy on zero growth results in the discontinuity of knowledge transfer within the organization, and may be in the future of nuclear technology implementation. Since 1981 ETC has contributed to the training of its employees and industrial personnel through 800 training and involving around eleven thousand participants. Education and Training Center of BATAN accredited by BAPETEN as the nuclear training institutes for Radiation Protection Officer Certification, and in process of accreditation by National Accreditation Board as training institute for Non Destructive Test Personnel Certification. Annually ETC conduct 5 RPO training and 5 NDT Level I and 3 NDT Level II training. As shown in attached Table, there are at least 2999 RPO in Indonesia responsible for the safe operation of 4843 radioactive sources and 3741 radiation sources. Among the approximately 3700 employees of BATAN, national infrastructure has contributed to the education of 911 S1-graduates program, 24 master degree and 21 doctoral degree programs, while 46 bachelors degree, 201 master degree and 98 doctoral degree were taken overseas. Human resources have been identified on many occasions as being one of the most important elements for engaging in various types of nuclear applications. Major efforts must be directed towards attracting sufficient number of bright and interested students to the nuclear field for both current and future nuclear technology utilization. Therefore, it is necessary to transfer knowledge and know-how to the young generation for the sustainable development of nuclear science and technology. Courses in nuclear

  18. The politics of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, D.

    1978-01-01

    The contents of the book are: introduction; (part 1, the economy of nuclear power) nuclear power and the growth of state corporatism, ownership and control - the power of the multi-nationals, economic and political goals - profit or control, trade union policy and nuclear power; (part 2, nuclear power and employment) nuclear power and workers' health and safety, employment and trade union rights, jobs, energy and industrial strategy, the alternative energy option; (part 3, political strategies) the anti-nuclear movement, trade unions and nuclear power; further reading; UK organisations. (U.K.)

  19. The Impact of Severe Nuclear Accidents on National Decision for Nuclear Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Young A; Hornibrook, Carol; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many researchers have tried to identify the impact of severe nuclear accidents on a country's or international nuclear energy policy [2-3]. However, there is little research on the influence of nuclear accidents and historical events on a country's decision to permanently shutdown an NPP versus international nuclear decommissioning trends. To demonstrate the correlation between a nuclear severe accident and the impact on world nuclear decommissioning, this research reviewed case studies of individual historical events, such as the St. Lucens, TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima accidents and the series of events leading up to the collapse of the Soviet Union. For validation of the results of these case studies, a statistical analysis was conducted using the R code. This will be useful in explaining how international and national decommissioning strategies are affected by shutdown reasons, i.e. world historical events. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently In conclusion, nuclear severe accidents and historical events have an impact on the number of international NPPs that shutdown permanently and cancelled NPP construction. This directly impacts international nuclear decommissioning policy and nuclear energy policy trends. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently.

  20. The Impact of Severe Nuclear Accidents on National Decision for Nuclear Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Young A; Hornibrook, Carol; Yim, Man Sung

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers have tried to identify the impact of severe nuclear accidents on a country's or international nuclear energy policy [2-3]. However, there is little research on the influence of nuclear accidents and historical events on a country's decision to permanently shutdown an NPP versus international nuclear decommissioning trends. To demonstrate the correlation between a nuclear severe accident and the impact on world nuclear decommissioning, this research reviewed case studies of individual historical events, such as the St. Lucens, TMI, Chernobyl, Fukushima accidents and the series of events leading up to the collapse of the Soviet Union. For validation of the results of these case studies, a statistical analysis was conducted using the R code. This will be useful in explaining how international and national decommissioning strategies are affected by shutdown reasons, i.e. world historical events. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently In conclusion, nuclear severe accidents and historical events have an impact on the number of international NPPs that shutdown permanently and cancelled NPP construction. This directly impacts international nuclear decommissioning policy and nuclear energy policy trends. The number of permanently shutdown NPPs was selected as an indicator because any relationship between the number of permanently

  1. Nuclear Forensics and Attribution: A National Laboratory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Howard L.

    2008-04-01

    Current capabilities in technical nuclear forensics - the extraction of information from nuclear and/or radiological materials to support the attribution of a nuclear incident to material sources, transit routes, and ultimately perpetrator identity - derive largely from three sources: nuclear weapons testing and surveillance programs of the Cold War, advances in analytical chemistry and materials characterization techniques, and abilities to perform ``conventional'' forensics (e.g., fingerprints) on radiologically contaminated items. Leveraging that scientific infrastructure has provided a baseline capability to the nation, but we are only beginning to explore the scientific challenges that stand between today's capabilities and tomorrow's requirements. These scientific challenges include radically rethinking radioanalytical chemistry approaches, developing rapidly deployable sampling and analysis systems for field applications, and improving analytical instrumentation. Coupled with the ability to measure a signature faster or more exquisitely, we must also develop the ability to interpret those signatures for meaning. This requires understanding of the physics and chemistry of nuclear materials processes well beyond our current level - especially since we are unlikely to ever have direct access to all potential sources of nuclear threat materials.

  2. Communicating risk: news media reportage of a significant nuclear contamination incident in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.P.; Macgill, S.M.

    1988-02-01

    The way the mass media reported a controversial discharge incident at British Nuclear Fuel's reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria in November 1983 is discussed. Apart from the Windscale fire in 1957 this was the most serious radiation incident at any nuclear installation in the United Kingdom. The aim of the study was to use that incident to develop a more complete understanding of the way information about risk is communicated through the news media. Two issues, in particular, are assessed. First, the accuracy of the reports of events and how factual, technical or scientific aspects of risk are portrayed through the news media. Secondly, risk evaluation is studied: what value judgements are made, what sentiments of alarm, danger and hazard are presented. (author)

  3. Strengthening Technical Specialist Training for an Expanding Nuclear Power Programme in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, John L.

    2014-01-01

    NTSTS: Future Plans: • Introduce new pathway in Nuclear Reactor Operations into FD/BEng (Plant Engineering) programmes. • Outline curriculum based on INPOs Nuclear Uniform Curriculum for Power Plant Technician, Maintenance and Non-licensed Operations Personnel. • Procurement of generic Pressurised Water Reactor Simulation Suite – due for delivery/commissioning by Sep 2014 • Gen 2 has established a partnership with Tecnatom SA of Spain – experienced in operator training for PWR and BWR. • Proposals to establish a bespoke Reactor Operations Training Centre (ROTC) close to NuGen’s planned AP1000 new build at Moorside, West Cumbria. • In longer term, ROTC could house full scope AP1000 simulator for licensed operator training

  4. UK regulatory aspects of prestressed concrete pressure vessels for gas-cooled reactor nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, P.S.

    1990-01-01

    Safety assessment principles for nuclear power plants and for nuclear chemical plants demand application of best proven techniques, recognised standards, adequacy margins, inspection and maintenance of all the components including prestressed concrete pressure vessels. In service inspection of prestressed concrete pressure vessels includes: concrete surface examination; anchorage inspection; tendon load check; tendon material examination; foundation settlement and tilt; log-term deformation; vessel temperature excursions; coolant loss; top cap deflection. Hartlepool and Heysham 1 power plants prestress shortfall problem is discussed. Main recommendations can be summarised as follows: at all pressure vessel stations prestress systems should be calibrated in a manner which results in all load bearing components being loaded in a representative manner; at all pressure vessel stations load measurements during calibration should be verified by a redundant and diverse system

  5. Assessing climate risks across different business sectors and industries: an investigation of methodological challenges at national scale for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surminski, Swenja; Di Mauro, Manuela; Baglee, J. Alastair R.; Connell, Richenda K.; Hankinson, Joel; Haworth, Anna R.; Ingirige, Bingunath; Proverbs, David

    2018-06-01

    Climate change poses severe risks for businesses, which companies as well as governments need to understand in order to take appropriate steps to manage those. This, however, represents a significant challenge as climate change risk assessment is itself a complex, dynamic and geographically diverse process. A wide range of factors including the nature of production processes and value chains, the location of business sites as well as relationships and interdependencies with customers and suppliers play a role in determining if and how companies are impacted by climate risks. This research explores the methodological challenges for a national-scale assessment of climate risks through the lens of the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment (UKCCRA) process and compares the approaches adopted in the first and second UKCCRA (2011, 2016), while also reflecting on international experiences elsewhere. A review of these issues is presented, drawing on a wide body of contemporary evidence from a range of sources including the research disciplines, grey literature and government policy. The study reveals the methodological challenges and highlights six broad themes, namely scale, evidence base, adaptation responses, scope, interdependencies and public policy. The paper concludes by identifying suitable lessons for future national climate risk assessments, which should guide the next phase of research in preparation for UKCCRA3 and those of national-level risk assessments elsewhere. This article is part of the theme issue `Advances in risk assessment for climate change adaptation policy'.

  6. Wish me luck as you wave me goodbye [UK nuclear electrical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Andrew.

    1989-01-01

    The British Department of Energy has finally decided that the privatisation of the country's nuclear capacity is feasible. The City will have nothing to do with it. This is not a surprise. What is a surprise is that the illusion that it could be sold has continued for so long. The Financial Times Energy Economist pointed out the difficulties of decommissioning some years ago. (author)

  7. Our messages for a broadly acceptable national nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Bilegan, Iosif Constantin

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Romania started the nuclear power program some 20 years ago by a high level Government decision. During that time no one asked and nobody explained to the people why a NPP is so much required. Before revolution was forbidden to talk or to write about nuclear matters. After the revolution many changes have occurred even in this field. The former ministry of electrical power was transformed into a state owned company 'RENEL' in which were also included the nuclear activities. RENEL was a monopoly responsible for production, transportation and distribution of electricity in Romania. The restructuring process in the energy field was many times asked by the World Bank and International monetary Fund - to split this monopoly system in separately activities: Production, Transportation and Distribution. The first step happened in July 1998, when the nuclear activities were externalised from RENEL, and two new entities were created: 'Nuclearelectrica' National Company - a state own company which includes three branches: - Nuclear Power Production - Cernavoda NPP - Unit 1; - Nuclear Fuel Plant - Pitesti; - Project Development Branch - Cernavoda - Unit 2-5. The second entity is so-called Autonomous Reggie for Nuclear Activities including the Heavy Water production, Nuclear Research Institute and the nuclear engineering activities - CITON. The restructuring process continued and in August 2000, By a Government Ordinance the rest of RENEL was split in more companies: - one for Hydropower production; - one for thermal power production; - one for transport; - one for distribution. The goal of a third step of restructuring process is the privatisation in the power field. Since 1991 a Public Information program has been established and it followed the usual steps. Depending on the evolution of the construction of the first Romanian nuclear power during the years the messages changed. Everybody working in the nuclear field knows now how difficult is to build the

  8. Nuclear energy sounded wonderful 40 years ago”: UK citizen views on CCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, Simon J.; Smallman, Melanie; Lee, Maria; Rydin, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Around the world there is increasing interest from government and industry in the potential for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies to play a part in decarbonisation. This paper examines how people with little previous exposure to CCS technology, frame and discuss it, and how in the absence of information, ideas, notions, values and experiences shape opinion. We present data from a series of focus groups held with environmental activists, planning councillors, and adult and youth community group members in London in 2012. We found that views on CCS are shaped strongly by wider factors, particularly trade offs between different energy futures. Lay-critiques were similar to those put forward by environmental groups and were strongly framed by conceptions of nuclear power. We argue that although there is little public disquiet concerning this technology in private opinions were generally negative. This, and the use of nuclear power as a framing device, may present a challenge to policy-makers and industry committed to implementing CCS while promoting education as the main mechanism for public acceptance. - highlights: • We present data from a series of focus groups held with lay-citizens in London in 2012. • We found that lay-critiques of CCS were similar to those negative views put forward by environmental groups. • Lay views on CCS were strongly framed by conceptions of nuclear power. • This framing may present a challenge to policy-makers and industry committed to implementing CCS

