WorldWideScience

Sample records for uk environmental science

  1. Information Fusion Issues in the UK Environmental Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The Earth is a complex, interacting system which cannot be neatly divided by discipline boundaries. To gain an holistic understanding of even a component of an Earth System requires researchers to draw information from multiple disciplines and integrate these to develop a broader understanding. But the barriers to achieving this are formidable. Research funders attempting to encourage the integration of information across disciplines need to take into account culture issues, the impact of intrusion of projects on existing information systems, ontologies and semantics, scale issues, heterogeneity and the uncertainties associated with combining information from diverse sources. Culture - There is a cultural dualism in the environmental sciences were information sharing is both rewarded and discouraged. Researchers who share information both gain new opportunities and risk reducing their chances of being first author in an high-impact journal. The culture of the environmental science community has to be managed to ensure that information fusion activities are encouraged. Intrusion - Existing information systems have an inertia of there own because of the intellectual and financial capital invested within them. Information fusion activities must recognise and seek to minimise the potential impact of their projects on existing systems. Low intrusion information fusions systems such as OGC web-service and the OpenMI Standard are to be preferred to whole-sale replacement of existing systems. Ontology and Semantics - Linking information across disciplines requires a clear understanding of the concepts deployed in the vocabulary used to describe them. Such work is a critical first step to creating routine information fusion. It is essential that national bodies, such as geological surveys organisations, document and publish their ontologies, semantics, etc. Scale - Environmental processes operate at scales ranging from microns to the scale of the Solar System and

  2. Environmental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-15

    This book gives descriptions of environmental pollution such as water and soil pollution, harmful chemicals substances and radiation, nature protection on wild animals, wild plants, and nature park, environmental assessment, and environmental management. It deals with the earth environment on change and the cause of the earth environment, ozone layer, global warming and acid fallout, plan for the earth control and environment information and information system.

  3. UK science plans spending spree

    CERN Multimedia

    Loder, N

    2000-01-01

    The science budget will grow by more than 4 per cent over the previous year in each of the next three years. Over the next three months the research councils will battle it out to see how much of these extra funds each will receive. The areas identified by the councils for the extra money include bioinformatics, information technology, nanotechnology and post-genomic research (1 page).

  4. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The environmental Science and Technology Program was structured based on the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs at IPEN. The program comprehends five main areas: Environmental analysis: Chemical technology; Polymer technology nucleus: Chemical and Isotope characterization and Analytical Chemistry for the Nuclear Fuel Cycle samples.

  5. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER's mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  6. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER`s mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  7. Environmental Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalyzers) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization)

  8. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, S.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This complete survey of modern environmental science covers the four traditional spheres of the environment: water, air, earth, and life, and introduces a fifth sphere -- the anthrosphere -- which the author defines as the sphere of human activities, especially technology, that affect the earth. The book discusses how technology can be used in a manner that minimizes environmental disruption.

  9. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  10. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Geography and environmental science

    OpenAIRE

    Milinčić, Miroljub; Souliotis, Lily; Mihajlović, Ljiljana; Požar, Tea

    2014-01-01

    Geography is one of the oldest academic disciplines with a strong holistic approach in conceptualizing the interaction between nature and society, i.e. animate and inanimate parts of the environment. Over time, geography has been increasing and improving its conceptual and terminological abilities for studying and understanding complex relationships among environmental systems. For this reason, geography has advanced from a well-known science about nature and society into a relevant science a...

  12. African Journals Online: Environmental Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 28 of 28 ... African Journals Online: Environmental Sciences ... Anthropology, Technology, Computer Science & Engineering, Veterinary Science ... and Metabolism (AJEM) is a biomedical peer-reviewed journal with international circulation. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology.

  13. The UK Ecosystem for Fostering Innovation in the Earth & Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The UK national government supports an ecosystem of government-funded organisations that carry a specific remit for innovation. By specifically cultivating the commercialisation of research where appropriate, the UK demonstrates a forward-thinking and coordinated approach to deriving economic and societal impact from scientific research activities. This presentation provides an overview of innovation activities at government-backed organisations that support the Earth and space science communities. At the broadest and highest levels, the UK has a whole-of-government approach to fostering innovation. The government also has a designated innovation agency - Innovate UK - which works with people, companies, and partner organisations to find and drive the science & technology innovations that will grow the UK economy. A primary source of scientific funding to UK-based researchers comes from the Research Councils UK (RCUK), which has seven constituent Research Councils. Along with funding activities that support basic research, innovation is supported through a variety of activities. The National Environmental Research Council (NERC), the UK's leading public funder for Earth & environmental science, has brought to market a wide variety of ideas and innovations, including by helping to register patents, negotiating licensing deals, and setting up spin-out companies or joint ventures with commercial organisations. Case studies of NERC commercialization successes will be given, as well as an overview of mechanisms by which NERC supports innovation. These include 'Pathfinder' awards that help enable researchers to develop a greater understanding of the commercial aspects and possibilities of their research. Complementary 'Follow-on Fund' awards provide proof-of-concept funding to support the commercialisation of ideas arising from NERC-funded research. Early-career researchers are also eligible for NERC's Environment Young Entrepreneurs Scheme. Innovation activity, like

  14. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, J. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Maritime Studies and International Transport

    1999-09-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered.

  15. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered

  16. UK Nuclear Science Forum. Progress report: Data studies during 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    2001-06-01

    The UK Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) now meets once per year to discuss issues of direct relevance to forum members, and to review nuclear data for application in the UK nuclear industry. Links are also maintained through the year, mainly through e-mail and the normal postal system. Work of immediate interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g., half-lives and gamma-ray emission probabilities), fission yields and thermal neutron cross sections; all known UK studies in 2000 are summarised in this document. Specific applications and international links of relevance in the field of nuclear data are also described

  17. Center for Environmental Health Sciences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The primary research objective of the Center for Environmental Health Sciences (CEHS) at the University of Montana is to advance knowledge of environmental impacts...

  18. Improving environmental strategies of the UK oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanega, J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a strategic review of the current environmental policies and practices of the UK Oil and Gas Industry. It begins with an analysis of the current environmental impacts of the UK Oil and Gas Industry, including air emissions, effluents to sea and industrial wastes. The importance of environmental issues to UK operators is related to financial conseqeunces of environmental damage to the North Sea, poor public opinion and the spectre of increased government regulations. There is a survey of the best practices of environmental management programmes, including environmental assessment, monitoring auditing and contingency planning and emergency response, with historical lessons from Cadiz to Valdez and the industry's reaction to Exxon Valdez. After critically assessing the weaknesses of environmental management programmes, the author calls for systematic environmental assessment, employing inventory, monitoring, risk assessment and quantified risk assessment. There are recommendations on how to minimise the impact on the environment through the use of existing technology, training, incident response and crisis management, auditing, testing and industry-wide collaboration. (Author)

  19. Environmental science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  20. Environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Environmental Science and Technology developed at the Chemical and Environmental Technology Center comprehends environmental chemistry (water, soil and atmospheric chemistry), clean technologies (desulfurization of diesel and oil, biodegradable polymers and structural modification of polymers, recycling, pyrolysis of dangerous chemicals by molten salt technology), nanotechnology (magnetic nanoparticles, dendrimers, nano biomarkers, catalysts) and chemical characterization of nuclear fuel and nuclear fuel cycle waste (chemical and isotopic characterization). The Chemical and Environmental Technology Center was established in 1995, as an evolution of the former Department of Chemistry Engineering (1970). The program on environment science and technology was structured as consequence of the continuous growth of environmental activities on areas related to nuclear programs of IPEN. Moreover, it was an answer to the society concerning the climate changes and biodiversity preservation. All activities of research and development, services, supervision of graduate and under graduated students and courses performance at the center were related to the development, improvement and establishment of new technologies. The highlights of this period (2011 - 2013) were: - Development and use of modern analytical technology for the characterization of persistent pollutants and endocrine disrupters (metals, PAHA’s, PCBs, Pesticides, hormones, surfactants, plasticizer and human pharmaceuticals) in order to evaluate water quality and/or sediments; - Atmospheric chemistry and greenhouse gases: Evaluating an estimation of surface trace gas fluxes from aircraft measurements above the Amazon; - Cooperation with SABESP (Water and Sewage Company) and CETESB (State Environment Agency) in program for the development of public policies; - Studies and development in biodegradable polymers, polyolefins and advanced methods for polymer and rubber recycling and re-use; - Studies

  1. Environmental and Medical Sciences Division progress report January - December 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.E.

    1976-07-01

    The activities of the AERE Environmental and Medical Sciences Division for January to December 1975 are reported under sections entitled: introduction; inhalation toxicology and radionuclide analysis; whole body counting; radiation physics; environmental analysis, atmospheric pollution; medical; chemical analysis group; publications. (U.K.)

  2. UK Environmental Prediction - integration and evaluation at the convective scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, Joachim; Lewis, Huw; Castillo, Juan Manuel; Pearson, David; Harris, Chris; Saulter, Andy; Bricheno, Lucy; Blyth, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, the simulation of regional ocean, wave and atmosphere components of the Earth System have been considered separately, with some information on other components provided by means of boundary or forcing conditions. More recently, the potential value of a more integrated approach, as required for global climate and Earth System prediction, for regional short-term applications has begun to gain increasing research effort. In the UK, this activity is motivated by an understanding that accurate prediction and warning of the impacts of severe weather requires an integrated approach to forecasting. The substantial impacts on individuals, businesses and infrastructure of such events indicate a pressing need to understand better the value that might be delivered through more integrated environmental prediction. To address this need, the Met Office, NERC Centre for Ecology & Hydrology and NERC National Oceanography Centre have begun to develop the foundations of a coupled high resolution probabilistic forecast system for the UK at km-scale. This links together existing model components of the atmosphere, coastal ocean, land surface and hydrology. Our initial focus has been on a 2-year Prototype project to demonstrate the UK coupled prediction concept in research mode. This presentation will provide an update on UK environmental prediction activities. We will present the results from the initial implementation of an atmosphere-land-ocean coupled system, including a new eddy-permitting resolution ocean component, and discuss progress and initial results from further development to integrate wave interactions in this relatively high resolution system. We will discuss future directions and opportunities for collaboration in environmental prediction, and the challenges to realise the potential of integrated regional coupled forecasting for improving predictions and applications.

  3. Strategic environmental assessment for UK LLW management - 16392

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craze, Andrew; Clark, Matthew; Davis, Pete

    2009-01-01

    NDA is delivering a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) to underpin the UK Nuclear Industry Low Level Waste Strategy. The purpose of this assessment is embed sustainability issues into our decision making and to fulfill our requirements under the European Union's Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Directive (2004/42/EU) and transposing UK Regulations, and to underpin the development of the strategy. The outputs of the SEA have provided input into particular aspects of the strategy, leading to a more robust and better informed result. Development of options to be assessed under the SEA has looked at a number of factors, including: - what the strategy is aiming to achieve - expectation from stakeholders as to what should be addressed - consideration of tactical approaches to implementation of the strategy in addition to high level strategic issues - links to other projects and programmes (for example the Environmental Safety Case for the Low Level Waste Repository. The SEA aims to provide a robust assessment of the environmental and sustainability impacts of alternative strategies for providing continued capability and capacity for the management and disposal of LLW in the UK. The assessment also considers other, more tactical, issues around implementation of the strategy, for example: issues around the location of LLW management facilities; the environmental impacts of alternative waste treatment options (metal recycling etc); considerations of alternative approaches to the classification of radioactive waste and opportunities that would result. Critical to the development of the SEA has been the involvement of statutory and non-statutory stakeholders, who have informed both the output and the approach taken. (authors)

  4. Global Journal of Environmental Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Environmental Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Environmental Sciences including waste management, pollution control, and remediation of hazards. The journal is published twice a year. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  5. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at documented in the range 2km. The geological modelling process will be presented and discussed

  6. Environmental Data Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibert, Karina; Horsburgh, Jeffery S.; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Holmes, Geoff

    2018-01-01

    Environmental data are growing in complexity, size, and resolution. Addressing the types of large, multidisciplinary problems faced by today's environmental scientists requires the ability to leverage available data and information to inform decision making. Successfully synthesizing heterogeneous

  7. Environmental radioactivity surveillance programme: results for UK for 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; McAllister, G.; Welham, D.; Orr, D.

    1984-11-01

    The fourth report of a series giving the results of the NRPB's environmental radioactivity surveillance programme is presented. Samples of airborne dust, rainwater and milk are collected routinely throughout the UK; the concentrations of various radionuclides are measured and the resulting exposure of the population is evaluated. The radionuclides detected result predominantly from nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, although the programme would also be sensitive to other sources of environmental contamination. The annual average concentrations and depositions of radionuclides from fallout are now at the lowest levels since the inception of the Board's monitoring programme. The average annual effective dose equivalent from fallout is evaluated and compared with that from natural background radiation. (author)

  8. Life cycle environmental impacts of UK shale gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • First full life cycle assessment of shale gas used for electricity generation. • Comparison with coal, conventional and liquefied gas, nuclear, wind and solar PV. • Shale gas worse than coal for three impacts and better than renewables for four. • It has higher photochemical smog and terrestrial toxicity than the other options. • Shale gas a sound environmental option only if accompanied by stringent regulation. - Abstract: Exploitation of shale gas in the UK is at a very early stage, but with the latest estimates suggesting potential resources of 3.8 × 10 13 cubic metres – enough to supply the UK for next 470 years – it is viewed by many as an exciting economic prospect. However, its environmental impacts are currently unknown. This is the focus of this paper which estimates for the first time the life cycle impacts of UK shale gas, assuming its use for electricity generation. Shale gas is compared to fossil-fuel alternatives (conventional gas and coal) and low-carbon options (nuclear, offshore wind and solar photovoltaics). The results suggest that the impacts range widely, depending on the assumptions. For example, the global warming potential (GWP100) of electricity from shale gas ranges from 412 to 1102 g CO 2 -eq./kWh with a central estimate of 462 g. The central estimates suggest that shale gas is comparable or superior to conventional gas and low-carbon technologies for depletion of abiotic resources, eutrophication, and freshwater, marine and human toxicities. Conversely, it has a higher potential for creation of photochemical oxidants (smog) and terrestrial toxicity than any other option considered. For acidification, shale gas is a better option than coal power but an order of magnitude worse than the other options. The impact on ozone layer depletion is within the range found for conventional gas, but nuclear and wind power are better options still. The results of this research highlight the need for tight regulation and

  9. Environmental impacts of chocolate production and consumption in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantas, Antonios; Jeswani, Harish K; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates life cycle environmental impacts associated with chocolate products made and consumed in the UK. The paper focuses on three representative chocolate products occupying 90% of the market: 'moulded chocolate', 'chocolate countlines' and 'chocolates in bag'. The impacts were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool and following the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The water footprint was also considered. For example, the global warming potential ranges between 2.91 and 4.15 kg CO 2 eq., primary energy demand from 30 to 41 MJ and the water footprint, including water stress, from 31 to 63 l per kilogram of chocolate. The raw materials are the major hotspot across all impact categories for all three product types, followed by the chocolate production process and packaging. The raw material impacts are mainly due to milk powder, cocoa derivatives, sugar and palm oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that the results for global warming potential are sensitive to land-use change (LUC) associated with cocoa production, increasing the impact of the chocolate products by three to four times if LUC is involved. The improvement opportunities targeting the key contributing stages suggest that GWP of chocolates could be reduced by 14%-19%. Chocolate countlines have the highest contribution to the total impacts at the UK level (37%-43%), followed by chocolates in bag (28%-33%). Moulded chocolates and other chocolate confectionary make up the rest of the impacts, with a roughly equal share each. Chocolate consumption in the UK contributes 4.7% to the primary energy consumption and 2.4% to the GHG emissions from the whole food and drink sector. The results of this work will be of interest to policy makers, chocolate producers and consumers, helping them to make more informed decisions towards sustainable production and consumption of chocolate products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistics for environmental science and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manly, B.F.J

    2009-01-01

    .... Additional topics covered include environmental monitoring, impact assessment, censored data, environmental sampling, the role of statistics in environmental science, assessing site reclamation...

  11. Environmental science: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.T.

    1985-01-01

    This book is divided into 5 major parts: Humans and Nature--An Overview, Some Concepts of Ecology, Population, Resources, and Pollution. It discusses both sides of major environmental issues and offers possible solutions to the problems humans--intentionally or unwittingly--create.

  12. Observations on gender equality in a UK Earth Sciences department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Jonathan; Allen, Mark; Chamberlain, Katy; Foulger, Gillian; Gregory, Emma; Hoult, Jill; Macpherson, Colin; Winship, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The progress of women to senior positions within UK higher education institutes has been slow. Women are worst represented in science, engineering and technology disciplines, where, in 2011, only 15% of professors were female. The national position is reflected in the Department of Earth Sciences at Durham University. The Department's gender profile shows steadily increasing proportions of females from undergraduate (ca. 38%) to postgraduate (ca. 42%) to postdoctoral (ca. 45%) levels, before dropping sharply with increasing seniority to 33% (n=1), 14% (n=1), 14% (n=1) and 13% (n=2), respectively, of lecturers, senior lecturers, readers and professors. The data suggest there is no shortage of talented female postgraduates and postdoctoral researchers; however, females are not applying, not being shortlisted, or not being appointed to academic roles in the expected proportions. Analysis of applications to academic positions in the Department during the period 2010-2015 suggests that "head hunting" senior academics, in some cases driven by external factors such as the UK Research Excellence Framework, resulted in a small proportion (between 0% and 11%) of female applicants. These results can be explained by the small number of senior female Earth Scientists nationally and, probably, internationally. Junior lectureship positions attracted between 24% and 33% female applicants, with the greatest proportion of females applying where the specialism within Earth Sciences was deliberately left open. In addition to these externally advertised posts, the Department has had some success converting independent research Fellowships, held by female colleagues, into permanent academic positions (n=2 between 2010 and 2015). Data for academic promotions show there is a significant negative correlation between year of appointment to first academic position within the Department (r=0.81, n=19, pmentoring scheme for postdoctoral staff, and plan to extend the scheme to academic staff

  13. Toxicogenomics in Environmental Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinke, Alexandra; Buchinger, Sebastian

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge and recent progress in the field of environmental, aquatic ecotoxicogenomics with a focus on transcriptomic methods. In ecotoxicogenomics the omics technologies are applied for the detection and assessment of adverse effects in the environment, and thus are to be distinguished from omics used in human toxicology [Snape et al., Aquat Toxicol 67:143-154, 2004]. Transcriptomic methods in ecotoxicology are applied to gain a mechanistic understanding of toxic effects on organisms or populations, and thus aim to bridge the gap between cause and effect. A worthwhile effect-based interpretation of stressor induced changes on the transcriptome is based on the principle of phenotypic-anchoring [Paules, Environ Health Perspect 111:A338-A339, 2003]. Thereby, changes on the transcriptomic level can only be identified as effects if they are clearly linked to a specific stressor-induced effect on the macroscopic level. By integrating those macroscopic and transcriptomic effects, conclusions on the effect-inducing type of the stressor can be drawn. Stressor-specific effects on the transcriptomic level can be identified as stressor-specific induced pathways, transcriptomic patterns, or stressors-specific genetic biomarkers. In this chapter, examples of the combined application of macroscopic and transcriptional effects for the identification of environmental stressors, such as aquatic pollutants, are given and discussed. By means of these examples, challenges on the way to a standardized application of transcriptomics in ecotoxicology are discussed. This is also done against the background of the application of transcriptomic methods in environmental regulation such as the EU regulation Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH).

  14. Environmental management practices, environmental technology portfolio, and environmental commitment: A content analytic approach for U.K. manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, P; Ramanathan, R

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how various aspects of environmental management practices EMPs (operational, strategic, and tactical) undertaken by firms influence their environmental technology portfolios ETPs (pollution control and pollution prevention). It also explores the role of environmental commitment of firms on the influence of EMPs on ETPs. This study uses data from content analysis of annual reports, and corporate social responsibility reports available from corporate websites of 76 UK ma...

  15. UK review of radio science, 1984-1986. Ionosphere and magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rishbeth, H.; Jones, D.

    1986-12-01

    The paper contains the United Kingdom (U.K.) review of Radio Science, 1984-1986, covering ionospheric and magnetospheric science. This is the current UK contribution towards an international review published by the International Union of Radio Science (URSI). The UK review is divided into topics prescribed by URSI and covers work that is actually published within the period October 1983 - Sept. 1986, also as prescribed by URSI. The topics discussed in the review include: incoherent and coherent scatter, probing the magnetosphere, plasma instabilities, ionospheric modification, composition, ionization and chemistry and ionospheric dynamics. (U.K.)

  16. Emotions in teaching environmental science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2016-09-01

    This op-ed article examines the emotional impact of teaching environmental science and considers how certain emotions can broaden viewpoints and other emotions narrow them. Specifically, it investigates how the topic of climate change became an emotional debate in a science classroom because of religious beliefs. Through reflective practice and examination of positionality, the author explored how certain teaching practices of pre-service science teachers created a productive space and other practices closed down the conversations. This article is framed with theories that explore both divergent and shared viewpoints.

  17. Order Theory in Environmental Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P. B.; Brüggemann, R.; Lerche, D. B.

    This is the proceeding from the fifth workshop in Order Theory in Environ-mental Science. In this workshop series the concept of Partial Order Theory is development in relation to application and the use is tested based on specific problems. The Partial Order Theory will have a potential use...

  18. Teaching weather and climate science in primary schools - a pilot project from the UK Met Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, Richard; Liggins, Felicity; Challenger, Lesley; Lethem, Dom; Campbell, Katy

    2017-04-01

    Wow Schools is a pilot project from the Met Office with an aim to inspire and educate the next generation of scientists and, uniquely, use the data collected by schools to improve weather forecasts and warnings across the UK. Wow Schools was launched in late 2015 with a competition open to primary schools across the UK. 74 schools entered the draw, all hoping to be picked as one of the ten lucky schools taking part in the pilot scheme. Each winning school received a fully automatic weather station (AWS), enabling them to transmit real-time local weather observations to the Met Office's Weather Observation Website (WOW - wow.metoffice.gov.uk), an award winning web portal for uploading and sharing a range of environmental observations. They were also given a package of materials designed to get students out of the classroom to observe the weather, get hands-on with the science underpinning weather forecasting, and analyse the data they are collecting. The curriculum-relevant materials were designed with the age group 7 to 11 in mind, but could be extended to support other age groups. Each school was offered a visit by a Wow Schools Ambassador (a Met Office employee) to bring the students' learning to life, and access to a dedicated forecast for its location generated by our new supercomputer. These forecasts are improved by the school's onsite AWS reinforcing the link between observations and forecast production. The Wow Schools pilot ran throughout 2016. Here, we present the initial findings of the project, examining the potential benefits and challenges of working with schools across the UK to: enrich students' understanding of the science of weather forecasting; to source an ongoing supply of weather observations and discover how these might be used in the forecasting process; and explore what materials and business model(s) would be most useful and affordable if a wider roll-out of the initiative was undertaken.

  19. Computer science handbook. Vol. 13.3. Environmental computer science. Computer science methods for environmental protection and environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, B.; Hilty, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental computer science is a new partial discipline of applied computer science, which makes use of methods and techniques of information processing in environmental protection. Thanks to the inter-disciplinary nature of environmental problems, computer science acts as a mediator between numerous disciplines and institutions in this sector. The handbook reflects the broad spectrum of state-of-the art environmental computer science. The following important subjects are dealt with: Environmental databases and information systems, environmental monitoring, modelling and simulation, visualization of environmental data and knowledge-based systems in the environmental sector. (orig.) [de

  20. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varma, Adarsh

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the cannons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme

  1. Environmental Management Science Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    This program summary book is a compendium of project summaries submitted by principal investigators in the Environmental Management Science Program and Environmental Management/Energy Research Pilot Collaborative Research Program (Wolf-Broido Program). These summaries provide information about the most recent project activities and accomplishments. All projects will be represented at the workshop poster sessions, so you will have an opportunity to meet with the researchers. The projects will be presented in the same order at the poster session as they are presented in this summary book. Detailed questions about an individual project may be directed to the investigators involved.

  2. Environmental and Medical Sciences Division progress report January - December, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainge, W.M.

    1982-02-01

    A progress report on the work performed during 1980 by the Environmental and Medical Sciences Division at UKAEA Harwell is given. The programmes considered were atmospheric pollution; landfill research; monitoring of radioactive fallout and other radionuclides and trace elements in the environment; radioactive and non-radioactive aerosol metabolic studies; inhalation toxicology of radioactive aerosols and other hazardous materials; chemical analytical services; and radiation physics in dosimetry research, applied radiation spectrometry and data systems. (U.K.)

  3. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    + (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks) process and the phenomenon of deforestation in Zambia as research examples. The research was carried out from mid 2008 and to mid 2013 and applies a mixed methods research design. Fieldwork was carried out...... to science? This PhD thesis contributes to answering this questions; however it does this by questioning the conceptions of science that contribute to political decision-making and by exploring the relationship between scientific knowledge, other types of knowledge and policy. This PhD study employs the REDD...... in future REDD+ design and implementation. To curtail potential negative consequences of the identified mode of science-policy interaction in Zambia, the study concludes by making a number of proposals. The proposals are generic in nature and may be found relevant in environmental policy processes outside...

  4. GeoBus: bringing Earth science learning to secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ruth; Roper, Kathryn; Pike, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have no or little expertise of teaching Earth science, to share the outcomes of new science research and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Almost 35,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities by April 2015, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The challenge with secondary school experiential learning as outreach is that activities need to be completed in either 50 or 80 minutes to fit within the school timetables in the UK, and this can limit the amount of hands-on activities that pupils undertake in one session. However, it is possible to dedicate a whole or half day of linked activities to Earth science learning within the Scotland Curriculum for Excellence, and this provides a long enough period to undertake field work, conduct group projects, or complete more complicated experiments. GeoBus has developed a suite of workshops that all involve experiential learning and are targeted for shorter and longer time slots, and the lessons learned in developing and refining these workshops to maximise the learning achieved will be presented. A key aim of GeoBus is to incorporate research outcomes directly into workshops, and to involve early career researchers in project development. One example that is currently in progress is a set of hydrology workshops that focus on the water

  5. GeoBus: bringing experiential Earth science learning to secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, C. J.; Robinson, R. A. J.; Roper, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    GeoBus (www.geobus.org.uk) is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews, and it is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (middle and high) schools by providing teaching support to schools that have no or little expertise of teaching Earth science, to share the outcomes of new science research and the experiences of young researchers with school pupils, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 160 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Over 30,000 pupils will have been involved in experiential Earth science learning activities by December 2014, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The challenge with secondary school experiential learning as outreach is that activities need to be completed in either 50 or 80 minutes to fit within the school timetables in the UK, and this can limit the amount of hands-on activities that pupils undertake in one session. However, it is possible to dedicate a whole or half day of linked activities to Earth science learning in Scotland and this provides a long enough period to undertake field work, conduct group projects, or complete more complicated experiments. GeoBus has developed a suite of workshops that all involve experiential learning and are targeted for shorter and longer time slots, and the lessons learned in developing and refining these workshops to maximise the learning achieved will be presented. Three potentially unsurprising observations hold true for all the schools that GeoBus visits: young learners like to experiment and use unfamiliar equipment to make measurements, the element of competition stimulates learners to ask questions and maintain focus and enthusiasum

  6. UK to train 100 PhD students in data science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2017-12-01

    A new PhD programme to develop techniques to handle the vast amounts of data being generated by experiments and facilities has been launched by the UK's Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC).

  7. Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Elizabeth; Renauld, Mia; Edelstein, Michael R; Brown, Phil

    2015-11-01

    Social science research has been central in documenting and analyzing community discovery of environmental exposure and consequential processes. Collaboration with environmental health science through team projects has advanced and improved our understanding of environmental health and justice. We sought to identify diverse methods and topics in which social scientists have expanded environmental health understandings at multiple levels, to examine how transdisciplinary environmental health research fosters better science, and to learn how these partnerships have been able to flourish because of the support from National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). We analyzed various types of social science research to investigate how social science contributes to environmental health. We also examined NIEHS programs that foster social science. In addition, we developed a case study of a community-based participation research project in Akwesasne in order to demonstrate how social science has enhanced environmental health science. Social science has informed environmental health science through ethnographic studies of contaminated communities, analysis of spatial distribution of environmental injustice, psychological experience of contamination, social construction of risk and risk perception, and social impacts of disasters. Social science-environmental health team science has altered the way scientists traditionally explore exposure by pressing for cumulative exposure approaches and providing research data for policy applications. A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social science collaboration with environmental health. Environ Health

  8. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  9. Activity and Action: Bridging Environmental Sciences and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Abramovitch, Anat

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the Environmental Workshop unit taught to Environmental Sciences majors in the high schools in Israel and learn if, and in what ways, this unit could become a model for environmental education throughout the high school curriculum. We studied the special characteristics of the Environmental Workshop (EW)…

  10. Environmental aspects of large-scale wind-power systems in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, A.

    1984-11-01

    Environmental issues relating to the introduction of large, MW-scale wind turbines at land-based sites in the UK are discussed. Noise, television interference, hazards to bird life, and visual effects are considered. Areas of uncertainty are identified, but enough is known from experience elsewhere in the world to enable the first UK machines to be introduced in a safe and environementally acceptable manner. Research to establish siting criteria more clearly, and significantly increase the potential wind-energy resource is mentioned. Studies of the comparative risk of energy systems are shown to be overpessimistic for UK wind turbines.

  11. Open Science Strategies in Research Policies: A Comparative Exploration of Canada, the US and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasthiotakis, Helen; Kretz, Andrew; Sá, Creso

    2015-01-01

    Several movements have emerged related to the general idea of promoting "openness" in science. Research councils are key institutions in bringing about changes proposed by these movements, as sponsors and facilitators of research. In this paper we identify the approaches used in Canada, the US and the UK to advance open science, as a…

  12. Environmental Science for All? Considering Environmental Science for Inclusion in the High School Core Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Daniel C.

