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Sample records for uk longitudinal study

  1. Multiple and multidimensional transitions from trainee to trained doctor: a qualitative longitudinal study in the UK.

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    Gordon, Lisi; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Morrison, Jill; Muldoon, Janine; Needham, Gillian; Siebert, Sabina; Rees, Charlotte

    2017-12-01

    To explore trainee doctors' experiences of the transition to trained doctor, we answer three questions: (1) What multiple and multidimensional transitions (MMTs) are experienced as participants move from trainee to trained doctor? (2) What facilitates and hinders doctors' successful transition experiences? (3) What is the impact of MMTs on trained doctors? A qualitative longitudinal study underpinned by MMT theory. Four training areas (health boards) in the UK. 20 doctors, 19 higher-stage trainees within 6 months of completing their postgraduate training and 1 staff grade, associate specialist or specialty doctor, were recruited to the 9-month longitudinal audio-diary (LAD) study. All completed an entrance interview, 18 completed LADs and 18 completed exit interviews. Data were analysed cross-sectionally and longitudinally using thematic Framework Analysis. Participants experienced a multiplicity of expected and unexpected, positive and negative work-related transitions (eg, new roles) and home-related transitions (eg, moving home) during their trainee-trained doctor transition. Factors facilitating or inhibiting successful transitions were identified at various levels: individual (eg, living arrangements), interpersonal (eg, presence of supportive relationships), systemic (eg, mentoring opportunities) and macro (eg, the curriculum provided by Medical Royal Colleges). Various impacts of transitions were also identified at each of these four levels: individual (eg, stress), interpersonal (eg, trainees' children spending more time in childcare), systemic (eg, spending less time with patients) and macro (eg, delayed start in trainees' new roles). Priority should be given to developing supportive relationships (both formal and informal) to help trainees transition into their trained doctor roles, as well as providing more opportunities for learning. Further longitudinal qualitative research is now needed with a longer study duration to explore transition journeys for

  2. Sexual orientation health inequality: Evidence from Understanding Society, the UK Longitudinal Household Study.

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    Booker, Cara L; Rieger, Gerulf; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-08-01

    Few studies from the United Kingdom have fully investigated inequalities between members of different sexual minority groups and heterosexuals over range of health outcomes. Using data from over 40,000 individuals, this study explores the health inequalities of sexual minority UK adults. We include respondents who identify as other and those who prefer not to say (PNS). Data come from wave three (2011-2012) of the nationally-representative Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study. Sexual orientation was asked in the self-completion portion of the study. Markers of health include physical and mental functioning, minor psychological distress, self-rated health, substance use and disability. Multiple linear and logistic regression analyses tested for differences in markers of health between sexual orientation groups. Overall, heterosexual respondents had the best health while bisexual respondents had the worst. Gay and lesbian respondents reported poorer health than heterosexuals, specifically with regards to mental functioning, distress and illness status. The other and PNS respondents were most similar to each other and generally experienced fewer health inequalities than gay and lesbian respondents; they were less likely to use tobacco or alcohol. In sum, sexual minorities experience health inequality. The inclusion of other and PNS respondents has not been done in other studies and shows that while they may be healthier than gay/lesbian and bisexual respondents they still experiences poorer health than heterosexuals. Health promotion interventions are needed for these other and PNS individuals, who might not participate in interventions targeted toward known sexual minority groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

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    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers' employment was investigated separately. Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers' employment, household income and mothers' psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Family and mothers' employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers' transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Family employment and child socioemotional behaviour: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Steven; Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Levels of paid employment in two parent and lone parent families have increased in the UK but evidence of its impact on child socioemotional behaviour is limited and inconsistent. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis using the first four sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (9 months, 3 years, 5 years and 7 years) to investigate the influence of family employment trajectories in the early years on socioemotional behaviour at 7 years, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. In addition, mothers’ employment was investigated separately. Results Children from families where no parent was employed for one or more sweeps were at a greater risk of socioemotional problem behaviour compared with those where a parent was continuously employed, even after adjustment for covariates. Children of mothers who were non-employed for one or more sweeps were at greater risk of problem behaviour compared with mothers who were employed at all sweeps. Adjustment for covariates fully attenuated the excess risk for children whose mothers had moved into employment by the time they were 7 years. In contrast, the elevated risk associated with continuous non-employment and a single transition out of employment was attenuated after adjustment for early covariates, fathers’ employment, household income and mothers’ psychological distress at 7 years, but remained significant. Conclusions Family and mothers’ employment were associated with a lower risk of problem behaviour for children in middle childhood, in part explained by sociodemographic characteristics of families and the apparent psychological and socioeconomic benefits of employment. Results for mothers’ transitions in or out of the labour market suggest that child problem behaviour is influenced by current status, over and above diverse earlier experiences of employment and non-employment. PMID:24889054

  5. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing of men in UK general practice: a 10-year longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Grace J; Harrison, Sean; Turner, Emma L; Walsh, Eleanor I; Oliver, Steven E; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Evans, Simon; Lane, J Athene; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Martin, Richard M; Metcalfe, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that around 6% of men undergo prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing each year in UK general practice (GP). This longitudinal study aims to determine the cumulative testing pattern of men over a 10-year period and whether this testing can be considered equivalent to screening for prostate cancer (PCa). Patient-level data on PSA tests, biopsies and PCa diagnoses were obtained from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) for the years 2002 to 2011. The cumulative risks of PSA testing and of being diagnosed with PCa were estimated for the 10-year study period. Associations of a man's age, region and index of multiple deprivation with the cumulative risk of PSA testing and PCa diagnosis were investigated. Rates of biopsy and diagnosis, following a high test result, were compared with those from the programme of PSA testing in the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) study. The 10-year risk of exposure to at least one PSA test in men aged 45 to 69 years in UK GP was 39.2% (95% CI 39.0 to 39.4%). The age-specific risks ranged from 25.2% for men aged 45-49 years to 53.0% for men aged 65-69 years (p for trend PSA level ≥3, a test in UK GP was less likely to result in a biopsy (6%) and/or diagnosis of PCa (15%) compared with ProtecT study participants (85% and 34%, respectively). A high proportion of men aged 45-69 years undergo PSA tests in UK GP: 39% over a 10-year period. A high proportion of these tests appear to be for the investigation of lower urinary tract symptoms and not screening for PCa. ISRCTN20141297,NCT02044172. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Dementia ascertainment using existing data in UK longitudinal and cohort studies: a systematic review of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbett, Ruth A; Russ, Tom C; Deary, Ian J; Starr, John M

    2017-07-03

    Studies investigating the risk factors for or causation of dementia must consider subjects prior to disease onset. To overcome the limitations of prospective studies and self-reported recall of information, the use of existing data is key. This review provides a narrative account of dementia ascertainment methods using sources of existing data. The literature search was performed using: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo and Web of Science. Included articles reported a UK-based study of dementia in which cases were ascertained using existing data. Existing data included that which was routinely collected and that which was collected for previous research. After removing duplicates, abstracts were screened and the remaining articles were included for full-text review. A quality tool was used to evaluate the description of the ascertainment methodology. Of the 3545 abstracts screened, 360 articles were selected for full-text review. 47 articles were included for final consideration. Data sources for ascertainment included: death records, national datasets, research databases and hospital records among others. 36 articles used existing data alone for ascertainment, of which 27 used only a single data source. The most frequently used source was a research database. Quality scores ranged from 7/16 to 16/16. Quality scores were better for articles with dementia ascertainment as an outcome. Some papers performed validation studies of dementia ascertainment and most indicated that observed rates of dementia were lower than expected. We identified a lack of consistency in dementia ascertainment methodology using existing data. With no data source identified as a "gold-standard", we suggest the use of multiple sources. Where possible, studies should access records with evidence to confirm the diagnosis. Studies should also calculate the dementia ascertainment rate for the population being studied to enable a comparison with an expected rate.

  7. Maternal employment and child socio-emotional behaviour in the UK: longitudinal evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMunn, Anne; Kelly, Yvonne; Cable, Noriko; Bartley, Mel

    2012-07-01

    Mothers of young children are increasingly combining paid work with childrearing. Empirical evidence on the effects of maternal employment on children is contradictory and little work has considered the impact of maternal employment within the context of the employment patterns of both parents. Data on parental employment across three sweeps (when children were in infancy, age 3 and age 5 y) of the Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative prospective birth cohort study, were used to investigate the relation between parental employment and child socio-emotional behaviour at age 5 years independent of maternal education, maternal depression or household income. The cumulative effect of maternal employment across the early years was investigated. The impact of maternal employment in the first year of life was separately examined as a potentially 'sensitive period'. There was no evidence of detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years on subsequent child socio-emotional behaviour. There were significant gender differences in the effects of parental employment on behavioural outcomes. The most beneficial working arrangement for both girls and boys was that in which both mothers and fathers were present in the household and in paid work independent of maternal educational attainment and household income. No detrimental effects of maternal employment in the early years were seen. There were important gender differences in relationships between parental working arrangements and child socio-emotional outcomes.

  8. Theory, Practice and Policy: A Longitudinal Study of University Knowledge Exchange in the UK

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    Zhang, Qiantao

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the progress of university knowledge exchange in the United Kingdom over a decade, linking theory, practice and policy. As indicated by the literature, the performance of university knowledge exchange is influenced by institutional and locational characteristics. Data on 133 UK universities between 2003-2004 and 2012-2013 are…

  9. Leadership at the Top: Some Insights from a Longitudinal Case Study of a UK Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan P. O.

    2009-01-01

    A UK business school was researched to record its history and to account for its development. The data collection and interpretation were influenced by the flexible and iterative nature of the methodology. Theories and concepts used to make sense of the findings include: open systems, force fields, and power. The focus is on strategic leadership,…

  10. Do television and electronic games predict children's psychosocial adjustment? Longitudinal research using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

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    Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel; Henderson, Marion

    2013-05-01

    Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms.

  11. A longitudinal study of fallow dynamics in the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, Alexander G.; Kasim, Sola A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper identifies the causes of and solutions to the problems posed by the fallow assets' phenomenon in the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS). Using data available in the public domain, including the Fifth Fallow Release, the province's assets were grouped into two broad cross-sections of fallow and non-fallow assets, with further sub-divisions. The dependent variable of interest was the median fallow duration of the assets. Fallow duration was measured in two ways, namely those relating to censored and uncensored data. An empirical panel econometric model was formulated, estimated and simulated to establish the principal causal factors and the effective remedial policy measures. The model estimation results provide evidence that the interactive effects of the key influencing variables are stronger than their individual effects. Thus, the combined effects of reserves and distance from infrastructure have a greater weight on the fallow spell than their individual effects. Several policy simulation runs established that, contrary to some theoretical propositions (a) stronger rather than weaker government intervention, on occasion, is preferable, and (b) price is not a central determinant of investment timing

  12. Predicting persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in UK military personnel who served in Iraq: a longitudinal study.

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    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Sundin, Josefin; Goodwin, Laura; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2012-09-01

    In a longitudinal study we assessed which baseline risk factors are associated with persistent and partially remitted PTSD in comparison to fully remitted PTSD. 6427 (68%) of a randomly selected sample of UK service personnel completed the PTSD checklist (PCL) between 2004 and 2006 (Phase 1) and between 2007 and 2009 (Phase 2). 230 (3.9%) had possible PTSD at baseline. 66% of those with possible PTSD at baseline remitted (PCL score perception of poor or fair health (OR 2.84, 95% CI 1.28-6.27), older age and perception of risk to self (increasing with the number of events reported, p = 0.04). Deploying but not with a parent unit and psychological distress were associated in the partially remitted PTSD when compared to the fully remitted group. The positive and negative likelihood ratios for the factors most highly associated with persistent PTSD indicated they were of marginal value to identify those whose presumed PTSD would be persistent. Many factors contribute to the persistence of PTSD but none alone is useful for clinical prediction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Why Are Children in Urban Neighborhoods at Increased Risk for Psychotic Symptoms? Findings From a UK Longitudinal Cohort Study.

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    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-11-01

    Urban upbringing is associated with a 2-fold adulthood psychosis risk, and this association replicates for childhood psychotic symptoms. No study has investigated whether specific features of urban neighborhoods increase children's risk for psychotic symptoms, despite these early psychotic phenomena elevating risk for schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders in adulthood. Analyses were conducted on over 2000 children from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of UK-born twins. Neighborhood-level characteristics were assessed for each family via: a geodemographic discriminator indexing neighborhood-level deprivation, postal surveys of over 5000 residents living alongside the children, and in-home interviews with the children's mothers. Children were interviewed about psychotic symptoms at age 12. Analyses were adjusted for important family-level confounders including socioeconomic status (SES), psychiatric history, and maternal psychosis. Urban residency at age-5 (OR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.16-2.77) and age-12 (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.15-2.69) were both significantly associated with childhood psychotic symptoms, but not with age-12 anxiety, depression, or antisocial behavior. The association was not attributable to family SES, family psychiatric history, or maternal psychosis, each implicated in childhood mental health. Low social cohesion, together with crime victimization in the neighborhood explained nearly a quarter of the association between urbanicity and childhood psychotic symptoms after considering family-level confounders. Low social cohesion and crime victimization in the neighborhood partly explain why children in cities have an elevated risk of developing psychotic symptoms. Greater understanding of the mechanisms leading from neighborhood-level exposures to psychotic symptoms could help target interventions for emerging childhood psychotic symptoms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University

  14. Do personality traits assessed on medical school admission predict exit performance? A UK-wide longitudinal cohort study.

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    MacKenzie, R K; Dowell, J; Ayansina, D; Cleland, J A

    2017-05-01

    Traditional methods of assessing personality traits in medical school selection have been heavily criticised. To address this at the point of selection, "non-cognitive" tests were included in the UK Clinical Aptitude Test, the most widely-used aptitude test in UK medical education (UKCAT: http://www.ukcat.ac.uk/ ). We examined the predictive validity of these non-cognitive traits with performance during and on exit from medical school. We sampled all students graduating in 2013 from the 30 UKCAT consortium medical schools. Analysis included: candidate demographics, UKCAT non-cognitive scores, medical school performance data-the Educational Performance Measure (EPM) and national exit situational judgement test (SJT) outcomes. We examined the relationships between these variables and SJT and EPM scores. Multilevel modelling was used to assess the relationships adjusting for confounders. The 3343 students who had taken the UKCAT non-cognitive tests and had both EPM and SJT data were entered into the analysis. There were four types of non-cognitive test: (1) libertariancommunitarian, (2) NACE-narcissism, aloofness, confidence and empathy, (3) MEARS-self-esteem, optimism, control, self-discipline, emotional-nondefensiveness (END) and faking, (4) an abridged version of 1 and 2 combined. Multilevel regression showed that, after correcting for demographic factors, END predicted SJT and EPM decile. Aloofness and empathy in NACE were predictive of SJT score. This is the first large-scale study examining the relationship between performance on non-cognitive selection tests and medical school exit assessments. The predictive validity of these tests was limited, and the relationships revealed do not fit neatly with theoretical expectations. This study does not support their use in selection.

  15. Family income, maternal psychological distress and child socio-emotional behaviour: Longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Noonan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear.This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study.The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS, derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ. Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal psychological distress was operationalised to reflect the trajectory from child birth to age 11. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of permanent family income on child behaviour at age 11, controlling for maternal psychological distress and other relevant covariates.Results showed a statistically significant protective effect of increased permanent family income on the likelihood of behavioural problems at age 11. This finding was consistent for all SDQ subscales apart from emotional problems, and was strongest for teacher-reported behavioural problems. Maternal distress was an important mediator in the income-child behaviour relationship for parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, behavioural problems.The results of this study strengthen empirical evidence that the child behaviour-income gradient is maintained in older childhood. Mother’s psychological

  16. Family income, maternal psychological distress and child socio-emotional behaviour: Longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Katharine; Burns, Richéal; Violato, Mara

    2018-04-01

    The association between low family income and socio-emotional behaviour problems in early childhood has been well-documented, and maternal psychological distress is highlighted as central in mediating this relationship. However, whether this relationship holds for older children, and the precise mechanisms by which income may influence child behaviour is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between family income and child socio-emotional behaviour at 11 years of age, and examined the mediating role of maternal psychological distress over time using the UK Millennium Cohort Study. The primary outcome was parent-reported behavioural problems, as captured by the Total Difficulties Score (TDS), derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Secondary outcomes were the emotional, peer-related, conduct, and hyperactivity/inattention problems subscales of the SDQ; and teacher-reported TDS. Permanent family income was the primary exposure variable; frequency of poverty up to age 11 years was the secondary exposure variable. Maternal psychological distress was operationalised to reflect the trajectory from child birth to age 11. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the effect of permanent family income on child behaviour at age 11, controlling for maternal psychological distress and other relevant covariates. Results showed a statistically significant protective effect of increased permanent family income on the likelihood of behavioural problems at age 11. This finding was consistent for all SDQ subscales apart from emotional problems, and was strongest for teacher-reported behavioural problems. Maternal distress was an important mediator in the income-child behaviour relationship for parent-reported, but not teacher-reported, behavioural problems. The results of this study strengthen empirical evidence that the child behaviour-income gradient is maintained in older childhood. Mother's psychological distress

  17. Comparing the DSM-5 construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and ICD-10 Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct in the UK Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (UK-LAMS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar-Ouriaghli, I; Milavic, G; Barton, R; Heaney, N; Fiori, F; Lievesley, K; Singh, J; Santosh, Paramala

    2018-05-05

    It is important to understand new diagnostic entities in classifications of psychopathology such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5) (code F34.8) construct of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) and to compare it with possible equivalent disorders in other classificatory systems such as the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10), which has a category that superficially appears similar, that is, Mixed Disorder of Emotion and Conduct (MDEC) (code F92). In this study, the United Kingdom (UK) arm (UK-LAMS) of the US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) supported Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) multi-site study was used to evaluate and retrospectively construct DMDD and MDEC diagnoses in order to compare them and understand the conditions they co-occur with, in order to improve the clinical understanding. In particular, the phenomenology of UK-LAMS participants (n = 117) was used to determine whether DMDD is a unique entity within the DSM-5. The findings showed that 24 of 68 participants with either DMDD or MDEC (35.3%) fulfilled both diagnostic criteria for DMDD and MDEC, suggesting that these entities do contain overlapping features, particularly symptoms relating to Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)/Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)/Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) and/or an anxiety disorder. The data also showed that most of the participants who met DMDD criteria also fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for ODD/CD, ADHD, followed by an anxiety disorder. In this context, this raises the issue whether DMDD is a unique construct or whether the symptomology for DMDD can be better explained as a specifier for ODD/CD and ADHD. Unlike DMDD, MDEC clearly specifies that the label should only be used if emotional and conduct disorders co-exist.

  18. Effects of child long-term illness on maternal employment: longitudinal findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Anna; Whitehead, Margaret; Law, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Maternal employment has increased in European countries, but levels of employment are lower among mothers whose children have a limiting long-term illness or disability. However, we do not know whether having a child with a limiting illness prevents take-up or maintenance of paid employment or whether ‘common causes’, such as lack of qualifications or maternal disability lead to both maternal unemployment and childhood illness. Longitudinal data have the potential to distinguish between these. Methods: We analyzed four waves (3, 5, 7 and 11 years) of the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine the relationship between childhood limiting illness and maternal employment, unadjusted and adjusted for covariates. Multinomial regression models were used to test the association between child illness and trajectories of maternal employment. Fixed effects models assessed whether a new report of a child illness increased the odds of a mother exiting employment. Results: At every wave, maternal employment was more likely if the child did not have a limiting illness. After adjustment for covariates, childhood illness was associated with risks of continuous non-employment (adjusted Relative Risk Ratio = 1.46 [Confidence Interval: 1.21, 1.76]) or disrupted employment (aRRR = 1.26 [CI: 1.06, 1.49]), compared with entering or maintaining employment. If a child developed a limiting long-term illness, the likelihood of their mother exiting employment increased (adjusted Odds Ratio = 1.27 [CI: 1.05, 1.54]). Conclusions: ‘Common causes’ did not fully account for the association between child illness and maternal employment. Having a child with a limiting illness potentially reduces maternal employment opportunities. PMID:28177497

  19. Associations of Fitness, Physical Activity, Strength, and Genetic Risk With Cardiovascular Disease: Longitudinal Analyses in the UK Biobank Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Emmi; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ingelsson, Erik

    2018-04-09

    Background -Observational studies have shown inverse associations among fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about these associations in individuals with elevated genetic susceptibility for these diseases. Methods -We estimated associations of grip strength, objective and subjective physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular events and all-cause death in a large cohort of 502635 individuals from the UK Biobank (median follow-up, 6.1 years; interquartile range, 5.4-6.8 years). Then we further examined these associations in individuals with different genetic burden by stratifying individuals based on their genetic risk scores for coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation. We compared disease risk among individuals in different tertiles of fitness, physical activity, and genetic risk using lowest tertiles as reference. Results -Grip strength, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness showed inverse associations with incident cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease: hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77- 0.81; HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.93-0.97; and HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.74, per SD change, respectively; atrial fibrillation: HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.73- 0.76; HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.91-0.95; and HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.56-0.65, per SD change, respectively). Higher grip strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with lower risk of incident coronary heart disease and atrial fibrillation in each genetic risk score group ( P trend fitness were associated with 49% lower risk for coronary heart disease (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.38-0.69) and 60% lower risk for atrial fibrillation (HR, 0.40; 95%, CI 0.30-0.55) among individuals at high genetic risk for these diseases. Conclusions - Fitness and physical activity demonstrated inverse associations with incident cardiovascular disease in the general population, as well as in individuals with elevated genetic risk for these diseases.

  20. Economic insecurity during the Great Recession and metabolic, inflammatory and liver function biomarkers: analysis of the UK Household Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2017-10-01

    Economic insecurity correlates with adverse health outcomes, but the biological pathways involved are not well understood. We examine how changes in economic insecurity relate to metabolic, inflammatory and liver function biomarkers. Blood analyte data were taken from 6520 individuals (aged 25-59 years) participating in Understanding Society. Economic insecurity was measured using an indicator of subjective financial strain and by asking participants whether they had missed any bill, council tax, rent or mortgage payments in the past year. We investigated longitudinal changes in economic insecurity (remained secure, increase in economic insecurity, decrease in economic insecurity, remained insecure) and the accumulation of economic insecurity. Linear regression models were calculated for nine (logged) biomarker outcomes related to metabolic, inflammatory, liver and kidney function (as falsification tests), adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with those who remained economically stable, people who experienced consistent economic insecurity (using both measures) had worsened levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, C reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen and glycated haemoglobin. Increased economic insecurity was associated with adverse levels of HDL-cholesterol (0.955, 95% CI 0.929 to 0.982), triglycerides (1.077, 95% CI 1.018 to 1.139) and CRP (1.114, 95% CI 1.012 to 1.227), using the measure of financial strain. Results for the other measure were generally consistent, apart from the higher levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase observed among those experiencing persistent insecurity (1.200, 95% CI 1.110 to 1.297). Economic insecurity is associated with adverse metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers (particularly HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and CRP), heightening risk for a range of health conditions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No

  1. Haplotype-based association analysis of general cognitive ability in Generation Scotland, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and UK Biobank [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Howard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cognitive ability is a heritable trait with a polygenic architecture, for which several associated variants have been identified using genotype-based and candidate gene approaches. Haplotype-based analyses are a complementary technique that take phased genotype data into account, and potentially provide greater statistical power to detect lower frequency variants. Methods: In the present analysis, three cohort studies (ntotal = 48,002 were utilised: Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA, and the UK Biobank. A genome-wide haplotype-based meta-analysis of cognitive ability was performed, as well as a targeted meta-analysis of several gene coding regions. Results: None of the assessed haplotypes provided evidence of a statistically significant association with cognitive ability in either the individual cohorts or the meta-analysis. Within the meta-analysis, the haplotype with the lowest observed P-value overlapped with the D-amino acid oxidase activator (DAOA gene coding region. This coding region has previously been associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease, which have all been shown to impact upon cognitive ability. Another potentially interesting region highlighted within the current genome-wide association analysis (GS:SFHS: P = 4.09 x 10-7, was the butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE gene coding region. The protein encoded by BCHE has been shown to influence the progression of Alzheimer’s disease and its role in cognitive ability merits further investigation. Conclusions: Although no evidence was found for any haplotypes with a statistically significant association with cognitive ability, our results did provide further evidence that the genetic variants contributing to the variance of cognitive ability are likely to be of small effect.

  2. Association of volunteering with mental well-being: a lifecourse analysis of a national population-based longitudinal study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Faiza; Mohan, John; Smith, Peter

    2016-08-08

    The association of volunteering with well-being has been found in previous research, but mostly among older people. The aim of this study was to examine the association of volunteering with mental well-being among the British population across the life course. British Household Panel Survey, a population-based longitudinal study. UK. 66 343 observations (person-years). Mental well-being was measured by using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 or GHQ); high values denote high mental disorder. Four groups of volunteering participation were created: frequent (once a week), infrequent (once a month/several times a year), rare (once or less a year) and never. Multilevel linear models were used to analyse variations in mental well-being over the life course by levels of volunteering. When not considering age, those who engaged in volunteering regularly appeared to experience higher levels of mental well-being than those who never volunteered. To explore the association of volunteering with the GHQ across the life course, interaction terms were fitted between age and volunteering. The interactions were significant, demonstrating that these associations vary by age. The association between volunteering and well-being did not emerge during early adulthood to mid-adulthood, instead becoming apparent above the age of 40 years and continuing up to old age. Moreover, in early adulthood, the absence of engagement in voluntary activity was not related to mental well-being, but GHQ scores for this group increased sharply with age, levelling off after the age of 40 and then increasing again above the age of 70 years. The study also indicates variation in GHQ scores (65%) within individuals across time, suggesting evidence of lifecourse effects. We conclude that volunteering may be more meaningful for mental well-being at some points of time in the life course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  3. Up-to-date and projected estimates of survival for people with cystic fibrosis using baseline characteristics: A longitudinal study using UK patient registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Ruth H; Szczesniak, Rhonda; Taylor-Robinson, David; Bilton, Diana

    2018-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common inherited disease in Caucasians, affecting around 10,000 individuals in the UK today. Prognosis has improved considerably over recent decades with ongoing improvements in treatment and care. Providing up-to-date survival predictions is important for patients, clinicians and health services planning. Flexible parametric survival modelling of UK CF Registry data from 2011 to 2015, capturing 602 deaths in 10,428 individuals. Survival curves were estimated from birth; conditional on reaching older ages; and projected under different assumptions concerning future mortality trends, using baseline characteristics of sex, CFTR genotype (zero, one, two copies of F508del) and age at diagnosis. Male sex was associated with better survival, as was older age at diagnosis, but only in F508del non-homozygotes. Survival did not differ by genotype among individuals diagnosed at birth. Median survival ages at birth in F508del homozygotes were 46years (males) and 41years (females), and similar in non-homozygotes diagnosed at birth. F508del heterozygotes diagnosed aged 5 had median survival ages of 57 (males) and 51 (females). Conditional on survival to 30, median survival age rises to 52 (males) and 49 (females) in homozygotes. Mortality rates decreased annually by 2% during 2006-2015. Future improvements at this rate suggest median survival ages for F508del homozygous babies of 65 (males) and 56 (females). Over half of babies born today, and of individuals aged 30 and above today, can expect to survive into at least their fifth decade. Evidence before this study We searched PubMed with terms "(cystic fibrosis survival) and (projection OR model OR registry OR United Kingdom OR UK)" to identify relevant studies on survival estimates for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). We also considered the most recent annual report from the UK Cystic Fibrosis Registry (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2016), a review by Buzzetti and colleagues (2009), the chapter

  4. The effect of a transition into poverty on child and maternal mental health: a longitudinal analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Whitehead, Margaret; Taylor-Robinson, David; Barr, Ben

    2017-03-01

    Whether or not relative measures of income poverty effectively reflect children's life chances has been the focus of policy debates in the UK. Although poverty is associated with poor child and maternal mental health, few studies have assessed the effect of moving into poverty on mental health. To inform policy, we explore the association between transitions into poverty and subsequent mental health among children and their mothers. In this longtitudinal analysis, we used data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a large nationally representative cohort of children born in the UK between Sept 1, 2000, and Jan 11, 2002, who participated in five survey waves as they progressed from 9 months of age to 11 years of age. Our analysis included all children and mothers who were free from mental health problems and not in poverty when the children were aged 3 years. We only included singletons (ie, not twins or other multiple pregnancies) and children for whom the mother was the main respondent to the study. The main outcomes were child socioemotional behavioural problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 5 years, 7 years, and 11 years and maternal psychological distress (Kessler 6 scale). Using discrete time-hazard models, we followed up families without mental health problems at baseline and estimated odds ratios for subsequent onset of maternal and child mental health problems associated with first transition into poverty, while adjusting for confounders, including employment transitions. We further assessed whether or not change in maternal mental health explained any effect on child mental health. Of the 6063 families in the UK Millennium Cohort study at 3 years who met our inclusion criteria, 844 (14%) had a new transition into poverty compared with 5219 (86%) who remained out of poverty. After adjustment for confounders, transition into poverty increased the odds of socioemotional behavioural problems in children (odds ratio 1·41 [95% CI 1·02-1·93

  5. Aspirations to become an anaesthetist: longitudinal study of historical trends and trajectories of UK-qualified doctors' early career choices and of factors that have influenced their choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouil, Beatrice; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W

    2017-07-25

    It is important to inform medical educators and workforce planners in Anaesthesia about early career choices for the specialty, factors that influence them and to elucidate how recent choices of men and women doctors relate to the overall historical trends in the specialty's popularity. We analysed longitudinal data on career choice, based on self-completed questionnaires, from national year-of-qualification cohorts of UK-trained doctors from 1974 to 2012 surveyed one, three and 5 years post-qualification. Career destination data 10 years post-qualification were used for qualifiers between 1993 and 2002, to investigate the association between early choice and later destinations. In years 1, 3 and 5 post-qualification, respectively, 59.9% (37,385), 64.6% (31,473), and 67.2% (24,971) of contactable doctors responded. There was an overall increase, from the early to the later cohorts, in the percentage of medical graduates who wished to enter anaesthesia: for instance year 1 choices rose from 4.6 to 9.4%, comparing the 1974 and 2012 cohorts. Men were more likely than women to express an early preference for a career in anaesthesia: for example, at year 3 after qualification anaesthesia was the choice of 10.1% of men and 7.9% of women. There was a striking increase in the certainty with which women chose anaesthesia as their future career specialty in recent compared to earlier cohorts, not reflected in any trends observed in men choosing anaesthesia. Sixty percent of doctors who were anaesthetists, 10 years after qualifying, had specified anaesthesia as their preferred specialty when surveyed in year 1, 80% in year 3, and 92% in year 5. Doctors working as anaesthetists were less likely than those working in other hospital specialties to have specified, as strong influences on specialty choice, 'experience of the subject' as students, 'inclinations before medical school', and 'what I really want to do'. Men anaesthetists were more influenced in their specialty

  6. Vitamin D deficiency in UK South Asian Women of childbearing age: a comparative longitudinal investigation with UK Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, A L; Hart, K H; Macdonald, H M; Horton, K; Kang'ombe, A R; Berry, J L; Lanham-New, S A

    2013-02-01

    This is the first 1-year longitudinal study which assesses vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women. The findings are that vitamin D deficiency is extremely common in this group of women and that it persists all year around, representing a significant public health concern. There is a lack of longitudinal data assessing seasonal variation in vitamin D status in young South Asian women living in northern latitudes. Studies of postmenopausal South Asian women suggest a lack of seasonal change in 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D], although it is unclear whether this is prevalent among premenopausal South Asians. We aimed to evaluate, longitudinally, seasonal changes in 25(OH)D and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in young UK-dwelling South Asian women as compared with Caucasians. We also aimed to establish the relative contributions of dietary vitamin D and sun exposure in explaining serum 25(OH)D. This is a 1-year prospective cohort study assessing South Asian (n = 35) and Caucasian (n = 105) premenopausal women living in Surrey, UK (51° N), aged 20-55 years. The main outcome measured was serum 25(OH)D concentration. Secondary outcomes were serum parathyroid hormone, self-reported dietary vitamin D intake and UVB exposure by personal dosimetry. Serum 25(OH)D Asians in the winter (81 %) and autumn (79.2 %). Deficient status (below 50 nmol/L) was common in Caucasian women. Multi-level modelling suggested that, in comparison to sun exposure (1.59, 95 %CI = 0.83-2.35), dietary intake of vitamin D had no impact on 25(OH)D levels (-0.08, 95 %CI = -1.39 to 1.23). Year-round vitamin D deficiency was extremely common in South Asian women. These findings pose great health threats regarding the adverse effects of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy and warrant urgent vitamin D public health policy and action.

  7. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: a twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Keeling, A; Paice, E

    2004-08-18

    The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.

  8. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: A twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paice E

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory, and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five. Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire and personality. Results Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Conclusions Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.

  9. Stress, burnout and doctors' attitudes to work are determined by personality and learning style: A twelve year longitudinal study of UK medical graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, IC; Keeling, A; Paice, E

    2004-01-01

    Background The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Results Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Conclusions Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style. PMID:15317650

  10. Construct-level predictive validity of educational attainment and intellectual aptitude tests in medical student selection: meta-regression of six UK longitudinal studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Measures used for medical student selection should predict future performance during training. A problem for any selection study is that predictor-outcome correlations are known only in those who have been selected, whereas selectors need to know how measures would predict in the entire pool of applicants. That problem of interpretation can be solved by calculating construct-level predictive validity, an estimate of true predictor-outcome correlation across the range of applicant abilities. Methods Construct-level predictive validities were calculated in six cohort studies of medical student selection and training (student entry, 1972 to 2009) for a range of predictors, including A-levels, General Certificates of Secondary Education (GCSEs)/O-levels, and aptitude tests (AH5 and UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT)). Outcomes included undergraduate basic medical science and finals assessments, as well as postgraduate measures of Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)) performance and entry in the Specialist Register. Construct-level predictive validity was calculated with the method of Hunter, Schmidt and Le (2006), adapted to correct for right-censorship of examination results due to grade inflation. Results Meta-regression analyzed 57 separate predictor-outcome correlations (POCs) and construct-level predictive validities (CLPVs). Mean CLPVs are substantially higher (.450) than mean POCs (.171). Mean CLPVs for first-year examinations, were high for A-levels (.809; CI: .501 to .935), and lower for GCSEs/O-levels (.332; CI: .024 to .583) and UKCAT (mean = .245; CI: .207 to .276). A-levels had higher CLPVs for all undergraduate and postgraduate assessments than did GCSEs/O-levels and intellectual aptitude tests. CLPVs of educational attainment measures decline somewhat during training, but continue to predict postgraduate performance. Intellectual aptitude tests have lower CLPVs than A-levels or GCSEs

  11. Sunlight exposure behaviour and vitamin D status in photosensitive patients: longitudinal comparative study with healthy individuals at U.K. latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, L E; Webb, A R; Berry, J L; Felton, S J; Marjanovic, E J; Wilkinson, J D; Vail, A; Kift, R

    2014-12-01

    Low vitamin D status is prevalent in wintertime in populations at northerly latitudes. Photosensitive patients are advised to practise sun avoidance, but their sunlight exposure levels, photoprotective measures and resulting vitamin D status are unknown. To examine seasonal vitamin D status in photosensitive patients relative to healthy individuals and to assess quantitatively behavioural and demographic contributors. This was a longitudinal prospective cohort study (53·5°N) examining year-round 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels, sun-exposure behaviour and oral vitamin D intake in photosensitive patients diagnosed at a photoinvestigation unit (n = 53), compared with concurrently assessed healthy adults (n = 109). Photosensitive patients achieved seasonal 25(OH)D variation, but insufficient (vitamin D intake was low in both groups (photosensitive: 2·94 μg per day). Supplementation and summer surface area exposure predicted summer peak and winter trough 25(OH)D levels. A 1 μg per day increment in supplementary vitamin D raised summer and winter 25(OH)D by 5% (95% CI 3-7) and 9% (95% CI 5-12), respectively (both P vitamin D status. Guidance on oral measures should target this patient group and their physicians. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristen, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Does playing violent video games increase aggressive behavior over time or is it aggressive children who increasingly seek out (and play) these violent video games? To study such long-term effects a longitudinal design is necessary. Within a field study in a large German city (Kinder, Computer, Hobby, Lernen – KUHL, Freie Universtität Berlin) about 115 elementary school boys attending in the beginning (t1) classrooms of the third and fourth grade and twelve months later (t2) classrooms of the...

  13. LEIR longitudinal studies

    CERN Document Server

    Albright, S; Hancock, S

    2017-01-01

    Towards the end of 2015 and during 2016 there were exten-sive studies of longitudinal beam dynamics in LEIR aimedat improving extracted intensities. As the driving source oflosses early in the ramp was shown to be transverse spacecharge tune spread a significant improvement came fromflattening the beam profile to increase the bunching factorby offsetting the RF frequency from the beam revolution fre-quency. Further benefits were provided by modulating theRF frequency during capture, leading to emittance blow-upand improved reproducibility. The use of two RF cavitiesduring operation was studied to try and further increase thecaptured emittance, however after careful alignment of theRF it was found that a hard limit in the bunch heigh of approx-imately 7 MeV exists. Due to the acceptance limit there wasno operational benefit to using both cavities simultaneously

  14. Risk factors for headache in the UK military: cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Goodwin, Laura; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon

    2013-05-01

    To assess the importance of service demographic, mental disorders, and deployment factors on headache severity and prevalence, and to assess the impact of headache on functional impairment. There is no information on prevalence and risk factors of headache in the UK military. Recent US reports suggest that deployment, especially a combat role, is associated with headache. Such an association may have serious consequences on personnel during deployment. A survey was carried out between 2004 and 2006 (phase 1) and again between 2007 and 2009 (phase 2) of randomly selected UK military personnel to study the health consequences of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. This study is based on those who participated in phase 2 and includes cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Headache severity in the last month and functional impairment at phase 2 were the main outcomes. Forty-six percent complained of headache in phase 2, half of whom endorsed moderate or severe headache. Severe headache was strongly associated with probable post-traumatic stress disorder (multinomial odds ratio [MOR] 9.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.4-14.2), psychological distress (MOR 6.15, 95% CI 4.8-7.9), multiple physical symptoms (MOR 18.2, 95% CI 13.4-24.6) and self-reported mild traumatic brain injury (MOR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.6) after adjustment for service demographic factors. Mild headache was also associated with these variables but at a lower level. Moderate and severe headache were associated with functional impairment, but the association was partially explained by mental disorders. Mental ill health was also associated with reporting moderate and severe headache at both phase 1 and phase 2. Deployment and a combat role were not associated with headache. Moderate and severe headache are common in the military and have an impact on functional impairment. They are more strongly associated with mental disorders than with mild traumatic brain injury. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  15. To embed or not to embed? A longitudinal study exploring the impact of curriculum design on the evidence-based practice profiles of UK pre-registration nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurlock-Evans, Laura; Upton, Penney; Rouse, Joanne; Upton, Dominic

    2017-11-01

    The use of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) is increasingly emphasized within healthcare. However, little research has focused on nurses' pre-registration training; particularly regarding the impact of curriculum-design on learning EBP. This study compared the impact of embedding EBP throughout the curriculum, with modular-based teaching, on pre-registration nursing students' EBP profiles. A longitudinal panel study. A convenience sample of fifty-six pre-registration nursing students (55.4% studying an embedded EBP-curriculum and 44.6% studying a modular EBP-curriculum), were recruited from a UK University between 2011 and 2014. Participants completed the Student Evidence-Based Practice Questionnaire (S-EBPQ) in the first, second and third year of their course. This questionnaire measures four EBP domains: frequency of use, attitude, knowledge and skills in retrieving and reviewing evidence, and knowledge and skills in applying and sharing evidence. Two-way mixed between-within Analyses of Variance revealed significant improvements across all domains, except attitude (which remained broadly positive across all years), for both curriculum-groups. No significant differences in this improvement were identified between the two curricula overall. However, the direction and rate of change of scores on the retrieving and applying subscales (but not frequency of use) for the two groups differed across time; specifically those on the embedded curriculum showed a dip in scores on these subscales in year 2. This appeared to be related to associated features of the course such as the timing of placements and delivery of theory. Taking a modular or embedded approach to EBP may have little impact on students' final EBP profiles. However, careful consideration should be given to the timing of related course features which may play a key role in students' perceptions of their knowledge and skills in its application. Further research should explore how curriculum-design might build on

  16. Protocol for a mixed-methods longitudinal study to identify factors influencing return to work in the over 50s participating in the UK Work Programme: Supporting Older People into Employment (SOPIE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Judith; Neary, Joanne; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Thomson, Hilary; McQuaid, Ronald W; Leyland, Alastair H; Frank, John; Jeavons, Luke; de Pellette, Paul; Kiran, Sibel; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2015-12-16

    Increasing employment among older workers is a policy priority given the increase in life expectancy and the drop in labour force participation after the age of 50. Reasons for this drop are complex but include poor health, age discrimination, inadequate skills/qualifications and caring roles; however, limited evidence exists on how best to support this group back to work. The Work Programme is the UK Government's flagship policy to facilitate return to work (RTW) among those at risk of long-term unemployment. 'Supporting Older People Into Employment' (SOPIE) is a mixed-methods longitudinal study involving a collaboration between academics and a major Work Programme provider (Ingeus). The study will investigate the relationship between health, worklessness and the RTW process for the over 50s. There are three main study components. Embedded fieldwork will document the data routinely collected by Ingeus and the key interventions/activities delivered. The quantitative study investigates approximately 14,000 individuals (aged 16-64 years, with 20% aged over 50) who entered the Ingeus Work Programme (referred to as 'clients') in a 16-month period in Scotland and were followed up for 2 years. Employment outcomes (including progression towards work) and how they differ by client characteristics (including health), intervention components received and external factors will be investigated. The qualitative component will explore the experiences of clients and Ingeus staff, to better understand the interactions between health and (un)employment, Work Programme delivery, and how employment services can be better tailored to the needs of the over 50s. Ethical approval was received from the University of Glasgow College of Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (application number 400140186). Results will be disseminated through journal articles, national and international conferences. Findings will inform current and future welfare-to-work and job retention initiatives to

  17. The Weather and Ménière's Disease: A Longitudinal Analysis in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wiebke; Sarran, Christophe; Ronan, Natalie; Barrett, George; Whinney, David J; Fleming, Lora E; Osborne, Nicholas J; Tyrrell, Jessica

    2017-02-01

    Changes in the weather influence symptom severity in Ménière's disease (MD). MD is an unpredictable condition that significantly impacts on quality of life. It is suggested that fluctuations in the weather, especially atmospheric pressure may influence the symptoms of MD. However, to date, limited research has investigated the impact of the weather on MD. In a longitudinal study, a mobile phone application collected data from 397 individuals (277 females and 120 males with an average age of 50 yr) from the UK reporting consultant-diagnosed MD. Daily symptoms (vertigo, aural fullness, tinnitus, hearing loss, and attack prevalence) and GPS locations were collected; these data were linked with Met Office weather data (including atmospheric pressure, humidity, temperature, visibility, and wind speed). Symptom severity and attack prevalence were reduced on days when atmospheric pressure was higher. When atmospheric pressure was below 1,013 hectopascals, the risk of an attack was 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.54); when the humidity was above 90%, the risk of an attack was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.49). This study provides the strongest evidence to date that changes in atmospheric pressure and humidity are associated with symptom exacerbation in MD. Improving our understanding of the role of weather and other environmental triggers in Ménière's may reduce the uncertainty associated with living with this condition, significantly contributing to improved quality of life.

  18. The Weather and Ménière’s Disease: A Longitudinal Analysis in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Wiebke; Sarran, Christophe; Ronan, Natalie; Barrett, George; Whinney, David J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Osborne, Nicholas J.; Tyrrell, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis Changes in the weather influence symptom severity in Ménière’s disease (MD). Background MD is an unpredictable condition that significantly impacts on quality of life. It is suggested that fluctuations in the weather, especially atmospheric pressure may influence the symptoms of MD. However, to date, limited research has investigated the impact of the weather on MD. Methods In a longitudinal study, a mobile phone application collected data from 397 individuals (277 females and 120 males with an average age of 50 yr) from the UK reporting consultant-diagnosed MD. Daily symptoms (vertigo, aural fullness, tinnitus, hearing loss, and attack prevalence) and GPS locations were collected; these data were linked with Met Office weather data (including atmospheric pressure, humidity, temperature, visibility, and wind speed). Results Symptom severity and attack prevalence were reduced on days when atmospheric pressure was higher. When atmospheric pressure was below 1,013 hectopascals, the risk of an attack was 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.54); when the humidity was above 90%, the risk of an attack was 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.49). Conclusion This study provides the strongest evidence to date that changes in atmospheric pressure and humidity are associated with symptom exacerbation in MD. Improving our understanding of the role of weather and other environmental triggers in Ménière’s may reduce the uncertainty associated with living with this condition, significantly contributing to improved quality of life. PMID:27861300

  19. Challenges of University Adjustment in the UK: A Study of East Asian Master's Degree Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…

  20. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  1. Health status of UK care home residents: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Adam Lee; Franklin, Matthew; Bradshaw, Lucy; Logan, Pip; Elliott, Rachel; Gladman, John R F

    2014-01-01

    UK care home residents are often poorly served by existing healthcare arrangements. Published descriptions of residents' health status have been limited by lack of detail and use of data derived from surveys drawn from social, rather than health, care records. to describe in detail the health status and healthcare resource use of UK care home residents a 180-day longitudinal cohort study of 227 residents across 11 UK care homes, 5 nursing and 6 residential, selected to be representative for nursing/residential status and dementia registration. Barthel index (BI), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric index (NPI), Mini-nutritional index (MNA), EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), diagnoses and medications were recorded at baseline and BI, NPI, GHQ-12 and EQ-5D at follow-up after 180 days. National Health Service (NHS) resource use data were collected from databases of local healthcare providers. out of a total of 323, 227 residents were recruited. The median BI was 9 (IQR: 2.5-15.5), MMSE 13 (4-22) and number of medications 8 (5.5-10.5). The mean number of diagnoses per resident was 6.2 (SD: 4). Thirty per cent were malnourished, 66% had evidence of behavioural disturbance. Residents had contact with the NHS on average once per month. residents from both residential and nursing settings are dependent, cognitively impaired, have mild frequent behavioural symptoms, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and frequently use NHS resources. Effective care for such a cohort requires broad expertise from multiple disciplines delivered in a co-ordinated and managed way.