  9. The UK approach to desalination and nuclear power dual purpose operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, O.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is a particular example of dual purpose operation and the majority of desalting units installed around the world are operated in this way. A nuclear dual purpose concept has to be very large if present economic reactor designs are utilised. It is the size which has defeated the concept to date. Present fossil fired dual purpose installations are either in an economic situation (generally low fuel cost) where the inefficiencies introduced by operating away from the optimum water/power ratio are acceptable or, if optimised, the water and power blocks are small enough to allow introduction into the existing utility networks. As part of the United Kingdom, Water Resources Board (WRB) report 'Desalination 1972' the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and WRB identified nine coastal sites in the United Kingdom where nuclear power stations might be built during the next 15 years. The difficulties of dual purpose operation were recognised in the report, including additional water storage to cover the summer shutdown (turbine overhaul) period, modification of station design to facilitate the extraction of steam, etc. More seriously, as a given power station had higher fuelling costs relative to the newer station, the electrical utility might require compensation for continuing to operate it because of the associated desalting plant. Taking account of these factors and the replacement of the lost electricity production from other, maybe less efficient stations on the system

  10. Severe maternal sepsis in the UK, 2011-2012: a national case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen D Acosta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In light of increasing rates and severity of sepsis worldwide, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of, and describe the causative organisms, sources of infection, and risk factors for, severe maternal sepsis in the UK.A prospective case-control study included 365 confirmed cases of severe maternal sepsis and 757 controls from all UK obstetrician-led maternity units from June 1, 2011, to May 31, 2012. Incidence of severe sepsis was 4.7 (95% CI 4.2-5.2 per 10,000 maternities; 71 (19.5% women developed septic shock; and five (1.4% women died. Genital tract infection (31.0% and the organism Escherichia coli (21.1% were most common. Women had significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (aORs of severe sepsis if they were black or other ethnic minority (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.82-2.51, were primiparous (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.17-2.20, had a pre-existing medical problem (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.01-1.94, had febrile illness or were taking antibiotics in the 2 wk prior to presentation (aOR = 12.07; 95% CI 8.11-17.97, or had an operative vaginal delivery (aOR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32-4.70, pre-labour cesarean (aOR = 3.83; 95% CI 2.24-6.56, or cesarean after labour onset (aOR = 8.06; 95% CI 4.65-13.97. Median time between delivery and sepsis was 3 d (interquartile range = 1-7 d. Multiple pregnancy (aOR = 5.75; 95% CI 1.54-21.45 and infection with group A streptococcus (aOR = 4.84; 2.17-10.78 were associated with progression to septic shock; for 16 (50% women with a group A streptococcal infection there was <2 h-and for 24 (75% women, <9 h-between the first sign of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and a diagnosis of severe sepsis. A limitation of this study was the proportion of women with sepsis without an identified organism or infection source (16.4%.For each maternal sepsis death, approximately 50 women have life-threatening morbidity from sepsis. Follow-up to ensure infection is eradicated is important. The

  11. Nitrous oxide from solid fuel combustion: contribution to national inventories in the UK, France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fynes, G.; Hughes, I.S.C.; Sage, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable uncertainties exist over the extent and timing of any potential climate change as a result of increases in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These uncertainties result from inadequate knowledge and understanding of the natural mechanisms that control the chemistry, and hence lifetimes, of these gases in the atmosphere. An important aspect of the scientific investigation into potential climate change is the attempt to quantify the sources and sinks of the various greenhouse gases. This will enable the contribution of anthropogenic emissions to be placed in context with those from natural sources. The British Coal Corporation is co-ordinating a project funded by the EEC JOULE Programme to investigate the emissions of greenhouse gases from coal fired plant. This collaborative programme aims to establish the extent of greenhouse gas emissions, with particular emphasis on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) from a wide range of coal burning appliances. An important aspect of the programm is to identify potential greenhouse-related problems with emerging clean-coal technologies, as well as retrofit pollution abatement technology, attributable to modifications to the combustion process. For example, the environmental benefits of fluidised bed combustion in reducing emissions of acidic gases are well proven. However, the lower combustion temperatures in such systems have been shown to promote greater emissions of N 2 O. The information from the various emissions assessments will be combined with a survey of coal use in the UK and the rest of Europe to establish an inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. 5 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Gambling and negative life events in a nationally representative sample of UK men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amanda; Sharman, Stephen; Coid, Jeremy; Murphy, Raegan; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta; Cowlishaw, Sean; Landon, Jason

    2017-12-01

    The links between gambling problems, trauma and life stressors are known to exist but understanding the extent of these relationships will allow for greater efficacy in early intervention and treatment. We investigated these relationships among men and sought to determine whether links were attenuated by alcohol and drug use problems. A cross-sectional UK representative general population survey was conducted in 2009 with 3025 men aged 18-64years. Measurements included self-reported gambling behaviours, as measured by the South Oaks Gambling Scale (SOGS) and traumatic or stressful life events. Covariates included alcohol and drug dependence and socio-demographics. Binary logistic regression models were used to examine associations. Problem gambling (SOGS 3-4) and probable pathological gambling (SOGS 5+) were associated with increased odds of trauma in childhood (e.g. violence in the home (Adjusted Odd Ratios (AOR) 3.0 (CI=1.8-5.0) and 2.6 (CI=1.7-4.1) respectively), and life stressors in adulthood (e.g. intimate partner violence (AORs 4.5 (CI=2.0-10.3) and 4.7 (CI=2.3-9.7) and homelessness (AORs 2.2 (CI=1.1-4.6) and 3.2 (CI=1.9-5.5)). Results were attenuated when adjusted for probable alcohol and drug dependence with the latter having largest effects. Among men in the United Kingdom, disordered gambling remains uniquely associated with trauma and life stressors in childhood and adulthood after adjusting for alcohol and drug dependence. The results support a need for disordered gambling treatment services to undertake routine screening for alcohol, drugs, IPV and traumatic life events and to tailor treatment that specifically targets the effects of stress for clients who present with such a cluster of issues. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear law in Morocco: national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabil, M.

    2004-01-01

    The use of nuclear technology in medicine, agriculture and industry is very advanced in Morocco. This technological progress has been accompanied by fairly detailed legislation and significant involvement on the part of Morocco in international conventions and agreements. The desire to progress further with regard to research and the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes requires a twofold effort: the various pieces of national legislation on nuclear law need to be reformulated to bring them into line with the most recent rules in this sphere; Morocco international undertakings need to be revised in light of its immediate interests, certainly, but also of foreseeable developments, particularly with regard to safety and third party liability. (author)

  14. 3. national conference on training of personnel for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacko, J.

    1983-01-01

    A national conference with international participation was held in Podbanske to evaluate the results and experiences with the training of personnel for nuclear power in training centres of the sector of fuel and energy, within the educational system and at other workplaces. The rational development of the system of personnel training must contribute towards reducing the hazards of nuclear power caused by the human factor. The results and experiences were evaluated gained in the process of the unified system of training personnel for nuclear power plants, namely training centres of various institutions, institutions of higher education and in-operation training of personnel. In 1984, the first Czechoslovak simulator of a WWER 440 unit will be put into operation. (M.D.)

  15. Legal questions relating to nuclear installations close to national frontiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.

    1983-01-01

    Main emphasis is placed on the criteria to decide whether the construction and operation of a nulcear power plant close to a national frontier is permissible or not. The author discusses the relevant provisions of the international law and those of the Treaty of Rome pertaining to the settlement of conflicts between neighbour states. According to the opinion of the author, nuclear installations close to borders are incompatible with international law only if they do not comply with accepted safety standards. The international agreements do not prohibit the construction of nuclear installations close to frontiers. It would be desirable, however, the author says, to conclude international treaties providing for mutual consultation and information, thus offering a platform for discussing controversial national interests; this idea already being put into practice in customary international law. (WB) [de

  16. NNDC [National Nuclear Data Center] on-line services documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.; Burrows, T.W.; Tuli, J.K.

    1987-01-01

    This document summarizes and describes how to access the on-line services available from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The services are available free of cost to US Department of Energy, its contractors and others who support the NNDC or supply data to the NNDC. Four of the center's data bases are now accessible to non-NNDC scientists via remote connection to the center's VAX 11/780. To use this service, you must have a terminal with access by either a telephone line or the PHYSNET network. A VT100 terminal or a terminal with VT-100 emulation is recommended but not required

  17. Decommissioning three nuclear reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, G.M.; Salazar, M.

    1992-01-01

    Three nuclear reactors, including the historic water boiler reactor, were decommissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The decommissioning of the facilities involved removing the reactors and their associated components. Planning for the decommissioning operation included characterizing the facilities, estimating the costs of decommissioning operations, preparing environmental documentation, establishing systems to track costs and work progress, and preplanning to correct health and safety concerns in each facility

  18. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention.

  19. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention [es

  20. International and national standardisation for quality assurance in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1992-01-01

    After a summarising description of international developments (ISO 6216, ISO 9000 series, IAEA 50 SG-QA) an overview of the total of around 200 national quality standards and regulations from almost 20 countries is given. Finally the relationships between rules of engineering and the rules of laws, mechanisms and trends in the development of nuclear energy standards with particular consideration of the possibilities for European harmonisation are presented in brief. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  1. Guidelines regarding National Reports under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety (hereinafter called the Convention), are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties regarding material that it may be useful to include in the National Reports required under Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the most efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention

  2. Role of nuclear engineering in the national power complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petros'yants, A.M.; Baturov, B.B.

    1981-01-01

    Role of nuclear power in power engineering and fuel-power system of the country in the whole is discussed. Economic advantages of NPP's as compared with thermal power plants for district heating (TPP) are grounded. Advisability of combined production of thermal and electric power at TPP as compared with separate heat generation at NPP for district heating and electric power generation at NPP is reported. Data on perspectives of development of nuclear engineering in the light of ''Main directions of economic and social development of the USSR in 1981-1985 and up to 1990'' are presented. It is concluded that nuclear power introduction into national economy would bring important technical, economic and social consequences. Large-scale NPP construction would result in radical revision of the industry structure in the whole fuel-power system including output and transport on the base of modern technology and recent scientific-technical achievements providing essential economic and national economic effect essentially higher labour productivity in fuel power branches of industry. Besides, nuclear engineering creates conditions for better preservation of environment, reduction of expenditures for power and fuel transport, bringing industry centres nearer to centres of energy consumption as well as pre-conditions for removing threat of the so-called ''power hunger'' [ru

  3. The UK Nuclear Industry Code of Practice on Clearances and Exemptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001, the major nuclear organisations in the United Kingdom started development of a document that would identify and facilitate consistent the application of good practice within the industry for clearing and sentencing of articles, substances and wastes which may be clean, or radioactive at very low levels below thresholds of regulatory control. The document includes: (i) Clarification of the industry's interpretation of legislation associated with the clearance and sentencing of articles, substances and wastes which are or have the potential to have been contaminated by radioactivity or activated by nuclear radiations; (ii) Industry agreement on what is considered to be the good practice where legislation is imprecise or unclear, (iii) A standard management framework, adopted by all organisations within the nuclear industry, that should justify safe and efficient clearance of potentially radioactive articles, substances and wastes; and (IV) Agreed guidance on the principles, processes and practices which should be followed for clearances and sentencing The Document mandates a system that allows articles and substances to be released from further control, where this is appropriate, using robust radiological protection principles. The need to avoid sentencing of clean materials as radioactive waste where this is not appropriate, the primacy of bulk, rather than surface radioactivity clearance criteria, and the need to disallow such clearances until all relevant legislation has been satisfied, are all clear principles contained within the document. An interim issue of the Code of Practice was issued in May 2003. This version has been formally adopted by all of the major users of radioactive material in the United Kingdom, and has two main objectives: -Trial use of the concepts at the working level, and - As a basis for further discussion with interested stakeholders. The paper summarises: - How the interim version of the Code of Practice was developed; - The

  4. EdF in the core of UK's nuclear industry... before expecting more

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moal, C.