    2007-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of environmental science as an elective in high schools over the last decade, educators have the opportunity to realistically consider the possibility of incorporating environmental science into the core high school curriculum. Environmental science has several characteristics that make it a candidate for the core…

  13. Harnessing science for environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    An introductory chapter by Graham frames the issues to be discussed; then the following three chapters describe the formation and character of three organizations. These chapters are written by authors who have each had an active management role in the organization they are writing about: Terry F. Yosie, now at the American Petroleum Institute, who staffed the SAB (Science Advisory Board) while he was at EPA; Robert A. Neal, who headed CIIT (Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology) before leaving for a position at Vanderbilt University; and Thomas P. Grumbly, former executive director of HEI (Health Effects Institute) now president of Clean Sites, Inc. While these chapters are well written and make a vital contribution to the overall development of the book's themes, the most valuable and enjoyable parts of the book are the succeeding five chapters, which present case studies dealing with EPA's regulatory efforts on unleaded gasoline, perchloroethylene, formaldehyde, nitrates in drinking water, and carbon monoxide. Each of these case studies, nominally historical accounts of how one or more of these (three) organizations participated in the regulatory controversy, offer insight into the broader issues of dealing with, and incorporating into regulations scientific information that has high uncertainty. One of the richest aspects of the five case studies is the extensive use of referenced interviews with identified participants from all aspects of the regulatory process. This material illuminates the motivation, emotions, and goals of the different players, helping the reader to understand their positions and other issues, such as why industry pursues, and EPA and the environmental movement appear to resist, good science; what underlies EPA's preferences for one regulatory option over another; and why scientists are histant to give yes-or-no answers in accord with the real time needs of the regulatory agency

  14. Science Theatre as dissemination of environmental awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana; Kastberg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    hides behind this label? Is this concept at all new? The purpose of this article is threefold: 1) to describe Science Theatre in terms of typology with specific focus on environmental subjects, 2) to address Science Theatre as a borderline meeting place (agora or arena) between science and theatre 3......A community project with the intention of developing specific communication on environmental issues for children age 3-7 allies with a theatre artist and storyteller. The result is a meeting between science and theatre. Theatre, with its borderline praxis between entertainment and reflection...... offered a precious opportunity to deliver difficult scientific or social issues within the environmental mindset to such youngsters, an opportunity well exploited and well received. But what makes Science Theatre an obvious choice in order to communicate natural sciences or environmental issues? What...

  15. Effective Two-way Communication of Environmental Hazards: Understanding Public Perception in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorono-Leturiondo, Maria; O'Hare, Paul; Cook, Simon; Hoon, Stephen R.; Illingworth, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Climate change intensified hazards, such as floods and landslides, require exploring renewed ways of protecting at-risk communities (World Economic Forum 2016). Scientists are being encouraged to explore new pathways to work closely with affected communities in search of experiential knowledge that is able to complement and extend scientific knowledge (see for instance Whatmore and Landström 2011 and Höpner et al. 2010). Effective two-way communication of environmental hazards is, however, a challenge. Besides considering factors such as the purpose of communication, or the characteristics of the different formats; effective communication has to carefully acknowledge the personal framework of the individuals involved. Existing experiences, values, beliefs, and needs are critical determinants of the way they perceive and relate to these hazards, and in turn, of the communication process in which they are involved (Longnecker 2016 and Gibson et al. 2016). Our study builds on the need to analyze how the public perceives environmental hazards in order to establish forms of communication that work. Here we present early findings of a survey analysing the UK public's perception and outline how survey results can guide more effective two-way communication practices between scientists and affected communities. We explore the perception of environmental hazards in terms of how informed and concerned the public is, as well as how much ownership they claim over these phenomena. In order to gain a more accurate image, we study environmental hazards in relation to other risks threatening the UK, such as large-scale involuntary migration or unemployment (World Economic Forum 2016, Bord et al. 1998). We also explore information consumption in relation to environmental hazards and the public's involvement in advancing knowledge. All these questions are accompanied by an extensive demographics section that allows us to ascertain how the context or environment in which an

  16. Data science for mental health: a UK perspective on a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew M; Stewart, Robert; John, Ann; Smith, Daniel J; Davis, Katrina; Sudlow, Cathie; Corvin, Aiden; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Kingdon, David; Hassan, Lamiece; Hotopf, Matthew; Lawrie, Stephen M; Russ, Tom C; Geddes, John R; Wolpert, Miranda; Wölbert, Eva; Porteous, David J

    2016-10-01

    Data science uses computer science and statistics to extract new knowledge from high-dimensional datasets (ie, those with many different variables and data types). Mental health research, diagnosis, and treatment could benefit from data science that uses cohort studies, genomics, and routine health-care and administrative data. The UK is well placed to trial these approaches through robust NHS-linked data science projects, such as the UK Biobank, Generation Scotland, and the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) programme. Data science has great potential as a low-cost, high-return catalyst for improved mental health recognition, understanding, support, and outcomes. Lessons learnt from such studies could have global implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Environmental aspects of large-scale wind-power systems in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robson, A

    1983-12-01

    Environmental issues relating to the introduction of large, MW-scale wind turbines at land-based sites in the U.K. are discussed. Areas of interest include noise, television interference, hazards to bird life and visual effects. A number of areas of uncertainty are identified, but enough is known from experience elsewhere in the world to enable the first U.K. machines to be introduced in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. Research currently under way will serve to establish siting criteria more clearly, and could significantly increase the potential wind-energy resource. Certain studies of the comparative risk of energy systems are shown to be overpessimistic for U.K. wind turbines.

  18. What does the UK public want from academic science communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Illingworth, Sam; Verran, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent's current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the 'common practice' of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals), there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience.

  19. Environmental science: A new opportunity for soil science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, I.L.

    2000-01-01

    During the golden era of soil science--from the 1950s to the 1980s--the main focus of this discipline was on the role of soil in production agriculture. More recently, renewed interest in the area of environmental science has offered new opportunities to soil scientists. Thus, many soil scientists are now working in areas such as bioremediation, waste recycling, and/or contaminant transport. Environmental science has, therefore, not only changed the traditional research role of soil scientists at land grant institutions but has also influenced student enrollment, the traditional soil science curriculum, and faculty recruitment. These changes require a new breed of soil scientist, one with a background not only in soil science but also in other areas of environmental science as well.

  20. Investigating the Link between Environmental Performance and Corporate Performance in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Boonchan, Poomkaew

    2010-01-01

    This study is part of the ongoing ‘ERIPS’ project at the University of Nottingham which focus on examining the impact of environmental performance on environmental performance of firms in the UK manufacturing sector. Both primary data which has been obtained by using a questionnaire survey (firm level data) and secondary data obtained from FAME database have been used in this study. Further, structural equation modeling and regression analyses (i.e., mediated and moderated regression analysis...

  1. Improving National Capability in Biogeochemical Flux Modelling: the UK Environmental Virtual Observatory (EVOp)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnes, P.; Greene, S.; Freer, J. E.; Bloomfield, J.; Macleod, K.; Reaney, S. M.; Odoni, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    The best outcomes from watershed management arise where policy and mitigation efforts are underpinned by strong science evidence, but there are major resourcing problems associated with the scale of monitoring needed to effectively characterise the sources rates and impacts of nutrient enrichment nationally. The challenge is to increase national capability in predictive modelling of nutrient flux to waters, securing an effective mechanism for transferring knowledge and management tools from data-rich to data-poor regions. The inadequacy of existing tools and approaches to address these challenges provided the motivation for the Environmental Virtual Observatory programme (EVOp), an innovation from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). EVOp is exploring the use of a cloud-based infrastructure in catchment science, developing an exemplar to explore N and P fluxes to inland and coastal waters in the UK from grid to catchment and national scale. EVOp is bringing together for the first time national data sets, models and uncertainty analysis into cloud computing environments to explore and benchmark current predictive capability for national scale biogeochemical modelling. The objective is to develop national biogeochemical modelling capability, capitalising on extensive national investment in the development of science understanding and modelling tools to support integrated catchment management, and supporting knowledge transfer from data rich to data poor regions, The AERC export coefficient model (Johnes et al., 2007) has been adapted to function within the EVOp cloud environment, and on a geoclimatic basis, using a range of high resolution, geo-referenced digital datasets as an initial demonstration of the enhanced national capacity for N and P flux modelling using cloud computing infrastructure. Geoclimatic regions are landscape units displaying homogenous or quasi-homogenous functional behaviour in terms of process controls on N and P cycling

  2. Sport science relevance and application: perceptions of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Russell; Nash, Christine

    2013-01-01

    While sport science can have significant and positive impact on coaches and athletes, there is still a general consensus that the transfer of sport science knowledge to coaching is poor. Given this apparent dilemma, this study investigated the perceptions of sport science from coaches across four different sports (football, rugby league, curling and judo) across three different levels (elite, developmental and novice). Specifically, 58 coaches (19 football; 21 rugby league; 9 curling; 9 judo) drawn evenly from novice, developmental and elite groups agreed to take part and were interviewed. Three key features emerged from the analysis 1) Practical application and relevance 2) Integration and access, 3) Language. In short, there was significant variability in the extent to which sport science was considered relevant and to whom, although interestingly this was not strongly related to coaching level. This inconsistency of understanding was a barrier to sport science engagement in some instances, as was the challenge of operationalising information for specific contexts. Furthermore, availability of opportunities and resources were often left to chance, while overuse of jargon and inability for research and practitioners to consider sport specific needs were also considered barriers to engagement. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  3. Environmental Management Science Program Workshop. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-07-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM), in partnership with the Office of Energy Research (ER), designed, developed, and implemented the Environmental Management Science Program as a basic research effort to fund the scientific and engineering understanding required to solve the most challenging technical problems facing the government's largest, most complex environmental cleanup program. The intent of the Environmental Management Science Program is to: (1) Provide scientific knowledge that will revolutionize technologies and cleanup approaches to significantly reduce future costs, schedules, and risks. (2) Bridge the gap between broad fundamental research that has wide-ranging applications such as that performed in the Department's Office of Energy Research and needs-driven applied technology development that is conducted in Environmental Management's Office of Science and Technology. (3) Focus the nation's science infrastructure on critical Department of Energy environmental problems. In an effort to share information regarding basic research efforts being funded by the Environmental Management Science Program and the Environmental Management/Energy Research Pilot Collaborative Research Program (Wolf-Broido Program), this CD includes summaries for each project. These project summaries, available in portable document format (PDF), were prepared in the spring of 1998 by the principal investigators and provide information about their most recent project activities and accomplishments.

  4. A Gendered Approach to Science Ethics for US and UK Physicists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Di, Di

    2017-02-01

    Some research indicates that women professionals-when compared to men-may be more ethical in the workplace. Existing literature that discusses gender and ethics is confined to the for-profit business sector and primarily to a US context. In particular, there is little attention paid to gender and ethics in science professions in a global context. This represents a significant gap, as science is a rapidly growing and global professional sector, as well as one with ethically ambiguous areas. Adopting an international comparative perspective, this paper relies on 121 semi-structured interviews with US and UK academic physicists to examine how physicists perceive the impact of gender on science ethics. Findings indicate that some US and UK physicists believe that female scientists handle ethical issues within science in a feminine way whereas their male colleagues approach ethics in a masculine way. Some of these physicists further claim that these different approaches to science ethics lead to male and female scientists' different levels of competitiveness in academic physics. In both the US and the UK, there are "gender-blind" physicists, who do not think gender is related to professional ethics. Relying on physicists' nuanced descriptions this paper contributes to the current understanding of gender and science and engineering ethics.

  5. Application in agriculture, forestry and environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Holmes, J.W.; Williams, B. G.; Winkworth, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    This consideration of the applications of the neutron method in forestry, agriculture and environmental science, focusses on the analyses of the data which can be obtained with the neutron method and draws attention to problem situations associated with its use

  6. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Impacts of Organic Wastes on Water Quality of Woji Creek in Port Harcourt, Nigeria ... of Old Netim Village in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria ...

  7. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Types Of Contributions. Original research papers; review articles; case studies and short communications. 3. Copyright ... Example: Chukwu, M; Olusegun, AW; Mohammed, SSD.

  8. Development environmental attitude of prospective science teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    Since the last three decades or so, we have witnessed the growing concern of human beings, all over the world, to adopt measures to conserve and preserve environment of the planet earth, because the same has been threatened by human activity and by way of our unparalleled intervention in the otherwise balanced environment. This awareness and concern has emerged as a need of incorporating environmental Issues into the normal curricula, so that we can educate the young generation to become informed decision-makers of the future. UNESCO and UNEP have advocated (since the last three decades) to teach environmentalised science to students. In Pakistan, there have been attempts to change curricula in accordance with the need of the time. Teachers need new kinds of skills, attitudes and commitment to teach science in an environmentalised fashion. This article discusses the impact of a semester-course on change in environmental attitudes of prospective science-teachers. A pre-test, post-test method was used to ascertain any change in environmental attitude of prospective science-teachers, after studying the environmental education course. It has been shown that there was a change in the environmental attitude of science-teachers as a result of the one-semester course, but the change or the level of attitude was not substantial or satisfactory. There seems to be a need of adopting a comprehensive approach to environmental education, and introducing teaching of environmental concepts at a very early age. (author)

  9. Accelerate synthesis in ecology and environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthesis of diverse knowledge is a central part of all sciences, but especially those such as ecology and environmental sciences which draw information from many disciplines. Research and education in ecology are intrinsically synthetic, and synthesis is increasingly needed to find solutions for en...

  10. Understanding leadership in the environmental sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, L.; Hicks, C.; Cohen, P.; Case, P.; Prideaux, M.; Mills, D.

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is often assumed, intuitively, to be an important driver of sustainable development. To understand how leadership is conceptualised and analysed in the environmental sciences and to discover what this research says about leadership outcomes, we conducted a review of environmental leadership research over the last ten years. We find that much of the environmental leadership literature we reviewed focuses on a few key individuals and desirable leadership competencies. It also reports...

  11. Aviation environmental technology and science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yanzhong

    2008-01-01

    Expatiating on the impact of aviation on the environment and aviation environmental protection projects are ex- pounded, and analyzing on the atmosphere pollution and effects on the aviation noise of aircraft discharge. Researching the approach to control aircraft exhaust pollution and noise pollution, and proposing the technology and management measures to reduce air pollution.

  12. Department of Environmental Science, Western

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-10-04

    Oct 4, 2014 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 7(6): 628 – 634, 2014. ... of fuel wood, sometimes call fire-wood. For instance ... surrounding forest vegetation by felling and .... often referred to as ex-post facto was.

  13. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research

  14. Synchrotron Environmental Science-I Workshop Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-08

    Attendees of the Synchrotrons Environmental Science 1 (SES-1) workshop represented a broad spectrum of environmental science research areas and expertise in all of the current synchrotrons techniques (X-ray scattering and diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and two- and three-dimensional X-ray imaging). These individuals came together to discuss current measurement obstacles in environmental research and, more specifically, ways to overcome such obstacles by applying synchrotrons radiation techniques. Significant obstacles in measurement affect virtually all of the research issues described. Attendees identified synchrotrons approaches of potential value in their research. A number of the environmental research studies discussed are currently being addressed with some success by synchrotron-based approaches. Nevertheless, improvements in low-Z measurement capabilities are needed to facilitate the use of synchrotrons radiation methodologies in environmental research.

  15. 16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Parkin, D M; Boyd, L; Walker, L C

    2011-01-01

    This chapter summarises the results of the preceding sections, which estimate the fraction of cancers occurring in the UK in 2010 that can be attributed to sub-optimal, past exposures of 14 lifestyle and environmental risk factors. For each of 18 cancer types, we present the percentage of cases attributable to one or all of the risk factors considered (tobacco, alcohol, four elements of diet (consumption of meat, fruit and vegetables, fibre, and salt), overweight, lack of physical exercise, o...

  16. What Do We Need to Know to Enhance the Environmental Sustainability of Agricultural Production? A Prioritisation of Knowledge Needs for the UK Food System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Sutherland

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concerns about global environmental change and food security have focused attention on the need for environmentally sustainable agriculture. This is agriculture that makes efficient use of natural resources and does not degrade the environmental systems that underpin it, or deplete natural capital stocks. We convened a group of 29 ‘practitioners’ and 17 environmental scientists with direct involvement or expertise in the environmental sustainability of agriculture. The practitioners included representatives from UK industry, non-government organizations and government agencies. We collaboratively developed a long list of 264 knowledge needs to help enhance the environmental sustainability of agriculture within the UK or for the UK market. We refined and selected the most important knowledge needs through a three-stage process of voting, discussion and scoring. Scientists and practitioners identified similar priorities. We present the 26 highest priority knowledge needs. Many of them demand integration of knowledge from different disciplines to inform policy and practice. The top five are about sustainability of livestock feed, trade-offs between ecosystem services at farm or landscape scale, phosphorus recycling and metrics to measure sustainability. The outcomes will be used to guide on-going knowledge exchange work, future science policy and funding.

  17. Incorporating Environmental Justice into Second Generation Indices of Multiple Deprivation: Lessons from the UK and Progress Internationally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Fairburn

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Second generation area-based indices of multiple deprivation have been extensively used in the UK over the last 15 years. They resulted from significant developments in political, technical, and conceptual spheres for deprivation data. We review the parallel development of environmental justice research and how and when environmental data was incorporated into these indices. We explain the transfer of these methods from the UK to Germany and assess the progress internationally in developing such indices. Finally, we illustrate how billions of pounds in the UK was allocated by using these tools to tackle neighbourhood deprivation and environmental justice to address the determinants of health.

  18. The precautionary principle in environmental science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebel, D; Tickner, J; Epstein, P; Lemons, J; Levins, R; Loechler, E L; Quinn, M; Rudel, R; Schettler, T; Stoto, M

    2001-01-01

    Environmental scientists play a key role in society's responses to environmental problems, and many of the studies they perform are intended ultimately to affect policy. The precautionary principle, proposed as a new guideline in environmental decision making, has four central components: taking preventive action in the face of uncertainty; shifting the burden of proof to the proponents of an activity; exploring a wide range of alternatives to possibly harmful actions; and increasing public participation in decision making. In this paper we examine the implications of the precautionary principle for environmental scientists, whose work often involves studying highly complex, poorly understood systems, while at the same time facing conflicting pressures from those who seek to balance economic growth and environmental protection. In this complicated and contested terrain, it is useful to examine the methodologies of science and to consider ways that, without compromising integrity and objectivity, research can be more or less helpful to those who would act with precaution. We argue that a shift to more precautionary policies creates opportunities and challenges for scientists to think differently about the ways they conduct studies and communicate results. There is a complicated feedback relation between the discoveries of science and the setting of policy. While maintaining their objectivity and focus on understanding the world, environmental scientists should be aware of the policy uses of their work and of their social responsibility to do science that protects human health and the environment. The precautionary principle highlights this tight, challenging linkage between science and policy. PMID:11673114

  19. The Effect of Environmental Science Projects on Students' Environmental Knowledge and Science Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Balushi, Sulaiman M.; Al-Aamri, Shamsa S.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explores the effectiveness of involving students in environmental science projects for their environmental knowledge and attitudes towards science. The study design is a quasi-experimental pre-post control group design. The sample was 62 11th-grade female students studying at a public school in Oman. The sample was divided into…

  20. Understanding leadership in the environmental sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa S. Evans

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is often assumed, intuitively, to be an important driver of sustainable development. To understand how leadership is conceptualized and analyzed in the environmental sciences and to discover what this research says about leadership outcomes, we conducted a review of environmental leadership research over the last 10 years. We found that much of the environmental leadership literature focuses on a few key individuals and desirable leadership competencies. The literature also reports that leadership is one of the most important of a number of factors contributing to effective environmental governance. Only a subset of the literature highlights interacting sources of leadership, disaggregates leadership outcomes, or evaluates leadership processes in detail. We argue that the literature on environmental leadership is highly normative. Leadership is typically depicted as an unequivocal good, and its importance is often asserted rather than tested. We trace how leadership studies in the management sciences are evolving and argue that, taking into account the state of the art in environmental leadership research, more critical approaches to leadership research in environmental science can be developed.

  1. The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects

  2. The DOE/NREL Environmental Science Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas R. Lawson; Michael Gurevich

    2001-05-14

    This paper summarizes the several of the studies in the Environmental Science Program being sponsored by DOE's Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Environmental Science Program is to understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources. The Program is regulatory-driven, and focuses on ozone, airborne particles, visibility and regional haze, air toxics, and health effects of air pollutants. Each project in the Program is designed to address policy-relevant objectives. Current projects in the Environmental Science Program have four areas of focus: improving technology for emissions measurements; vehicle emissions measurements; emission inventory development/improvement; ambient impacts, including health effects.

  3. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite.

  4. Blue Water Footprint Management in a UK Poultry Supply Chain under Environmental Regulatory Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoum Tsolakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most consumed meat in the UK, accounting for 40% of meat consumption, while national production sufficiency reaches about 80%. As a farmed animal product, chicken meat is responsible for significant freshwater appropriation volumes during its production cycle. In this context, this research aims at exploring freshwater dynamics in the UK processed poultry industry. Specifically, we develop a System Dynamics model to capture the blue water footprint, as a key sustainability performance indicator of a poultry supply chain, in the case that relevant environmental and regulatory constraints are applied. The model contributes towards investigating the impact of two potential policy-making scenarios, namely, the “water penalty” and the “water tax”, on the nexus between profitability and water usage across the poultry supply chain. Responding to the regulatory constraints, the food processor either reconfigures the supply chain through rethinking desired inventory levels or implements a water management intervention. The results indicate that investing in water-friendly production technologies could offer a greater advantage to sustainable supply chains in terms of blue water efficiency and profitability, compared to employing inventory management strategies. Overall, our analysis highlights that effective policy-making and technology-driven interventions could provide potential towards ensuring economic growth and environmental sustainability of the UK poultry sector.

  5. Pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies in the UK: six domains for social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Peter; Dodds, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The development of pharmaceutical HIV prevention technologies (PPTs) over the last five years has generated intense interest from a range of stakeholders. There are concerns that these clinical and pharmaceutical interventions are proceeding with insufficient input of the social sciences. Hence key questions around implementation and evaluation remain unexplored whilst biomedical HIV prevention remains insufficiently critiqued or theorised from sociological as well as other social science perspectives. This paper presents the results of an expert symposium held in the UK to explore and build consensus on the role of the social sciences in researching and evaluating PPTs in this context. The symposium brought together UK social scientists from a variety of backgrounds. A position paper was produced and distributed in advance of the symposium and revised in the light this consultation phase. These exchanges and the emerging structure of this paper formed the basis for symposium panel presentations and break-out sessions. Recordings of all sessions were used to further refine the document which was also redrafted in light of ongoing comments from symposium participants. Six domains of enquiry for the social sciences were identified and discussed: self, identity and personal narrative; intimacy, risk and sex; communities, resistance and activism; systems, structures and institutions; economic considerations and analyses; and evaluation and outcomes. These are discussed in depth alongside overarching consensus points for social science research in this area as it moves forward.

  6. Nutrition in the Bin: A Nutritional and Environmental Assessment of Food Wasted in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Cooper

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The UK currently has the most detailed, directly measured data for food wasted in the home. This includes information on the exact types of food wasted. These data allow calculation of the nutrients within that waste, as well as its environmental impact. The results progress the conversation beyond how much food is wasted or its energy content; it permits the implications for nutrition and sustainability to be assessed in detail. Data for UK household food waste were expressed as an average waste per capita for each type of food. Each food type was matched with an item (or group of items from the UK Composition of Foods (7th Ed. The level of nutrients wasted was compared to UK Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNIs for adult women (19–50 years, used as a proxy for general population requirements. The data were normalized into “nutrient days” wasted per capita per year, then into the number of complete diet days (for 21 nutrients plus energy. Results show that approximately 42 daily diets were discarded per capita per year. By individual nutrient, the highest losses were vitamin B12, vitamin C, and thiamin (160, 140, and 130 nutrient days/capita/year, respectively. For protein, dietary energy and carbohydrates, 88, 59, and 53 nutrient days/capita/year, respectively, were lost. Substantial losses were also found for under-consumed nutrients in the UK: calcium, which was mostly lost via bakery (27% and dairy/eggs (27%. Food folate was mainly lost through fresh vegetables/salads (40% and bakery (18%, as was dietary fiber (31 and 29%, respectively. Environmental impacts were distributed over the food groups, with wasted meat and fish the single largest contribution. For all environmental impacts studied, the largest contribution came from agricultural production. This paper shows that there are areas where interventions preventing food waste and promoting healthy eating could work together (e.g., encouraging consumption of vegetables or tackling

  7. Nutrition in the Bin: A Nutritional and Environmental Assessment of Food Wasted in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Quested, Tom E; Lanctuit, Helene; Zimmermann, Diane; Espinoza-Orias, Namy; Roulin, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The UK currently has the most detailed, directly measured data for food wasted in the home. This includes information on the exact types of food wasted. These data allow calculation of the nutrients within that waste, as well as its environmental impact. The results progress the conversation beyond how much food is wasted or its energy content; it permits the implications for nutrition and sustainability to be assessed in detail. Data for UK household food waste were expressed as an average waste per capita for each type of food. Each food type was matched with an item (or group of items) from the UK Composition of Foods (7th Ed). The level of nutrients wasted was compared to UK Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for adult women (19-50 years, used as a proxy for general population requirements). The data were normalized into "nutrient days" wasted per capita per year, then into the number of complete diet days (for 21 nutrients plus energy). Results show that approximately 42 daily diets were discarded per capita per year. By individual nutrient, the highest losses were vitamin B 12 , vitamin C, and thiamin (160, 140, and 130 nutrient days/capita/year, respectively). For protein, dietary energy and carbohydrates, 88, 59, and 53 nutrient days/capita/year, respectively, were lost. Substantial losses were also found for under-consumed nutrients in the UK: calcium, which was mostly lost via bakery (27%) and dairy/eggs (27%). Food folate was mainly lost through fresh vegetables/salads (40%) and bakery (18%), as was dietary fiber (31 and 29%, respectively). Environmental impacts were distributed over the food groups, with wasted meat and fish the single largest contribution. For all environmental impacts studied, the largest contribution came from agricultural production. This paper shows that there are areas where interventions preventing food waste and promoting healthy eating could work together (e.g., encouraging consumption of vegetables or tackling overbuying

  8. Environmental justice and the distributional deficit in policy appraisal in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G P

    2007-01-01

    Environmental justice brings a particular set of concerns to the policy process in asking not only what the environmental impacts of a new policy, programme or regulation might be, but also how these impacts are likely to be distributed across different social groups. This letter evaluates the extent to which appraisal tools currently used to inform environmental and related decision-making in the UK incorporate the analysis of such distributional effects. It reports on research that assessed the existence of requirements for distributional analysis across 16 different appraisal tools, the depth of guidance that is provided for those using the tool and the scope of its coverage. It is concluded that there is distributional deficit in current policy and impact appraisal tools, particularly in the context of the breadth of definition of environmental justice being applied in the UK and the range of population groups with which this is concerned. Only in the health area and in the use of health impact assessment can more positive conclusions be reached. Research evaluating the use of tools in practice is needed and a number of steps to improve on the current situation are discussed

  9. 1. National Congress of Environmental Science: Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The First National Congress of Environmental Sciences had a plural participation in the environmental thematic. The public universities and the research institutes of the different states of Mexico submitted papers containing proposals of scientific and technological solutions to the problems of management of hazardous wastes: water and land pollution; new methods of evaluation to pollutants of air and water; protection and conservation of relevant species of the ecology; control of genetic alterations; development and conservation of natural resources, and environmental education. Another part of the abstracts is dedicated to the posters session (Author)

  10. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory 2004 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Julia C.

    2005-04-17

    This 2004 Annual Report describes the research and accomplishments of staff and users of the W.R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), located in Richland, Washington. EMSL is a multidisciplinary, national scientific user facility and research organization, operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research. The resources and opportunities within the facility are an outgrowth of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) commitment to fundamental research for understanding and resolving environmental and other critical scientific issues.

  11. Carbon and environmental footprinting of low carbon UK electricity futures to 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, Helen; Cranston, Gemma R.; Hammond, Geoffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Electricity generation contributes a large proportion of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the United Kingdom (UK), due to the predominant use of fossil fuel (coal and natural gas) combustion for this purpose. A range of future UK energy scenarios has been employed to determine their resulting environmental and carbon footprints. Methodologies have been established to calculate these footprints for the UK electricity supply industry on both a historic timescale and in accordance with the three selected scenarios. The latter scenarios, developed by the UK SUPERGEN Consortium on ‘Highly Distributed Power Systems’ (HDPS), were characterised as ‘Business As Usual’ (BAU), ‘Low Carbon’ (LC) and ‘Deep Green’ (DG) futures, and yielded possible electricity demands out to 2050. It was found that the environmental footprint of the current power network is 41 million (M) global hectares (gha). If future trends follow a ‘Business As Usual’ scenario, then this footprint is observed to fall to about 25 Mgha in 2050. The LC scenario implies an extensive penetration of micro-generators in the home to satisfy heat and power demands. However, these energy requirements are minimised by way of improved insulation of the building fabric and other demand reduction measures. In contrast, the DG scenario presupposes a network where centralised renewable energy technologies – mainly large-scale onshore and offshore wind turbines - have an important role in the power generation. However, both the LC and DG scenarios were found to lead to footprints of less than 4 Mgha by 2050. These latter two scenarios were found to give rise to quite similar trajectories over the period 2010–2050. They are therefore more likely to reflect an effective transition pathway in terms of meeting the 2050 UK CO 2 reduction targets associated with decarbonisation of its power network. However, this appears unlikely to be achieved by 2030–2040 as advocated by the UK Government

  12. Effects of changes in the UK energy demand and environmental legislation on atmospheric pollution by sulphur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, F.B.; Davies, C.; Isaac, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-nine percent of the sulphur dioxide generated over the period 1970 to 1994 arose from the combustion of fossil fuels in the energy sector. The annual mass emission of sulphur dioxide has fallen by 58% over this period, due to the reductions in outputs from coal and petroleum fired plants. The influence of natural-gas power generation has played an important part in this reduction. Four major pieces of environmental legislation have been enacted to control sulphur-dioxide emissions: the Control of Pollution Act 1974, and three EEC Directives are discussed. The UK emissions in 1994 were 49% below the 1980 baseline and 9% ahead of the 1998 EU target level. The protocol on the reduction of sulphur-dioxide emissions, adopted in 1985, required a cut in the total SO 2 emissions of 30% by 1993, based on 1980 levels. The UK achieved a reduction of 37% by the end of 1993. Sulphur-dioxide emissions are predicted to fall according to the six scenarios in Energy paper 65 as a reference case. The predicted decline is in line with the UNECE targets set for 2010. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Nuclear analysis techniques and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    31 theses are collected in this book. It introduced molecular activation analysis micro-PIXE and micro-probe analysis, x-ray fluorescence analysis and accelerator mass spectrometry. The applications about these nuclear analysis techniques are presented and reviewed for environmental sciences

  14. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources

  15. The Environmental Science and Health Effects Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Gurevich; Doug Lawson; Joe Mauderly

    2000-04-10

    The goal of the Environmental Science and Health Effect Program is to conduct policy-relevant research that will help us understand atmospheric impacts and potential health effects that may be caused by the use of petroleum-based fuels and alternative transportation fuels from mobile sources.