  2. A study of the HEB longitudinal dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.

    1993-12-01

    A study of the High Energy Booster (HEB) longitudinal dynamics is presented. Full derivations of ramp dependent longitudinal variables are given. The formulas assume that the input magnetic field and beam longitudinal emittance are known as a function of time, and that either the rf voltage or the rf bucket area are known as a function of time. Once these three inputs are specified, the formulas can be used to calculate values for all other longitudinal dynamics variables. The formulas have been incorporated into a single computer code named ELVIRA: Evaluation of Longitudinal Variables in Relativistic Accelerators. The ELVIRA code is documented here in detail. The ELVIRA code is used under two initial longitudinal emittance assumptions to plot ramp functions for the longitudinal dynamics design of the HEB as of May 5, 1992

  3. Longitudinal control behaviour: Analysis and modelling based on experimental surveys in Italy and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariota, Luigi; Bifulco, Gennaro Nicola; Galante, Francesco; Montella, Alfonso; Brackstone, Mark

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyses driving behaviour in car-following conditions, based on extensive individual vehicle data collected during experimental field surveys carried out in Italy and the UK. The aim is to contribute to identify simple evidence to be exploited in the ongoing process of driving assistance and automation which, in turn, would reduce rear-end crashes. In particular, identification of differences and similarities in observed car-following behaviours for different samples of drivers could justify common tuning, at a European or worldwide level, of a technological solution aimed at active safety, or, in the event of differences, could suggest the most critical aspects to be taken into account for localisation or customisation of driving assistance solutions. Without intending to be exhaustive, this paper moves one step in this direction. Indeed, driving behaviour and human errors are considered to be among the main crash contributory factors, and a promising approach for safety improvement is the progressive introduction of increasing levels of driving automation in next-generation vehicles, according to the active/preventive safety approach. However, the more advanced the system, the more complex will be the integration in the vehicle, and the interaction with the driver may sometimes become unproductive, or risky, should the driver be removed from the driving control loop. Thus, implementation of these systems will require the interaction of human driving logics with automation logics and then an enhanced ability in modelling drivers' behaviour. This will allow both higher active-safety levels and higher user acceptance to be achieved, thus ensuring that the driver is always in the control loop, even if his/her role is limited to supervising the automatic logic. Currently, the driving mode most targeted by driving assistance systems is longitudinal driving. This is required in various driving conditions, among which car-following assumes key importance

  4. Everyday life in a UK retirement village: a mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the experiences of older people living in a UK purpose-built retirement community – Denham Garden Village (DGV). The aim was to understand more about everyday life in this particular environmental context including how the environment and organisation of the village related to residents’ everyday experiences. Using a mixed methods approach, the study draws on quantitative survey data from the Longitudinal study of Ageing in a Retirement Community (LARC) and combines this...

  5. The impact of smokefree legislation in Scotland: results from the Scottish ITC Scotland/UK longitudinal surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Louise M.; Higbee, Cheryl; Boudreau, Christian; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Borland, Ron; Cummings, K. Michael; Yan, Mi; Thompson, Mary E.; Hastings, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Background: To evaluate how Scotland's smokefree law impacted self-reported secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in hospitality venues, workplaces and in people's homes. In addition, we examine changes in support for the law, pub and restaurant patronage, smoking cessation indicators and whether any observed changes varied by socioeconomic status. Methods: A quasi-experimental longitudinal telephone survey of nationally representative samples of smokers and non-smokers interviewed before the Scottish law (February to March 2006) and 1 year later after the law (March 2007) in Scotland (n = 705 smokers and n = 417 non-smokers) and the rest of the UK (n = 1027 smokers and n = 447 non-smokers) where smoking in public places was not regulated at the time. Results: Dramatic declines in the observance of smoking in pubs, restaurants and workplaces were found in Scotland relative to the rest of the UK. The change in the percent of smokers reporting a smokefree home and number of cigarettes smoked inside the home in the evening was comparable in Scotland and the rest of the UK. Support for smokefree policies increased to a greater extent in Scotland than in the rest of the UK. Self-reported frequency of going to pubs and restaurants was generally comparable between Scotland and the rest of the UK; however, non-smokers in Scotland were more likely to frequent pubs more often. No differences in smoking cessation indicators were observed between countries. Conclusion: The Scottish smokefree law has been successful in decreasing secondhand smoke exposure while causing none of the hypothesized negative outcomes. PMID:19151105

  6. Studies on urokinase (UK) therapy of thromboembolic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Ryuji; Satake, Kisaburo; Hisamatsu, Tokugoro; Fukase, Masaichi

    1974-01-01

    In order to determine the urokinase (UK) concentration in blood, a radioimmunoassay method was developed, in which a radioactive material labeled with 125 I-Na was used. In this method, the movement of UK in blood and the relationship between the UK concentration and fibrinolytic activity were studied with the following results: 1) The concentration of UK in normal human blood was found to be 6.84 +- 2.53 PKU early in the morning with an apparent daily rythmic fluctuation in concentration. 2) With an intravenous drip of 20,000 to 30,000 PKU, the UK concentration increased 6 to 8 PKU/ml above the early morning value, then in one to two hours it returned to the previous value once again. In some of the cases, a slight, transient decrease occurred. 3) Following the UK drip, UK concentration in the blood and fibrinolytic activity varied in a parallel fashion. Plasminogen and antiplasmin levels were not altered by administration of only 20,000 to 30,000 PKU of UK. Fibrinogen was lowered, but the fluctuation was within the physiological range. (S. Oyama)

  7. Second study of UK nuclear test participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.; Doll, R.; Kendall, G.

    1994-01-01

    A second epidemiological analysis of mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear tests and associated experimental programmes has provided broadly reassuring results. Overall death rates in test participants are lower than those in the general population and similar to those in a closely matched control group. Observations in the extended period of follow-up suggest that the excess of multiple myeloma seen in the first analysis was a chance finding. The extended follow-up does not provide any new evidence to support the finding of apparent excess of leukaemia found in the first analysis. However, the possibility that test participation may have caused a small risk of leukaemia in the early years after the tests cannot be ruled out. (author)

  8. Studies project development off U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that capital spending on U.K. Continental Shelf (UKCS) oil and gas development in 1992-94 will reach about $36 billion, Arthur Andersen Petroleum Services (AAPS) predicts. Expenditures during the 3 year period would be about 55% more than capital spending for UKCS development in 1989-91 AAPS noted. Another industry forecast, by Grampian Regional Council, Aberdeen, estimates more than 90 new fields could be developed on the UKCS during the next 20 years

  9. Nonlinear longitudinal dynamics studies at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, J.M.; Cheng, W.-H.; De Santis, S.; Li, D.; Stupakov, G.; Zimmermann, F.

    1999-01-01

    We present a summary of results for a variety of studies of nonlinear longitudinal dynamics in the Advanced Light Source, an electron storage ring. These include observation of decoherence at injection, decay of an injected beam, forced synchrotron oscillations and diffusion from one bunch to the next. All of the measurements were made using a dual-scan streak camera which allowed the real-time observation of the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam

  10. UK Nuclear Science Forum. Progress report: Data studies during 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    2001-06-01

    The UK Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) now meets once per year to discuss issues of direct relevance to forum members, and to review nuclear data for application in the UK nuclear industry. Links are also maintained through the year, mainly through e-mail and the normal postal system. Work of immediate interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g., half-lives and gamma-ray emission probabilities), fission yields and thermal neutron cross sections; all known UK studies in 2000 are summarised in this document. Specific applications and international links of relevance in the field of nuclear data are also described

  11. Statistical Power in Longitudinal Network Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadtfeld, Christoph; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Steglich, Christian; van Duijn, Marijtje

    2018-01-01

    Longitudinal social network studies may easily suffer from a lack of statistical power. This is the case in particular for studies that simultaneously investigate change of network ties and change of nodal attributes. Such selection and influence studies have become increasingly popular due to the

  12. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  13. Study of CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Dayu; Li Peng; Liu Yong; Xie Qingchun

    2009-01-01

    The scheme of longitudinal bunch compression cavity for the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR)is an important issue. Plasma physics experiments require high density heavy ion beam and short pulsed bunch,which can be produced by non-adiabatic compression of bunch implemented by a fast compression with 90 degree rotation in the longitudinal phase space. The phase space rotation in fast compression is initiated by a fast jump of the RF-voltage amplitude. For this purpose, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity, loaded with FINEMET-FT-1M is studied and simulated with MAFIA code. In this paper, the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity is simulated and the initial bunch length of 238 U 72+ with 250 MeV/u will be compressed from 200 ns to 50 ns.The construction and RF properties of the CSR longitudinal bunch compression cavity are simulated and calculated also with MAFIA code. The operation frequency of the cavity is 1.15 MHz with peak voltage of 80 kV, and the cavity can be used to compress heavy ions in the CSR. (authors)

  14. The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A; Fuhrmann, Delia; Borgeest, Gesa Sophia; Simpson-Kent, Ivan L; Henson, Richard N A

    2018-01-01

    Background:  Fluid intelligence declines with advancing age, starting in early adulthood. Within-subject declines in fluid intelligence are highly correlated with contemporaneous declines in the ability to live and function independently. To support healthy aging, the mechanisms underlying these declines need to be better understood. Methods:  In this pre-registered analysis, we applied latent growth curve modelling to investigate the neural determinants of longitudinal changes in fluid intelligence across three time points in 185,317 individuals (N=9,719 two waves, N=870 three waves) from the UK Biobank (age range: 39-73 years). Results:  We found a weak but significant effect of cross-sectional age on the mean fluid intelligence score, such that older individuals scored slightly lower. However, the mean longitudinal slope was positive, rather than negative, suggesting improvement across testing occasions. Despite the considerable sample size, the slope variance was non-significant, suggesting no reliable individual differences in change over time. This null-result is likely due to the nature of the cognitive test used. In a subset of individuals, we found that white matter microstructure (N=8839, as indexed by fractional anisotropy) and grey-matter volume (N=9931) in pre-defined regions-of-interest accounted for complementary and unique variance in mean fluid intelligence scores. The strongest effects were such that higher grey matter volume in the frontal pole and greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiations were associated with higher fluid intelligence scores. Conclusions:  In a large preregistered analysis, we demonstrate a weak but significant negative association between age and fluid intelligence. However, we did not observe plausible longitudinal patterns, instead observing a weak increase across testing occasions, and no significant individual differences in rates of change, likely due to the suboptimal task design

  15. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  16. The Czech longitudinal study of optimal development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kebza, V.; Šolcová, Iva; Kodl, M.; Kernová, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, Suppl. 1 (2012), s. 266-266 ISSN 0020-7594. [International Congress of Psychology /30./. 22.07.2012-27.07.2012, Cape Town] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP407/10/2410 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : optimal development * Prague longitudinal study Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. Burnout development among dentists : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Brake, H.; Smits, N.; Wicherts, J.M.; Gorter, R.C.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge on the development of burnout among dentists is important for purposes of prevention and intervention. Using a two-wave longitudinal design, this study examined the chronological sequence of the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory: emotional exhaustion; depersonalization; and

  18. Cross-sectional evaluation of a longitudinal consultation skills course at a new UK medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmy Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good communication is a crucial element of good clinical care, and it is important to provide appropriate consultation skills teaching in undergraduate medical training to ensure that doctors have the necessary skills to communicate effectively with patients and other key stakeholders. This article aims to provide research evidence of the acceptability of a longitudinal consultation skills strand in an undergraduate medical course, as assessed by a cross-sectional evaluation of students' perceptions of their teaching and learning experiences. Methods A structured questionnaire was used to collect student views. The questionnaire comprised two parts: 16 closed questions to evaluate content and process of teaching and 5 open-ended questions. Questionnaires were completed at the end of each consultation skills session across all year groups during the 2006-7 academic year (5 sessions in Year 1, 3 in Year 2, 3 in Year 3, 10 in Year 4 and 10 in Year 5. 2519 questionnaires were returned in total. Results Students rated Tutor Facilitation most favourably, followed by Teaching, then Practice & Feedback, with suitability of the Rooms being most poorly rated. All years listed the following as important aspects they had learnt during the session: • how to structure the consultation • importance of patient-centredness • aspects of professionalism (including recognising own limits, being prepared, generally acting professionally. All years also noted that the sessions had increased their confidence, particularly through practice. Conclusions Our results suggest that a longitudinal and integrated approach to teaching consultation skills using a well structured model such as Calgary-Cambridge, facilitates and consolidates learning of desired process skills, increases student confidence, encourages integration of process and content, and reinforces appreciation of patient-centredness and professionalism.

  19. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  20. The neural determinants of age-related changes in fluid intelligence: a pre-registered, longitudinal analysis in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit, Rogier A.; Fuhrmann, Delia; Henson, Richard N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Fluid intelligence declines with advancing age, starting in early adulthood. Within-subject declines in fluid intelligence are highly correlated with contemporaneous declines in the ability to live and function independently. To support healthy aging, the mechanisms underlying these declines need to be better understood. Methods: In this pre-registered analysis, we applied latent growth curve modelling to investigate the neural determinants of longitudinal changes in fluid intelligence across three time points in 185,317 individuals (N=9,719 two waves, N=870 three waves) from the UK Biobank (age range: 39-73 years). Results: We found a weak but significant effect of cross-sectional age on the mean fluid intelligence score, such that older individuals scored slightly lower. However, the mean longitudinal slope was positive, rather than negative, suggesting improvement across testing occasions. Despite the considerable sample size, the slope variance was non-significant, suggesting no reliable individual differences in change over time. This null-result is likely due to the nature of the cognitive test used. In a subset of individuals, we found that white matter microstructure (N=8839, as indexed by fractional anisotropy) and grey-matter volume (N=9931) in pre-defined regions-of-interest accounted for complementary and unique variance in mean fluid intelligence scores. The strongest effects were such that higher grey matter volume in the frontal pole and greater white matter microstructure in the posterior thalamic radiations were associated with higher fluid intelligence scores. Conclusions: In a large preregistered analysis, we demonstrate a weak but significant negative association between age and fluid intelligence. However, we did not observe plausible longitudinal patterns, instead observing a weak increase across testing occasions, and no significant individual differences in rates of change, likely due to the suboptimal task design. Finally

  1. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two

  2. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard

    2014-04-17

    To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18,532, 14,094, and 14,376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14,235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two ways. Method 1 adjusted PLAB pass marks to equate median performance of PLAB

  3. UK methods for studying fuel management in water moderated reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayers, F.J.

    1970-10-01

    Current UK methods for studying fuel management and for predicting the reactor physics performance for both light and heavy water moderated power reactors are reviewed. Brief descriptions are given of the less costly computer codes used for initial assessment studies, and also the more elaborate programs associated with detailed evaluation are discussed. Some of the considerations influencing the accuracy of predictions are included with examples of various types of experimental confirmation. (author)

  4. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lubitz

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  5. Longitudinal study on osteoarthritis and bone metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Postiglione

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between Osteoarthritis (OA and Osteoporosis (OP is not well defined due to lacking in longitudinal data, mainly regarding correlations between biochemical factors and OA incidence. Aim of this paper was to investigate the predictive value for OA incidence of bone mass variations and of selected biochemical markers in healthy women participating in a population-based longitudinal study carried out in Naples (Italy. Subjects and Methods: High completion rate (85.2% and statistically adequate sample size were obtained: 139 women (45 to 79 years of age were examined and follow up visit was performed after two years (24±2 months, following the same protocol. Patients underwent medical examination, questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and urine collection. Bone mineral density (BMD measurement was performed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine (L1-L4 and femoral neck. Radiographs of dorsal and lumbar spine in lateral view were performed at basal and at 24 months visits; a team of three experts scored radiographs using Kellegren and Lawrence grading. Results: The score was calculated for two individual radiographic features (narrowing of the joint space, presence of osteophytes and as a global score. Results show a relevant percentage, 23% up, of subjects presenting both OA and OP. In the cross-sectional study the presence of osteophytosis correlates with anthropometric variables and PTH levels. In the longitudinal study results show a correlation between serum vitamin D and delta score for osteophytosis (β=0.02 p<0.05. Conclusions: Data obtained outline the importance of further studies on the pathogenetic link between OA and bone metabolism.

  6. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  7. A longitudinal study of urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshaw, Mark L; Tuchman, Mendel; Summar, Marshall; Seminara, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The Urea Cycle Disorders Consortium (UCDC) is a member of the NIH funded Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network and is performing a longitudinal study of 8 urea cycle disorders (UCDs) with initial enrollment beginning in 2006. The consortium consists of 14 sites in the U.S., Canada and Europe. This report summarizes data mining studies of 614 patients with UCDs enrolled in the UCDC's longitudinal study protocol. The most common disorder is ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, accounting for more than half of the participants. We calculated the overall prevalence of urea cycle disorders to be 1/35,000, with 2/3rds presenting initial symptoms after the newborn period. We found the mortality rate to be 24% in neonatal onset cases and 11% in late onset cases. The most common precipitant of clinical hyperammonemic episodes in the post-neonatal period was intercurrent infections. Elevations in both blood ammonia and glutamine appeared to be biomarkers for neurocognitive outcome. In terms of chronic treatment, low protein diet appeared to result in normal weight but decreased linear growth while N-scavenger therapy with phenylbutyrate resulted in low levels of branched chain amino acids. Finally, we found an unexpectedly high risk for hepatic dysfunction in patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. This natural history study illustrates how a collaborative study of a rare genetic disorder can result in an improved understanding of morbidity and disease outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental mediation and cyberbullying - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Grace S; Liau, Albert; Khoo, Angeline; Li, Dongdong

    2014-01-01

    Parents use active and restrictive mediation strategies to guide and regulate children's online participation and the online risks they encounter. However, changes in parental mediation do occur over time and the effectiveness of these strategies on cyberbullying demands for further empirical investigation. The current study addresses these issues with a sample of 1084 students (49% girls) in a longitudinal, three-wave design. Gender differences were tested via multi-group analyses. Longitudinal growth models showed that parental use of both active and restrictive mediation decreased over time. For both types of mediation, the mean rate of change had a significant effect on boys' engagement in cyberbullying, but not for girls. Initial levels of restrictive mediation, but not active mediation, were found to be significantly predictive of cyberbullying in both genders. Girls had higher initial levels of both parental mediation types in comparison to boys. The results reveal that the effectiveness of active and restrictive mediation in relation to students' cyberbullying differs and informs us on gender differences. The implications of these results for parental education in online mediation are discussed.

  9. International Students' Perceptions of Service Quality in the UK Banking Sector: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Christopher; Hsu, Marc Ting-Chun

    2011-01-01

    This study reviews and evaluates international students' perceptions of UK banks. The specific research objectives were to identify international students' expectations and perceptions of service quality from UK banks and to assess the quality GAP or dissonance between these. A total of 297 international students studying in the UK responded to…

  10. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakman, Tim C; Elliott, Paul

    2008-04-01

    and aims UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the United Kingdom to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. It involves the collection of blood and urine from 500 000 individuals aged between 40 and 69 years. How the samples are collected, processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. A series of validation studies was recommended to test the robustness of the draft sample handling and storage protocol. Samples of blood and urine were collected from 40 healthy volunteers and either processed immediately according to the protocol or maintained at specified temperatures (4 degrees C for all tubes with the exception of vacutainers containing acid citrate dextrose that were maintained at 18 degrees C) for 12, 24 or 36 h prior to processing. A further sample was maintained for 24 h at 4 degrees C, processed and the aliquots frozen at -80 degrees C for 20 days and then thawed under controlled conditions. The stability of the samples was compared for the different times in a wide variety of assays. The samples maintained at 4 degrees C were stable for at least 24 h after collection for a wide range of assays. Small but significant changes were observed in metabonomic studies in samples maintained at 4 degrees C for 36 h. There was no degradation of the samples for a range of biochemical assays after short-term freezing and thawing under controlled conditions. Whole blood maintained at 18 degrees C for 24 h in vacutainers containing acid citrate dextrose is suitable for viral immortalization techniques. The validation studies reported in this supplement provide justification for the sample handling and storage procedures adopted in the UK Biobank project.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Prisoners on Remand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Steen; Sestoft, Dorte; Lillebæk, Tommy

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To compare two levels of stress (solitary confinement (SC) and non-SC) among remand prisoners as to incidence of psychiatric disorders in relation to prevalent disorders. Method: Longitudinal repeated assessments were carried out from the start and during the remand phase of imprisonment....... Both interview-based and self-reported measures were applied to 133 remand prisoners in SC and 95 remand prisoners in non-SC randomly selected in a parallel study design. Results: Incidence of psychiatric disorders developed in the prison was significantly higher in SC prisoners (28%) than in non......-SC prisoners (15%). Most disorders were adjustment disorders, with depressive disorders coming next. Incident psychotic disorders were rare. The difference regarding incidence was primarily explained by level of stress (i.e. prison form) rather than confounding factors. Quantitative measures of psychopathology...

  12. Researching primary engineering education: UK perspectives, an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Robin; Andrews, Jane

    2010-10-01

    This paper draws attention to the findings of an exploratory study that critically identified and analysed relevant perceptions of elementary level engineering education within the UK. Utilising an approach based upon grounded theory methodology, 30 participants including teachers, representatives of government bodies and non-profit providers of primary level engineering initiatives were interviewed. Three main concepts were identified during the analysis of findings, each relevant to primary engineering education. These were pedagogic issues, exposure to engineering within the curriculum and children's interest. The paper concludes that the opportunity to make a real difference to children's education by stimulating their engineering imagination suggests this subject area is of particular value.

  13. Experimental asbestos studies in the UK: 1912-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Morris

    2017-11-01

    The asbestos industry originated in the UK in the 1870s. By 1898, asbestos had many applications and was reported to be one of the four leading causes of severe occupational disease. In 1912, the UK government sponsored an experimental study that reported that exposure to asbestos produced no more than a modicum of pulmonary fibrosis in guinea pigs. In the 1930s, the newly established Medical Research Council, with assistance from industry, sponsored a study of the effects of exposing animals to asbestos by injection (intratracheal and subcutaneous) and by inhalation in the factory environment. Government reports, publications, and contemporary records obtained by legal discovery have been reviewed in the context of the stage of scientific development and the history of the times. Experimenters were engaged in a learning process during the 1912-1950 period, and their reports of the effects of asbestos were inconsistent. Pathologists who studied the effects of asbestos experimentally, at whole animal, tissue and cellular levels, advanced experimental methodology and mechanistic knowledge. In the hands of public relations experts, however, research was exploited to preserve an industry and perpetuate preventable diseases, a practice that continues to this day. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Career choices for public health: cohort studies of graduates from UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldacre, Michael J; Laxton, Louise; Lambert, Trevor W; Webster, Premila

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe UK-trained doctors' early intentions about seeking careers in public health and their eventual speciality destinations. Analysis of longitudinal studies of medical graduates from all UK medical schools in selected year-of-qualification cohorts from 1974 to 2008; data collected by postal questionnaires at various times after qualifying; and selection, for this paper, of doctors who expressed an early preference for a career in public health and/or who eventually practised in it. Of all doctors eventually practising in public health, for whom we had early choices, public health had been the unreserved first choice of 8% (10/125) in their first post-qualification year, 27% (33/122) in their third year and 59% (51/86) in their fifth year. Including first choices for public health 'tied' with an equal preference for a different speciality, and doctors' second and third choices for public health, 19% (24/125) of practising public health doctors had considered public health as a possible career in their first post-graduation year, 41% (50/122) in the third and 83% (71/86) in the fifth year. Comparisons with other specialities show that doctors in public health chose their speciality relatively late after qualification.

  15. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, I. C.; Wakeford, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. DESIGN: Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Phys...

  16. The ELAStiC (Electronic Longitudinal Alcohol Study in Communities project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Akbari

    2017-04-01

    Our project will aim to provide evidence that informs the UK Government’s commitment to “radically reshape the approach to alcohol and reduce the number of people drinking to excess”, by working with existing longitudinal data collected in the UK to inform policy and practice.

  17. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  19. Which Frail Older People Are Dehydrated? The UK DRIE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Bunn, Diane K; Downing, Alice; Jimoh, Florence O; Groves, Joyce; Free, Carol; Cowap, Vicky; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2016-10-01

    Water-loss dehydration in older people is associated with increased mortality and disability. We aimed to assess the prevalence of dehydration in older people living in UK long-term care and associated cognitive, functional, and health characteristics. The Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE) cohort study included people aged 65 or older living in long-term care without heart or renal failure. In a cross-sectional baseline analysis, we assessed serum osmolality, previously suggested dehydration risk factors, general health, markers of continence, cognitive and functional health, nutrition status, and medications. Univariate linear regression was used to assess relationships between participant characteristics and serum osmolality, then associated characteristics entered into stepwise backwards multivariate linear regression. DRIE included 188 residents (mean age 86 years, 66% women) of whom 20% were dehydrated (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg). Linear and logistic regression suggested that renal, cognitive, and diabetic status were consistently associated with serum osmolality and odds of dehydration, while potassium-sparing diuretics, sex, number of recent health contacts, and bladder incontinence were sometimes associated. Thirst was not associated with hydration status. DRIE found high prevalence of dehydration in older people living in UK long-term care, reinforcing the proposed association between cognitive and renal function and hydration. Dehydration is associated with increased mortality and disability in older people, but trials to assess effects of interventions to support healthy fluid intakes in older people living in residential care are needed to enable us to formally assess causal direction and any health benefits of increasing fluid intakes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Study into solar thermal electricity export opportunities for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of the project described in this report were: to provide an assessment of the world-wide opportunities currently available for the development of high temperature solar thermal (H-TSTh) technology; to identify United Kingdom companies and expertise which could benefit from the exploitation of export markets for H-TSTh; to estimate the potential benefits to the UK of such exploitation; and to review the current status of H-TSTh technology. Despite limited involvement at present, it is concluded that the UK would be well placed with respect to longer term market opportunities if current developments by UK companies in fixed bowl technology and Stirling engines for dish Stirling system are successful. Opportunities also exist for turbine supply, civil contractors, insurance, finance and operation, but discussions with relevant UK companies has revealed only limited interest. (Author)

  1. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  2. The impact of citrate introduction at UK syringe exchange programmes: a retrospective cohort study in Cheshire and Merseyside, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wareing Michelle

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, it became legal in the UK for syringe exchange programmes (SEPs to provide citrate to injecting drug users to solubilise heroin. Little work has been undertaken on the effect of policy change on SEP function. Here, we examine whether the introduction of citrate in Cheshire and Merseyside SEPs has altered the number of heroin/crack injectors accessing SEPs, the frequency at which heroin/crack injectors visited SEPs and the number of syringes dispensed. Methods Eleven SEPs in Cheshire and Merseyside commenced citrate provision in 2003. SEP-specific data for the six months before and six months after citrate was introduced were extracted from routine monitoring systems relating to heroin and crack injectors. Analyses compared all individuals attending pre and post citrate and matched analyses only those individuals attending in both periods (defined as 'longitudinal attenders'. Non-parametric tests were used throughout. Results Neither new (first seen in either six months period nor established clients visited SEPs more frequently post citrate. New clients collected significantly less syringes per visit post citrate, than pre citrate (14.5,10.0; z = 1.992, P Conclusion The introduction of citrate did not negatively affect SEP attendance. 'Longitudinal attenders' visited SEPs more frequently post citrate, providing staff with greater opportunity for intervention and referral. As the number of syringes they collected each visit remained unchanged the total number of clean syringes made available to this group of injectors increased very slightly between the pre and post citrate periods. However, new clients collected significantly less syringes post citrate than pre citrate, possibly due to staff concerns regarding the amount of citrate (and thus syringes to dispense safely to new clients. These concerns should not be allowed to negatively impact on the number of syringes dispensed.

  3. A Descriptive Study of Professional Staff, and Their Careers, in Australian and UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Michelle

    2018-01-01

    Professional staff total approximately 23% of staff in universities in the UK, which in 2014/15 was the equivalent of 95,870 individuals (hesa.ac.uk). With their increasing span of responsibility, it is surprising that there has been little research into the careers of these staff. This study, part of a larger careers study, highlights some key…

  4. Cross Functional Working and Concurrent Engineering – a UK Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Williams

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preliminary results of an investigative study into the implementation of concurrent engineering applied to new product development. Concurrent (or Simultaneous engineering is the term commonly given to creating new products using multi-disciplined teams of marketing, design, manufacturing and support functions together with supplier and customers. Such techniques have produced robust, low cost quality products in short concept to market times compared to traditional ones. The research investigated design management practice and performance in a number of organisations across a range of industrial sectors in the UK by means of a questionnaire survey. The results identify the current use of a variety of design practices and methodologies such as different organisational structures, the extent of cross-functional working, the use of design and phase reviews and the use of different technologies. They indicate that companies implementing CE are more successful in time to market performance than those who don’t implement CE. Factors most influencing the successful adoption of CE are design and phase reviews, and, to a lesser extent, the use of multifunctional teams and supplier partnerships.

  5. The growing price gap between more and less healthy foods: analysis of a novel longitudinal UK dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas R V; Conklin, Annalijn I; Suhrcke, Marc; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002-2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either "more healthy" or "less healthy" using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. The mean (standard deviation) 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29) for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27) for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002-2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (pfoods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy.

  6. The growing price gap between more and less healthy foods: analysis of a novel longitudinal UK dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R V Jones

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The UK government has noted the public health importance of food prices and the affordability of a healthy diet. Yet, methods for tracking change over time have not been established. We aimed to investigate the prices of more and less healthy foods over time using existing government data on national food prices and nutrition content. METHODS: We linked economic data for 94 foods and beverages in the UK Consumer Price Index to food and nutrient data from the UK Department of Health's National Diet and Nutrition Survey, producing a novel dataset across the period 2002-2012. Each item was assigned to a food group and also categorised as either "more healthy" or "less healthy" using a nutrient profiling model developed by the Food Standards Agency. We tested statistical significance using a t-test and repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: The mean (standard deviation 2012 price/1000 kcal was £2.50 (0.29 for less healthy items and £7.49 (1.27 for more healthy items. The ANOVA results confirmed that all prices had risen over the period 2002-2012, but more healthy items rose faster than less healthy ones in absolute terms:£0.17 compared to £0.07/1000 kcal per year on average for more and less healthy items, respectively (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2002, more healthy foods and beverages have been consistently more expensive than less healthy ones, with a growing gap between them. This trend is likely to make healthier diets less affordable over time, which may have implications for individual food security and population health, and it may exacerbate social inequalities in health. The novel data linkage employed here could be used as the basis for routine food price monitoring to inform public health policy.

  7. Gene–obesogenic environment interactions in the UK Biobank study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Wood, Andrew R; Ames, Ryan M; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Beaumont, Robin N; Jones, Samuel E; Tuke, Marcus A; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Davey Smith, George; Joost, Stéphane; Guessous, Idris; Murray, Anna; Strachan, David P; Kutalik, Zoltán; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI). Methods: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity. We used BMI as the outcome and a 69-variant genetic risk score (GRS) for obesity and 12 measures of the obesogenic environment as exposures. These measures included Townsend deprivation index (TDI) as a measure of socio-economic position, TV watching, a ‘Westernized’ diet and physical activity. We performed several negative control tests, including randomly selecting groups of different average BMIs, using a simulated environment and including sun-protection use as an environment. Results: We found gene–environment interactions with TDI (Pinteraction = 3 × 10–10), self-reported TV watching (Pinteraction = 7 × 10–5) and self-reported physical activity (Pinteraction = 5 × 10–6). Within the group of 50% living in the most relatively deprived situations, carrying 10 additional BMI-raising alleles was associated with approximately 3.8 kg extra weight in someone 1.73 m tall. In contrast, within the group of 50% living in the least deprivation, carrying 10 additional BMI-raising alleles was associated with approximately 2.9 kg extra weight. The interactions were weaker, but present, with the negative controls, including sun-protection use, indicating that residual confounding is likely. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the obesogenic environment accentuates the risk of obesity in genetically susceptible adults. Of the factors we tested, relative social deprivation best captures the aspects of the obesogenic environment responsible. PMID:28073954

  8. The ONS Longitudinal Study--a prestigious past and a bright future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Shayla; Newman, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This issue of Population Trends includes a number of articles and reports resulting from research based on the ONS Longitudinal Study (ONS LS). They have been drawn together in one issue to highlight the value of this type of study for demographic research.2009 marked the 35th anniversary of the establishment of the ONS LS. The study now contains data from the last four censuses (1971 to 2001), linked to vital events data since 1971, for a sample of one per cent of the population of England and Wales.More recently, sister studies have been established in Scotland and Northern Ireland. The Scottish Longitudinal Study (SLS) started with 1991 Census data and the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study (NILS)started with 2001 Census data.The lead article in this issue comes from an exemplar project that was established to explore how to utilise the three studies to carry out UK-wide longitudinal analysis. Two different methods were used to analyse socio-economic and country level differences in health and mortality across the studies. The article summarises the results of this analysis, reports on the relative strengths of the different methods used, and draws attention to a number of new resources that have been developed by the project researchers as aids to using all three studies.This is an excellent example of collaborative working across the UK, involving researchers from the Centre for Longitudinal Study Information and User Support (CeLSIUS) at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the Longitudinal Studies Centre - Scotland (LSCS) at the University of St.Andrews and the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study - Research Support Unit (NILS-RSU) at Queen's University Belfast. The project also involved collaboration between ONS, the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) to ensure the secure transfer and handling of data from the three studies so that it could be brought together in one

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  10. LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF MUSICALLY GIFTED SCHOOLGIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana N. Loseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to consider the empirical aspects of the development of musical gifted schoolgirls in vocal and choral activities.Methods. Scientific methods of research (observation, questionnaire, interview, formative experiment, longitude, testing are used. Data are analyzed using a complex of psychodiagnostic techniques: culture and free intelligence test by R. Cattell; the modified creative test by F. Williams; personal multifactorial questionnaire by R. Cattell. The reliability of the results and the validity of the findings is provided by the use of reliable and proven in the domestic and foreign psychology methods and techniques, using different statistical methods of data processing, the definition of parametric and non-parametric statistical tests (Student’s t-criterion, Spearman’s rank correlation, criterion U-Mann – Whitney, criterion T-Wilcoxon, L-criterion trends Page.Results and scientific novelty. Results of longitudinal research of development of musical aptitude are presented. Experimental work in which schoolgirls of 8–15 years participated, was carried out on the basis of creative choral collectives of Irkutsk within three years. Features of development of the pupils who are engaged in singing are revealed. It is established that in process of development of specially developed program (comprehension of emotional and semantic aspects of perception of a piece of music, finding of ability to distinguish musical timbres and the general coloring of sounding etc. analytical and intonation hearing improves under pupils’ age. Regular long singing trainings promote formation of cogitative operations: active development of divergent, rational and logical thinking and intelligence in general, and also acquisition of skills of a self-assessment. Besides, such occupations dispose children and teenagers to emotional responsiveness and spiritual self-improvement.Practical significance. The research

  11. Financial Strain, Parental Smoking, and the Great Recession: An Analysis of the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Caoimhe S; Law, Catherine; Pearce, Anna

    2017-11-07

    has focused on parents. We used longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study, between 2008 and 2012, to examine the association between FS and parental smoking. We show that parents who experienced increased FS, over the period of the "Great Recession," were more likely to continue using tobacco or to relapse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  13. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of School Districts' Sustained Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Pauline M.

    2011-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of one region in the state of Texas, there was an examination of district leadership and the sustaining of high student achievement for their districts. The results of this study suggest that sustained improvement of student achievement is very difficult. The districts that had sustained improvement had stable district…

  15. Unemployment and psychological distress among graduates: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study which addresses the relationship between unemployment and psychological distress in Dutch technical college graduates is presented. Two samples were studied: sample 1 (N = 635) consisted of students leaving technical college and sample 2 (N = 487) consisted of technical college

  16. A longitudinal study of tooth erosion in adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Aidi, H.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Truin, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence studies on tooth erosion among adolescents are scarce. This longitudinal study aimed at estimating the prevalence, incidence, progression, and distribution of erosion in young adolescents over a 1.5-year period. Erosion at baseline was present in 32.2% of the 622 children (mean age, 11.9

  17. Sun safety in construction: a U.K. intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdmont, J; Madgwick, P; Randall, R

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to promote sun safety in the U.K. construction sector are warranted given the high incidence of skin cancer attributable to sun exposure relative to other occupational groups. To evaluate change in sun safety knowledge and practices among construction workers in response to an educational intervention. A baseline questionnaire was administered, followed by a bespoke sector-specific DVD-based intervention. At 12-month follow-up, participants completed a further questionnaire. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 120 workers (intervention group, n = 70; comparison group, n = 50). At follow-up, the proportion of intervention group participants that reported correct sun safety knowledge was not significantly greater than at baseline. However, the intervention group demonstrated significant positive change on 9 out of 10 behavioural measures, the greatest change being use of a shade/cover when working in the sun followed by regularly checking skin for moles or unusual changes. Exposure to this intervention was linked to some specific positive changes in construction workers' self-reported sun safety practices. These findings highlight the potential for educational interventions to contribute to tackling skin cancer in the UK construction sector. The findings support the development of bespoke educational interventions for other high-risk outdoor worker groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Longitudinal coupled-bunch instability studies in the PS

    CERN Document Server

    Damerau, H

    2017-01-01

    The main longitudinal limitation for LHC-type beams inthe PS are coupled-bunch instabilities. A dedicated proto-typefeedbacksystemusingaFinemetcavityasalongitudinalkicker has been installed. Extensive tests with beam havebeen performed to explore the intensity reach with this feed-back. The maximum intensity with nominal longitudinalemittance at PS extraction has been measured, as well as theemittance required to keep the beam longitudinally stableat the design intensity for the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). A higher-harmonic cavity is a complementary op-tion to extend the intensity reach beyond the capabilities ofthe coupled-bunch feedback. Preliminary machine develop-ment (MD) studies operating one20MHzor one40MHzRF system as a higher harmonic at the flat-top indicate thebeneficial effect on longitudinal beam stability

  19. UK chemical nuclear data committee progress report: data studies during 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basic nuclear data requirements for industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC), covering half-lives, decay data, fission yields and the content of computerised data files. While the UKCNDC Request List was reviewed at the end of 1989 to reveal new and continued requirements, funding problems have increased during the year. Difficulties in the UK nuclear power industry are reflected in the decline in experimental studies, although evaluation efforts have been maintained. (author)

  20. Accelerated brain aging in schizophrenia : A longitudinal pattern recognition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G.; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Pol, Hilleke E Hulshoff; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  1. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia : A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used

  2. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  3. A Longitudinal Study Assessing the Microsoft Office Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Donald A.; McGinnis, Denise; Slauson, Gayla Jo; Snyder, Johnny

    2013-01-01

    This paper explains a four-year longitudinal study of the assessment process for a Microsoft Office skills course. It examines whether there is an increase in students' knowledge based on responses to pre- and post-surveys that asked students to evaluate how well they can do particular tasks. Classical classroom teaching methods were used in the…

  4. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  5. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  6. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  7. Monitoring of fetuses with intrauterine growth restriction: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hecher, K.; Bilardo, C. M.; Stigter, R. H.; Ville, Y.; Hackelöer, B. J.; Kok, H. J.; Senat, M. V.; Visser, G. H.

    2001-01-01

    To describe the time sequence of changes in fetal monitoring variables in intrauterine growth restriction and to correlate these findings with fetal outcome at delivery. This was a prospective longitudinal observational multicenter study on 110 singleton pregnancies with growth-restricted fetuses

  8. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  9. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  10. Always connected: a longitudinal field study of mobile communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the

  11. Potential Reciprocal Relationship between Motivation and Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Hou, Shumeng

    2018-01-01

    Among the non-cognitive factors that influence academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be a potential reciprocal factor. The present study aims to determine the causal relationship between other types of motivation and academic achievement. For this purpose, a large-scale data survey, the National Education Longitudinal Study…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  13. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  14. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis…

  15. A Longitudinal Study on Learner Career Advancement in MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Paquette, Luc; Baker, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present progress towards a longitudinal study of the post-course career advancement of MOOC learners. We present initial results and analysis plans for how to link this to in-course behaviour, towards better understanding the goals of all MOOC learners.

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  17. Do disordered eating behaviours in girls vary by school characteristics? A UK cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bould, Helen; De Stavola, Bianca; Lewis, Glyn; Micali, Nadia

    2018-03-15

    Previous research on eating disorders, disordered eating behaviours, and whether their prevalence varies across schools, has produced inconsistent results. Our previous work using Swedish record-linkage data found that rates of diagnosed eating disorders vary between schools, with higher proportions of girls and higher proportions of highly educated parents within a school being associated with greater numbers of diagnosed eating disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a UK population-based sample and hypothesised that a similar association would be evident when studying disordered eating behaviours. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to test the hypothesis that prevalence of self- and parent-reported disordered eating behaviours (binge eating, purging, fasting, restrictive eating, and fear of weight gain), and body dissatisfaction cluster by school. We had complete data on body dissatisfaction, school attended, and other possible risk factors for 2146 girls in 263 schools at age 14 and on disordered eating behaviours for 1769 girls in 273 schools at age 16. We used multilevel logistic regression modelling to assess whether prevalence varied between and within schools, and logistic regression to investigate the association between specific school characteristics and prevalence of disordered eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction. At age 14, there was no evidence for body dissatisfaction clustering by school, or for specific school characteristics being associated with body dissatisfaction. At age 16, there was no evidence for clustering, but higher rates of disordered eating behaviours were associated with attending all-girl schools and lower levels with attending schools with higher academic results. We found no evidence for clustering of disordered eating behaviours in individual schools, possibly because of the small cluster sizes. However, we found evidence for higher levels of disordered eating behaviours in 16

  18. The UK Smoke Constituents Testing Study. Summary of Results and Comparison with Other Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At the request of the UK Department of Health, samples of 25 commercial UK cigarette brands were provided to LGC Ltd a for smoke analysis. The brands reflected a high market share (58% in July 2001 and included a wide range of blend and product styles manufactured and imported into the UK.= 0.76, suggesting a minor role of other design features on constituents yield variability. This was confirmed by the application of multiple regression analysis to the data. A subset of five brands, retested at another laboratory, gave between-laboratory differences in mean constituent yields of as much as 2.5-fold. Consideration of these results, other likely sources of analytical variation in this study and a review of other studies, clearly indicates that any tolerance values to be associated with individual smoke constituent measurements will be greater than those for NFDPM, and in some cases, much greater. Consistent with the reported results from other large studies it is concluded that, under ISO smoking conditions, smoke constituent yields are largely predictable, if NFDPM and CO yields are known, for a standard cigarette. Given these observations and the likely limitations of analytical determination, the need for routine measurement of smoke constituent yields, other than NFDPM, nicotine or CO, on standard cigarettes, is questionable.

  19. Longitudinal MRI studies of brain morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    High resolution MR images acquired at multiple time points of the brain allow quantification of localized changes induced by external factors such as maturation, ageing or disease progression/recovery. High-dimensional warping of such MR images incorporates changes induced by external factors...... into the accompanying deformation field. Deformation fields from high dimensional warping founds tensor based morphometry (TBM), and provides unique opportunities to study human brain morphology and plasticity. In this thesis, specially adapted image processing streams utilizing several image registration techniques...... to characterize differences between brains, demonstrate the versatility and specificity of the employed voxel-wise morphometric methods. More specifically TBM is used to study neurodegenerative changes following severe traumatic brain injuries. Such injuries progress for months, perhaps even years postinjury...

  20. Personality, Schizophrenia, and Violence: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candini, Valentina; Ghisi, Marta; Bottesi, Gioia; Ferrari, Clarissa; Bulgari, Viola; Iozzino, Laura; Boero, Maria Elena; De Francesco, Alessandra; Maggi, Paolo; Segalini, Beatrice; Zuccalli, Vanessa; Giobbio, Gian Marco; Rossi, Giuseppe; de Girolamo, Giovanni

    2017-07-31

    The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the presence of clinically significant personality traits and personality disorders (PD) in patients living in residential facilities, with or without a history of violence (69 and 46, respectively); and (b) to investigate any associations between clinically significant personality traits and PDs, aggression, impulsivity, hostility, and violent behavior during a 1-year follow-up. The most frequent primary diagnoses were schizophrenia (58.3%) and PD (20.9%). Those with a history of violence demonstrated more antisocial and alcohol dependence features and lower depressive PD symptoms than the control group. Hostility levels, antisocial symptoms, and drug dependence, as well as a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II diagnosis of PD, predicted aggressive and violent behavior during follow-up. The study confirms the relevance of assessing PDs both to evaluate the risk of violent behavior and to plan appropriate preventive and treatment intervention.