    2008-01-01

    With the announcement at the end of September 2008 of EdF's friendly takeover bid on British Energy, the French group confirms its will of dominating the European nuclear industry before going back to the assault of the US market. Together, EdF and British Energy (owner of 8 NPPs (9.5 GW) and 1 coal-fired power plant (2 GW)) will make a turnover of 11.9 billion euro with 19800 employees and 85.6 TWh of production. Short paper. (J.S.)

  5. National participation in nuclear projects: An effort worth trying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisu, F.

    1986-04-01

    National participation in nuclear power projects was a star subject in the seventies in dealings between supplying and receiving countries; around it international gatherings like ICONTT conferences, IAEA meetings, and others were almost institutionalized. The fact that many of those dealings, which were prosecuted for extended periods, are not being materialized into actual projects (suffice it to mention those of Mexico, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt, China, etc.) has provided a slow shift of the title role in the international nuclear picture to the apparent main obstacles to that materialization, that is, financial and/or non-proliferation aspects. But, in fact, a growing, well planned participation by a country's industry, its organizations and its individuals in its nuclear programme is clearly the most important product (other than, obviously, power itself) that can be derived from such a programme. A product from which many other sectors benefit. This paper deals with significant aspects of the national participation effort, among other: existing industrial infrastructure, and its evaluation; technology transfer channels and its implications; situations where national participation may look less easy to implement: turnkey projects, shop-mounted or barge-installed blocks or complete plants, etc.; progressive participation along the project, and with subsequent projects; the role of the utility and the Government. Cases drawn from the experience of the author's company in several countries, and specially the case of Spain, are commented. (author)

  6. National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukhvatulin, Sh.T.

    2001-01-01

    The fact that the 20th century became a thing of the past was important for Kazakhstan from the view of territory and state establishment. This year the Republic of Kazakhstan celebrates 10 years of independence. After the USSR breakup in 1991, Kazakh SSR became a sovereign state that inherited the unique test complex Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, the pride of the entire Soviet people in the past. For the first time in the history of nuclear weapon (one of mass destruction types) creation, development and partial elimination the test site created for testing such weapons was eliminated. The Republic of Kazakhstan declared itself a non-nuclear state and started solving such complicated problems as the possibility to use the territory of the former nuclear test site in the national economy. For this it was necessary to start work on nuclear test infrastructure elimination and this work commenced. Great assistance in conduction of such work has been and is rendered by the specialists from the USA, different international organizations, for example, IAEA, NATO etc. In order to determine whether it's possible to transfer the test site territory to national economy it is necessary not only to eliminate tests infrastructure but also to obtain reliable data on the dimensions and degree of radioactive contamination of the territory within and outside the test site borders. National Nuclear Center specialists working in close cooperation with many Kazakhstan and International Organizations contributed much to studies on radioecological situation at the former STS territory and regions adjoining it, as well as to radiation parameter data obtaining process. The problems of Semipalatinsk test site are in focus of the State. At the Second UN General Assembly, the President of Kazakhstan pointed out this problem and appealed to the International Community to solve it in cooperation. In order to implement Resolution 52/169M of UN General Assembly 'on international cooperation

  7. Nuclear archaeology: the influence of decommissioning on future reactor siting in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Openshaw, S.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas considerations of waste, cost, opinion, and the law are often abstract elements of nuclear power, the siting of generating stations produces concrete land use and aesthetic reminders of its presence. What will future generations find as a result of the nuclear era? Will the power plant sites be restored to greenfield conditions? When will this occur? How will such decisions affect surrounding land use and societal characteristics such as employment opportunities and quality of life? These and other questions revolve around the land use and siting links to decommissioning decisions. The two prime determinants of the land use legacy will be the timing of stage 3 dismantlement and the degree to which the sites can be restored to pre-use conditions. In this chapter it is argued that the sites are unlikely ever to be released for unrestricted use, but rather that the use and the visual impacts of the sites will increase over time, eventually becoming the objects which, perhaps, future archaeologists will study. (author)

  8. Clinical leadership development in postgraduate medical education and training: policy, strategy, and delivery in the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Reena; Swanwick, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Achieving high quality health care against a background of continual change, increasing demand, and shrinking financial resource is a major challenge. However, there is significant international evidence that when clinicians use their voices and values to engage with system delivery, operational efficiency and care outcomes are improved. In the UK National Health Service, the traditional divide between doctors and managers is being bridged, as clinical leadership is now foregrounded as an important organizational priority. There are 60,000 doctors in postgraduate training (junior doctors) in the UK who provide the majority of front-line patient care and form an "operating core" of most health care organizations. This group of doctors is therefore seen as an important resource in initiating, championing, and delivering improvement in the quality of patient care. This paper provides a brief overview of leadership theories and constructs that have been used to develop a raft of interventions to develop leadership capability among junior doctors. We explore some of the approaches used, including competency frameworks, talent management, shared learning, clinical fellowships, and quality improvement. A new paradigm is identified as necessary to make a difference at a local level, which moves learning and leadership away from developing "leaders", to a more inclusive model of developing relationships between individuals within organizations. This shifts the emphasis from the development of a "heroic" individual leader to a more distributed model, where organizations are "leader-ful" and not just "well led" and leadership is centered on a shared vision owned by whole teams working on the frontline.

  9. Incidence and Risk Factors for Placenta Accreta/Increta/Percreta in the UK: A National Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kathryn E.; Sellers, Susan; Spark, Patsy; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Background Placenta accreta/increta/percreta is associated with major pregnancy complications and is thought to be becoming more common. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta in the UK and to investigate and quantify the associated risk factors. Methods A national case-control study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System was undertaken, including 134 women diagnosed with placenta accreta/increta/percreta between May 2010 and April 2011 and 256 control women. Results The estimated incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta was 1.7 per 10,000 maternities overall; 577 per 10,000 in women with both a previous caesarean delivery and placenta praevia. Women who had a previous caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 14.41, 95%CI 5.63–36.85), other previous uterine surgery (aOR 3.40, 95%CI 1.30–8.91), an IVF pregnancy (aOR 32.13, 95%CI 2.03–509.23) and placenta praevia diagnosed antepartum (aOR 65.02, 95%CI 16.58–254.96) had raised odds of having placenta accreta/increta/percreta. There was also a raised odds of placenta accreta/increta/percreta associated with older maternal age in women without a previous caesarean delivery (aOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.13–1.50 for every one year increase in age). Conclusions Women with both a prior caesarean delivery and placenta praevia have a high incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta. There is a need to maintain a high index of suspicion of abnormal placental invasion in such women and preparations for delivery should be made accordingly. PMID:23300807

  10. Incidence and risk factors for placenta accreta/increta/percreta in the UK: a national case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn E Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available Placenta accreta/increta/percreta is associated with major pregnancy complications and is thought to be becoming more common. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta in the UK and to investigate and quantify the associated risk factors.A national case-control study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System was undertaken, including 134 women diagnosed with placenta accreta/increta/percreta between May 2010 and April 2011 and 256 control women.The estimated incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta was 1.7 per 10,000 maternities overall; 577 per 10,000 in women with both a previous caesarean delivery and placenta praevia. Women who had a previous caesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 14.41, 95%CI 5.63-36.85, other previous uterine surgery (aOR 3.40, 95%CI 1.30-8.91, an IVF pregnancy (aOR 32.13, 95%CI 2.03-509.23 and placenta praevia diagnosed antepartum (aOR 65.02, 95%CI 16.58-254.96 had raised odds of having placenta accreta/increta/percreta. There was also a raised odds of placenta accreta/increta/percreta associated with older maternal age in women without a previous caesarean delivery (aOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.13-1.50 for every one year increase in age.Women with both a prior caesarean delivery and placenta praevia have a high incidence of placenta accreta/increta/percreta. There is a need to maintain a high index of suspicion of abnormal placental invasion in such women and preparations for delivery should be made accordingly.

  11. Young people's experiences of managing Type 1 diabetes at university: a national study of UK university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, J; Sampson, M; Swords, F; Murphy, H R; Clark, A; Howe, A; Price, C; Datta, V; Myint, K S

    2018-04-23

    Little is known about the challenges of transitioning from school to university for young people with Type 1 diabetes. In a national survey, we investigated the impact of entering and attending university on diabetes self-care in students with Type 1 diabetes in all UK universities. Some 1865 current UK university students aged 18-24 years with Type 1 diabetes, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire. The association between demographic variables and diabetes variables was assessed using logistic regression models. In total, 584 (31%) students from 64 hospitals and 37 university medical practices completed the questionnaire. Some 62% had maintained routine diabetes care with their home team, whereas 32% moved to the university provider. Since starting university, 63% reported harder diabetes management and 44% reported higher HbA 1c levels than before university. At university, 52% had frequent hypoglycaemia, 9.6% reported one or more episodes of severe hypoglycaemia and 26% experienced diabetes-related hospital admissions. Female students and those who changed healthcare provider were approximately twice as likely to report poor glycaemic control, emergency hospital admissions and frequent hypoglycaemia. Females were more likely than males to report stress [odds ratio (OR) 4.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.19-7.16], illness (OR 3.48, 95% CI 2.06-5.87) and weight management issues (OR 3.19, 95% CI 1.99-5.11) as barriers to self-care. Despite these difficulties, 91% of respondents never or rarely contacted university support services about their diabetes. The study quantifies the high level of risk experienced by students with Type 1 diabetes during the transition to university, in particular, female students and those moving to a new university healthcare provider. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical leadership development in postgraduate medical education and training: policy, strategy, and delivery in the UK National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Reena; Swanwick, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Achieving high quality health care against a background of continual change, increasing demand, and shrinking financial resource is a major challenge. However, there is significant international evidence that when clinicians use their voices and values to engage with system delivery, operational efficiency and care outcomes are improved. In the UK National Health Service, the traditional divide between doctors and managers is being bridged, as clinical leadership is now foregrounded as an important organizational priority. There are 60,000 doctors in postgraduate training (junior doctors) in the UK who provide the majority of front-line patient care and form an “operating core” of most health care organizations. This group of doctors is therefore seen as an important resource in initiating, championing, and delivering improvement in the quality of patient care. This paper provides a brief overview of leadership theories and constructs that have been used to develop a raft of interventions to develop leadership capability among junior doctors. We explore some of the approaches used, including competency frameworks, talent management, shared learning, clinical fellowships, and quality improvement. A new paradigm is identified as necessary to make a difference at a local level, which moves learning and leadership away from developing “leaders”, to a more inclusive model of developing relationships between individuals within organizations. This shifts the emphasis from the development of a “heroic” individual leader to a more distributed model, where organizations are “leader-ful” and not just “well led” and leadership is centered on a shared vision owned by whole teams working on the frontline. PMID:29355184

  13. NNDC [National Nuclear Data Center] support for fusion nuclear data needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The National Data Center (NNDC) located at Brookhaven National Laboratory is an outgrowth of the Sigma Center founded by D.J. Hughes to compile low energy neutron reaction data in the 1950's. The center has played a lead role in the production of evaluated nuclear data (ENDF/B) for the United States nuclear power program. This data file, now in its sixth version, is produced as a cooperative effort of many DOE funded organizations via the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (GSEWG). The NNDC's role, in addition to providing the structure and leadership for CSEWG, is to supply compiled bibliographic and experimental data and provide file processing, checking, distribution and documentation services. In the past, the NNDC has also produced nuclear data evaluations.lt. slash

  14. Managing conflicts of interest in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) clinical guidelines programme: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Tanya; Alderson, Phil; Stokes, Tim

    2015-01-01

    There is international concern that conflicts of interest (COI) may bias clinical guideline development and render it untrustworthy. Guideline COI policies exist with the aim of reducing this bias but it is not known how such policies are interpreted and used by guideline producing organisations. This study sought to determine how conflicts of interest (COIs) are disclosed and managed by a national clinical guideline developer (NICE: the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence). Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with 14 key informants: 8 senior staff of NICE's guideline development centres and 6 chairs of guideline development groups (GDGs). We conducted a thematic analysis. Participants regard the NICE COI policy as comprehensive leading to transparent and independent guidance. The application of the NICE COI policy is, however, not straightforward and clarity could be improved. Disclosure of COI relies on self reporting and guideline developers have to take "on trust" the information they receive, certain types of COI (non-financial) are difficult to categorise and manage and disclosed COI can impact on the ability to recruit clinical experts to GDGs. Participants considered it both disruptive and stressful to exclude members from GDG meetings when required by the COI policy. Nonetheless the impact of this disruption can be minimised with good group chairing skills. We consider that the successful implementation of a COI policy in clinical guideline development requires clear policies and procedures, appropriate training of GDG chairs and an evaluation of how the policy is used in practice.