  16. Ecosystem Services in Environmental Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, John Robert

    2015-01-01

    Human beings depend on a set of benefits that emerge from functioning ecosystems, termed Ecosystem Services (ES), and make decisions in everyday life that affect these ES. Recent advancements in science have led to an increasingly sophisticated understanding of ES and how they can be used to inform environmental decision-making. Following suit, US…

  17. Environmental and Medical Sciences Division progress report January - December 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainge, W.M.

    1978-07-01

    The report includes the following topics: inhalation toxicology and radionuclide analysis; aerosols and metabolic studies - whole body counting; dosimetry research; personnel dosimetry; applied radiation spectrometry; radioactive fallout; environmental analysis; atmospheric pollution; publications. (U.K.)

  18. How science makes environmental controversies worse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarewitz, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    I use the example of the 2000 US Presidential election to show that political controversies with technical underpinnings are not resolved by technical means. Then, drawing from examples such as climate change, genetically modified foods, and nuclear waste disposal, I explore the idea that scientific inquiry is inherently and unavoidably subject to becoming politicized in environmental controversies. I discuss three reasons for this. First, science supplies contesting parties with their own bodies of relevant, legitimated facts about nature, chosen in part because they help make sense of, and are made sensible by, particular interests and normative frameworks. Second, competing disciplinary approaches to understanding the scientific bases of an environmental controversy may be causally tied to competing value-based political or ethical positions. The necessity of looking at nature through a variety of disciplinary lenses brings with it a variety of normative lenses, as well. Third, it follows from the foregoing that scientific uncertainty, which so often occupies a central place in environmental controversies, can be understood not as a lack of scientific understanding but as the lack of coherence among competing scientific understandings, amplified by the various political, cultural, and institutional contexts within which science is carried out. In light of these observations, I briefly explore the problem of why some types of political controversies become 'scientized' and others do not, and conclude that the value bases of disputes underlying environmental controversies must be fully articulated and adjudicated through political means before science can play an effective role in resolving environmental problems

  19. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  20. Wind energy - environmental impact assessment: the UK experience and the EU perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Planning systems play a critical role in the deployment of wind turbines. Wind energy developers in the UK are familiar with the plan-led system in which the acceptability of each development is determined by balancing local environmental impact with the benefits of the proposed scheme. This contrasts with the position in much of Northern Europe where development plants have the status of law, and wind farm development may take place only in areas identified in the Local Plan. In much of Southern Europe inconsistent implementation of national law tends to be a feature of planning systems. This paper will compare policies and practices in the planning systems of the UK and mainland Europe, north and south, and examine the consequences for wind energy development. Particular attention will be paid to the role of environmental assessment and to the wide variations between requirements placed on developers in individual member states to fund and prepare environmental statements. Factors which either encourage or hinder wind energy will be highlighted and consideration given to the impact of planning constraints on the European Untion wind market growth rate and its ultimate potential. (author)

  1. USGS Environmental health science strategy: providing environmental health science for a changing world: public review release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Patricia R.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Barber, Larry B.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Cross, Paul C.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Toccalino, Patricia L.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    America has an abundance of natural resources. We have bountiful clean water, fertile soil, and unrivaled national parks, wildlife refuges, and public lands. These resources enrich our lives and preserve our health and wellbeing. These resources have been maintained because of our history of respect for their value and an enduring commitment to their vigilant protection. Awareness of the social, economic, and personal value of the health of our environment is increasing. The emergence of environmentally driven diseases caused by environmental exposure to contaminants and pathogens is a growing concern worldwide. New health threats and patterns of established threats are affected by both natural and anthropogenic changes to the environment. Human activities are key drivers of emerging (new and re-emerging) health threats. Societal demands for land and natural resources, a better quality of life, improved economic prosperity, and the environmental impacts associated with these demands will continue to increase. Natural earth processes, climate trends, and related climatic events will add to the environmental impact of human activities. These environmental drivers will influence exposure to disease agents, including viral, bacterial, prion, and fungal pathogens, parasites, natural earth materials, toxins and other biogenic compounds, and synthetic chemicals and substances. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) defines environmental health science broadly as the interdisciplinary study of relations among the quality of the physical environment, the health of the living environment, and human health. The interactions among these three spheres are driven by human activities, ecological processes, and natural earth processes; the interactions affect exposure to contaminants and pathogens and the severity of environmentally driven diseases in animals and people. This definition provides USGS with a framework for synthesizing natural science information from across the Bureau

  2. Development in the Slovakia. General environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the basic of the environmental science and preservation of the natural memories; The protection of the nature and landscape; The protection of the forest; The protection of the trees growing outside of the forests, parks and gardens; The protection of free growing of species of plants; The protection of free living species of animals; The protection of animals and game law; The protection of fishes and fishery; The water protection, their balance and water farm; The health protection of the man (Radiation protection and nuclear safety is included); The veterinary ministration and protection of animals; The air protection and protection of the ozone layer; Wastes and waste management; The protection and agricultural use of soil; The protection and use of minerals; The protection of cultural heritage in the landscape; The territorial planning, building order and environmental rationalizing; The assessment of influences on the environment; The state fund of the environment; The state administration for the environment; The access to environmental information; The law about the environment and basic meanings of the environmentalism; The environmental terminology in the environmental law; The environmental terminology in the development and documents of environmental law are reviewed

  3. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, David; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551–755 Gg CO_2e excluding ILUC, or 238–755 Gg CO_2e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9–10.8 PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8–3.4 Gg PO_4e and 8.1–14.6 Gg SO_2e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering digestate stores could

  4. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styles, David, E-mail: d.styles@bangor.ac.uk; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551–755 Gg CO{sub 2}e excluding ILUC, or 238–755 Gg CO{sub 2}e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9–10.8 PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8–3.4 Gg PO{sub 4}e and 8.1–14.6 Gg SO{sub 2}e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering

  5. 1998 Environmental Management Science Program Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) is a collaborative partnership between the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Science (DOE-SC), and the Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) to sponsor basic environmental and waste management related research. Results are expected to lead to reduction of the costs, schedule, and risks associated with cleaning up the nation's nuclear complex. The EMSP research portfolio addresses the most challenging technical problems of the EM program related to high level waste, spent nuclear fuel, mixed waste, nuclear materials, remedial action, decontamination and decommissioning, and health, ecology, or risk. The EMSP was established in response to a mandate from Congress in the fiscal year 1996 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act. Congress directed the Department to ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs, develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective''. This mandate followed similar recommendations from the Galvin Commission to the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. The EMSP also responds to needs identified by National Academy of Sciences experts, regulators, citizen advisory groups, and other stakeholders

  6. Local environmental quality positively predicts breastfeeding in the UK's Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura J; Sear, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breastfeeding is an important form of parental investment with clear health benefits. Despite this, rates remain low in the UK; understanding variation can therefore help improve interventions. Life history theory suggests that environmental quality may pattern maternal investment, including breastfeeding. We analyse a nationally representative dataset to test two predictions: (i) higher local environmental quality predicts higher likelihood of breastfeeding initiation and longer duration; (ii) higher socioeconomic status (SES) provides a buffer against the adverse influences of low local environmental quality. Methodology: We ran factor analysis on a wide range of local-level environmental variables. Two summary measures of local environmental quality were generated by this analysis-one 'objective' (based on an independent assessor's neighbourhood scores) and one 'subjective' (based on respondent's scores). We used mixed-effects regression techniques to test our hypotheses. Results: Higher objective, but not subjective, local environmental quality predicts higher likelihood of starting and maintaining breastfeeding over and above individual SES and area-level measures of environmental quality. Higher individual SES is protective, with women from high-income households having relatively high breastfeeding initiation rates and those with high status jobs being more likely to maintain breastfeeding, even in poor environmental conditions. Conclusions and Implications: Environmental quality is often vaguely measured; here we present a thorough investigation of environmental quality at the local level, controlling for individual- and area-level measures. Our findings support a shift in focus away from individual factors and towards altering the landscape of women's decision making contexts when considering behaviours relevant to public health.

  7. Whole systems appraisal of a UK Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system: Energy, environmental, and economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, Geoffrey P.; Harajli, Hassan A.; Jones, Craig I.; Winnett, Adrian B.

    2012-01-01

    Energy analysis, environmental life-cycle assessment (LCA) and economic appraisals have been utilised to study the performance of a domestic building integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) system on a ‘whole systems’ basis. Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in just 4.5 years. LCA revealed that the embodied impacts were offset by the electricity generated to provide a net environmental benefit in most categories. Only carcinogens, ecotoxicity and minerals had a small net lifetime burden. A financial analysis was undertaken from the householder's perspective, alongside cost-benefit analysis from a societal perspective. The results of both indicated that the systems are unlikely to pay back their investment over the 25 year lifetime. However, the UK is in an important period (2010/11) of policy transition with a move away from the ‘technology subsidies’ of the Low Carbon Buildings Programme (LCBP) and towards a ‘market development policy’ of feed-in tariffs. Representing the next stage on an innovation S-curve this is expected to facilitate rapid PV uptake, as experienced in countries such as Germany, Denmark, and Spain. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the importance of the new government support scheme to the future uptake of BIPV. - Highlights: ► LCA and economic appraisals of a UK domestic building integrated PV system. ► Energy analysis determined that the system paid back its embodied energy in 4.5 years. ► UK moved towards a market development policy of feed-in tariffs. ► Financial analysis shows the importance of the new FiT scheme to the uptake of PV.

  8. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts in 2018.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-21

    2017 was another successful year for Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts (ESPI); it saw the expansion of our Editorial team and publication of two excellent Themed Issues, all while maintaining our commitment to provide our authors with exceptional customer service and fast times to publication. Through this Editorial, we wish to reflect upon some of the highlights from 2017 and also take this opportunity to reveal further new additions to the ESPI team and our plans for 2018.

  9. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  10. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    This report presents results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, carried out by DRPS during 1988. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). (author)

  11. Archives: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 117 ... Archives: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home > Archives: African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Decision support for risk prioritisation of environmental health hazards in a UK city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Mae; Crabbe, Helen; Close, Rebecca; Studden, Mike; Milojevic, Ai; Leonardi, Giovanni; Fletcher, Tony; Chalabi, Zaid

    2016-03-08

    There is increasing appreciation of the proportion of the health burden that is attributed to modifiable population exposure to environmental health hazards. To manage this avoidable burden in the United Kingdom (UK), government policies and interventions are implemented. In practice, this procedure is interdisciplinary in action and multi-dimensional in context. Here, we demonstrate how Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used as a decision support tool to facilitate priority setting for environmental public health interventions within local authorities. We combine modelling and expert elicitation to gather evidence on the impacts and ranking of interventions. To present the methodology, we consider a hypothetical scenario in a UK city. We use MCDA to evaluate and compare the impact of interventions to reduce the health burden associated with four environmental health hazards and rank them in terms of their overall performance across several criteria. For illustrative purposes, we focus on heavy goods vehicle controls to reduce outdoor air pollution, remediation to control levels of indoor radon, carbon monoxide and fitting alarms, and encouraging cycling to target the obesogenic environment. Regional data was included as model evidence to construct a ratings matrix for the city. When MCDA is performed with uniform weights, the intervention of heavy goods vehicle controls to reduce outdoor air pollution is ranked the highest. Cycling and the obesogenic environment is ranked second. We argue that a MCDA based approach provides a framework to guide environmental public health decision makers. This is demonstrated through an online interactive MCDA tool. We conclude that MCDA is a transparent tool that can be used to compare the impact of alternative interventions on a set of pre-defined criteria. In our illustrative example, we ranked the best intervention across the equally weighted selected criteria out of the four alternatives. Further work is needed

  13. Lost in translation: Discourses, boundaries and legitimacy in the public understanding of science in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Simon Jay

    2008-07-01

    This thesis documents the historical development of debates around the public understanding of science in the UK from 1985 until 2005. Testimonies from key actors involved in the evolution of the recent public understanding of science arena, and an examination of documentary evidence, have been used to map out how this issue was problematised by scientists in the mid-1980s, and how it has developed into a contested field of activity, political interest and academic research. I propose that this historical period can be broadly understood in four phases each characterised by a dominant discourse of the public understanding of science. I examine how, within each phase, the various groups involved have engaged in boundary work: rhetorically constructing, and mobilising, ideas of 'science', 'the public', and the perceived 'problem' in the relationship between the two, in the pursuit of defining and legitimating themselves and these definitions of the relationship between science and public. Phase I is characterised as a rhetorical re-framing of earlier 'problems' of the public understanding of science by scientists and scientific institutions in the context of the 1980s. Phase II is dominated by the boundary work between scientists and social scientists as they contended for legitimacy and authority over competing discourses of public understanding of science and the institutionalisation of PUS activity and research. Phase III is characterised by a variety of discursive formulations of the 'problem' of PUS following the House of Lords report (2000) and a subsequent change in the rhetoric of public understanding of science to one of public engagement. Phase IV is dominated by the language of 'upstream engagement' and identifies the political interest in managing science's relationship with the public and the social scientific responses to this.

  14. Growth of Environmental Science at the NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrup, P.; Lanzirotti, A.; Celestian, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the 25 years since the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) began operations, synchrotron 'user facilities' have had a growing impact on research in molecular environmental science (MES). For example, synchrotron-based analytical techniques have allowed researchers to determine the molecular-level speciation of environmentally relevant elements and evaluate their spatial distribution and phase association at very low concentration levels (low parts per million) with micrometer or nanometer resolution [1]. For the environmental scientist, one of the primary advantages of these synchrotron-based techniques is that samples need not be disturbed or destroyed for study; characterization can often be done in-situ in dilute and heterogeneous natural samples with no need for species separation, pre-concentration, or pre-treatment [2]. Liquids, hydrated solids, and biological samples can also often be directly analyzed, which is of fundamental importance in environmental science for understanding the molecular-scale processes that occur at mineral-water interfaces and in understanding how abiotic and biotic processes are involved in the distribution, mobility and ultimate fate of molecular species in the environment.

  15. Growth of Environmental Science at the NSLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northrup,P.; Lanzirotti, A.; Celestian, A.

    2007-01-01

    In the 25 years since the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) began operations, synchrotron 'user facilities' have had a growing impact on research in molecular environmental science (MES). For example, synchrotron-based analytical techniques have allowed researchers to determine the molecular-level speciation of environmentally relevant elements and evaluate their spatial distribution and phase association at very low concentration levels (low parts per million) with micrometer or nanometer resolution [1]. For the environmental scientist, one of the primary advantages of these synchrotron-based techniques is that samples need not be disturbed or destroyed for study; characterization can often be done in-situ in dilute and heterogeneous natural samples with no need for species separation, pre-concentration, or pre-treatment [2]. Liquids, hydrated solids, and biological samples can also often be directly analyzed, which is of fundamental importance in environmental science for understanding the molecular-scale processes that occur at mineral-water interfaces and in understanding how abiotic and biotic processes are involved in the distribution, mobility and ultimate fate of molecular species in the environment.

  16. 75 FR 65365 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review... evaluate grant applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell...

  17. Environmental balance of the UK biogas sector: An evaluation by consequential life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, David; Dominguez, Eduardo Mesa; Chadwick, Dave

    2016-08-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is expanding rapidly in the UK. Previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have highlighted the sensitivity of environmental outcomes to feedstock type, fugitive emissions, biomethane use, energy conversion efficiency and digestate management. We combined statistics on current and planned AD deployment with operational data from a survey of biogas plant operators to evaluate the environmental balance of the UK biogas sector for the years 2014 and 2017. Consequential LCA was applied to account for all major environmental credits and burdens incurred, including: (i) substitution of composting, incineration, sewer disposal, field decomposition and animal feeding of wastes; (ii) indirect land use change (ILUC) incurred by the cultivation of crops used for biogas production and to compensate for bakery and brewery wastes diverted from animal feed. In 2014, the UK biogas sector reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 551-755Gg CO2e excluding ILUC, or 238-755Gg CO2e including ILUC uncertainty. Fossil energy depletion was reduced by 8.9-10.8PJe, but eutrophication and acidification burdens were increased by 1.8-3.4Gg PO4e and 8.1-14.6Gg SO2e, respectively. Food waste and manure feedstocks dominate GHG abatement, largely through substitution of in-vessel composting and manure storage, whilst food waste and crop feedstocks dominate fossil energy credit, primarily through substitution of natural gas power generation. Biogas expansion is projected to increase environmental credits and loadings by a factor of 2.4 by 2017. If all AD bioelectricity replaced coal generation, or if 90% of biomethane replaced transport diesel or grid natural gas, GHG abatement would increase by 131%, 38% and 20%, respectively. Policies to encourage digestion of food waste and manures could maximize GHG abatement, avoiding the risk of carbon leakage associated with use of crops and wastes otherwise used to feed livestock. Covering digestate stores could largely mitigate

  18. Environmental sustainability analysis of UK whole-wheat bioethanol and CHP systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Hernandez, Elias; Ibrahim, Muhammad H.; Leach, Matthew; Sinclair, Phillip; Campbell, Grant M.; Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2013-01-01

    The UK whole-wheat bioethanol and straw and DDGS-based combined heat and power (CHP) generation systems were assessed for environmental sustainability using a range of impact categories or characterisations (IC): cumulative primary fossil energy (CPE), land use, life cycle global warming potential over 100 years (GWP 100 ), acidification potential (AP), eutrophication potential (EP) and abiotic resources use (ARU). The European Union (EU) Renewable Energy Directive's target of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission saving of 60% in comparison to an equivalent fossil-based system by 2020 seems to be very challenging for stand-alone wheat bioethanol system. However, the whole-wheat integrated system, wherein the CHP from the excess straw grown in the same season and from the same land is utilised in the wheat bioethanol plant, can be demonstrated for potential sustainability improvement, achieving 85% emission reduction and 97% CPE saving compared to reference fossil systems. The net bioenergy from this system and from 172,370 ha of grade 3 land is 12.1 PJ y −1 providing land to energy yield of 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . The use of DDGS as an animal feed replacing soy meal incurs environmental emission credit, whilst its use in heat or CHP generation saves CPE. The hot spots in whole system identified under each impact category are as follows: bioethanol plant and wheat cultivation for CPE (50% and 48%), as well as for ARU (46% and 52%). EP and GWP 100 are distributed among wheat cultivation (49% and 37%), CHP plant (26% and 30%) and bioethanol plant (25%, and 33%), respectively. -- Highlights: ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 85% GHG emission reduction. ► UK whole-wheat energy system can achieve 97% primary energy saving. ► The land to energy yield of the UK whole-wheat system is 70 GJ ha −1 y −1 . ► Fertiliser production is the hotspot. ► DDGS and straw-based CHP system integration to wheat bioethanol is feasible

  19. Does national scale economic and environmental indicators spur logistics performance? Evidence from UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Syed Abdul Rehman; Qianli, Dong

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the association between national economic and environmental indicators with green logistics performance in a time series data of UK since 1981 to 2016. The research used autoregressive distributed lag method to understand the long-run and short-run relationships of national scale economic (foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows, per capita income) and environmental indicators (total greenhouse gases, fossil fuel, and renewable energy) on green logistics. In the short run, the research findings indicate that the green logistics and renewable energy have positive relationship, while fossil fuel is negatively correlated with green logistics operations. On the other hand, in the long run, the results show that FDI inflows, renewable energy sources, and per capita income have statistically significant and positive association with green logistics activities, while foreign investments attracted by environmental friendly policies and practices adopted in global logistics operations, which not only increase the environmental sustainability but also enhance economic activities with greater export opportunities in the region.

  20. Assessing the environmental sustainability of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeswani, H K; Azapagic, A

    2016-04-01

    Even though landfilling of waste is the least favourable option in the waste management hierarchy, the majority of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many countries is still landfilled. This represents waste of valuable resources and could lead to higher environmental impacts compared to energy recovered by incineration, even if the landfill gas is recovered. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool, this paper aims to find out which of the following two options for MSW disposal is more environmentally sustainable: incineration or recovery of biogas from landfills, each producing either electricity or co-generating heat and electricity. The systems are compared on a life cycle basis for two functional units: 'disposal of 1 tonne of MSW' and 'generation of 1 kWh of electricity'. The results indicate that, if both systems are credited for their respective recovered energy and recyclable materials, energy from incineration has much lower impacts than from landfill biogas across all impact categories, except for human toxicity. The impacts of incineration co-generating heat and electricity are negative for nine out of 11 categories as the avoided impacts for the recovered energy and materials are higher than those caused by incineration. By improving the recovery rate of biogas, some impacts of landfilling, such as global warming, depletion of fossil resources, acidification and photochemical smog, would be significantly reduced. However, most impacts of the landfill gas would still be higher than the impacts of incineration, except for global warming and human toxicity. The analysis on the basis of net electricity produced shows that the LCA impacts of electricity from incineration are several times lower in comparison to the impacts of electricity from landfill biogas. Electricity from incineration has significantly lower global warming and several other impacts than electricity from coal and oil but has higher impacts than electricity from natural gas or UK grid. At

  1. Environmental Sciences Division Groundwater Program Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This first edition of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., (Energy Systems) Groundwater Program Annual Report summarizes the work carried out by the Energy Systems GWPO for fiscal year (FY) 1993. This introductory section describes the GWPO's staffing, organization, and funding sources. The GWPO is responsible for coordination and oversight for all components of the groundwater program at the three Oak Ridge facilities [ORNL, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, and the Oak Ridge K-25 Site], and the PGDP and PORTS, respectively. Several years ago, Energy systems senior management recognized that the manner in which groundwater activities were conducted at the five facilities could result in unnecessary duplication of effort, inadequate technical input to decisions related to groundwater issues, and could create a perception within the regulatory agencies of a confusing and inconsistent approach to groundwater issues at the different facilities. Extensive interactions among management from Environmental Compliance, Environmental Restoration (ER), Environmental Sciences Division, Environmental Safety and Health, and the five facilities ultimately led to development of a net technical umbrella organization for groundwater. On April 25, 1991, the GWPO was authorized to be set up within ORNL thereby establishing a central coordinating office that would develop a consistent technical and administrative direction for the groundwater programs of all facilities and result in compliance with all relevant U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations such as RCRA and Comprehensive Environmental Restoration, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as well as U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulations and orders. For example, DOE Order 5400.1, issued on November 9, 1988, called for each DOE facility to develop an environmental monitoring program for all media (e.g., air, surface water, and groundwater)

  2. Teaching the Ethical Aspects of Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental and societal issues are often inherently linked, especially in coastal and estuarine environments, and science and social values must often be balanced in ecosystem management and decision-making. A new seminar course has been developed for the Marine Estuarine and Environmental Science (MEES) graduate program, an inter-institutional program within the University System of Maryland, to examine these issues. This 1-credit course, offered for the first time in Spring 2015, takes a complex systems perspective on major environmental and societal challenges to examine these linked issues in a variety of contexts. After a brief introduction to the emerging field of "geoethics," students develop a list of issues to examine throughout the seminar. Example topics could include fracking, offshore wind technology, dam removal, and iron fertilization, among others. A case-study approach is taken, with each class meeting focusing on one issue. For each case study, students are asked to 1) identify relevant scientific principles and major knowledge gaps, 2) predict potential outcomes, 3) identify stakeholders and likely viewpoints, and 4) construct communication plans to disseminate findings to these stakeholders. At the end of the semester, students give a brief presentation of the ethical aspects of their own research topics.

  3. Coal mining and agriculture: a study in environmental impact assessment. [On agriculture in UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, P.H.

    1986-03-01

    Coal mining activities in the U.K. are reported to be extending into areas of comparatively unspoilt countryside. Despite reductions in the National Coal Board's programme of future expansion, it is considered that the scale of impact of new mining activities on agriculture is still likely to be significant. The major impact will be associated with land alienation, but a wide range of other adverse effects will also be encountered. In view of the controversy likely to accompany new mining proposals, it is recommended that methods of environmental impact assessment (EIA) should be adopted. The nature and components of EIA are reviewed, and a framework appropriate to mining-agriculture conflicts is advanced. This approach is more closely examined In relation to recent developments in Leicestershire, U.K. It is found that the magnitude of agricultural impact is small in national terms, but may be severe at the local and - if mining activities become geographically concentrated - even at the sub-regional level. Systematic scrutiny of major coaling proposals by EIA will therefore become essential. (115 refs.)

  4. The Spatial Properties of Radical Environmental Organizations in the UK: Do or Die!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack W Almquist

    Full Text Available Radical environmental groups and their members have a wide and varied agenda which often encompasses both local and global issues. In their efforts to call attention to environmental problems, communicate with like-minded groups, and mobilize support for their activities, radical environmental organizations also produce an enormous amount of text, which can be used to estimate the complex communications and task-based networks that underlie these organizations. Moreover, the tactics employed to garnish attention for these groups' agenda can range from peaceful activities such as information dissemination to violent activities such as fire-bombing buildings. To obtain these varied objectives, radical environmental organizations must harness their networks, which have an important spatial component that structures their ability to communicate, coordinate and act on any given agenda item. Here, we analyze a network built from communications and information provided by the semi-annual "Do or Die" (DoD magazine published in the UK over a 10 year period in the late 1990s and early 2000s. We first employ structural topic model methods to discover violent and nonviolent actors within the larger environmental community. Using this designation, we then compare the spatial structure of these groups, finding that violent groups are especially likely to engage in coordination and/or communication if they are sufficiently close, but exhibit a quickly decreasing probability of interaction over even a few kilometers. Further, violent and nonviolent groups each have a higher probability of coordination with their own group than across groups over even short distances. In these respects, we see that violent groups are especially local in their organization and that their geographic reach is likely very limited. This suggests that nonviolent environmental groups seek each other out over both large and short distances for communication and coordination, but violent

  5. The Spatial Properties of Radical Environmental Organizations in the UK: Do or Die!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almquist, Zack W; Bagozzi, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Radical environmental groups and their members have a wide and varied agenda which often encompasses both local and global issues. In their efforts to call attention to environmental problems, communicate with like-minded groups, and mobilize support for their activities, radical environmental organizations also produce an enormous amount of text, which can be used to estimate the complex communications and task-based networks that underlie these organizations. Moreover, the tactics employed to garnish attention for these groups' agenda can range from peaceful activities such as information dissemination to violent activities such as fire-bombing buildings. To obtain these varied objectives, radical environmental organizations must harness their networks, which have an important spatial component that structures their ability to communicate, coordinate and act on any given agenda item. Here, we analyze a network built from communications and information provided by the semi-annual "Do or Die" (DoD) magazine published in the UK over a 10 year period in the late 1990s and early 2000s. We first employ structural topic model methods to discover violent and nonviolent actors within the larger environmental community. Using this designation, we then compare the spatial structure of these groups, finding that violent groups are especially likely to engage in coordination and/or communication if they are sufficiently close, but exhibit a quickly decreasing probability of interaction over even a few kilometers. Further, violent and nonviolent groups each have a higher probability of coordination with their own group than across groups over even short distances. In these respects, we see that violent groups are especially local in their organization and that their geographic reach is likely very limited. This suggests that nonviolent environmental groups seek each other out over both large and short distances for communication and coordination, but violent groups tend to be

  6. Environmental radioactivity in the UK: the airborne geophysical view of dose rate estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamish, David

    2014-01-01

    technologically enhanced, localised contributions to dose rate values are also apparent in the data sets. Two detailed examples are provided that reveal the detectability of site-scale environmental impacts due to former industrial activities and the high dose values (>500 nGy h −1 ) that are associated with former, small-scale Uranium mining operations. - Highlights: • UK airborne estimates of dose rates have been obtained across 40,000 km 2 . • Spatial mapping densities range from 10 to 50 m. • Wide scale (geological) and localized (technological) effects are quantified. • Theory and data indicate soil attenuation effects are pervasive. • Comparison of ground geochemical and airborne dose estimates

  7. A science data gateway for environmental management: A SCIENCE DATA GATEWAY FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faybishenko, Boris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krishnan, Harinarayan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kushner, Gary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lansing, Carina [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Porter, Ellen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Romosan, Alexandru [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shoshani, Arie [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wainwright, Haruko [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weidmer, Arthur [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Kesheng [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-10-12

    Science data gateways are effective in providing complex science data collections to the world-wide user communities. In this paper we describe a gateway for the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management (ASCEM) framework. Built on top of established web service technologies, the ASCEM data gateway is specifically designed for environmental modeling applications. Its key distinguishing features include: (1) handling of complex spatiotemporal data, (2) offering a variety of selective data access mechanisms, (3) providing state of the art plotting and visualization of spatiotemporal data records, and (4) integrating seamlessly with a distributed workflow system using a RESTful interface. ASCEM project scientists have been using this data gateway since 2011.