  1. Accounting for dropout reason in longitudinal studies with nonignorable dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Camille M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Forster, Jeri E; Carlson, Nichole E; Allshouse, Amanda; Wang, Xinshuo; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Conway, Brian; Connick, Elizabeth

    2017-08-01

    Dropout is a common problem in longitudinal cohort studies and clinical trials, often raising concerns of nonignorable dropout. Selection, frailty, and mixture models have been proposed to account for potentially nonignorable missingness by relating the longitudinal outcome to time of dropout. In addition, many longitudinal studies encounter multiple types of missing data or reasons for dropout, such as loss to follow-up, disease progression, treatment modifications and death. When clinically distinct dropout reasons are present, it may be preferable to control for both dropout reason and time to gain additional clinical insights. This may be especially interesting when the dropout reason and dropout times differ by the primary exposure variable. We extend a semi-parametric varying-coefficient method for nonignorable dropout to accommodate dropout reason. We apply our method to untreated HIV-infected subjects recruited to the Acute Infection and Early Disease Research Program HIV cohort and compare longitudinal CD4 + T cell count in injection drug users to nonusers with two dropout reasons: anti-retroviral treatment initiation and loss to follow-up.

  2. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  3. Plasma HVA in psychiatric patients: longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, J I; Sharma, R P; Janicak, P G; Davis, J M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) was measured in 40 inpatients (25 schizophrenic and 15 nonschizophrenic patients) who underwent up to 3 weeks of drug washout. Schizophrenic patients were then treated with trifluoperazine for 4 weeks, and weekly behavioral and pHVA measures were obtained. The baseline pHVA had no relationship to age, sex, washout period, diagnosis, or behavioral rating scores. In schizophrenic patients, the baseline pHVA did not differ significantly from any value obtained during 4 weeks of treatment. Although there was significant improvement in clinical symptoms, this was not related to changes in pHVA. Further, changes in any of the four Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) factors (i.e., positive symptoms, negative symptoms, hostility/suspicion, or anxiety/depression) were not correlated with changes in pHVA. Although other studies have reported a positive correlation between pHVA and psychotic symptoms, results of this study suggest that any observed relationship between pHVA and psychosis must be carefully interpreted.

  4. Shapes related to longitudinal studies of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erleben, Lene Lillemark

    investigated four different proximity markers which lead to significantly improved marker values between NC and AD after correction for whole brain and hippocampus volume. Based on the different proximity markers we have chosen the surface connectivity marker that gave the best separation to investigate......This dissertation investigates novel markers for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both CVD and AD are among the large diseases counted in morbidity and mortality in the western world, which makes them huge and increasing problems. By investigating and learning....... The first part of this dissertation studies the growth patterns of atherosclerotic calcified deposits in the lumbar aorta based on x-ray images over an 8-year time period. We have been able to find simple growth patterns that explain how the calcifications evolve. The calcifications grew on average 41 % (p...

  5. Career choices for cardiology: cohort studies of UK medical graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors’ early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Methods Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974–2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Results One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors’ ‘domestic circumstances’ were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while ‘enthusiasm/commitment’, ‘financial prospects’, ‘experiences of the job so far’ and ‘a particular teacher/department’ were important. Conclusions Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early

  6. Challenges in collecting clinical samples for research from pregnant women of South Asian origin: evidence from a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelotpol, Sharmind; Hay, Alastair W M; Jolly, A Jim; Woolridge, Mike W

    2016-08-31

    To recruit South Asian pregnant women, living in the UK, into a clinicoepidemiological study for the collection of lifestyle survey data and antenatal blood and to retain the women for the later collection of cord blood and meconium samples from their babies for biochemical analysis. A longitudinal study recruiting pregnant women of South Asian and Caucasian origin living in the UK. Recruitment of the participants, collection of clinical samples and survey data took place at the 2 sites within a single UK Northern Hospital Trust. Pregnant women of South Asian origin (study group, n=98) and of Caucasian origin (comparison group, n=38) living in Leeds, UK. Among the participants approached, 81% agreed to take part in the study while a 'direct approach' method was followed. The retention rate of the participants was a remarkable 93.4%. The main challenges in recruiting the ethnic minority participants were their cultural and religious conservativeness, language barrier, lack of interest and feeling of extra 'stress' in taking part in research. The chief investigator developed an innovative participant retention method, associated with the women's cultural and religious practices. The method proved useful in retaining the participants for about 5 months and in enabling successful collection of clinical samples from the same mother-baby pairs. The collection of clinical samples and lifestyle data exceeded the calculated sample size required to give the study sufficient power. The numbers of samples obtained were: maternal blood (n=171), cord blood (n=38), meconium (n=176), lifestyle questionnaire data (n=136) and postnatal records (n=136). Recruitment and retention of participants, according to the calculated sample size, ensured sufficient power and success for a clinicoepidemiological study. Results suggest that development of trust and confidence between the participant and the researcher is the key to the success of a clinical and epidemiological study involving

  7. Women's Longitudinal Patterns of Smoking during the Pre-Conception, Pregnancy and Postnatal Period: Evidence from the UK Infant Feeding Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate E Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available An understanding of women's longitudinal patterns of smoking during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period and the factors associated with these patterns could help better inform smoking cessation services and interventions.Latent class analysis (LCA was used to empirically identify women's smoking patterns in a sample of 10,768 mothers from the 2010 UK Infant Feeding Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify characteristics associated with these patterns.LCA identified five distinct smoking patterns during the pre-conception, pregnancy and postnatal period: "non-smokers" (74.1% of women; "pregnancy-inspired quitters" (10.2%; "persistent smokers" (10.1%; "temporary quitters" (4.4%; and postnatal quitters (1.1%. Smoking patterns varied markedly according to socio-demographic variables and parity. After adjusting for these variables, mothers who lived during pregnancy with a partner who smoked were more likely to be temporary quitters (aOR 2.64, 95% CI 1.74-3.99 or persistent smokers (aOR 3.32, 95% CI 2.34-4.72 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers who lived during pregnancy with someone else other than a partner who smoked were more likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.38-3.97 or postnatal quitters (aOR 2.97, 95% CI 1.07-8.24 than pregnancy-inspired quitters. Mothers given information on how their partner could stop smoking if they lived during pregnancy with a smoking partner were less likely to be persistent smokers (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.27-0.65 than pregnancy-inspired quitters.Health professionals should ask about smoking at every opportunity, and refer women who self-report as current smokers to an evidence based smoking cessation service.

  8. Television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Hamer, M

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the longitudinal association between television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus in an elderly sample of adults in England. Analyses of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. At baseline (2008), participants reported their television viewing time and physical activity level. Diabetes mellitus was recorded from self-reported physician diagnosis at 2-year follow-up. Associations between television viewing time and combined television viewing time and physical activity level with risk of incident diabetes mellitus at follow-up were examined using adjusted logistic regression models. A total of 5964 participants (mean ± sd age 65 ± 9 years at baseline, 44% male) were included in the analyses. There was an association between baseline television viewing time and risk of incident diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up (≥ 6 h/day compared with television viewing time at baseline were almost twice as likely to have diabetes mellitus at 2-year follow-up than those who were active/had low television viewing time (fully adjusted odds ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.02, 3.68), although active participants reporting high television viewing were not at risk. Interventions to reduce the incidence of diabetes in the elderly that focus on both increasing physical activity and reducing television viewing time might prove useful. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  9. PErineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS: protocol for a matched pair cluster trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Peter W

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Perineal Assessment and Repair Longitudinal Study (PEARLS is a national clinical quality improvement initiative designed to improve the assessment and management of perineal trauma. Perineal trauma affects around 85% of women who have a vaginal birth in the UK each year and millions more world-wide. Continuous suturing techniques compared with traditional interrupted methods are more effective in reducing pain and postnatal morbidity, however they are not widely used by clinicians despite recommendations of evidence based national clinical guidelines. Perineal suturing skills and postnatal management of trauma remain highly variable within and between maternity units in the UK as well as worldwide. Implementation of a standardised training package to support effective perineal management practices could reduce perineal pain and other related postnatal morbidity for a substantial number of women. Methods/Design PEARLS is a matched pair cluster trial, which is being conducted in maternity units across the UK. Units within a matched pair will be randomised to implement the study intervention either early or late in the study period. The intervention will include the cascading of a multi-professional training package to enhance midwifery and obstetric skills in the assessment, repair and postnatal management of perineal trauma. Women who have had an episiotomy or second degree perineal tear will be eligible for recruitment. Prior to developing the intervention and deciding on study outcomes, a Delphi survey and a consensus conference were held to identify what women, who previously suffered perineal trauma during childbirth, considered to be important outcomes for them. Findings from this preliminary work (which will be reported elsewhere and other outcomes including women's experiences of perineal pain and pain on activity, breastfeeding uptake and duration and psychological well-being as assessed using the Edinburgh

  10. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velden, Peter G.; Bosmans, Mark W.G.; van der Meulen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE’s are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. Design A longitudinal study with a 6 months’ time ...

  11. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  12. Longitudinal study on reciprocity between personality traits and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress—including both parents’ feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents—were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path analysis revealed that in case of both mothers and fathers, neuroticism at age 33 predicted high parenting stress, and extraversion at age 33 predicted low paren...

  13. Overseas trained nurses' perception of UK nurses' caring attitudes: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Obrey

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore overseas nurses' perception of their nursing colleagues' caring attitudes in the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK. A qualitative phenomenological approach using semi-structured interviews was used to obtain data from 12 overseas nurses. The interview transcripts were transcribed verbatim and analysed using van Manen thematic approach. Although many themes emerged following thematic analysis, this study will report the findings of three themes such as empathy, understanding and caring perspectives, emotional impact and lack of teamwork. In conclusion, this study provides an insight and it increases our understanding of overseas nurses' perceptions of their nursing colleagues' caring attitudes in the NHS in the UK. This paper concludes by indicating that teamwork, being empathetic, understanding and reducing emotional labour for overseas nurses could lead to a more satisfied working environment for overseas nurses in the NHS in the UK.

  14. Longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E.; Cho, Y.; Harkay, K.; Symon, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results from longitudinal tracking studies for a high intensity proton synchrotron designed for a 1-MW spallation source are presented. The machine delivers a proton beam of 0.5 mA time-averaged current at a repetition rate of 30 Hz. The accelerator is designed to have radiation levels that allow hands-on-maintenance. However, the high beam intensity causes strong space charge fields whose effects may lead to particle loss and longitudinal instabilities. The space charge fields modify the particle distribution, distort the stable bucket area and reduce the rf linear restoring force. Tracking simulations were conducted to analyze the space charge effects on the dynamics of the injection and acceleration processes and means to circumvent them. The tracking studies led to the establishment of the injected beam parameters and rf voltage program that minimized beam loss and longitudinal instabilities. Similar studies for a 10-GeV synchrotron that uses the 2-GeV synchrotron as its injector are also discussed

  15. Recruiting to cohort studies in specialist healthcare services: Lessons learned from clinical research nurses in UK cleft services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Fabio; Rumsey, Nichola; Humphries, Kerry; Bennett, Rhiannon; Davies, Amy; Sandy, Jonathan; Stock, Nicola Marie

    2018-03-01

    To explore the experiences of clinical research nurses recruiting patients in a large specialist care-based cohort study. Longitudinal studies are vital to better understand the aetiology and moderators of health conditions. This need is especially salient for congenital conditions, such as cleft lip and/or palate, where establishing large, comprehensive data sets from birth is vital to improve understanding and to inform interventions. Various barriers exist in recruiting patients to large cohort studies. The role of clinical research nurses embedded within health settings has grown over past decades to facilitate data collection, yet challenges remain. Qualitative descriptive study. Individual semi-structured interviews with 12 clinical research nurses based in 10 National Health Service cleft services across the UK, recruiting to the Cleft Collective Birth Cohort Study. Of seven emergent themes, three highlighted challenges to recruiting patients, another three described facilitative factors, and one theme overlapped challenges and facilitators. Challenges included the life circumstances of potential participants; language barriers; and limited clinical research nurse time for study. Facilitative factors included integrating research into clinical practice; patient information shared with clinical research nurses; and support from the university-based research study team. The theme "Method of data collection" related to both challenges and facilitators. The qualitative data from clinical research nurses recruiting to a large birth cohort study provide helpful practical detail for specialist healthcare teams, specialist nurses, clinical research nurses and researchers looking to optimise recruitment and data collection in longitudinal studies. The findings suggest the importance of specialist clinical services and research study teams cooperating to embed research into everyday clinical practice, without compromising care. This should facilitate patients

  16. Residents' perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents' perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident's role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents' understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice.

  17. Uptake of novel statistical methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaki, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the success rate of confirmatory studies has been poor resulting in more emphasis on the conduct of exploratory studies. As one possibility to improve decision-making during the early stages of development, adaptive and Bayesian methods have been recommended. To investigate the current practice in designing early-phase studies in UK public sector research institutions and the use of adaptive and Bayesian methods in particular and to determine factors that hinder the penetration of methodological advances into practice. A questionnaire was sent to all UK clinical trials units (CTUs) to gauge their involvement in early-phase studies and to learn about the designs used in these studies. Follow-up visits to units conducting early-phase studies with round-table discussions around the methods used and the obstacles faced when using adaptive methods were undertaken. More than half of the CTUs are involved in early-phase studies, but conservatism in the methods used in these studies is present. Reasons for novel methodology not being used include a lack of expertise, incompatible funding and unit structure, and a lack of software. Information is collected from UK CTUs, which undertake a large portion (but not all) publicly funded trials. The use of adaptive and Bayesian methods for early-phase clinical studies in the UK public sector is at present limited. Various different initiatives aim to support and facilitate the use of these methods, however, so that an increased use of these methods can be anticipated in the future.

  18. Monocular and binocular visual impairment in the UK Biobank study: prevalence, associations and diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibbin, Martin; Farragher, Tracey M; Shickle, Darren

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of, associations with and diagnoses leading to mild visual impairment or worse (logMAR >0.3) in middle-aged adults in the UK Biobank study. Prevalence estimates for monocular and binocular visual impairment were determined for the UK Biobank participants with fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. Associations with socioeconomic, biometric, lifestyle and medical variables were investigated for cases with visual impairment and matched controls, using multinomial logistic regression models. Self-reported eye history and image grading results were used to identify the primary diagnoses leading to visual impairment for a sample of 25% of cases. For the 65 033 UK Biobank participants, aged 40-69 years and with fundus images, 6682 (10.3%) and 1677 (2.6%) had mild visual impairment or worse in one or both eyes, respectively. Increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity were independently associated with both monocular and binocular visual impairment. No primary diagnosis for the recorded level of visual impairment could be identified for 49.8% of eyes. The most common identifiable diagnoses leading to visual impairment were cataract, amblyopia, uncorrected refractive error and vitreoretinal interface abnormalities. The prevalence of visual impairment in the UK Biobank study cohort is lower than for population-based studies from other industrialised countries. Monocular and binocular visual impairment are associated with increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity. The UK Biobank dataset does not allow confident identification of the causes of visual impairment, and the results may not be applicable to the wider UK population.

  19. Monocular and binocular visual impairment in the UK Biobank study: prevalence, associations and diagnoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farragher, Tracey M; Shickle, Darren

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of, associations with and diagnoses leading to mild visual impairment or worse (logMAR >0.3) in middle-aged adults in the UK Biobank study. Methods and analysis Prevalence estimates for monocular and binocular visual impairment were determined for the UK Biobank participants with fundus photographs and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images. Associations with socioeconomic, biometric, lifestyle and medical variables were investigated for cases with visual impairment and matched controls, using multinomial logistic regression models. Self-reported eye history and image grading results were used to identify the primary diagnoses leading to visual impairment for a sample of 25% of cases. Results For the 65 033 UK Biobank participants, aged 40–69 years and with fundus images, 6682 (10.3%) and 1677 (2.6%) had mild visual impairment or worse in one or both eyes, respectively. Increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity were independently associated with both monocular and binocular visual impairment. No primary diagnosis for the recorded level of visual impairment could be identified for 49.8% of eyes. The most common identifiable diagnoses leading to visual impairment were cataract, amblyopia, uncorrected refractive error and vitreoretinal interface abnormalities. Conclusions The prevalence of visual impairment in the UK Biobank study cohort is lower than for population-based studies from other industrialised countries. Monocular and binocular visual impairment are associated with increasing deprivation, age and ethnicity. The UK Biobank dataset does not allow confident identification of the causes of visual impairment, and the results may not be applicable to the wider UK population. PMID:29657974

  20. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views

    OpenAIRE

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vital

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them.\\ud \\ud Design: 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14–17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analys...

  1. A study of radon levels in NHS premises in affected areas around the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Lewis, G.T.R.; Brennen, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    Radon gas contributes a significant fraction of the natural background radiation dose, and in some areas raised levels are found in buildings, both homes and the workplace. Different UK Action Levels apply to homes and the workplace, because of the diurnal variation of radon. This study reviews the results for a number of hospitals throughout England and Wales, and suggests that the likelihood of finding raised radon levels is similar in the workplace and homes in the same area. Radon measurements and consequent remediation of any raised levels are appropriate in all workplaces in radon Affected Areas with over 5% of houses above the UK domestic Action Level of 200 Bq m -3

  2. Pilot study protocol to inform a future longitudinal study of ageing using linked administrative data: Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Elaine; Rutherford, Alasdair; Bell, David

    2018-01-10

    Population ageing is a welcome testament to improvements in the social, economic and health circumstances over the life course. However, these successes necessitate that we understand more about the pathways of ageing to plan and cost our health and social care services, to support our ageing population to live healthier for longer and to make adequate provisions for retirement. Longitudinal studies of ageing facilitate such understanding in many countries around the world. Scotland presently does not have a longitudinal study of ageing, despite dramatic increases to its ageing population and its poor health record. Healthy AGeing in Scotland (HAGIS) constitutes the launch of Scotland's first comprehensive longitudinal study of ageing. A sample of 1000 people aged 50+ years will be invited to take part in a household social survey. The innovative sampling procedure used administrative data to identify eligible households. Anonymised survey responses will be linked to administrative data. Ethics approval was obtained from the host institution for the study design and from the Public Benefits and Privacy Panel for administrative data linkage. Anonymised survey data will be deposited with the UK Data Service. A subset of survey data, harmonised with other global ageing studies, will be available via the Gateway to Global Aging platform. These data will enable powerful cross-country comparisons across the social, economic and health domains that will be relevant for national and international research.Research publications from the HAGIS team will be disseminated through journal articles and national and international conferences. The findings will support current and future research and policy debate on ageing populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Occupational Stress in UK Higher Education Institutions: A Comparative Study of All Staff Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytherleigh, M. Y.; Webb, C.; Cooper, C. L.; Ricketts, C.

    2005-01-01

    The higher education sector in the UK continues to experience significant change. This includes restructuring, use of short-term contracts, external scrutiny and accountability, and major reductions in funding. In line with this, reports of stress at work in higher education institutions have also increased. The study reported here was carried out…

  4. SCI Longitudinal Aging Study: 40 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, James S; Clark, Jillian M R; Saunders, Lee L

    2015-01-01

    The Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Longitudinal Aging Study was initiated in 1973 and has conducted 8 assessments over the past 40 years. It was designed to help rehabilitation professionals understand the life situation of people with SCI, but it has developed into the most long-standing study of aging and SCI and has resulted in over 50 publications. Our purpose was to provide a detailed history of the study, response patterns, utilization of measures, and a summary of key findings reported in the literature. Five participant samples have been incorporated over the 40 years, with enrollment in 1973, 1984, 1993 (2 samples), and 2003. A total of 2,208 participants have completed 6,001 assessments, with a particularly large number of assessments among those who are more than 40 years post injury (n = 349). The overall results have indicated changing patterns of outcomes over time as persons with SCI age, with some notable declines in participation and health. There has been a survivor effect whereby persons who are more active, well-adjusted, and healthier live longer. This study has several important features that are required for longitudinal research including (a) consistency of follow-up, (b) consistency of measures over time, (c) addition of new participant samples to counteract attrition, and (d) inclusion of a large number of individuals who have reached aging milestones unparalleled in the literature. Data from this study can inform the literature on the natural course of aging with SCI.

  5. Children in care (CIC): A Danish longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children......, born in 1995, who currently are or formerly have been placed in care. The first data collection was conducted in the spring 2003, where the children were 7-8 years of age. It is the intention to follow up the children every third year during childhood, adolescence, and adult life. At each new data...

  6. Residential greenness and prevalence of major depressive disorders: a cross-sectional, observational, associational study of 94 879 adult UK Biobank participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoy Sarkar, PhD

    2018-04-01

    participants residing in areas with low neighbourhood socioeconomic status or high urbanicity. Interpretation: The results point to the benefits of well designed green environments on mental health. Further longitudinal studies are needed to decipher causal pathways. In the UK, policies aimed at optimising allocation and design of green spaces might help preserve psychological ecosystem services, thereby, improving the mental wellbeing of populations and enhancing the mental capital of cities. Funding: University of Hong Kong, UK Biobank, and the UK Economic & Social Research Council.

  7. Impact of omalizumab on treatment of severe allergic asthma in UK clinical practice: a UK multicentre observational study (the APEX II study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Robert M; Saralaya, Dinesh; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Masoli, Matthew; Clifton, Ian; Mansur, Adel H; Hacking, Victoria; McLain-Smith, Susan; Menzies-Gow, Andrew

    2016-08-09

    To describe the impact of omalizumab on asthma management in patients treated as part of normal clinical practice in the UK National Health Service (NHS). A non-interventional, mixed methodology study, combining retrospective and prospective data collection for 12 months pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab initiation, respectively. Data were collected in 22 UK NHS centres, including specialist centres and district general hospitals in the UK. 258 adult patients (aged ≥16 years; 65% women) with severe persistent allergic asthma treated with omalizumab were recruited, of whom 218 (84.5%) completed the study. The primary outcome measure was change in mean daily dose of oral corticosteroids (OCS) between the 12-month pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab initiation periods. A priori secondary outcome measures included response to treatment, changes in OCS dosing, asthma exacerbations, lung function, employment/education, patient-reported outcomes and hospital resource utilisation. The response rate to omalizumab at 16 weeks was 82.4%. Comparing pre-omalizumab and post-omalizumab periods, the mean (95% CIs) daily dose of OCS decreased by 1.61 (-2.41 to -0.80) mg/patient/day (pomalizumab period. The mean number of A&E visits, inpatient hospitalisations, outpatient visits (excluding for omalizumab) and number of bed days/patient decreased significantly (pomalizumab period. These data support the beneficial effects of omalizumab on asthma-related outcomes, quality of life and resource utilisation in unselected patients treated in 'real-world' clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Investigating employee resistance to Lean transformation: UK case study.

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, J.; Scott, Philip; Roberts, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Lean is a business process transformation approach that eliminates ‘wastes’ – activities that generate no value for the customer. Lean originated from the production line but is widely implemented in the service sector. This study investigates human and social factors in a Lean transformation in a ‘knowledge worker’ environment. We identify a paradox: a successful Lean programme in the service sector develops staff who are educated and empowered and thus potential opponents to future business...

  9. Leadership in transformation: a longitudinal study in a nursing organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitala, Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Not only does leadership produce changes, but those changes produce leadership in organisations. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical and empirical analysis of the transformation of leadership at two different historical points in a health care organisation. It leans on the perspective of social constructionism, drawing especially from the ideas of Berger and Luckmann (1966). The paper seeks to improve understanding of how leaders themselves construct leadership in relation to organisational change. The empirical material was gathered in a longitudinal case study in a nursing organisation in two different historical and situational points. It consists of written narratives produced by nurse leaders that are analysed by applying discourse analysis. The empirical study revealed that the constructions of leadership were dramatically different at the two different historical and situational points. Leadership showed up as a complex, fragile and changing phenomenon, which fluctuates along with the other organisational changes. The results signal the importance of agency in leadership and the central role of "significant others". The paper questions the traditional categorisation and labelling of leadership as well as the cross-sectional studies in understanding leadership transformation. Its originality relates to the longitudinal perspective on transformation of leadership in the context of a health care organisation.

  10. The (mis)management of migrant nurses in the UK: a sociological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Radha; Melia, Kath M

    2015-04-01

    To examine Nepali migrant nurses' professional life in the UK. In the late 1990 s the UK experienced an acute nursing shortage. Within a decade over 1000 Nepali nurses migrated to the UK. A multi-sited ethnographic approach was chosen for this study. Between 2006 and 2009, 21 in-depth interviews with Nepali nurses were conducted in the UK using snowballing sampling. Nepali migrant nurses are highly qualified and experienced in specialised areas such as critical care, management and education. However, these nurses end up working in the long-term care sector, providing personal care for elderly people - an area commonly described by migrant nurses as British Bottom Care (BBC). This means that migrant nurses lack career choices and professional development opportunities, causing them frustration and lack of job satisfaction. International nurse migration is an inevitable part of globalisation in health. Nurse managers and policy makers need to explore ways to make better use of the talents of the migrant workforce. We offer a management strategy to bring policies for the migrant workforce into line with the wider workforce plans by supporting nurses in finding jobs relevant to their expertise and providing career pathways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Strategic energy planning within local authorities in the UK: A study of the city of Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, Catherine S.E.; Foxon, Timothy J.; Hannon, Matthew J.; Gale, William F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the development of a strategic energy body in a local authority in the UK and looks at the perceived need for, and possible roles of, such a body. Historically, energy provision and management has not usually been a strategic priority for UK local authorities. Yet energy considerations are implicit in key local authority responsibilities such as transport, waste management, planning, and the provision of housing services. In addition, recent UK central government policies support the move to localism and provide incentives for low-carbon energy generation. A study was undertaken to assess the potential (including both the perceived benefits and actual capacity to deliver) for Leeds City Council to develop a strategic body to execute delivery of city-level energy decision-making. We examine the perceived benefits to a range of main stakeholders, using data drawn from interviews with managers responsible for low-carbon and renewable energy projects across the city. Through participant observation we explore the capacity of a local authority to deliver a strategic energy body, and we briefly examine the possible forms of delivery. We conclude with recommendations for national policy that would enable the development of strategic energy bodies across local governments in the UK. - Highlights: ► Strategic energy planning is currently not a priority for UK local authorities. ► We present an empirical study of strategic energy planning in local authorities. ► Results from stakeholder interviews suggest support for a strategic energy body. ► We identify the capacity barriers to implementing a strategic energy body. ► We make recommendations for ways forward and support needed from national policy.

  12. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  13. Association between bacterial vaginosis and partner concurrency: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris R; Buyze, Jozefien; Klebanoff, Mark; Brotman, Rebecca M

    2018-02-01

    The study aimed to test if there was an association between prevalent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and women reporting that their partner had other partners at the same time (partner concurrency). This association has not been assessed in a longitudinal cohort. The Longitudinal Study of Vaginal Flora recruited a cohort of 3620 non-pregnant women aged 15-44 years who presented for routine primary healthcare at 12 clinics in Birmingham, Alabama. Behavioural questionnaires and vaginal smears were obtained quarterly for a year and BV was defined by a Nugent score 7 or higher as well as Amsel criteria. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between prevalent BV and reporting that one's partner had other partners in the preceding 3-6 months time interval. Nugent score prevalent BV was associated with both reporting that one's partner definitely (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) and possibly (aOR 1.5; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.8) engaged in partner concurrency in the preceding 3-6 months time period. Prevalent BV diagnosed by Amsel criteria was similar. A diagnosis of prevalent BV was associated with reporting that one's partner possibly or definitely engaged in partner concurrency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Online modelling of water distribution systems: a UK case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Machell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic simulation models of water distribution networks are routinely used for operational investigations and network design purposes. However, their full potential is often never realised because, in the majority of cases, they have been calibrated with data collected manually from the field during a single historic time period and, as such, reflect the network operational conditions that were prevalent at that time, and they are then applied as part of a reactive, desktop investigation. In order to use a hydraulic model to assist proactive distribution network management its element asset information must be up to date and it should be able to access current network information to drive simulations. Historically this advance has been restricted by the high cost of collecting and transferring the necessary field measurements. However, recent innovation and cost reductions associated with data transfer is resulting in collection of data from increasing numbers of sensors in water supply systems, and automatic transfer of the data to point of use. This means engineers potentially have access to a constant stream of current network data that enables a new era of "on-line" modelling that can be used to continually assess standards of service compliance for pressure and reduce the impact of network events, such as mains bursts, on customers. A case study is presented here that shows how an online modelling system can give timely warning of changes from normal network operation, providing capacity to minimise customer impact.

  15. Spatial complexity of character-based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, Maja; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Kolienko, Tatiana; Malykh, Sergey; Bogdanova, Olga; Zueva, Dina Y.; Gynku, Elena I.; Wan, Sirui; Zhou, Xinlin; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesized that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by East Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. Seven hundered and twenty one 6–9-year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into four different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e., English, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese). The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1) to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7–9 year-old children across the samples; (2) to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age. PMID:25859235

  16. Spatial complexity of character based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja eRodic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesised that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. 721 6-9 -year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into 4 different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e. English, Spanish, Chinese and Japanese. The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1 to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7-9 year old children across the samples; (2 to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age.

  17. Spatial complexity of character-based writing systems and arithmetic in primary school: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodic, Maja; Tikhomirova, Tatiana; Kolienko, Tatiana; Malykh, Sergey; Bogdanova, Olga; Zueva, Dina Y; Gynku, Elena I; Wan, Sirui; Zhou, Xinlin; Kovas, Yulia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has consistently found an association between spatial and mathematical abilities. We hypothesized that this link may partially explain the consistently observed advantage in mathematics demonstrated by East Asian children. Spatial complexity of the character-based writing systems may reflect or lead to a cognitive advantage relevant to mathematics. Seven hundered and twenty one 6-9-year old children from the UK and Russia were assessed on a battery of cognitive skills and arithmetic. The Russian children were recruited from specialist linguistic schools and divided into four different language groups, based on the second language they were learning (i.e., English, Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese). The UK children attended regular schools and were not learning any second language. The testing took place twice across the school year, once at the beginning, before the start of the second language acquisition, and once at the end of the year. The study had two aims: (1) to test whether spatial ability predicts mathematical ability in 7-9 year-old children across the samples; (2) to test whether acquisition and usage of a character-based writing system leads to an advantage in performance in arithmetic and related cognitive tasks. The longitudinal link from spatial ability to mathematics was found only in the Russian sample. The effect of second language acquisition on mathematics or other cognitive skills was negligible, although some effect of Chinese language on mathematical reasoning was suggested. Overall, the findings suggest that although spatial ability is related to mathematics at this age, one academic year of exposure to spatially complex writing systems is not enough to provide a mathematical advantage. Other educational and socio-cultural factors might play a greater role in explaining individual and cross-cultural differences in arithmetic at this age.

  18. Child maltreatment in the "children of the nineties" a longitudinal study of parental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, P; Golding, J

    2001-09-01

    To identify and validate factors within the parental background affecting risk of child maltreatment. A nested case-control study based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children ("Children of the Nineties"), a cohort of children born in Avon in 1991 through 1992. Data on the childhood and psychiatric histories of the parents, along with other data on the social and family environments, have been collected through postal questionnaires from early antenatal booking onwards. Out of 14,138 participating children, 162 have been identified as having been maltreated. Using logistic regression analysis, significant risk factors within the mothers' backgrounds were age factors in the fathers' backgrounds were age factors on univariate, but not multivariate analysis included a parental history of childhood physical abuse; divorce or separation of the mother's parents; a maternal history of having been in care, or separated from her mother; parental alcohol or drug abuse; and a maternal history of depression. This study, the first of its kind in the UK, supports the findings of others that parental age, educational achievement, and a history of psychiatric illness are of prime importance in an understanding of child maltreatment. With the exception of maternal sexual abuse, a history of abuse in childhood is not significant once adjusted for other background factors. The study suggests that psychodynamic models are inadequate to explain child maltreatment, and wider models incorporating other ecological domains are needed.

  19. A longitudinal study of memory advantages in bilinguals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K Ljungberg

    Full Text Available Typically, studies of cognitive advantages in bilinguals have been conducted previously by using executive and inhibitory tasks (e.g. Simon task and applying cross-sectional designs. This study longitudinally investigated bilingual advantages on episodic memory recall, verbal letter and categorical fluency during the trajectory of life. Monolingual and bilingual participants (n=178 between 35-70 years at baseline were drawn from the Betula Prospective Cohort Study of aging, memory, and health. Results showed that bilinguals outperformed monolinguals at the first testing session and across time both in episodic memory recall and in letter fluency. No interaction with age was found indicating that the rate of change across ages was similar for bilinguals and monolinguals. As predicted and in line with studies applying cross-sectional designs, no advantages associated with bilingualism were found in the categorical fluency task. The results are discussed in the light of successful aging.

  20. Postural changes in dental hygienists. Four-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R M; Woodall, W R; Mahan, J M

    1992-01-01

    Numerous surveys identify the occurrence of musculoskeletal complaints as a concern in dentistry. However, no longitudinal data exist to indicate whether postural changes occur as a result of practicing dental hygiene. The purpose of this preliminary, four-year longitudinal study was to investigate whether any postural changes developed during the hygienists' clinical education and/or during subsequent dental hygiene practice after one and/or two years. It was anticipated that the awkward positions and intense physical demands placed on hygienists might initiate musculoskeletal problems, but that no postural changes would occur over this short period of time. Nine of 10 dental hygienists in the graduating class of 1987 were surveyed for existing musculoskeletal complaints, and the subjects were photographed for a measurement of postural change. Responses from participants indicated an increase in musculoskeletal-related complaints in each of the six areas investigated. The photographic findings indicated that one of the nine hygienists showed an increase in forward head posture, a postural change.

  1. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  2. Why do drivers become safer over the first three months of driving? A longitudinal qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Marianne R; Thompson, Andrew R; Poulter, Damian R; Stride, Christopher B; Rowe, Richard

    2018-08-01

    Drivers are at high crash risk when they begin independent driving, with liability decreasing steeply over the first three months. Their behavioural development, and other changes underlying improved safety are not well understood. We adopted an innovative longitudinal qualitative design, with thirteen newly qualified drivers completing a total of 36 semi-structured interviews, one, two and three months after acquiring a full UK driving license. The interviews probed high-risk factors for new drivers, as well as allowing space for generating novel road safety issues. Analysis adopted a dual deductive and inductive interpretative thematic approach, identifying three super-ordinate themes: (1) Improvements in car control skills and situation awareness; (2) A reduction in the thrill of taking risks when driving against a background of generally increasing driving speed; (3) Early concerns about their social status in the eyes of other road users during the early stages of driving, which may put pressure on them to drive faster than they felt comfortable with. The study provides important new leads towards understanding how novice driving becomes safer over the first few months of driving, including how well-studied concepts of driving skill and style may change during development of independent driving, and bringing the less rigorously studied concept of social status into focus. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Innovative Solutions for Companies to Reduce Gender Gaps (UK Study Case)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei ANGHELUTA; Larisa MIHOREANU; Carmen COSTEA

    2016-01-01

    For many years the gender gap has been a complex reality having economic implications and social decisiveness. No matter the percentage recently decreased, we still confront with social discriminations. In this paper we focused on the UK labour market so we developed a case study for a logistics company, using classification of the employees in different pay bands. Based on this study we created a state of the art human resource tool that can be applied worldwide and that help firms to analys...

  4. A study of HIV positive undocumented African migrants' access to health services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, James; Whyte, Maria D; Hires, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Newly immigrated persons, whatever their origin, tend to fall in the lower socioeconomic levels. In fact, failure of an asylum application renders one destitute in a large proportion of cases, often resulting in a profound lack of access to basic necessities. With over a third of HIV positive failed asylum seekers reporting no income, and the remainder reporting highly limited resources, poverty is a reality for the vast majority. The purpose of the study was to determine the basic social processes that guide HIV positive undocumented migrant's efforts to gain health services in the UK. The study used the Grounded Theory Approach. Theoretical saturation occurred after 16 participants were included in the study. The data included reflections of the prominent factors related to the establishment of a safe and productive life and the ability of individuals to remain within the UK. The data reflected heavily upon the ability of migrants to enter the medical care system during their asylum period, and on an emerging pattern of service denial after loss on immigration appeal. The findings of this study are notable in that they have demonstrated sequence of events along a timeline related to the interaction between the asylum process and access to health-related services. The results reflect that African migrants maintain a degree of formal access to health services during the period that they possess legal access to services and informal access after the failure of their asylum claim. The purpose of this paper is to examine the basic social processes that characterize efforts to gain access to health services among HIV positive undocumented African migrants to the UK. The most recent estimates indicate that there are a total of 618,000 migrants who lack legal status within the UK. Other studies have placed the number of undocumented migrants within the UK in the range of 525,000-950,000. More than 442,000 are thought to dwell in the London metropolitan area. Even in

  5. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  6. A longitudinal study of adult foreign language learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Sørensen, Stine Derdau

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories should happen early in the acquisition process. Results from laboratory language training show effects on non-native perception within one to three weeks of training. Results from linguistic immersion studies...... show differences in adaptations when contrasting averages of 1-2 yrs of experience with 6-7 yrs of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in a longitudinal study on Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian dialect) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive...... (emphatic frication) and a phonemic Dari contrast (fricative voicing) as stimuli for both groups. We saw an effect of learning on the Dari learners’ identification of the Dari stimuli already after three weeks of language training, which was sustained, but not improved, after six and 20 months. The extents...

  7. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  8. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy′s (RNoN vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226. STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports. This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS.

  9. Longitudinal study of spatial working memory development in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, Takeo; Yamamoto, Eriko; Masuda, Sayako; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2009-05-27

    This study longitudinally compared activity in the frontal cortex during a spatial working memory task between 5-year-old and 7-year-old children using near-infrared spectroscopy. Eight children participated in this study twice, once at 5 years and once at 7 years of age. Behavioral analysis showed that older children performed the working memory task more precisely and more rapidly than younger children. Near-infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that right hemisphere dominance was observed in older children, whereas no hemispheric difference was apparent in younger children. Children with strengthened lateralization showed improved performance from 5 to 7 years. We therefore offer the first demonstration of the developmental changes in frontal cortical activation during spatial working memory tasks during the preschool period.

  10. Gastrocnemius muscle contracture after spinal cord injury: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diong, Joanna; Harvey, Lisa A; Kwah, Li Khim; Clarke, Jillian L; Bilston, Lynne E; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in passive length and stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit in people after spinal cord injury. In a prospective longitudinal study, eight wheelchair-dependent participants with severe paralysis were assessed 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. Passive torque-angle data were obtained as the ankle was slowly rotated through range at six knee angles. Differences in passive ankle torque-angle data recorded at different knee angles were used to derive passive length-tension curves of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit. Ultrasound imaging was used to determine fascicle and tendon contributions to the muscle-tendon unit length-tension curves. The participants had ankle contractures (mean [SD] maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion angle, 88 [9] degrees) 3 mos after spinal cord injury. Ankle range did not worsen significantly during the subsequent 9 mos (mean change, -5 degrees; 95% confidence interval, -16 to 6 degrees). There were no changes in the mean slack length or the stiffness of the gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit or in the slack lengths of the fascicles or the tendon between 3 and 12 mos after spinal cord injury. There were no consistent patterns of the change in slack length or stiffness with the changes in ankle range in the data from the individual participants. This study, the first longitudinal study of muscle length and stiffness after spinal cord injury, showed that the length and the stiffness of the gastrocnemius did not change substantially between 3 and 12 mos after injury.

  11. The Determinants of Corporate Cash Holdings- An Empirical study from UK Firms

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, YI

    2013-01-01

    Cash holding is most important financial decision in the company management strategy. In this dissertation, the determinants of corporate cash holdings in UK non-financial publicly traded firms over the period from 2003 to 2012 are investigated. Our study finds that growth opportunities and cash flow and cash flow variability are positively associated with the level of corporate cash holdings, while firm size, leverage, net working capital, bank debt and dividend payment have negative impact ...

  12. A Comparative Study of Primary School Teachers’ Views about Dyslexia in the UK and Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Kostopoulou, Rodopi

    2013-01-01

    The present study is a comparative research on primary teachers’ understanding of dyslexia in the UK and Greece. More specifically, aim of the research was to investigate primary teachers’ knowledge about dyslexia, their attitudes towards students with dyslexia, the procedures they follow for the identification of dyslexic students and the way teachers respond to their learning and emotional needs, in both countries. The sample consisted of six primary teachers (three English and three Greek)...

  13. How UK internet websites portray breast milk expression and breast pumps: a qualitative study of content

    OpenAIRE

    McInnes, Rhona J; Arbuckle, Alix; Hoddinott, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding for six months is recommended but few parents achieve this; particularly younger and less well-educated mothers. Many parents introduce infant formula milk to manage feeding but describe a desire to express breastmilk alongside a lack of support or information. The Internet is highlighted as a key resource. This study aimed to examine UK websites on expressing breastmilk to identify key messages and how information is provided. Methods We used search terms i...

  14. Confounding adjustment through front-door blocking in longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Sjölander

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A common aim of epidemiological research is to estimate the causal effect of a particular exposure on a particular outcome. Towards this end, observed associations are often ‘adjusted’ for potential confounding variables. When the potential confounders are unmeasured, explicit adjustment becomes unfeasible. It has been demonstrated that causal effects can be estimated even in the presence of umeasured confounding, utilizing a method called ‘front-door blocking’. In this paper we generalize this method to longitudinal studies. We demonstrate that the method of front-door blocking poses a number of challenging statistical problems, analogous to the famous problems associ- ated with the method of ‘back-door blocking’.

  15. [Autoaggression and pulse rate--a longitudinal study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmann, U H; Elbing, U; Hartmann, H

    1988-12-01

    This article presents a model of autoaggressive behavior in which a distinction is made between determining and maintaining factors. Specific environmental, in particular social, and organismic variables are linked to them. The two types of variables interact, thus causing or maintaining autoaggressive behavior. A theory of autoaggression must therefore rely on multicausal/multimodal explanations. A connection between autoaggression and a high level of arousal suggests itself. In this single-case longitudinal study a comparison was made between heart rate and frequency of autoaggressive behavior. High heart rates were found to be correlated with low frequencies of autoaggressive behavior and vice versa. Decreasing autoaggressive behavior was coupled with increasing muscle relaxation and increasing motor activity. However, abnormally high heart rates were associated with both low and high levels of motor activity.

  16. Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Vanessa; Cooper, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    SSS11.4/ESSI4.6/HS11.39/NH9.13 Communication of uncertain information in earth sciences: data, models and visualization Communicating geohazard information for emergency responders, a case study from the UK. Cooper, A. H.1, Banks, V.J.1, Cowup, P.2, Curness, J.3, Davis, R.4, Dawson, L3. and Gazzard, L.4 1 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, NG12 5GG, UK 2 London Fire Brigade, 169 Union Street, London, SE1 0LL, UK 3.Coventry University, Priory Street, Coventry, CV1 5FB, UK 4.Avon Fire and Rescue, Temple Back, Bristol, BS1 6EU, UK. In February 2013 a sinkhole opened beneath a Florida Home resulting in the loss of a life and demolition of the affected home. The resulting void was in the order of 15 m deep. Neighbouring homes also had to be demolished. Television footage of this unfortunate incident resonated with an Assistant Commissioner of the London Fire Brigade who questioned whether or not such a feature would be recognised in the UK and if so, how the emergency response would be managed. Stemming from this, the British Geological Survey was invited to work with the Chief Fire Officers Association Urban Search and Rescue working group on geohazards. The aim of this group was to develop national tactical operational guidance on geohazards that would form the basis for regional guidance and training. The project was addressed collaboratively providing opportunities for two students from the Coventry University Disaster Management course, that were on placements with Avon Fire and Rescue, to work with the BGS to develop the guidance. Key to the success of the project was an iterative approach to knowledge exchange with respect to firstly, the characterization of the geohazards, and the processes and uncertainties associated with them and secondly, with respect to emergency responders' needs and priorities. Effective communication was achieved through challenging and rationalising the geoscience language for the end user and through a series of customised

  17. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  18. Nurses' and community support workers' experience of telehealth: a longitudinal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Urvashi; Clarke, Malcolm

    2014-04-10

    Introduction of telehealth into the healthcare setting has been recognised as a service that might be experienced as disruptive. This paper explores how this disruption is experienced. In a longitudinal qualitative study, we conducted focus group discussions prior to and semi structured interviews post introduction of a telehealth service in Nottingham, U.K. with the community matrons, congestive heart failure nurses, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease nurses and community support workers that would be involved in order to elicit their preconceptions and reactions to the implementation. Users experienced disruption due to the implementation of telehealth as threatening. Three main factors add to the experience of threat and affect the decision to use the technology: change in clinical routines and increased workload; change in interactions with patients and fundamentals of face-to-face nursing work; and change in skills required with marginalisation of clinical expertise. Since the introduction of telehealth can be experienced as threatening, managers and service providers should aim at minimising the disruption caused by taking the above factors on board. This can be achieved by employing simple yet effective measures such as: providing timely, appropriate and context specific training; provision of adequate technical support; and procedures that allow a balance between the use of telehealth and personal visit by nurses delivering care to their patients.