  15. Insights on the National Status of Nuclear Crisis Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ju; Hah, Yeon Hee; Oh, Kju Myeng

    2010-01-01

    In general, the term, 'risk communication' can be defined as a two way interaction process which can share internal attributes between personals, organizations, and others, where it usually comes from a 'normal risk' in areas of safety, health, security, environment, etc. We can also classify the communication issues with 'general case,' 'local case,' and 'crisis case,' respectively, in terms of the impacts on public perception. As a general concept, 'nuclear crisis' can be defined as a situation where nuclear radiological emergency plan and procedures shall be applied to cope with radiological accidents or emergencies which may occur at the nuclear power plant or radioisotopes using companies, hospitals, and universities. 'Crisis communication' refers one of the activities done by the Nuclear Regulatory Organizations (NRO) in order to protect the public and the environment from the possible harmful effects. There is an international initiative for searching a practical 'road map' with good practice guidance for NROs of each country on crisis communication, covering planning during normal situations, lessons learnt from emergencies or challenging events, and media strategy. The 'road map' is based on the identification of best practices and challenges when facing either planned situations or unexpected situations which might affect NRO's credibility. It is also important to fully know how our NRO operates in order to communicate with the public and the media within the complex network of public organizations, covering both the national and local perspective. In this paper, we want to survey relevant illustrations of NRO's flux of work concerning public, media communication cases in abnormal/crisis/emergency situations. Also, we will talk about the responsibilities of each area and clarify who is in charge of external communication. By this way, we can find an adequate scheme showing the involvement of NRO with other public organizations during a crisis situation

  16. A New UK 2006 National Kidney Allocation Scheme for deceased heart-beating donor kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel J; Fuggle, Susan V; Mumford, Lisa; Bradley, J Andrew; Forsythe, John L R; Rudge, Chris J

    2010-02-27

    In 2004, it was agreed that a new allocation scheme for kidneys from deceased heart-beating donors was required in the United Kingdom to address observed inequities in access to transplant. The 2006 National Kidney Allocation Scheme (2006 NKAS) was developed to meet agreed objectives and preparatory work included a review of the criteria for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching and simulation evidence about the effectiveness of alternative schemes. ALGORITHM FOR 2006 NKAS: The 2006 NKAS gives absolute priority to all 000 HLA-A, -B, -DR-mismatched patients and well-matched pediatric patients (inequity of access will take a number of years to address fully.

  17. Designing and implementing E-health Applications in the UK's National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, D Jane; Barry, Nessa; Reid, Margaret; Norrie, John

    2005-12-01

    Telemedicine/e-health applications have the potential to play an important role in Britain's National Health Service (NHS), including the NHS in Scotland. The Scottish Telemedicine Action Forum (STAF) was established by the Scottish Executive Department of Health in 1999 to take a range of applications, targeted on national priorities, into routine service. In the process it has provided insights into how advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) can be moved from the research stage into routine service. In this article four of the projects are described and analysed focusing on the key issues that have emerged as critical for carrying projects successfully through to implementation in service as follows: 1. A multisite videoconferencing network linking 15 minor injury units to the main accident and emergency (A&E) centre. 2. A single-site neonatal intensive care "cotside" laptop system to assist communication between parents and clinical staff. 3. A single-site outpatient chronic disease management system. 4. A multisite software audit tool to support the care of cleft lip and palate patients from birth onward.

  18. A nationally representative study of maternal obesity in England, UK : trends in incidence and demographic inequalities in 619323 births, 1989-2007.

    OpenAIRE

    Heslehurst, N.; Rankin, J.; Wilkinson, J.R.; Summerbell, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is an absence of national statistics for maternal obesity in the UK. This study is the first to describe a nationally representative maternal obesity research data set in England. Design: Retrospective epidemiological study of first trimester obesity. Methods: Data from 34 maternity units were analysed, including 619 323 births between 1989 and 2007. Data analysis included trends in first trimester maternal body bass index status over time, and geographical distribut...

  19. NNC Limited (formerly National Nuclear Corporation Limited) report and financial statements 31 March 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Developments in the year ending 31st March 1989 within NNC Ltd. are reviewed in outline. These include work on the Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor Power Stations under construction at Heysham 2 and Torness; operational support and maintenance work on most of the UK's nuclear power stations; Pressurized Water Reactor work on systems and safety, engineering support and research and development; management support of the Ministry of Defence at the AWE site at Aldermaston and a range of services relating to nuclear submarines. Financial statements for the year conclude, and form the bulk of the report. (UK)

  20. NNDC Stand: Activities and Services of the National Nuclear Data Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.; Arcilla, R.; Burrows, T.W.; Dunford, C.L.; Herman, M.W.; McLane, V.; Oblozinsky, P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Tuli, J.K.; Winchell, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) collects, evaluates, and disseminates nuclear physics data for basic nuclear research, applied nuclear technologies including energy, shielding, medical and homeland security. In 2004, to answer the needs of nuclear data users community, NNDC completed a project to modernize data storage and management of its databases and began offering new nuclear data Web services. The principles of database and Web application development as well as related nuclear reaction and structure database services are briefly described

  1. WLB in the UK: Present situation and challenges for national and corporate initiatives, suggestions for Japan (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    YAJIMA Yoko

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a sense of the present situation and challenges of work-life balance (WLB) policies, corporate initiatives, and the workplace environment from the perspective of workers in the UK, and we carry out a comparison analysis with initiatives in Japan. Further, the analysis in this paper is a summary based on the results of a questionnaire survey of workers in Japan and the UK, a survey of the literature, and the results of local interview surveys in the UK. The UK resembl...

  2. Arguments for new Yugoslav National Nuclear Scientific Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plecas, I.; Pesic, M.; Pavlovic, R.; Neskovic, N.; Matausek, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    Information on actual status and arguments for urgent actions for solution of serious ecological problems concerning undefined status of the RA Reactor, spent fuel storage pool, and intermediate-level radioactive waste storage in the Vinca Institute, including proposal for modernisation of zero power Reactor RB and design of small low flux ADS are given in this paper. To solve problems mentioned above in next few years a national nuclear scientific program of the Vinca Institute, concerning Nuclear Reactors and Radioactive Waste, the following four projects were proposed to government for support: 1. Final shut down of the RA research reactor; 2. Provision of long term storage for spent fuel from the RA research reactor; 3. Refurbishment of the RB research reactor and design of the new research reactor H5B; 4. Building of the final repository for low and medium level radioactive waste. (authors)

  3. A National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    The practice of radiation protection within Australia is fragmented on a number of different levels. Each state has its own radiation protection organisation. Within the Commonwealth there is also a large number of bodies which deal with different aspects of radiation protection or nuclear safety. There is also an interest in occupational radiation protection by Departments responsible for Occupational Health and Safety. It is estimated that this fragmentation affects the practice of radiation protection at a State level and also the role which Australia can play internationally. The establishment of a National Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety is therefore proposed. Possible structures and organizational arrangements for such an institute are discussed. 4 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  4. National need for utilizing nuclear energy for process heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambill, W.R.; Kasten, P.R.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are potential sources for generating process heat, and their applications for such use economically competitive. They help satisfy national needs by helping conserve and extend oil and natural gas resources, thus reducing energy imports and easing future international energy concerns. Several reactor types can be utilized for generating nuclear process heat; those considered here are light water reactors (LWRs), heavy water reactors (HWRs), gas-cooled reactors (GCRs), and liquid metal reactors (LMRs). LWRs and HWRs can generate process heat up to 280 0 C, LMRs up to 540 0 C, and GCRs up to 950 0 C. Based on the studies considered here, the estimated process heat markets and the associated energy markets which would be supplied by the various reactor types are summarized

  5. Summer school in nuclear and radiochemistry at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolsky, K.L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy supports 24 fellowships for students to attend six-week programs at either San Jose State University in California, or Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in New York. The American Chemical Society through the Division of Nuclear Science and Technology operates both schools. The twelve students at the BNL program are enrolled in the State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNYSB) and receive 3 college credits for the lecture course (CHE-361) and 3 additional credits for the laboratory course (CHE-362). In addition to lectures and laboratories, students tour various nuclear facilities offsite, at BNL, and at SUNYSB. Opportunities are given the students to interact with faculty and scientists within the profession through the Guest Lecture Program. Further details are discussed along with results of student surveys for the years 1999 through 2002. (author)

  6. The role of the National INIS Center in presenting Macedonian nuclear and nuclear related sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejmenova-Gichevska, Marija

    2007-01-01

    The Republic of Macedonia is 95th Member State of INIS and its participation in this cooperative decentralized system started in 1996 when the Macedonian INIS Center was established to be operated by the National and University Library 'Kliment Ohridski' in Skopje. The main objective of this study is to give an overview of the Macedonian nuclear and nuclear related scientific thought presented in the INIS Database. A statistical analysis of the Macedonian INIS Center's contribution to the INIS Database for the period of its constitution to 2006, by quantifying and reviewing the language, publication type and INIS subject categories of the submitted records is presented. (author)

  7. An evaluation on the impact of national cancer wait targets on a (UK) radiotherapy department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Neill

    2012-01-01

    The radiotherapy department in this evaluation has been working towards full compliance with national cancer wait targets (CWT) since their implementation. 31 and 62 day targets set a maximum time frame for cancer patients to commence treatment. This evaluation explored the impact of these targets on staff and patients within the radiotherapy department and their overall impact on the radiotherapy service. Methods: This evaluation followed a mixed method approach of sequential triangulation. Qualitative data collection and analysis dominate findings but existing quantitative data, available within the department, was used to support the overall findings. Staff and patient interviews were used to establish attitudes to and experiences of the CWT initiative in relation to radiotherapy treatment. Quantitative data was taken from the local Cancer Centre CWT database that tracks patients referred for radiotherapy. Findings and Conclusion: Qualitative data analysis identified four main themes: pressure, appropriateness of target lengths, quality of treatment provided and efficiency of working practices within the department. Responses within these themes were both positive and negative with patients mainly the former and staff the latter. Quantitative evaluation found an increased monitoring and management burden from the CWT initiative, primarily for administrative, clerical and managerial staff. The main impact of the CWT initiative was an increase in pressure on staff due to reduced time to prepare and deliver treatment. Patients felt the initiative had not impacted negatively on their care and experienced a reduction in anxiety due to a reduction in waiting time.

  8. Nuclear industry almanac v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, G.; Jeffs, E.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Industry Almanac. National energy profiles of 17 Western European countries are given, concentrating on electricity supply and the role nuclear power plays in meeting the demand for electric power. The nuclear industries of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom are described and addresses of establishments and industries are listed. (U.K.)