  8. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Kindergarten level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of six lessons covering the senses of touch and sight, the sense of smell, how to distinguish living and non-living things, cell structures, the skeletal system, and the significance of food groups. 8 figs.

  9. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Casey, E.

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by Defence Radiological Protection Service (DRPS) during 1989. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS, and as an Appendix a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental radioactivity monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1mSv). It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1989 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. These findings have been confirmed by independent monitoring undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. (author)

  10. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by DRPS during 1991. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS and, as an Appendix, a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1991 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  11. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths in the UK, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, D.; Casey, E.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths in the UK, including the US Naval Base at Holy Loch, which were carried out by Defence Radiological Protection Service (DRPS) during 1990. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but coordinated by DRPS and, as an Appendix, a report by the US Navy detailing the results of their environmental monitoring programme at Holy Loch. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in most cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000 μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programme undertaken by the Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food Directorate of Fisheries Research. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of cobalt-60, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 1990 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  12. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk [Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  13. Stakeholder perceptions of Environmental Management Plans as an environmental protection tool for major developments in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Sophie; Kemp, Simon; Hudson, Malcolm D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient implementation and the lack of legislative requirements for follow-up measures following the approval of projects are consistently highlighted as major shortcomings of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Although adopted over 15 years ago by the World Bank, Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) were only semi-formalised in the UK in 2008 and arguably provide a continuous link or ‘bridge’ between the EIA process pre-consent and an Environmental Management System (EMS) post-consent. Drawing on twenty-one semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and thematic analysis of their responses, and a broad-scale practitioner survey, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of EMPs as an environmental protection tool across the project lifecycle for major developments. The findings revealed a mixed picture of EMP effectiveness in practice, with EMPs only partially fulfilling a bridging role between EIA and EMS. There is no ‘gold standard’ terminology for EMPs, all having slightly different uses, thus presenting different focuses to different stakeholders and further enhancing variation in practice. For many stakeholders, the effectiveness was simply not known, due to the lack of communication and follow-up that still exists. EMP–EMS linkages were shown to be effective from the developer's perspective when a single organisation has involvement across all project phases, though weaknesses occur when multiple parties are involved. Among other stakeholders, knowledge varied significantly; whilst some were in agreement that the linkages worked, many were unaware of the connections and thought of them as two quite separate tools. Stakeholders advocated for the need to make EMPs a legal requirement; for improved communication between stakeholders during EMP implementation and increased documentation of project outcomes; and for EMPs to be consistently written by environmental professionals. Furthermore, weak links in the current process may be

  14. Molecular environmental science and synchrotron radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E. Jr. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Molecular environmental science is a relatively new field but focuses on the chemical and physical forms of toxic and/or radioactive contaminants in soils, sediments, man-made waste forms, natural waters, and the atmosphere; their possible reactions with inorganic and organic compounds, plants, and organisms in the environment; and the molecular-level factors that control their toxicity, bioavailability, and transport. The chemical speciation of a contaminant is a major factor in determining its behavior in the environment, and synchrotron-based X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is one of the spectroscopies of choice to quantitatively determine speciation of heavy metal contaminants in situ without selective extraction or other sample treatment. The use of high-flux insertion device beam lines at synchrotron sources and multi-element array detectors has permitted XAFS studies of metals such as Se and As in natural soils at concentration levels as low as 50 ppm. The X-ray absorption near edge structure of these metals is particularly useful in determining their oxidation state. Examples of such studies will be presented, and new insertion device beam lines under development at SSRL and the Advanced Photon Source for molecular environmental science applications will be discussed.

  15. A Computer Learning Center for Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F.

    2000-01-01

    In the fall of 1998, MacMillan Hall opened at Brown University to students. In MacMillan Hall was the new Computer Learning Center, since named the EarthLab which was outfitted with high-end workstations and peripherals primarily focused on the use of remotely sensed and other spatial data in the environmental sciences. The NASA grant we received as part of the "Centers of Excellence in Applications of Remote Sensing to Regional and Global Integrated Environmental Assessments" was the primary source of funds to outfit this learning and research center. Since opening, we have expanded the range of learning and research opportunities and integrated a cross-campus network of disciplines who have come together to learn and use spatial data of all kinds. The EarthLab also forms a core of undergraduate, graduate, and faculty research on environmental problems that draw upon the unique perspective of remotely sensed data. Over the last two years, the Earthlab has been a center for research on the environmental impact of water resource use in and regions, impact of the green revolution on forest cover in India, the design of forest preserves in Vietnam, and detailed assessments of the utility of thermal and hyperspectral data for water quality analysis. It has also been used extensively for local environmental activities, in particular studies on the impact of lead on the health of urban children in Rhode Island. Finally, the EarthLab has also served as a key educational and analysis center for activities related to the Brown University Affiliated Research Center that is devoted to transferring university research to the private sector.

  16. The environmental science and law II. The short development of the environmental science and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.

    1998-01-01

    This book contains the basic documents about environmental laws and related documents approved in the world and in the Slovak Republic. The system of the environmental laws and organizations in the world and in the Slovak Republic are reviewed. A review of a selected environmental laws of the Slovak Republic are included. The significant world acts (declarations, charters and other documents) are reviewed

  17. Improvising innovation in UK urban district heating: The convergence of social and environmental agendas in Aberdeen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Janette

    2015-01-01

    Research on district heating has focused on technical-economic appraisal of its contribution to energy and carbon saving in urban centres. There is however lack of analysis of political and social processes which govern its actual take up. This paper examines these processes through a case study of Aberdeen, Scotland. Interviews and documentary analysis are used to examine the 2002 development of Aberdeen Heat and Power (AHP), an independent energy services company (ESCo). Technical-economic feasibility was a necessary component of appraisal, but not sufficient to govern decision-making. In the UK centralised energy market, DH investment is unattractive to commercial investors, and local authorities lack capacity and expertise in energy provision. In Aberdeen, the politics of fuel poverty converged with climate politics, creating an a-typical willingness to innovate through improvisation. The welfare priority resulted in creation of a non-profit locally-owned ESCo, using cost- rather than market-based heat tariffs. AHP has developed three combined heat and power energy centres and heat networks, supplying 34 MWh/pa of heat. Carbon savings are estimated to be 45% in comparison with electric heating, and heating costs are reduced by a similar amount. The conclusion outlines potential policy improvements. - Highlights: • UK policy proposes district heating for urban low carbon heat. • Technical and economic feasibility are insufficient to drive take-up. • In Aberdeen convergence of social and environmental goals gave impetus to improvisation. • The resulting non-profit ESCo has three CHP and district heat networks, supplying 34 MWh of heat pa. • Carbon and cost savings are 45% in comparison with electric heating

  18. The Art of ATLAS; multimedia installation by Neal Hartman and Claudia Marcelloni at Thinktank science museum in Birmingham, UK.

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2010-01-01

    The Art of ATLAS is an multimedia installation, developed by Neal Hartman and Claudia Marcelloni about the physicists, engineers and technicians behind the ATLAS Experiment. The installation will been shown at Planetarium entrance of the Thinktank science museum in Birmingham, UK from October 2010 until January 2011.

  19. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Latimer, Karen

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales.

  20. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources

  1. Panarchy use in environmental science for risk and resilience planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental sciences have an important role in informing sustainable management of built environments by providing insights about the drivers and potentially negative impacts of global environmental change. Here, we discuss panarchy theory, a multi-scale hierarchical concept th...

  2. Involving stakeholders in the commissioning and implementation of fishery science projects: experiences from the U.K. Fisheries Science Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, M J; Payne, A I L; Deas, B; Catchpole, T L

    2013-10-01

    Following from similar initiatives worldwide, the U.K.'s Fisheries Science Partnership (FSP) was established in 2003 to provide the fishing industry with opportunities to propose and participate in scientific studies in collaboration with fishery scientists. Key concepts were that most of the available funding would support industry participation, that industry, not scientists, would come up with the ideas for projects, and that commercial fishing vessels and fishing methods would be used to address specific concerns of the fishing industry in a scientifically controlled manner. Nearly 100 projects had been commissioned by March 2012, covering annual time-series surveys of stocks subject to traditional assessment, and ad hoc projects on, e.g. gear selectivity, discard survival, tagging and migration and fishery development. The extent to which the results of the projects have been used by stakeholders, fishery scientists and fishery managers at a national and E.U. level is evaluated, along with the degree of industry interest and involvement, and reasons are identified for successes or failures in the uptake of the results into management and policy. Finally, the question is posed whether the programme has been successful in improving the engagement of the fishing community in the science-management process and in fostering communication and greater trust between fishers, scientists and managers. © 2013 Crown Copyright. © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  3. The GeoBus project: a mobile Earth science outreach project for secondary schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R. A.; Roper, K. A.; Macfarlane, D.; Pike, C.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBus is an educational outreach project that was developed in 2012 by the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of St Andrews. It is sponsored jointly by industry and the UK Research Councils (NERC and EPSRC). The aims of GeoBus are to support the teaching of Earth Science in secondary (high) schools by providing teaching resources that are not readily available to educators, to inspire young learners by incorporating new science research outcomes in teaching activities, and to provide a bridge between industry, higher education institutions, research councils and schools. These linkages are important for introducing career opportunities in Earth sciences. Since its launch, GeoBus has visited over 140 different schools across the length and breadth of Scotland. Over 20,000 pupils will have been involved in practical hands-on Earth science learning activities by December 2013, including many in remote and disadvantaged regions. The resources that GeoBus brings to schools include all the materials and equipment needed to run workshops, field excursions and Enterprise Challenges. GeoBus provides 16 workshops which can be adapted for different learning levels. Workshops are 50 to 80 minute sessions for up to 30 pupils and topics include minerals, rocks, fossils, geological time, natural resources, climate change, volcanoes, earthquakes, and geological mapping. As with all GeoBus activities, the inclusion of equipment and technology otherwise unavailable to schools substantially increases the engagement of pupils in workshops. Field excursions are popular, as many teachers have little or no field trainng and feel unable to lead this type of activity. The excursions comprise half or full day sessions for up to 30 pupils and are tailored to cover the local geology or geomorphology. The Enterprise Challenges are half or full day sessions for up to 100 pupils. Current topics are Drilling for Oil, Renewable Energy, a Journey to Mars and Scotland

  4. Environmental impacts of micro-wind turbines and their potential to contribute to UK climate change targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greening, Benjamin; Azapagic, Adisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the life cycle environmental sustainability of micro-wind turbines in the UK in comparison with grid electricity and solar PV (photovoltaics). The results suggests that per kWh electricity generated, the majority of environmental impacts from the wind turbines are lower than from grid electricity, ranging from 26% lower terrestrial toxicity to 92% lower global warming. However, depletion of abiotic elements, fresh-water and human toxicities are 82%, 74% and 53% higher than for grid electricity, respectively. The wind turbines are more environmentally sustainable than solar PV for seven out of 11 impacts, ranging from 7.5% lower eutrophication to 85% lower ozone layer depletion. However, depletion of fossil resources, fresh-water, human and terrestrial toxicities are higher for the wind turbine than for the PV, ranging from 5% for the former to 87% for the latter. UK-wide deployment of micro-wind turbines would save between 0.6 and 1% of GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions on 2009 levels. Therefore, the potential of micro-wind turbines to contribute towards UK's climate change targets is limited. - Highlights: • Life cycle environmental impacts of micro-wind turbines estimated for UK conditions. • The majority impacts are lower for micro-wind turbines than for grid electricity and solar PV. • Some impacts from micro-wind are higher, notably fresh-water and human toxicity. • At the national level, wind turbines would save only 0.6% GHG emissions on 2009 levels. • The potential of micro-wind turbines to contribute to UK's climate change targets is limited

  5. UK's climate change levy: cost effectiveness, competitiveness and environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, Adarsh [Hull Univ., School of Economic Studies, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2003-01-01

    This paper intends to examine the cost effectiveness of UK's climate change levy (CCL), its implications on competitiveness of firms and the environmental impact. The paper briefly describes the levy and analyses it under the canons of a good taxation policy. The economic implications of the levy are discussed with theoretical and empirical perspectives. Change in net exports, investment patterns and productivity and inclusion of compliance cost forms the basis for analysing the effect on competitiveness. It discusses the options available to firms to safeguard their competitiveness if it is adversely affected by the CCL. A description of the current scenario of the levy since its inception is also presented. The paper argues the need for a comprehensive policy involving the use of standards, emission trading as well as energy taxes to achieve emission and energy-use reductions. A focal point of this paper is to elucidate the pros and cons of the CCL (energy tax) with respect to an emission trading scheme. (Author)

  6. Environmental Influences on the Fish Assemblage of the Humber Estuary, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S.; Elliott, M.

    1998-02-01

    Salinity, temperature, turbidity and dissolved oxygen were measured in conjunction with a series of fish samples taken by a 2 m beam trawl from 14 sites throughout the Humber estuary, U.K., over the period April 1992 to November 1994. Sediment type was not measured as the literature indicates that the area is homogeneous. The influences of environmental factors and the characteristics of the fish assemblage were analysed using a range of multivariate techniques, including two-way indicator species analysis, canonical correspondence analysis, principal components analysis and Spearman rank correlation. The analyses indicate that salinity is the dominant factor influencing the distribution of the species, with temperature also having a major influence. Of the species examined, whiting (Merlangius merlangus), sole (Solea solea), flounder (Pleuronectes flesus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and herring (Clupea harengus) showed a correlation in distribution to temperature, sole, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), pogge (Agonus cataphractus) and stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to salinity, and whiting, flounder, pogge and stickleback to dissolved oxygen. Only cod (Gadus morhua) showed a correlation with tidal state, while whiting, pogge and stickleback were correlated to depth. Unlike in some other estuaries, turbidity did not influence the composition of the fish assemblage. Temperature and salinity fluctuations appear to influence different aspects of the community, with temperature proving to be the best predictor of total abundance, while salinity influenced the species richness and total biomass. The analyses demonstrate the most important variables with regard to environmental-biotic interactions, although they also indicate that the variables measured do not account for all of the observed variation in fish biomass and abundance.

  7. Research report 1987-1989: Environmental Quality Laboratory and Environmental Engineering Science, W. M. Keck Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Norman H.

    1990-01-01

    This research biennial report for 1987-89 covers the activities of both the Environmental Engineering Science program and the Environmental Quality Laboratory for the period October 1987-November 1989. Environmental Engineering Science is the degree-granting academic program housed in the Keck Laboratories, with associated research projects. The Environmental Quality Laboratory is a research center focusing on large scale problems of environmental quality and natural resources. All the facult...

  8. Uncovering Students' Environmental Identity: An Exploration of Activities in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States explores how students' environmental identities are affected by various activities in an Environmental Science course. Data was collected as part of an ethnographic study involving an Environmental Science teacher and her tenth-twelfth grade students. The results focus on…

  9. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol 22, No 5 (2018) .... Growth Performance of Five Bean (Phaseolus spp) Varieties as Influenced by Organic ...

  10. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol 22, No 4 (2018) ... Evaluating the effect of mobility speed on the performance of three handover algorithms in ...

  11. Evaluation of Students' Energy Conception in Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Johnson, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    While significant research has been conducted on students' conceptions of energy, alternative conceptions of energy have not been actively explored in the area of environmental science. The purpose of this study is to examine students' alternative conceptions in the environmental science discipline through the analysis of responses of first year…

  12. ETHICS AND JUSTICE IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science and engineering are built on trust. C.P. Snow's famous quote, "the only ethical principle which has made science possible is that the truth shall be told all the time" underscores the importance of honesty in science. Environmental scientists must do work that is useful...

  13. Environmental controls on phytoplankton community composition in the Thames plume, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Keith; Greenwood, Naomi; Fernand, Liam; Pearce, David J.; Sivyer, David B.

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate controls on the phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemistry of the estuarine plume zone of the River Thames, U.K. using an instrumented moored buoy for in situ measurements and preserved sample collection, and laboratory-based measurements from samples collected at the same site. Instrumentation on the moored buoy enabled high frequency measurements of a suite of environmental variables including in situ chlorophyll, water-column integrated irradiance, macronutrients throughout an annual cycle for 2001 e.g. nitrate and silicate, and phytoplankton biomass and species composition. The Thames plume region acts as a conduit for fluvial nutrients into the wider southern North Sea with typical winter concentrations of 45 μM nitrate, 17 μM silicate and 2 μM phosphate measured. The spring bloom resulted from water-column integrated irradiance increasing above 60 W h m - 2 d - 1 and was initially dominated by a diatom bloom mainly composed of Nitzschia sp. and Odontella sinesis. The spring bloom then switched after ˜ 30 days to become dominated by the flagellate Phaeocystis reaching a maximum chlorophyll concentration of 37.8 μg L - 1 . During the spring bloom there were high numbers of the heterotrophic dinoflagellates Gyrodinium spirale and Katodinium glaucum that potentially grazed the phytoplankton bloom. This diatom-flagellate switch was predicted to be due to a combination of further increasing water-column integrated irradiance > 100 W h m - 2 d - 1 and/or silicate reaching potentially limiting concentrations (nutrient and phytoplankton processing and transport to the southern North Sea. The use of a combination of moorings and ship-based sampling was essential in understanding the factors influencing nutrient transport, phytoplankton biomass and species composition in this shelf sea plume region.

  14. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  15. International trends in health science librarianship Part 8: the UK and the Republic of Ireland Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Karen; Lawton, Aoife

    2013-12-01

    This is the 8th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship with a focus on the UK and Ireland in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Future issues will track trends from Scotland and Wales. © 2013 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2013 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Blue Water Footprint Management in a UK Poultry Supply Chain under Environmental Regulatory Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Naoum Tsolakis; Jagjit Singh Srai; Eirini Aivazidou

    2018-01-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the UK, accounting for 40% of meat consumption, while national production sufficiency reaches about 80%. As a farmed animal product, chicken meat is responsible for significant freshwater appropriation volumes during its production cycle. In this context, this research aims at exploring freshwater dynamics in the UK processed poultry industry. Specifically, we develop a System Dynamics model to capture the blue water footprint, as a key sustainability perf...

  17. Proceedings of the 6. Banska Stiavnica Days 2004. Environmental impacts on the environment. Trends in environmental sciences and radio-environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybler, P.; Maruskova, A.

    2004-12-01

    Scientific conference deals with problems in environmental sciences and radio-environmental sciences. The conference proceeded in two sections: (A) Environmental engineering, (B) Nuclear technologies. Sixty registered people and fifty guests participated on this conference. Twenty-seven presentations and eleven posters were presented. Proceedings contain twenty-six papers from which fourteen papers deal with the scope of INIS

  18. The challenge of achieving professionalism and respect of diversity in a UK Earth Sciences department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imber, Jonathan; Taylor, Michelle; Callaghan, Mark; Castiello, Gabriella; Cooper, George; Foulger, Gillian; Gregory, Emma; Herron, Louise; Hoult, Jill; Lo, Marissa; Love, Tara; Macpherson, Colin; Oakes, Janice; Phethean, Jordan; Riches, Amy

    2017-04-01

    The Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, has a balanced gender profile at undergraduate, postgraduate and postdoctoral levels (38%, 42% and 45% females, respectively), but one of the lowest percentages, relative to the natural applicant pool, of female academic staff amongst UK geoscience departments. There are currently 9% female academic staff at Durham, compared with a median value (in November 2015) of 20% for all Russell Group geoscience departments in the UK. Despite the fact that the female staff group is relatively senior, the Department's current academic management is essentially entirely male. The Department has an informal working culture, in which academics operate an "open door" policy, and staff and students are on first name terms. This culture, open plan office space, and our fieldwork programme, allow staff and students to socialise. A positive outcome of this culture is that > 95% of final year undergraduate students deemed the staff approachable (National Student Survey 2016). Nevertheless, a survey of staff and research student attitudes revealed significant differences in the way males and females perceive our working environment. Females are less likely than males to agree with the statements that "the Department considers inappropriate language to be unacceptable" and "inappropriate images are not considered acceptable in the Department". That anyone could find "inappropriate" language and images "acceptable" is a measure of the challenge faced by the Department. Males disagree more strongly than females that they "have felt uncomfortable because of [their] gender". The Department is proactively working to improve equality and diversity. It held a series of focus group meetings, divided according to gender and job role, to understand the differences in male and female responses. Female respondents identified examples of inappropriate language (e.g. sexual stereotyping) that were directed at female, but not male, colleagues. Males

  19. Using environmental forensic microscopy in exposure science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, James R; Brown, Richard S; Hill, Whitney B

    2008-01-01

    Environmental forensic microscopy investigations are based on the methods and procedures developed in the fields of criminal forensics, industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring. Using a variety of microscopes and techniques, the environmental forensic scientist attempts to reconstruct the sources and the extent of exposure based on the physical evidence left behind after particles are exchanged between an individual and the environments he or she passes through. This article describes how environmental forensic microscopy uses procedures developed for environmental monitoring, criminal forensics and industrial hygiene investigations. It provides key references to the interdisciplinary approach used in microscopic investigations. Case studies dealing with lead, asbestos, glass fibers and other particulate contaminants are used to illustrate how environmental forensic microscopy can be very useful in the initial stages of a variety of environmental exposure characterization efforts to eliminate some agents of concern and to narrow the field of possible sources of exposure.

  20. Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE '0' and 'A' Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayford, Christopher G.

    1983-01-01

    Reports on environmental studies/science at General Certificate of Examination (GCE) ordinary ("0") and advanced ("A") levels. Questionnaires were used to survey teachers (focusing on their professional training and why they teach environmental studies/science courses) and to determine the relationship between environmental…

  1. The effects of changes in the UK energy demand and environmental legislation on atmospheric pollution by carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, F.B.; Davies, C.; Isaac, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that the combustion of fossil fuel accounts for 97% of the carbon dioxide generated in the UK. The demand for primary energy over the 1970-1994 period has only marginally increased, however the demand for natural gas, which has a significantly lower carbon content per unit of energy than other fuels, accounts largely for the lowering of carbon dioxide emissions. The enactment UK/EU Environmental Legislation coupled with World Agreements accounts for a significant lowering of carbon dioxide emissions over this period. Future predictions suggest that a further downturn in carbon dioxide emissions will take place over the 1990-2000 period, followed by a pronounced increase over the 2000-2020 period. The expansion of the use of CCGT and/or the introduction of the IGCC and the SUPC in the power generating sector provides an opportunity for a further reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. (author)

  2. Food allergy - science and policy needs - The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Joelle; Hattersley, Sue; Kimber, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  3. Environmental and pollution science. 2nd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Pepper; Charles Gerba; Mark Brusseau,

    2006-07-01

    This book integrates a large number of subjects in environmental studies and provides a realistic and objective evaluation of pollution as a price we pay for a modern economy. It focuses on the scientific assessment of environmental quality by developing a framework of principles that can be applied to any environmental problem. It addresses tactical issues for managers and government workers such as remediation, environmental monitoring, risk assessment, and management. It can be used by professionals as well as undergraduate students. 186 ills. 79 tabs.

  4. Introduction to environmental science. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J.M.; Morgan, M.D.; Wiersma, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of today's major environmental issues. It is organized into three parts - Part I: Concepts of Ecology; Part II: Environmental Quality and Management; and Part III: Fundamental Problems: Population, Food, and Energy. The complex issue of acid rain is only briefly discussed. The economic aspects of environmental regulation are covered where they are applicable. The breadth of the topics covered also leads to some omissions. However, in general, environmental issues seem to be treated objectively in this volume.

  5. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH .... microbiological examination of hand-dug wells, boreholes and public water sources in selected areas of Ibadan, Nigeria ...

  6. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic ... IDRC is providing funding to Simon Fraser University to support a network of ... The project will also encourage and assist in the creation of a business ...

  7. Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory Annual Report: Fiscal Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, Nancy S.; Showalter, Mary Ann

    2007-03-23

    This report describes the activities and research performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a Department of Energy national scientific user facility at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, during Fiscal Year 2006.

  8. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management - Vol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. ... Mercury in Aquatic Systems of the Gulf Islands National Seashore, Southeastern ... and Chemical Remediation on Agricultural Soil Properties and Crop Growth · EMAIL FREE ...

  9. Environmental sciences division: Environmental regulatory update table July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1988-08-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action

  10. Environmental biotechnology for waste treatment, environmental science research, Volume 41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, G.S.; Fox, R.; Blackburn, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled [open quotes]Environmental Biotechnology: Moving from the Flask to the Field[close quotes] held in October 17th through 19th, 1990, in Knoxville, Tennessee. Environmental biotechnology involves the use of microorganisms and their processes for the clean-up of environmental contamination, specific examples of which include ground-water treatment, treatment of leachates, and clean-up of contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments. In comparison with other technologies, environmental biotechnology (or bioremediation) has the advantages of affecting mineralization of toxic compounds to innocuous end-products, being energy-effective with processes able to take place at a moderate temperature and pressure, safety, and economy and is, therefore, perceived to hold great potential for environmental clean-up. Bioremediation treatment technologies for contaminated soils and groundwater can take the form of: (1) solid-phase biotreatment; (2) slurry-phase treatment; (3) in situ treatment; and (4) combination biological and physical/chemical treatment. The goal of the symposium was to pressure technical accomplishments at the laboratory and field-scale levels, future technical directions and economic, public and regulatory concerns in environmental biotechnology. The book is divided into five major sections on Current Perceptions, Field-Scale Studies, Technical Issues and Concerns in Implementation, Nontechnical Issues and Concerns in Implementation, International Activities, and ends with a critical review of the symposium.

  11. Eight statements on environmental research in the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prittwitz, V.

    1985-01-01

    Social science research on environmental problems has two main tasks: (1) to provide critical practice-oriented contributions to present and threatening environmental problems, and (2) to draw the humans-and-nature problematique into social science concepts and theoretical frameworks. In this paper, the prerequisites for achieving both tasks as well as the theoretical, political, and institutional aspects that affect them are discussed. The focus of the discussion is the interdependence between practical problem solving and development of theory. (orig.) [de

  12. The facts on file dictionary of environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, L.H.; Wyman, B. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    More than 3000 entries of terms related to environmental science are included in this volume. The terms are defined in words meant to be understood by the nonexpert, for use in reporting to the general public. Definitions are one to two sentences in length and are accurate without being highly technical. The Appendix lists over 500 commonly used environmental science acronyms and abbreviations as well as a table of standard human factors.

  13. Environmental health science at the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Herbert T.; Bright, Patricia R.

    2013-01-01

    USGS environmental health science focuses on the environment-health interface. Research characterizes the processes that affect the interaction among the physical environment, the living environment, and people, as well as the factors that affect ecological and human exposure to disease agents and the resulting toxicologic or infectious disease. The mission of USGS in environmental health science is to contribute scientific information to environmental, natural resource, agricultural, and public-health managers, who use that information to support sound decisionmaking. Coordination with partners and stakeholders will enable USGS to focus on the highest priority environmental health issues, to make relevant, timely, and useable contributions, and to become a “partner of first choice” for environmental health science.

  14. Panarchy use in environmental science for risk and resilience ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental sciences have an important role in informing sustainable management of built environments by providing insights about the drivers and potentially negative impacts of global environmental change. Here, we discuss panarchy theory, a multi-scale hierarchical concept that accounts for the dynamism of complex socio-ecological systems, especially for those systems with strong cross-scale feedbacks. The idea of panarchy underlies much of system resilience, focusing on how systems respond to known and unknown threats. Panarchy theory can provide a framework for qualitative and quantitative research and application in the environmental sciences, which can in turn inform the ongoing efforts in socio-technical resilience thinking and adaptive and transformative approaches to management. The environmental sciences strive for understanding, mitigating and reversing the negative impacts of global environmental change, including chemical pollution, to maintain sustainability options for the future, and therefore play an important role for informing management.

  15. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…

  16. The Relationship between Environmental Moral Reasoning and Environmental Attitudes of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Busra; Yilmaz-Tuzun, Ozgul; Tuncer-Teksoz, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between environmental moral reasoning patterns and environmental attitudes of 120 pre-service science teachers. Content analysis was carried out on participants' written statements regarding their concerns about the presented environmental problems and the statements were labeled as…

  17. Composable Data Processing in Environmental Science - A Process View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Data processing in environmental science is essential for doing science. The heterogeneity of data sources, data processing operations and infrastructures results in a lot of manual data and process integration work done by each scientist individually. This is very inefficient and time consuming.

  18. Public ecology: an environmental science and policy for global society

    Science.gov (United States)

    David P. Robertson; R. Bruce Hull

    2003-01-01

    Public ecology exists at the interface of science and policy. Public ecology is an approach to environmental inquiry and decision making that does not expect scientific knowledge to be perfect or complete. Rather, public ecology requires that science be produced in collaboration with a wide variety of stakeholders in order to construct a body of knowledge that will...

  19. Choosing and Using Images in Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthersbaugh, Debbie Smick

    2012-01-01

    Although using images for teaching has been a common practice in science classrooms (Gordon & Pea, 1995) understanding the purpose or how to choose images has not typically been intentional. For this dissertation three separate studies relating to choosing and using images are prepared with environmental science in mind. Each of the studies…

  20. Using Environmental Science as a Motivational Tool to Teach Physics to Non-Science Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Hauke C.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional physical science course was transformed into an environmental physical science course to teach physics to non-science majors. The objective of the new course was to improve the learning of basic physics principles by applying them to current issues of interest. A new curriculum was developed with new labs, homework assignments,…

  1. Human/Nature Discourse in Environmental Science Education Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joan M.

    2008-01-01

    It is argued that the view of nature and the relationship between human beings and nature that each of us holds impacts our decisions, actions, and notions of environmental responsibility and consciousness. In this study, I investigate the discursive patterns of selected environmental science classroom resources produced by three disparate…

  2. 15 CFR 950.6 - Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental Science Information Center (ESIC). 950.6 Section 950.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE...