  19. Parent and Child Cigarette Use: A Longitudinal, Multigenerational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Using longitudinal data from the multigenerational Youth Development Study (YDS), this article documents how parents’ long-term smoking trajectories are associated with adolescent children’s likelihood of smoking. Prospective data from the parents (from age 14–38 years) enable unique comparisons of the parents’ and children’s smoking behavior, as well as that of siblings. METHODS: Smoking trajectories are constructed using latent class analysis for the original YDS cohort (n = 1010). Multigenerational longitudinal data from 214 parents and 314 offspring ages 11 years and older are then analyzed by using logistic regression with cluster-corrected SEs. RESULTS: Four latent smoking trajectories emerged among the original cohort: stable nonsmokers (54%), early-onset light smokers who quit/reduce (16%), late-onset persistent smokers (14%), and early-onset persistent heavy smokers (16%). Although 8% of children of stable nonsmokers smoked in the last year, the other groups’ children had much higher percentages, ranging from 23% to 29%. Multivariate logistic regression models confirm that these significant differences were robust to the inclusion of myriad child- and parent-level measures (for which child age and grade point average [GPA] are significant predictors). Older sibling smoking, however, mediated the link between parental heavy smoking and child smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Even in an era of declining rates of teenage cigarette use in the United States, children of current and former smokers face an elevated risk of smoking. Prevention efforts to weaken intergenerational associations should consider parents’ long-term cigarette use, as well as the smoking behavior of older siblings in the household. PMID:23918887

  20. UK health performance: findings of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Christopher J L; Richards, Michael A; Newton, John N; Fenton, Kevin A; Anderson, H Ross; Atkinson, Charles; Bennett, Derrick; Bernabé, Eduardo; Blencowe, Hannah; Bourne, Rupert; Braithwaite, Tasanee; Brayne, Carol; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Burney, Peter; Dherani, Mukesh; Dolk, Helen; Edmond, Karen; Ezzati, Majid; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Tom D; Freedman, Greg; Gunnell, David; Hay, Roderick J; Hutchings, Sally J; Ohno, Summer Lockett; Lozano, Rafael; Lyons, Ronan A; Marcenes, Wagner; Naghavi, Mohsen; Newton, Charles R; Pearce, Neil; Pope, Dan; Rushton, Lesley; Salomon, Joshua A; Shibuya, Kenji; Vos, Theo; Wang, Haidong; Williams, Hywel C; Woolf, Anthony D; Lopez, Alan D; Davis, Adrian

    2013-03-23

    The UK has had universal free health care and public health programmes for more than six decades. Several policy initiatives and structural reforms of the health system have been undertaken. Health expenditure has increased substantially since 1990, albeit from relatively low levels compared with other countries. We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010) to examine the patterns of health loss in the UK, the leading preventable risks that explain some of these patterns, and how UK outcomes compare with a set of comparable countries in the European Union and elsewhere in 1990 and 2010. We used results of GBD 2010 for 1990 and 2010 for the UK and 18 other comparator nations (the original 15 members of the European Union, Australia, Canada, Norway, and the USA; henceforth EU15+). We present analyses of trends and relative performance for mortality, causes of death, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and healthy life expectancy (HALE). We present results for 259 diseases and injuries and for 67 risk factors or clusters of risk factors relevant to the UK. We assessed the UK's rank for age-standardised YLLs and DALYs for their leading causes compared with EU15+ in 1990 and 2010. We estimated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for all measures. For both mortality and disability, overall health has improved substantially in absolute terms in the UK from 1990 to 2010. Life expectancy in the UK increased by 4·2 years (95% UI 4·2-4·3) from 1990 to 2010. However, the UK performed significantly worse than the EU15+ for age-standardised death rates, age-standardised YLL rates, and life expectancy in 1990, and its relative position had worsened by 2010. Although in most age groups, there have been reductions in age-specific mortality, for men aged 30-34 years, mortality rates have hardly changed (reduction of 3·7%, 95% UI 2·7-4·9). In terms of premature

  1. How is Telemedicine perceived? A qualitative study of perspectives from the UK and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Improvements in communication and information technologies have allowed for the globalisation of health services, especially the provision of health services from other countries, such as the use of telemedicine. This has led countries to evaluate their position on whether and to what extent they should open their health systems to trade. This often takes place from the context of multi-lateral trade agreements (under the auspices of the World Trade Organisation), which is misplaced as a significant amount of trade takes place regionally or bi-laterally. We report here the results of a qualitative study assessing stakeholders' views on the potential for a bi-lateral trade relationship between India and the UK, where India acts as an exporter and the UK as an importer of telemedicine services. Methods 19 semi-structured interviews were carried out with stakeholders from India and the UK. The themes discussed include prospects on the viability of a bi-lateral relationship between the UK and India on telemedicine, current activities and operations, barriers, benefits and risks. Results The participants in general believed there were good prospects for telemedicine trade, and that this could bring benefits to "importing" countries in terms of cost-savings and faster delivery of care and to "exporting" countries in the form of foreign exchange and quality improvement. However, there were some concerns regarding quality of care, regulation, accreditation and data security. Conclusions There is potential for trade in this type of health services to succeed and bring about important benefits to the countries involved. However, issues around data security and accreditation need to be taken into consideration. Countries may wish to consider entering bi-lateral agreements, as they provide more potential to address the concerns and capitalise on the benefits. Finally, this paper concludes that more data should be collected, both on the volume of telemedicine trade

  2. Early career choices and successful career progression in surgery in the UK: prospective cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards Jennifer MJ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes to the structure of medical training worldwide require doctors to decide on their career specialty at an increasingly early stage after graduation. We studied trends in career choices for surgery, and the eventual career destinations, of UK graduates who declared an early preference for surgery. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent, at regular time intervals after qualification, to all medical qualifiers from all UK medical schools in selected qualification years between 1974 and 2005. They were sent in the first year after qualification, at year three and five years after qualification, and at longer time intervals thereafter. Results Responses were received from 27 749 of 38 280 doctors (73% at year one, 23 468 of 33151 (71% at year three, and 17 689 of 24 870 (71% at year five. Early career preferences showed that surgery has become more popular over the past two decades. Looking forward from early career choice, 60% of respondents (64% of men, 48% of women with a first preference for a surgical specialty at year one eventually worked in surgery (p Conclusions Surgery is a popular specialty choice in the UK. The great majority of doctors who progressed in a surgical career made an early and definitive decision to do so.

  3. Chronic pain in multiple sclerosis: A 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jamie; Amatya, Bhasker; Galea, Mary P; Khan, Fary

    2017-07-01

    Pain is a common symptom associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), and has lasting effects on an individual's functional capacity and quality of life. A wide range of prevalence rates of pain (between 23% and 90%)have been reported in MS and this is mainly due to the methodological differences amongst the studies such as variability in patient sources, method of sampling and the definition of pain used. Chronic pain in MS, defined as pain lasting for greater than 3-6 months, can have a significant impact on their biopsychosocial health, including negative impact on activities of daily living, relationships and social participation. The long-term course of MS-related pain and its impact in an Australian cohort over a 7-year period has been investigated earlier. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe the impact of chronic pain, pain-related disability and carer burden in persons with MS over a 10-year period. This was a prospective longitudinal study conducted at the Rehabilitation Department of Royal Melbourne Hospital (RMH), a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria and Australia. The source of participants was from the RMH MS database and contains detailed MS patient information including demographic data, diagnosis details (using McDonald's criteria), pain characteristics. Structured face-face interviews and validated measures were used, which include the visual analogue scale (VAS); chronic pain grade (CPG); the assessment of quality of life (AQoL) and the carer strain index (CSI). The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The mean age of the participants (n=70) was 55.3 years and majority (70%) were female. The findings show that over time (10 years), participants report having greater bilateral bodily pain and greater description of pain as 'worse

  4. Prediction of the development of reading comprehension: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Specific effects of word decoding, vocabulary and listening comprehension abilities on the development of reading comprehension were longitudinally examined for a representative sample of 2143 Dutch children throughout the elementary school period. An attempt was made to test two theoretical

  5. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Guadalupe X

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively; however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]. For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on

  6. Studies of the longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Goals for our first-year period are as follows: To study the evolution of a small perturbation in the current pulse (introduced via the grid voltage on the electron gun) when the beam propagates through our 5-m long periodic solenoid channel. Specifically, to see if the perturbation is reflected from the rear end of the pulse. So far these objectives have been met without any delays. We were able to launch different perturbations on the beam resulting in either a slow space-charge wave or a fast wave or both waves. The relative strength of each wave was found to depend on the electron emission temperature of the cathode. The propagation of these waves on an initially rectangular longitudinal beam profile was measured with fast current monitors and the kinetic energy was measured with sensitive energy analyzers at various positions along the 5-m long solenoidal focusing channel. We have also begun to study the behavior of the waves when they reach the respective edge of the beam. But this work is still of a preliminary nature, and we need to refine the beam conditions and measurements in future studies to reach any firm conclusions. Preparations for the resistive-wall instability experiment are in progress

  7. A longitudinal study of language learners’ images about Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Larisa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies in the field of applied linguistics have explored images held by language learners about a target language country. However, for the most part, these studies focused on learners of modern European languages, such as German, Spanish and French and they were conducted in Western educational contexts. Besides, none of the previous investigations attempted to conduct a systematic classification of the language learners’ images. The present longitudinal study addressed these gaps in the research literature. It explored images about Russia held by Malaysian learners of the Russian language in a large university in East Malaysia. This article reports the findings of three questionnaire surveys conducted in 2004, 2007 and 2010. It was found that the images about Russia held by the participants were diverse and clustered around eight countryrelated aspects. Content of some categories of images was stable and changed little over time. Other categories were more fluid and more prone to change. The paper concludes with a discussion of pedagogical implications that can be derived from the findings.

  8. Becoming a mental health nurse; A three year longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Wells

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal case series study explores how students’ conceptions of ‘mental health nursing’ changed whilst on a three-year pre-registration Mental Health Nursing programme. The study was carried out in two university nursing schools in the South East of England and this paper reports a detailed analysis of 6 individual case studies. The researchers utilised Novak’s approach to concept mapping to elicit students’ personal knowledge structures, which were explored further using semi-structured individual qualitative interviews. The maps were analysed by looking at their gross morphology to interpret changes over time into types of learning achieved and the associated interview data were analysed using thematic content analysis. Results from analysis of the map structures suggest that whilst four of the selected students learned deeply, one participant learned superficially and one appeared not to learn at all. The associated interview data provides an interesting insight into the students’ reflective narratives on the process of learning. The findings also demonstrate further evidence of the practicability of using Novakian concept maps to self-prompt qualitative research interviews. Implications for the professional education of Mental Health Nurses are discussed.

  9. Clustering of unhealthy behaviors in the aerobics center longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héroux, Mariane; Janssen, Ian; Lee, Duck-chul; Sui, Xuemei; Hebert, James R; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Clustering of unhealthy behaviors has been reported in previous studies; however the link with all-cause mortality and differences between those with and without chronic disease requires further investigation. To observe the clustering effects of unhealthy diet, fitness, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption in adults with and without chronic disease and to assess all-cause mortality risk according to the clustering of unhealthy behaviors. Participants were 13,621 adults (aged 20-84) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Four health behaviors were observed (diet, fitness, smoking, and drinking). Baseline characteristics of the study population and bivariate relations between pairs of the health behaviors were evaluated separately for those with and without chronic disease using cross-tabulation and a chi-square test. The odds of partaking in unhealthy behaviors were also calculated. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to assess clustering. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between the behaviors and mortality. The four health behaviors were related to each other. LCA results suggested that two classes existed. Participants in class 1 had a higher probability of partaking in each of the four unhealthy behaviors than participants in class 2. No differences in health behavior clustering were found between participants with and without chronic disease. Mortality risk increased relative to the number of unhealthy behaviors participants engaged in. Unhealthy behaviors cluster together irrespective of chronic disease status. Such findings suggest that multi-behavioral intervention strategies can be similar in those with and without chronic disease.

  10. The USA National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS): homophobia, psychological adjustment, and protective factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; Peyser, H.; van Balen, F.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of protective factors on the psychological adjustment of children who had experienced homophobia and whose mothers were participants in a longitudinal study of planned lesbian families. Data were collected as part of the National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study by

  11. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  12. Increased household financial strain, the Great Recession and child health-findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Caoimhe; Law, Catherine; Pearce, Anna

    2017-03-09

    There is a growing body of evidence associating financial strain (FS) with poor health but most of this research has been cross-sectional and adult-focused. During the 'Great Recession' many UK households experienced increased FS. The primary aim of this study was to determine the impact of increased FS on child health. We analysed the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of children born in the UK between 2000 and 2002. Surveys at 7 years (T1, 2008) and 11 years (T2, 2012) spanned the 'Great Recession'. Three measures of increased FS were defined; 'became income poor' (self-reported household income dropped below the 'poverty line' between T1 and T2); 'developed difficulty managing' (parental report of being 'financially comfortable' at T1 and finding it 'difficult to manage' at T2); 'felt worse off' (parental report of feeling financially 'worse off' at T2 compared with T1). Poisson regression was used to estimate risk ratios (RR), adjusted risk ratios (aRR) and 95% CIs for six child health outcomes: measured overweight/obesity, problematic behaviour as scored by parents and teachers, and parental reports of fair/poor general health, long-standing illness and bedwetting at T2 (N=13 112). In subanalyses we limited our sample to those who were above the poverty line at T2. Compared with those who were not financially strained at both time points, children in households which experienced increased FS were at an increased risk of all unhealthy outcomes examined. In most cases, these increased risks persisted after adjustment for confounding and when limiting the sample to those above the poverty line. FS is associated with a range of new or continued poor child health outcomes. During times of widespread economic hardship, such as the 'Great Recession', measures should be taken to buffer children and their families from the impact of FS, and these should not be limited to those who are income poor. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  13. Natural course of behavioral addictions: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Woodin, Erica M; Hodgins, David C; Williams, Robert J

    2015-01-22

    Resolving the theoretical controversy on the labeling of an increasing number of excessive behaviors as behavioral addictions may also be facilitated by more empirical data on these behavioral problems. For instance, an essential issue to the classification of psychiatric disorders is information on their natural course. However, longitudinal research on the chronic vs. episodic nature of behavioral addictions is scarce. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to provide data on prevalence, substance use comorbidity, and five-year trajectories of six excessive behaviors-namely exercising, sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, video gaming, and eating. Analyses were based on the data of the Quinte Longitudinal Study, where a cohort of 4,121 adults from Ontario, Canada was followed for 5 years (2006 to 2011). The response rate was 21.3%, while retention rate was 93.9%. To assess the occurrence of each problem behavior, a single self-diagnostic question asked people whether their over-involvement in the behavior had caused significant problems for them in the past 12 months. To assess the severity of each problem behavior reported, the Behavioral Addiction Measure was administered. A mixed design ANOVA was used to investigate symptom trajectories over time for each problem behavior and whether these symptom trajectories varied as a function of sex. The large majority of people reported having problematic over-involvement for just one of these behaviors and just in a single time period. A main effect of time was found for each problem behavior, indicating a moderately strong decrease in symptom severity across time. The time x sex interaction was insignificant in each model indicating that the decreasing trend is similar for males and females. The data also showed that help seeking was very low in the case of excessive sexual behavior, shopping, online chatting, and video gaming but substantially more prevalent in the case of excessive eating and

  14. Longitudinal study of prognostic factors in established periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machtei, E E; Dunford, R; Hausmann, E; Grossi, S G; Powell, J; Cummins, D; Zambon, J J; Genco, R J

    1997-02-01

    Numerous indicators for disease progression have been described in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to examine, longitudinally, a large battery of clinical, microbiological, and immunological indicators, to try to determine whether the presence of one or a combination of these parameters at baseline, would correlate positively with increased attachment and or bone loss (true prognostic factors). Following initial screening, 79 patients with established periodontitis were monitored longitudinally for one year. Whole mouth clinical measurements, plaque gingival and calculus indices, together with pocket depth and attachment level measurements, were repeated every three months. Full mouth radiographic survey, performed at baseline and 12 months, served to determine changes in crestal bone height using an image enhancement technique. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and every 3 months. Immunofluorescence assays were performed for the a battery of target microorganisms. Serum and GCF samples for IgG subclasses analysis were obtained at each visit and assayed using ELISA techniques. Likewise blood, samples were also drawn at each visit for a quantitative analysis of serum cotinine level. The overall mean attachment loss (AL) and bone loss (BL) were almost identical (0.159 mm and 0.164 mm, respectively). Individual patients variation was large (-0.733 to +1.004 mm). An overall 6.89% of sites were active; individual patients' means ranged from 0-28.9%. Mean pocket depth (PD) showed minimal change over the study period (-0.033 mm) thus suggesting that most if not all the AL was accompained by concomitant gingival recession. Smokers exhibited greater AL and radiographic BL compared to non-smokers. Likewise, patients' cotinine level showed direct correlation with outcomes of progressive periodontal breakdown. Past severity of periodontal involvement, as reflected in the patients baseline PD, AL and crestal bone height, showed good correlation

  15. Indicadores precoces da dislexia de desenvolvimento: um estudo longitudinal || Early indicators of dyslexia: a longitudinal study

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    Anabela Carvalho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A dislexia do desenvolvimento é frequentemente diagnosticada quando os problemas na aprendizagem da leitura já afetaram negativamente outras áreas académicas e até o bem-estar emocional. A pesquisa internacional aponta para a existência de alguns preditores desta perturbação da aprendizagem, permitindo uma intervenção atempada e preventiva. No entanto, as diferenças relativas ao código ortográfico do Português Europeu não nos permitem tirar ilações de estudos realizados noutros contextos linguísticos. Com este problema em mente, desenvolvemos um estudo longitudinal que pretende destacar os preditores da dislexia em crianças portuguesas. A investigação seguiu um plano longitudinal ao longo de três anos e os resultados obtidos junto de uma amostra de 200 crianças permitem identificar a existência de poder preditivo em duas variáveis: no conhecimento que a criança tem do nome das letras e no seu desempenho em tarefas de fluência verbal, mostrando a influência que os fatores relativos às dificuldades na aquisição do princípio alfabético e no acesso ao léxico terão na manifestação posterior de problemas na aquisição da leitura.

  16. An assessment of partition and transmutation against UK requirements for radioactive waste management: supporting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, R.; Crookshanks, C.E.; McAdams, R.; Rogers, J.M.; Sims, H.E.; Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    A study of partition and transmutation (P and T) has recently been reported: An Assessment of Partition and Transmutation Against UK Requirements for Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/RAS/96.007). The prospects were assessed for real safety or financial gains being made through the future use of partition and transmutation within the United Kingdom in radioactive waste management. The assessment was made by AEA Technology, on behalf of the Department of the Environment. The assessment was partly based on the results of a number of studies described here. (Author)

  17. Innovative Solutions for Companies to Reduce Gender Gaps (UK Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ANGHELUTA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years the gender gap has been a complex reality having economic implications and social decisiveness. No matter the percentage recently decreased, we still confront with social discriminations. In this paper we focused on the UK labour market so we developed a case study for a logistics company, using classification of the employees in different pay bands. Based on this study we created a state of the art human resource tool that can be applied worldwide and that help firms to analyse the root causes and to reduce the gender gap.

  18. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  19. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  20. Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahav, Orit; Daniely, Noa; Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira

    2018-01-01

    Service-learning (SL) is commonly used in Occupational Therapy (OT) programs worldwide as a community placement educational strategy. However, most SL models are not clearly defined in terms of both methodology and learning outcomes. This longitudinal study explores a structured model of Service-Learning (Interpersonal Social Responsibility-Service Learning: ISR-SL) aimed towards the development of professional identity among OT students. Based on OT students experiences from the end of the course through later stages as mature students and professionals. A qualitative research design was used to explore the perceptions and experiences of 150 first, second, and third-year OT students and graduates who have participated in ISR-SL during their first academic year. Our findings suggest that the structured, long-term relationship with a person with a disability in the natural environment, which is the core of the ISR-SL, allowed students to develop a professional identity based on seeing the person as a whole and recognizing his/her centrality in the therapeutic relationship. This study suggests ISR-SL as future direction or next step for implementing SL in OT and other healthcare disciplines programs.

  1. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  2. Intellectual development in Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Renée L; Janssen, Nikki; Wingbermühle, Ellen; Kessels, Roy P C; Egger, Jos I M

    2016-07-01

    Although cognitive impairments in adults with Noonan syndrome seem to be limited to a low-average intelligence and slower processing speed, studies in children with Noonan syndrome have demonstrated more extensive cognitive problems. These include deficits in language skills, memory, attention, and executive functioning. This longitudinal study is the first to investigate intellectual development in a group of individuals with Noonan syndrome. Sixteen patients with Noonan syndrome underwent intelligence assessment both in childhood and in adulthood, using Wechsler's intelligence scales. IQ scores and Wechsler standard scores achieved in childhood and adulthood were compared. Subsequently, verbal and performance IQ in childhood were used as predictors for adult IQ and index scores. Compared with childhood scores, adult full-scale IQ and performance IQ significantly increased. Adult performance IQ was higher than verbal IQ. Childhood performance IQ and verbal IQ together predicted all adult IQ and index scores, except for the processing speed index. Childhood IQ was a significant predictor of adult intelligence in patients with Noonan syndrome. Performance IQ advanced to a normal level in adulthood, while verbal IQ did not develop proportionately, resulting in a discrepancy between adult performance IQ and verbal IQ. This finding could suggest a delay in the development of executive functioning in patients with Noonan syndrome, which seems to be outgrown in adulthood.

  3. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras, Janice E; Newby, P K; Bakun, Peter J; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-02-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 +/- 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994-1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research.

  4. From prenatal anxiety to parenting stress: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizink, A C; Menting, B; De Moor, M H M; Verhage, M L; Kunseler, F C; Schuengel, C; Oosterman, M

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore how maternal mood during pregnancy, i.e., general anxiety, pregnancy-specific anxiety, and depression predicted parenting stress 3 months after giving birth, thereby shaping the child's early postnatal environmental circumstances. To this end, data were used from 1073 women participating in the Dutch longitudinal cohort Generations 2 , which studies first-time pregnant mothers during pregnancy and across the transition to parenthood. Women filled out the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire-revised (PRAQ-R), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) three times during pregnancy: at 12, 22, and 32 weeks gestational age. Three months postpartum, a parenting stress questionnaire was filled out yielding seven different parenting constructs. Latent scores were computed for each of the repeatedly measured maternal mood variables with Mplus and parenting stress constructs were simultaneously regressed on these latent scores. Results showed that trait anxiety and pregnancy-specific anxiety were uniquely related to almost all parenting stress constructs, taking depression into account. Early prevention and intervention to reduce maternal anxiety in pregnancy could hold the key for a more advantageous trajectory of early postnatal parenting.

  5. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  6. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  7. Orotracheal intubation and temporomandibular disorder: a longitudinal controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Branco Battistella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder in elective surgery patients who underwent orotracheal intubation. METHODS: This was a longitudinal controlled study with two groups. The study group included patients who underwent orotracheal intubation and a control group. We used the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire to assess the temporomandibular disorder signs and symptoms one-day postoperatively (T1, and the patients' baseline status prior to surgery (T0 was also recorded. The same questionnaire was used after three months (T2. The mouth opening amplitude was measured at T1 and T2. We considered a pvalue of less than 0.05 to be significant. RESULTS: We included 71 patients, with 38 in the study group and 33 in the control. There was no significant difference between the groups in age (study group: 66.0 [52.5-72.0]; control group: 54.0 [47.0-68.0]; p = 0.117 or in their belonging to the female gender (study group: 57.9%; control group: 63.6%; p = 0.621. At T1, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in the incidence of mouth opening limitation (study group: 23.7% vs. control group: 18.2%;p = 0.570 or in the mouth opening amplitude (study group: 45.0 [40.0-47.0] vs. control group: 46.0 [40.0-51.0];p = 0.278. At T2 we obtained similar findings. There was no significant difference in the affirmative response to all the individual questions in the American Academy of Orofacial Pain questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: In our population, the incidence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder of muscular origin was not different between the groups.

  8. The predictive validity of selection for entry into postgraduate training in general practice: evidence from three longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Fiona; Lievens, Filip; Kerrin, Máire; Munro, Neil; Irish, Bill

    2013-11-01

    The selection methodology for UK general practice is designed to accommodate several thousand applicants per year and targets six core attributes identified in a multi-method job-analysis study To evaluate the predictive validity of selection methods for entry into postgraduate training, comprising a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. A three-part longitudinal predictive validity study of selection into training for UK general practice. In sample 1, participants were junior doctors applying for training in general practice (n = 6824). In sample 2, participants were GP registrars 1 year into training (n = 196). In sample 3, participants were GP registrars sitting the licensing examination after 3 years, at the end of training (n = 2292). The outcome measures include: assessor ratings of performance in a selection centre comprising job simulation exercises (sample 1); supervisor ratings of trainee job performance 1 year into training (sample 2); and licensing examination results, including an applied knowledge examination and a 12-station clinical skills objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; sample 3). Performance ratings at selection predicted subsequent supervisor ratings of job performance 1 year later. Selection results also significantly predicted performance on both the clinical skills OSCE and applied knowledge examination for licensing at the end of training. In combination, these longitudinal findings provide good evidence of the predictive validity of the selection methods, and are the first reported for entry into postgraduate training. Results show that the best predictor of work performance and training outcomes is a combination of a clinical problem-solving test, a situational judgement test, and a selection centre. Implications for selection methods for all postgraduate specialties are considered.

  9. Accelerated Brain Aging in Schizophrenia: A Longitudinal Pattern Recognition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S

    2016-06-01

    Despite the multitude of longitudinal neuroimaging studies that have been published, a basic question on the progressive brain loss in schizophrenia remains unaddressed: Does it reflect accelerated aging of the brain, or is it caused by a fundamentally different process? The authors used support vector regression, a supervised machine learning technique, to address this question. In a longitudinal sample of 341 schizophrenia patients and 386 healthy subjects with one or more structural MRI scans (1,197 in total), machine learning algorithms were used to build models to predict the age of the brain and the presence of schizophrenia ("schizophrenia score"), based on the gray matter density maps. Age at baseline ranged from 16 to 67 years, and follow-up scans were acquired between 1 and 13 years after the baseline scan. Differences between brain age and chronological age ("brain age gap") and between schizophrenia score and healthy reference score ("schizophrenia gap") were calculated. Accelerated brain aging was calculated from changes in brain age gap between two consecutive measurements. The age prediction model was validated in an independent sample. In schizophrenia patients, brain age was significantly greater than chronological age at baseline (+3.36 years) and progressively increased during follow-up (+1.24 years in addition to the baseline gap). The acceleration of brain aging was not constant: it decreased from 2.5 years/year just after illness onset to about the normal rate (1 year/year) approximately 5 years after illness onset. The schizophrenia gap also increased during follow-up, but more pronounced variability in brain abnormalities at follow-up rendered this increase nonsignificant. The progressive brain loss in schizophrenia appears to reflect two different processes: one relatively homogeneous, reflecting accelerated aging of the brain and related to various measures of outcome, and a more variable one, possibly reflecting individual variation and

  10. Balance ability of 7 and 10 year old children in the population: results from a large UK birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphriss, Rachel; Hall, Amanda; May, Margaret; Macleod, John

    2011-01-01

    The literature contains many reports of balance function in children, but these are often on atypical samples taken from hospital-based clinics and may not be generalisable to the population as a whole. The purpose of the present study is to describe balance test results from a large UK-based birth cohort study. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were analysed. A total of 5402 children completed the heel-to-toe walking test at age 7 years. At age 10 years, 6915 children underwent clinical tests of balance including beam-walking, standing heel-to-toe on a beam and standing on one leg. A proportion of the children returned to the clinic for retesting within 3 months allowing test-retest agreement to be measured. Frequency distributions for each of the balance tests are given. Correlations between measures of dynamic balance at ages 7 and 10 years were weak. The static balance of 10 year old children was found to be poorer with eyes closed than with eyes open, and poorer in boys than in girls for all measures. Balance on one leg was poorer than heel-to-toe balance on a beam. A significant learning effect was found when first and second attempts of the tests were compared. Measures of static and dynamic balance appeared independent. Consistent with previous reports in the literature, test-retest reliability was found to be low. This study provides information about the balance ability of children aged 7 and 10 years and provides clinicians with reference data for balance tests commonly used in the paediatric clinic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography in the UK Biobank Study - Rapid Automated Analysis of Retinal Thickness for Large Population-Based Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearse A Keane

    Full Text Available To describe an approach to the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging in large, population-based studies, including methods for OCT image acquisition, storage, and the remote, rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness.In UK Biobank, OCT images were acquired between 2009 and 2010 using a commercially available "spectral domain" OCT device (3D OCT-1000, Topcon. Images were obtained using a raster scan protocol, 6 mm x 6 mm in area, and consisting of 128 B-scans. OCT image sets were stored on UK Biobank servers in a central repository, adjacent to high performance computers. Rapid, automated analysis of retinal thickness was performed using custom image segmentation software developed by the Topcon Advanced Biomedical Imaging Laboratory (TABIL. This software employs dual-scale gradient information to allow for automated segmentation of nine intraretinal boundaries in a rapid fashion.67,321 participants (134,642 eyes in UK Biobank underwent OCT imaging of both eyes as part of the ocular module. 134,611 images were successfully processed with 31 images failing segmentation analysis due to corrupted OCT files or withdrawal of subject consent for UKBB study participation. Average time taken to call up an image from the database and complete segmentation analysis was approximately 120 seconds per data set per login, and analysis of the entire dataset was completed in approximately 28 days.We report an approach to the rapid, automated measurement of retinal thickness from nearly 140,000 OCT image sets from the UK Biobank. In the near future, these measurements will be publically available for utilization by researchers around the world, and thus for correlation with the wealth of other data collected in UK Biobank. The automated analysis approaches we describe may be of utility for future large population-based epidemiological studies, clinical trials, and screening programs that employ OCT imaging.

  12. Longitudinal study of leptin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averbukh Zhan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of serum leptin levels on nutritional status and survival in chronic hemodialysis patients remained to be elucidated. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study of leptin levels and nutritional parameters to determine whether changes of serum leptin levels modify nutritional status and survival in a cohort of prevalent hemodialysis patients. Methods Leptin, dietary energy and protein intake, biochemical markers of nutrition and body composition (anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis were measured at baseline and at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months following enrollment, in 101 prevalent hemodialysis patients (37% women with a mean age of 64.6 ± 11.5 years. Observation of this cohort was continued over 2 additional years. Changes in repeated measures were evaluated, with adjustment for baseline differences in demographic and clinical parameters. Results Significant reduction of leptin levels with time were observed (linear estimate: -2.5010 ± 0.57 ng/ml/2y; p Conclusions Thus leptin levels reflect fat mass depots, rather than independently contributing to uremic anorexia or modifying nutritional status and/or survival in chronic hemodialysis patients. The importance of such information is high if leptin is contemplated as a potential therapeutic target in hemodialysis patients.

  13. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  14. Mild traumatic brain injury and fatigue: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrie, Joan; Heitger, Marcus; Leathem, Janet; Anderson, Tim; Jones, Richard; Flett, Ross

    2010-01-01

    To examine fatigue prevalence, severity, predictors and co-variates over 6 months post-mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Longitudinal prospective study including 263 adults with MTBI. Participants completed the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Short Form 36 Health Survey-Version 2 (SF-36v2). Complete data were available for 159 participants. Key measures; prevalence--RPSQ Item 6: severity--FSS. The effect of time on fatigue prevalence and severity was examined using ANOVA. Multiple regression analysis identified statistically significant covariates. Post-MTBI fatigue prevalence was 68%, 38% and 34% at 1 week, 3 and 6 months, respectively. There was a strong effect for time over the first 3 months and moderate-to-high correlations between fatigue prevalence and severity. Early fatigue strongly predicted later fatigue; depression, but not anxiety was a predictor. Fatigue was seen as laziness by family or friends in 30% of cases. Post-MTBI fatigue is a persistent post-concussion symptom, exacerbated by depression but not anxiety. It diminishes in the first 3 months and then becomes relatively stable, suggesting the optimum intervention placement is at 3 months or more post-MTBI.

  15. Religiousness, spiritual seeking, and personality: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Paul; Ciciolla, Lucia; Dillon, Michele; Tracy, Allison

    2007-10-01

    The hypothesis that personality characteristics in adolescence can be used to predict religiousness and spiritual seeking in late adulthood was tested using a structural equation modeling framework to estimate cross-lagged and autoregressive effects in a two-wave panel design. The sample consisted of 209 men and women participants in the Berkeley Guidance and Oakland Growth studies. In late adulthood, religiousness was positively related to Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and spiritual seeking was related to Openness to Experience. Longitudinal models indicated that Conscientiousness in adolescence significantly predicted religiousness in late adulthood above and beyond adolescent religiousness. Similarly, Openness in adolescence predicted spiritual seeking in late adulthood. The converse effect, adolescent religiousness to personality in late adulthood, was not significant in either model. Among women, adolescent Agreeableness predicted late-life religiousness and adolescent religiousness predicted late-life Agreeableness; both these effects were absent among men. Adolescent personality appears to shape late-life religiousness and spiritual seeking independent of early religious socialization.

  16. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE's are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. A longitudinal study with a 6 months' time interval ( N  =   103). At T1 demographics, workplace violence and potentially traumatic events in the past year, mental health, personality, handling of rules, coping and social organizational stressors were assessed. Confrontations with aggression were also examined at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only problems with superiors independently predicted repeated verbal aggression and that only the (absence of the) ability to compromise very easily predicted repeatedly being on guard and repeatedly confronted with any form of aggression. Due to very low prevalences, we could not examine predictors of repeated confrontations with physical aggression ( N  =   5) and serious threat ( N  =   7). A large majority reported that in most workplace violence cases they could prevent further escalations. About 2% reported a potentially traumatic event in the year before T1 that was WPV related and perceived as very stressful.

  17. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Loprinzi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female. Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03. Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior.

  18. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  19. Are chiropractors in the uk primary healthcare or primary contact practitioners?: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones-Harris Amanda R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the debates regarding the role of chiropractors is whether or not they should be considered as primary healthcare practitioners. Primary care is often used to describe chiropractic but without any definition of what is meant by the term. Primary healthcare itself has many definitions and this adds to the problem. Existing research literature, based mostly in the USA, suggests that the use of the title "primary healthcare professional" by chiropractors is central to the identity of the profession. It has also been suggested that the concept of primary care is misused by chiropractors because they have not examined the concept in detail and thus do not understand it. For the sake of quality of patient care and for the legitimacy of the profession, chiropractors in the UK need to agree on their healthcare role. This study aimed to examine the opinions of chiropractors towards the use of the term primary healthcare when applied to chiropractic practice within the UK. Methods A sequential study of exploratory design was used; this model is characterised by an initial phase of qualitative data collection and analysis that precedes and informs the quantitative phase of data collection and analysis. In this study, interviews with members of chiropractic teaching faculty were used to inform the development of a questionnaire used to survey the opinions of chiropractors in the UK. Results There was a general consensus of opinion that chiropractors are primary contact practitioners, who work in a primary healthcare setting and that to be able to fulfil this healthcare role, chiropractors must be able to diagnose patients and refer when required. Participants did not feel that chiropractors are able to treat all of the most common medical conditions that present in a primary healthcare setting. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that chiropractors in the UK view their role as one of a primary contact healthcare

  20. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  1. Depleted uranium: A study of its uses in the UK and disposal issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Bob

    2002-03-01

    Full text: The Environment Agency recently published a contract R and D report, by John Jackson of Alan Martin Associates, on depleted uranium (DU). The report documents a scoping study on the uses of DU; the civil non-nuclear applications for DU were a particular focus of the scoping study. The study was commissioned following a series of DU related incidents, including the crash of the Korean Airlines' Boeing 747 at Stansted in late 1999. There had also been an assertion in the Guardian (21 August 2000) that as much as 50 tonnes of DU is lying in UK scrapyards. The report confirms that the quantities referred to in the Guardian are groundless. The report provides information and guidance to the Agency's staff who regulate radioactive substances in England and Wales. The report does not attempt to review the health effects of DU (separate health studies have been carried out by the Royal Society and others). A range of non-nuclear uses of DU are identified in the report: Transportable shielded containers for radioactive sources, Aircraft counterbalance weights, Piling equipment (civil engineering), Radiation shielding (hospitals, universities, etc), Armour piercing ammunition, Uranium catalysts, and Ceramic glazes. The report concludes that there is, in total, less than 50 tonnes of DU in use in the UK outside of military and nuclear applications. The report identifies the aircraft salvage and recycling industry as having a significant risk of DU being lost from regulatory control. (Awareness and vigilance need to be maintained; in February 2001 in Ohio, USA, 53 tonnes of aluminium ingots from an aircraft recycling operation were found to be contaminated with DU from counterweights that had not been segregated prior to smelting.) The report highlights the absence of a UK disposal route for substantial quantities of DU. The BNFL site at Drigg cannot accept DU because in its undiluted state it is categorised as intermediate level waste. Whilst redundant DU

  2. Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E; van Oppen, Patricia; van Schaik, Digna J F; van der Does, A J Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the importance of psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. Knowledge about psychological differences between chronically depressed persons and nonchronically depressed persons may help to improve treatment of chronic depression. This is the first study to simultaneously compare in large samples various psychological characteristics between chronically depressed and nonchronically depressed adults. Baseline data were drawn from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA), an ongoing longitudinal cohort study aimed at examining the long-term course of depressive and anxiety disorders in different health care settings and phases of illness. Participants were aged 18 to 65 years at the baseline assessment in 2004-2007 and had a current diagnosis of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (N = 1,002). Chronicity of depression was defined as being depressed for 24 months or more in the past 4 to 5 years. The chronicity criterion was fulfilled by 31% (n = 312). The NEO Five-Factor Inventory measured the 5 personality domains, the Leiden Index of Depression Sensitivity-Revised was used to measure cognitive reactivity (eg, hopelessness, rumination), and the Mastery Scale measured external locus of control. Compared to the nonchronically depressed persons, the chronically depressed persons reported significantly higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.55-2.12; P testing these variables multivariably, the odds of chronic depression were significantly increased among those with low extraversion (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61-0.88; P = .001), high rumination (OR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.01-1.53; P = .04), and high external locus of control (OR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.21-1.80; P psychological characteristics for chronicity of depression. These findings provide suggestions for more specific interventions, focused on extraversion, rumination, and external locus of control, in the treatment of chronic depression. © Copyright 2011

  3. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salines Georges

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year as well as medical interview (at 2 years and examination (at 6 years. Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development.

  4. Have health inequalities changed during childhood in the New Labour generation? Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougeaux, Emeline; Hope, Steven; Law, Catherine; Pearce, Anna

    2017-01-11

    To examine how population-level socioeconomic health inequalities developed during childhood, for children born at the turn of the 21st century and who grew up with major initiatives to tackle health inequalities (under the New Labour Government). The UK. Singleton children in the Millennium Cohort Study at ages 3 (n=15 381), 5 (n=15 041), 7 (n=13 681) and 11 (n=13 112) years. Relative (prevalence ratios (PR)) and absolute health inequalities (prevalence differences (PD)) were estimated in longitudinal models by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC; using highest maternal academic attainment, ranging from 'no academic qualifications' to 'degree' (baseline)). Three health outcomes were examined: overweight (including obesity), limiting long-standing illness (LLSI), and socio-emotional difficulties (SED). Relative and absolute inequalities in overweight, across the social gradient, emerged by age 5 and increased with age. By age 11, children with mothers who had no academic qualifications were considerably more likely to be overweight as compared with those with degree-educated mothers (PR=1.6 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.8), PD=12.9% (9.1% to 16.8%)). For LLSI, inequalities emerged by age 7 and remained at 11, but only for children whose mothers had no academic qualifications (PR=1.7 (1.3 to 2.3), PD=4.8% (2% to 7.5%)). Inequalities in SED (observed across the social gradient and at all ages) declined between 3 and 11, although remained large at 11 (eg, PR=2.4 (1.9 to 2.9), PD=13.4% (10.2% to 16.7%) comparing children whose mothers had no academic qualifications with those of degree-educated mothers). Although health inequalities have been well documented in cross-sectional and trend data in the UK, it is less clear how they develop during childhood. We found that relative and absolute health inequalities persisted, and in some cases widened, for a cohort of children born at the turn of the century. Further research examining and comparing the pathways through which SECs

  5. Advertising Appeals and Cultural Values in Social Media Commercials in UK, Brasil and India: Case Study of Nokia and Samsung

    OpenAIRE

    Han Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to investigate the impact of culture on advertising appeals in mobile phone industry via social media channel in UK, Brazil and India. Content analysis on Samsung and Nokia commercials in YouTube is conducted. The result indicates that the advertising appeals are both congruent and incongruent with cultural dimensions in UK, Brazil and India. The result suggests that Hofstede and value paradoxes might be the tools to predict the relationshi...

  6. International study for an international career: a survey of the motivations and aspirations of international students in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Packwood, Helen; Findlay, Allan; McCollum, David

    2015-01-01

    There are currently 435,000 international students studying in UK Universities. This paper investigates the forces driving student mobility and the relationship between student migration and future mobility plans. The research, based on a survey of over 3000 international students and interviews with senior staff in International Offices at ten UK Universities confirms the importance of understanding international student mobility as part of wider mobility trajectories.

  7. GM2 gangliosidosis in a UK study of children with progressive neurodegeneration: 73 cases reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas J; Winstone, Anne Marie; Stellitano, Lesley; Cox, Timothy M; Verity, Christopher M

    2012-02-01

    To report the demographic, phenotypic, and time-to-diagnosis characteristics of children with GM2 gangliosidosis referred to the UK study of Progressive Intellectual and Neurological Deterioration. Case notification is made via monthly surveillance card, administered by the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit to all UK-based paediatricians; children with GM2 gangliosidosis were identified from cases satisfying inclusion in the UK study of Progressive Intellectual and Neurological Deterioration and analysed according to phenotypic and biochemical categories. Between May 1997 and January 2010, 73 individuals with GM2 gangliosidoses were reported: 40 with Tay-Sachs disease, 31 with Sandhoff disease, and two with GM2 activator protein deficiency. Together they account for 6% (73/1164) of all diagnosed cases of progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration. The majority (62/73) were sporadic index cases with no family history. Children of Pakistani ancestry were overrepresented in all subtypes, particularly juvenile Sandhoff disease, accounting for 10 of 11 notified cases. Infantile-onset variants predominated (55/73); the mean age at onset of symptoms was 6.2 and 4.7 months for infantile-onset Tay-Sachs and Sandhoff disease respectively, and 26.2 and 34.7 months for the corresponding juvenile-onset variants. Time to diagnosis averaged 7.4 months and 28.0 months in infantile- and juvenile-onset disease respectively. GM2 gangliosidosis is a significant cause of childhood neurodegenerative disease; timely diagnosis relies upon improved clinical recognition, which may be increasingly important as specific therapies become available. There is a potential benefit from the introduction of screening programmes for high-risk ethnic groups. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Depleted uranium. A study of its uses within the UK and disposal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.H.

    2001-01-01

    A number of events during recent years have triggered a need for the Environment Agency to confirm its understanding of the various uses to which depleted uranium (DU) has been and is being put, where it may be found in the UK, and the disposal consequences. A scoping study has been performed of DU usage in the UK; it is not an exhaustive study and it does not examine any health issues. By far the largest quantities of DU are to be found in the nuclear fuel cycle but the main focus of this report is to examine the uses of DU outside this area. An indication is provided of the most likely premises where DU is to be found and these are principally in the aircraft, ammunitions production, non-destructive testing, radioactive source supply industries, in hospitals and, to a lesser extent, in research and teaching establishments. The study reveals that accounting for DU varies in the UK depending on the application, user organisation and location. Areas to improve control are recommended, particularly in the application of the Radioactive Substances Act 1993 and in the formalised and more systematic exchange of information between the Environment Agency and the Department of Trade and Industry about holders, inventories and locations of DU. In regard to the civil aircraft industry, it is suggested that there should be improved provision of information passing with an aircraft either for resale or, more particularly, for scrapping in view of the fact that more older aircraft containing DU may be coming to the end of their lifespan. A way forward may be for the regulating bodies to jointly discuss with the industry the issues and perhaps the provision of guidance. Because of the international character of this issue, resolution may prove difficult. It is also suggested that the awareness of the amount of DU in linacs and teletherapy machines in hospitals could be improved, an aspect which may be of growing importance in view of the apparent gradual reduction of the use of

  9. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  10. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillard, Angeline S; Heise, Megan J; Richey, Eve M; Tong, Xin; Hart, Alyssa; Bray, Paige M

    2017-01-01

    Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3-6), on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children's outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking) significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori preschools is warranted.