  9. The epidemiology, healthcare and societal burden and costs of asthma in the UK and its member nations: analyses of standalone and linked national databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Mome; Stoddart, Andrew; Gupta, Ramyani P; Nwaru, Bright I; Farr, Angela; Heaven, Martin; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Bandyopadhyay, Amrita; Aftab, Chantelle; Simpson, Colin R; Lyons, Ronan A; Fischbacher, Colin; Dibben, Christopher; Shields, Michael D; Phillips, Ceri J; Strachan, David P; Davies, Gwyneth A; McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-08-29

    There are a lack of reliable data on the epidemiology and associated burden and costs of asthma. We sought to provide the first UK-wide estimates of the epidemiology, healthcare utilisation and costs of asthma. We obtained and analysed asthma-relevant data from 27 datasets: these comprised national health surveys for 2010-11, and routine administrative, health and social care datasets for 2011-12; 2011-12 costs were estimated in pounds sterling using economic modelling. The prevalence of asthma depended on the definition and data source used. The UK lifetime prevalence of patient-reported symptoms suggestive of asthma was 29.5 % (95 % CI, 27.7-31.3; n = 18.5 million (m) people) and 15.6 % (14.3-16.9, n = 9.8 m) for patient-reported clinician-diagnosed asthma. The annual prevalence of patient-reported clinician-diagnosed-and-treated asthma was 9.6 % (8.9-10.3, n = 6.0 m) and of clinician-reported, diagnosed-and-treated asthma 5.7 % (5.7-5.7; n = 3.6 m). Asthma resulted in at least 6.3 m primary care consultations, 93,000 hospital in-patient episodes, 1800 intensive-care unit episodes and 36,800 disability living allowance claims. The costs of asthma were estimated at least £1.1 billion: 74 % of these costs were for provision of primary care services (60 % prescribing, 14 % consultations), 13 % for disability claims, and 12 % for hospital care. There were 1160 asthma deaths. Asthma is very common and is responsible for considerable morbidity, healthcare utilisation and financial costs to the UK public sector. Greater policy focus on primary care provision is needed to reduce the risk of asthma exacerbations, hospitalisations and deaths, and reduce costs.

  10. Implications of the UK NHS consent policy for nuclear medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Claire D; Tindale, Wendy B

    2005-02-01

    To comply with government policy on consent, the Sheffield Teaching Hospitals (STH) National Health Service (NHS) Trust introduced a new consent policy in February 2002. Verbal or written consent (depending on the level of risk) must be obtained prior to each study. The patient must be fully informed and given time to reach a decision. Consideration needs to be given to the following: to whom, when and how to provide such information and obtain consent. Each study type and patient circumstance needs to be classified according to risk. Consideration of the risks resulted in a local policy in which written consent is required for the following: therapeutic procedures, studies on pregnant women, studies in which pregnancy needs to be avoided, research procedures, cardiac stress for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and intrathecal administration. Patient information leaflets have been updated with new information about the study and any risks. Information is now available for both patients and hospital staff. Compliance with the consent policy in a service department provides logistic challenges, but it is possible to fully inform patients in advance about their treatment, allowing them to give informed consent.

  11. Nuclear physics and heavy element research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, Mark A; Ahle, L E; Becker, J A; Bernshein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Burke, J T; Dashdorj, D; Henderson, R A; Hurst, A M; Kenneally, Jacqueline M; Lesher, S R; Moody, K J; Nelson, S L; Norman, E B; Pedretti, M; Scielzo, N D; Shaughnessy, D A; Sheets, S A; Stoeffl, W; Stoyer, N J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore (United States)

    2009-12-31

    This paper highlights some of the current basic nuclear physics research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The work at LLNL concentrates on investigating nuclei at the extremes. The Experimental Nuclear Physics Group performs research to improve our understanding of nuclei, nuclear reactions, nuclear decay processes and nuclear astrophysics; an expertise utilized for important laboratory national security programs and for world-class peer-reviewed basic research.

  12. National renewable energy policy and local opposition in the UK: the failed development of a biomass electricity plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upreti, B.R.; Horst, Dan van der

    2004-01-01

    Biomass energy developments in the UK are supported by central government but face considerable opposition from the public. The purpose of this study is to explore the causes and consequences of public opposition to biomass energy development in North Wiltshire where Ambient Energy Ltd. proposed the development of a 5 MWe wood gasification plant near the town of Cricklade. The case study was conducted through in-depth interviews, content analysis, person to person questionnaire survey, focus group discussion and participatory appraisal methods. Though biomass energy plants in general have fewer environmental impacts than plants which use fossil fuel, there could still be local impacts which give rise to concerns and local opposition to the development. The opposition could be partially explained by the fact that the general public is relatively unfamiliar with biomass energy. Public acceptance or rejection was mainly based on the public trust or mistrust. The case study demonstrates two distinctly rigid characteristics among the key stakeholders of biomass energy development. These are the 'not-in-my-back-yard' attitude from the public and the 'there-is-no-alternative' attitude of the developers. These rigid stances were widely contributing to the failure of the project to gain planning permission. The environmental justification of biomass energy at the national level is not always sufficient to convince the local residents. Winning public support to promote biomass energy requires an alternative approach of planning and action through interactive communication, public participation and collective learning among all the stakeholders

  13. Analysis of enquiries to the National Pharmacy Association following major changes to controlled drug legislation in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Cathal T; Hickman, Adrienne C; Hannbeck, Leyla; Flynn, Robert W

    2012-02-01

    The National Pharmacy Association (NPA) provides an advice service to community pharmacists in the UK, and keeps a database of the enquiries it receives. The aim of this research was to analyse the database for the period of October 2007 to March 2008 to gain an insight into how well pharmacists coped with legislative changes directly affecting pharmacy by identifying which changes generated the most enquiries during these 6 months and ascertaining in which months these queries were at their highest levels. Anonymised telephone enquiries regarding controlled drugs (CDs) received by the NPA from pharmacists during a 6-month period were reviewed and categorised according to the legislative change or other CD issue to which they related. A Poisson model was applied to determine whether there was a significant difference in the total number of CD queries generated each month. Altogether 6082 queries regarding CDs were received, of which 57% related to legislative changes. The three legislative changes that took place during the 6-month period all generated a significant increase in numbers of queries around the time of the change. Queries regarding the new form of CD register comprised the largest single category. Community pharmacists seek information regarding legislative changes when such changes come into force to a greater degree than when the legislation is drafted, consulted upon or enacted. The high number of queries received by the NPA does reflect that there was a difficulty in applying the various legislative changes in practice. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy in a UK National Health Service audiology department: Patients’ evaluations of the effectiveness of treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aazh, Hashir; Moore, Brian C. J.; Lammaing, Karen; Cropley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess patients’ judgements of the effectiveness of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapies offered in a specialist UK National Health Service audiology department. Design: Cross-sectional service evaluation questionnaire survey. Patients were asked to rank the effectiveness of the treatment they received on a scale from 1 to 5 (1 = no effect, 5 = very effective). Study sample: The questionnaire was sent to all patients who received treatment between January and March 2014 (n = 200) and 92 questionnaires were returned. Results : The mean score was greatest for counselling (Mean = 4.7, SD = 0.6), followed by education (Mean = 4.5, SD = 0.8), cognitive behavioural therapy - CBT (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.7), and hearing tests (Mean = 4.4, SD = 0.9). Only 6% of responders rated counselling as 3 or below. In contrast, bedside sound generators, hearing aids, and wideband noise generators were rated as 3 or below by 25%, 36%, and 47% of participants, respectively. Conclusion: The most effective components of the tinnitus and hyperacusis therapy interventions were judged by the patients to be counselling, education, and CBT. PMID:27195947

  15. National nuclear power planning of China and advanced reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jihui

    1990-01-01

    The necessity of investigation on the trends of advanced reactor technology all over the world is elabrated while China is going to set up its long-term national nuclear power programme. In author's opinion, thermal reactor power plants will have a quite long period development in the next century and a new trend of second generation NPPs might emerge in the beginning of next century. These new generation advanced reactors are characterized with new design concepts based on the inherent or passive safety features. Among them, most promising ones are those of AP-600 and MHTGR. Chinese experts are paying special attention to and closely following these two directions

  16. Managing conflicts of interest in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE clinical guidelines programme: qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Graham

    Full Text Available There is international concern that conflicts of interest (COI may bias clinical guideline development and render it untrustworthy. Guideline COI policies exist with the aim of reducing this bias but it is not known how such policies are interpreted and used by guideline producing organisations. This study sought to determine how conflicts of interest (COIs are disclosed and managed by a national clinical guideline developer (NICE: the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.Qualitative study using semi-structured telephone interviews with 14 key informants: 8 senior staff of NICE's guideline development centres and 6 chairs of guideline development groups (GDGs. We conducted a thematic analysis.Participants regard the NICE COI policy as comprehensive leading to transparent and independent guidance. The application of the NICE COI policy is, however, not straightforward and clarity could be improved. Disclosure of COI relies on self reporting and guideline developers have to take "on trust" the information they receive, certain types of COI (non-financial are difficult to categorise and manage and disclosed COI can impact on the ability to recruit clinical experts to GDGs. Participants considered it both disruptive and stressful to exclude members from GDG meetings when required by the COI policy. Nonetheless the impact of this disruption can be minimised with good group chairing skills.We consider that the successful implementation of a COI policy in clinical guideline development requires clear policies and procedures, appropriate training of GDG chairs and an evaluation of how the policy is used in practice.

  17. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities.

  18. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.

    1988-12-01

    The National Briefing Summaries is a compilation of publicly available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 21 nations, including the United States and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. It presents available highlight information with references that may be used by the reader for additional information. The information in this document is compiled primarily for use by the US Department of Energy and other US federal agencies and their contractors to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document provides an awareness to managers and technical staff of what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. The information may be useful in program planning to improve and benefit United States' programs through foreign information exchange. Benefits to foreign exchange may be derived through a number of exchange activities

  19. Convention on Nuclear Safety. Second National Report, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present document is the second Spanish national report prepared in order to comply with the obligations deriving from the convention on Nuclear Safety, made in Vienna on 20th September 1994. This convention was signed by Spain on 15th October 1994 and ratified by way of an instrument issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, signed by H. M. the King on 19th June 1995. The convention, which entered into force on 24th October 1996, following ratification by a minimum number of countries, as set out in articles 20, 21 and 22 includes 51 countries and Euratom, in addition to Spain. The first review meeting, organised in accordance with chapter 3 of the Convention, was held in vienna in April 1999. Spain was represented by the CSN, the State organisation solely responsible for nuclear safety, both for the drawing up of the national report and for participation in the meeting held between the parties. In accordance with article 21, the second review meeting has been scheduled for April 2002, also in Vienna. At the review meeting, the countries party to the Convention review the national reports required by article 5, Spain submitted its first national report in September 1998. The present document is an update of that first report, and is to be submitted by 15th October 2001, as agreed on during the first review meeting. This report will be reviewed by the interested countries, which will forward their comments and questions. In April 2002, the Spanish report and the questions received will be subjected to the review process contemplated by the convention, along with the reports submitted by the other countries

  20. The need for safe nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Government's Nuclear Review has given the nuclear industry an opportunity to demonstrate the key role that it can play in developing the UK's energy supply. To fulfil its ultimate potential in both the UK and international markets, nuclear energy must be able to compete in an open market alongside UK fossil fuel based suppliers and with overseas power generators. There are huge potential export opportunities for the nuclear industry, but for the UK to be able to compete in these markets there must be a thriving nuclear sector at home. The Government is now in a position to determine the future development of the nuclear energy industry. A positive commitment to nuclear power will not only be good for the nuclear industry, it will be good for the nation as a whole. (Author)

  1. National policies and regulations for decommissioning nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This report, though produced as a follow-up to Safety Series No. 105, The Regulatory Process for the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities, is not primarily intended as guidance. Rather, its objective is to provide an overview of national decommissioning policies and regulatory practices as part of the background knowledge which is an essential precondition for good decision making. It discusses the reasons for the similarities and differences in national approach using specific examples but without giving preference to any particular scheme; it aims rather to provide factual, general information on the choices that have been or are being made, and why. As many Member States are in a transient situation between the case-by-case approach to decommissioning and the establishment of national policies, strategies and regulations, this seems the right moment to assess existing national practices worldwide and that is the purpose for which the document is issued at this time. The information gathered in this report is based on submissions by Member States which have developed or are in the process of developing decommissioning oriented policies and regulations. 29 refs