  3. Zimbabwe's Better Environmental Science Teaching Programme: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) programme within the context of education for sustainable development (ESD). The first part of the paper briefly reviews developments in environmental education in southern Africa within the broader scope and goals of ESD and draws some ...

  4. Development of a Generic Environmental Safety Case for the Disposal of Higher Activity Wastes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Lucy; Hicks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The UK generic ESC demonstrates safe disposal of higher activity wastes, by providing: • A demonstration of how environmental safety can be achieved by a variety of disposal concepts based on systems of multiple engineered and natural barriers, providing multiple safety functions; • An understanding of expected barrier performance and how conditions in a disposal system will evolve, based on research findings presented in RWM’s knowledge base; • An approach to safety assessment based on multiple lines of reasoning, involving both qualitative and quantitative analysis; • Complementary insight modelling and total system modelling used to develop understanding of how different components of the engineered and natural barrier system contribute to safety

  5. Science teacher’s idea about environmental concepts in science learning as the first step of science teacher training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapilouw, M. C.; Firman, H.; Redjeki, S.; Chandra, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    To refresh natural environmental concepts in science, science teacher have to attend a teacher training. In teacher training, all participant can have a good sharing and discussion with other science teacher. This study is the first step of science teacher training program held by education foundation in Bandung and attended by 20 science teacher from 18 Junior High School. The major aim of this study is gathering science teacher’s idea of environmental concepts. The core of questions used in this study are basic competencies linked with environmental concepts, environmental concepts that difficult to explain, the action to overcome difficulties and references in teaching environmental concepts. There are four major findings in this study. First finding, most environmental concepts are taught in 7th grade. Second finding, most difficult environmental concepts are found in 7th grade. Third finding, there are five actions to overcome difficulties. Fourth finding, science teacher use at least four references in mastering environmental concepts. After all, teacher training can be a solution to reduce difficulties in teaching environmental concepts.

  6. Applications of nuclear technique in environmental and medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Xianfeng; Shen Hao; Liu Bo; Sun Minde; Yao Huiying; Zhou Shijun; Mi Yong

    2001-01-01

    The serious environmental pollution problem and application of the nuclear technique in environmental and medical sciences were discussed. The analysed results of the elemental distribution of particles in automobile exhaust, the aerosol particle of different size and the effect of Rare Earth on cells were reported. The authors can obtain some information related to element concentration. It offers a convenient method in inspecting the environmental pollution

  7. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography contains 690 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1980. There are 529 references to articles published in journals and books and 161 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly and bimonthly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Computer Sciences

  8. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfuderer, H.A.; Moody, J.B.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography contains 690 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1980. There are 529 references to articles published in journals and books and 161 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly and bimonthly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Energy, Environmental Sciences, and Computer Sciences.

  9. The Relationship between Environmental Moral Reasoning and Environmental Attitudes of Pre-Service Science Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    TUNCAY, Busra; YILMAZ-TUZUN, Ozgul; TUNCER-TEKSOZ, Gaye

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between environmental moral reasoning patterns and environmental attitudes of 120 pre-service science teachers. Content analysis was carried out on participants’ written statements regarding their concerns about the presented environmental problems and the statements were labeled as ecocentric, anthropocentric, and non-environmental according to their meanings. Then, descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted ...

  10. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the 14 sections of the Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report. The other 2 sections deal with educational activities. The programs discussed deal with advanced fuel energy, toxic substances, environmental impacts of various energy technologies, biomass, low-level radioactive waste management, the global carbon cycle, and aquatic and terrestrial ecology

  11. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1982. Environmental Sciences Division Publication No. 2090. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for 12 of the 14 sections of the Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report. The other 2 sections deal with educational activities. The programs discussed deal with advanced fuel energy, toxic substances, environmental impacts of various energy technologies, biomass, low-level radioactive waste management, the global carbon cycle, and aquatic and terrestrial ecology. (KRM)

  12. Home and school environmental determinants of science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of educational achievement extend beyond the school environment to include the home environment. Both environments provide tangible and intangible resources to students that can influence science achievement. South Africa provides a context where inequalities in socio-economic status are vast, thus the ...

  13. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NARP) of the Nationally Coordinated Research Projects (NCRP), Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. ISSN: 1119-8362. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  14. Department of Architecture, College of Environmental Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-06-02

    Jun 2, 2015 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 8(5): ... Town Planning and Urban Development Authorities are vested with ... case may be, compensations will have to be made wherever ... major transportation networks, the .... regions. Statement of Research Problem. Akure, the capital city of ...

  15. Environmental Science Education at Sinte Gleska University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, D.

    2004-12-01

    At Sinte Gleska University, basically we face two problems 1. The lack of natural resources/environmental education instructors and students. 2. High turnover in the drinking water (and waste water / environmental monitoring) jobs. As soon as people are trained, they typically leave for better paying jobs elsewhere. To overcome these In addition to regular teaching we conduct several workshops year around on environmental issues ranging from tree plantation, preserving water resources, sustainable agriculture and natural therapy (ayurvedic treatment- the Lakota way of treating illness) etc. We offer workshops about the negative impacts brought about by the development and use of hydropower, fossil fuel and nuclear energy (but include topics like reclamation of land after mining). Not only does the harvest and consumption of these energy forms devastate the land and its plants, animals, water and air, but the mental, spiritual, and physical health and culture of Native peoples suffer as well. In contrast, wind power offers an environmentally friendly source of energy that also can provide a source of income to reservations.

  16. Environmental science and technology: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and technological effort to meet the environmental goals identified in the Green Plan. The report gives a sense of the range of scientific and technological efforts that are being devoted to issues as diverse as conserving our wildlife and national parks and developing innovative technologies to clean-up polluted sites.

  17. Characteristics and trends on global environmental monitoring research: a bibliometric analysis based on Science Citation Index Expanded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Fu, Hui-Zhen; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2017-11-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on the Science Citation Index Expanded from Web of Science was carried out to provide insights into research activities and trends of the environmental monitoring from 1993 to 2012. Study emphases covered publication outputs, language, categories, journals, countries/territories, institutions, words, and hot issues. The results indicated that the annual output of environmental monitoring publications increased steadily. The environmental sciences and analytical chemistry were the two most common categories. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment published the most articles. The USA and the UK ranked in the top two in terms of all five indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency took the leading position of the institutions in terms of publication output. The synthesized analysis by words in title, author keywords, and KeyWords Plus provided important clues for hot issues. Researchers paid more attention on water environment monitoring than other environmental factors. The contaminants including organic contaminants, heavy metal, and radiation were most common research focuses, and the organic contaminants and heavy metal of the degree of concern were gradually rising. Sensor and biosensor played an important role in the field of environmental monitoring devices. In addition to conventional device detection method, the remote sensing, GIS, and wireless sensor networks were the mainstream environmental monitoring methods. The international organization, social awareness, and the countries' positive and effective political and policies promoted the published articles.

  18. The Identification of Xenobiotics in the New UK Context of Drinking Water Safety Planning and Related Environmental Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, C. R.; Keirle, R. S.; Lobley, A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent European environmental legislation (the Water Framework Directive, the Environmental Liability Directive, and the REACH Regulation) should provide better protection of terrestrial water bodies but their focus is on the more conspicuous pollutants, as opposed to the large number of xenobiotic micro-pollutants that are increasingly being detected in the urban water cycle. The development of Drinking Water Safety Plans (DWSPs), as promoted by the World Health Organization, utilises a proactive risk assessment-risk management approach that necessarily should include micro-pollutants, although currently in the UK micro-pollutants have largely been ignored. The generic assessment of the risks posed by micro-pollutants is proposed and will require a consensus on analytical screening methods, sampling points and frequencies, and a method for prioritising concern, and would enable DWSPs to take fuller account of the risks posed

  19. Environmental science in building. 4. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullan, R.

    1998-05-01

    This well established book examines the science and technology of those provisions and services that are required in the built environment. The main considerations are the effects of heat, light and sound within buildings. In addition other essential requirements such as supplies of electricity and water are discussed. While the basic structure of the book remains the same in this new edition, all chapters are revised; some material is rearranged and several new sections are added. (author)

  20. UK minister and science advisors reassert roles of PWRs and FBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishlock, D.

    1988-01-01

    Britain continues to vigorously debate the wisdom of privatizing its electricity supply system by breaking the Central Electricity Generating Board into three separate parts, with specific consequences for nuclear energy. What is already clear is that the proposed changes must have a profound impact on all long-term activities, from the future of the fast reactor to national research into the environmental impact of electricity supply. The Government stated that future use of nuclear energy is necessary. The Government then published a nuclear study by its own top technical advisors, the Advisory Council on Science and Technology (ACOST). ACOST recommends that Britain should abandon further research and development on gas-cooled reactors and concentrate wholeheartedly on the PWR, following what it says is the public inquiry's unequivocal endorsement of the Sizewell-B design. The Advisory Council also comments on the fast reactor, in the context of what it calls the Government's responsibility to underpin long-term ventures in power generation. It states that the technology is approaching commercialization

  1. Citizen Environmental Science in Support of Educatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D. M.; Cavalier, D.; Potter, S.; Wagner, R.; Wegner, K.; Hammonds, J.

    2016-12-01

    Through two grants, a partnership among SciStarter, ECO-Schools, the GLOBE Program, and Youth Learning as Citizen Environmental Scientists has recruited, trained, and equipped over 100 US schools, youth groups and other citizen scientists to take several environmental measurements - surface soil moisture and temperature, precipitation, and clouds. Implementation by some has begun but many more will start implementation in the fall. These local measurements may be compared with data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), and other satellite missions. The measurement protocols of GLOBE specify how these data are collected so as to produce reliable data that are intercomparable across space and time. GLOBE also provides the information infrastructure for storing these data and making them openly available. This presentation will examine the initial results of this effort in terms of participation, student and professional data use, and educational benefits.

  2. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    An increased uptake of alternative low or non-CO2 emitting energy sources is one of the key priorities for policy makers to mitigate the effects of environmental change. Relatively little work has been undertaken on the mitigation potential of Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHPs) despite the fact that a GCHP could significantly reduce CO2 emissions from heating systems. It is predicted that under climate change the most probable scenario is for UK temperatures to increase and for winter rainfall to become more abundant; the latter is likely to cause a general rise in groundwater levels. Summer rainfall may reduce considerably, while vegetation type and density may change. Furthermore, recent studies underline the likelihood of an increase in the number of heat waves. Under such a scenario, GCHPs will increasingly be used for cooling as well as heating. These factors will affect long-term performance of horizontal GCHP systems and hence their economic viability and mitigation potential during their life span ( 50 years). The seasonal temperature differences encountered in soil are harnessed by GCHPs to provide heating in the winter and cooling in the summer. The performance of a GCHP system will depend on technical factors (heat exchanger (HE) type, length, depth, and spacing of pipes), but also it will be determined to a large extent by interactions between the below-ground parts of the system and the environment (atmospheric conditions, vegetation and soil characteristics). Depending on the balance between extraction and rejection of heat from and to the ground, the soil temperature in the neighbourhood of the HE may fall or rise. The GROMIT project (GROund coupled heat pumps MITigation potential), funded by the Natural Environment Research Council (UK), is a multi-disciplinary research project, in collaboration with EarthEnergy Ltd., which aims to quantify the CO2 mitigation potential of horizontal GCHPs. It considers changing environmental conditions and combines

  3. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, A.

    1997-01-01

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell's oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs

  5. Biological sciences teaching undergraduates’ environmental knowledge: a critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana do Nascimento Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, environmental issues have been addressed in a way that goes beyond the natural impacts, embracing socio-economic, political and cultural aspects. This paper makes a description of the types of environmental conceptions, giving special emphasis to the interactions that permeate it, and develops an empirical work by analyzing the conceptions about the environmental knowledge of students majoring in a teacher preparation course on biological sciences of a university in the State of Bahia, Brazil. In a qualitative research, data were collected by application of a questionnaire with open questions with answers in text and drawings. The results revealed a predominance of naturalistic conceptions, while socio-environmental conceptions of systemic or socio-metabolic characteristics were not found. These findings lead to the need for the integration of these critical approaches about the environmental issue in Sciences and Biology teachers’ training, emphasizing the interactions between work, nature and society. Finally, some suggestions also emerge for future research, among which to analyze the biological sciences university teachers’ environmental conceptions and an action-research with these investigated undergraduates concerning environmental critical approaches.

  6. Do natural science experiments influence public attitudes towards environmental problems?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, A.; Hunziker, M.; Kienast, F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the significance of risk assessment studies in the public discussion on CO 2 emissions. Politicians and representatives from the public were interviewed by using the social-science technique of qualitative in-depth interviews. Three different types of attitudes towards natural science were found among politicians. Depending on which attitude a politician holds, risk assessment studies can have an impact on his/her readiness to support environmental policy measures. Regarding lay people, key factors affecting the acceptance of environmental policy measures are knowledge of environmental problems, their impacts on ecosystems or human health as well as direct personal perception of those impacts. Since direct perception is not always possible in everyday life, natural science experiments might be a means for successfully mediating this lacking perception. (author)

  7. Social Cognitive Predictors of Interest in Environmental Science: Recommendations for Environmental Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Julie L.; Seyala, Nazar D.; Wolfson, Jane L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of social cognitive variables on students' interest in environmental science careers and investigated differences between White and ethnic minority students on several career-related variables. The sample consisted of 161 undergraduate science majors (124 White students, 37 ethnic minority students). Results of…

  8. Applications of voltammetry in environmental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, D.H.S.

    1985-01-01

    The wide-ranging applications of voltammetry to the analysis of trace metals and other ions of interest to environmental scientists are reviewed. It is concluded that the availability of modern microprocessor controlled instrumentation, capable of performing both anodic stripping and square wave voltammetry, provides a flexible and powerful technique to aid in solving analytical problems and carrying out routine analyses. The recent identification of many sensitizing agents which reduce detection limits to part per thousand million level, or below, is a further exciting development in this field.

  9. Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C. A.; Crimmins, M.; Ferguson, D. B.; Garfin, G. M.; Scott, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    As society is confronted with population growth, limited resources, and the impacts of climate variability and change, it is vital that institutions of higher education promote the development of professionals who can work with decision-makers to incorporate scientific information into environmental planning and management. Skills for the communication of science are essential, but equally important is the ability to understand decision-making contexts and engage with resource managers and policy makers. It is increasingly being recognized that people who understand the linkages between science and decision making are crucial if science is to better support planning and policy. A new graduate-level seminar, "Making the Connection between Environmental Science and Decision Making," is a core course for a new post-baccalaureate certificate program, Connecting Environmental Science and Decision Making at the University of Arizona. The goal of the course is to provide students with a basic understanding of the dynamics between scientists and decision makers that result in scientific information being incorporated into environmental planning, policy, and management decisions. Through readings from the environmental and social sciences, policy, and planning literature, the course explores concepts including scientific information supply and demand, boundary organizations, co-production of knowledge, platforms for engagement, and knowledge networks. Visiting speakers help students understand some of the challenges of incorporating scientific information into planning and decision making within institutional and political contexts. The course also includes practical aspects of two-way communication via written, oral, and graphical presentations as well as through the interview process to facilitate the transfer of scientific information to decision makers as well as to broader audiences. We aspire to help students develop techniques that improve communication and

  10. Science during crisis: the application of social science during major environmental crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machlis, Gary; Ludwig, Kris; Manfredo, Michael J.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Rechkemmer, Andreas; Duke, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Historical and contemporary experience suggests that science plays an increasingly critical role in governmental and institutional responses to major environmental crises. Recent examples include major western wildfires (2009), the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010), the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), and Hurricane Sandy (2012). The application of science during such crises has several distinctive characteristics, as well as essential requirements if it is to be useful to decision makers. these include scope conditions that include coupled natural/human systems, clear statement of uncertainties and limitations, description of cascading consequences, accurate sense of place, estimates of magnitude of impacts, identification of beneficiaries and those adversely affected, clarity and conciseness, compelling visualization and presentation, capacity to speak "truth to power", and direct access to decision makers. In this chapter, we explore the role and significance of science – including all relevant disciplines and focusing attention on the social sciences – in responding to major environmental crises. We explore several important questions: How is science during crisis distinctive? What social science is most useful during crises? What distinctive characteristics are necessary for social science to make meaningful contributions to emergency response and recovery? How might the social sciences be integrated into the strategic science needed to respond to future crises? The authors, both members of the Department of the Interior's innovative Strategic Sciences Group, describe broad principles of engagement as well as specific examples drawn from history, contemporary efforts (such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill), and predictions of environmental crises still to be confronted.

  11. Environmental Sciences Division. Annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    Progress for the period ending September 30, 1979 by the Environmental Sciences Division is reported. Sections reporting include terrestrial ecoloy; earth sciences; environmental resources; aquatic ecology; synthetic fuels; nuclear program; environmental impacts program; ecosystem studies; and burial ground technology

  12. Educator Preparedness to Teach Environmental Science in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, Linus Joseph, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental proficiency of Texas life science educators certified from 2003 to 2011 by analyzing their TExES 138 8-12 exam results in domains V and VI. The sample consisted of all the individuals that took and passed the TExES 138 life science 8-12 exam. During this period, approximately 41% of the individuals who took…

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT: TOWARDS A NEW SCIENCE OF SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Systems Management (ESM) is the management of environmental problems at the systems level fully accounting for the multi-dimensional nature of the environment. This includes socio-economic dimensions as well as the usual physical and life science aspects of environm...

  14. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  15. Accelerator mass spectrometry and its applications in environmental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Kexin; Li Kun; Ma Hongji; Guo Zhiyu

    2001-01-01

    Some important work worldwide in environmental science, like urban air pollution, discharges of radioactive wastes from nuclear plants, and global climate change were introduced. Based on the improvements of facility and studies on 14 C dating method, a precision better than 0.5% has been reached for the PKUAMS. A large number of samples have been measured for the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology project. 14 C data of PKUAMS have made important contributions to creation of more reliable chronological table of Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. The improvements of PKUAMS are of benefit to the applications in environmental science in the future

  16. Low socio-economic environmental determinants of children's physical activity in Coventry, UK: A Qualitative study in parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Cox, V M

    2014-01-01

    Children's physical activity (PA) is affected by socio-economic status (SES) and the environment. Children are not fully autonomous in their decision making; parental decisions thus affect how children utilise their surrounding environments for PA. The aim was to examine environmental influences on children's PA from a qualitative perspective in parents from low SES wards in Coventry, UK. 59 parents of children in year 4 (aged 8-9years) completed the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. 16 of these parents took part in focus group discussions examining environmental facilitators and barriers to their child's PA (March-April, 2013). Emerging themes related to physical (i.e. poor access, safety and quality of the neighbourhood) and social environment (i.e. 'rough' neighbourhood due to crime and anti-social behaviour) influences on the PA behaviour of children. The parents believed these environmental factors resulted in the children engaging in greater sedentary activity (watching TV) indoors. The school environment was perceived as a supportive physical environment for children's PA behaviour. Parent's perceptions of an unsupportive physical and social environment restrict children's opportunities to play outside and be physically active and may lead to increased body fat (BF). Schools provide a supportive environment for children from low SES to be physically active in.

  17. 1992 Environmental Summer Science Camp Program evaluation. The International Environmental Institute of Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 Westinghouse Hanford Company/US Department of Energy Environmental Summer Science Camp. The objective of the ``camp`` was to motivate sixth and seventh graders to pursue studies in math, science, and the environment. This objective was accomplished through hands-on fun activities while studying the present and future challenges facing our environment. The camp was funded through Technical Task Plan, 424203, from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Technology Development,to Westinghouse Hanford Company`s International Environmental Institute, Education and Internship Performance Group.

  18. Actinide science. Fundamental and environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choppin, Gregory R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear test explosions and reactor wastes have deposited an estimated 16x10 15 Bq of plutonium into the world's aquatic systems. However, plutonium concentration in open ocean waters is orders of magnitude less, indicating that most of the plutonium is quite insolvable in marine waters and has been incorporated into sediments. Actinide ions in waters often are not in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium and their solubility and migration behavior is related to the form in which the nuclides were introduced into the aquatic system. Actinide solubility depends on such factors as pH(hydrolysis), E H (oxidation state), reaction with complexants (e.g. carbonate, phosphate, humic acid, etc.) sorption to surfaces of minerals and/or colloids, etc., in the water. The most significant of these variables is the oxidation sate of the metal ion. The simultaneous presence of more than one oxidation state for some actinides (e.g. plutonium) in a solution complicates actinide environmental behavior. Both Np(V)O 2 + and Pu(V)O 2 + , the most significant soluble states in natural oxic waters are relatively noncomplexing and resistant to hydrolysis and subsequent precipitation but can undergo reduction to the Pu(IV) oxidation state with its different elemental behavior. The solubility of NpO 2 + can be as high as 10 -4 M while that of PuO 2 + is more limited by reduction to the insoluble tetravalent species, Pu(OH) 4 , (pK SP - 56). The net solubility of hexavalent UO 2 2+ in sea water is also limited by hydrolysis; however, it has a relatively high concentration due to formation of carbonate complexes. The insoluble trivalent americium hydroxocarbonate, Am(CO) 3 (OH), is the limiting species for the solubility of Am(III) in sea water. Thorium is found exclusively as the tetravalent species and its solubility is limited by the formation of quite insoluble Th(OH) 4 . The chemistry of actinide ions in the environment is reviewed to show the spectrum of reactions that can occur in

  19. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nico, Peter; A; Anastasio, Cort; Dodge, Cleveland; Fendorf, Scott; Francis, A.J.; Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Tomutsa, Liviu; Tufano, Kate; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Werner, Michelle; Williams, Ken

    2006-04-05

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) has a variety of capabilities that are applicable to very different types of environmental systems. Shown are the basic descriptions of four of the approximately 35 beam lines at the ALS. The complimentary capabilities of these four beam lines allow for investigations that range from a spatial scale of a few nanometers to several millimeters. The Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source seeks to promote and assist environmental research, particularly on the four beam lines described in this report. Several short examples of the types of research conducted on these beam lines are also described.

  20. Environmental impacts of food waste: Learnings and challenges from a case study on UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Albizzati, Paola Federica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    by four sectors of the food supply chain in United Kingdom, namely processing, wholesale and retail, food service, and households. The impacts were quantified for ten environmental impact categories, from Global Warming to Water Depletion, including indirect land use change impacts due to demand for land......Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generated...

  1. #BritainBreathing: Codesigned citizen science to map seasonal allergy symptoms across the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamiece Hassan

    2017-04-01

    Citizen science can be more than simply crowdsourcing data. We demonstrated that paper prototyping was a feasible and useful technique for codesigning an application with members of the public. Furthermore, workshop feedback indicated a high level of support for citizen science, provided users gained simple, personalised feedback. Further research is required to determine how codesign processes influence subsequent participant recruitment and engagement in citizen science projects.

  2. Staying in the science stream: patterns of participation in A-level science subjects in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of participation and attainment in A-level physics, chemistry and biology from 1961 to 2009. The A-level has long been seen as an important gateway qualification for higher level study, particularly in the sciences. This long term overview examines how recruitment to these three subjects has changed in the context of numerous policies and initiatives that seek to retain more young people in the sciences. The results show that recruitment to the pure sciences has ...

  3. Quantitative Reasoning in Environmental Science: A Learning Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Robert Lee; Forrester, Jennifer Harris; Christus, Jennifer Schuttlefield; Peterson, Franziska Isabel; Bonilla, Rachel; Yestness, Nissa

    2014-01-01

    The ability of middle and high school students to reason quantitatively within the context of environmental science was investigated. A quantitative reasoning (QR) learning progression was created with three progress variables: quantification act, quantitative interpretation, and quantitative modeling. An iterative research design was used as it…

  4. Reforming an Undergraduate Environmental Science Course for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazempour, Mahsa; Amirshokoohi, Aidin

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the key components of a reform-based introductory undergraduate environmental science course for nonscience majors and elementary teacher candidates as well as the impact of such components on the participants. The main goals for the course were to actively engage the students in their learning and, in doing so, to enhance…

  5. Matrices to Revise Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Mary C.; Longer, David; Miller, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Undergraduate curricula for natural resource and agronomic programs have been introduced and revised during the past several decades with a desire to stay current with emerging issues and technologies relevant to constituents. For the past decade, the Department of Crop, Soil, and Environmental Sciences (CSES) faculty at the University of Arkansas…

  6. Hierarchical modelling for the environmental sciences statistical methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, James S

    2006-01-01

    New statistical tools are changing the way in which scientists analyze and interpret data and models. Hierarchical Bayes and Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods for analysis provide a consistent framework for inference and prediction where information is heterogeneous and uncertain, processes are complicated, and responses depend on scale. Nowhere are these methods more promising than in the environmental sciences.

  7. French environmental labs may get 'big science' funds

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    France is considering expanding its network of enviromental laboratories to study the long term impacts of environmental change. It has been suggested that this could be funded using the 'big science' budget usually used for facilities such as particle accelerators (2 para).

  8. ESI-VI9, Peter Island, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  9. ESI-VI14, Anegada U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. ESI-VI11, Tortola, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  11. ESI-VI12 Beef Island, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  12. ESI-VI13, Virgin Gorda, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  13. The Environmental Issues Relating to Packaging in the UK Food Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Bo

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation's objective is to explore a practical and cost-effective way to alleviate the environmental burden coming from food and food packaging industries, to establish a win-win solution between the call for environmental-friendly packaging and the producers' actual cost. To achieve this aim, the author implemented both primary and secondary research methods, and has recorded her findings according to these two kinds of researches in Chapter 4. Combining the findings with her acad...

  14. How Can Humanities Interventions Promote Progress in the Environmental Sciences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally L. Kitch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental humanists make compelling arguments about the importance of the environmental humanities (EH for discovering new ways to conceptualize and address the urgent challenges of the environmental crisis now confronting the planet. Many environmental scientists in a variety of fields are also committed to incorporating socio-cultural analyses in their work. Despite such intentions and rhetoric, however, and some humanists’ eagerness to incorporate science into their own work, “radical interdisciplinarity [across the humanities and sciences] is ... rare ... and does not have the impact one would hope for” (Holm et al. 2013, p. 32. This article discusses reasons for the gap between transdisciplinary intentions and the work being done in the environmental sciences. The article also describes a project designed to address that gap. Entitled “From Innovation to Progress: Addressing Hazards of the Sustainability Sciences”, the project encourages humanities interventions in problem definition, before any solution or action is chosen. Progress offers strategies for promoting expanded stakeholder engagement, enhancing understanding of power struggles and inequities that underlie problems and over-determine solutions, and designing multiple future scenarios based on alternative values, cultural practices and beliefs, and perspectives on power distribution and entitlement.

  15. Phenological changes of the most commonly sampled ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species in the UK environmental change network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozsgai, Gabor; Baird, John; Littlewood, Nick A.; Pakeman, Robin J.; Young, Mark R.

    2018-03-01

    Despite the important roles ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) play in ecosystems, the highly valued ecosystem services they provide, and ample descriptive documentation of their phenology, the relative impact of various environmental factors on carabid phenology is not well studied. Using the long-term pitfall trap capture data from 12 terrestrial Environmental Change Network (ECN) sites from the UK, we examined how changing climate influenced the phenology of common carabids, and the role particular climate components had on phenological parameters. Of the 28 species included in the analyses, 19 showed earlier start of their activity. This advance was particularly pronounced in the spring, supporting the view that early phenophases have a greater tendency to change and these changes are more directly controlled by temperature than later ones. Autumn activity extended only a few cases, suggesting a photoperiod-driven start of hibernation. No association was found between life-history traits and the ability of species to change their phenology. Air temperatures between April and June were the most important factors determining the start of activity of each species, whilst late season precipitation hastened the cessation of activity. The balance between the advantages and disadvantages of changing phenology on various levels is likely to depend on the species and even on local environmental criteria. The substantially changing phenology of Carabidae may influence their function in ecosystems and the ecosystem services they provide.

  16. Scientific knowledge and environmental policy. Why science needs values. Environmental essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolan, M.S. [Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins (United States)

    2006-12-15

    While the term 'science' is evoked with immense frequency in the political arena, it continues to be misunderstood. Perhaps the most repeated example of this - particularly when dealing with environmental policy and regulatory issues - is when science is called upon to provide the unattainable: namely, proof. What is scientific knowledge and, more importantly, what is it capable of providing us? These questions must be answered - by policymakers, politicians, the public, and scientists themselves - if we hope to ever resolve today's environmental controversies in a just and equitable way. This paper begins by critically examining the concepts of uncertainty and proof as they apply to science. Discussion then turns to the issue of values in science. This is to speak of the normative decisions that are made routinely in the environmental sciences (but often without them being recognized as such). To conclude, insights are gleaned from the preceding sections to help us understand how science should be utilized and conducted, particularly as it applies to environmental policy.

  17. Environmental Sciences Division: Summaries of research in FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This document describes the Fiscal Year 1996 activities and products of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The report is organized into four main sections. The introduction identifies the basic program structure, describes the programs of the Environmental Sciences Division, and provides the level of effort for each program area. The research areas and project descriptions section gives program contact information, and provides descriptions of individual research projects including: three-year funding history, research objective and approach used in each project, and results to date. Appendixes provide postal and e-mail addresses for principal investigators and define acronyms used in the text. The indexes provide indexes of principal investigators, research institutions, and keywords for easy reference. Research projects are related to climatic change and remedial action.

  18. Panarchy use in environmental science for risk and resilience planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Environmental sciences have an important role in informing sustainable management of built environments by providing insights about the drivers and potentially negative impacts of global environmental change. Here, we discuss panarchy theory, a multi-scale hierarchical concept that accounts for the dynamism of complex socio-ecological systems, especially for those systems with strong cross-scale feedbacks. The idea of panarchy underlies much of system resilience, focusing on how systems respond to known and unknown threats. Panarchy theory can provide a framework for qualitative and quantitative research and application in the environmental sciences, which can in turn inform the ongoing efforts in socio-technical resilience thinking and adaptive and transformative approaches to management.