  11. Montessori Preschool Elevates and Equalizes Child Outcomes: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeline S. Lillard

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality preschool programs that develop the whole child through age-appropriate socioemotional and cognitive skill-building hold promise for significantly improving child outcomes. However, preschool programs tend to either be teacher-led and didactic, or else to lack academic content. One preschool model that involves both child-directed, freely chosen activity and academic content is Montessori. Here we report a longitudinal study that took advantage of randomized lottery-based admission to two public Montessori magnet schools in a high-poverty American city. The final sample included 141 children, 70 in Montessori and 71 in other schools, most of whom were tested 4 times over 3 years, from the first semester to the end of preschool (ages 3–6, on a variety of cognitive and socio-emotional measures. Montessori preschool elevated children’s outcomes in several ways. Although not different at the first test point, over time the Montessori children fared better on measures of academic achievement, social understanding, and mastery orientation, and they also reported relatively more liking of scholastic tasks. They also scored higher on executive function when they were 4. In addition to elevating overall performance on these measures, Montessori preschool also equalized outcomes among subgroups that typically have unequal outcomes. First, the difference in academic achievement between lower income Montessori and higher income conventionally schooled children was smaller at each time point, and was not (statistically speaking significantly different at the end of the study. Second, defying the typical finding that executive function predicts academic achievement, in Montessori classrooms children with lower executive function scored as well on academic achievement as those with higher executive function. This suggests that Montessori preschool has potential to elevate and equalize important outcomes, and a larger study of public Montessori

  12. Changes in taste preference after colorectal surgery: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welchman, Sophie; Hiotis, Perryhan; Pengelly, Steven; Hughes, Georgina; Halford, Jason; Christiansen, Paul; Lewis, Stephen

    2015-10-01

    Nutrition is a key component of surgical enhanced recovery programmes. However, alterations in food preferences are often reported as reasons for patients not eating in the early postoperative period. We hypothesised that taste preferences are altered in the early postoperative period and this dysgeusia affects patients' food choices during this critical time. This is a longitudinal study looking at taste preferences of patients recovering from surgery. Patients undergoing colonic resections were recruited. Using visual analogue scales participants completed a questionnaire, taste tests and preference scoring of food images for the 6 groups of taste (bitter, salty, savoury, sour, spicy and sweet) preoperatively and on postoperative days 1-3. Patients were also offered snacks postoperatively, which represented foods from the six groups and consumption was measured. Differences from baseline were assessed using the Friedman's and Wilcoxon tests. 31 patients were studied. In the immediate postoperative period participants reported deterioration in their sense of taste (p ≤ 0.001), increased nausea (p palatability for salty taste increased (p = 0.001) following surgery. The highest rated images were for savoury food with only the ratings for salty food increasing after surgery (p foods in the postoperative period. Bitter, sour and spicy foods were the least frequently consumed. This is the first study to investigate postsurgical patients' food preferences. A consistent change in all the individual tastes with the exception of salty in the postoperative period was observed. The most desirable tastes were for savoury and sweet, reflecting patients' preoperative preferences. An improved understanding of taste may improve the resumption of eating after colonic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassady Diana L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55, and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend, season (warm/cool, sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and

  14. Perceived causes of differential attainment in UK postgraduate medical training: a national qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Katherine; Rich, Antonia; Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann

    2016-11-25

    Explore trainee doctors' experiences of postgraduate training and perceptions of fairness in relation to ethnicity and country of primary medical qualification. Qualitative semistructured focus group and interview study. Postgraduate training in England (London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent Surrey and Sussex) and Wales. 137 participants (96 trainees, 41 trainers) were purposively sampled from a framework comprising: doctors from all stages of training in general practice, medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, psychiatry, radiology, surgery or foundation, in 4 geographical areas, from white and black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds, who qualified in the UK and abroad. Most trainees described difficult experiences, but BME UK graduates (UKGs) and international medical graduates (IMGs) could face additional difficulties that affected their learning and performance. Relationships with senior doctors were crucial to learning but bias was perceived to make these relationships more problematic for BME UKGs and IMGs. IMGs also had to deal with cultural differences and lack of trust from seniors, often looking to IMG peers for support instead. Workplace-based assessment and recruitment were considered vulnerable to bias whereas examinations were typically considered more rigorous. In a system where success in recruitment and assessments determines where in the country you can get a job, and where work-life balance is often poor, UK BME and international graduates in our sample were more likely to face separation from family and support outside of work, and reported more stress, anxiety or burnout that hindered their learning and performance. A culture in which difficulties are a sign of weakness made seeking support and additional training stigmatising. BME UKGs and IMGs can face additional difficulties in training which may impede learning and performance. Non-stigmatising interventions should focus on trainee-trainer relationships at work and organisational changes to

  15. Domestic violence teaching in UK medical schools: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lucy C; Feder, Gene

    2017-10-06

    Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a leading contributor to the physical and mental ill health of women. Recent international guidance recommends that undergraduate medical curricula should include DVA. We do not know what is currently taught about DVA to medical students in the UK. Recent international guidance recommends that undergraduate medical curricula should include DVA METHOD: Teaching leads from all UK medical schools (n = 34) were invited to participate in an 18-item online survey about what DVA education is provided, their views of this provision and any feedback provided by students. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. A total of 25 out of 34 medical schools participated in the survey (74%). All respondents felt that there should be formal teaching on DVA in the medical curriculum. Eighty-four per cent of respondents reported that there was some formal teaching in their medical school, and 90% of these reported that it was mandatory. Of those who delivered some teaching, 52% reported that the provision was 0-2 hours in total. Most commonly content was delivered in year 4. DVA teaching was delivered in different modules, by different methods and delivered by a range of different providers. Seventy-five per cent of respondents reported that they felt the provision at their medical school was inadequate or not enough. Barriers to providing DVA education identified included time constraints, failure to perceive it as a medical problem and the assumption that it will be covered elsewhere. Most medical students in the UK receive a small amount of teaching on DVA towards the end of the curriculum. This is perceived as inadequate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  16. Orthodontic treatment stability predictors: A retrospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernabé, Paloma González-Gil; Montiel-Company, José María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, Jose Luis; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    To examine medium- to long-term orthodontic treatment stability and its possible association with certain variables. In a retrospective longitudinal study of 70 postretention patients, the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) index was measured at the start (T1) and end (T2) of treatment and between 4 and 10 years afterwards (T3). The stability was considered absolute when the T2 and T3 values were identical and relative when the difference was within the ±5 range. Among the 70 patients, 65.8% were female and 34.2% were male. Their mean age was 14.5 years. The mean treatment length was 2.4 years. The mean retention phase was 3.3 years. The mean pre- and posttreatment PAR scores were 29.8 (T1) and 6.3 (T2). The mean T1-T2 difference was 23.6. The mean T2-T3 difference was -0.39. Within the study, 7.1% presented absolute stability and 68.6% presented relative stability. Lower anterior segment alignment and overbite were the most unstable occlusal features and tended to worsen. Fixed retainer (odds ratio [OR] 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.10-0.98) as a protective factor and years without retention (OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.03-1.68) as a risk factor are predictor variables of instability in the case of lower anterior segment alignment. The PAR value at the end of treatment (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.08-1.54) and extractions (OR 4.76; 95% CI 1.05-21.6) before treatment are predictors for midline instability.

  17. Lifestyle factors affecting fruit and vegetable consumption in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, J; Greenwood, D; Kirk, S; Cade, J

    2001-08-01

    The UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS) was originally set up to look at morbidity and mortality data on subjects with a wide range of dietary intakes including vegans, lacto-ovo vegetarians, non-red meat eaters and red meat eaters. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors that affect fruit and vegetable consumption within this particular cohort of women. Females of ages 35-69 years, taking part in the UK Women's Cohort Study (N=35 367), provided health and lifestyle information including a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. In multiple logistic regression, the strongest predictors of a higher reported level of fruit and vegetable consumption were being a vegetarian or vegan, taking vitamin or mineral supplements, being married, educated to A-level or degree level and belonging to a higher socio-economic group. Conversely, smokers were found to be only half as likely as non-smokers to be high fruit and vegetable consumers. These lifestyle distinctions among three levels of reported fruit and vegetable consumption are relevant to the future targeting of health promotion strategies. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  18. Research priorities for respiratory nursing: a UK-wide Delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Melissa; Hodson, Matthew; Welch, Lindsay; Yorke, Janelle

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory nurses make a significant contribution to the delivery of respiratory healthcare, but there is a dearth of nurse-led, practice-focused, published research. Using a modified three-round Delphi, this study sought to identify research priorities for respiratory nursing to inform a national research strategy. Study information and the survey link were sent electronically to members of UK professional respiratory organisations. Round 1 had 78 items across 16 topics, informed by a systematic literature review. Respondents suggested additional items which were content analysed to inform Round 2. Respondents rated all items and ranked the topics in all rounds. To ensure rigour, rounds had an explicit focus with pre-determined criteria for consensus (70%). In total, 363 responses were received across Rounds 1, 2 and 3 (n=183, 95 and 85, respectively). The top five research priorities were: 1) “Patient understanding of asthma control”; 2) “The clinical and cost-effectiveness of respiratory nurse interventions”; 3) “The impact of nurse-led clinics on patient care”; 4) “Inhaler technique”; and 5) two topics jointly scored: “Prevention of exacerbations” and “Symptom management”. With potential international significance, this is the first UK study to identify research priorities for respiratory nursing, providing direction for those planning or undertaking research. PMID:29692999

  19. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  20. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Behaviors and Their Causal Relationship to Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Junyeop

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at investigating the causal effects of social behaviors on subsequent reading growth in elementary school, using the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten" ("ECLS-K") data. The sample was 8,869 subjects who provided longitudinal measures of reading IRT scores from kindergarten (1998-1999) to fifth…

  2. Ultrafast X-ray absorption study of longitudinal-transverse phonon coupling in electrolyte aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Yishuo; Adams, Bernhard W.; Dohn, Asmus Ougaard

    2017-01-01

    Ultrafast X-ray absorption spectroscopy is applied to study the conversion of longitudinal to transverse phonons in aqueous solution. Permanganate solutes serve as X-ray probe molecules that permit the measurement of the conversion of 13.5 GHz, longitudinal phonons to 27 GHz, transverse phonons...

  3. Organisational perspectives on addressing differential attainment in postgraduate medical education: a qualitative study in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Katherine; Viney, Rowena; Rich, Antonia; Jayaweera, Hirosha; Griffin, Ann

    2018-03-09

    To explore how representatives from organisations with responsibility for doctors in training perceive risks to the educational progression of UK medical graduates from black and minority ethnic groups (BME UKGs), and graduates of non-UK medical schools (international medical graduates (IMGs)). To identify the barriers to and facilitators of change. Qualitative semistructured individual and group interview study. Postgraduate medical education in the UK. Individuals with roles in examinations and/or curriculum design from UK medical Royal Colleges. Employees of NHS Employers. Representatives from 11 medical Royal Colleges (n=29) and NHS Employers (n=2) took part (55% medically qualified, 61% male, 71% white British/Irish, 23% Asian/Asian British, 6% missing ethnicity). Risks were perceived as significant, although more so for IMGs than for BME UKGs. Participants based significance ratings on evidence obtained largely through personal experience. A lack of evidence led to downgrading of significance. Participants were pessimistic about effecting change, two main barriers being sensitivities around race and the isolation of interventions. Participants felt that organisations should acknowledge problems, but felt concerned about being transparent without a solution; and talking about race with trainees was felt to be difficult. Participants mentioned 63 schemes aiming to address differential attainment, but these were typically local or specialty-specific, were not aimed at BME UKGs and were largely unevaluated. Participants felt that national change was needed, but only felt empowered to effect change locally or within their specialty. Representatives from organisations responsible for training doctors perceived the risks faced by BME UKGs and IMGs as significant but difficult to change. Strategies to help organisations address these risks include: increased openness to discussing race (including ethnic differences in attainment among UKGs); better sharing of

  4. Longitudinal study of computerized cardiotocography in early fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, H.; Arabin, B.; Lees, Christoph C.; Oepkes, D.; Prefumo, Federico; Thilaganathan, B.; Todros, T.; Visser, G.H.A.; Bilardo, Caterina M.; Derks, J. B.; Diemert, A.; Duvekot, Johannes J.; Ferrazzi, E.; Frusca, T.; Hecher, K.; Marlow, N.; Martinelli, P.; Ostermayer, E.; Papageorghiou, Aris T.; Scheepers, Hubertina C. J.; Schlembach, D.; Schneider, K. T M; Valcamonico, A.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, A.; Ganzevoort, W.; Aktas, Ayse; Borgione, Silvia; Brezinka, Christoph; Calvert, Sandra; Chaoui, Rabih; Cornette, Jerome M J; Diehl, Thilo; van Eyck, Jim; Fratelli, Nicola; van Haastert, Inge Lot; Johnson, Samantha; Lobmaier, Silvia; Lopriore, Enrico; Mansi, Giuseppina; Missfelder-Lobos, Hannah; Martelli, Paola; Maso, Gianpaolo; Maurer-Fellbaum, Ute; Van Charante, Nico Mensing; De Tollenaer, Susanne Mulder; Moore, Tamanna; Napolitano, Raffaele; Oberto, Manuela; Ogge, Giovanna; van der Post, Joris Am; Preston, Lucy; Raimondi, Francesco; Reiss, Irwin K M; Rigano, Serena; Schuit, Ewoud; Skabar, Aldo; Spaanderman, Marc E.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Zimmermann, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore whether, in early fetal growth restriction (FGR), the longitudinal pattern of fetal heart rate (FHR) short-term variation (STV) can be used to identify imminent fetal distress and whether abnormalities of FHR recordings are associated with 2-year infant outcome. Methods: The

  5. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  7. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  8. The design briefing process matters: a case study on telehealthcare device providers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Renda, Gianni

    2018-01-23

    The telehealthcare sector has been expanding steadily in the UK. However, confusing, complex and unwieldy designs of telehealthcare devices are at best, less effective than they could be, at worst, they are potentially dangerous to the users. This study investigated the factors within the new product development process that hindered satisfactory product design outcomes, through working collaboratively with a leading provider based in the UK. This study identified that there are too many costly late-stage design changes; a critical and persistent problem area ripe for improvement. The findings from analyzing 30 recent devices, interviewing key stakeholders and observing on-going projects further revealed that one major cause of the issue was poor practice in defining and communicating the product design criteria and requirements. Addressing the characteristics of the telehealthcare industry, such as multiple design commissioners and frequent deployment of design subcontracts, this paper argues that undertaking a robust process of creating the product design brief is the key to improving the outcomes of telehealthcare device design, particularly for the small and medium-sized enterprises dominating the sector. Implications for rehabilitation Product design criteria and requirements are frequently ill-defined and ineffectively communicated to the designers within the processes of developing new telehealthcare devices. The absence of a (robust) process of creating the design brief is the root cause of the identified issues in defining and communicating the design task. Deploying a formal process of creating the product design brief is particularly important for the telehealthcare sector.

  9. A scoping study: demand side measures on the UK electrical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The study is intended to eventually bring about a number of improvements in the UK electrical system, particularly in regard to Demand Side Management (DSM). Among the benefits envisaged are (a) increased security of supply when the network is under stress; (b) reduction in costs; (c) simpler outage management; (d) carbon saving and (e) increased energy efficiency. So far, these potential benefits have attracted little attention in the residential and small business sectors of the market: suggested reasons for this are listed. Taking into account the experience of other countries, three options are presented for a UK DSM programme: they are (i) customer initiated; (ii) supplier initiated and (iii) distributor initiated. At present, all the suggested options need further study and to aid the development for small customers, five possible initiatives are suggested. This final report (95 pages) includes a detailed description of the research required and a tender process for a customer-initiated programme. The report was prepared by KEMA Limited under contract to the DTI.

  10. A scoping study: demand side measures on the UK electrical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The study is intended to eventually bring about a number of improvements in the UK electrical system, particularly in regard to Demand Side Management (DSM). Among the benefits envisaged are (a) increased security of supply when the network is under stress; (b) reduction in costs; (c) simpler outage management; (d) carbon saving and (e) increased energy efficiency. So far, these potential benefits have attracted little attention in the residential and small business sectors of the market: suggested reasons for this are listed. Taking into account the experience of other countries, three options are presented for a UK DSM programme: they are (i) customer initiated; (ii) supplier initiated and (iii) distributor initiated. At present, all the suggested options need further study and to aid the development for small customers, five possible initiatives are suggested. This final report (95 pages) includes a detailed description of the research required and a tender process for a customer-initiated programme. The report was prepared by KEMA Limited under contract to the DTI

  11. Understanding the culture of antimicrobial prescribing in agriculture: a qualitative study of UK pig veterinary surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, L. A.; Latham, S. M.; Williams, N. J.; Dawson, S.; Donald, I. J.; Pearson, R. B.; Smith, R. F.; Pinchbeck, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been linked with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial populations, with consequences for animal and public health. This study explored the underpinning drivers, motivators and reasoning behind prescribing decisions made by veterinary surgeons working in the UK pig industry. Methods A qualitative interview study was conducted with 21 veterinary surgeons purposively selected from all UK pig veterinary surgeons. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts. Results Ensuring optimum pig health and welfare was described as a driver for antimicrobial use by many veterinary surgeons and was considered a professional and moral obligation. Veterinary surgeons also exhibited a strong sense of social responsibility over the need to ensure that antimicrobial use was responsible. A close relationship between management practices, health and economics was evident, with improvements in management commonly identified as being potential routes to reduce antimicrobial usage; however, these were not always considered economically viable. The relationship with clients was identified as being a source of professional stress for practitioners due to pressure from farmers requesting antimicrobial prescriptions, and concern over poor compliance of antimicrobial administration by some farmers. Conclusions The drivers behind prescribing decisions by veterinary surgeons were complex and diverse. A combination of education, improving communication between veterinary surgeons and farmers, and changes in regulations, in farm management and in consumer/retailer demands may all be needed to ensure that antimicrobial prescribing is optimal and to achieve significant reductions in use. PMID:27516473

  12. Sociocultural factors in public acceptance: comparative risk studies involving France, the USA and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poumadere, M.; Mays, C.

    1995-12-31

    Examples are given of two types of comparative study that explore the sociocultural factors that shape public attitudes. In the first, public perceptions of nuclear power were assessed by answers to a questionnaire on a broad range of factors by 1500 people in France and the USA. A degree of homogeniety was observed in the responses from France and the USA. Strikingly, both populations agreed in their evaluation of the health risk represented by nuclear power plant. Thus the apparently greater acceptance of nuclear power in France does not seem to be associated with a lesser perception of risk. However, presented with the statement ``We can trust the experts and engineers who build, operate and regulate nuclear power`` 66% of the French agreed compared to only 43% of the Americans. These results reflect two different types of relationship between society and authority. In the second study the approach to gaining public trust and acceptance in the siting of nuclear waste research facilities was compared between the UK and France. Striking differences were found. In this case, too, an explanation can be put forward in terms of the sociocultural variables which influence institutional decision making, particularly in the role and form given to authority. (UK).

  13. Use of social media by Western European hospitals: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Belt, Tom H; Berben, Sivera A A; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien J L P G; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-05-01

    Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health care.

  14. Electronic cigarette: a longitudinal study of regular vapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2017-06-07

    It is unclear how vaping behaviour changes over time in regular vapers, and what occurs when vapers relapse to smoking or when they stop vaping. We assessed change in vaping and smoking behaviours over 12 months in regular vapers. A longitudinal study of 3868 regular vapers enrolled on the Internet in 2012-2015 ("baseline"), followed after one (n=1631, 42%), three (n=1337, 35%), six (n=1148, 30%) and 12 months (n=893, 23%). Participants had been vaping for a median of five months at baseline. Most (77%) were former smokers, who had not smoked for a median of three months at baseline. Over 12 months, enjoyment gradually became the most frequently cited reason to vape (93%), and vaping to deal with craving for tobacco gradually decreased (from 87% to 56%). In exclusive vapers (ex-smokers), nicotine concentration in e-liquids decreased over time (from 12 to 9 mg/mL), but puffs/day remained stable (200 puffs/day). After 12 months, 9% of 687 former smokers relapsed to smoking and 28% of 64 daily smokers (dual users) stopped smoking. After 12 months, when participants stopped vaping, they tended to relapse to smoking (+18% daily smokers among those who stopped vaping versus -2% in permanent vapers, preasons to vape. Rates of relapse to smoking were low in former smokers and quit rates were high in current smokers. Stopping vaping was associated with relapsing to smoking. Even in established vapers, vaping behaviour and reasons to vape change over time. This should be taken into account by clinicians, manufacturers and regulators. Results from this non-representative sample can help generate hypotheses that can later be tested in representative samples of vapers. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Holocaust survivors in old age: the Jerusalem Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessman, Jochanan; Stesssman, Jochanan; Cohen, Aaron; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Bursztyn, Michael; Azoulay, Daniel; Maaravi, Yoram; Jacobs, Jeremy M

    2008-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that Holocaust exposure during young adulthood negatively affects physical aging, causing greater morbidity, faster deterioration in health parameters, and shorter survival. A longitudinal cohort study of the natural history of an age-homogenous representative sample born in 1920/21 and living in Jerusalem. Community-based home assessments. Four hundred fifty-eight subjects of European origin aged 70 at baseline and 77 at follow-up. Comprehensive assessment of physical, functional, and psychosocial domains; biographical history of concentration camp internment (Camp), exposure to Nazi occupation during World War II (Exposure), or lack thereof (Controls); and 7-year mortality data from the National Death Registry. Holocaust survivors of the Camp (n=93) and Exposure (n=129) groups were more likely than Controls (n=236) to be male and less educated and have less social support (P=.01), less physical activity (P=.03), greater difficulty in basic activities of daily living (P=.009), poorer self-rated health (P=.04), and greater usage of psychiatric medication (P=.008). No other differences in health parameters or physical illnesses were found. Holocaust survivors had similar rates of deterioration in health and illness parameters over the follow-up period, and 7-year mortality rates were identical. Proportional hazard models showed that being an elderly Holocaust survivor was not predictive of greater 7-year mortality. Fifty years after their Holocaust trauma, survivors still displayed significant psychosocial and functional impairment, although no evidence was found to support the hypothesis that the delayed effects of the trauma of the Holocaust negatively influence physical health, health trajectories, or mortality.

  16. Longitudinal associations of social cognition and substance use in childhood and early adolescence: findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluharty, Meg E; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-06-01

    Substance use is associated with impaired social cognition. Experimental studies have shown that acute intoxication of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis decreases the performance in non-verbal, social communication and theory of mind tasks. However, in epidemiological studies the temporal direction of this association has gone relatively unstudied. We investigated both directions of association within an adolescent birth cohort: the association of social cognition with subsequent substance use, and the association of early substance use with subsequent social cognition. We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a UK birth cohort. Logistic regression indicated that poor childhood non-verbal communication was associated with decreased odds of adolescent alcohol (OR 0.70, 95% 0.54-0.91), tobacco (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.47-0.83), and cannabis use (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83). Early adolescent substance use was associated with increased odds of poor social communication (alcohol: OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.99-2.14; tobacco: OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.33-2.86) and poor social reciprocity (alcohol: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.09; tobacco: OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.43-2.58; cannabis: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.16-2.05). Overall, the relationship between social cognition and substance use was different in each temporal direction. Poor non-verbal communication in childhood appeared protective against later substance use, while adolescent substance use was associated with decreased social cognitive performance.

  17. Associations between objectively measured physical activity and later mental health outcomes in children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jane V; Sera, Francesco; Cummins, Steven; Flouri, Eirini

    2018-02-01

    The beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on mental health in adults is well established, but less is known about this relationship in children. We examine associations between objectively measured sedentary time, PA and mental health in 11-year-olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). Longitudinal data from MCS sweeps 4 (age 7) and 5 (age 11) were used (n=6153). Accelerometer data were collected at MCS4, and mental health was measured at MCS4 and MCS5 using subscales (peer, emotional, conduct, hyperactivity) of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Associations between mean daily PA minutes at different intensities (sedentary, light, moderate-to-vigorous) at MCS4 and SDQ outcomes at MCS5 (score range 0-10) were estimated using multiple linear regression models, adjusting for SDQ at MCS4 and individual and family characteristics, and stratified by gender. In fully adjusted models, increased PA at MCS4 was associated with fewer peer problems in boys and girls at MCS5. For each additional 15 min in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), peer problems decreased -0.077 points (95% CI -0.133 to -0.022) in boys. For girls, light PA was associated with decreased peer problems (-0.071 points/30 min, 95% CI -0.130 to -0.013). Greater sedentary time was associated with more peer problems and fewer hyperactivity symptoms in boys and girls. Increased MVPA was associated with more conduct and hyperactivity problems in boys and more hyperactivity in girls. Increased sedentary time is associated with more peer problems in children, and PA, generally, is beneficial for peer relations in children aged 11. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  19. Stability and change in adult personality over 6 years: findings from the Victoria Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Brent J; Hertzog, Christopher; Hultsch, David F; Dixon, Roger A

    2003-05-01

    Data from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were used to examine the 6-year longitudinal stability of personality in older adults. Personality was measured with the NEO Personality Inventory. The longitudinal sample consisted of 223 adults initially ranging from 55 to 85 years of age. Longitudinal confirmatory factor analyses were used to examine the stability of individual differences in change over time, and the stability of the longitudinal factor structure. The results indicated both substantial stability at the level of individual differences in change, as well as significant individual differences in change that were related to age and gender. Finally, the factor structure of personality was invariant over time but did not approximate simple structure for the five dimensions of personality. Our study of 6-year personality development provided both (a). a confirmation of early significant stability findings and (b). unique evidence for significant individual differences in late adulthood.

  20. Development of a sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels: A UK case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalmers, Jessica; Archer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the UK launched the first regulatory sustainability reporting scheme for biofuels. The development of the scheme, managed by the Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership for the Department for Transport, involved extensive stakeholder engagement. The scheme has significantly increased understanding by policy-makers, the biofuels industry and its supply chains on how to monitor and manage the sustainability risks of biofuels and increase their greenhouse-gas benefits. It is providing a practical model for similar developments globally. To receive certificates in order to meet volume obligations under the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation (RTFO), suppliers must provide a monthly carbon and sustainability report on individual batches of renewable fuels they supply into the UK. The Renewable Fuels Agency produces aggregate monthly reports of overall performance and quarterly updates of individual supplier performance. This scheme is an important first step to assist the biofuels industry to demonstrate its environmental credentials and justify the subsidies received. The paper provides a case study of the development of the scheme, its initial outcomes and outstanding challenges.

  1. Longitudinal study of perinatal maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Wang, Panchalli; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-06-01

    to understand the trends in, and relationships between, maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. a prospective longitudinal survey study was undertaken to explore maternal psychological distress throughout the perinatal period. The participants were recruited after 24 completed weeks of gestation, and were followed-up monthly until one month post partum (four surveys in total). participants were recruited from a single hospital in southern Taiwan, and asked to complete questionnaires in the hospital waiting area. inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years, able to read and write Chinese, ≥24 weeks of gestation, singleton pregnancy and no pregnancy complications (including a diagnosis of antenatal depression or anxiety disorder). In total, 197 women completed all four surveys (response rate 74.62%). stress was measured with the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale, depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression scale, and anxiety was measured with the Zung Self-reported Anxiety Scale. Participants were followed-up at four time points: T1 (25-29 gestational weeks), T2 (30-34 gestational weeks), T3 (>34 gestational weeks) and T4 (4-6 weeks post partum). Appointments for data collection were made in accordance with the participants' antenatal and postnatal check-ups. The three types of maternal distress had different courses of change throughout the perinatal period, as levels of depressive symptoms remained unchanged, anxiety levels increased as gestation advanced but declined after birth, and stress decreased gradually during pregnancy but returned to the T1 level after birth. There was a low to high degree of correlation in maternal stress, depressive symptoms and anxiety in pregnancy and post partum. around one-quarter of the study participants had depressive symptoms during pregnancy and post partum. Stress and anxiety showed opposing courses during the perinatal period. Regardless of the

  2. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  3. Exploring trust in online health information: a study of user experiences of patients.co.uk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anna; Johnson, Frances

    2016-12-01

    This feature has been co-authored by Anna Cunningham and her supervisor Frances Johnson. It is based on the research Anna conducted for her dissertation, which she completed as part of her MA in Library and Information Management at Manchester Metropolitan University. The study explored how people assess the trustworthiness of online health information, and the participants were asked to talk aloud whilst viewing information on the consumer health information website patients.co.uk. The study confirmed that their assessment was based on the information usefulness and credibility as well as identifying the factors relating to information quality and website design that helped to form these judgements. A. M. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  4. Cross-Cultural Study of Information Processing Biases in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Comparison of Dutch and UK Chronic Fatigue Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alicia M; Hirsch, Colette R; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Chalder, Trudie; Knoop, Hans; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to replicate a UK study, with a Dutch sample to explore whether attention and interpretation biases and general attentional control deficits in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are similar across populations and cultures. Thirty eight Dutch CFS participants were compared to 52 CFS and 51 healthy participants recruited from the UK. Participants completed self-report measures of symptoms, functioning, and mood, as well as three experimental tasks (i) visual-probe task measuring attentional bias to illness (somatic symptoms and disability) versus neutral words, (ii) interpretive bias task measuring positive versus somatic interpretations of ambiguous information, and (iii) the Attention Network Test measuring general attentional control. Compared to controls, Dutch and UK participants with CFS showed a significant attentional bias for illness-related words and were significantly more likely to interpret ambiguous information in a somatic way. These effects were not moderated by attentional control. There were no significant differences between the Dutch and UK CFS groups on attentional bias, interpretation bias, or attentional control scores. This study replicated the main findings of the UK study, with a Dutch CFS population, indicating that across these two cultures, people with CFS demonstrate biases in how somatic information is attended to and interpreted. These illness-specific biases appear to be unrelated to general attentional control deficits.

  5. Poor uptake of primary healthcare registration among recent entrants to the UK: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Helen R; Jones, Jane; Bickler, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Uptake of healthcare among migrants is a complex and controversial topic; there are multiple recognised barriers to accessing primary care. Delays in presentation to healthcare services may result in a greater burden on costly emergency care, as well as increased public health risks. This study aimed to explore some of the factors influencing registration of new entrants with general practitioners (GPs). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Port health screening at Heathrow and Gatwick airports, primary care. Participants 252 559 new entrants to the UK, whose entry was documented by the port health tuberculosis screening processes at Heathrow and Gatwick. 191 had insufficient information for record linkage. Primary outcome measure Registration with a GP practice within the UK, as measured through record linkage with the Personal Demographics Service (PDS) database. Results Only 32.5% of 252 368 individuals were linked to the PDS, suggesting low levels of registration in the study population. Women were more likely to register than men, with a RR ratio of 1.44 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.46). Compared with those from Europe, individuals of nationalities from the Americas (0.43 (0.39 to 0.47)) and Africa (0.74 (0.69 to 0.79)) were less likely to register. Similarly, students (0.83 (0.81 to 0.85)), long-stay visitors (0.82 (0.77 to 0.87)) and asylum seekers (0.46 (0.42 to 0.51)) were less likely to register with a GP than other migrant groups. Conclusions Levels of registration with GPs within this selected group of new entrants, as measured through record linkage, are low. Migrant groups with the lowest proportion registered are likely to be those with the highest health needs. The UK would benefit from a targeted approach to identify the migrants least likely to register for healthcare and to promote access among both users and service providers. PMID:22869094

  6. Vaginal birth after caesarean section prediction models: a UK comparative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Fionnuala; Harrity, Conor; Mackie, Adam; Segurado, Ricardo; Toner, Brenda; McCormick, Timothy R; Currie, Aoife; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-10-01

    Primarily, to assess the performance of three statistical models in predicting successful vaginal birth in patients attempting a trial of labour after one previous lower segment caesarean section (TOLAC). The statistically most reliable models were subsequently subjected to validation testing in a local antenatal population. A retrospective observational study was performed with study data collected from the Northern Ireland Maternity Service Database (NIMATs). The study population included all women that underwent a TOLAC (n=385) from 2010 to 2012 in a regional UK obstetric unit. Data was collected from the Northern Ireland Maternity Service Database (NIMATs). Area under the curve (AUC) and correlation analysis was performed. Of the three prediction models evaluated, AUC calculations for the Smith et al., Grobman et al. and Troyer and Parisi Models were 0.74, 0.72 and 0.65, respectively. Using the Smith et al. model, 52% of women had a low risk of caesarean section (CS) (predicted VBAC >72%) and 20% had a high risk of CS (predicted VBAC <60%), of whom 20% and 63% had delivery by CS. The fit between observed and predicted outcome in this study cohort using the Smith et al. and Grobman et al. models were greatest (Chi-square test, p=0.228 and 0.904), validating both within the population. The Smith et al. and Grobman et al. models could potentially be utilized within the UK to provide women with an informed choice when deciding on mode of delivery after a previous CS. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The experience of international nursing students studying for a PhD in the U.K: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Catrin; Stevenson, Keith

    2011-06-13

    Educating nurses to doctoral level is an important means of developing nursing capacity globally. There is an international shortage of doctoral nursing programmes, hence many nurses seek their doctorates overseas. The UK is a key provider of doctoral education for international nursing students, however, very little is known about international doctoral nursing students' learning experiences during their doctoral study. This paper reports on a national study that sought to investigate the learning expectations and experiences of overseas doctoral nursing students in the UK. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in 2008/09 with 17 international doctoral nursing students representing 9 different countries from 6 different UK universities. Data were analysed thematically. All 17 interviewees were enrolled on 'traditional' 3 year PhD programmes and the majority (15/17) planned to work in higher education institutions back in their home country upon graduation. Studying for a UK PhD involved a number of significant transitions, including adjusting to a new country/culture, to new pedagogical approaches and, in some cases, to learning in a second language. Many students had expected a more structured programme of study, with a stronger emphasis on professional nursing issues as well as research - akin to the professional doctorate. Students did not always feel well integrated into their department's wider research environment, and wanted more opportunities to network with their UK peers. A good supervision relationship was perceived as the most critical element of support in a doctoral programme, but good relationships were sometimes difficult to attain due to differences in student/supervisor expectations and in approaches to supervision. The PhD was perceived as a difficult and stressful journey, but those nearing the end reflected positively on it as a life changing experience in which they had developed key professional and personal skills. Doctoral

  8. The experience of international nursing students studying for a PhD in the U.K: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson Keith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Educating nurses to doctoral level is an important means of developing nursing capacity globally. There is an international shortage of doctoral nursing programmes, hence many nurses seek their doctorates overseas. The UK is a key provider of doctoral education for international nursing students, however, very little is known about international doctoral nursing students' learning experiences during their doctoral study. This paper reports on a national study that sought to investigate the learning expectations and experiences of overseas doctoral nursing students in the UK. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in 2008/09 with 17 international doctoral nursing students representing 9 different countries from 6 different UK universities. Data were analysed thematically. All 17 interviewees were enrolled on 'traditional' 3 year PhD programmes and the majority (15/17 planned to work in higher education institutions back in their home country upon graduation. Results Studying for a UK PhD involved a number of significant transitions, including adjusting to a new country/culture, to new pedagogical approaches and, in some cases, to learning in a second language. Many students had expected a more structured programme of study, with a stronger emphasis on professional nursing issues as well as research - akin to the professional doctorate. Students did not always feel well integrated into their department's wider research environment, and wanted more opportunities to network with their UK peers. A good supervision relationship was perceived as the most critical element of support in a doctoral programme, but good relationships were sometimes difficult to attain due to differences in student/supervisor expectations and in approaches to supervision. The PhD was perceived as a difficult and stressful journey, but those nearing the end reflected positively on it as a life changing experience in which they had

  9. Mathematics, Language, and Learning: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary Teachers and Their Mathematics Teaching Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Yeh, Cathery

    2016-01-01

    Elementary school mathematics has gained increased attention in the last few decades. A growing field of research has studied the programmatic design and development of elementary mathematics teaching in teacher education, however, few studies have examined longitudinally the mathematics teaching of novice elementary teachers. Existing longitudinal studies on elementary mathematics teaching have generally focused on the effects of teacher preparation on their beginning practices and have exam...

  10. Separating civil and military nuclear programmes in the UK and France; a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, David

    1987-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable concern shown by the general public and the trade unions over the connection between the civil and military nuclear programmes. This paper is the result of research to determine the feasibility of separating the two in the UK and France. The result of the study is that it is technically and economically feasible to adopt a policy of separation. The costs are not overwhelming, rather the difficulty lies in assessing the intangible benefits of such a programme, and in overcoming any political impediments to its adoption. The major political fear is that adopting a separation programme would put that nation at a disadvantage with respect to other nuclear weapon states. (author)

  11. A 10-year case study on the changing determinants of university student satisfaction in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Burgess

    Full Text Available Higher Education (HE, once the prerogative of a tiny elite, is now accessible to larger numbers of people around the world than ever before yet despite the fact that an understanding of student satisfaction has never been more important for today's universities, the concept remains poorly understood. Here we use published data from the UK's National Student Survey (NSS, representing data from 2.3 million full-time students collected from 2007 to 2016, as a case study of the benefits and limitations of measuring student satisfaction that might have applicability for other countries, particularly those that, like the UK, have experienced significant growth in student numbers. The analyses showed that the factor structure of the NSS remained generally stable and that the ability of the NSS to discriminate between different subjects at different universities actually improved over the ten-year sample period. The best predictors of overall satisfaction were 'Teaching Quality' and 'Organisation & Management', with 'Assessment & Feedback' having relatively weak predictive ability, despite the sector's tangible efforts to improve on this metric. The tripling of student fees in 2012 for English students (but not the rest of the UK was used as a 'natural experiment' to investigate the sensitivity of student satisfaction ratings to the real economic costs of HE. The tuition fee increase had no identifiable negative effect, with student satisfaction steadily improving throughout the decade. Although the NSS was never designed to measure perceived value-for-money, its insensitivity to major changes in the economic costs of HE to the individual suggest that the conventional concept of student satisfaction is incomplete. As such we propose that the concept of student satisfaction: (i needs to be widened to take into account the broader economic benefits to the individual student by including measures of perceived value-for-money and (ii should measure students

  12. A 10-year case study on the changing determinants of university student satisfaction in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Adrian; Senior, Carl; Moores, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Higher Education (HE), once the prerogative of a tiny elite, is now accessible to larger numbers of people around the world than ever before yet despite the fact that an understanding of student satisfaction has never been more important for today's universities, the concept remains poorly understood. Here we use published data from the UK's National Student Survey (NSS), representing data from 2.3 million full-time students collected from 2007 to 2016, as a case study of the benefits and limitations of measuring student satisfaction that might have applicability for other countries, particularly those that, like the UK, have experienced significant growth in student numbers. The analyses showed that the factor structure of the NSS remained generally stable and that the ability of the NSS to discriminate between different subjects at different universities actually improved over the ten-year sample period. The best predictors of overall satisfaction were 'Teaching Quality' and 'Organisation & Management', with 'Assessment & Feedback' having relatively weak predictive ability, despite the sector's tangible efforts to improve on this metric. The tripling of student fees in 2012 for English students (but not the rest of the UK) was used as a 'natural experiment' to investigate the sensitivity of student satisfaction ratings to the real economic costs of HE. The tuition fee increase had no identifiable negative effect, with student satisfaction steadily improving throughout the decade. Although the NSS was never designed to measure perceived value-for-money, its insensitivity to major changes in the economic costs of HE to the individual suggest that the conventional concept of student satisfaction is incomplete. As such we propose that the concept of student satisfaction: (i) needs to be widened to take into account the broader economic benefits to the individual student by including measures of perceived value-for-money and (ii) should measure students' level of

  13. Personality factors and breast cancer development: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, E M; van der Ploeg, H M; Hendriks, J H; Adèr, H J

    1996-10-16

    It has been estimated that approximately 25% of all breast cancers in women can be explained by currently recognized somatic (i.e., hereditary and physiologic) risk factors. It has also been hypothesized that psychological factors may play a role in the development of breast cancer. We investigated the extent to which personality factors, in addition to somatic risk factors, may be associated with the development of primary breast cancer. We employed a prospective, longitudinal study design. From 1989 through 1990, a personality questionnaire was sent to all female residents of the Dutch city of Nijmegen who were 43 years of age or older. This questionnaire was sent as part of an invitation to participate in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women who developed breast cancer among those who returned completed questionnaires were compared with women without such a diagnosis in regard to somatic risk factors and personality traits, including anxiety, anger, depression, rationality, anti-emotionality (i.e., an absence of emotional behavior or a lack of trust in one's own feelings), understanding, optimism, social support, and the expression and control of emotions. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables that could best explain group membership (i.e., belonging to the case [breast cancer] or the control [without disease] group). Personality questionnaires were sent to 28 940 women, and 9705 (34%) were returned in such a way that they could be used for statistical analyses. Among the 9705 women who returned useable questionnaires, 131 were diagnosed with breast cancer during the period from 1989 through 1994. Seven hundred seventy-one age-matched control subjects (up to six per case patient) were selected for the analyses. Three variables were found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: 1) having a first-degree family member with breast cancer (versus not having an

  14. Medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination: findings from an international cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Charlotte E; Wearn, Andy M; Vnuk, Anna K; Sato, Toshio J

    2009-03-01

    Although studies have begun to shed light on medical students' attitudes towards peer physical examination (PPE), they have been conducted at single sites, and have generally not examined changes in medical students' attitudes over time. Employing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, the current study examines medical students' attitudes towards PPE at schools from different geographical and cultural regions and assess changes in their attitudes over their first year of medical study. Students at six schools (Peninsula, UK; Durham, UK; Auckland, New Zealand; Flinders, Australia; Sapporo, Japan and Li Ka Shing, Hong Kong) completed the Examining Fellow Students (EFS) questionnaire near the start of their academic year (T1), and students at four schools (Peninsula, Durham, Auckland and Flinders) completed the EFS for a second time, around the end of their academic year (T2). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a high level of acceptance for PPE of non-intimate body regions amongst medical students from all schools (greater than 83%, hips, at T1 and 94.5%, hips and upper body, at T2). At T1 and T2, students' willingness to engage in PPE was associated with their gender, ethnicity, religiosity and school. Typically, students least comfortable with PPE at T1 and T2 were female, non-white, religious and studying at Auckland. Although students' attitudes towards PPE were reasonably stable over their first year of study, and after exposure to PPE, we did find some statistically significant differences in attitudes between T1 and T2. Interestingly, attitude changes were consistently predicted by gender, even when controlling for school. While male students' attitudes towards PPE were relatively stable over time, females' attitudes were changeable. In this paper, we discuss our findings in light of existing research and theory, and discuss their implications for educational practice and further research.

  15. Provision of medical student teaching in UK general practices: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alex; Rosenthal, Joe; Al-Seaidy, Marwa; Gray, Denis Pereira; McKinley, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care is increasingly provided in general practice. To meet this demand, the English Department of Health recommends that 50% of all medical students should train for general practice after qualification. Currently 19% of medical students express general practice as their first career choice. Undergraduate exposure to general practice positively influences future career choice. Appropriate undergraduate exposure to general practice is therefore highly relevant to workforce planning Aim This study seeks to quantify current exposure of medical students to general practice and compare it with past provision and also with postgraduate provision. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire in the UK. Method A questionnaire regarding provision of undergraduate teaching was sent to the general practice teaching leads in all UK medical schools. Information was gathered on the amount of undergraduate teaching, how this was supported financially, and whether there was an integrated department of general practice. The data were then compared with results from previous studies of teaching provision. The provision of postgraduate teaching in general practice was also examined. Results General practice teaching for medical students increased from teaching in 1968 to 13.0% by 2008; since then, the percentage has plateaued. The total amount of general practice teaching per student has fallen by 2 weeks since 2002. Medical schools providing financial data delivered 14.6% of the clinical curriculum and received 7.1% of clinical teaching funding. The number of departments of general practice has halved since 2002. Provision of postgraduate teaching has tripled since 2000. Conclusion Current levels of undergraduate teaching in general practice are too low to fulfil future workforce requirements and may be falling. Financial support for current teaching is disproportionately low and the mechanism counterproductive. Central intervention may be required to solve

  16. Understanding the culture of antimicrobial prescribing in agriculture: a qualitative study of UK pig veterinary surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, L A; Latham, S M; Williams, N J; Dawson, S; Donald, I J; Pearson, R B; Smith, R F; Pinchbeck, G L

    2016-11-01

    The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been linked with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial populations, with consequences for animal and public health. This study explored the underpinning drivers, motivators and reasoning behind prescribing decisions made by veterinary surgeons working in the UK pig industry. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 21 veterinary surgeons purposively selected from all UK pig veterinary surgeons. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts. Ensuring optimum pig health and welfare was described as a driver for antimicrobial use by many veterinary surgeons and was considered a professional and moral obligation. Veterinary surgeons also exhibited a strong sense of social responsibility over the need to ensure that antimicrobial use was responsible. A close relationship between management practices, health and economics was evident, with improvements in management commonly identified as being potential routes to reduce antimicrobial usage; however, these were not always considered economically viable. The relationship with clients was identified as being a source of professional stress for practitioners due to pressure from farmers requesting antimicrobial prescriptions, and concern over poor compliance of antimicrobial administration by some farmers. The drivers behind prescribing decisions by veterinary surgeons were complex and diverse. A combination of education, improving communication between veterinary surgeons and farmers, and changes in regulations, in farm management and in consumer/retailer demands may all be needed to ensure that antimicrobial prescribing is optimal and to achieve significant reductions in use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  17. UK military doctors; stigma, mental health and help-seeking: a comparative cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Norman; Whybrow, D; Coetzee, R

    2018-03-09

    Studies suggest that medical doctors can suffer from substantial levels of mental ill-health. Little is known about military doctors' mental health and well-being; we therefore assessed attitudes to mental health, self-stigma, psychological distress and help-seeking among UK Armed Forces doctors. Six hundred and seventy-eight military doctors (response rate 59%) completed an anonymous online survey. Comparisons were made with serving and ex-military personnel (n=1448, response rate 84.5%) participating in a mental health-related help-seeking survey. Basic sociodemographic data were gathered, and participants completed measures of mental health-related stigmatisation, perceived barriers to care and the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire. All participants were asked if in the last three years they had experienced stress, emotional, mental health, alcohol, family or relationship problems, and whether they had sought help from formal sources. Military doctors reported fewer mental disorder symptoms than the comparison groups. They endorsed higher levels of stigmatising beliefs, negative attitudes to mental healthcare, desire to self-manage and self-stigmatisation than each of the comparison groups. They were most concerned about potential negative effects of and peer perceptions about receiving a mental disorder diagnosis. Military doctors reporting historical and current relationship, and alcohol or mental health problems were significantly and substantially less likely to seek help than the comparison groups. Although there are a number of study limitations, outcomes suggest that UK military doctors report lower levels of mental disorder symptoms, higher levels of stigmatising beliefs and a lower propensity to seek formal support than other military reference groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. A case-control study assessing bone mineral density in severe haemophilia A in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, A J; McLaughlin, P; Simmonds, J V; Prouse, P J; Prelevic, G; Gill, S; Chowdary, P

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that bone mineral density (BMD) may be lower in patients with haemophilia (PWH). A comparison to control subjects is required to thoroughly assess current BMD in PWH in the UK. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that BMD is lower in PWH than in controls, and in patients with more severely affected joints or lower activity levels. In this case-control study, 37 patients with severe haemophilia A were recruited from two haemophilia centres in the UK. A group of 37 age, gender and ethnicity-matched control participants were recruited. All participants had a bone density scan, a musculoskeletal assessment, a blood test for vitamin D and completed a functional activity questionnaire. Of the case group, 5% had osteoporosis and 24% had BMD lower than expected for age. No control participants had osteoporosis, 3% had osteopenia and 14% had BMD lower than expected for age. Ninety one per cent of case participants and 92% of control participants had reduced 25(OH)D levels. Case participants had significantly lower BMD than control participants, and case participants with more severely affected joints, lower activity levels, HIV, history of hepatitis C or lower BMI had significantly lower BMD. Patients with severe haemophilia have a higher risk of low BMD than men without haemophilia. Patients with more severely affected joints and lower activity levels have lower BMD. It remains unclear whether patients with low BMD reached adequate peak bone mass. Low vitamin D may be present in the majority of PWH. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. US/UK Sensor-To-Shooter Multinational C4 Interoperability Study Force-On-Force Effectiveness Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bailey, Timothy J

    2000-01-01

    .... This methodology has been successfully applied to Army, joint, and multinational studies. The latest of these studies, the US/UK Sensor-To-Shooter Multinational C4 Interoperability Study Force-On-Force Analysis, was an effort to measure the value...