  2. An exploration of socio-economic and food characteristics of high trans fatty acid consumers in the Dutch and UK national surveys after voluntary product reformulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippin, H L; Hutchinson, J; Ocke, M; Jewell, J; Breda, J J; Cade, J E

    2017-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) increase the risk of mortality and chronic diseases. TFA intakes have fallen since reformulation, but may still be high in certain, vulnerable, groups. This paper investigates socio-economic and food consumption characteristics of high TFA consumers after voluntary reformulation in the Netherlands and UK. Post-reformulation data of adults aged 19-64 was analysed in two national surveys: the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey (DNFCS) collected 2007-2010 using 2*24hr recalls (N = 1933) and the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) years 3&4 collected 2010/11 and 2011/12 using 4-day food diaries (N = 848). The socio-economic and food consumption characteristics of the top 10% and remaining 90% TFA consumers were compared. Means of continuous data were compared using t-tests and categorical data means using chi-squared tests. Multivariate logistic regression models indicated which socio-demographic variables were associated with high TFA consumption. In the Dutch analyses, women and those born outside the Netherlands were more likely to be top 10% TFA consumers than men and Dutch-born. In the UK unadjusted analyses there was no significant trend in socio-economic characteristics between high and lower TFA consumers, but there were regional differences in the multivariate logistic regression analyses. In the Netherlands, high TFA consumers were more likely to be consumers of cakes, buns & pastries; cream; and fried potato than the remaining 90%. Whereas in the UK, high TFA consumers were more likely to be consumers of lamb; cheese; and dairy desserts and lower crisps and savoury snack consumers. Some socio-demographic differences between high and lower TFA consumers were evident post-reformulation. High TFA consumers in the Dutch 2007-10 survey appeared more likely to obtain TFA from artificial sources than those in the UK survey. Further analyses using more up-to-date food composition databases may be needed.

  3. National briefing summaries: Nuclear fuel cycle and waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, K.J.; Harmon, K.M.; Lakey, L.T.; Silviera, D.J.; Leigh, I.W.

    1987-09-01

    This report is a compilation of publicly-available information concerning the nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management strategies and programs of 20 nations and three international agencies that have publicized their activities in this field. The information in this document is compiled to provide summary information on radioactive waste management activities in other countries. This document indicates what is occurring in other countries with regard to strategies, activities, and facilities. This document first presents a short overview of the activities and trends for managing low- to high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel by the entities covered in this review. This is followed by information for each country for nuclear power; fuel cycle and waste management strategy/policy; highlights and major milestones; institutional considerations/organizations; nuclear fuel production; fuel recycle; spent fuel storage and transport; waste conditioning, storage and transport; surface and near-surface waste disposal; geologic waste disposal; management of uranium mine and mill wastes; decommissioning; international; and references. 406 refs

  4. Results of a national survey on nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curti, A.R.; Gatica, N.A.; Melis, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: In 1997, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of Argentina carried out a compilation of data on radiopharmaceuticals administered to patients in nuclear medicine procedures. Its aim was to get information on the radiopharmaceuticals that are used in different procedures and the activity administered to the patient, to assess the radiation exposure of the population and to contribute to a global survey of medical radiation usage and exposures conducted by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), by sending information of the country. The data compiled were analysed, and for the most frequent procedures, the mean activity administered, the standard deviation, the distribution of the number of procedures for different age groups, sex and radiopharmaceuticals were assessed. The radiation exposure for children and adults was estimated. For the main diagnostic examinations, the results of the survey were compared with specific values published in the Basic Safety Standards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (Safety Series No. 115, 1996). As a conclusion, it may be point out the importance of continuing with the compilation of this kind of information in order to identify emerging trends on the use of nuclear medicine procedures in Argentina and the activity of radiopharmaceuticals administered to the patients. (author) [es

  5. Lessons Learned from Implementing National Nuclear Safety Knowledge Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simo, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Nuclear Security Advisory Services (INSServ) took place in Cameroon from 21st to 25th April 2014 and the Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) from 12th to 21st October 2014. This was after the government requested the Director General of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through an official correspondence on 11th June 2013, for these missions. The main objective was to further improve the effectiveness of the Cameroon governmental, legal and regulatory framework for safety and security. Revision of the legal and regulatory framework so that all international safety and security standards are addressed in laws and statutes have been done with documents downloaded from Nuclear portal sites found in GNSSN. Establishment and implementation of integrated management systems by NRPA is being done with documentation under the National Nuclear Portal with lessons learned from the IAEA review missions. The regulatory documents have been uploaded on the platform and can be accessed through FNRBA and NRPA website (www.anrp.cm). UN organizations implementing projects in Cameroon are also linked to the platform. The action plans and progress reports for IAEA/AFRA projects are also available. Moreover, NRPA regulatory activities and licensing sources are available on this platform.

  6. US national and regional impacts of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovich, L.; Forest, L.; Fletcher, T.

    1988-01-01

    The US will need new sources of electricity in the early 21st century due to retirement of much of the nation's generating capacity. Almost all of the US nuclear capacity would be included in those retirements if, as originally expected, the nuclear units were shut down and decommissioned as the operating licenses expired between 2005 and 2025. However, given the large demands for new capacity during that period, nuclear plant life extension (NUPLEX) -- the extension of operating life beyond the original license period -- needs to be considered as an electricity source. This study assesses the benefits and costs of NUPLEX relative to the anticipated competing sources of electricity supply in the early 21st century. We find that NUPLEX yields large net benefits under a wide range of plausible economic conditions. This study associates net benefits with electricity cost savings, thereby abstracting from speculative reliability considerations. To illustrate the effects of uncertainty, the study assesses NUPLEX net benefits under varying assumptions on NUPLEX investment costs and other future economic conditions

  7. Workforce issues and training programmes - A UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Warren

    2007-01-01

    Over the past 20 years under-investment has led to the UK's nuclear skills base being run down to the point where it is now very fragile and the cracks are showing. As a result a number of key nuclear science and engineering disciplines are now showing signs of shortages developing which is being reflected in both industry and academia. Fortunately, the skills gap has been recognised and the trend of under-investment is being reversed. Industry, Government and the Research Councils are starting to take steps to address the issue and new nuclear education and research initiatives are underway including the Dalton Nuclear Institute and the plans to create a National Nuclear Laboratory. The concern over a skills gap still exists but hopefully with the realisation of high profile projects such as new nuclear build, the establishment of a National Nuclear Laboratory and continued support from the UK's Research Councils, involvement in the nuclear field will prove to be an attractive career option for a greater number of people which will put the UK back in the position of having a vibrant and sustainable world class nuclear skills base. (author)

  8. Nuclear future: thinking for building. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics; 8. General congress on nuclear energy; 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These proceedings, for the first time, present jointly the 12. Brazilian national meeting on reactor physics and thermal hydraulics (12 ENFIR), 8. General congress on nuclear energy (8. CGEN), and 5. Brazilian national meeting on nuclear applications (5. ENAN). The main theme of discussion was: 'Nuclear Future: thinking for building'. The papers have analysed the progresses of peaceful utilization of nuclear technology and its forecasting for the beginning of the new millennium. The construction of Angra-3 nuclear power plant have been discussed

  9. A review of the Generic Design Assessment (GDA) Public Dialogue Pilot (2015) for new nuclear build in the UK: lessons for engagement theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, John; Parry, Ioan; Grundy, Colette; Lillycrop, Annabelle; Ross, David

    2016-06-01

    We have discussed previously that a community-based, asset-based approach is required to achieve any sense of how social sustainability can be defined in a community setting within the context of energy developments. Our approach aims to initiate a lasting change within 'energy' communities through building social capital; focusing on community assets not deficits to define their social priorities. Through deliberation, we develop an understanding of social sustainability so that a community is well placed to enter discussions with government and industry regarding large energy developments that will directly affect them. We review the 2015 Generic Design Assessment (GDA) Public Dialogue Pilot process for potential new nuclear reactors in the UK. We examine the aims of the dialogue, giving particular attention to a comparison between the national sampling of citizens for the GDA and the local community-based, deliberative approach we have proposed previously. We find an ongoing tension between 'national' engagement processes (such as the GDA Public Dialogue Pilot process) and the specific requirements of those energy communities that live adjacent or close to energy infrastructure, manifested here by a conflict between the requirements of the convenor and those of participants regarding priority issues for discussion. We also reveal a paradox; despite participant preference for a remote, internet-based engagement process, they agreed that face to face contact is a priority to encourage trust building between participants and the convenor of the process-a desired outcome of the process. The GDA Public Dialogue Pilot process has demonstrated that stakeholders are willing to engage with and be more directly involved in local energy-related decisions that affect them directly, provided there is opportunity to discuss locally-relevant and site-specific issues in addition to those of a broader nature. There exists a disparity and conflict between 'national' engagement

  10. National response plan - Major nuclear or radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-02-01

    France has been implementing stringent radiation protection and nuclear safety and security measures for many years. However, this does not mean that the country is exempt from having to be prepared to deal with an emergency. Changes in France, Europe and other parts of the globe have made it necessary for France to reconsider how it responds to nuclear and radiological emergencies. As the potential impact of a nuclear or radiological accident can affect a wide range of activities, the plan described herein is based on a cross-sector and inter-ministerial approach to emergency response. The Chernobyl and Fukushima-Daiichi disasters are proof that the consequences of a major nuclear or radiological accident can affect all levels of society. These challenges are substantial and relate to: public health: An uncontrolled nuclear accident can have immediate consequences (death, injury, irradiation) as well as long-term consequences that can lead to increased risk of developing radiation-induced diseases (such as certain types of cancer); environmental quality: Radiation contamination can last for several decades and, in some cases, can result in an area being closed off permanently to the public; economic and social continuity: Nuclear accidents bring human activity to a halt in contaminated areas, disrupting the economic and social order of the entire country. It may therefore be necessary to adapt economic and social systems and carry out clean-up operations if people and businesses have been displaced; quality of international relations: Related to fulfillment of obligations to alert and inform European and international partners. This international dimension also covers the protection of French nationals present in countries stricken by a nuclear accident. This national plan provides reference information on how to prepare for a nuclear or radiological emergency and make the appropriate decisions in the event of an emergency. It covers the emergency phase (including

  11. Nuclear industry chart no. 21 - France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    A fold-out chart shows the relationship between the government bodies and industrial concerns. Nuclear power plant orders under the 1970-84 programme are tabulated. A directory is included of national bodies, firms and establishments. (U.K.)