  19. Environmental Science Program at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Susan; Shuh, David; Nico, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Synchrotron Radiation (SR)-based techniques have become an essential and fundamental research tool in Molecular Environmental Science (MES) research. MES is an emerging scientific field that has largely evolved from research interactions at the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) SR laboratories in response to the pressing need for understanding fundamental molecular-level chemical and biological processes that involve the speciation, properties, and behavior of contaminants, within natural systems. The role of SR-based investigations in MES and their impact on environmental problems of importance to society has been recently documented in Molecular Environmental Science: An Assessment of Research Accomplishment, Available Synchrotron Radiation Facilities, and Needs (EnviroSync, 2003).

  20. 77 FR 66853 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Career Grants in the Environmental Health Sciences. Date: November...., Scientific Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program...

  1. 78 FR 8156 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Studies of Environmental Agents to Induce Immunotoxicity... Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research...

  2. 76 FR 13650 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3171, Research... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Educational Grants with an Environmental Health...

  3. 75 FR 34147 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Review Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute Environmental Health Sciences... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards...

  4. 77 FR 40076 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541- 0752... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  5. 75 FR 7487 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  6. 76 FR 67748 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  7. 75 FR 55805 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. (919) 541-4980... Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied...

  8. 75 FR 45133 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory.... Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B, Research Triangle Park, NC... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  9. 78 FR 51734 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory..., Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards...

  10. 75 FR 32797 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Branch, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P... Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental...

  11. 78 FR 42968 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114...

  12. 78 FR 27410 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory..., Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review... the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114...

  13. Environmental impacts of food waste: Learnings and challenges from a case study on UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Albizzati, Paola Federica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-01-01

    Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generate...... highlight the challenges related to modelling and methodological choices. Particularly, food production datasets should be chosen and used carefully, to avoid double counting and overestimation of the final impacts.......Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generated...... by four sectors of the food supply chain in United Kingdom, namely processing, wholesale and retail, food service, and households. The impacts were quantified for ten environmental impact categories, from Global Warming to Water Depletion, including indirect land use change impacts due to demand for land...

  14. Beyond Science and Technology: The need to incorporate Environmental Ethics to solve Environmental Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fesseha Mulu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and development of science and technology has been critical in improving the lives of mankind. It helps mankind to cope with a number of manmade and natural challenges and disasters. Science cannot totally diminish the level of human dependency on nature; but, with the existing availability of natural resources, science has increased our productivity. However, science and technology can also have its own negative impacts on the natural environment. For the purpose of increasing productivity and satisfying human needs, humans have been egoistically exploiting nature but disregarding the effects of their activities on nature. Science has also been trying its level best to mitigate the negative effects that results from mankind’s exploitation of nature. However, science alone is incapable of solving all environmental problems. This desk research employs secondary sources of data, and argues that environmental ethics should come to the fore in order to address the gap left by science with regard to resolving environmental problems that mankind faces today.

  15. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  16. What does the UK public want from academic science communication? [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Redfern

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of public academic science communication is to engage a non-scientist with a particular field of science and/or research topic, often driven by the expertise of the academic. An e-survey was designed to provide insight into respondent’s current and future engagement with science communication activities. Respondents provided a wide range of ideas and concerns as to the ‘common practice’ of academic science communication, and whilst they support some of these popular approaches (such as open-door events and science festivals, there are alternatives that may enable wider engagement. Suggestions of internet-based approaches and digital media were strongly encouraged, and although respondents found merits in methods such as science festivals, limitations such as geography, time and topic of interest were a barrier to engagement for some. Academics and scientists need to think carefully about how they plan their science communication activities and carry out evaluations, including considering the point of view of the public, as although defaulting to hands-on open door events at their university may seem like the expected standard, it may not be the best way to reach the intended audience.

  17. Levels of radioactivity in the UK from the accident at Chernobyl, USSR on 26 April 1986. A compilation of the results of environmental measurements in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The compilation includes information available to NRPB up to 23 May 1986. The data includes activity concentrations in air, waters (rain, surface, underground, tapwater and non-potable), grass (including forage and general herbage and mosses), outdoor dose/rates for gamma activity, milks, leafy vegetables and other foodstuffs such as fish, eggs, cheese, milk products and meat. (U.K.).

  18. 77 FR 45604 - Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Science Advisory Board; Environmental Economics Advisory Committee AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...) Staff Office announces two public teleconferences of the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee...., notice is hereby given that the SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee (EEAC) will hold public...

  19. Challenges for Data Archival Centers in Evolving Environmental Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Cook, R. B.; Gu, L.; Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Beaty, T.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental science has entered into a big data era as enormous data about the Earth environment are continuously collected through field and airborne missions, remote sensing observations, model simulations, sensor networks, etc. An open-access and open-management data infrastructure for data-intensive science is a major grand challenge in global environmental research (BERAC, 2010). Such an infrastructure, as exemplified in EOSDIS, GEOSS, and NSF EarthCube, will provide a complete lifecycle of environmental data and ensures that data will smoothly flow among different phases of collection, preservation, integration, and analysis. Data archival centers, as the data integration units closest to data providers, serve as the source power to compile and integrate heterogeneous environmental data into this global infrastructure. This presentation discusses the interoperability challenges and practices of geosciences from the aspect of data archival centers, based on the operational experiences of the NASA-sponsored Oak Ridge National Laboratory Distributed Active Archive Center (ORNL DAAC) and related environmental data management activities. Specifically, we will discuss the challenges to 1) encourage and help scientists to more actively share data with the broader scientific community, so that valuable environmental data, especially those dark data collected by individual scientists in small independent projects, can be shared and integrated into the infrastructure to tackle big science questions; 2) curate heterogeneous multi-disciplinary data, focusing on the key aspects of identification, format, metadata, data quality, and semantics to make them ready to be plugged into a global data infrastructure. We will highlight data curation practices at the ORNL DAAC for global campaigns such as BOREAS, LBA, SAFARI 2000; and 3) enhance the capabilities to more effectively and efficiently expose and deliver "big" environmental data to broad range of users and systems

  20. Molecular Environmental Science and Synchrotron Radiation Facilities An Update of the 1995 DOE-Airlie Report on Molecular Environmental Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bargar, John R

    1999-05-07

    This workshop was requested by Dr. Robert Marianelli, Director of the DOE-BES Chemical Sciences Division, to update the findings of the Workshop on Molecular Environmental Sciences (MES) held at Airlie, VA, in July 1995. The Airlie Workshop Report defined the new interdisciplinary field referred to as Molecular Environmental Science (MES), reviewed the synchrotron radiation methods used in MES research, assessed the adequacy of synchrotron radiation facilities for research in this field, and summarized the beam time requirements of MES users based on a national MES user survey. The objectives of MES research are to provide information on the chemical and physical forms (speciation), spatial distribution, and reactivity of contaminants in natural materials and man-made waste forms, and to develop a fundamental understanding of the complex molecular-scale environmental processes, both chemical and biological, that affect the stability, transformations, mobility, and toxicity of contaminant species. These objectives require parallel studies of ''real'' environmental samples, which are complicated multi-phase mixtures with chemical and physical heterogeneities, and of simplified model systems in which variables can be controlled and fundamental processes can be examined. Only by this combination of approaches can a basic understanding of environmental processes at the molecular-scale be achieved.

  1. Molecular Environmental Science and Synchrotron Radiation Facilities An Update of the 1995 DOE-Airlie Report on Molecular Environmental Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargar, John R

    1999-01-01

    This workshop was requested by Dr. Robert Marianelli, Director of the DOE-BES Chemical Sciences Division, to update the findings of the Workshop on Molecular Environmental Sciences (MES) held at Airlie, VA, in July 1995. The Airlie Workshop Report defined the new interdisciplinary field referred to as Molecular Environmental Science (MES), reviewed the synchrotron radiation methods used in MES research, assessed the adequacy of synchrotron radiation facilities for research in this field, and summarized the beam time requirements of MES users based on a national MES user survey. The objectives of MES research are to provide information on the chemical and physical forms (speciation), spatial distribution, and reactivity of contaminants in natural materials and man-made waste forms, and to develop a fundamental understanding of the complex molecular-scale environmental processes, both chemical and biological, that affect the stability, transformations, mobility, and toxicity of contaminant species. These objectives require parallel studies of ''real'' environmental samples, which are complicated multi-phase mixtures with chemical and physical heterogeneities, and of simplified model systems in which variables can be controlled and fundamental processes can be examined. Only by this combination of approaches can a basic understanding of environmental processes at the molecular-scale be achieved

  2. A Comprehensive Course Introducing Environmental Science : Case Study of “Introduction to Environmental Science” as a Common Course in the Graduate School of Environmental Science

    OpenAIRE

    山中, 康裕; 三井, 翔太

    2017-01-01

    The course “Introduction to Environmental Science” was designed and held during the academic year 2015-2016 for new masterʼs course students at the Graduate School of Environmental Science, Hokkaido University. The course was designed in accord with societal needs such as consensus building for environmental conservation and associated scientific evidence, bringing together a large number of students from various disciplines. The course was composed of six modules in which multipl...

  3. Proceedings of the Science and Community Environmental Knowledge Fund forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented details of a forum which provided partners and stakeholders with an opportunity to see results of recent projects initiated by the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada's Science and Community Environmental Knowledge Fund. The aim of the forum was to discuss future directions for research and funding. The fund is comprised of 5 knowledge envelopes covering environmental issues relevant to the oil and gas industry. These include ecosystem and cumulative impact management; health and safety; education and technology; and community environmental knowledge. Achievements, trends, challenges and innovations in environmental impact management were reviewed. Current environmental impact management strategies in British Columbia oil and gas industry were discussed along with issues concerning wildlife and footprint minimization in relation to facility operations and reclamation management. Waste and air quality management issues were also discussed. The forum featured 29 presentations that touched on topics such as innovations and opportunities in environmental impact research; Snake-Sahtaneh Boreal caribou habitat use and ecology; wildlife habitat connectivity and conservation of Peace River lowlands; mountain goats and helicopters; water use plan and low flow analysis; cumulative impacts assessment of development on forests and First Nations of northeast BC; geophysical line construction; the application of First Nations traditional knowledge to reclamation strategies in the oil and gas industry; issues concerning construction and standards; the influence of new technologies in environmental impact management; and the environmental aspects of natural gas midstream operations.

  4. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.B. (comp.)

    1982-07-01

    This bibliography contains 698 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1981. There are 520 references to articles published in journals and books and 178 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Instrumentation and Controls, Computer Sciences, Energy, Engineering Technology, Solid State, Central Management, Operations, and Environmental Sciences. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference.

  5. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1982-07-01

    This bibliography contains 698 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1981. There are 520 references to articles published in journals and books and 178 references to reports. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions represented in the order that they appear in the bibliography are Analytical Chemistry, Biology, Chemical Technology, Information R and D, Health and Safety Research, Instrumentation and Controls, Computer Sciences, Energy, Engineering Technology, Solid State, Central Management, Operations, and Environmental Sciences. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference

  6. Opportunities for web-based indicators in environmental sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Malcevschi

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a set of web-based indicators for quantifying and ranking the relevance of terms related to key-issues in Ecology and Sustainability Science. Search engines that operate in different contexts (e.g. global, social, scientific are considered as web information carriers (WICs and are able to analyse; (i relevance on different levels: global web, individual/personal sphere, on-line news, and culture/science; (ii time trends of relevance; (iii relevance of keywords for environmental governance. For the purposes of this study, several indicators and specific indices (relational indices and dynamic indices were applied to a test-set of 24 keywords. Outputs consistently show that traditional study topics in environmental sciences such as water and air have remained the most quantitatively relevant keywords, while interest in systemic issues (i.e. ecosystem and landscape has grown over the last 20 years. Nowadays, the relevance of new concepts such as resilience and ecosystem services is increasing, but the actual ability of these concepts to influence environmental governance needs to be further studied and understood. The proposed approach, which is based on intuitive and easily replicable procedures, can support the decision-making processes related to environmental governance.

  7. Status and developmental strategy of nuclear agricultural sciences in researches of eco-environmental sciences in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Luo; Wang Xunqing

    2001-01-01

    The concept, research scopes, research progress and achievement of nuclear agricultural sciences in past several decades in China, as well as the relationship between nuclear agriculture research and eco-environmental sciences were described. The disciplinary frontier, major research fields and priority developmental fields of nuclear agriculture in eco-environmental sciences was displayed. Suggestions were made to improve and strengthen nuclear agriculture research. Those provided basic source materials and consideration for application developmental strategy of nuclear agriculture in eco-environmental sciences

  8. Web portal on environmental sciences "ATMOS''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Gordov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed under INTAS grant web portal ATMOS (http://atmos.iao.ru and http://atmos.scert.ru makes available to the international research community, environmental managers, and the interested public, a bilingual information source for the domain of Atmospheric Physics and Chemistry, and the related application domain of air quality assessment and management. It offers access to integrated thematic information, experimental data, analytical tools and models, case studies, and related information and educational resources compiled, structured, and edited by the partners into a coherent and consistent thematic information resource. While offering the usual components of a thematic site such as link collections, user group registration, discussion forum, news section etc., the site is distinguished by its scientific information services and tools: on-line models and analytical tools, and data collections and case studies together with tutorial material. The portal is organized as a set of interrelated scientific sites, which addressed basic branches of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Modeling as well as the applied domains of Air Quality Assessment and Management, Modeling, and Environmental Impact Assessment. Each scientific site is open for external access information-computational system realized by means of Internet technologies. The main basic science topics are devoted to Atmospheric Chemistry, Atmospheric Spectroscopy and Radiation, Atmospheric Aerosols, Atmospheric Dynamics and Atmospheric Models, including climate models. The portal ATMOS reflects current tendency of Environmental Sciences transformation into exact (quantitative sciences and is quite effective example of modern Information Technologies and Environmental Sciences integration. It makes the portal both an auxiliary instrument to support interdisciplinary projects of regional environment and extensive educational resource in this important domain.

  9. Augmented Citizen Science for Environmental Monitoring and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, B.; de Lange, N.; Xu, S.

    2017-09-01

    Environmental monitoring and ecological studies detect and visualize changes of the environment over time. Some agencies are committed to document the development of conservation and status of geotopes and geosites, which is time-consuming and cost-intensive. Citizen science and crowd sourcing are modern approaches to collect data and at the same time to raise user awareness for environmental changes. Citizen scientists can take photographs of point of interests (POI) with smartphones and the PAN App, which is presented in this article. The user is navigated to a specific point and is then guided with an augmented reality approach to take a photo in a specific direction. The collected photographs are processed to time-lapse videos to visualize environmental changes. Users and experts in environmental agencies can use this data for long-term documentation.

  10. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  11. Progress report - Physical and Environmental Sciences - Physics Division, 1995 January 1 to December 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, M. (ed.)

    1996-05-01

    This document is a Progress Report for the Physical and Environmental Sciences, Physics Division, for the period 1995 January 1 to December 31, at the Chalk River nuclear Labs. The condensed matter science group continued to operate a multi-faceted program involving collaborative basic and applied research with external scientists in the fields of materials science, physics, chemistry and biology. The Applied Neutron Diffraction for Industry (And) program gained strength with ever wider applications for the nuclear, aerospace, and manufacturing programs. Steps continued towards making neutron scattering facilities at NRU reactor more user friendly. The neutrino physics group, as part of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Institute, collaborating with scientists from Canada, USA and UK. The accelerator physics group spent considerable effort working with materials and fuels scientists to show the value of accelerators as an out-reactor source of radiation. Specific research activities have included the demonstration of laser plasma deposition of diamond coating, which has potential application for high-wear components in reactors, and the study for a Free Electron Laser upgrade for the IMPELA accelerator. As a result of funding reduction all programs of the Division were dissolved as of 1997 March 31.

  12. Progress report - Physical and Environmental Sciences - Physics Division, 1995 January 1 to December 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, M.

    1996-05-01

    This document is a Progress Report for the Physical and Environmental Sciences, Physics Division, for the period 1995 January 1 to December 31, at the Chalk River nuclear Labs. The condensed matter science group continued to operate a multi-faceted program involving collaborative basic and applied research with external scientists in the fields of materials science, physics, chemistry and biology. The Applied Neutron Diffraction for Industry (And) program gained strength with ever wider applications for the nuclear, aerospace, and manufacturing programs. Steps continued towards making neutron scattering facilities at NRU reactor more user friendly. The neutrino physics group, as part of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) Institute, collaborating with scientists from Canada, USA and UK. The accelerator physics group spent considerable effort working with materials and fuels scientists to show the value of accelerators as an out-reactor source of radiation. Specific research activities have included the demonstration of laser plasma deposition of diamond coating, which has potential application for high-wear components in reactors, and the study for a Free Electron Laser upgrade for the IMPELA accelerator. As a result of funding reduction all programs of the Division were dissolved as of 1997 March 31

  13. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions. PMID:22573992

  14. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Zhou

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  15. Applications of SAR Interferometry in Earth and Environmental Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Chang, Ni-Bin; Li, Shusun

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the progress in regard to the InSAR remote sensing technique and its applications in earth and environmental sciences, especially in the past decade. Basic principles, factors, limits, InSAR sensors, available software packages for the generation of InSAR interferograms were summarized to support future applications. Emphasis was placed on the applications of InSAR in seismology, volcanology, land subsidence/uplift, landslide, glaciology, hydrology, and forestry sciences. It ends with a discussion of future research directions.

  16. Environmental impacts of food waste: Learnings and challenges from a case study on UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Davide; Albizzati, Paola Federica; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2018-06-01

    Food waste, particularly when avoidable, incurs loss of resources and considerable environmental impacts due to the multiple processes involved in the life cycle. This study applies a bottom-up life cycle assessment method to quantify the environmental impacts of the avoidable food waste generated by four sectors of the food supply chain in United Kingdom, namely processing, wholesale and retail, food service, and households. The impacts were quantified for ten environmental impact categories, from Global Warming to Water Depletion, including indirect land use change impacts due to demand for land. The Global Warming impact of the avoidable food waste was quantified between 2000 and 3600 kg CO 2 -eq. t -1 . The range reflected the different compositions of the waste in each sector. Prominent contributors to the impact, across all the environmental categories assessed, were land use changes and food production. Food preparation, for households and food service sectors, also provided an important contribution to the Global Warming impacts, while waste management partly mitigated the overall impacts by incurring significant savings when landfilling was replaced with anaerobic digestion and incineration. To further improve these results, it is recommended to focus future efforts on providing improved data regarding the breakdown of specific food products within the mixed waste, indirect land use change effects, and the share of food waste undergoing cooking. Learning from this and previous studies, we highlight the challenges related to modelling and methodological choices. Particularly, food production datasets should be chosen and used carefully, to avoid double counting and overestimation of the final impacts. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring emerging learning needs: a UK-wide consultation on environmental sustainability learning objectives for medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Sarah C; Mortimer, Frances; Inman, Alice; Braithwaite, Isobel; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-12-24

    This study aimed to engage wide-ranging stakeholders and develop consensus learning objectives for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. A UK-wide consultation garnered opinions of healthcare students, healthcare educators and other key stakeholders about environmental sustainability in medical education. The policy Delphi approach informed this study. Draft learning objectives were revised iteratively during three rounds of consultation: online questionnaire or telephone interview, face-to-face seminar and email consultation. Twelve draft learning objectives were developed based on review of relevant literature. In round one, 64 participants' median ratings of the learning objectives were 3.5 for relevance and 3.0 for feasibility on a Likert scale of one to four. Revisions were proposed, e.g. to highlight relevance to public health and professionalism. Thirty three participants attended round two. Conflicting opinions were explored. Added content areas included health benefits of sustainable behaviours. To enhance usability, restructuring provided three overarching learning objectives, each with subsidiary points. All participants from rounds one and two were contacted in round three, and no further edits were required. This is the first attempt to define consensus learning objectives for medical students about environmental sustainability. Allowing a wide range of stakeholders to comment on multiple iterations of the document stimulated their engagement with the issues raised and ownership of the resulting learning objectives.

  18. Incorporating Geographic Information Science in the BSc Environ-mental Science Program in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Felicia O.

    2018-05-01

    Critical human capacity in Geographic Information Science (GISc) is developed at the Botswana International University of Science and Technology, a specialized, research university. Strategies employed include GISc courses offered each semester to students from various programs, the conduct of field-based projects, enrolment in online courses, geo-spatial initiatives with external partners, and final year research projects utilizing geospatial technologies. A review is made of available GISc courses embedded in the Bachelor of Science Environmental Science program. GISc courses are incorporated in three Bachelor degree programs as distinct courses. Geospatial technologies are employed in several other courses. Student researches apply GIS and Remote Sensing methods to environmental and geological themes. The overarching goals are to equip students in various disciplines to utilize geospatial technologies, and enhance their spatial thinking and reasoning skills.

  19. Environmental sciences and computations: a modular data based systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.; Bailey, C.E.

    1975-07-01

    A major computer code for environmental calculations is under development at the Savannah River Laboratory. The primary aim is to develop a flexible, efficient capability to calculate, for all significant pathways, the dose to man resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Savannah River Plant and from other existing and potential radioactive sources in the southeastern United States. The environmental sciences programs at SRP are described, with emphasis on the development of the calculational system. It is being developed as a modular data-based system within the framework of the larger JOSHUA Computer System, which provides data management, terminal, and job execution facilities. (U.S.)

  20. Earth and Environmental Sciences 1999 Annual Report Meeting National Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonker, L.; Dannevik, B.

    2000-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Earth and Environmental Sciences 1999 Annual Report covers the following topics: (1) Nuclear Materials--Modeling Thermohydrologic Processes at the Proposed Yucca Mountain Nuclear-Waste Repository; Dose Assessments and Resettlement Support on Rongelap Atoll in the Marshall Islands. (2) Climate, Carbon, and Energy--Incorporating Surprise into Models of Global Climate Change: A Simple Climate Demonstrator Model; (3) Environmental Risk Reduction--The NASA Global Modeling Initiative: Analyzing the Atmospheric Impacts of Supersonic Aircraft; (4) National Security--Atmospheric Release Assessment Programs; and (5) Cross-Cutting Technologies/Capabilities--Advances in Technology at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry; Experimental Geophysics: Investigating Material Properties at Extreme Conditions

  1. The diversity and evolution of ecological and environmental citizen science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J O Pocock

    Full Text Available Citizen science-the involvement of volunteers in data collection, analysis and interpretation-simultaneously supports research and public engagement with science, and its profile is rapidly rising. Citizen science represents a diverse range of approaches, but until now this diversity has not been quantitatively explored. We conducted a systematic internet search and discovered 509 environmental and ecological citizen science projects. We scored each project for 32 attributes based on publicly obtainable information and used multiple factor analysis to summarise this variation to assess citizen science approaches. We found that projects varied according to their methodological approach from 'mass participation' (e.g. easy participation by anyone anywhere to 'systematic monitoring' (e.g. trained volunteers repeatedly sampling at specific locations. They also varied in complexity from approaches that are 'simple' to those that are 'elaborate' (e.g. provide lots of support to gather rich, detailed datasets. There was a separate cluster of entirely computer-based projects but, in general, we found that the range of citizen science projects in ecology and the environment showed continuous variation and cannot be neatly categorised into distinct types of activity. While the diversity of projects begun in each time period (pre 1990, 1990-99, 2000-09 and 2010-13 has not increased, we found that projects tended to have become increasingly different from each other as time progressed (possibly due to changing opportunities, including technological innovation. Most projects were still active so consequently we found that the overall diversity of active projects (available for participation increased as time progressed. Overall, understanding the landscape of citizen science in ecology and the environment (and its change over time is valuable because it informs the comparative evaluation of the 'success' of different citizen science approaches. Comparative

  2. AECL's research and development program in environmental science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornett, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    AECL's radiological research and development (R and D) program encompasses work on sources of radiation exposure, radionuclide transport through the environment and potential impacts on biota and on human health. The application of the radiation protection knowledge and technology developed in this program provides cradle-to-grave management for CANDU and related nuclear technologies. This document provides an overview of the Environmental Science and Technology (ES and T) program which is one of the technical areas of R and D within the radiological R and D program. The ES and T program uses science from three main areas: radiochemistry, mathematical modelling and environmental assessment. In addition to providing an overview of the program, this summary also gives specific examples of recent technical work in each of the three areas. These technical examples illustrate the applied nature of the ES and T program and the close coupling of the program to CANDU customer requirements. (author)

  3. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, J.B.

    1983-04-01

    This bibliography contains 725 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1982. There are 553 references to articles published in journals and books and 172 references to reports. The citations appear once ordered by the first author's division or by the performing division. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions are represented alphabetically. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference. Reprints of articles referenced in this bibliography can be obtained from the author or the author's division

  4. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project…

  5. 78 FR 59944 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919... [[Page 59945

  6. Staying in the Science Stream: Patterns of Participation in A-Level Science Subjects in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes patterns of participation and attainment in A-level physics, chemistry and biology from 1961 to 2009. The A level has long been seen as an important gateway qualification for higher level study, particularly in the sciences. This long-term overview examines how recruitment to these three subjects has changed in the context of…

  7. The evolution of agricultural intensification and environmental degradation in the UK: a data-driven systems dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong McKay, David I.; Dearing, John A.; Dyke, James G.; Poppy, Guy; Firbank, Les

    2016-04-01

    The world's population continues to grow rapidly, yet the current demand for food is already resulting in environmental degradation in many regions. As a result, an emerging challenge of the 21st century is how agriculture can simultaneously undergo sustainable intensification and be made more resilient to accelerating climate change. Key to this challenge is: a) finding the "safe and just operating space" for the global agri-environment system that both provides sufficient food for humanity and avoids crossing dangerous planetary boundaries, and b) downscaling this framework from a planetary to a regional scale in order to better inform decision making and incorporate regional dynamics within the planetary boundaries framework. Regional safe operating spaces can be defined and explored using a combination of metrics that indicate the changing status of ecosystem services (both provisioning and regulating), statistical techniques that reveal early warning signals and breakpoints, and dynamical system models of the regional agri-environment system. Initial attempts to apply this methodology have been made in developing countries (e.g. China [Dearing et al., 2012, 2014; Zhang et al., 2015]), but have not yet been attempted in more developed countries, for example the UK. In this study we assess the changes in ecosystem services in two contrasting agricultural regions in the UK, arable-dominated East England and pastoral-dominated South-West England, since the middle of the 20th Century. We identify and establish proxies and indices of various provisioning and regulating services in these two regions and analyse how these have changed over this time. We find that significant degradation of regulating services occurred in Eastern England in the early 1980s, reflecting a period of rapid intensification and escalating fertiliser usage, but that regulating services have begun to recover since 2000 mainly as a result of fertiliser usage decoupling from increasing wheat

  8. Interdisciplinary Environmental-health Science Throughout Disaster Lifecycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Morman, S. A.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Potential human health effects from exposures to hazardous disaster materials and environmental contamination are common concerns following disasters. Using several examples from US Geological Survey environmental disaster responses (e.g., 2001 World Trade Center, mine tailings spills, 2005 Hurricane Katrina, 2007-2013 wildfires, 2011 Gulf oil spill, 2012 Hurricane Sandy, 2013 Colorado floods) and disaster scenarios (2011 ARkStorm, 2013 SAFRR tsunami) this presentation will illustrate the role for collaborative earth, environmental, and health science throughout disaster lifecycles. Pre-disaster environmental baseline measurements are needed to help understand environmental influences on pre-disaster health baselines, and to constrain the magnitude of a disaster's impacts. During and following disasters, there is a need for interdisciplinary rapid-response and longer-term assessments that: sample and characterize the physical, chemical, and microbial makeup of complex materials generated by the disasters; fingerprint material sources; monitor, map, and model dispersal and evolution of disaster materials in the environment; help understand how the materials are modified by environmental processes; and, identify key characteristics and processes that influence the exposures and toxicity of disaster materials to humans and the living environment. This information helps emergency responders, public health experts, and cleanup managers: 1) identify short- and long-term exposures to disaster materials that may affect health; 2) prioritize areas for cleanup; and 3) develop appropriate disposal solutions or restoration uses for disaster materials. By integrating lessons learned from past disasters with geospatial information on vulnerable sources of natural or anthropogenic contaminants, the environmental health implications of looming disasters or disaster scenarios can be better anticipated, which helps enhance preparedness and resilience. Understanding economic costs of

  9. A Knowledge-Based Representation Scheme for Environmental Science Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    One of the primary methods available for studying environmental phenomena is the construction and analysis of computational models. We have been studying how artificial intelligence techniques can be applied to assist in the development and use of environmental science models within the context of NASA-sponsored activities. We have identified several high-utility areas as potential targets for research and development: model development; data visualization, analysis, and interpretation; model publishing and reuse, training and education; and framing, posing, and answering questions. Central to progress on any of the above areas is a representation for environmental models that contains a great deal more information than is present in a traditional software implementation. In particular, a traditional software implementation is devoid of any semantic information that connects the code with the environmental context that forms the background for the modeling activity. Before we can build AI systems to assist in model development and usage, we must develop a representation for environmental models that adequately describes a model's semantics and explicitly represents the relationship between the code and the modeling task at hand. We have developed one such representation in conjunction with our work on the SIGMA (Scientists' Intelligent Graphical Modeling Assistant) environment. The key feature of the representation is that it provides a semantic grounding for the symbols in a set of modeling equations by linking those symbols to an explicit representation of the underlying environmental scenario.