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Longitudinal Study of the Role of T Cell subset, Th1/Th2 cytokines and antiplasmodial antibodies in uncomplicated Malaria in a Village Population Chronically Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

  1. Sports participation and psychosocial health : a longitudinal observational study in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moeijes, Janet; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Bosscher, Ruud J; Twisk, Jos W R

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that sports participation is positively associated with psychosocial health in children, but details about this association over time are lacking. This study aimed to explore longitudinal associations between several characteristics of sports participation and three

  2. A longitudinal study of the effects of television viewing on aggressive and prosocial behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, O.; Kuttschreuter, M.; Baarda, B.

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal study investigated the extent to which children's exposure to aggressive and prosocial television models in drama programmes influences their aggressive and prosocial behaviour. In The Netherlands we did not find significant positive correlations between prosocial behaviour and the

  3. Wealth Distribution and Mobility in Denmark: a Longitudinal Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jan Børsen; Schmidt-Sørensen, Jan Beyer

    1994-01-01

    We describe and analyse wealth mobility in a national sample of 32,675 individuals from the Danish Longitudinal Database over the period from 1983 to 1990. A transition matrix, the Shorrocks measure, average decile position for various subgroups, and wealth in 1990 compared with wealth in 1983...... are used to describe patterns of wealth mobility. These results and regression models of change in percentile position identify winners and losers. The losers include students, singles with children, those who changed residence and those who experienced unemployment, while the winners were the houseowners...

  4. Self-stigma and suicidality: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Rüsch, Nicolas; Viering, Sandra; Wyss, Christine; Seifritz, Erich; Xu, Ziyan; Kawohl, Wolfram

    2017-06-01

    Mental illness stigma is a source of distress for persons with mental illness. Self-stigma occurs when negative stereotypes are internalized, leading to low self-esteem, shame and hopelessness. Due to its consequences self-stigma may contribute to suicidality and be a modifiable target for suicide prevention. Based on 222 disability pensioners with mental illness we examined whether self-stigma at baseline is associated with suicidal ideation over a 2-year period, controlling for baseline suicidal ideation, symptoms, age and gender. More self-stigma predicted suicidal ideation at baseline and longitudinally. Interventions on different levels to reduce self-stigma could improve suicide prevention.

  5. Psychological predictors of eco-driving: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Lauper Elisabeth; Moser Stephanie; Fischer Maja; Matthies Ellen; Kaufmann-Hayoz Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Eco-driving has well-known positive effects on fuel economy and greenhouse-gas emissions. Moreover, eco-driving reduces road-traffic noise, which is a serious threat to the health and well-being of many people. We investigated the psychological predictors of the adoption of eco-driving from the perspective of road-traffic noise abatement. The data came from 890 car drivers who participated in a longitudinal survey over four months. Specifically, we tested the effects of the intention to preve...

  6. Exploring the impact of early life factors on inequalities in risk of overweight in UK children: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massion, Samuel; Wickham, Sophie; Pearce, Anna; Barr, Ben; Law, Catherine; Taylor-Robinson, David

    2016-08-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood are socially patterned, with higher prevalence in more disadvantaged populations, but it is unclear to what extent early life factors attenuate the social inequalities found in childhood overweight/obesity. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for being overweight (combining with obesity) at age 11 in 11 764 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) according to socio-economic circumstances (SEC). Early life risk factors were explored to assess if they attenuated associations between SECs and overweight. 28.84% of children were overweight at 11 years. Children of mothers with no academic qualifications were more likely to be overweight (RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.48 to 2.01) compared to children of mothers with degrees and higher degrees. Controlling for prenatal, perinatal, and early life characteristics (particularly maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and maternal smoking during pregnancy) reduced the RR for overweight to 1.44, 95% CI 1.23 to 1.69 in the group with the lowest academic qualifications compared to the highest. We observed a clear social gradient in overweight 11-year-old children using a representative UK sample. Moreover, we identified specific early life risk factors, including maternal smoking during pregnancy and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, that partially account for the social inequalities found in childhood overweight. Policies to support mothers to maintain a healthy weight, breastfeed and abstain from smoking during pregnancy are important to improve maternal and child health outcomes, and our study provides some evidence that they may also help to address the continuing rise in inequalities in childhood overweight. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Towards Corporate Shared Value in Retail Sector: A Comparative Study over Grocery and Banking Between Italy and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Candelo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The research investigates the extent to which Banking and Grocery retailers use Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in accordance to evolving consumers’ expectations and build a strategic model of Corporate Shared Value (CSV to strive for economic and social returns simultaneously. The paper adopts a qualitative approach, based on the comparative case study methodology by investigating a sample of twelve Banking and Grocery retailers in Italy and the UK. Differences and similarities in CSR as new strategic model among countries and retail sectors emerge, with UK companies from both the sectors showing the most formalized integration of CSR within their business strategy. The chance for both Italian and UK retail companies is to adopt the best practices emerging from the case studies to turn their CSR programs into a strategic business model of CSV that will allow a stronger retailer-consumer relationship based on social improvements and a reinforcement of their brand image.

  8. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  9. A longitudinal study of multidimensional performance characteristics related to physical capacities in youth handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Stijn P J; Vaeyens, Roel; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter; Pion, Johan; Vandendriessche, Joric; Vandorpe, Barbara; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal research provides valuable information about change and progress towards elite performance. Unfortunately, there is a lack of longitudinal research in handball. In this study, 94 youth handball players (oldest group: n = 41; age 15-17 and youngest group: n = 53; age 13-15) were followed over a three-year period. Repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to reveal longitudinal changes in anthropometry and physical performance between elite and non-elite players, controlling for maturation. Maturation effects were found for anthropometry (P team handball should recognise the importance of good skills and an excellent endurance for talent identification purposes.

  10. [Information management in multicenter studies: the Brazilian longitudinal study for adult health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Vigo, Álvaro; Hernandez, Émerson; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Ahlert, Hubert; Bergmann, Kaiser; Mota, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    Information management in large multicenter studies requires a specialized approach. The Estudo Longitudinal da Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) has created a Datacenter to enter and manage its data system. The aim of this paper is to describe the steps involved, including the information entry, transmission and management methods. A web system was developed in order to allow, in a safe and confidential way, online data entry, checking and editing, as well as the incorporation of data collected on paper. Additionally, a Picture Archiving and Communication System was implemented and customized for echocardiography and retinography. It stores the images received from the Investigation Centers and makes them available at the Reading Centers. Finally, data extraction and cleaning processes were developed to create databases in formats that enable analyses in multiple statistical packages.

  11. Tricuspid valve dysplasia: A retrospective study of clinical features and outcome in dogs in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Navarro-Cubas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the demographic, clinical and survival characteristics and to identify risk factors for mortality due to tricuspid valve dysplasia in UK dogs. Records of client-owned dogs diagnosed with tricuspid valve dysplasia at a referral centre were retrospectively reviewed. Only dogs diagnosed with tricuspid valve dysplasia based on the presence of a right-sided heart murmur identified prior to one year of age, and confirmed with Doppler echocardiography, were included. Dogs with concomitant cardiac diseases, pulmonary hypertension and/or trivial tricuspid regurgitation were excluded. Analysed data included signalment, reason for presentation, clinical signs, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features, survival status and cause of death. Survival times and risk factors for mortality were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression. Eighteen dogs met inclusion criteria. Border collies were over-represented (p= 0.014. Dogs were most frequently referred for investigation of heart murmur. The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation (n=3. Median survival time from diagnosis of tricuspid valve dysplasia was 2775 days (range 1-3696 days; 95% CI 1542.41-4007.59 and from onset of right-sided congestive heart failure was 181 days (range 1-2130 days; 95% CI 0-455.59. Syncope was the sole risk factor for cardiac death. In this population of UK dogs, tricuspid valve dysplasia was uncommon but, when severe, frequently led to right-sided congestive heart failure. Prognosis was favourable for mild and moderate tricuspid dysplasia. Survival time was reduced with right-sided congestive heart failure but varied widely. Risk of cardiac death was significantly increased if syncope had occurred.

  12. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-11-16

    Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Investigation of nurses' intention to leave: a study of a sample of UK nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Andrew; Robson, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation of the key antecedents of leave intention demonstrated by nurses employed in UK National Health Service (NHS). Survey assessment of a sample of 433 nurses employed within the NHS was undertaken, potential relationships relating to both affective commitment and leave intention and work-place experiences assessed through leader-member exchange (LMX) and perceived organisational support (POS) have been evaluated quantitatively, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equations modelling (SEM). The study indicates that both LMX and POS act as direct antecedents to nurses' leave intention. Additionally, both LMX and POS in combination, significantly effect employees' affective commitment, the latter further impacting on employee leave intention. This would suggest that both LMX and POS have a significant role to play in employee leave intention that is partially mediated by affective commitment, further analysis confirming this to be the case. Research limitations/implications - The sample of nurses is large in absolute terms, permitting the CFA/SEM analysis undertaken, although the data represented only two NHS trusts, hence generalisation across the NHS should be done so cautiously. Various other drivers of leave intention, personal and organisational, have not been assessed here. The implications of these results are that to safeguard nurse retention, appropriate line manager engagement is crucial, but this requires organisational support that is recognised by the employees, especially to enhance their levels of affective commitment. This is given by providing NHS-based assessment of the role of both POS and LMX in the realisation of both affective commitment and desire to remain with their current organisations amongst members of the UK nursing profession.

  14. Women in senior post-graduate medicine career roles in the UK: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Anthony; Eley, Lizzie; Gray, Selena; Irish, Bill

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to elicit the views, experiences, career journeys and aspirations of women in senior post-graduate medical education roles to identify steps needed to help support career progression. In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews. UK. Purposive sample of 12 women in a variety of senior leadership roles in post-graduate medical education in the UK. Self reported motivating influences, factors that helped and hindered progress, key branch points, and key educational factors and social support impacting on participants' career in postgraduate medicine. Respondents often reported that career journeys were serendipitous, rather than planned, formal or well structured. Senior women leaders reported having a high internal locus of control, with very high levels of commitment to the NHS. All reported significant levels of drive, although the majority indicated that they were not ambitious in the sense of a strong drive for money, prestige, recognition or power. They perceived that there was an under-representation of women in senior leadership positions and that high-quality female mentorship was particularly important in redressing this imbalance. Social support, such a spouse or other significant family member, was particularly valued as reaffirming and supporting women's chosen career ambition. Factors that were considered to have hindered career progression included low self-confidence and self-efficacy, the so-called glass ceiling and perceived self-limiting cultural influences. Factors indirectly linked to gender such as part-time versus working full time were reportedly influential in being overlooked for senior leadership roles. Implications of these findings are discussed in the paper. Social support, mentorship and role modelling are all perceived as highly important in redressing perceived gender imbalances in careers in post-graduate medical education.

  15. Adaptation of the landscape for biodiversity to climate change : terrestrial case studies Limburg (NL), Kent and Hampshire (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, van S.A.M.; Baveco, J.M.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Eupen, van M.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Steingröver, E.G.; Taylor, S.; Steenwijk, van H.

    2007-01-01

    This study is part of the BRANCH project, aimed at assessing the impact of climate change on species and habitats and formulating strategies for adaptation. It focuses on the local scale in three terrestrial case studies, Limburg (NL) and in Kent and Hampshire (UK). We developed and tested: (a) a

  16. Cross-Cultural Study of Information Processing Biases in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Comparison of Dutch and UK Chronic Fatigue Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, Alicia M.; Hirsch, Colette R.; Nikolaus, Stephanie; Chalder, Trudie; Knoop, Hans; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to replicate a UK study, with a Dutch sample to explore whether attention and interpretation biases and general attentional control deficits in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are similar across populations and cultures. Thirty eight Dutch CFS participants were compared to 52 CFS and

  17. Reflections on Tutoring Ancient Greek Philosophy: A Case Study of Teaching First-Year Undergraduates in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…

  18. In vitro studies with UK-18,892, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevons, S; Cheeseman, H E; Brammer, K W

    1978-09-01

    The antibacterial activity of UK-18,892, a new semisynthetic aminoglycoside, was examined against aminoglycoside-susceptible and aminoglycoside-resistant clinical isolates of gram-negative bacilli and Staphylococcus aureus. UK-18,892 had a similar degree of activity to those of amikacin and kanamycin A against aminoglycoside-susceptible bacteria but was less potent than gentamicin against all isolates except Providencia spp. UK-18,892 was highly active against aminoglycoside-resistant bacteria, inhibiting 93% of the 268 isolates examined at 12.5 mug/ml. Amikacin was similarly active, whereas gentamicin inhibited only 14% of these isolates at 12.5 mug/ml.

  19. Habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos: um estudo longitudinal Cognitive abilities in older seniors: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irani I. de Lima Argimon

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudos longitudinais com idosos com mais de oitenta anos são escassos na literatura. A pesquisa foi delineada com o objetivo de analisar as modificações no perfil de algumas habilidades cognitivas em indivíduos muito idosos, em dois momentos, com um intervalo de três anos. Pesquisa do tipo quantitativo, com delineamento longitudinal e prospectivo. A amostra, randômica, foi constituída por 66 indivíduos de 80 a 95 anos de idade na etapa I e, três anos após, na etapa II, por 46 idosos. Os instrumentos usados foram: Escala de Depressão Geriátrica, Questionário de Percepção Subjetiva de Queixas de Memória, Mini-Exame do Estado Mental, Span de Números, Teste de Lembranças Livres e com Pistas de Buschke, Teste de Fluência Verbal - Categoria Animal. Houve uma pequena tendência de decréscimo no desempenho cognitivo em um período de três anos. Maior número de atividades de lazer e mais anos de escolaridade foram fatores preditivos de menor variação no desempenho cognitivo. Apesar da idade avançada, os idosos apresentaram um desempenho de habilidades cognitivas cujo declínio foi de intensidade leve, não sendo suficiente para acarretar mudanças significativas no seu padrão cognitivo.Longitudinal studies of older seniors (over 80 years are rare in the literature. This research was designed to study cognitive abilities in the oldest old at two different moments with a three-year interval. The research was quantitative, with a longitudinal and prospective design. The sample consisted of 66 individuals from 80 to 95 years of age, randomly selected for phase I, with 46 of these individuals tested again three years later, in phase II. The instruments used were: Geriatric Depression Scale, Subjective Perception of Memory Problems, Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Span, Buschke Test of Free and Cued Recall, and the Verbal Fluency Test - Animal Category. The results indicated that there was a small downward trend in the older

  20. Use of missing data methods in longitudinal studies: the persistence of bad practices in developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelicić, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M

    2009-07-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal studies obtained from three flagship developmental journals-Child Development, Developmental Psychology, and Journal of Research on Adolescence-we examined the number of longitudinal studies reporting missing data and the missing data techniques used. Of the 100 longitudinal studies sampled, 57 either reported having missing data or had discrepancies in sample sizes reported for different analyses. The majority of these studies (82%) used missing data techniques that are statistically problematic (either listwise deletion or pairwise deletion) and not among the methods recommended by statisticians (i.e., the direct maximum likelihood method and the multiple imputation method). Implications of these results for developmental theory and application, and the need for understanding the consequences of using statistically inappropriate missing data techniques with actual longitudinal data sets, are discussed.

  1. Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract / A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence maintenance and follow-up attendance.

  2. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout.

  4. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. A entrevista motivacional com alcoolistas: um estudo longitudinal Motivational interview with alcoholics: a longitudinal study abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareth da Silva Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este foi um estudo de seguimento com pacientes alcoolistas que participaram de um ensaio clínico em que foi empregada Entrevista Motivacional. A amostra constituiu-se de 152 sujeitos alocados randomicamente em dois grupos: grupo de intervenção submetido à Entrevista Motivacional (GI, e um grupo controle submetido a tratamento padrão (GC. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: entrevista estruturada e o FORM-90. Na avaliação inicial (T1, realizada entre os anos de 1999 e 2001, foram avaliados 152 sujeitos; para o follow-up 1, na segunda avaliação (T2, foram avaliados 89 sujeitos, dos quais 59 permaneciam abstinentes (37GI e 22GC e 30 haviam recaído (13GE e 17GC; já para o follow-up 2, na avaliação final (T3 - entre os anos de 2003 e 2005, regressaram 46 sujeitos, dos quais 29 mantinham-se abstinentes (20GI e 10GC e 17 recaíram (13GI e 4GC. Esses dados demonstram que os sujeitos submetidos à Entrevista Motivacional tiveram mais êxito na manutenção da abstinência e compareceram em maior número aos follow-up, demonstrando melhores resultados comparados com o grupo controle.This was a follow up study with alcoholic patients participating in a clinical trial with the use of Motivational Interviewing. 152 subjects were randomly allocated into two groups: the intervention group (IG, which was submitted to Motivational Interviewing, and the control group (CG, submitted to standard treatment. Data were collected with a structured interview and FORM-90. 152 subjects were assessed at the first evaluation (T1, approximately 4 years ago. From 89 subjects who were assessed at follow-up 1 (T2, 59 remained abstinent (37 IG and 22 CG and 30 had relapsed (13 IG and CG. 46 subjects returned for the final evaluation, at follow-up 2 (T3. 29 of them had remained abstinent (20 IG and 10 CG and 17 had relapsed (13 IG and 4CG. Data show that subjects submitted to Motivational Interviewing had better outcomes than the control group in both abstinence

  6. Performance of gout definitions for genetic epidemiological studies: analysis of UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadzow, Murray; Merriman, Tony R; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-08-09

    Many different combinations of available data have been used to identify gout cases in large genetic studies. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of case definitions of gout using the limited items available in multipurpose cohorts for population-based genetic studies. This research was conducted using the UK Biobank Resource. Data, including genome-wide genotypes, were available for 105,421 European participants aged 40-69 years without kidney disease. Gout definitions and combinations of these definitions were identified from previous epidemiological studies. These definitions were tested for association with 30 urate-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, waist circumference, and ratio of waist circumference to height. Heritability estimates under an additive model were generated using GCTA version 1.26.0 and PLINK version 1.90b3.32 by partitioning the genome. There were 2066 (1.96%) cases defined by self-report of gout, 1652 (1.57%) defined by urate-lowering therapy (ULT) use, 382 (0.36%) defined by hospital diagnosis, 1861 (1.76%) defined by hospital diagnosis or gout-specific medications and 2295 (2.18%) defined by self-report of gout or ULT use. Association with gout at experiment-wide significance (P genetic epidemiological studies of gout.

  7. The UK Netball Superleague: A case study of franchising in elite women's sport organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Mansfield, L; Killick, L

    2012-01-01

    This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in European Sport Management Quarterly, 12(5), 545 - 567, 2012, copyright Taylor & Francis, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/16184742.2012.734525. This paper draws on theories of franchising in examining the emergence of the UK Netball Superleague (UK NSL) in 2005. The focus of the paper is to explore the development of an empowered franchise framework as part of England Netball's elite performance strat...

  8. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Retinopathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Quratul A.; Dodson, Paul; Ali, Asad; Raymond, Neil T.; Wharton, Helen; Fellows, Hannah; Hampshire-Bancroft, Rachel; Shah, Mirriam; Shepherd, Emma; Miah, Jamili; Barnett, Anthony H.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with several pathophysiological deficits found in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hence, it’s plausible that OSA could play a role in the pathogenesis of sight-threatening DR (STDR). Objectives: To assess the relationship between OSA and DR in patients with type 2 diabetes and to assess whether OSA is associated with its progression. Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted in diabetes clinics within two U.K. hospitals. Patients known to have any respiratory disorder (including OSA) were excluded. DR was assessed using two-field 45-degree retinal images for each eye. OSA was assessed using a home-based multichannel cardiorespiratory device. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 230 patients were included. STDR and OSA prevalence rates were 36.1% and 63.9%, respectively. STDR prevalence was higher in patients with OSA than in those without OSA (42.9% vs. 24.1%; P = 0.004). After adjustment for confounders, OSA remained independently associated with STDR (odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.1–4.9; P = 0.04). After a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 43.0 (37.0–51.0) months, patients with OSA were more likely than patients without OSA to develop preproliferative/proliferative DR (18.4% vs. 6.1%; P = 0.02). After adjustment for confounders, OSA remained an independent predictor of progression to preproliferative/proliferative DR (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% CI confidence interval, 1.2–23.0; P = 0.03). Patients who received continuous positive airway pressure treatment were significantly less likely to develop preproliferative/proliferative DR. Conclusions: OSA is associated with STDR in patients with type 2 diabetes. OSA is an independent predictor for the progression to preproliferative/proliferative DR. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment was associated with reduction in preproliferative/proliferative DR. Interventional studies are needed to assess the impact of OSA

  10. How appropriate are the English language test requirements for non-UK-trained nurses? A qualitative study of spoken communication in UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, Carole; Garner, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Non-native speakers of English who hold nursing qualifications from outside the UK are required to provide evidence of English language competence by achieving a minimum overall score of Band 7 on the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) academic test. To describe the English language required to deal with the daily demands of nursing in the UK. To compare these abilities with the stipulated levels on the language test. A tracking study was conducted with 4 nurses, and focus groups with 11 further nurses. The transcripts of the interviews and focus groups were analysed thematically for recurrent themes. These findings were then compared with the requirements of the IELTS spoken test. The study was conducted outside the participants' working shifts in busy London hospitals. The participants in the tracking study were selected opportunistically;all were trained in non-English speaking countries. Snowball sampling was used for the focus groups, of whom 4 were non-native and 7 native speakers of English. In the tracking study, each of the 4 nurses was interviewed on four occasions, outside the workplace, and as close to the end of a shift as possible. They were asked to recount their spoken interactions during the course of their shift. The participants in the focus groups were asked to describe their typical interactions with patients, family members, doctors, and nursing colleagues. They were prompted to recall specific instances of frequently-occurring communication problems. All interactions were audio-recorded, with the participants' permission,and transcribed. Nurses are at the centre of communication for patient care. They have to use appropriate registers to communicate with a range of health professionals, patients and their families. They must elicit information, calm and reassure, instruct, check procedures, ask for and give opinions,agree and disagree. Politeness strategies are needed to avoid threats to face. They participate in medical

  11. Establishing and sustaining research partnerships in Africa: a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Arhinful, Daniel K.; Pitchforth, Emma; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Allotey, Pascale; Agyemang, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north-south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to

  12. Institutional limits to the internalization of work systems : A comparative study of three Japanese multinational companies in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saka, A

    2002-01-01

    This study adopts a multilevel comparative approach to investigating the degree to which Japanese work systems are implemented and internalized in the UK business system. The focus is on the limits to accepting the continuous improvement schemes of Japanese multinational corporations. The article

  13. Comparative study on fashion & textile design higher education system, Pakistan vs UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Umer; Umer, Saima

    2017-10-01

    of higher education and it also highlight the different pathway that leads to the different type of man power in this domain. Presented research will focus on the study of different modules of textile & Apparel Design Higher Education in Pakistan & UK. Its relation and comparison will be an important area of study. Research work document the Educational modules, its implementation and impact on industry. Afterwards this data was used for comparative study between higher education systems in Textile & Fashion Design

  14. Study of tidal power projects in the UK, with the exception of the Severn barrage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, T.L.

    1997-01-01

    Several estuaries in the UK could be equipped with barrages and tidal power plants and several projects were proposed and studied from the end of the 1960's and 1989, until the electric power industry was privatized. Five projects revealed to be more promising than others: the Conwy estuary in the north of Wales, for which the feasibility study concluded that there was no serious environmental constraints on the project; Duddon, a little bit more in the north, which appears to be not economically interesting; Loughor, in the south of Wales, a small size project for which no advanced ecological consequences studies were carried out; Mersey, near Liverpool, the most important project (700 MW) which stands a good chance of being realized; the Wyre estuary, between Duddon and Mersey, for which the cost seems to be prohibitive. The economical conditions which started in the 1980's are largely responsible for the stand-by of any of these projects. The tide power kWh production cost continues to be viewed as two times more expensive than it would be with a classical power plant. Of course, this cost takes into account the actions for environmental protection. (J.S.)

  15. Severe Maternal Sepsis in the UK, 2011–2012: A National Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Colleen D.; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Lucas, D. Nuala; Tuffnell, Derek J.; Sellers, Susan; Knight, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Background In light of increasing rates and severity of sepsis worldwide, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of, and describe the causative organisms, sources of infection, and risk factors for, severe maternal sepsis in the UK. Methods and Findings A prospective case-control study included 365 confirmed cases of severe maternal sepsis and 757 controls from all UK obstetrician-led maternity units from June 1, 2011, to May 31, 2012. Incidence of severe sepsis was 4.7 (95% CI 4.2–5.2) per 10,000 maternities; 71 (19.5%) women developed septic shock; and five (1.4%) women died. Genital tract infection (31.0%) and the organism Escherichia coli (21.1%) were most common. Women had significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of severe sepsis if they were black or other ethnic minority (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.82–2.51), were primiparous (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.17–2.20), had a pre-existing medical problem (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.01–1.94), had febrile illness or were taking antibiotics in the 2 wk prior to presentation (aOR = 12.07; 95% CI 8.11–17.97), or had an operative vaginal delivery (aOR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32–4.70), pre-labour cesarean (aOR = 3.83; 95% CI 2.24–6.56), or cesarean after labour onset (aOR = 8.06; 95% CI 4.65–13.97). Median time between delivery and sepsis was 3 d (interquartile range = 1–7 d). Multiple pregnancy (aOR = 5.75; 95% CI 1.54–21.45) and infection with group A streptococcus (aOR = 4.84; 2.17–10.78) were associated with progression to septic shock; for 16 (50%) women with a group A streptococcal infection there was anyone with suspected sepsis. Signs of severe sepsis in peripartum women, particularly with confirmed or suspected group A streptococcal infection, should be regarded as an obstetric emergency. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25003759

  16. Severe maternal sepsis in the UK, 2011-2012: a national case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Colleen D; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Lucas, D Nuala; Tuffnell, Derek J; Sellers, Susan; Knight, Marian

    2014-07-01

    In light of increasing rates and severity of sepsis worldwide, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of, and describe the causative organisms, sources of infection, and risk factors for, severe maternal sepsis in the UK. A prospective case-control study included 365 confirmed cases of severe maternal sepsis and 757 controls from all UK obstetrician-led maternity units from June 1, 2011, to May 31, 2012. Incidence of severe sepsis was 4.7 (95% CI 4.2-5.2) per 10,000 maternities; 71 (19.5%) women developed septic shock; and five (1.4%) women died. Genital tract infection (31.0%) and the organism Escherichia coli (21.1%) were most common. Women had significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of severe sepsis if they were black or other ethnic minority (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.82-2.51), were primiparous (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.17-2.20), had a pre-existing medical problem (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.01-1.94), had febrile illness or were taking antibiotics in the 2 wk prior to presentation (aOR = 12.07; 95% CI 8.11-17.97), or had an operative vaginal delivery (aOR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32-4.70), pre-labour cesarean (aOR = 3.83; 95% CI 2.24-6.56), or cesarean after labour onset (aOR = 8.06; 95% CI 4.65-13.97). Median time between delivery and sepsis was 3 d (interquartile range = 1-7 d). Multiple pregnancy (aOR = 5.75; 95% CI 1.54-21.45) and infection with group A streptococcus (aOR = 4.84; 2.17-10.78) were associated with progression to septic shock; for 16 (50%) women with a group A streptococcal infection there was anyone with suspected sepsis. Signs of severe sepsis in peripartum women, particularly with confirmed or suspected group A streptococcal infection, should be regarded as an obstetric emergency. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  17. Gender Implications of UK Welfare Reform and Government Equality Duties: Evidence from Qualitative Studies

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    Fran Bennett

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK coalition government is bound by equality duties to have regard to the impact of its policies on various groups, including women. This article investigates how far this legislative commitment is influencing debates about current welfare reforms, especially plans for ‘universal credit’ (a new means-tested benefit. The authors draw on findings from recent studies of within-household distribution from a gender perspective, including their own qualitative research. A major aim of this research was to facilitate more nuanced analysis of the effects of welfare reforms in terms of gender roles and relationships within the household. This article therefore examines how far findings from qualitative studies, in conjunction with the key principles they develop for assessing the gender impact of welfare reforms, can be used to examine ‘universal credit’; and to what extent these influenced the UK government’s proposals and analysis in the light of its commitment to equality duties. Los derechos de igualdad obligan al gobierno de coalición del Reino Unido a tener en cuenta el impacto de sus políticas sobre varios grupos, incluidas las mujeres. En este artículo se investiga hasta qué punto este compromiso legislativo está influyendo en los debates sobre las reformas de bienestar actuales, especialmente los planes de “crédito universal” (un nuevo beneficio de ingreso. Los autores se basan en los resultados de estudios recientes sobre la distribución dentro de los hogares desde una perspectiva de género, incluida su propia investigación cualitativa. Un objetivo principal de esta investigación era el de facilitar un análisis más matizado de los efectos de las reformas de bienestar en términos de roles y relaciones de género dentro del hogar. Por tanto, este artículo examina hasta qué punto los resultados de estudios cualitativos, en relación con los principios fundamentales que se desarrollan para evaluar el impacto de g

  18. Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N; Frayling, Timothy M

    2016-03-08

    To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. UK Biobank. 119,669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6 × 10(-3)) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6 × 10(-15)) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6 × 10(-7)), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4 × 10(-8)). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m(2)) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1 × 10(-5)) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. These data support evidence that height and BMI play an important partial role in determining several aspects of a person

  19. Height, body mass index, and socioeconomic status: mendelian randomisation study in UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Jessica; Jones, Samuel E; Beaumont, Robin; Astley, Christina M; Lovell, Rebecca; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Tuke, Marcus; Ruth, Katherine S; Freathy, Rachel M; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Wood, Andrew R; Murray, Anna; Weedon, Michael N

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether height and body mass index (BMI) have a causal role in five measures of socioeconomic status. Design Mendelian randomisation study to test for causal effects of differences in stature and BMI on five measures of socioeconomic status. Mendelian randomisation exploits the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at conception and thus not confounded by non-genetic factors. Setting UK Biobank. Participants 119 669 men and women of British ancestry, aged between 37 and 73 years. Main outcome measures Age completed full time education, degree level education, job class, annual household income, and Townsend deprivation index. Results In the UK Biobank study, shorter stature and higher BMI were observationally associated with several measures of lower socioeconomic status. The associations between shorter stature and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in men, and the associations between higher BMI and lower socioeconomic status tended to be stronger in women. For example, a 1 standard deviation (SD) higher BMI was associated with a £210 (€276; $300; 95% confidence interval £84 to £420; P=6×10−3) lower annual household income in men and a £1890 (£1680 to £2100; P=6×10−15) lower annual household income in women. Genetic analysis provided evidence that these associations were partly causal. A genetically determined 1 SD (6.3 cm) taller stature caused a 0.06 (0.02 to 0.09) year older age of completing full time education (P=0.01), a 1.12 (1.07 to 1.18) times higher odds of working in a skilled profession (P=6×10−7), and a £1130 (£680 to £1580) higher annual household income (P=4×10−8). Associations were stronger in men. A genetically determined 1 SD higher BMI (4.6 kg/m2) caused a £2940 (£1680 to £4200; P=1×10−5) lower annual household income and a 0.10 (0.04 to 0.16) SD (P=0.001) higher level of deprivation in women only. Conclusions These data support evidence that height and BMI play an

  20. Rising burden of gout in the UK but continuing suboptimal management: a nationwide population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chang-Fu; Grainge, Matthew J; Mallen, Christian; Zhang, Weiya; Doherty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the epidemiology of gout and patterns of urate-lowering treatment (ULT) in the UK general population from 1997 to 2012. Methods We used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the prevalence and incidence of gout for each calendar year from 1997 to 2012. We also investigated the pattern of gout management for both prevalent and incident gout patients. Results In 2012, the prevalence of gout was 2.49% (95% CI 2.48% to 2.51%) and the incidence was 1.77 (95% CI 1.73 to 1.81) per 1000 person-years. Prevalence and incidence both were significantly higher in 2012 than in 1997, with a 63.9% increase in prevalence and 29.6% increase in incidence over this period. Regions with highest prevalence and incidence were the North East and Wales. Among prevalent gout patients in 2012, only 48.48% (95% CI 48.08% to 48.89%) were being consulted specifically for gout or treated with ULT and of these 37.63% (95% CI 37.28% to 38.99%) received ULT. In addition, only 18.6% (95% CI 17.6% to 19.6%) of incident gout patients received ULT within 6 months and 27.3% (95% CI 26.1% to 28.5%) within 12 months of diagnosis. The management of prevalent and incident gout patients remained essentially the same during the study period, although the percentage of adherent patients improved from 28.28% (95% CI 27.33% to 29.26%) in 1997 to 39.66% (95% CI 39.11% to 40.22%) in 2012. Conclusions In recent years, both the prevalence and incidence of gout have increased significantly in the UK. Suboptimal use of ULT has not changed between 1997 and 2012. Patient adherence has improved during the study period, but it remains poor. PMID:24431399

  1. Incidence of and risk factors for Motor Neurone Disease in UK women: a prospective study

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    Doyle Pat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor neuron disease (MND is a severe neurodegenerative disease with largely unknown etiology. Most epidemiological studies are hampered by small sample sizes and/or the retrospective collection of information on behavioural and lifestyle factors. Methods 1.3 million women from the UK Million Women Study, aged 56 years on average at recruitment, were followed up for incident and/or fatal MND using NHS hospital admission and mortality data. Adjusted relative risks were calculated using Cox regression models. Findings During follow-up for an average of 9·2 years, 752 women had a new diagnosis of MND. Age-specific rates increased with age, from 1·9 (95% CI 1·3 – 2·7 to 12·5 (95% CI 10·2 – 15·3 per 100,000 women aged 50–54 to 70–74, respectively, giving a cumulative risk of diagnosis with the disease of 1·74 per 1000 women between the ages of 50 and 75 years. There was no significant variation in risk of MND with region of residence, socio-economic status, education, height, alcohol use, parity, use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy. Ever-smokers had about a 20% greater risk than never smokers (RR 1·19 95% CI 1·02 to 1·38, p = 0·03. There was a statistically significant reduction in risk of MND with increasing body mass index (pfor trend = 0·009: obese women (body mass index, 30 kg/m2 or more had a 20% lower risk than women of normal body mass index (20 to 2(RR 0·78 95% CI 0·65-0·94; p = 0·03. This effect persisted after exclusion of the first three years of follow-up. Interpretation MND incidence in UK women rises rapidly with age, and an estimated 1 in 575 women are likely to be affected between the ages of 50 and 75 years. Smoking slightly increases the risk of MND, and adiposity in middle age is associated with a lower risk of the disease.

  2. Access to food retail outlets in County Durham, UK: a pragmatic cross-sectional study.

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    Mills, Susanna; Wright, Tim

    2015-02-26

    Strong links exist between deprivation, obesity, and dietary quality. Increasing interest has focussed on the concept of access to food and so-called food deserts, defined by a policy working group of the UK Low Income Project Team in 1995 as "areas of relative exclusion where people experience physical and economic barriers to accessing healthy food". We aimed to establish the accessibility of food retail outlets in County Durham, a county in north-east England, UK, considering physical access, affordability, and food range and quality. In a pragmatic cross-sectional study in County Durham, we used information from town surveys and food business databases to locate and identify food retail outlets. The prevalence of deprivation, obesity, retail outlets, takeaway outlets, and ratio of retail to takeaway outlets was mapped, to establish local food access, and any associations with deprivation and obesity. The times taken to travel from residences to supermarkets using private car and public transport were also measured. 400 members of the community participated in eight focus groups and commissioned on-street surveys. Focus group transcripts were reviewed alongside the on-street survey responses to identify key issues. Most residents shopped at least weekly for food (n=368, 92%), used a supermarket for their main food shop (372, 93%), travelled for up to 15 min (340, 85%), and used a car for transport (188, 47%). Many survey respondents indicated high levels of satisfaction with food retail outlets (average rating 8·7 out of 10 for agreement with the statement "Overall I am satisfied with the shop where I do my main food shopping"), although financial constraints and transport inconvenience were identified as barriers. Difficulties with food shopping were more widely described in focus groups, and many individuals felt that local shopping provision had declined, with an emergent excess of takeaway outlets. Food retail access was reduced for the disabled, full

  3. What is learned from longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking? A critical assessment.

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    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-03-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  4. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon P. Nelson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation.

  5. A longitudinal study of employment and skill acquisition among individuals with developmental disabilities.

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    Stephens, Dawn L; Collins, Michael D; Dodder, Richard A

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislation, especially the Americans with Disabilities Act in 1990, generated the closure of institutions for people with disabilities and inclusion into community residences and employment. It has been well documented that individuals with developmental disabilities often experience difficulties with employment including both obtaining and maintaining jobs, and many researchers have looked for ways to make employment more successful [McConkey, R. & Mezza F. (2001). Employment aspirations of people with learning disabilities attending day centers. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 5(4), 309-318; Stevens, G. (2002). Employers' perceptions and practice in the employability of disabled people: a survey of companies in south east UK. Disability and Society, 17(7), 779-796; Capella, M., Roessler, R., & Hemmeria, K. (2002). Work-related skills awareness in high-school students with disabilities. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 33(2), 17-23; Ingraham, K., Rahimi, M., Tsang, H., Chan, F., & Oulvey, E. (2001). Work support groups in state vocational rehabilitation agency settings: a case study. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 5(1), 6-21; Gosling, V. & Cotterill, L. (2000). An employment project as a route to social inclusion for people with learning difficulties? Disability and Society, 15(7), 1001-1018; Neitupski, J. & Hamre-Nietupski, S. (2000). A systematic process for carving supported employment positions for people with severe disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 12(2), 103-119]. While research has accumulated that has examined predictors of successful employment, this research assessed longitudinal outcomes of employment. Data were obtained from an existing data set of all known persons receiving services from the Developmental Disabilities Division of the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (N=2760). Results indicated that as people moved to employment, scores on adaptive skills increased, that as people moved

  6. A qualitative study of the impact of the UK 'bedroom tax'.

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    Moffatt, S; Lawson, S; Patterson, R; Holding, E; Dennison, A; Sowden, S; Brown, J

    2016-06-01

    The implementation of the 'Removal of the Spare Room Subsidy' in April 2013, commonly known as the 'bedroom tax', affects an estimated 660 000 working age social housing tenants in the UK, reducing weekly incomes by £12-£22. This study aimed to examine the impact of this tax on health and wellbeing in a North East England community in which 68.5% of residents live in social housing. Qualitative study using interviews and a focus group with 38 social housing tenants and 12 service providers. Income reduction affected purchasing power for essentials, particularly food and utilities. Participants recounted negative impacts on mental health, family relationships and community networks. The hardship and debt that people experienced adversely affected their social relationships and ability to carry out normal social roles. Residents and service providers highlighted negative impacts on the neighbourhood, as well as added pressure on already strained local services. The bedroom tax has increased poverty and had broad-ranging adverse effects on health, wellbeing and social relationships within this community. These findings strengthen the arguments for revoking this tax. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  7. Has publication of the results of the ORACLE Children Study changed practice in the UK?

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    Kenyon, S; Pike, K; Jones, D; Brocklehurst, P; Marlow, N; Salt, A; Taylor, D

    2010-10-01

      To investigate whether publication of the results of the ORACLE Children's Study, a 7-year follow-up of the ORACLE trial, changed practice with regard to the routine prescription of antibiotics to women with preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour (intact membranes).   A comparative questionnaire survey of clinical practice in November 2007 (before publication) and March 2009 (after publication).   Lead obstetricians for labour wards of all maternity units in the UK.   Self-administered questionnaires requested information about the routine prescription of antibiotics to women with either preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour (intact membranes).   Change in practice for prescription of antibiotics.   The response rate was 166/214 (78%) in 2007 and 158/209 (76%) in 2009. In total, 120 maternity units responded on both occasions. For women with preterm rupture of membranes, 162/214 (98%) in 2007 and 151/158 (96%) in 2009 maternity units reported that they prescribed antibiotics, with the majority using erythromycin (98%). For women with spontaneous preterm labour (intact membranes), 35/166 (21%) in 2007 and 25/158 (16%) in 2009 maternity units reported that they routinely prescribed antibiotics. The findings from units who responded on both occasions are similar.   There has been little change in the reported prescription of antibiotics to women with either preterm rupture of membranes or spontaneous preterm labour following publication of the ORACLE Children's Study. This suggests that current practice may require updated guidance.

  8. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  9. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

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    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  10. Food for thought: an ethnographic study of negotiating ill health and food insecurity in a UK foodbank.

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    Garthwaite, K A; Collins, P J; Bambra, C

    2015-05-01

    Emergency foodbanks have become an increasingly prominent and controversial feature of austerity in Europe and the USA. In the UK, foodbanks have been called a 'public health emergency'. Despite this, there has been no UK research examining the health of foodbank users. Through an ethnographic study, this paper is the first to explore the health and health perceptions of foodbank users via a case study of Stockton-on-Tees in the North East of England, UK during a period of welfare reform and austerity. Participant observation, field notes and interviews with foodbank users and volunteers were conducted over a seventeen month period (November 2013 to March 2015) inside a Trussell Trust foodbank. Foodbank users were almost exclusively of working age, both men and women, with and without dependent children. All were on very low incomes - from welfare benefits or insecure, poorly paid employment. Many had pre-existing health problems which were exacerbated by their poverty and food insecurity. The latter meant although foodbank users were well aware of the importance and constitution of a healthy diet, they were usually unable to achieve this for financial reasons - constantly having to negotiate their food insecurity. More typically they had to access poor quality, readily available, filling, processed foods. Foodbank users are facing the everyday reality of health inequalities at a time of ongoing austerity in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An exploratory study of information sources and key findings on UK cocaine-related deaths.

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    Corkery, John M; Claridge, Hugh; Goodair, Christine; Schifano, Fabrizio

    2017-08-01

    Cocaine-related deaths have increased since the early 1990s in Europe, including the UK. Being multi-factorial, they are difficult to define, detect and record. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction commissioned research to: describe trends reported to Special Mortality Registries and General Mortality Registers; provide demographic and drug-use characteristic information of cases; and establish how deaths are identified and classified. A questionnaire was developed and piloted amongst all European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Focal Point experts/Special Mortality Registries: 19 (63%) responded; nine countries provided aggregated data. UK General Mortality Registers use cause of death and toxicology to identify cocaine-related deaths. Categorisation is based on International Classification of Diseases codes. Special Mortality Registries use toxicology, autopsy, evidence and cause of death. The cocaine metabolites commonly screened for are: benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaethylene and ecgonine. The 2000s saw a generally accelerating upward trend in cases, followed by a decline in 2009. The UK recorded 2700-2900 deaths during 1998-2012. UK Special Mortality Registry data (2005-2009) indicate: 25-44 year-olds account for 74% of deaths; mean age=34 (range 15-81) years; 84% male. Cocaine overdoses account for two-thirds of cases; cocaine alone being mentioned/implicated in 23% in the UK. Opioids are involved in most (58%) cocaine overdose cases.

  12. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Depression in primary care patients with coronary heart disease: baseline findings from the UPBEAT UK study.