  12. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

  13. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, T.J. (ed.)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  14. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Nuclear Physics and Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Binh; Nguyen Nhi Dien; Tran Kim Hung; Vuong Huu Tan

    2000-01-01

    The proceedings contains 130 papers of scientists from institutes, universities, enterprises nation-wide in Vietnam. Its subjects include: nuclear physics, theoretical physics, science and technology of nuclear reactor, application of nuclear techniques in industry, agriculture, biology, medicine, geo-hydrology, environmental protection, nuclear equipment, radiation technology, material technology, waste management, ect

  15. Strategic planning of the National Direction of Nuclear Technology: period 2002-2005 last report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The final report of strategic planning describes the uses and applications of the Nuclear Technology, situation, tendencies so much at international level as national, institutional organization of the Nuclear Sector in the Uruguay, assignment of the DNTN, nuclear politics of the Uruguay, development of the Net or Nuclear Sector and model proposed for Uruguay, general conclusions and Strategic Plan

  16. The GP Patient Survey for use in primary care in the National Health Service in the UK--development and psychometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John; Smith, Patten; Nissen, Sonja; Bower, Peter; Elliott, Marc; Roland, Martin

    2009-08-22

    The UK National GP Patient Survey is one of the largest ever survey programmes of patients registered to receive primary health care, inviting five million respondents to report their experience of NHS primary healthcare. The third such annual survey (2008/9) involved the development of a new survey instrument. We describe the process of that development, and the findings of an extensive pilot survey in UK primary healthcare. The survey was developed following recognised guidelines and involved expert and stakeholder advice, cognitive testing of early versions of the survey instrument, and piloting of the questionnaire in a cross sectional pilot survey of 1,500 randomly selected individuals from the UK electoral register with two reminders to non-respondents. The questionnaire comprises 66 items addressing a range of aspects of UK primary healthcare. A response rate of 590/1500 (39.3%) was obtained. Non response to individual items ranged from 0.8% to 15.3% (median 5.2%). Participants did not always follow internal branching instructions in the questionnaire although electronic controls allow for correction of this problem in analysis. There was marked skew in the distribution of responses to a number of items indicating an overall favourable impression of care. Principal components analysis of 23 items offering evaluation of various aspects of primary care identified three components (relating to doctor or nurse care, or addressing access to care) accounting for 68.3% of the variance in the sample. The GP Patient Survey has been carefully developed and pilot-tested. Survey findings, aggregated at practice level, will be used to inform the distribution of pound sterling 65 million ($107 million) of UK NHS resource in 2008/9 and this offers the opportunity for NHS service planners and providers to take account of users' experiences of health care in planning and delivering primary healthcare in the UK.

  17. The GP Patient Survey for use in primary care in the National Health Service in the UK – development and psychometric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bower Peter

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK National GP Patient Survey is one of the largest ever survey programmes of patients registered to receive primary health care, inviting five million respondents to report their experience of NHS primary healthcare. The third such annual survey (2008/9 involved the development of a new survey instrument. We describe the process of that development, and the findings of an extensive pilot survey in UK primary healthcare. Methods The survey was developed following recognised guidelines and involved expert and stakeholder advice, cognitive testing of early versions of the survey instrument, and piloting of the questionnaire in a cross sectional pilot survey of 1,500 randomly selected individuals from the UK electoral register with two reminders to non-respondents. Results The questionnaire comprises 66 items addressing a range of aspects of UK primary healthcare. A response rate of 590/1500 (39.3% was obtained. Non response to individual items ranged from 0.8% to 15.3% (median 5.2%. Participants did not always follow internal branching instructions in the questionnaire although electronic controls allow for correction of this problem in analysis. There was marked skew in the distribution of responses to a number of items indicating an overall favourable impression of care. Principal components analysis of 23 items offering evaluation of various aspects of primary care identified three components (relating to doctor or nurse care, or addressing access to care accounting for 68.3% of the variance in the sample. Conclusion The GP Patient Survey has been carefully developed and pilot-tested. Survey findings, aggregated at practice level, will be used to inform the distribution of £65 million ($107 million of UK NHS resource in 2008/9 and this offers the opportunity for NHS service planners and providers to take account of users' experiences of health care in planning and delivering primary healthcare in the UK.

  18. The changing profile of surrogacy in the UK – implications for national and international policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Crawshaw, Marilyn; Blyth, Eric; van den Akker, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Since 2007, the numbers of UK Parental Orders granted following surrogacy have markedly increased. More recently, eligibility criteria have been extended to unmarried heterosexual couples and same-sex couples rather than only married couples. Numbers seeking fertility treatments, including through surrogates, outside their country of residence have also increased. This paper presents the limited data currently available – from UK General Register Offices, Child and Family Court Advisory and S...

  19. Challenge of improving postoperative pain management: case studies of three acute pain services in the UK National Health Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, A E; Davies, H T O; Bannister, J; Macrae, W A

    2009-06-01

    Previous national survey research has shown significant deficits in routine postoperative pain management in the UK. This study used an organizational change perspective to explore in detail the organizational challenges faced by three acute pain services in improving postoperative pain management. Case studies were conducted comprising documentary review and semi-structured interviews (71) with anaesthetists, surgeons, nurses, other health professionals, and managers working in and around three broadly typical acute pain services. Although the precise details differed to some degree, the three acute pain services all faced the same broad range of inter-related challenges identified in the organizational change literature (i.e. structural, political, cultural, educational, emotional, and physical/technological challenges). The services were largely isolated from wider organizational objectives and activities and struggled to engage other health professionals in improving postoperative pain management against a background of limited resources, turbulent organizational change, and inter- and intra-professional politics. Despite considerable efforts they struggled to address these challenges effectively. The literature on organizational change and quality improvement in health care suggests that it is only by addressing the multiple challenges in a comprehensive way across all levels of the organization and health-care system that sustained improvements in patient care can be secured. This helps to explain why the hard work and commitment of acute pain services over the years have not always resulted in significant improvements in routine postoperative pain management for all surgical patients. Using this literature and adopting a whole-organization quality improvement approach tailored to local circumstances may produce a step-change in the quality of routine postoperative pain management.

  20. The development of the UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence evidence-based clinical guidelines on motor neurone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David; Radunovic, Aleksandar; Allen, Alexander; McDermott, Christopher

    2017-08-01

    The care of people with motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is often complex and involves a wide multidisciplinary team approach. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK has produced an evidence based guideline for the management of patients. This has made recommendations, based on clear evidence or consensus discussion. The evidence is often limited and areas for further research are suggested.

  1. Cross-national comparison of nuclear reactor development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deLeon, P.

    1976-10-01

    This paper discusses most of the variables or factors that have been advanced to explain the success or failure of the various national nuclear reactor programs. From the comparative analysis of these experiences, it is apparent that the inclusion of the relevant factors in the ''technology delivery systems'' (TDS) and multiple research approaches offer the most convincing evidence explaining the ultimate acceptance/rejection of the national RD and D programs. It is equally apparent that these two variables are closely related. The policy implications which might thus be drawn from this cross-national survey suggest the inclusion of all the relevant actions in the RD and D process (i.e., ex cathedra policies are likely to fail) and the preservation of multiple research approaches until the major technical uncertainties are resolved. Many might consider these as obvious, but a brief review of the U.S. development of the FBR gives one reason to wonder if the ''obvious'' lessons of the LWR development have, in fact, been recognized, let alone appreciated

  2. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises

  3. Activities of the theoretical nuclear physics group of the Atomic Energy National Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    The theoretical studies that have been made in the Atomic Energy National Commission of Argentina about nuclear reactions, nuclear field theories, boson techniques and Hartree-Fock approximation, etc., are reported. (L.C.) [pt

  4. A study on national innovation system for the improvement of nuclear R and D performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, S. W.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Cheong, H. S.; Cheong, I.; Lee, J. H.; Won, B. C.; Cheong, C. E.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, H. M

    2006-01-15

    Review basic concept and analytical method concerned with technological innovation and NIS : concept and defition of technological innovation and NIS, background and evolution of the NIS theory, basic elements of NIS and their relationship. Identification on scientific-technological characteristics of the nuclear R and D and technological innovation : special aspect of the nuclear R and D and technological innovation, difficulty(or complexity) of the nuclear R and D and technological, innovation. Defining organizational-institutional elements of nuclear R and D and innovation allowing for nuclear scientific-technological peculiarity. Developing the model of national nuclear innovation system for analysis of the national R and D performance. Developing the analytical model including performance measure and procedure for national nuclear innovation system led mainly by national Rand D in Korea. Discussion about the national innovation system with other OECD/NEA member countries.

  5. A study on national innovation system for the improvement of nuclear R and D performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, S. W.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Cheong, H. S.; Cheong, I.; Lee, J. H.; Won, B. C.; Cheong, C. E.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Review basic concept and analytical method concerned with technological innovation and NIS : concept and defition of technological innovation and NIS, background and evolution of the NIS theory, basic elements of NIS and their relationship. Identification on scientific-technological characteristics of the nuclear R and D and technological innovation : special aspect of the nuclear R and D and technological innovation, difficulty(or complexity) of the nuclear R and D and technological, innovation. Defining organizational-institutional elements of nuclear R and D and innovation allowing for nuclear scientific-technological peculiarity. Developing the model of national nuclear innovation system for analysis of the national R and D performance. Developing the analytical model including performance measure and procedure for national nuclear innovation system led mainly by national Rand D in Korea. Discussion about the national innovation system with other OECD/NEA member countries

  6. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    % of all BE free cash flow to go to the Fund; - Government would pay for all Stage 1/2/3 decommissioning expenses that BE could not meet. BE is still a private company in a formal sense but the UK Office of National Statistics classifies it as a public sector company, because it regards control (not ownership) as in State hands. Government is now setting up the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to manage all public sector liabilities. Intention was to have a 'segregated account' to help give assurance that funding would be long-term and reliable. First draft Annual Plan does not mention segregation or any funding commitment beyond the first year (2005/6). The BNFL NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. NLIP will presumably go to the Treasury. In conclusion, it is clean that the decommissioning funding system has been short term and has relied mainly on Government. Some consumer contributions have been made, but now that nuclear power competes in a private market place and is relatively expensive, there is no guarantee that consumers/polluters will pay for a significant proportion of decommissioning costs

  7. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  8. Principles and foundation: national standards on quantities and units in nuclear science field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lishu

    1993-11-01

    The main contents of National Standards on Quantities and units of atomic and nuclear physics (GB 3102.9) and Quantities and Units of nuclear reactions and ionizing radiations (GB 310.10) are presented in which most important quantities with their symbols and definitions in the nuclear scientific field are given. The principles and foundation, including the International System of Units (SI) and its application to the nuclear scientific field, in the setting of the National Standards are explained

  9. Screening for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy: a structured review and gap analysis against UK national screening criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukuni, Ruramayi; Knight, Marian; Murphy, Michael F; Roberts, David; Stanworth, Simon J

    2015-10-20

    Iron deficiency anaemia is a common problem in pregnancy despite national recommendations and guidelines for treatment. The aim of this study was to appraise the evidence against the UK National Screening Committee (UKNSC) criteria as to whether a national screening programme could reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia and/or iron deficiency in pregnancy and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Search strategies were developed for the Cochrane library, Medline and Embase to identify evidence relevant to UK National Screening Committee (UKNSC) appraisal criteria which cover the natural history of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia, the tests for screening, clinical management and evidence of cost effectiveness. Many studies evaluated haematological outcomes of anaemia, but few analysed clinical consequences. Haemoglobin and ferritin appeared the most suitable screening tests, although future options may follow recent advances in understanding iron homeostasis. The clinical consequences of iron deficiency without anaemia are unknown. Oral and intravenous iron are effective in improving haemoglobin and iron parameters. There have been no trials or economic evaluations of a national screening programme for iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy. Iron deficiency in pregnancy remains an important problem although effective tests and treatment exist. A national screening programme could be of value for early detection and intervention. However, high quality studies are required to confirm whether this would reduce maternal and infant morbidity and be cost effective.

  10. International cooperation and guarantee of nuclear safety in the implementation of national nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-01-01

    The provisions against damage to be made in accordance with the state of the art as a precondition for licensing under Sec.7, Para.2, No.3 of the German Atomic Energy Act more than ever relate to international findings and practice in science as well as technology. In view of the peaceful use of nuclear power worldwide, together with the manifold institutionalized international and European schemes for cooperation within IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), OECD/NEA (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency), and within the framework of EURATOM, these can be gleaned only from the global state of the art. In addition, there are informal associations and bilateral cooperation schemes of countries within which knowledge is exchanged and, in part, even specific measures ensuring nuclear safety are agreed upon. Also existing international rules and regulations are important. It is for the national enforcement authorities in the nuclear field to determine and assess the bandwidths of scientific opinions and theoretical as well as practical technical availabilities with regard to all tenable scientific findings and technical developments known on the international horizon. (orig.)