  10. Safety of working patterns among UK neuroradiologists: what can we learn from the aviation industry and cognitive science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reicher, John; Currie, Stuart; Birchall, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    As the volume and complexity of imaging in the UK continues to rise, there is pressure on radiologists to spend increasing lengths of time reporting to cope with the growing workload. However, there is limited guidance for radiologists about structuring the working day to strike the necessary balance between achieving satisfactory reporting volume and maintaining quality and safety. We surveyed 86 neuroradiologists (receiving 59 responses), regarding time spent reporting, frequency and duration of work breaks, and break activities. Our results demonstrate that some neuroradiologists report for up to 12 h a day and for 4 h before taking a break. Mean duration of breaks is less than 15 min and these often consist of computer screen-based or cognitively demanding tasks. Many areas of medicine have looked to the aviation industry to develop improvements in safety through regulated, standardised practices. There are parallels between the work of air traffic controllers (ATCs) and radiologists. We review the legislation that controls the working hours of UK ATCs to minimise fatigue-related errors, and its scientific basis. We also consider the vigilance decrement, a concept in cognitive science which describes the reduction in performance with increasing time-on-task. We conclude that, in comparison with ATCs, work patterns among radiologists are poorly standardised and potentially dangerous. Evidence suggests that placing limits on reporting time and minimum break duration, as well as ensuring appropriate break activities, can benefit reporting quality. It is imperative that radiologists and managers heed these lessons, to improve standards and protect patients from error.

  11. International trends in health science librarianship Part 9: the UK - Scotland and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Ann; Bruch, Sarah; Foster, Wendy; Gorman, Meg; Peters, Janet

    2014-03-01

    This is the 9th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. The previous article in this series looked at Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. In this issue the focus is Scotland and Wales. There will be three or four more articles this year tracking trends in the Far East, Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. JM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Group.

  12. 78 FR 18997 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... personnel issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111.... Agenda: Poster Sessions. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell...

  13. 78 FR 18359 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Research Careers in Emerging Technologies. Date: April 30...

  14. 77 FR 60445 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Support for Conferences and Scientific Meetings. Date...

  15. 78 FR 25754 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233... Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied...

  16. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory.... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919....D., Scientific Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of...

  17. 76 FR 79201 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act...: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander...., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences...

  18. 76 FR 52672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory.... of Environmental Health Sciences, Keystone Building, 530 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC..., Division of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box...

  19. 76 FR 50235 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee... (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr... of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National...

  20. 78 FR 39739 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review... Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30...

  1. 77 FR 26300 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Structural Biology. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle...

  2. 77 FR 12602 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review Branch, P.O. Box 12233, Research... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Career Development Early Award. Date: March 29, 2012. Time...

  3. 76 FR 46823 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Environmental Health Sciences Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with...: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  4. 77 FR 6569 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Health Sciences, Special Emphasis Panel, Environmental Stem Cells Research. Date: February 29-March 2... of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919...

  5. 76 FR 7574 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee... Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee State of the Science Subcommittee. These... Environmental Research Coordinating Committee (IBCERC) State of the Science Subcommittee. Date: March 29, 2011...

  6. 76 FR 62080 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review... Extramural Research and Training, Nat'l Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30...

  7. 78 FR 14312 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Understanding Environmental Control of Epigenetic/Mechanisms... Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30...

  8. 77 FR 33472 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel International Collaborations in Environmental Health. Date: June....D., Scientific Review Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of...

  9. 76 FR 7225 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC..., National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC...

  10. 78 FR 32672 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); Notice of Meeting Pursuant to the NIH Reform Act of 2006 (42 U.S.C. 281 (d)(4)), notice is hereby given that the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS... Popovich, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Division of Extramural Research and Training...

  11. 76 FR 71046 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park... and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113...

  12. 77 FR 3480 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Environmental Health Sciences Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with...: Discussion of program policies and issues. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101...

  13. 76 FR 7572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee..., Director, Division of Extramural Research and Training, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences... of Environmental Health Sciences, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919...

  14. 76 FR 50234 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National..., Division of Extramural Research and Training (DERT), Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, National...

  15. 76 FR 58521 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P. O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B... Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P. O. Box 12233, MD EC-30...

  16. 75 FR 61765 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Superfund Research and Training Program. Date: October 26...-Tilotta, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of...

  17. 76 FR 77239 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act.../boards/ibcercc/ . Place: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell... and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113...

  18. 75 FR 41505 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review... applications. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W...

  19. 77 FR 30019 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... of Extramural Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233... Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied...

  20. 77 FR 16844 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory.... Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541-1307, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences...

  1. 78 FR 14562 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Studies on Environmental Health Concerns from Superstorm Sandy... Administrator, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific...

  2. 76 FR 5184 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Outstanding New Environmental Scientist Award. Date: February 24... Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W. Alexander Drive, Research Triangle...

  3. 76 FR 80954 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act.../boards/ibcercc/ . Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium... Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 615 Davis Dr., KEY615/3112, Research Triangle Park...

  4. 77 FR 61613 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Environmental Health Sciences, P. O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919) 541-1307, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis...

  5. 76 FR 63311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review Branch, P.O. Box 12233, Research... Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Development to Independence Review Meeting. Date: November...

  6. 77 FR 61771 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: Environmental Health Sciences Review... applications. Place: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111...

  7. 75 FR 68367 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B... Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological...

  8. 78 FR 26643 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Epidemiology Group and Biomarker-Based Epidemiology Group. Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences.... Place: Nat. Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Building 101, Rodbell Auditorium, 111 T. W...

  9. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory.... Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3171, Research Triangle Park, NC... and Education; 93.894, Resources and Manpower Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113...

  10. 77 FR 37423 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory..., [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special... Research and Training, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Science, P.O. Box 12233, MD EC-30/Room 3170 B...

  11. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory.... Institute Environmental Health Sciences, P. O. Box 12233, MD EC-30, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, (919... Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied...

  12. 76 FR 11500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Administrator, Nat. Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Program Operations, Scientific Review... . Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Novel...

  13. 75 FR 3474 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Environmental Health Sciences Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... of Committee: National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: February 18-19, 2010...

  14. 75 FR 49500 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Environmental Health Sciences Council. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Committee: National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences Council. Date: September 1-2, 2010. Open...

  15. The effect of fossil energy and other environmental taxes on profit incentives for change in an open economy: Evidence from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Allan; Ayatakshi, Sukanya

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the underlying supply and demand analysis of fossil energy and other environmental taxes needs further elaboration when a country (a) introduces national fossil energy or environmental taxes and (b) is open to international trade at given world prices. We provide evidence that such conditions are plausible for many sectors in the UK. A key implication is that the short run effects of such taxes should not be felt in final good prices, since these are determined in world markets, but in terms of underlying profitability. These changes in underlying profits provide two key incentives for producers—to change to more environmentally friendly production techniques and to switch resources to production of less environmentally harmful goods. Using input—output techniques we provide evidence for the UK to show how existing fossil energy and other “green” taxes have affected underlying profitability. The evidence shows quite strong profit incentives to shift resources from a small number of energy intensive industries to others. - Highlights: • Energy taxes affect profits more than prices for sectors trading at world prices. • This study suggests that many sectors in the UK satisfy these conditions. • Our evidence suggests that few sectors are strongly affected by energy taxes. • Energy taxes have a strong effect relative to other possible environmental taxes

  16. Science Teachers' and Senior Secondary Schools Students' Perceptions of Earth and Environmental Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Vaille; Carson, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of a new upper secondary Earth and Environmental Science (EES) course in Western Australia. Twenty-seven EES teachers were interviewed and 243 students were surveyed about the degree of difficulty, relevance and interest of EES topics in the course. The impact of the course on students' views about EES topics…

  17. Economic and Environmental Assessment of Seed and Rhizome Propagated Miscanthus in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astley Hastings

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth in planted areas of Miscanthus for biomass in Europe has stagnated since 2010 due to technical challenges, economic barriers and environmental concerns. These limitations need to be overcome before biomass production from Miscanthus can expand to several million hectares. In this paper, we consider the economic and environmental effects of introducing seed based hybrids as an alternative to clonal M. x giganteus (Mxg. The impact of seed based propagation and novel agronomy was compared with current Mxg cultivation and used in 10 commercially relevant, field scale experiments planted between 2012 and 2014 in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Ukraine. Economic and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions costs were quantified for the following production chain: propagation, establishment, harvest, transportation, storage, and fuel preparation (excluding soil carbon changes. The production and utilization efficiency of seed and rhizome propagation were compared. Results show that new hybrid seed propagation significantly reduces establishment cost to below £900 ha-1. Calculated GHG emission costs for the seeds established via plugs, though relatively small, was higher than rhizomes because fossil fuels were assumed to heat glasshouses for raising seedling plugs (5.3 and 1.5 kg CO2 eq. C Mg [dry matter (DM]-1, respectively. Plastic mulch film reduced establishment time, improving crop economics. The breakeven yield was calculated to be 6 Mg DM ha-1 y-1, which is about half average United Kingdom yield for Mxg; with newer seeded hybrids reaching 16 Mg DM ha-1 in second year United Kingdom trials. These combined improvements will significantly increase crop profitability. The trade-offs between costs of production for the preparation of different feedstock formats show that bales are the best option for direct firing with the lowest transport costs (£0.04 Mg-1 km-1 and easy on-farm storage. However, if pelleted fuel is required then chip harvesting is

  18. Science design for two shafts in phase 1a of the proposed rock characterisation facility at Sellafield, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, P.; Proughten, A.J.; Saulnier, G.J. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    In 1997, United Kingdom Nirex planned to begin construction of an underground Rock Characterisation Facility (RCF) at Sellafield as part of it's ongoing assessment of the suitability of the site as a host for a deep radioactive waste repository. The RCF was to have addressed issues relating to the geology, hydrogeology and geomechanical behaviour of the site by collecting data for testing predictive models and acquiring information only available from an underground situation. In March 1997, the UK Government refused permission for Nirex to begin construction and work at Sellafield was wound down. However, the science design for Phase 1a of the RCF, two vertical access shafts, was completed to provide a set of conceptual designs which address the issues identified by Nirex. By using Sellafield as an example, the designs contribute to a series of reports which demonstrate an approach to validation using an underground facility. This paper describes the Science Design for data collection during shaft construction, which began with the information requirements specified by Nirex on the basis of it's conceptual models and predictive work. It describes the scientific measurements designed to acquire this information and the process of combining the individual measurements into test plans for each shaft. Measurements were planned in the shafts themselves and in boreholes drilled from the shafts. They were designed to provide data on formation porosity and permeability, the geochemistry of formation water and the nature of the fresh-water salt-water interface, shaft inflow, the influence of geological structures on performance, and geomechanical responses to shaft excavation. A key element of the design process was the development of test plans, requiring the co-ordination and integration of the construction and science activities so that both could be carried out in a timely and cost-effective manner

  19. A Reconstructed Vision of Environmental Science Literacy: The Case of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) develop a conceptual framework for environmental science literacy; and consequently (b) examine the potential of science standards/curricula to prepare environmentally literate citizens. The framework comprised four pillars: science content knowledge, scientific inquiry, nature of science (NOS), and…

  20. Environmental Sciences Laboratory dedication, February 26-27, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Millemann, N.T.

    1980-09-01

    The dedication of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory coincided with the 25th year of the establishment of the science of ecology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. That quarter century witnessed the evolution of ecology from an obscure, backwater discipline of biology to a broadly used, everyday household word. The transition reflected broad and basic changes in our social and cultural view of the world. This was brought about as a result of the awareness developed in our society of the importance of the environment, coupled with efforts of ecologists and other environmental scientists who identified, clarified, and formulated the issues and challenges of environmental protection for both the lay public and the scientific community. In many respects, the activities in ecology at ORNL were a microcosm of the broader social scene; the particular problems of the environment associated with atomic energy needed to be defined in scientific terms and articulated in both the specific and general sense for a larger audience which was unfamiliar with the field and somewhat alien to its concepts and philosophy. The success of this effort is reflected in the existence of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory. This dedication volume brings together the thoughts and reflections of many of these scientists whose efforts contributed in a unique and individualistic fashion not only to ORNL but also to the national identification of ecology and its importance to the achievement of our national goals. Their remarks and presentations are not only a pleasant and personally gratifying recapitulation of the past and of ORNL's contributions to ecology but also portend some of the challenges to ecology in the future

  1. Environmental Sciences Laboratory dedication, February 26-27, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Millemann, N.T. (eds.)

    1980-09-01

    The dedication of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory coincided with the 25th year of the establishment of the science of ecology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. That quarter century witnessed the evolution of ecology from an obscure, backwater discipline of biology to a broadly used, everyday household word. The transition reflected broad and basic changes in our social and cultural view of the world. This was brought about as a result of the awareness developed in our society of the importance of the environment, coupled with efforts of ecologists and other environmental scientists who identified, clarified, and formulated the issues and challenges of environmental protection for both the lay public and the scientific community. In many respects, the activities in ecology at ORNL were a microcosm of the broader social scene; the particular problems of the environment associated with atomic energy needed to be defined in scientific terms and articulated in both the specific and general sense for a larger audience which was unfamiliar with the field and somewhat alien to its concepts and philosophy. The success of this effort is reflected in the existence of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory. This dedication volume brings together the thoughts and reflections of many of these scientists whose efforts contributed in a unique and individualistic fashion not only to ORNL but also to the national identification of ecology and its importance to the achievement of our national goals. Their remarks and presentations are not only a pleasant and personally gratifying recapitulation of the past and of ORNL's contributions to ecology but also portend some of the challenges to ecology in the future.

  2. Reference Data Layers for Earth and Environmental Science: History, Frameworks, Science Needs, Approaches, and New Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Global Mapping Project, Web-enabled Landsat Data (WELD), International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP), hydrology, solid earth dynamics, sedimentary geology, climate modeling, integrated assessments and so on all have needs for or have worked to develop consistently integrated data layers for Earth and environmental science. This paper will present an overview of an abstract notion of data layers of this types, what we are referring to as reference data layers for Earth and environmental science, highlight some historical examples, and delve into new approaches. The concept of reference data layers in this context combines data availability, cyberinfrastructure and data science, as well as domain science drivers. We argue that current advances in cyberinfrastructure such as iPython notebooks and integrated science processing environments such as iPlant's Discovery Environment coupled with vast arrays of new data sources warrant another look at the how to create, maintain, and provide reference data layers. The goal is to provide a context for understanding science needs for reference data layers to conduct their research. In addition, to the topics described above this presentation will also outline some of the challenges to and present some ideas for new approaches to addressing these needs. Promoting the idea of reference data layers is relevant to a number of existing related activities such as EarthCube, RDA, ESIP, the nascent NSF Regional Big Data Innovation Hubs and others.

  3. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  4. Science and Mathematics Teacher Candidates' Environmental Knowledge, Awareness, Behavior and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Ahmet; Sargin, Seyid Ahmet; Baltaci, Furkan; Kelani, Raphael R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure science and mathematics teacher candidates' environmental knowledge level, awareness, behavior and environmental attitudes. Four instruments comprising Environmental Sensitivity Scale, environmental Behavior Scale, Environmental Attitudes Scale and Environmental Knowledge Test were administered to a total…

  5. 77 FR 4572 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental...

  6. 76 FR 59147 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Environmental Health Sciences Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act... Development in the Environmental Health Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards... Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. The meetings will be open to the public, with attendance limited...

  7. Role of social science in global environmental change: case of urbanisation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available the role of social scientists in global environmental change by examining urbanisation and other environmental changes as suggested in the science plan of the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP 2005)...

  8. Linking Science and Society With an Environmental Information Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, L.; Seielstad, G.; Jones, D.; Peterson, J.

    2001-12-01

    Building learning communities to engage the public in identifying and solving local and regional environmental problems is the vision of the newly created Northern Great Plains Center for People and the Environment at the University of North Dakota. The Center serves as an Environmental Information Bridge between science and society for citizens of the region, providing information, data, and value-added remote sensing products to precision agriculture, sustainable forestry, Native American land managers, and K-lifetime educators. Guided by the needs of end users, the new Center is a prototype for a national infrastructure that meets ESE's objective to "expand and accelerate the realization of economic and societal benefits from Earth science, information, and technology". The scientific community has been good at converting raw data into useful information. However, a serious communications gap exists between the communities of scientists and non-scientists. The new Center bridges this gap, creating a many-to-many exchange of information among those who learn first about the environment and those who will put those lessons to work for their economic welfare, the betterment of the quality of their lives, and the benefit of their descendants. A major outreach component of the Center, written and produced at UND, is Our Changing Planet, a public television series aimed at increasing viewers' awareness of environmental and climate change issues. Now carried by approximately 30 public television stations the series is distributed nationwide by the National Education Television Association. The Center has also recently established a partnership with StormCenter.com, LLC, a multimedia company and fellow partner in NASA's Federation of Earth Science Information Partners that uses leading-edge technology to deliver information about the environment to regional television stations. Service to the media provides a vital link between science and the public, as local weather

  9. Building a Collaboratory in Environmental and Molecular Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Myers, J.D.; Devaney, D.M.; Dunning, T.H.; Wise, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    A Collaboratory is a meta-laboratory that spans multiple geographical areas with collaborators interacting via electronic means. Collaboratories are designed to enable close ties between scientists in a given research area, promote collaborations involving scientists in diverse areas, accelerate the development and dissemination of basic knowledge, and minimize the time-lag between discovery and application. PNL is developing the concept of an Environmental and Molecular Sciences Collaboratory (EMSC) as a natural evolution of the EMSL project. The goal of the EMSC is to increase the efficiency of research and reduce the time required to implement new environmental remediation and preservation technologies. The EMSC will leverage the resources (intellectual and physical) of the EMSL by making them more accessible to remote collaborators as well as by making the resources of remote sites available to local researchers. It will provide a common set of computer hardware and software tools to support remote collaboration, a key step in establishing a collaborative culture for scientists in the theoretical, computational, and experimental molecular sciences across the nation. In short, the EMSC will establish and support an `electronic community of scientists researching and developing innovative environmental preservation and restoration technologies.

  10. Research Experience for Undergraduates Program in Multidisciplinary Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    During summers 2011 and 12 Montclair State University hosted a Research Experience for Undergraduates Program (REU) in transdisciplinary, hands-on, field-oriented research in environmental sciences. Participants were housed at the Montclair State University's field station situated in the middle of 30,000 acres of mature forest, mountain ridges and freshwater streams and lakes within the Kittatinny Mountains of Northwest New Jersey, Program emphases were placed on development of project planning skills, analytical skills, creativity, critical thinking and scientific report preparation. Ten students were recruited in spring with special focus on recruiting students from underrepresented groups and community colleges. Students were matched with their individual research interests including hydrology, erosion and sedimentation, environmental chemistry, and ecology. In addition to research activities, lectures, educational and recreational field trips, and discussion on environmental ethics and social justice played an important part of the program. The ultimate goal of the program is to facilitate participants' professional growth and to stimulate the participants' interests in pursuing Earth Science as the future career of the participants.

  11. Building a Collaboratory in Environmental and Molecular Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzes, R.T.; Myers, J.D.; Devaney, D.M.; Dunning, T.H.; Wise, J.A.

    1994-03-01

    A Collaboratory is a meta-laboratory that spans multiple geographical areas with collaborators interacting via electronic means. Collaboratories are designed to enable close ties between scientists in a given research area, promote collaborations involving scientists in diverse areas, accelerate the development and dissemination of basic knowledge, and minimize the time-lag between discovery and application. PNL is developing the concept of an Environmental and Molecular Sciences Collaboratory (EMSC) as a natural evolution of the EMSL project. The goal of the EMSC is to increase the efficiency of research and reduce the time required to implement new environmental remediation and preservation technologies. The EMSC will leverage the resources (intellectual and physical) of the EMSL by making them more accessible to remote collaborators as well as by making the resources of remote sites available to local researchers. It will provide a common set of computer hardware and software tools to support remote collaboration, a key step in establishing a collaborative culture for scientists in the theoretical, computational, and experimental molecular sciences across the nation. In short, the EMSC will establish and support an 'electronic community of scientists researching and developing innovative environmental preservation and restoration technologies

  12. Environmentally induced nonstationarity in LIGO science run data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Robert; Mukherjee, Soma

    2009-01-01

    NoiseFloorMon is a data monitoring tool (DMT) implemented at the LIGO sites to monitor instances of non-stationarity in the gravitational-wave data that are correlated with physical environmental monitors. An analysis of the fifth science run is nearly complete, and test runs preceding the sixth science run have also been analyzed. These analyses have identified time intervals in the gravitational-wave channel that indicate non-stationarity due to seismic activity, and these intervals are referred to as data quality flags. In the analyses conducted to date the majority of time segments identified as non-stationary were due to seismic activity at the corner station and the x-arm end station. We present the algorithm and its performance, and discuss the potential for an on-site pipeline that automatically generates data quality flags for use in future data runs.

  13. Interdisciplinary research center devoted to molecular environmental science opens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David J.

    In October, a new research center opened at the University of Manchester in the United Kingdom. The center is the product of over a decade of ground-breaking interdisciplinary research in the Earth and related biological and chemical sciences at the university The center also responds to the British governments policy of investing in research infrastructure at key universities.The Williamson Research Centre, the first of its kind in Britain and among the first worldwide, is devoted to the emerging field of molecular environmental science. This field also aims to bring about a revolution in understanding of our environment. Though it may be a less violent revolution than some, perhaps, its potential is high for developments that could affect us all.

  14. A Mentoring Program in Environmental Science for Underrepresented Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, L.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    We developed a four-year program, combining educational and career support and research activities, to recruit and retain students from underrepresented groups in environmental sciences. Specifically, the program: ○ Assigns each student a faculty or graduate student mentor with whom the student conducts research activities. ○ Includes a weekly group meeting for team building and to review professional development and academic topics, such as time management and research ethics. ○ Requires students to make multiple formal presentations of their research proposals and results. ○ Provides scholarships and stipends for both the academic year and to engage students in summer research. The program seeks to achieve several goals including: ● Enhance academic performance. ● Encourage continued study in environmental science. ● Facilitate students completing their studies at UVM. ● Increase students’ interest in pursuing science careers. ● Create a more welcoming academic environment. To assess progress toward achievement of these goals, we conducted individual structured interviews with participating undergraduate students, graduate students, and faculty members at two points in time. First, interviews were conducted in the fall of 2007 after two years, and again in spring 2009, after four years. An independent research consultant, Dr. Livingston, conducted the interviews. In 2009, over the course of three days, the interviews included three graduate student and two faculty mentors, and six of the seven undergraduate students. Of the six students, three were juniors and three were graduating seniors. Results of the 2009 interviews echoed those of 2007. Both students and their mentors are quite satisfied with the program. The student presentations, weekly meetings, mentoring relationships, and summer research experiences all get high ratings from program participants. Students give high praise to their mentors and the program directors for providing

  15. Scientific data management in the environmental molecular sciences laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, P.R.; Keller, T.L.

    1995-09-01

    The Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) is currently under construction at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This laboratory will be used for molecular and environmental sciences research to identify comprehensive solutions to DOE`s environmental problems. Major facilities within the EMSL include the Molecular Sciences Computing Facility (MSCF), a laser-surface dynamics laboratory, a high-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratory, and a mass spectrometry laboratory. The EMSL is scheduled to open early in 1997 and will house about 260 resident and visiting scientists. It is anticipated that at least six (6) terabytes of data will be archived in the first year of operation. An object-oriented database management system (OODBMS) and a mass storage system will be integrated to provide an intelligent, automated mechanism to manage data. The resulting system, called the DataBase Computer System (DBCS), will provide total scientific data management capabilities to EMSL users. A prototype mass storage system based on the National Storage Laboratory`s (NSL) UniTree has been procured and is in limited use. This system consists of two independent hierarchies of storage devices. One hierarchy of lower capacity, slower speed devices provides support for smaller files transferred over the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) network. Also part of the system is a second hierarchy of higher capacity, higher speed devices that will be used to support high performance clients (e.g., a large scale parallel processor). The ObjectStore OODBMS will be used to manage metadata for archived datasets, maintain relationships between archived datasets, and -hold small, duplicate subsets of archived datasets (i.e., derivative data). The interim system is called DBCS, Phase 0 (DBCS-0). The production system for the EMSL, DBCS Phase 1 (DBCS-1), will be procured and installed in the summer of 1996.

  16. SUstaiNability: a science communication website on environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravina, Teresita; Rutigliano, Flora Angela

    2015-04-01

    Environmental news mainly reach not specialist people by mass media, which generally focuses on fascinating or catastrophic events without reporting scientific data. Otherwise, scientific data on environment are published in peer-reviewed journals with specific language, so they could be not understandable to common people. In the last decade, Internet spread made easier to divulge environmental information. This allows everyone (scientist or not) to publish information without revision. In fact, World Wide Web includes many scientific sites with different levels of confidence. Within Italian scientific websites, there are those of University and Research Centre, but they mainly contain didactic and bureaucratic information, generally lacking in research news, or reporting them in peer-reviewed format. University and Research Centre should have an important role to divulge certified information, but news should be adapted to a general audience without scientific skills, in order to help population to gain knowledge on environmental issues and to develop responsible behavior. Therefore, an attractive website (www.sunability.unina2.it) has been created in order to divulge research products of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies Department (DiSTABiF) of Second University of Naples-SUN (Campania, Southern Italy). This website contains divulgation articles derived from peer-reviewed publications of DiSTABiF researchers and concerning studies on environmental, nutrition, and health issues, closely related topics. Environmental studies mainly referred to Caserta district (Southern Italy), where DiSTABiF is located. Divulgation articles have been shared by main social networks (Facebook: sunability, Twitter: @SUNability) and accesses have been monitored for 28 days in order to obtain demographic and geographic information about users and visualization number of both DiSTABiF website and social network pages. Demographic and geographic

  17. Three representative UK moorland soils show differences in decadal release of dissolved organic carbon in response to environmental change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Stutter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Moorland carbon reserves in organo-mineral soils may be crucial to predicting landscape-scale variability in soil carbon losses, an important component of which is dissolved organic carbon (DOC. Surface water DOC trends are subject to a range of scaling, transport and biotic processes that disconnect them from signals in the catchment's soils. Long-term soil datasets are vital to identify changes in DOC release at source and soil C depletion. Here we show, that moorland soil solution DOC concentrations at three key UK Environmental Change Network sites increased between 1993–2007 in both surface- and sub- soil of a freely-draining Podzol (48 % and 215 % increases in O and Bs horizons, respectively, declined in a gleyed Podzol and showed no change in a Peat. Our principal findings were that: (1 considerable heterogeneity in DOC response appears to exist between different soils that is not apparent from the more consistent observed trends for streamwaters, and (2 freely-draining organo-mineral Podzol showed increasing DOC concentrations, countering the current scientific focus on soil C destabilization in peats. We discuss how the key solubility controls on DOC associated with coupled physico-chemical factors of ionic strength, acid deposition recovery, soil hydrology and temperature cannot readily be separated. Yet, despite evidence that all sites are recovering from acidification the soil-specific responses to environmental change have caused divergence in soil DOC concentration trends. The study shows that the properties of soils govern their specific response to an approximately common set of broad environmental drivers. Key soil properties are indicated to be drainage, sulphate and DOC sorption capacity. Soil properties need representation in process-models to understand and predict the role of soils in catchment to global C budgets. Catchment hydrological (i.e. transport controls may, at present, be governing the more ubiquitous rises in

  18. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities. Auxiliary capabilities: environmental health information science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories is an engineering laboratory in which research, development, testing, and evaluation capabilities are integrated by program management for the generation of advanced designs. In fulfilling its primary responsibility to ERDA, Sandia Laboratories has acquired extensive research and development capabilities. The purpose of this series of documents is to catalog the many technical capabilities of the Laboratories. After the listing of capabilities, supporting information is provided in the form of highlights, which show applications. This document deals with auxiliary capabilities, in particular, environmental health and information science. (11 figures, 1 table) (RWR)

  19. Environmental dose reconstruction: Approaches to an inexact science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.O.

    1991-01-01

    The endpoints of environmental dose reconstruction are quantitative yet the science is inexact. Four problems related to this issue are described. These problems are: (1) Defining the scope of the assessment and setting logical priorities for detailed investigations, (2) Recognizing the influence of investigator judgment of the results, (3) Selecting an endpoint other than dose for the assessment of multiple contaminants, and (4) Resolving the conflict between credibility and expertise in selecting individuals responsible for dose reconstruction. Approaches are recommended for dealing with each of these problems

  20. News UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    UK public libraries offer walk-in access to research Atoms for Peace? The Atomic Weapons Establishment and UK universities Students present their research to academics: CERN@school Science in a suitcase: Marvin and Milo visit Ethiopia Inspiring telescopes A day for everyone teaching physics 2014 Forthcoming Events

  1. Incorporating Environmental Regulation and Litigation in Earth Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A. R.

    2004-12-01

    Fundamental knowledge of geological processes is not only needed for effective environmental regulation and litigation, but Earth Science students find that relevance motivating in their studies of those processes. Crustal abundance and redox reactions suddenly become personally meaningful when they are used to account for the presence of high levels of carcinogenic Cr(VI) in the students' drinking water. Similarly, epithermal mercury deposits and the element's speciation gain new importance when they are related to the warning signs on the consumption of fish that the students catch and eat. And even those students that are not motivated by these, and many other, applications of geology find solace in learning that anthropogenic perturbations of the global lead cycle may partially account for their short attention span, lack of interest, and inability to learn the material. Consequently, a number of courses in environmental toxicology and ground water contamination have been developed that are based on (1) case studies in environmental regulation and litigation and (2) active student participation as "expert witnesses" opining on the scientific basis of environmental decisions.