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    Paul Walters

    Full Text Available An association between depression and coronary heart disease is now accepted but there has been little primary care research on this topic. The UPBEAT-UK studies are centred on a cohort of primary patients with coronary heart disease assessed every six months for up to four years. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence and associations of depression in this cohort at baseline.Participants with coronary heart disease were recruited from general practice registers and assessed for cardiac symptoms, depression, quality of life and social problems.803 people participated. 42% had a documented history of myocardial infarction, 54% a diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease or angina. 44% still experienced chest pain. 7% had an ICD-10 defined depressive disorder. Factors independently associated with this diagnosis were problems living alone (OR 5.49, 95% CI 2.11-13.30, problems carrying out usual activities (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.93-7.14, experiencing chest pain (OR 3.27, 95% CI 1.58-6.76, other pains or discomfort (OR 3.39, 95% CI 1.42-8.10, younger age (OR 0.95 per year 95% CI 0.92-0.98.Problems living alone, chest pain and disability are important predictors of depression in this population.

  14. Private Finance Initiative (PFI for Road Projects in UK: Current Practice with a Case Study

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    Rifat Akbiyikli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sustainable provision of new and high quality maintained road stock is vitally important, especially in times of economic constraint such as Europe is currently experiencing. The Private Finance Initiative (PFI is one method of financing such large-scale, capital intensive projects. An important aspect of this form of financing projects is that the risks are borne not only by the sponsors but are shared by different types of investors such as equity holders, debt providers, and quasi-equity investors. Consequently, a comprehensive and heuristic risk management process is essential for the success of the project. The proposition made within this paper is that the PFI mechanism provides a Value-for-Money and effective mechanism to achieve this. The structure of this PFI finance and investment on a particular road project therefore enables all project stakeholders to take a long-term perspective. This long-term perspective is reflected in the mechanism of a case study of UK – Class A trunk roads which are examined in detail. This paper presents a novel solution to a modern dilemma.

  15. Children's views on research without prior consent in emergency situations: a UK qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Louise; Sherratt, Frances C; Young, Bridget; McNamara, Paul; Dawson, Angus; Appleton, Richard; Crawley, Esther; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Woolfall, Kerry

    2018-06-09

    We explored children's views on research without prior consent (RWPC) and sought to identify ways of involving children in research discussions. Qualitative interview study. Participants were recruited through a UK children's hospital and online advertising. 16 children aged 7-15 years with a diagnosis of asthma (n=14) or anaphylaxis (n=2) with recent (<12 months) experience of emergency care. Children were keen to be included in medical research and viewed RWPC as acceptable in emergency situations if trial interventions were judged safe. Children trusted that doctors would know about their trial participation and act in their best interests. All felt that children should be informed about the research following their recovery and involved in discussions with a clinician or their parent(s) about the use of data already collected as well as continued participation in the trial (if applicable). Participants suggested methods to inform children about their trial participation including an animation. Children supported, and were keen to be involved in, clinical trials in emergency situations. We present guidance and an animation that practitioners and parents might use to involve children in trial discussions following their recovery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. What is the impact of giant cell arteritis on patients’ lives? A UK qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jennifer; Bartlam, Roisin; Mallen, Christian D; Mackie, Sarah L; Prior, James A; Helliwell, Toby; Richardson, Jane C

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Clinical management of giant cell arteritis (GCA) involves balancing the risks and burdens arising from the disease with those arising from treatment, but there is little research on the nature of those burdens. We aimed to explore the impact of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and its treatment on patients’ lives. Methods UK patients with GCA participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Inductive thematic analysis was employed. Results 24 participants were recruited (age: 65–92 years, time since diagnosis: 2 months to >6 years). The overarching themes from analysis were: ongoing symptoms of the disease and its treatment; and ‘life-changing’ impacts. The overall impact of GCA on patients’ lives arose from a changing combination of symptoms, side effects, adaptations to everyday life and impacts on sense of normality. Important factors contributing to loss of normality were glucocorticoid-related treatment burdens and fear about possible future loss of vision. Conclusions The impact of GCA in patients’ everyday lives can be substantial, multifaceted and ongoing despite apparent control of disease activity. The findings of this study will help doctors better understand patient priorities, legitimise patients’ experiences of GCA and work with patients to set realistic treatment goals and plan adaptations to their everyday lives. PMID:28838902

  17. The UK Paediatric Ocular Trauma Study 2 (POTS2): demographics and mechanisms of injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sii, Freda; Barry, Robert J; Abbott, Joseph; Blanch, Richard J; MacEwen, Caroline J; Shah, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric ocular trauma is an important cause of visual morbidity worldwide, accounting for up to one-third of all ocular trauma admissions. It has long-term implications for those affected and significant economic consequences for healthcare providers. It has been estimated that 90% of all ocular trauma is preventable. Targeted strategies are required to reduce the incidence and the severity of pediatric ocular trauma; this requires an understanding of the epidemiology and characteristics of these injuries and the children involved. Prospective, observational study of pediatric ocular trauma cases presenting to UK-based ophthalmologists over a 1-year period; reporting cards were distributed by the British Ophthalmological Surveillance Unit, and clinicians were asked to report incidents of acute orbital and ocular trauma in children aged ≤16 years requiring inpatient or day-case admission. A validated, standardized questionnaire was sent to reporting ophthalmologists to collect data on the demographics and circumstances of injury. Median age at presentation was 7.7 years, with boys more than twice as likely to be affected than girls (M:F =2.1:1.0). Almost 50% of injuries occurred at home, with 25% occurring in school or nursery. A total of 67% of injuries occurred during play, and 31% involved a sharp implement. Pediatric ocular trauma remains an important public health problem. At least three-quarters of all injuries are preventable through measures, including education of children and responsible adults, restricting access to sharp implements, improving adult supervision, and appropriate use of eye protection.

  18. DNA barcoding for biosecurity: case studies from the UK plant protection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgetts, Jennifer; Ostojá-Starzewski, Jozef C; Prior, Thomas; Lawson, Rebecca; Hall, Jayne; Boonham, Neil

    2016-11-01

    Since its conception, DNA barcoding has seen a rapid uptake within the research community. Nevertheless, as with many new scientific tools, progression towards the point of routine deployment within diagnostic laboratories has been slow. In this paper, we discuss the application of DNA barcoding in the Defra plant health diagnostic laboratories, where DNA barcoding is used primarily for the identification of invertebrate pests. We present a series of case studies that demonstrate the successful application of DNA barcoding but also reveal some potential limitations to expanded use. The regulated plant pest, Bursephalenchus xylophilus, and one of its vectors, Monochamus alternatus, were found in dining chairs. Some traded wood products are potentially high risk, allowing the movement of longhorn beetles; Trichoferus campestris, Leptura quadrifasciata, and Trichoferus holosericeus were found in a wooden cutlery tray, a railway sleeper, and a dining chair, respectively. An outbreak of Meloidogyne fallax was identified in Allium ampeloprasum and in three weed species. Reference sequences for UK native psyllids were generated to enable the development of rapid diagnostics to be used for monitoring following the release of Aphalara itadori as a biological control agent for Fallopia japonica.

  19. The UK Childhood Cancer Study: Maternal occupational exposures and childhood leukaemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, P. A.; Raji, O. Y.; Van Tongeren, M.; Feltbower, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Risks of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma were investigated for specific work-related exposures of mothers in the UK Childhood Cancer Study. Interviews with parents of 1881 leukaemia and lymphoma cases (0-14 years) and 3742 controls collected job histories recording exposure to eight specific agents. Exposure was (1) self-reported and (2) reviewed, based mainly on exposure probability and exposure level. Completeness, consistency and sufficiency evaluated data quality. Of all job exposures which were self-reported as exposed, 33% cases and 34% controls remained classified as exposed after review, with the remainder designated as partially exposed or unexposed. No review of underreporting of exposure was made. Data quality was 'good' for 26% of cases and 24% of controls. For self-reported exposure, significant risks of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were observed for solvents and petrol in all time windows. For reviewed exposure, solvents remained significant for ALL during pregnancy and post-natality. Restricting analyses to good-quality information removed all significant results. Refinement of exposure assessment revealed misclassification of self-reported exposures and data quality influenced risk assessment. Maternal exposure to solvents should further be investigated. These findings must invoke caution in the interpretation of risks reliant on self-reported occupational data. (authors)

  20. Identifying 'unhealthy' food advertising on television: a case study applying the UK Nutrient Profile model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle; Wilson, Nick; Hermanson, Nicole

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of the UK Nutrient Profile (NP) model for identifying 'unhealthy' food advertisements using a case study of New Zealand television advertisements. Four weeks of weekday television from 15.30 hours to 18.30 hours was videotaped from a state-owned (free-to-air) television channel popular with children. Food advertisements were identified and their nutritional information collected in accordance with the requirements of the NP model. Nutrient information was obtained from a variety of sources including food labels, company websites and a national nutritional database. From the 60 h sample of weekday afternoon television, there were 1893 advertisements, of which 483 were for food products or retailers. After applying the NP model, 66 % of these were classified as advertising high-fat, high-salt and high-sugar (HFSS) foods; 28 % were classified as advertising non-HFSS foods; and the remaining 2 % were unclassifiable. More than half (53 %) of the HFSS food advertisements were for 'mixed meal' items promoted by major fast-food franchises. The advertising of non-HFSS food was sparse, covering a narrow range of food groups, with no advertisements for fresh fruit or vegetables. Despite the NP model having some design limitations in classifying real-world televised food advertisements, it was easily applied to this sample and could clearly identify HFSS products. Policy makers who do not wish to completely restrict food advertising to children outright should consider using this NP model for regulating food advertising.

  1. Costs of a healthy diet: analysis from the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, J; Upmeier, H; Calvert, C; Greenwood, D

    1999-12-01

    To investigate the direct and indirect cost differences associated with eating a 'healthy' or 'unhealthy' diet. Analysis of data from a baseline postal questionnaire for the UK Women's Cohort Study, including a detailed food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), supplemented by a telephone interview on a sub-sample. The first 15,191 women who responded to the questionnaire, aged 35-69 years with similar numbers of meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians. A healthy diet indicator (hdi), with values from 0 (lowest) to 8 (highest) was developed based on the WHO dietary recommendations. Direct monetary cost of the diet was calculated using prices from the 1995 National Food Survey and the Tesco home shopping catalogue. Women in the healthy diet group were almost four times as likely to be vegetarian and have a higher educational level. For direct costs, the difference between the most extreme hdi groups was 1.48 day-1 (equivalent to 540 year-1), with fruit and vegetable expenditure being the main items making a healthy diet more expensive. Forty-nine per cent of the food budget was spent on fruit and vegetables in hdi group 8 compared to 29% in hdi group 0. Interestingly, 52% of those questioned in both extreme hdi groups did not think that it was difficult to eat healthily. To achieve a particularly healthy diet independent predictive factors were spending more money, being a vegetarian, having a higher energy intake, having a lower body mass index (BMI) and being older.

  2. Comprehensive sequence analysis of nine Usher syndrome genes in the UK National Collaborative Usher Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Quesne Stabej, Polona; Saihan, Zubin; Rangesh, Nell; Steele-Stallard, Heather B; Ambrose, John; Coffey, Alison; Emmerson, Jenny; Haralambous, Elene; Hughes, Yasmin; Steel, Karen P; Luxon, Linda M; Webster, Andrew R; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising retinitis pigmentosa, hearing loss and, in some cases, vestibular dysfunction. It is clinically and genetically heterogeneous with three distinctive clinical types (I-III) and nine Usher genes identified. This study is a comprehensive clinical and genetic analysis of 172 Usher patients and evaluates the contribution of digenic inheritance. The genes MYO7A, USH1C, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1G, USH2A, GPR98, WHRN, CLRN1 and the candidate gene SLC4A7 were sequenced in 172 UK Usher patients, regardless of clinical type. No subject had definite mutations (nonsense, frameshift or consensus splice site mutations) in two different USH genes. Novel missense variants were classified UV1-4 (unclassified variant): UV4 is 'probably pathogenic', based on control frequency A being the most common USH1 mutation in the cohort). USH2A was responsible for 79.3% of USH2 families and GPR98 for only 6.6%. No mutations were found in USH1G, WHRN or SLC4A7. One or two pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants were identified in 86% of cases. No convincing cases of digenic inheritance were found. It is concluded that digenic inheritance does not make a significant contribution to Usher syndrome; the observation of multiple variants in different genes is likely to reflect polymorphic variation, rather than digenic effects.

  3. A cohort mortality study of lead-exposed workers in the USA, Finland and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Kyle; Barry, Vaughn; Anttila, Ahti; Sallmén, Markku; McElvenny, Damien; Todd, A C; Straif, Kurt

    2017-11-01

    To investigate further whether inorganic lead is a carcinogen among adults, or associated with increased blood pressure and kidney damage, via a large mortality study. We conducted internal analyses via Cox regression of mortality in three cohorts of lead-exposed workers with blood lead (BL) data (USA, Finland, UK), including over 88 000 workers and over 14 000 deaths. Our exposure metric was maximum BL. We also conducted external analyses using country-specific background rates. The combined cohort had a median BL of 26 µg/dL, a mean first-year BL test of 1990 and was 96% male. Fifty per cent had more than one BL test (mean 7). Significant (p40 µg/dL; for bladder, lung and larynx cancer; and for COPD. In a small subsample of the US cohort (n=115) who were interviewed, we found no association between smoking and BL. We found strong positive mortality trends, with increasing BL level, for several outcomes in internal analysis. Many of these outcomes are associated with smoking, for which we had no data. A borderline trend was found for brain cancer, not associated with smoking. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Restoration of a wild grey partridge shoot: a major development in the Sussex study, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific basis of wild grey partridge management has been known for a generation. This includes controlling nest predators, providing nesting cover, having sufficient insect food for chicks and appropriate rates of shooting. More recently, measures such as providing food for adult birds and habitats for protection from birds of prey have also been considered important. Habitat provision can be expensive, but in the UK costs can be partially recovered through governmental agri–environment schemes. The landowner still needs to pay for the essential gamekeeper. Since 2003/04, one part of the Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust’s (GWCT Sussex Study area has put these principles of environmental management into practice with the aim of restoring a wild grey partridge shoot to this part of Southern England. Results have been impressive, with the spring pair density increasing from 0.3 pairs/100 ha in 2003 to nearly 20 pairs/100 ha in 2010 on an area of just over 10 km2. Over the past two years a wild grey partridge shoot has taken place, and the landowner and his team have gained national recognition for their conservation work.

  5. A nested case-control study of predictors for tuberculosis recurrence in a large UK Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Andrew; Richardson, Matthew; Wiselka, Martin J; Free, Robert C; Woltmann, Gerrit; Mukamolova, Galina V; Pareek, Manish

    2018-02-27

    Tuberculosis (TB) recurrence represents a challenge to control programs. In low incidence countries, the prevailing risk factors leading to recurrence are poorly characterised. We conducted a nested case-control study using the Leicester TB service TBIT database. Cases were identified from database notifications between 1994 and 2014. Controls had one episode and were matched to cases on a ratio of two to one by the date of notification. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was employed to identify clinical, sociodemographic and TB specific risk factors for recurrence. From a cohort of 4628 patients, 82 TB recurrences occurred (1.8%). Nineteen of 82 patients had paired isolates with MIRU-VNTR strain type profiles available, of which 84% were relapses and 16% reinfections. On multivariate analysis, smoking (OR 3.8; p = 0.04), grade 3/4 adverse drug reactions (OR 5.6; p = 0.02), ethnicity 'Indian subcontinent' (OR 8.5; p = <0.01), ethnicity 'other' (OR 31.2; p = 0.01) and receipt of immunosuppressants (OR 6.8; p = <0.01) were independent predictors of TB recurrence. Within this UK setting, the rate of TB recurrence was low, predominantly due to relapse. The identification of an elevated recurrence risk amongst the ethnic group contributing most cases to the national TB burden presents an opportunity to improve individual and population health.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Motivation in Foreign and Second Language Learning Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordem, Eser

    2017-01-01

    Although motivation has been one of the most commonly studied subjects in second and foreign language learning in recent decades, it still remains an enigma for learners and teachers. This longitudinal study aimed to follow a student (N = 1) studying German in both second and foreign language environment for three years. The study was descriptive,…

  7. The management and outcomes of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta in the UK: a population-based descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, K E; Sellers, S; Spark, P; Kurinczuk, J J; Brocklehurst, P; Knight, M

    2014-01-01

    To describe the management and outcomes of placenta accreta, increta, and percreta in the UK. A population-based descriptive study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS). All 221 UK hospitals with obstetrician-led maternity units. All women diagnosed with placenta accreta, increta, and percreta in the UK between May 2010 and April 2011. Prospective case identification through the monthly mailing of UKOSS. Median estimated blood loss, transfusion requirements. A cohort of 134 women were identified with placenta accreta, increta, or percreta: 50% (66/133) were suspected to have this condition antenatally. In women with a final diagnosis of placenta increta or percreta, antenatal diagnosis was associated with reduced levels of haemorrhage (median estimated blood loss 2750 versus 6100 ml, P = 0.008) and a reduced need for blood transfusion (59 versus 94%, P = 0.014), possibly because antenatally diagnosed women were more likely to have preventative therapies for haemorrhage (74 versus 52%, P = 0.007), and were less likely to have an attempt made to remove their placenta (59 versus 93%, P accreta, increta, or percreta who have no attempt to remove any of their placenta, with the aim of conserving their uterus, or prior to hysterectomy, have reduced levels of haemorrhage and a reduced need for blood transfusion, supporting the recommendation of this practice. © 2013 RCOG.

  8. Understanding general practice: a conceptual framework developed from case studies in the UK NHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Kath

    2007-01-01

    General practice in the UK is undergoing a period of rapid and profound change. Traditionally, research into the effects of change on general practice has tended to regard GPs as individuals or as members of a professional group. To understand the impact of change, general practices should also be considered as organisations. To use the organisational studies literature to build a conceptual framework of general practice organisations, and to test and develop this empirically using case studies of change in practice. This study used the implementation of National Service Frameworks (NSFs) and the new General Medical Services (GMS) contract as incidents of change. In-depth, qualitative case studies. The design was iterative: each case study was followed by a review of the theoretical ideas. The final conceptual framework was the result of the dynamic interplay between theory and empirical evidence. Five general practices in England, selected using purposeful sampling. Semi-structured interviews with all clinical and managerial personnel in each practice, participant and nonparticipant observation, and examination of documents. A conceptual framework was developed that can be used to understand how and why practices respond to change. This framework enabled understanding of observed reactions to the introduction of NSFs and the new GMS contract. Important factors for generating responses to change included the story that the practice members told about their practice, beliefs about what counted as legitimate work, the role played by the manager, and previous experiences of change. Viewing general practices as small organisations has generated insights into factors that influence responses to change. Change tends to occur from the bottom up and is determined by beliefs about organisational reality. The conceptual framework suggests some questions that can be asked of practices to explain this internal reality.

  9. Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

    2011-04-01

    This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  10. Mental health consequences of overstretch in the UK Armed Forces, 2007-09: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Keeling, Mary; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T

    2014-12-01

    Concerns have been raised about the effect of tour length on the mental health of the UK armed forces. In 2007, we reported that cumulative length of deployment was associated with mental illness in military personnel. Our findings provided empirical evidence to support the UK advisory policy for tour length, known as the Harmony Guidelines. If fully implemented, these guidelines could aid prevention of mental illnesses. We aimed to reassess the association between cumulative length of deployment and number of deployments with mental illness in the UK forces. Our analysis was based on data from a representative study of the military for UK regular personnel who had completed a questionnaire between Nov 2, 2007, and Sept 24, 2009, and were deployed in the 3 years before questionnaire completion. Study outcomes were presence of possible post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychological distress, multiple physical symptoms, alcohol misuse, problems at home during and after deployment, and relationship or family problems. The key independent factors were deployment for 13 months or more, and months and number of deployments in the past 3 years. 8278 regulars responded to the questionnaire, of whom 3982 (48%) had been deployed in the 3 years before questionnaire completion. Deployment for 13 months or more decreased from 22% in March, 2005, (median March 8, 2005 [IQR Oct 10, 2004 to April 28, 2005]), to 12% in May, 2008, (May 17, 2008, [Feb 14, 2008, to Dec 5, 2008]). We noted an association between cumulative time deployed as a continuous variable and a score of 40 or more on the PTSD checklist (p=0·002), presence of psychological distress (p=0·018), and multiple physical symptoms (p=0·030; table 2). Furthermore, 13 months or more of deployment was associated with multiple physical symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·15, 95% CI 1·39-3·32), a PTSD checklist score of 40 or more (2·02, 1·31-3·12), and problems at home, but not a PTSD checklist score of 50 or

  11. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  12. UK investments in global infectious disease research 1997-2010: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Cooke, Mary K; Wurie, Fatima B; Hayward, Andrew C; Atun, Rifat

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases account for 15 million deaths per year worldwide, and disproportionately affect young people, elderly people, and the poorest sections of society. We aimed to describe the investments awarded to UK institutions for infectious disease research. We systematically searched databases and websites for information on research studies from funding institutions and created a comprehensive database of infectious disease research projects for the period 1997-2010. We categorised studies and funding by disease, cross-cutting theme, and by a research and development value chain describing the type of science. Regression analyses were reported with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient to establish the relation between research investment, mortality, and disease burden as measured by disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). We identified 6170 funded studies, with a total research investment of UK£2·6 billion. Studies with a clear global health component represented 35·6% of all funding (£927 million). By disease, HIV received £461 million (17·7%), malaria £346 million (13·3%), tuberculosis £149 million (5·7%), influenza £80 million (3·1%), and hepatitis C £60 million (2·3%). We compared funding with disease burden (DALYs and mortality) to show low levels of investment relative to burden for gastrointestinal infections (£254 million, 9·7%), some neglected tropical diseases (£184 million, 7·1%), and antimicrobial resistance (£96 million, 3·7%). Virology was the highest funded category (£1 billion, 38·4%). Leading funding sources were the Wellcome Trust (£688 million, 26·4%) and the Medical Research Council (£673 million, 25·8%). Research funding has to be aligned with prevailing and projected global infectious disease burden. Funding agencies and industry need to openly document their research investments to redress any inequities in resource allocation. None. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "Knife before wife": an exploratory study of gender and the UK medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karen; Clark, Donna

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the increasing feminisation of the medical profession and career progression of women in the medical profession. Furthermore, the paper explores the implications of gender segregation in the medical profession for health service provision. The paper presents an overview of studies in this area and draws upon primary, empirical research with medical practitioners and medical students. However, unlike most other studies the sample includes male and female participants. The research involved elite interviews and self-completion questionnaires in order to provide perspectives of both male and female medical practitioners and medical students. The findings are consistent with those of other studies; that gender discrimination and segregation is still prevalent in the medical profession. But there are significant differences in perceptions between the genders. Moreover, it is concluded that the gendered career structure and organisational culture of the health sector and medical profession create a role conflict between personal and professional lives. The current difficulties in reconciling this role conflict create barriers to the career progression of women in the medical profession. Further research in this area could include a longitudinal study of medical students and the impact of changes in the design of medical training and career structures to assess whether these changes enable female career progression in the medical profession. Further analysis is needed of gendered practices and career development in specific specialist areas, and the role of the medical profession, NHS and Royal Colleges should play in addressing gender and career progression in medicine. Gender segregation (vertical and horizontal) in the medical profession will have implications for the attraction, retention and increased shortages of practitioners in hospital and surgical specialities with the resultant economic and health provision inefficiencies. The paper

  14. A longitudinal test of video game violence influences on dating and aggression: a 3-year longitudinal study of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; San Miguel, Claudia; Garza, Adolfo; Jerabeck, Jessica M

    2012-02-01

    In 2011 the field of video game violence experienced serious reversals with repudiations of the current research by the US Supreme Court and the Australian Government as non-compelling and fundamentally flawed. Scholars too have been calling for higher quality research on this issue. The current study seeks to answer this call by providing longitudinal data on youth aggression and dating violence as potential consequences of violent video game exposure using well-validated clinical outcome measures and controlling for other relevant predictors of youth aggression. A sample of 165, mainly Hispanic youth, were tested at 3 intervals, an initial interview, and 1-year and 3-year intervals. Results indicated that exposure to video game violence was not related to any of the negative outcomes. Depression, antisocial personality traits, exposure to family violence and peer influences were the best predictors of aggression-related outcomes. The current study supports a growing body of evidence pointing away from video game violence use as a predictor of youth aggression. Public policy efforts, including funding, would best be served by redirecting them toward other prevention programs for youth violence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Which emotional regulatory strategy makes Chinese adolescents happier? A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sang, B.; Deng, X.; Luan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Growing interest in emotion regulation is reflected in the studies of cognitive and social development. However, the extant studies mainly highlight how emotion regulation develops based on a western value system. This study utilised a longitudinal design to examine the development of emotion

  16. Physical activity as a determinant of change in mobility performance : the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Stel, Vianda S; Bosscher, Ruud J; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the association of (change in) physical activity and decline in mobility performance in older men and women. DESIGN: A 3-year prospective study using data of the Longitudinal Aging Study. SETTING: Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: Two thousand one hundred nine men and women

  17. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  18. The Mediterranean diet and risk of colorectal cancer in the UK Women's Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Petra; Cade, Janet E; Evans, Charlotte E L; Hancock, Neil; Greenwood, Darren C

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from epidemiological studies investigating associations between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer is inconsistent. The aim of this study is to assess in the UK Women's Cohort Study whether adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with reduced incidence of cancers of the colon and rectum. A total of 35 372 women were followed for a median of 17.4 years. A 10-component score indicating adherence to the Mediterranean diet was generated for each cohort participant, using a 217-item food frequency questionnaire. The Mediterranean diet score ranged from 0 for minimal adherence to 10 for maximal adherence. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to provide adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colon and rectal cancer risk. A total of 465 incident colorectal cancer cases were documented. In the multivariable adjusted model, the test for trend was positive (HR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.78 to 0.99; Ptrend = 0.03) for a 2-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score. For rectal cancer, a 2-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score resulted in an HR (95% CI) of 0.69 (0.56 to 0.86), whereas a 62% linear reduced risk (HR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.74; Ptrend Mediterranean dietary pattern may have a lower risk of colorectal cancer, especially rectal cancer. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  19. The influence of racism on cigarette smoking: Longitudinal study of young people in a British multiethnic cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Ursula M.; João Silva, Maria; Molaodi, Oarabile R.; Enayat, Zinat E.; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Studies, predominantly from the US, suggest that positive parenting, social support, academic achievement, and ethnic identity may buffer the impact of racism on health behaviours, including smoking, but little is known about how such effects might operate for ethnically diverse young people in the United Kingdom. We use the Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH), the largest UK longitudinal study of ethnically diverse young people, to address the following questions: a) Is racism associated with smoking? b) Does the relationship between racism and smoking vary by gender and by ethnicity? (c) Do religious involvement, parenting style and relationship with parents modify any observed relationship? and d) What are the qualitative experiences of racism and how might family or religion buffer the impact? Methods The cohort was recruited from 51 London schools. 6643 were seen at 11-13y and 4785 seen again at 14-16y. 665 participated in pilot follow-up at 21-23y, 42 in qualitative interviews. Self-report questionnaires included lifestyles, socio-economic and psychosocial factors. Mixed-effect models examined the associations between racism and smoking. Results Smoking prevalence increased from adolescence to age 21-23y, although ethnic minorities remained less likely to smoke. Racism was an independent longitudinal correlate of ever smoking throughout adolescence (odds ratio 1.77, 95% Confidence Interval 1.45–2.17) and from early adolescence to early 20s (1.90, 95% CI 1.25–2.90). Smoking initiation in late adolescence was associated with cumulative exposure to racism (1.77, 95% CI 1.23–2.54). Parent-child relationships and place of worship attendance were independent longitudinal correlates that were protective of smoking. Qualitative narratives explored how parenting, religion and cultural identity buffered the adverse impact of racism. Conclusions Racism was associated with smoking behaviour from early adolescence to early

  20. The influence of racism on cigarette smoking: Longitudinal study of young people in a British multiethnic cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula M Read

    Full Text Available Studies, predominantly from the US, suggest that positive parenting, social support, academic achievement, and ethnic identity may buffer the impact of racism on health behaviours, including smoking, but little is known about how such effects might operate for ethnically diverse young people in the United Kingdom. We use the Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH, the largest UK longitudinal study of ethnically diverse young people, to address the following questions: a Is racism associated with smoking? b Does the relationship between racism and smoking vary by gender and by ethnicity? (c Do religious involvement, parenting style and relationship with parents modify any observed relationship? and d What are the qualitative experiences of racism and how might family or religion buffer the impact?The cohort was recruited from 51 London schools. 6643 were seen at 11-13y and 4785 seen again at 14-16y. 665 participated in pilot follow-up at 21-23y, 42 in qualitative interviews. Self-report questionnaires included lifestyles, socio-economic and psychosocial factors. Mixed-effect models examined the associations between racism and smoking.Smoking prevalence increased from adolescence to age 21-23y, although ethnic minorities remained less likely to smoke. Racism was an independent longitudinal correlate of ever smoking throughout adolescence (odds ratio 1.77, 95% Confidence Interval 1.45-2.17 and from early adolescence to early 20s (1.90, 95% CI 1.25-2.90. Smoking initiation in late adolescence was associated with cumulative exposure to racism (1.77, 95% CI 1.23-2.54. Parent-child relationships and place of worship attendance were independent longitudinal correlates that were protective of smoking. Qualitative narratives explored how parenting, religion and cultural identity buffered the adverse impact of racism.Racism was associated with smoking behaviour from early adolescence to early adulthood, regardless of gender

  1. The influence of racism on cigarette smoking: Longitudinal study of young people in a British multiethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Ursula M; Karamanos, Alexis; João Silva, Maria; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Enayat, Zinat E; Cassidy, Aidan; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Harding, Seeromanie

    2018-01-01

    Studies, predominantly from the US, suggest that positive parenting, social support, academic achievement, and ethnic identity may buffer the impact of racism on health behaviours, including smoking, but little is known about how such effects might operate for ethnically diverse young people in the United Kingdom. We use the Determinants of young Adult Social well-being and Health (DASH), the largest UK longitudinal study of ethnically diverse young people, to address the following questions: a) Is racism associated with smoking? b) Does the relationship between racism and smoking vary by gender and by ethnicity? (c) Do religious involvement, parenting style and relationship with parents modify any observed relationship? and d) What are the qualitative experiences of racism and how might family or religion buffer the impact? The cohort was recruited from 51 London schools. 6643 were seen at 11-13y and 4785 seen again at 14-16y. 665 participated in pilot follow-up at 21-23y, 42 in qualitative interviews. Self-report questionnaires included lifestyles, socio-economic and psychosocial factors. Mixed-effect models examined the associations between racism and smoking. Smoking prevalence increased from adolescence to age 21-23y, although ethnic minorities remained less likely to smoke. Racism was an independent longitudinal correlate of ever smoking throughout adolescence (odds ratio 1.77, 95% Confidence Interval 1.45-2.17) and from early adolescence to early 20s (1.90, 95% CI 1.25-2.90). Smoking initiation in late adolescence was associated with cumulative exposure to racism (1.77, 95% CI 1.23-2.54). Parent-child relationships and place of worship attendance were independent longitudinal correlates that were protective of smoking. Qualitative narratives explored how parenting, religion and cultural identity buffered the adverse impact of racism. Racism was associated with smoking behaviour from early adolescence to early adulthood, regardless of gender, ethnicity or

  2. Current strategies for monitoring men with localised prostate cancer lack a strong evidence base: observational longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, C; Tilling, K; Davis, M; Lane, J A; Martin, R M; Kynaston, H; Powell, P; Neal, D E; Hamdy, F; Donovan, J L

    2009-08-04

    The UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends conservative management of men with 'low-risk' localised prostate cancer, monitoring the disease using prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and re-biopsy. However, there is little evidence of the changes in PSA level that should alert to the need for clinical re-assessment. This study compares the alerts resulting from PSA kinetics and a novel longitudinal reference range approach, which incorporates age-related changes, during the monitoring of 408 men with localised prostate cancer. Men were monitored by regular PSA tests over a mean of 2.9 years, recording when a man's PSA doubling time fell below 2 years, PSA velocity exceeded 2 ng ml(-1) per year, or when his upper 10% reference range was exceeded. Prostate-specific antigen doubling time and PSA velocity alerted a high proportion of men initially but became unresponsive to changes with successive tests. Calculating doubling time using recent PSA measurements reduced the decline in response. The reference range method maintained responsiveness to changes in PSA level throughout the monitoring. The increasing unresponsiveness of PSA kinetics is a consequence of the underlying regression model. Novel methods are needed for evaluation in cohorts currently being managed by monitoring. Meanwhile, the NICE guidance should be cautious.

  3. Professionalism dilemmas, moral distress and the healthcare student: insights from two online UK-wide questionnaire studies

    OpenAIRE

    Monrouxe, Lynn V; Rees, Charlotte E; Dennis, Ian; Wells, Stephanie E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the prevalence of healthcare students? witnessing or participating in something that they think unethical (professionalism dilemmas) during workplace learning and examine whether differences exist in moral distress intensity resulting from these experiences according to gender and the frequency of occurrence. Design Two cross-sectional online questionnaires of UK medical (study 1) and nursing, dentistry, physiotherapy and pharmacy students (study 2) concerning professi...

  4. The economic burden of cancer in the UK: a study of survivors treated with curative intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Joachim; Hall, Peter S; Hamilton, Patrick; Hulme, Claire T; Jones, Helen; Velikova, Galina; Ashley, Laura; Wright, Penny

    2016-01-01

    We aim to describe the economic burden of UK cancer survivorship for breast, colorectal and prostate cancer patients treated with curative intent, 1 year post-diagnosis. Patient-level data were collected over a 3-month period 12-15 months post-diagnosis to estimate the monthly societal costs incurred by cancer survivors. Self-reported resource utilisation data were obtained via the electronic Patient-reported Outcomes from Cancer Survivors system and included community-based health and social care, medications, travel costs and informal care. Hospital costs were retrieved through data linkage. Multivariate regression analysis was used to examine cost predictors. Overall, 298 patients were included in the analysis, including 136 breast cancer, 83 colorectal cancer and 79 prostate cancer patients. The average monthly societal cost was $ US 409 (95%CI: $ US 316-$ US 502) [mean: £ 260, 95%CI: £ 198-£ 322] and was incurred by 92% of patients. This was divided into costs to the National Health Service (mean: $ US 279, 95%CI: $ US 207-$ US 351) [mean: £ 177, 95%CI: £ 131-£ 224], patients' out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses (mean: $ US 40, 95%CI: $ US 15-$ US 65) [mean: £ 25, 95%CI: £ 9-£ 42] and the cost of informal care (mean: $ US 110, 95%CI: $ US 57-$ US 162) [mean: £ 70, 95%CI: £ 38-£ 102]. The distribution of costs was skewed with a small number of patients incurring very high costs. Multivariate analyses showed higher societal costs for breast cancer patients. Significant predictors of OOP costs included age and socioeconomic deprivation. This study found the economic burden of cancer survivorship is unevenly distributed in the population and that cancer survivors may still incur substantial costs over 1 year post-diagnosis. In addition, this study illustrates the feasibility of using an innovative online data collection platform to collect patient-reported resource utilisation information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Improving management and effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring: a qualitative UK primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sabrina; Greenfield, Sheila M; Nouwen, Arie; McManus, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Self-monitoring blood pressure (SMBP) is becoming an increasingly prevalent practice in UK primary care, yet there remains little conceptual understanding of why patients with hypertension engage in self-monitoring. To identify psychological factors or processes prompting the decision to self-monitor blood pressure. A qualitative study of patients previously participating in a survey study about SMBP from four general practices in the West Midlands. Taped and transcribed in-depth interviews with 16 patients (6 currently monitoring, 2 used to self-monitor, and 8 had never self-monitored). Thematic analysis was undertaken. Three main themes emerged: 'self' and 'living with hypertension' described the emotional element of living with an asymptomatic condition; 'self-monitoring behaviour and medication' described overall views about self-monitoring, current practice, reasons for monitoring, and the impact on medication adherence; and 'the GP-patient transaction' described the power relations affecting decisions to self-monitor. Self-monitoring was performed by some as a protective tool against the fears of a silent but serious condition, whereas others self-monitor simply out of curiosity. People who self-monitored tended not to discuss this with their nurse or GP, partly due to perceiving minimal or no interest from their clinician about home monitoring, and partly due to fear of being prescribed additional medication. The decision to self-monitor appeared often to be an individual choice with no schedule or systems to integrate it with other medical care. Better recognition by clinicians that patients are self-monitoring, perhaps utilising the results in shared decision-making, might help integrate it into daily practice. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  6. Severe maternal sepsis in the UK, 2011-2012: a national case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen D Acosta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In light of increasing rates and severity of sepsis worldwide, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of, and describe the causative organisms, sources of infection, and risk factors for, severe maternal sepsis in the UK.A prospective case-control study included 365 confirmed cases of severe maternal sepsis and 757 controls from all UK obstetrician-led maternity units from June 1, 2011, to May 31, 2012. Incidence of severe sepsis was 4.7 (95% CI 4.2-5.2 per 10,000 maternities; 71 (19.5% women developed septic shock; and five (1.4% women died. Genital tract infection (31.0% and the organism Escherichia coli (21.1% were most common. Women had significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (aORs of severe sepsis if they were black or other ethnic minority (aOR = 1.82; 95% CI 1.82-2.51, were primiparous (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI 1.17-2.20, had a pre-existing medical problem (aOR = 1.40; 95% CI 1.01-1.94, had febrile illness or were taking antibiotics in the 2 wk prior to presentation (aOR = 12.07; 95% CI 8.11-17.97, or had an operative vaginal delivery (aOR = 2.49; 95% CI 1.32-4.70, pre-labour cesarean (aOR = 3.83; 95% CI 2.24-6.56, or cesarean after labour onset (aOR = 8.06; 95% CI 4.65-13.97. Median time between delivery and sepsis was 3 d (interquartile range = 1-7 d. Multiple pregnancy (aOR = 5.75; 95% CI 1.54-21.45 and infection with group A streptococcus (aOR = 4.84; 2.17-10.78 were associated with progression to septic shock; for 16 (50% women with a group A streptococcal infection there was <2 h-and for 24 (75% women, <9 h-between the first sign of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and a diagnosis of severe sepsis. A limitation of this study was the proportion of women with sepsis without an identified organism or infection source (16.4%.For each maternal sepsis death, approximately 50 women have life-threatening morbidity from sepsis. Follow-up to ensure infection is eradicated is important. The

  7. A UK population-based study of the relationship between mental disorder and victimisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, C.; Vet, R. de; Moran, P.; Hatch, S.L.; Dean, K.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the prevalence of victimisation in a UK population-based sample and to investigate the association between mental disorder and victimisation in both cross-sectional and prospective manner, whilst adjusting for potential confounds. METHODS: Data from the National Child

  8. The impact of climate change on tourism in Germany, the UK and Ireland: a simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, Jacqueline; Tol, Richard

    2007-01-01

    We downscale the results of a global tourism simulation model at a national resolution to a regional resolution. We use this to investigate the impact of climate change on the regions of Germany, Ireland and the UK. Because of climate change, tourists from all three countries would spend more

  9. International Student Migration: A Comparison of UK and Indian Students' Motivations for Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell; Sondhi, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper breaks new ground in its comparative analysis of two international student migration (ISM) streams, one from the Global South to the Global North (India to developed Anglophone countries), and the other within the Global North (UK to North America, Europe and Australia). These two ISM movements reflect different positionalities within…

  10. Reduction in tuberculosis incidence in the UK from 2011 to 2015: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, H Lucy; Harris, Ross J; Muzyamba, Morris C; Davidson, Jennifer A; Lalor, Maeve K; Campbell, Colin N J; Anderson, Sarah R; Zenner, Dominik

    2018-04-19

    Following nearly two decades of increasing tuberculosis in the UK, TB incidence decreased by 32% from 2011 to 2015. Explaining this reduction is crucial to informing ongoing TB control efforts. We stratified TB cases notified in the UK and TB cases averted in the UK through pre-entry screening (PES) between 2011 and 2015 by country of birth and time since arrival. We used population estimates and migration data to establish denominators, and calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) between 2011 and 2015. We calculated the contribution of changing migrant population sizes, PES and changes in TB rates to the reduction in TB notifications. TB IRRs fell in all non-EU migrant and UK-born populations between 2011 and 2015 (0.61; 95%  CI 0.59 to 0.64 and 0.78; 0.73 to 0.83 respectively), with the greatest decrease in recent non-EU migrants (0.54; 0.48 to 0.61). 61.9% of the reduction in TB notifications was attributable to decreases in TB rates, 33.4% to a fall in the number of recent/mid-term non-EU migrants and 11.4% to PES. A small increase in notifications in EU-born migrants offset the reduction by 6.6%. Large decreases in TB rates in almost all populations accounted for the majority of the reduction in TB notifications, providing evidence of the impact of recent interventions to improve UK TB control. The particularly large decrease in TB rates in recent non-EU migrants provides evidence of the effectiveness of screening interventions that target this population. These findings will inform ongoing improvements to TB control. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. A Service Member's Self in Transition : A Longitudinal Case Study Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimell, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a narrative approach with a dialogical framework, a longitudinal case study is presented that describes a service member's self in transition from active service into the civilian population. An analysis and interpretation of the case study leads to the hypothesis that if a dominant

  12. Flowing together : a longitudinal study of collective efficacy and collective flow among workgroups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salanova, Marisa; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Alma M.; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Cifre, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend the Channel Model of Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) at the collective level (workgroups) by including collective efficacy beliefs as a predictor of collective flow based on the Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997, 2001). A two-wave longitudinal lab study

  13. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  14. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  15. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  17. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  18. The Relationship Between Shift Work and Metabolic Risk Factors : A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, Karin I; van de Langenberg, Daniëlla|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374886970; Rodenburg, Wendy; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van der Beek, Allard J; van Steeg, Harry; van Kerkhof, Linda W M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Although the metabolic health effects of shift work have been extensively studied, a systematic synthesis of the available research is lacking. This review aimed to systematically summarize the available evidence of longitudinal studies linking shift work with metabolic risk factors.

  19. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  20. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  1. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  2. Team turnover and task conflict: A longitudinal study on the moderating effects of collective experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuypers, A.P.A.; Günter, H.; van Emmerik, I.H.

    2015-01-01

    Team turnover can be harmful to a team in many ways. This study examined whether a team’s collective experience (team organizational tenure) attenuates the association between team turnover and task conflict changes. Differing from prior research, our study used a longitudinal design to assess the

  3. Longitudinal Examination of Aggression and Study Skills from Middle to High School: Implications for Dropout Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpinas, Pamela; Raczynski, Katherine; Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Nahapetyan, Lusine; Horne, Arthur M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: High school completion provides health and economic benefits. The purpose of this study is to describe dropout rates based on longitudinal trajectories of aggression and study skills using teacher ratings. Methods: The sample consisted of 620 randomly selected sixth graders. Every year from Grade 6 to 12, a teacher completed a…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  5. The Acquisition of Auxiliary Syntax: A Longitudinal Elicitation Study. Part 2: The Modals and Auxiliary DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F.; Theakston, Anna L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The study of auxiliary acquisition is central to work on language development and has attracted theoretical work from both nativist and constructivist approaches. This study is part of a 2-part companion set that represents a unique attempt to trace the development of auxiliary syntax by using a longitudinal elicitation methodology. The…

  6. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  7. Relation between birth weight and blood pressure: longitudinal study of infants and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Launer (Lenore); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE--To study the relation between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in infancy and early childhood. DESIGN--Longitudinal study of infants from birth to 4 years of age. SETTING--A middle class community in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS--476

  8. The Need for Large-Scale, Longitudinal Empirical Studies in Middle Level Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Steven B.; Caskey, Micki M.; Flowers, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This essay describes and discusses the ongoing need for large-scale, longitudinal, empirical research studies focused on middle grades education. After a statement of the problem and concerns, the essay describes and critiques several prior middle grades efforts and research studies. Recommendations for future research efforts to inform policy…

  9. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  10. Empathy and Extracurricular Involvement in Emerging Adulthood: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Undergraduate College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson-Flege, Matthew; Thompson, Martie P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index Perspective Taking subscale scores for male college students in a 2008-2011 longitudinal study at a large public university in the Southeast. Findings suggest that empathy is amenable to change among college males in the period of emerging adulthood. Through repeated measures analyses…

  11. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being Among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Meerkerk, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Spijkerman, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15

  12. Serum albumin and muscle strength: a longitudinal study in older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalk, B.W.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Bouter, L.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.; Visser, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine whether low serum albumin is associated with low muscle strength and future decline in muscle strength in community-dwelling older men and women. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred seventy-six women

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  14. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  15. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...) of the U.S. Department of Education (ED), is a survey that focuses on children's early school... child assessments. Like its sister study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of..., early learning, and school progress, drawing together information from multiple sources to provide rich...