  11. National project : advanced robot for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunemi, T.; Takehara, K.; Hayashi, T.; Okano, H.; Sugiyama, S.

    1993-01-01

    The national project 'Advanced Robot' has been promoted by the Agency of Industrial science and Technology, MITI for eight years since 1983. The robot for a nuclear plant is one of the projects, and is a prototype intelligent one that also has a three dimensional vision system to generate an environmental model, a quadrupedal walking mechanism to work on stairs and four fingered manipulators to disassemble a valve with a hand tool. Many basic technologies such as an actuator, a tactile sensor, autonomous control and so on progress to high level. The prototype robot succeeded functionally in official demonstration in 1990. More refining such as downsizing and higher intelligence is necessary to realize a commercial robot, while basic technologies are useful to improve conventional robots and systems. This paper presents application studies on the advanced robot technologies. (author)

  12. Managing Spent Nuclear Fuel at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Hill; Denzel L. Fillmore

    2005-10-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a large inventory of diverse types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This legacy derives from the history of the INL as the National Reactor Testing Station, and from its mission to recover HEU from SNF and to test and examine SNF after irradiation. The INL also has a large diversity of SNF storage facilities, some 50 years old. SNF at INL has many forms—from intact assemblies down to metallurgical mounts, and some fuel has been wet stored for over 40 years. SNF is stored bare or in metal cans under water, or dry in vaults, caissons or casks. Inspection shows varying corrosion and degradation of the SNF and its storage cans. SNF has been stored in 10 different facilities: 5 pools, one cask storage pad, one vault, two generations of caisson facilities, and one modular Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). The pools range in age from 40 years old to the most modern in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The near-term objective is to move SNF from older pools to interim dry storage, allowing shutdown and decommissioning of the older facilities. This move involves drying methods that are dependent on fuel type. The long-term objective is to have INL SNF in safe dry storage and ready to be shipped to the National Repository. The unique features of the INL SNF requires special treatments and packaging to meet the proposed repository acceptance criteria and SNF will be repackaged in standardized canisters for shipment and disposal in the National Repository. Disposal will use the standardized canisters that can be co-disposed with High Level Waste glass logs to limit the total fissile material in a repository waste package. The DOE standardized canister also simplifies the repository handling of the multitude of DOE SNF sizes and shapes.

  13. Nuclear Diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C. B.; Cassata, W. S.; Church, J. A.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Gharibyan, N.; Határik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Sio, H. W.; Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Cooper, G. W.; Eckart, M. J.; Edwards, E. R.; Faye, S. A.; Forrest, C. J.; Frenje, J. A.; Glebov, V. Yu; Grant, P. M.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Merrill, F. E.; Moody, K. J.; Moran, M. J.; Petrasso, R. D.; Phillips, T. W.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Sepke, S. M.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoeffl, W.; Velsko, C. A.; Volegov, P.

    2016-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) relies on a suite of nuclear diagnostics to measure the neutronic output of experiments. Neutron time-of-flight (NTOF) and neutron activation diagnostics (NAD) provide performance metrics of absolute neutron yield and neutron spectral content: spectral width and non-thermal content, from which implosion physical quantities of temperature and scattering mass are inferred. Spatially-distributed flange- mounted NADs (FNAD) measure, with nearly identical systematic uncertainties, primary DT neutron emission to infer a whole-sky neutron field. An automated FNAD system is being developed. A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) shares few systematics with comparable NTOF and NAD devices, and as such is deployed for independent measurement of the primary neutronic quantities. The gas-Cherenkov Gamma Reaction History (GRH) instrument records four energy channels of time-resolved gamma emission to measure nuclear bang time and burn width, as well as to infer carbon areal density in experiments utilizing plastic or diamond capsules. A neutron imaging system (NIS) takes two images of the neutron source, typically gated to create coregistered 13-15 MeV primary and 6-12 MeV downscattered images. The radiochemical analysis of gaseous samples (RAGS) instrument pumps target chamber gas to a chemical reaction and fractionation system configured with gamma counters, allowing measurement of radionuclides with half-lives as short as 8 seconds. Solid radiochemistry collectors (SRC) with backing NAD foils collect target debris, where activated materials from the target assembly are used as indicators of neutron spectrum content, and also serve as the primary diagnostic for nuclear forensic science experiments. Particle time-of-flight (PTOF) measures compression-bang time using DT- or DD-neutrons, as well as shock bang-time using D3He-protons for implosions with lower x-ray background. In concert, these diagnostics serve to measure the basic and advanced

  14. National audit of radioactivity measurements in Nuclear Medicine Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D.B.; Joseph, Leena; Babu, D.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Routine activity measurements of radiopharmaceutical solutions in Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) are carried out with the help of radionuclide calibrators (RC). These solutions are either ingested or injected to the patient for diagnosis or therapy. However, for the realization of an optimized examination, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be determined accurately before administering it to patients. The primary standards are maintained by Radiation Standards Section, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division. National audit programmes of Iodine -131 activity measurements with RCs are conducted biannually to establish traceability to national standards and to check the status of nuclear medicine practice followed at the NMC. The results of fifteenth audit of 131 I activity measurements with RC are presented in this paper. Questionnaires were sent to two hundred and thirty three NMCs in-the country. One hundred and nine NMC's agreed for participation and accordingly, glass vials containing radioactive 131 I solution of nominal activity of 100 MBq were procured from Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai. The radioactivity in each vial was determined with high pressure re-entrant gamma ionisation chamber (GIC), a secondary standard maintained by this laboratory. The sensitivity coefficient of GIC is traceable to the primary standard. The standardized radioactive solution of 131 I in glass vial was sent to each participant. Measurements results were reported in the reporting form sent. This audit was conducted in four schedules in Jan 2013. One hundred and sixty six results were received from one hundred and nine participants as many participants took measurements on more than one isotope calibrator

  15. Beneficial reuse of a national resource from the nuclear enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large, D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a vital national resource existing within and being generated by the US nuclear enterprise and current and planned technologies and techniques for its beneficial use. Several million tons of radioactively contaminated metals, considered scrap and waste, have been identified at the many commercial and federal sites involved in the nuclear enterprise. Both the public and private sectors have several concerns regarding the disposition of existing inventories and potential generation of contaminated scrap metals. In the past, good metal has been buried as waste. The time has come and is long overdue for that practice to cease. In the late eighties, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge office pioneered the move to involve private industry in dealing with the contaminated scrap metal under its purview. Consequently, the Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG) emerged as the leader in processing contaminated metal for beneficial reuse. To use and advance the technologies and techniques for disposal of radioactively contaminated metals, SEG has built and operates in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, a metal processing facility (MPF). This MPF is used to process radioactively contaminated metals, rid them of most of the contamination, and form them into customized shield blocks and other beneficial-use items. Significant volume reduction for scrap metals (estimated to be in excess of 20 to 1) is achieved with metal-melting services

  16. The Net Contribution of Nuclear Power to the National Economy in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Manki; Kim, Seung-su; Lee, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo-eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The objective of the study is to quantify the net contribution of nuclear power to the national economy in Korea focusing on the operating phase of nuclear power. This study is to see what would have happened to the Korean national economy, if all the nuclear power had been completely replaced with its substitute, coal power, providing a mechanism addressing a possible feedback between price and output on a national economy, triggered by the structural change in power sector. The role of nuclear power is estimated to be significant in terms of total output, GDP, price level, and labor employment in Korean economy. The net contribution of nuclear power estimated in this study can be recognized as positive externalities of nuclear power, which can be used to balance between positive externalities and negative externalities in the estimation of social cost of nuclear power, on which public concerns are substantially growing in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear power accident in Japan.

  17. The Net Contribution of Nuclear Power to the National Economy in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Manki; Kim, Seung-su; Lee, Jong Hee; Kim, Soo-eun

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the study is to quantify the net contribution of nuclear power to the national economy in Korea focusing on the operating phase of nuclear power. This study is to see what would have happened to the Korean national economy, if all the nuclear power had been completely replaced with its substitute, coal power, providing a mechanism addressing a possible feedback between price and output on a national economy, triggered by the structural change in power sector. The role of nuclear power is estimated to be significant in terms of total output, GDP, price level, and labor employment in Korean economy. The net contribution of nuclear power estimated in this study can be recognized as positive externalities of nuclear power, which can be used to balance between positive externalities and negative externalities in the estimation of social cost of nuclear power, on which public concerns are substantially growing in the wake of the Fukushima nuclear power accident in Japan

  18. Avoidable challenges of a nuclear medicine facility in a developing nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adedapo, Kayode Solomon; Onimode, Yetunde Ajoke; Ejeh, John Enyi; Adepoju, Adewale Oluwaseun

    2013-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in disease management in a developing nation is as impactful as it is in other regions of the world. However, in the developing world, the practice of nuclear medicine is faced with a myriad of challenges, which can be easily avoided. In this review, we examine the many avoidable challenges to the practice of nuclear medicine in a developing nation. The review is largely based on personal experiences of the authors who are the pioneers and current practitioners of nuclear medicine in a typical developing nation. If the challenges examined in this review are avoided, the practice of nuclear medicine in such a nation will be more effective and practitioners will be more efficient in service delivery. Hence, the huge benefits of nuclear medicine will be made available to patients in such a developing nation

  19. Metric-based vs peer-reviewed evaluation of a research output: Lesson learnt from UK's national research assessment exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwanth Koya

    Full Text Available There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies.To examine both the questions, we applied the United Kingdom's recently concluded national research assessment exercise known as the Research Excellence Framework (REF 2014 as a case study. All the data for this study is sourced from the openly available publications which arose from the digital repositories of REF's results and HEFCE's funding allocations.A world leading output earns between £7504 and £14,639 per year within the REF cycle, whereas an internationally excellent output earns between £1876 and £3659, varying according to their area of research. Secondly, an investigation into the impact rating of 25315 journal articles submitted in five areas of research by UK HEIs and their awarded funding revealed a linear relationship between the percentage of quartile-one journal publications and percentage of 4* outputs in Clinical Medicine, Physics and Psychology/Psychiatry/Neuroscience UoAs, and no relationship was found in the Classics and Anthropology/Development Studies UoAs, due to the fact that most publications in the latter two disciplines are not journal articles.The findings provide an indication of the monetary value of a research output, from the perspectives of government funding for research, and also what makes a good output, i.e. whether a relationship exists between good quality output and the source of its publication. The

  20. Metric-based vs peer-reviewed evaluation of a research output: Lesson learnt from UK's national research assessment exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Kushwanth; Chowdhury, Gobinda

    2017-01-01

    There is a general inquisition regarding the monetary value of a research output, as a substantial amount of funding in modern academia is essentially awarded to good research presented in the form of journal articles, conferences papers, performances, compositions, exhibitions, books and book chapters etc., which, eventually leads to another question if the value varies across different disciplines. Answers to these questions will not only assist academics and researchers, but will also help higher education institutions (HEIs) make informed decisions in their administrative and research policies. To examine both the questions, we applied the United Kingdom's recently concluded national research assessment exercise known as the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014 as a case study. All the data for this study is sourced from the openly available publications which arose from the digital repositories of REF's results and HEFCE's funding allocations. A world leading output earns between £7504 and £14,639 per year within the REF cycle, whereas an internationally excellent output earns between £1876 and £3659, varying according to their area of research. Secondly, an investigation into the impact rating of 25315 journal articles submitted in five areas of research by UK HEIs and their awarded funding revealed a linear relationship between the percentage of quartile-one journal publications and percentage of 4* outputs in Clinical Medicine, Physics and Psychology/Psychiatry/Neuroscience UoAs, and no relationship was found in the Classics and Anthropology/Development Studies UoAs, due to the fact that most publications in the latter two disciplines are not journal articles. The findings provide an indication of the monetary value of a research output, from the perspectives of government funding for research, and also what makes a good output, i.e. whether a relationship exists between good quality output and the source of its publication. The findings may also