  16. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  17. Children's Sympathy, Guilt, and Moral Reasoning in Helping, Cooperation, and Sharing: A 6-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Ongley, Sophia F.; Peplak, Joanna; Chaparro, Maria P.; Buchmann, Marlis; Zuffianò, Antonio; Cui, Lixian

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the role of sympathy, guilt, and moral reasoning in helping, cooperation, and sharing in a 6-year, three-wave longitudinal study involving 175 children (M[subscript age] 6.10, 9.18, and 12.18 years). Primary caregivers reported on children's helping and cooperation; sharing was assessed behaviorally. Child sympathy was assessed…

  18. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  19. Mortality in first-contact psychosis patients in the U.K.: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, R; Murray, R M; Allardyce, J; Jones, P B; Boydell, J E

    2012-08-01

    The excess mortality following first-contact psychosis is well recognized. However, the causes of death in a complete incidence cohort and mortality patterns over time compared with the general population are unknown. All 2723 patients who presented for the first time with psychosis in three defined catchment areas of the U.K. in London (1965-2004, n=2056), Nottingham (1997-1999, n=203) and Dumfries and Galloway (1979-1998, n=464) were traced after a mean of 11.5 years follow-up and death certificates were obtained. Data analysis was by indirect standardization. The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for first-contact psychosis was 184 [95% confidence interval (CI) 167-202]. Most deaths (84.2%, 374/444) were from natural causes, although suicide had the highest SMR (1165, 95% CI 873-1524). Diseases of the respiratory system and infectious diseases had the highest SMR of the natural causes of death (232, 95% CI 183-291). The risk of death from diseases of the circulatory system was also elevated compared with the general population (SMR 139, 95% CI 117-164) whereas there was no such difference for neoplasms (SMR 111, 95% CI 86-141). There was strong evidence that the mortality gap compared with the general population for all causes of death (p<0.001) and all natural causes (p=0.01) increased over the four decades of the study. There was weak evidence that cardiovascular deaths may be increasing relative to the general population (p=0.07). People with first-contact psychosis have an overall mortality risk that is nearly double that of the general population. Most excess deaths are from natural causes. The widening of the mortality gap over the last four decades should be of concern to all clinicians involved in delivering healthcare.

  20. Information vs Engagement in parliamentary websites – a case study of Brazil and the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Brum Bernardes

    Full Text Available Abstract Parliamentary websites have become the main window of parliament to the outside world. More than a gimmick, they are an essential element in the promotion of a relationship between parliament and citizens. This paper develops a comparative analysis of the websites of the lower chambers of the Brazilian and the British parliaments, respectively the Chamber of Deputies and the House of Commons. We structure this analysis around three dimensions: 1 information about the institution; 2 information about parliamentary activity; and 3 tools to promote engagement with the public. The choice of two very different case studies enables us to consider more clearly the specific purposes of these parliamentary websites. We consider in particular if these parliaments' institutional differences affect their websites. The websites' analysis is complemented by semi-structured elite interviews with parliamentary staff who manage the services provided by these websites. Our analysis shows that both websites achieve much higher levels of complexity in the information area than in engagement. But it also shows that the Brazilian parliament website includes far more tools designed for public interaction than its UK counterpart. The indexes and interviews show that both institutions are highly committed to disseminating data and information to citizens. This is seen as a path towards achieving higher accountability and improving knowledge about parliamentary processes and, consequently, improving public image and levels of trust. Whilst there is a strong focus on the provision of information, there is still little evidence of enabling citizen participation in the legislative process. This is partly due to a tension between conceptions of representative democracy and those of participatory democracy. The articulation between these different types of democracy still has a long way to be resolved, although parliaments are slowly introducing participatory tools.

  1. Supporting newly qualified nurse transition: A case study in a UK hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Bill; Owen, Patricia; Henshaw, Lorraine; Beddingham, Elaine; Simmons, Maxine

    2016-01-01

    Nurse education in the United Kingdom (UK) has been university based since the mid-1990s but despite careful preparation and assessment of student nurses it has been considered necessary to provide a period of additional support for newly qualified nurses (NQNs) to help them settle into their new role and responsibilities. Preceptorship is the process of supporting NQNs over the transition from student to registered nurse (RN) and it is recognised that this can be a difficult time for NQNs. A systematic review was conducted as part of this project and has been published in an earlier edition of Nurse Education Today (Whitehead et al, 2013). This suggests that preceptorship is a positive and essential experience for NQNs. Lincoln and Guba's Naturalistic Inquiry (1985) was used. A qualitative case study method was developed and consisted of a multi-stage approach including semi-structured interviews with key personnel; documentary analysis of preceptorship material; and focus groups with key actors. Ethical approval was attained for the project. The aim was to interpret the social phenomena and to produce an evidence based tool to improve preceptorship. Findings are grouped under the headings indicated by the research design. In addition a further 11 themes emerged, including: the need for specific time for preceptors and preceptees; formal recognition of the role and a culture of support; selection and preparation of preceptors and the management structure to support preceptorship. The findings indicate that there are a range of factors which are reported to affect the successful transition from student to NQN. Based on these factors recommendations are made for practice and for further research. Practice recommendations: to provide supported preceptorship following the recommendations of the research findings. to concentrate on enhancing preceptorship as preceptorship in any form is better than none. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Claire; Marteau, Theresa M; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300,000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  3. A levels and intelligence as predictors of medical careers in UK doctors: 20 year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Smithers, Eleni; Partridge, Philippa; Keeling, A; Fleming, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess whether A level grades (achievement) and intelligence (ability) predict doctors' careers. Design Prospective cohort study with follow up after 20 years by postal questionnaire. Setting A UK medical school in London. Participants 511 doctors who had entered Westminster Medical School as clinical students between 1975 and 1982 were followed up in January 2002. Main outcome measures Time taken to reach different career grades in hospital or general practice, postgraduate qualifications obtained (membership/fellowships, diplomas, higher academic degrees), number of research publications, and measures of stress and burnout related to A level grades and intelligence (result of AH5 intelligence test) at entry to clinical school. General health questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory, and questionnaire on satisfaction with career at follow up. Results 47 (9%) doctors were no longer on the Medical Register. They had lower A level grades than those who were still on the register (P < 0.001). A levels also predicted performance in undergraduate training, performance in postregistration house officer posts, and time to achieve membership qualifications (Cox regression, P < 0.001; b=0.376, SE=0.098, exp(b)=1.457). Intelligence did not independently predict dropping off the register, career outcome, or other measures. A levels did not predict diploma or higher academic qualifications, research publications, or stress or burnout. Diplomas, higher academic degrees, and research publications did, however, significantly correlate with personality measures. Conclusions Results of achievement tests, in this case A level grades, which are particularly used for selection of students in the United Kingdom, have long term predictive validity for undergraduate and postgraduate careers. In contrast, a test of ability or aptitude (AH5) was of little predictive validity for subsequent medical careers. PMID:12869457

  4. Bereaved parents' experience of stillbirth in UK hospitals: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downe, Soo; Schmidt, Ellie; Kingdon, Carol; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2013-01-01

    To obtain the views of bereaved parents about their interactions with healthcare staff when their baby died just before or during labour. Qualitative in-depth interview study, following an earlier national survey. All interviews took place during 2011, either face-to-face or on the telephone. Data analysis was informed by the constant comparative technique from grounded theory. Every National Health Service (NHS) region in the UK was represented. Bereaved parents who had completed an e-questionnaire, via the website of Sands (Stillbirth and Neonatal Death Society). Of the 304 survey respondents who gave provisional consent, 29 families were approached to take part, based on maximum variation sampling and data saturation. 22 families (n=25) participated. Births took place between 2002 and 2010. Specific practices were identified that were particularly helpful to the parents. Respondents talked about their interactions with hospital staff as having profound effects on their capacity to cope, both during labour and in the longer term. The data generated three key themes: 'enduring and multiple loss': 'making irretrievable moments precious'; and the 'best care possible to the worst imaginable'. The overall synthesis of findings is encapsulated in the meta-theme 'One chance to get it right.' This pertains to the parents and family themselves, clinical and support staff who care for them directly, and the NHS organisations that indirectly provide the resources and governance procedures that may (or may not) foster a caring ethos. Positive memories and outcomes following stillbirth depend as much on genuinely caring staff attitudes and behaviours as on high-quality clinical procedures. All staff who encounter parents in this situation need to see each meeting as their one chance to get it right.

  5. Integrating Art and Creative Practices into a Programme of Support for Nigerian Students Studying in UK Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Achinewhu-Nworgu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This scoping paper explores the experiences of overseas students from Nigeria studying in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in the United Kingdom. It considers the context for these students and some of the particular pressures and challenges they experience in making the transition from education in Nigeria to achieving academic success and adapting to life as a student in the UK. With reference to the work of Professor Claudio-Rafael Vásquez-Martínez, at the outset of a collaborative project to explore these issues further, this paper considers whether the use of painting and other creative practices could assist these students in managing the transition more effectively and ultimately in succeeding in their academic studies. For the present study, qualitative data was gathered using interviews with Nigerian students who came to study in the UK with the assistance of a London-based organisation, Focus Learning Support Ltd, which assists Nigerian students in their applications to UK HEIs, and which supports them throughout their studies.

  6. How do workplaces, working practices and colleagues affect UK doctors' career decisions? A qualitative study of junior doctors' career decision making in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Sharon; Pearson, Emma; Gibson, Jonathan; Checkland, Kath

    2017-10-25

    This study draws on an in-depth investigation of factors that influenced the career decisions of junior doctors. Junior doctors in the UK can choose to enter specialty training (ST) programmes within 2 years of becoming doctors. Their specialty choices contribute to shaping the balance of the future medical workforce, with views on general practice (GP) careers of particular interest because of current recruitment difficulties. This paper examines how experiences of medical work and perceptions about specialty training shape junior doctors' career decisions. Twenty doctors in the second year of a Foundation Training Programme in England were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample from respondents to an online survey. Narrative interviewing techniques encouraged doctors to reflect on how experiences during medical school and in medical workplaces had influenced their preferences and perceptions of different specialties. They also spoke about personal aspirations, work priorities and their wider future.Junior doctors' decisions were informed by knowledge about the requirements of ST programmes and direct observation of the pressures under which ST doctors worked. When they encountered negative attitudes towards a specialty they had intended to choose, some became defensive while others kept silent. Achievement of an acceptable work-life balance was a central objective that could override other preferences.Events linked with specific specialties influenced doctors' attitudes towards them. For example, findings confirmed that while early, positive experiences of GP work could increase its attractiveness, negative experiences in GP settings had the opposite effect. Junior doctors' preferences and perceptions about medical work are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors and experiences. This paper highlights the importance of understanding how perceptions are formed and preferences are developed, as a basis for generating

  7. How do workplaces, working practices and colleagues affect UK doctors’ career decisions? A qualitative study of junior doctors’ career decision making in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Emma; Gibson, Jonathan; Checkland, Kath

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study draws on an in-depth investigation of factors that influenced the career decisions of junior doctors. Setting Junior doctors in the UK can choose to enter specialty training (ST) programmes within 2 years of becoming doctors. Their specialty choices contribute to shaping the balance of the future medical workforce, with views on general practice (GP) careers of particular interest because of current recruitment difficulties. This paper examines how experiences of medical work and perceptions about specialty training shape junior doctors’ career decisions. Participants Twenty doctors in the second year of a Foundation Training Programme in England were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample from respondents to an online survey. Results Narrative interviewing techniques encouraged doctors to reflect on how experiences during medical school and in medical workplaces had influenced their preferences and perceptions of different specialties. They also spoke about personal aspirations, work priorities and their wider future. Junior doctors’ decisions were informed by knowledge about the requirements of ST programmes and direct observation of the pressures under which ST doctors worked. When they encountered negative attitudes towards a specialty they had intended to choose, some became defensive while others kept silent. Achievement of an acceptable work-life balance was a central objective that could override other preferences. Events linked with specific specialties influenced doctors’ attitudes towards them. For example, findings confirmed that while early, positive experiences of GP work could increase its attractiveness, negative experiences in GP settings had the opposite effect. Conclusions Junior doctors’ preferences and perceptions about medical work are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors and experiences. This paper highlights the importance of understanding how perceptions are formed

  8. Mental health morbidity among people subject to immigration detention in the UK: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, P; Arugnanaseelan, J; Connell, E; Katona, C; Khan, A A; Moran, P; Robjant, K; Slade, K; Tan, J; Widyaratna, K; Youd, J; Forrester, A

    2017-06-22

    The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting. A secondary aim was to compare the mental health of those seeking asylum with the rest of the detainees. Cross-sectional study with simple random sampling followed by opportunistic sampling. Exclusion criteria included inadequate knowledge of English and European Union nationality. Six validated tools were used to screen for mental health disorders including developmental disorders like Personality Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability, as well as for needs assessment. These were the MINI v6, SAPAS, AQ-10, ASRS, LDSQ and CANFOR. Demographic data were obtained using a participant demographic sheet. Researchers were trained in the use of the screening battery and inter-rater reliability assessed by joint ratings. A total of 101 subjects were interviewed. Overall response rate was 39%. The most prevalent screened mental disorder was depression (52.5%), followed by personality disorder (34.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (20.8%). 21.8% were at moderate to high suicidal risk. 14.9 and 13.9% screened positive for ASD and ADHD, respectively. The greatest unmet needs were in the areas of intimate relationships (76.2%), psychological distress (72.3%) and sexual expression (71.3%). Overall presence of mental disorder was comparable with levels found in prisons. The numbers in each group were too small to carry out any further analysis. It is feasible to undertake a psychiatric morbidity survey in an IRC

  9. Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely believed that corporate actors exert substantial influence on the making of public health policy, including in the alcohol field. However, the industry is far from being monolithic, comprising a range of producers and retailers with varying and diverse interests. With a focus on contemporary debates concerning the minimum pricing of alcohol in the UK, this study examined the differing interests of actors within the alcohol industry, the cleavages which emerged between them on this issue and how this impacted on their ability to organise themselves collectively to influence the policy process. We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews between June and November 2010 with respondents from all sectors of the industry as well as a range of non-industry actors who had knowledge of the alcohol policy process, including former Ministers, Members of the UK Parliament and the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professionals. Methods The paper draws on an analysis of publicly available documents and 35 semi-structured interviews with respondents from the alcohol industry (on- and off-trade including retailers, producers of wines, spirits and beers and trade associations and a range of non-industry actors with knowledge of the alcohol policy process (including former Ministers, Members of Parliament and of the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professional groups. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software. Processes of triangulation between data sources and different types of respondent sought to ensure we gained as accurate a picture as possible of industry participation in the policy process. Results Divergences of interest were evident between producers and retailers and within the retail sector between the on and off trade. Divisions within the alcohol industry, however, existed

  10. Summer Thermal Comfort and Self-Shading Geometries in Passivhaus Dwellings: A Pilot Study Using Future UK Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Lavafpour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses numerical thermal simulation to investigate the potential use of building geometry to eliminate or reduce current and future thermal discomfort overheating risk in UK Passivhaus dwellings. The study focused on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building shape to self-protect itself. Dynamic simulation modelling software was used to test a range of different inclined façades with regards to their effectiveness in reducing overheating risk. The research found that implementing a tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating for current UK climates, but with some consequences for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of thermal discomfort overheating, particularly by the 2080s.

  11. UK and Italian EIA systems: A comparative study on management practice and performance in the construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Andrea; Howard, Robert; Geneletti, Davide; Ferrari, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates and contrasts the management practice and the performance that characterise Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) in Italy and in the UK. The methodology relies on the investigation of six carefully selected case studies, critically reviewed by referring to EIA and project design information, as well as collecting the opinion of key project participants. The study focuses on the construction industry and on specific key sectors like infrastructure for transport and renewable energy and commercial and tourism development. A main term of reference for the analyses has been established by critically reviewing international literature so as to outline common good practice, requirements for the enhancement of sustainability principles and typically incurred drawbacks. The proposed approach enhances transfer of knowledge and of experiences between the analyzed contexts and allows the provision of guidelines for practitioners. Distinctive differences between the UK and the Italian EIA systems have been detected for pivotal phases and elements of EIA, like screening, scoping, analysis of alternatives and of potential impacts, definition of mitigation strategies, review, decision making, public participation and follow up. - Highlights: ► The Italian and the UK Environmental Impact Assessment systems are compared. ► The research is centred on the construction industry. ► Issues and shortcomings are analysed by investigating six case studies. ► Integration of EIA with sustainability principles is appraised. ► General guidelines are provided to assist practitioners in the two national contexts.

  12. Transition from clinician to academic: an interview study of the experiences of UK and Australian Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Patricia A; Gallimore, David; Jordan, Sue

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and compare the experiences of nurses in Australia and the UK as they moved from clinical practice into higher education institutions. When nurse education moved from hospitals into higher education institutions, the roles and career pathways of nurse educators changed. The design method used in this study was qualitative interview study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 nurse educators, seven in Australia and seven in the UK, in 2011-2012. Thematic analysis of the transcripts was undertaken and triangulated with automated content and thematic analysis by Leximancer© software. Nurse academics in Australia and the UK voiced similar enthusiasms and concerns. These coalesced around four emergent themes: adapting to change, external pressures, teaching and progress up the academic ladder. The Leximancer© analysis for both sites ranked 'research' as the primary theme, linked with 'time', 'University' and 'nursing' on both sites. Respondents were aware of the importance of research to career progression in universities, but most prioritized their teaching and clinical commitments for the sake of their organizations. Most respondents were supported in their doctoral studies, but the absence of postdoctoral research teams, mentors and role models was striking. Additional support is needed to ensure that nurse academics are able to pursue research beyond doctoral level. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. UK and Italian EIA systems: A comparative study on management practice and performance in the construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassi, Andrea, E-mail: ab395@bath.co.uk [University of Bath, Faculty of Engineering and Design, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Howard, Robert, E-mail: robhoward@constcom.demon.co.uk [Construction Communications, 8 Cotton& #x27; s Field, Dry Drayton, Cambridge CB23 8DG (United Kingdom); Geneletti, Davide, E-mail: davide.geneletti@ing.unitn.it [Sustainability Science Program, Harvard University, 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano, 77 38123 Trento (Italy); Ferrari, Simone, E-mail: simone.ferrari@polimi.it [Dept. BEST, Building Environment Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via Bonardi, 3 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    This study evaluates and contrasts the management practice and the performance that characterise Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) in Italy and in the UK. The methodology relies on the investigation of six carefully selected case studies, critically reviewed by referring to EIA and project design information, as well as collecting the opinion of key project participants. The study focuses on the construction industry and on specific key sectors like infrastructure for transport and renewable energy and commercial and tourism development. A main term of reference for the analyses has been established by critically reviewing international literature so as to outline common good practice, requirements for the enhancement of sustainability principles and typically incurred drawbacks. The proposed approach enhances transfer of knowledge and of experiences between the analyzed contexts and allows the provision of guidelines for practitioners. Distinctive differences between the UK and the Italian EIA systems have been detected for pivotal phases and elements of EIA, like screening, scoping, analysis of alternatives and of potential impacts, definition of mitigation strategies, review, decision making, public participation and follow up. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Italian and the UK Environmental Impact Assessment systems are compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The research is centred on the construction industry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Issues and shortcomings are analysed by investigating six case studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integration of EIA with sustainability principles is appraised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer General guidelines are provided to assist practitioners in the two national contexts.

  14. A longitudinal study of parenting and adolescent adjustment in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L

    2003-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relationship between parenting behavior and adolescent adjustment (psychological well-being, substance abuse and delinquent behavior) in Chinese adolescents with economic disadvantage (N = 199). Results showed that parenting characteristics were concurrently and longitudinally related to measures of adolescent adjustment, particularly adolescent problem behavior. Compared with the norm based on adolescents of a community sample, poor adolescents perceived parenting characteristics to be more negative and they had relatively lower life satisfaction. Paternal parenting was perceived to be more negative than maternal parenting and parenting behavior was perceived to deteriorate over time.

  15. A micromechanical study of porous composites under longitudinal shear and transverse normal loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical response of porous unidirectional composites under transverse normal and longitudinal shear loading is studied using the finite element analysis. The 3D model includes discrete and random distribution of fibers and voids. The micromechanical failure mechanisms are taken into account....... Finally, the computational prediction of the porous composite in the transverse normal-longitudinal shear stress space is obtained and compared with Puck's model. The results show that both interfaces with low fracture toughness and microvoids with even small void volume fraction can significantly reduce...

  16. Longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles, infant feeding, and islet autoimmunity in the MIDIA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgenrud, Benedicte; Stene, Lars C; Tapia, German

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal plasma metabolic profiles in healthy infants and the potential association with breastfeeding duration and islet autoantibodies predictive of type 1 diabetes. Method: Up to four longitudinal plasma samples from age 3 months from case......, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid at 3 months of age. Conclusions: Plasma levels of several small, polar metabolites changed with age during early childhood, independent of later islet autoimmunity status and sex. Breastfeeding was associated with higher levels of branched......-chain amino acids, and lower levels of methionine and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid....

  17. A Comparative Study on Fatigue Life Optimization of the Intersection between a Longitudinal and a Webframe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk-Sørensen, Martin

    1996-01-01

    to improve the design. A new improved slot for the longitudinal intersection in the web plate is found on the basis of a shape optimization of the conventional slot. The new slot has an unique shape (tongue form) resulting in a stress relaxation around the slot. Both the conventional and the new slot...... structure were analyzed by FEM followed by fatigue life calculations and subsequently compared. The overall expected fatigue life for the shape optimized slot will increase by approximately 12 %. The results were compared with an another study concerning a slot for a T-longitudinal....

  18. LSS, a problem solving skill for graduates and SMEs: Case Study of investigation in a UK Business School curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Alireza; Nabhani, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a systematic Lean Six Sigma (LSS) education through the curriculum of business schools to respond to the existing gap between the graduate’s expectation of employability and skill requirements by the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs).\\ud \\ud Design/approach/methodology - One UK business school has been used as a case study to conduct an extensive module and programme review followed by a semi-structured interview with the ...

  19. Resilience and Social Justice as the Basis for Urban Food System Reform - A Case Study of Bristol, U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the contribution of urban agriculture to the local food system and the role of the city council in this system. Using an interdisciplinary mixed method approach, the study explores local stakeholders’ perspectives of these aspects in the city of Bristol, UK. The findings were viewed through the lenses of two conceptual frameworks, resilience and social justice. The results reveal that urban agriculture increases resilience through building community, maintaining a diverse...

  20. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman's work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Exposure to phthalic acid, phthalate diesters and phthalate monoesters from foodstuffs: UK total diet study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Emma L; Burden, Richard A; Bentayeb, Karim; Driffield, Malcolm; Harmer, Nick; Mortimer, David N; Speck, Dennis R; Ticha, Jana; Castle, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment and thus exposure to these compounds can occur in various forms. Foods are one source of such exposure. There are only a limited number of studies that describe the levels of phthalates (diesters, monoesters and phthalic acid) in foods and assess the exposure from this source. In this study the levels of selected phthalate diesters, phthalate monoesters and phthalic acid in total diet study (TDS) samples are determined and the resulting exposure estimated. The methodology for the determination of phthalic acid and nine phthalate monoesters (mono-isopropyl phthalate, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-cyclohexyl phthalate, mono-n-pentyl phthalate, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, mono-n-octyl phthalate and mono-isononyl phthalate) in foods is described. In this method phthalate monoesters and phthalic acid are extracted from the foodstuffs with a mixture of acidified acetonitrile and dichloromethane. The method uses isotope-labelled phthalic acid and phthalate monoester internal standards and is appropriate for quantitative determination in the concentration range of 5-100 µg kg⁻¹. The method was validated in-house and its broad applicability demonstrated by the analysis of high-fat, high-carbohydrate and high-protein foodstuffs as well as combinations of all three major food constituents. The methodology used for 15 major phthalate diesters has been reported elsewhere. Phthalic acid was the most prevalent phthalate, being detected in 17 food groups. The highest concentration measured was di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in fish (789 µg kg⁻¹). Low levels of mono-n-butyl phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were detected in several of the TDS animal-based food groups and the highest concentrations measured corresponded with the most abundant diesters (di-n-butyl phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate). The UK Committee on Toxicity of Chemicals in Food, Consumer Products

  2. Receptionist input to quality and safety in repeat prescribing in UK general practice: ethnographic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinglehurst, Deborah; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill; Myall, Michelle

    2011-11-03

    To describe, explore, and compare organisational routines for repeat prescribing in general practice to identify contributors and barriers to safety and quality. Ethnographic case study. Four urban UK general practices with diverse organisational characteristics using electronic patient records that supported semi-automation of repeat prescribing. 395 hours of ethnographic observation of staff (25 doctors, 16 nurses, 4 healthcare assistants, 6 managers, and 56 reception or administrative staff), and 28 documents and other artefacts relating to repeat prescribing locally and nationally. Potential threats to patient safety and characteristics of good practice. Observation of how doctors, receptionists, and other administrative staff contributed to, and collaborated on, the repeat prescribing routine. Analysis included mapping prescribing routines, building a rich description of organisational practices, and drawing these together through narrative synthesis. This was informed by a sociological model of how organisational routines shape and are shaped by information and communications technologies. Results Repeat prescribing was a complex, technology-supported social practice requiring collaboration between clinical and administrative staff, with important implications for patient safety. More than half of requests for repeat prescriptions were classed as "exceptions" by receptionists (most commonly because the drug, dose, or timing differed from what was on the electronic repeat list). They managed these exceptions by making situated judgments that enabled them (sometimes but not always) to bridge the gap between the idealised assumptions about tasks, roles, and interactions that were built into the electronic patient record and formal protocols, and the actual repeat prescribing routine as it played out in practice. This work was creative and demanded both explicit and tacit knowledge. Clinicians were often unaware of this input and it did not feature in policy

  3. Cost reductions on a titanium dioxide plant identified by a process integration study at Tioxide UK Ltd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of a process integration study is to determine the minimum practical amount of energy required to operate a process and to identify the most appropriate investment strategy which will realise the maximum energy cost savings consistent with a particular company's financial and operating criteria. The process integration method involves the rigorous application of thermodynamics and cost accounting, tempered by practical plant engineering and operability considerations. Tioxide UK Ltd is part of Tioxide Group plc and operates two UK sites for the production of titanium dioxide pigment. The site in question, Greatham works near Hartlepool, produces pigment via the chloride route. The energy costs at Greatham works can amount to pound5 - 6 million/year depending on production levels. (author).

  4. The Relation between Mastery Goals and Intrinsic Motivation among University Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Sonja; Reindl, Marion; Dresel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The present work broadens previous research on students' mastery goals and intrinsic motivation by exploring their reciprocal effects using a longitudinal approach. To this end, a study using four measurement points was conducted during 10 weeks of one semester. The sample comprised 1156 students enrolled in psychology courses at a medium-sized…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  6. Basic Aspects of Infant-Grandparent "Interaction": An Eight-Month Longitudinal and Naturalistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…

  7. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  8. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  9. Can Language Attitudes Be Improved? A Longitudinal Study of Immigrant Students in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianos, Maria-Adelina; Huguet, Ángel; Janés, Judit; Lapresta, Cecilio

    2017-01-01

    This study explores changes in attitudes towards Catalan, Spanish, and English over a 2-year period, on the part of secondary education students of immigrant origin residing in Catalonia. It aims to provide new data by adopting a longitudinal design and by focusing on the immigrant population, which has raised new challenges for the Catalan…

  10. Variations in Student Perceptions of Service Quality of Higher Education Institutions in Brazil: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Domingos Fernandes; dos Santos, Guido Salvi; Castro, Felipe Nalon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine, through a longitudinal study, undergraduate student perceptions of service expectations, priorities and quality of the higher education institution that they attend, using an importance-performance rating matrix. Design/methodology/approach: This research was carried out with students exposed to a…

  11. Behavioral Inhibition as a Risk Factor for the Development of Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.E.H.M. Muris (Peter); A.M.L. van Brakel (Anna); A. Arntz (Arnoud); E. Schouten (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis longitudinal study examined the additive and interactive effects of behavioral inhibition and a wide range of other vulnerability factors in the development of anxiety problems in youths. A sample of 261 children, aged 5 to 8 years, 124 behaviorally inhibited and 137 control

  12. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  13. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  14. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  15. Longitudinal Stability Study for the FACET-II e+ Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bane, Karl [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-11-29

    This is an initial study of the longitudinal, single-bunch stability in the proposed FACET-II e+ damping ring. It is preliminary because, at present, only a few specific features of the vacuum chamber are known.

  16. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  17. What Happens to a Nursing Home Chain When Private Equity Takes Over? A Longitudinal Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.; Harrington, Charlene

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed what happens to a nursing home chain when private equity takes over, with regard to strategy, financial performance, and resident well-being. We conducted a longitudinal (2000-2012) case study of a large nursing home chain that triangulated qualitative and quantitative data from 5

  18. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  19. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Laterality Expression and Teacher Evaluation of Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Sarah S.

    1978-01-01

    A three-year longitudinal study conducted to assess the incidence of mixed laterality in elementary school children showed that thirty-seven percent of the eighty-two subjects had mixed laterality. No relationship was found between perceptual motor and academic achievement as measured by teacher ratings and mixed laterality. (MF)

  1. A longitudinal study in youth of heart rate variability at rest and in response to stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Zhibin; Snieder, Harold; Su, Shaoyong; Ding, Xiuhua; Thayer, Julian F.; Treiber, Frank A.; Wang, Xiaoling

    Background: Few longitudinal studies have examined ethnic and sex differences, predictors and tracking stabilities of heart rate variability (HRV) at rest and in response to stress in youths and young adults. Methods: Two evaluations were performed approximately 1.5 years apart on 399 youths and

  2. PSYCHOSEXUAL FUNCTIONING AFTER TREATMENT FOR CANCER OF THE CERVIX - A COMPARATIVE AND LONGITUDINAL-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHULTZ, WCMW; VANDEWIEL, HBM; BOUMA, J

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-six couples participated in a 2-year longitudinal study of sexual functioning before and after treatment for carcinoma of the cervix. Sexual functioning was measured on admission prior to their treatment and at 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up and made operational in terms of current sexual

  3. Changes in Domain Specific Self-Perception amongst Young People with Intellectual Disability: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Clara; Muldoon, Orla T.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the changes that occur in multidimensional self-concept of adolescents with a diagnosis of intellectual disabilities, across gender and category of intellectual disability (borderline, mild, moderate) groups. A sample of 54 young people completed the Harter Self-Perception Profile. Using a three-wave longitudinal study…

  4. Predictors of Reading Skills for Kindergartners and First Grade Students in Spanish: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Pallante, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of word reading and reading comprehension skills using longitudinal data from Spanish-speaking kindergartners (N = 163) and first grade students (N = 305) from high SES families in Chile. Individual differences in letter-naming fluency and phonemic segmentation fluency, but not vocabulary, were positive…

  5. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  6. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  7. Patient demands, lack of reciprocity, and burnout: a five-year longitudinal study about general practitioners.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.B.; Schaufeli, W.B.; Sixma, H.J.; Bosveld, W.; Dierendonck, D. van

    2000-01-01

    This study among a sample of 207 general practitioners (GPs) uses a five-year longitudinal design to test a process model of burnout. On the basis of social exchange and equity theory, it is hypothesized and found that demanding patient contacts produce a lack of reciprocity in the GP-patient

  8. A Longitudinal Study on Mathematics Teaching Efficacy: Which Factors (Un)Support the Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isiksal-Bostan, Mine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine prospective teachers' mathematics teaching efficacy belief during their enrollment in teacher education program and at the end of their first year of teaching. In addition, the factors that enhance or inhibit participants' efficacy belief and how these factors affect their mathematics teaching…

  9. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  10. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…

  11. Ten Years On: A Longitudinal Study of Families of Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports results of a longitudinal, ethnographic study of the psychosocial adaptation of parents of children with autism. Most parents reported improvements in their psychological well being, the social experiences of their immediate family, and their relations with their extended family. They also reported changes in stressful…

  12. The Effects of CLIL on Oral Comprehension and Production: A Longitudinal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Cañado, María Luisa; Lancaster, Nina Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on the outcomes of a longitudinal case study to gauge the impact of content and language integrated learning (CLIL) on two of the least researched language skills: oral comprehension and production. It worked with 24 students in the fourth grade of Compulsory Secondary Education in a public school in Andalusia (southern Spain)…

  13. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  14. Attachment and Infant Night Waking: A Longitudinal Study From Birth Through the First Year of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, R.; Jansen, J.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Night wakings are common in infancy. Although a link between infant night wakings and attachment to the primary caregiver has been previously proposed, empirical support is limited so far. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the early history of night waking in infants who

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  16. The Relationship between Early Language, Cognitive and Social Development through a Longitudinal Study of Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Tamiko

    The development of and relationship between early language, symbolic play, sensorimotor skills, and social development were examined in a longitudinal study conducted in Japan with two young autistic males who were observed from the approximate ages of 2 to 4 years in clinic, day care, and home settings. One child acquired speech; the other did…

  17. Immigrant Status, Gender, and School Burnout in Finnish Lower Secondary School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Read, Sanna; Minkkinen, Jaana; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Rimpelä, Arja

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study among 9223 students from grade 7 and grade 9 (age 13-14 and 15-16) was to assess whether immigrant status and gender are associated with the level and change (slope) in school burnout among lower secondary school students in the Helsinki metropolitan area. Ninety-seven percent of the variation in school burnout…

  18. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  19. A longitudinal study on gross motor development in children with learning disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Marieke; Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    This longitudinal study examined the development of gross motor skills, and sex-differences therein, in 7; to 11-years-old children with learning disorders (LD) and compared the results with typically developing children to determine the performance level of children with LD. In children with LD (n

  20. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  1. Age, intelligence, and event-related brain potentials during late childhood: A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, P.C.M.; Molen, M.W.; Stauder, J.E.A.

    2003-01-01

    he relation between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence was studied using a visual oddball task presented longitudinally to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. The event-related brain potential (ERP) components showed typical gradual decrements in latency and amplitude with

  2. "A Writer More than . . . A Child": A Longitudinal Study Examining Adolescent Writer Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jayne C.; Marsh, Valerie L.

    2018-01-01

    This article reconsiders theoretical claims of identity fluidity, stability, and agency through a longitudinal case study investigating one adolescent's writing over time and across spaces. Qualitative data spanning her four years of high school were collected and analyzed using a grounded theory approach with literacy-and-identity theory…

  3. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  4. Video-Based Interaction, Negotiation for Comprehensibility, and Second Language Speech Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Akiyama, Yuka

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of video-based conversational interaction on the longitudinal development (one academic semester) of second language production by college-level Japanese English-as-a-foreign-language learners. Students in the experimental group engaged in weekly dyadic conversation exchanges with native speakers in the United States…

  5. Reckoning HIV/AIDS care: A longitudinal study of community home ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To better understand the potential significance of global and national health policy/programming reliance on community health workers (task shifting), we analysed longitudinal data on both care supporter and client cohorts from 2008 to 2013. Most CHBC studies report data from only one cohort. Foremost, our analysis ...

  6. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  7. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  8. Recruiting and Retaining an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Older Adults in a Longitudinal Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin-Wells, Vonnette; McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes strategies developed to recruit and retain an ethnically diverse sample in a longitudinal intervention of 246 participants in the SeniorWISE study. The ethnic and socioeconomic differences of these participants necessitated the use of different methods of effectively communicating with this population. Recruitment benefited…

  9. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  10. The Importance of Additive Reasoning in Children's Mathematical Achievement: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Boby Ho-Hong; Nunes, Terezinha

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the relative importance of counting ability, additive reasoning, and working memory in children's mathematical achievement (calculation and story problem solving). In Hong Kong, 115 Chinese children aged 6 years old participated in 2 waves of assessments (T1 = first grade and T2 = second grade). Multiple regression…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)

  13. Removed from the List: A Comparative Longitudinal Case Study of a Reconstitution-Eligible School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Douglas J.; Ruby, Allen; Balfanz, Robert; Byrnes, Vaughan

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal case study of reform efforts centering on the Talent Development Middle School model at low-performing, high-poverty middle school in Philadelphia. Finds that student gains in mathematics, science, and reading achievement at subject school exceeded that of students in comparable school. (Contains 19 references.) (PKP)

  14. The contingency of intermedia agenda setting: a longitudinal study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, R.; Walgrave, S.

    2008-01-01

    This large-scale study investigates how intermedia agenda-setting effects are moderated by five factors: (1) lag length; (2) medium type; (3) language/institutional barriers; (4) issue type; and (5) election or non-election context. Longitudinal analyses of daily attention to twenty-five issues in

  15. Colorism and Educational Outcomes of Asian Americans: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Using a nationally representative longitudinal data set, the current study examines the link between colorism and educational attainment of Asian American young adults. Three levels of educational attainment are used as outcomes: high school diploma, some college and a Bachelor's degree or higher. Independent variables include skin tone, ethnic…

  16. Interpersonal stress, performance level, and parental support : A Longitudinal study among highly skilled young soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This study of 65 highly skilled young male soccer players (mean age = 16.6 years) employed a 7-month longitudinal design to examine the causal relationship between performance level and interpersonal stress within the team. Particular attention was paid to the moderating effect of parental support.

  17. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  18. Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction Effects from First through Third Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Randall J.; Burton, Jennifer Lyn; Silberg, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-year longitudinal study, the authors examined the effect of Direct Instruction (DI) on students' reading achievement, teacher perceptions, nature of the classroom, and special education referral rate. Urban and suburban students completed the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests in the fall of Grade 1 and spring of Grades 1, 2, and 3. Teachers…

  19. Developmental Associations between Working Memory and Language in Children with Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugs, Brigitte; Hendriks, Marc; Cuperus, Juliane; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This longitudinal study examined differences in the development of working memory (WM) between children with specific language impairment (SLI) and typically developing (TD) children. Further, it explored to what extent language at ages 7-8 years could be predicted by measures of language and/or WM at ages 4-5 years. Method: Thirty…

  20. Relationship between Screen-Time and Motor Proficiency in Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoret, Geneviève; Bigras, Nathalie; Lemay, Lise; Lehrer, Joanne; Lemire, Julie

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between screen time (ST) and children's motor proficiency. The amount of time 113 children spent watching television, using a computer, and playing video games as reported by parents at ages 4, 5, and 7 was measured and children's motor skills were evaluated at age 7 with the…

  1. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  2. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  3. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  4. Longitudinal genetic study of verbal and nonverbal IQ from early childhood to young adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.A.; Bartels, M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal genetic study we explored which factors underlie stability in verbal and nonverbal abilities, and the extent to which the association between these abilities becomes stronger as children grow older. Measures of verbal and nonverbal IQ were collected in Dutch twin pairs at age 5, 7,

  5. Effects of attitude dissimilarity and time on social integration : A longitudinal panel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    A longitudinal panel study in 25 work groups of elementary school teachers examined the effect of attitudinal dissimilarity and time on social integration across a 9-month period. In line with the prediction based on both the similarity-attraction approach and social identity theory, cross-lagged

  6. DNA methylation age is associated with mortality in a longitudinal Danish twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lene; Lenart, Adam; Tan, Qihua

    2016-01-01

    included a 10-year longitudinal study of the 86 oldest-old twins (mean age of 86.1 at follow-up), which subsequently were followed for mortality for 8 years. We found that the DNAm age is highly correlated with chronological age across all age groups (r = 0.97), but that the rate of change of DNAm age...

  7. Children's advertising exposure and materialistic orientations: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opree, S.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Reijmersdal, E.A. van; Buijzen, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    As many as nine out of 10 parents worry that children's frequent exposure to advertising makes them materialistic. In this study we not only aim to investigate if children's advertising exposure indeed affects their materialism, but also how it affects their materialism (i.e., by studying the

  8. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  9. A Longitudinal Study on Resting State Functional Connectivity in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafkemeijer, Anne; Möller, Christiane; Dopper, Elise G P; Jiskoot, Lize C; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A; van Swieten, John C; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Vrenken, Hugo; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Grond, Jeroen; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. We applied longitudinal resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to delineate functional brain connections relevant for disease progression and diagnostic accuracy. We used two-center resting state fMRI data of 20 AD patients (65.1±8.0 years), 12 bvFTD patients (64.7±5.4 years), and 22 control subjects (63.8±5.0 years) at baseline and 1.8-year follow-up. We used whole-network and voxel-based network-to-region analyses to study group differences in functional connectivity at baseline and follow-up, and longitudinal changes in connectivity within and between groups. At baseline, connectivity between paracingulate gyrus and executive control network, between cuneal cortex and medial visual network, and between paracingulate gyrus and salience network was higher in AD compared with controls. These differences were also present after 1.8 years. At follow-up, connectivity between angular gyrus and right frontoparietal network, and between paracingulate gyrus and default mode network was lower in bvFTD compared with controls, and lower compared with AD between anterior cingulate gyrus and executive control network, and between lateral occipital cortex and medial visual network. Over time, connectivity decreased in AD between precuneus and right frontoparietal network and in bvFTD between inferior frontal gyrus and left frontoparietal network. Longitudinal changes in connectivity between supramarginal gyrus and right frontoparietal network differ between both patient groups and controls. We found disease-specific brain regions with longitudinal connectivity changes. This suggests the potential of longitudinal resting state fMRI to delineate regions relevant for disease progression and for diagnostic accuracy, although no group differences in longitudinal changes in the direct comparison of AD and bvFTD were found.

  10. A prospective study of social difficulties, acculturation and persistent depression in Pakistani women living in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, N; Husain, N; Tomenson, B; Creed, F

    2012-06-01

    The reasons for the high prevalence of depressive disorders in women of Pakistani origin living in the UK are not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the relative importance of life events, chronic social difficulties and acculturation in a population-based sample of British Pakistani women. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study of 18- to 65-year-old Pakistani women in UK was carried out. The Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry for diagnosis, the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule for social stress and an acculturation questionnaire were used. Depressive disorder at baseline was associated with older age, social isolation and marked difficulties involving health and close relationships. Depressive disorder at follow-up was associated with severity of depression at baseline, difficulties in close relationships and two aspects of acculturation, especially less acculturation in relation to use of the English language. Lack of acculturation, especially less familiarity with the English language, is an independent predictor of persistence of depression in Pakistani women in UK. This needs to be taken into consideration when planning treatment, which also needs to address the personal difficulties associated with persistent depression. The implication of this work is that women of Pakistani origin with depression should be encouraged to receive help in the use of English as one part of treatment that may prevent relapse.

  11. A comparative study of stakeholder participation in the cleanup of radioactive wastes in the US, Japan and UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawless, W.F.; Angjellari-Dajci, Fjorentina; Mito, Akiyoshi; Whitton, John

    2011-01-01

    We review case studies of stakeholder participation in the environmental cleanup of radioactive wastes in the United States, Japan and United Kingdom (e.g., [21,26,27,66,78]). Citizen participation programs in these three countries are at different stages: mature in the US, starting in Japan, and becoming operational in the UK. The US issue at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina (SC) had been focused on citizens encouraging Federal (DOE; US Environmental Protection Agency, or EPA; and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, or NRC) and State (SC's Department of Health and Environmental Compliance, or DHEC) agencies to pursue 'Plug-in-RODs' at SRS to simplify the regulations to accelerate closing seepage basins at SRS. In Japan, the Reprocessing of spent fuel and deep geological disposal of vitrified high-level waste have been among Japan's priorities. A reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture is expected to commence operations in October 2010. The search of a site for a deep geological disposal facility has been ongoing since 2002. But the direct engagement of stakeholders has not occurred in Japan. Indirectly, stakeholders attempt to exert influence on decision-making with social movements, local elections, and litigation. In the UK, the issue is gaining effective citizen participation with the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA). We hope that the case studies from these countries may improve citizen participation. (author)

  12. Consumption of Image-Related Luxury Products: An Exploratory Study of Chinese Students in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Jiajia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this research is to explore UK’s Chinese students’ perceptions of luxury products, and their motivations of purchasing image-related luxury goods. Literature consists of five parts namely: the research context of Chinese students in the UK, the various definitions of “luxury” from different academics, the effect of gender on luxury consumption categories, consumer motivations of purchasing image-related luxury products, and culture value influence. A framework of luxur...

  13. Materiality and external assurance in corporate sustainability reporting: An exploratory study of UK house builders

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter; Comfort, Daphne; Hillier, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary examination of the extent to which the UK’s leading house builders are embracing the concept of materiality and commissioning independent external assurance as part of their sustainability reporting processes and to offer some wider reflections on materiality and external assurance in sustainability reporting.\\ud \\ud The paper begins with a review of the characteristics of materiality and external assurance and a brief outline of house building in the UK and ...

  14. The University of the Third Age in the UK: An Interpretive and Critical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2006-01-01

    The idea of the University of the Third Age (U3A) in the UK was originated from France. However, the British formed their own model of U3As, which is different from that of French U3As. What are the reasons that the British U3As developed in a different way? The purpose of this article is to interpret and criticize in-depth the reasons why British…

  15. Wine Argentinean Export Chain: A Case Study in the UK Market

    OpenAIRE

    Cetrangolo, Hugo; Briz, Julian

    2008-01-01

    International wine market is becoming one of the more dynamic in beverages sector. This paper is a summary of the research developed during 2004-2006 at the UPM with Argentinean exporters. The selection of UK market was due to the high degree of competition between international wines: European, American, Australian and others. Secondary information was collected from EU and Argentina publication and data bases. Primary information was obtained through face to face interviews with the main st...

  16. Urban river design and aesthetics: A river restoration case study from the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Prior, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the restoration of an urbanized section of the River Skerne where it flows through a suburb of Darlington, England; a project which was one of the first comprehensive urban river restorations undertaken in the UK. It is shown how aesthetic values were central to the identification of the River Skerne as a site for restoration, the production of restoration objectives, and a design vision of urban river renewal via restoration. Secondly, the means by which these aesthetic v...

  17. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work : a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45–64, of the longitudinal Study on

  18. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  19. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, J.F.; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  20. Sustaining Continuous Improvement: A Longitudinal and Regional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J. Quesada-Pineda

    2013-09-01

    companies, no changes in perception were found during the period of study for any of the factors. For the other two, however, changes were perceived in at least one of the five constructs in the study. Changes were also found across the regions included. By leveraging the quantitative analysis with qualitative data collected through interviews and visits to the case study companies, we were able to explain the changes in perception and single out the best CI management process to sustain CI in the long term.