  2. Teaching Environmental Health Science for Informed Citizenship in the Science Classroom and Afterschool Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Levin, Daniel M.; Hundal, Savreen; Kramer, Judy F.; Matzkin, Karen; Dutcher, Gale

    2013-01-01

    In the era of growing concerns about human-induced climate change and sustainable development, it is important for the schools to prepare students for meaningful engagement with environmental policies that will determine the future of our society. To do this, educators need to face a number of challenges. These include deciding on the science knowledge and skills needed for informed citizenship, identifying teaching practices for fostering such knowledge and skills, and finding ways to implement new practices into the tightly packed existing curriculum. This paper describes two collaborative efforts between the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) and University of Maryland College of Education that attempt to meet these challenges. The focus of both projects is on helping students develop information seeking and evaluation and argumentation skills, and applying them to complex socio-scientific issues that have bearing on students’ daily lives. The first effort involves co-designing an afterschool environmental health club curriculum with an interdisciplinary team of middle school teachers. The second effort is the development and implementation of a week-long school drinking water quality debate activity in a high school environmental science classroom. Both projects center on Tox Town, an NLM web resource that introduces students to environmental health issues in everyday environments. The paper describes successes and challenges of environmental health curriculum development, including teachers’ and researchers’ perception of contextual constraints in the club and classroom setting, tensions inherent in co-design, and students’ experience with socio-scientific argumentation. PMID:24382985

  3. The environmental virtual observatory pilot (EVOp): a cloud solution demonstrating effective science for efficient decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, R. J.; Emmett, B.; McDonald, A.

    2012-12-01

    Environmental managers and policy makers face a challenging future trying to accommodate growing expectations of environmental well-being, while subject to maturing regulation, constrained budgets and a public scrutiny that expects easier and more meaningful access to data and decision logic. To support such a challenge requires new tools and new approaches. The EVOp is an initiative from the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC) designed to deliver proof of concept for these new tools and approaches. A series of exemplar 'big catchment science questions' are posed and the prospects for their solution are assessed. These are then used to develop cloud solutions for serving data, models, visualisation and analysis tools to scientists, regulators, private companies and the public, all of whom have different expectations of what environmental information is important. Approaches are tested regularly with users using SCRUM. The VO vision encompasses seven key ambitions: i. being driven by the need to contribute to the solution of major environmental issues that impinge on, or link to, catchment science ii. having the flexibility and adaptability to address future problems not yet defined or fully clarified iii. being able to communicate issues and solutions to a range of audiences iv. supporting easy access by a variety of users v. drawing meaningful information from data and models and identifying the constraints on application in terms of errors, uncertainties, etc vi. adding value and cost effectiveness to current investigations by supporting transfer and scale adjustment thus limiting the repetition of expensive field monitoring addressing essentially the same issues in varying locations vii. promoting effective interfacing of robust science with a variety of end users by using terminology or measures familiar to the user (or required by regulation), including financial and carbon accounting, whole life or fixed period costing, risk as probability or as

  4. A Study on the Impact of Marketing Capability, Operations Capability, Environmental Capability and Diversification Strategy on the Performance of Hotel Industry in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, YUBO

    2009-01-01

    Hotel industry has been an increasingly significant service industry across the whole world. The performance measurement method is crucial for hotels’ operations. This study examines the impacts of marketing capability, operations capability, environmental capability and diversification strategy on the business performance of hotel industry in the UK. Based on the financial archival data in the database and information obtained in the firm websites from 2004 to 2007, the investigation is carr...

  5. The structure of energy efficiency investment in the UK households and its average monetary and environmental savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic and behavioural variables that influence the household’s adoption of energy efficiency measures such as cavity and loft insulation and upgrades to the boiler are identified, contrary to previous literature. By extending Brechling and Smith’s (1994) and Hassett and Metcalf's (1995) models, it is shown that the application of the Energy Act 2011, which contains provisions on the Green Deal, the new Energy Company Obligation (ECO) and the private rented sector, needs to follow a tailored strategy to reach the low adoption households identified by my model. Moreover, for the current adopters of the analysed measures, average monetary and environmental adoption benefits are estimated based on Parti and Parti’s (1980) demand model. These estimates are smaller than their expected values showing an important energy efficiency gap in the sector. Particularly low cost measures can bring important savings that can help to meet the ''pay as you save'' rule (i.e., the Golden rule) of the new regulation. My model also shows that a poor state of dwelling repair can reduce the adoption benefits increasing the need of subsidies that will be financed through consumer’s energy bills. However, this can increase the number of households in fuel poverty. - Highlights: ► Analysis of socioeconomic and behavioural factors that can affect the Green Deal uptake. ► The Energy Company Obligation (ECO) needs to follow a tailored strategy. ► Average adoption benefits of cavity and loft insulation and upgrades to the boiler are estimated. ► There is an important energy efficiency gap in the UK domestic sector. ► A poor state of dwelling repair could bring financial pressure to the ECO program.

  6. Publications in biomedical and environmental sciences programs, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J.B. (comp.)

    1983-04-01

    This bibliography contains 725 references to articles in journals, books, and reports published in the subject area of biomedical and environmental sciences during 1982. There are 553 references to articles published in journals and books and 172 references to reports. The citations appear once ordered by the first author's division or by the performing division. Staff members in the Biomedical and Environmental Sciences divisions have other publications not included in this bibliography; for example, theses, book reviews, abstracts published in journals or symposia proceedings, pending journal publications and reports such as monthly, bimonthly, and quarterly progress reports, contractor reports, and reports for internal distribution. This document is sorted by the division, and then alphabetically by author. The sorting by divisions separates the references by subject area in a simple way. The divisions are represented alphabetically. Indexes are provided by author, title, and journal reference. Reprints of articles referenced in this bibliography can be obtained from the author or the author's division.

  7. Crafting Disaster Risk Science: Environmental and geographical science sans frontières

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailsa Holloway

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In keeping with the University of Cape Town’s commitment to social responsiveness (http://www.socialresponsiveness.uct.ac.za/, this article traces the process that underpinned the development and introduction of a postgraduate programme in Disaster Risk Science (DRS. It foregrounds the programme’s conceptualisation within the Department of Environmental and Geographical Science (EGS at the University of Cape Town (UCT, with particular emphasis on examining how disciplinary and theoretical coherence was balanced with cross-disciplinary application and social responsiveness. The article begins by describing the contextual conditions external to UCT’s formal teaching and learning environment that provided the necessary impetus for the new programme. It also traces the iterative relationship between context and curriculum that occurred over the period 1998–2008. This engagement was facilitated and mediated by the Disaster Mitigation for Sustainable Livelihoods Programme (DiMP, an interfacing research and advocacy unit, located within UCT’s Department of Environmental and Geographical Science. An explanation of subsequent content and sequencing of the postgraduate curriculum then follow. They illustrate the programme’s articulation with South Africa’s newly promulgated disaster management legislation, as well as its relevance and rigour in relation to the complex risk environment of South Africa’s Western Cape. The article specifically applies a transdisciplinary lens to the new programmme, in which Disaster Risk Science is conceptualized as a Mode 2 knowledge, but one that draws theoretically and methodologically on environmental and geographical science as its foundation or Mode 1 domain. It concludes by examining the DRS programme’s positive contributions both to scholarship and local risk management practices as well as the obstacles that constrained the new programme and continue to challenge its institutional sustainability.

  8. Quantitative Reasoning Learning Progressions for Environmental Science: Developing a Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Mayes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative reasoning is a complex concept with many definitions and a diverse account in the literature. The purpose of this article is to establish a working definition of quantitative reasoning within the context of science, construct a quantitative reasoning framework, and summarize research on key components in that framework. Context underlies all quantitative reasoning; for this review, environmental science serves as the context.In the framework, we identify four components of quantitative reasoning: the quantification act, quantitative literacy, quantitative interpretation of a model, and quantitative modeling. Within each of these components, the framework provides elements that comprise the four components. The quantification act includes the elements of variable identification, communication, context, and variation. Quantitative literacy includes the elements of numeracy, measurement, proportional reasoning, and basic probability/statistics. Quantitative interpretation includes the elements of representations, science diagrams, statistics and probability, and logarithmic scales. Quantitative modeling includes the elements of logic, problem solving, modeling, and inference. A brief comparison of the quantitative reasoning framework with the AAC&U Quantitative Literacy VALUE rubric is presented, demonstrating a mapping of the components and illustrating differences in structure. The framework serves as a precursor for a quantitative reasoning learning progression which is currently under development.

  9. 76 FR 62424 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee's State of Science... the November 29, 2011 State of Science Subcommittee meeting to 2 p.m. to 4 p.m. The meeting is open to...

  10. Epistemic Agency in an Environmental Sciences Watershed Investigation Fostered by Digital Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Heather Toomey; Weible, Jennifer L.

    2018-01-01

    This collective case study investigates the role of digital photography to support high school students' engagement in science inquiry practices during a three-week environmental sciences unit. The study's theoretical framework brings together research from digital photography, participation in environmental science practices, and epistemic…

  11. Developing Preservice Science Teachers' Self-Determined Motivation toward Environment through Environmental Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Guliz; Sungur, Semra; Ertepinar, Hamide

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop pre-service science teachers' self-determined motivation toward environment before, after and five months following the environmental course activities guided by self-determination theory. The sample of the study was 33 pre-service science teachers who participated in an environmental science course. This…

  12. The role of metadata in managing large environmental science datasets. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; DeVaney, D.M. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); French, J. C. [Univ. of Virginia, (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to bring together computer science researchers and environmental sciences data management practitioners to consider the role of metadata in managing large environmental sciences datasets. The objectives included: establishing a common definition of metadata; identifying categories of metadata; defining problems in managing metadata; and defining problems related to linking metadata with primary data.

  13. Science Education for Environmental Awareness: Approaches to Integrating Cognitive and Affective Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littledyke, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Science education has an important part in developing understanding of concepts that underpin environmental issues, leading potentially to pro-environmental behaviour. However, science is commonly perceived negatively, leading to inappropriate and negative models of science that do not connect to people's experiences. The article argues that the…

  14. Investing in citizen science can improve natural resource management and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia K.; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Citizen science has made substantive contributions to science for hundreds of years. More recently, it has contributed to many articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals and has influenced natural resource management and environmental protection decisions and policies across the nation. Over the last 10 years, citizen science—participation by the public in a scientific project—has seen explosive growth in the United States, particularly in ecology, the environmental sciences, and related fields of inquiry. In this report, we explore the current use of citizen science in natural resource and environmental science and decision making in the United States and describe the investments organizations might make to benefit from citizen science.

  15. Incorporating Hot Topics in Ocean Sciences to Outreach Activities in Marine and Environmental Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergondo, D. L.; Mrakovcich, K. L.; Vlietstra, L.; Tebeau, P.; Verlinden, C.; Allen, L. A.; James, R.

    2016-02-01

    The US Coast Guard Academy, an undergraduate military Academy, in New London CT, provides STEM education programs to the local community that engage the public on hot topics in ocean sciences. Outreach efforts include classroom, lab, and field-based activities at the Academy as well as at local schools. In one course, we partner with a STEM high school collecting fish and environmental data on board a research vessel and subsequently students present the results of their project. In another course, cadets develop and present interactive demonstrations of marine science to local school groups. In addition, the Academy develops In another course, cadets develop and present interactive demonstrations of marine science to local school groups. In addition, the Academy develops and/or participates in outreach programs including Science Partnership for Innovation in Learning (SPIL), Women in Science, Physics of the Sea, and the Ocean Exploration Trust Honors Research Program. As part of the programs, instructors and cadets create interactive and collaborative activities that focus on hot topics in ocean sciences such as oil spill clean-up, ocean exploration, tsunamis, marine biodiversity, and conservation of aquatic habitats. Innovative science demonstrations such as real-time interactions with the Exploration Vessel (E/V) Nautilus, rotating tank simulations of ocean circulation, wave tank demonstrations, and determining what materials work best to contain and clean-up oil, are used to enhance ocean literacy. Children's books, posters and videos are some creative ways students summarize their understanding of ocean sciences and marine conservation. Despite time limitations of students and faculty, and challenges associated with securing funding to keep these programs sustainable, the impact of the programs is overwhelmingly positive. We have built stronger relationships with local community, enhanced ocean literacy, facilitated communication and mentorship between young

  16. Environmental metabolomics with data science for investigating ecosystem homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Jun; Ito, Kengo; Date, Yasuhiro

    2018-02-01

    A natural ecosystem can be viewed as the interconnections between complex metabolic reactions and environments. Humans, a part of these ecosystems, and their activities strongly affect the environments. To account for human effects within ecosystems, understanding what benefits humans receive by facilitating the maintenance of environmental homeostasis is important. This review describes recent applications of several NMR approaches to the evaluation of environmental homeostasis by metabolic profiling and data science. The basic NMR strategy used to evaluate homeostasis using big data collection is similar to that used in human health studies. Sophisticated metabolomic approaches (metabolic profiling) are widely reported in the literature. Further challenges include the analysis of complex macromolecular structures, and of the compositions and interactions of plant biomass, soil humic substances, and aqueous particulate organic matter. To support the study of these topics, we also discuss sample preparation techniques and solid-state NMR approaches. Because NMR approaches can produce a number of data with high reproducibility and inter-institution compatibility, further analysis of such data using machine learning approaches is often worthwhile. We also describe methods for data pretreatment in solid-state NMR and for environmental feature extraction from heterogeneously-measured spectroscopic data by machine learning approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. 75 FR 41506 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Environmental Health Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Sciences; 93.113, Biological Response to Environmental Health Hazards; 93.114, Applied Toxicological... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of Environmental...

  18. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eriyagma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term "Environmental Flows (EF" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  19. UK Institute of Physics (IOP) President Sir Gareth Roberts (right) at CERN on 9 July with (right to left) IOP council vice-president and distinguished physicist Peter Kalmus, CERN engineer Tim Watson and IOP director of science Peter Cooper

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    UK Institute of Physics (IOP) President Sir Gareth Roberts (right) at CERN on 9 July with (right to left) IOP council vice-president and distinguished physicist Peter Kalmus, CERN engineer Tim Watson and IOP director of science Peter Cooper

  20. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  1. Global Environmental Leadership and Sustainability: High School Students Teaching Environmental Science to Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.; Tamsitt, V. M.

    2016-02-01

    A two week high school course for high-achieving 10th-12th graders was developed through the combined efforts of Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) Graduate Students and UC San Diego Academic Connections. For the high school students involved, one week was spent at SIO learning basic climate science and researching climate-related topics, and one week was spent in Washington D.C. lobbying Congress for an environmental issue of their choosing. The specific learning goals of the course were for students to (1) collect, analyze and interpret scientific data, (2) synthesize scientific research for policy recommendations, (3) craft and deliver a compelling policy message, and (4) understand and experience change. In this first year, 10 students conducted research on two scientific topics; sea level rise using pier temperature data and California rainfall statistics using weather stations. Simultaneous lessons on policy messaging helped students learn how to focus scientific information for non-scientists. In combining the importance of statistics from their Science lessons with effective communication from their Policy lessons, the students developed issue papers which highlighted an environmental problem, the solution, and the reason their solution is most effective. The course culminated in two days of meetings on Capitol Hill, where they presented their solutions to their Congressional and Senate Members, conversed with policymakers, and received constructive feedback. Throughout the process, the students effectively defined arguments for an environmental topic in a program developed by SIO Graduate Students.

  2. The geochemistry of environmentally important trace elements in UK coals, with special reference to the Parkgate coal in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire Coalfield, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, D.A.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Parkgate coal of Langsettian age in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire coalfield is typical of many coals in the UK in that it has a high sulphur (S) content. Detailed information on the distribution of the forms of S, both laterally and vertically through the seam, was known from previous investigations. In the present work, 38 interval samples from five measured sections of the coal were comprehensively analysed for major, minor and trace elements and the significance of the relationships established using both raw and centered log transformed data. The major elements are used to quantify the variations in the inorganic and organic coal components and determine the trace element associations. Pyrite contains nearly all of the Hg, As, Se, Tl and Pb and is also the major source of the Mo, Ni, Cd and Sb. The clays contain the following elements in decreasing order of association: Rb, Cs, Li, Ga, U, Cr, V, Sc, Y, Bi, Cu, Nb, Sn, Te and Th. Nearly all of the Rb is present in the clay fraction, whereas for elements such as V, Cu and U, a significant amount is thought to be present in the organic matter, based on the K vs trace element regression equations. Only Ge, and possibly Be, would appear to have a dominant organic source. The trace element concentrations are calculated for pyrite, the clay fraction and organic matter. For pyrite it is noted that concentrations agree with published data from the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire coalfield and also that Tl concentrations (median of 0.33 ppm) in the pyrite are greater than either Hg or Cd. Unlike these elements, Tl has attracted less attention and possibly more information is needed on its anthropogenic distribution and impacts on man and the environment. A seawater source is thought to be responsible for the high concentrations of S, Cl and the non-detrital trace elements in the Parkgate coal. Indicative of the seawater control is the Th/U ratio, which expresses the detrital to non-detrital element contributions. Using

  3. Cumulative Environmental Impacts: Science and Policy to Protect Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gina M; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zeise, Lauren; Faust, John B

    2016-01-01

    Many communities are located near multiple sources of pollution, including current and former industrial sites, major roadways, and agricultural operations. Populations in such locations are predominantly low-income, with a large percentage of minorities and non-English speakers. These communities face challenges that can affect the health of their residents, including limited access to health care, a shortage of grocery stores, poor housing quality, and a lack of parks and open spaces. Environmental exposures may interact with social stressors, thereby worsening health outcomes. Age, genetic characteristics, and preexisting health conditions increase the risk of adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants. There are existing approaches for characterizing cumulative exposures, cumulative risks, and cumulative health impacts. Although such approaches have merit, they also have significant constraints. New developments in exposure monitoring, mapping, toxicology, and epidemiology, especially when informed by community participation, have the potential to advance the science on cumulative impacts and to improve decision making.

  4. Experiments related to marine environmental science using a tandem Pelletron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, A.; Hamamoto, S.; Ohtani, Y.; Furuyama, Y.; Taniike, A.; Kubota, N.; Yamauchi, T.; Mimura, H.

    2003-01-01

    Activities related to marine environmental science, which have been made in our laboratory using a 1.7MV Pelletron 5SDH2 accelerator, are reviewed. One is successful application of proton beams to radiation-induced graft polymerization for making amidoxime-type adsorbents that are very effective for collecting doubly charged ions of metal elements, such as uranium and vanadium, abundantly dissolved in seawater. The other is effective application of accelerator analyses to investigation of interaction of tributyltin (TBT) chloride, which had been used in self-polishing antifouling paints and are endocrine disrupter having mutagenicity, with a TBT resistant marine microorganism newly isolated from sediment of a ship's ballast water tank. (author)

  5. Environmental capacity and the limits of predictive science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the failure of pollution control and hazardous waste management strategies in the light of rapid environmental degradation observed in the decade of the 1980s. It focuses upon the central role of predictive science and assimilative capacity concepts in that failure and the development, a s a consequence, of a paradigm shift in approach, utilising the principles of precautionary action with regard to all substances, programmes of clean production applied to all industrial sectors, and source reduction applied to dissipative activities giving rise to hazardous waste. The past 'assimilative capacity' approaches are criticised as an inadequate foundation for development. In particular the nuclear regulatory concepts of 'justification', 'optimisation' and 'dose-limitation' are seriously deficient. New assessment procedures under development in the London dumping convention are discussed in the light of the precautionary principle. (au)

  6. Artificial climate experiment facility in Institute for Environmental Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    The Institute for Environmental Sciences is now constructing the artificial climate experiment facility (ACEF) to research the effect of climate on movement of elements in the various environments. The ACEF will have one large, and five small artificial climate experiment chambers. The large chamber is designed to simulate climate conditions in all Japan. It will equip systems to simulate sunshine, rainfall (including acid rain), snowfall and fog (including acid fog). `Yamase` condition will also be reproduced in it. Yamase is a Japanese term describing the characteristic weather condition occurring mainly on the Pacific Ocean side at the northern Japan. While the small chamber will not have rainfall, snowfall and fog systems, radioisotopes will be used in the two small chambers which will be set up in a radioisotope facility. We describe here the outline of the ACEF and the preliminary research programs being undertaken using both kinds of chambers. (author)

  7. Artificial climate experiment facility in Institute for Environmental Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hisamatsu, Shunichi

    1999-01-01

    The Institute for Environmental Sciences is now constructing the artificial climate experiment facility (ACEF) to research the effect of climate on movement of elements in the various environments. The ACEF will have one large, and five small artificial climate experiment chambers. The large chamber is designed to simulate climate conditions in all Japan. It will equip systems to simulate sunshine, rainfall (including acid rain), snowfall and fog (including acid fog). 'Yamase' condition will also be reproduced in it. Yamase is a Japanese term describing the characteristic weather condition occurring mainly on the Pacific Ocean side at the northern Japan. While the small chamber will not have rainfall, snowfall and fog systems, radioisotopes will be used in the two small chambers which will be set up in a radioisotope facility. We describe here the outline of the ACEF and the preliminary research programs being undertaken using both kinds of chambers. (author)

  8. Environmental Science and Technology department. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A.; Gunderson, V.; Hansen, H.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    Selected activities in the Environmental Science and Technology Department during 1991 are presented. The research approach in the department is predominantly experimental. The research topics emphasized are introduced and reviewed in chapters one to seven: 1. Introduction, 2. The Atmosphere, 3. Plant Genetics and Resistance Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition, 5. Geochemistry, 6. Ecology, 7. Other activities. The Department`s contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes is presented together with information about large facilities managed and used by the department. Information about the department`s education and training activities are included in the annual report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations. Further, names of the scientific and technical staff members, Ph.D. students and visiting scientists are listed. (au) (23 ills., 58 refs.).

  9. Environmental Science and Technology department. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A.; Gunderson, V.; Hansen, H.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H. (eds.)

    1992-06-01

    Selected activities in the Environmental Science and Technology Department during 1991 are presented. The research approach in the department is predominantly experimental. The research topics emphasized are introduced and reviewed in chapters one to seven: 1. Introduction, 2. The Atmosphere, 3. Plant Genetics and Resistance Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition, 5. Geochemistry, 6. Ecology, 7. Other activities. The Department's contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes is presented together with information about large facilities managed and used by the department. Information about the department's education and training activities are included in the annual report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations. Further, names of the scientific and technical staff members, Ph.D. students and visiting scientists are listed. (au) (23 ills., 58 refs.).

  10. Environmental Science and Technology department. Annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.; Gunderson, V.; Hansen, H.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H.

    1992-06-01

    Selected activities in the Environmental Science and Technology Department during 1991 are presented. The research approach in the department is predominantly experimental. The research topics emphasized are introduced and reviewed in chapters one to seven: 1. Introduction, 2. The Atmosphere, 3. Plant Genetics and Resistance Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition, 5. Geochemistry, 6. Ecology, 7. Other activities. The Department's contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes is presented together with information about large facilities managed and used by the department. Information about the department's education and training activities are included in the annual report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations. Further, names of the scientific and technical staff members, Ph.D. students and visiting scientists are listed. (au) (23 ills., 58 refs.)

  11. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 1--2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons covering surface tension in water, the life cycle of plants, the protective function of the skeletal system, functions and behavior of the circulatory system and how to measure its activities, structure and functions of the digestive system, simple food chains, how that many foods come from different plant parts, importance of a good diet, distinguishing living and non-living things, and the benefits of composting. 8 figs.

  12. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-10-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or ``hyperspectral`` imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne`s Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image ``texture spectra`` derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  13. A hyperspectral image analysis workbench for environmental science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, J.H.; Zawada, D.G.; Simunich, K.L.; Slater, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    A significant challenge to the information sciences is to provide more powerful and accessible means to exploit the enormous wealth of data available from high-resolution imaging spectrometry, or hyperspectral'' imagery, for analysis, for mapping purposes, and for input to environmental modeling applications. As an initial response to this challenge, Argonne's Advanced Computer Applications Center has developed a workstation-based prototype software workbench which employs Al techniques and other advanced approaches to deduce surface characteristics and extract features from the hyperspectral images. Among its current capabilities, the prototype system can classify pixels by abstract surface type. The classification process employs neural network analysis of inputs which include pixel spectra and a variety of processed image metrics, including image texture spectra'' derived from fractal signatures computed for subimage tiles at each wavelength.

  14. Service-Learning in the Environmental Sciences for Teaching Sustainability Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, S.; Strong, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and developing effective strategies for the use of community-engaged learning (service-learning) approaches in the environmental geosciences is an important research need in curricular and pedagogical innovation for sustainability. In 2015, we designed and implemented a new community-engaged learning practicum course through the Earth Systems Program in the School of Earth, Energy and Environmental Sciences at Stanford University focused on regional open space management and land stewardship. Undergraduate and graduate students partnered with three different regional land trust and environmental stewardship organizations to conduct quarter-long research projects ranging from remote sensing studies of historical land use, to fire ecology, to ranchland management, to volunteer retention strategies. Throughout the course, students reflected on the decision-making processes and stewardship actions of the organizations. Two iterations of the course were run in Winter and Fall 2015. Using coded and analyzed pre- and post-course student surveys from the two course iterations, we evaluate undergraduate and graduate student learning outcomes and changes in perceptions and understanding of sustainability science. We find that engagement with community partners to conduct research projects on a wide variety of aspects of open space management, land management, and environmental stewardship (1) increased an understanding of trade-offs inherent in sustainability and resource management and (2) altered student perceptions of the role of scientific information and research in environmental management and decision-making. Furthermore, students initially conceived of open space as purely ecological/biophysical, but by the end of the course, (3) their understanding was of open space as a coupled human/ecological system. This shift is crucial for student development as sustainability scientists.

  15. The UK Government response to the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution's twenty-second report: energy - the changing climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    The Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution's Twenty Second Report 'Energy - the Changing Climate' was presented to Parliament in June 2000. The report advocates a transformation in the use of energy in the UK to counter climate change. As a contribution to global efforts to prevent excessive climate change, the Royal Commission recommends that the UK should plan to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by some 60% from current levels by about 2050. The Report explores what this will mean for industry and households and highlights how Government policies need to change. This document provides the Government's formal response to the Twenty Second Report. The response summarises the action being taken and proposed, and it relates to the Royal Commission's recommendations. Its structure is thematic, rather than being a point-by-point response. This allows the action to be described coherently, but maintains the link with the recommendations.

  16. Environmental and Medical Sciences Division progress report January-December, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainge, W.M.

    1977-05-01

    The report falls under the following headings: introduction (a general survey of the research programme of the Division); inhalation studies and radionuclide analysis; whole body counting; radiation physics (including dosimetry, fallout, environmental analysis); atmospheric pollution; medical department; chemical analysis group; publications. (U.K.)

  17. Environmental Remediation Sciences Program at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargar, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR)-based techniques provide unique capabilities to address scientific issues underpinning environmental remediation science and have emerged as major research tools in this field. The high intensity of SR sources and x-ray photon-in/photon-out detection allow noninvasive in-situ analysis of dilute, hydrated, and chemically/structurally complex natural samples. SR x-rays can be focused to beams of micron and sub-micron dimension, which allows the study of microstructures, chemical microgradients, and microenvironments such as in biofilms, pore spaces, and around plant roots, that may control the transformation of contaminants in the environment. The utilization of SR techniques in environmental remediation sciences is often frustrated, however, by an ''activation energy barrier'', which is associated with the need to become familiar with an array of data acquisition and analysis techniques, a new technical vocabulary, beam lines, experimental instrumentation, and user facility administrative procedures. Many investigators find it challenging to become sufficiently expert in all of these areas or to maintain their training as techniques evolve. Another challenge is the dearth of facilities for hard x-ray micro-spectroscopy, particularly in the 15 to 23 KeV range, which includes x-ray absorption edges of the priority DOE contaminants Sr, U, Np, Pu, and Tc. Prior to the current program, there were only two (heavily oversubscribed) microprobe facilities in the U.S. that could fully address this energy range (one at each of APS and NSLS); none existed in the Western U.S., in spite of the relatively large number of DOE laboratories in this region

  18. Compartmentalization in environmental science and the perversion of multiple thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkart, W. [Institute of Radiation Hygiene of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, D 85716 Oberschleissheim, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-04-17

    Nature and living organisms are separated into compartments. The self-assembly of phospholipid micelles was as fundamental to the emergence of life and evolution as the formation of DNA precursors and their self-replication. Also, modern science owes much of its success to the study of single compartments, the dissection of complex structures and event chains into smaller study objects which can be manipulated with a set of more and more sophisticated equipment. However, in environmental science, these insights are obtained at a price: firstly, it is difficult to recognize, let alone to take into account what is lost during fragmentation and dissection; and secondly, artificial compartments such as scientific disciplines become self-sustaining, leading to new and unnecessary boundaries, subtly framing scientific culture and impeding progress in holistic understanding. The long-standing but fruitless quest to define dose-effect relationships and thresholds for single toxic agents in our environment is a central part of the problem. Debating single-agent toxicity in splendid isolation is deeply flawed in view of a modern world where people are exposed to low levels of a multitude of genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents. Its potential danger lies in the unwarranted postulation of separate thresholds for agents with similar action. A unifying concept involving toxicology and radiation biology is needed for a full mechanistic assessment of environmental health risks. The threat of synergism may be less than expected, but this may also hold for the safety margin commonly thought to be a consequence of linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship assumptions.

  19. Environmental protection belongs to the public: A vision for citizen science at EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, A.; Dosemagen, S.

    2017-12-01

    As a collaborative and open approach to science, citizen science has the potential make science more actionable, applicable, and usable, especially when designed with scientists, communities and decision-makers as partners. In response to recent interest in citizen science from the US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology provided EPA with advice and recommendations on how to integrate citizen science into the core work of EPA. The Council's 28 members—representatives of academia; business and industry; nongovernmental organizations; and state, local and tribal governments—identifies citizen science as an invaluable opportunity for EPA to strengthen public support for EPA's mission and the best approach for the Agency to connect with the public on environmental protection. The report recommends that EPA embrace citizen science as a core tenet of environmental protection, invest in citizen science for communities, partners, and the Agency, enable the use of citizen science data at the Agency, integrate citizen science into the full range of work of EPA. This presentation will outline principles and strategy for integrating citizen science into science and policy at the national level, increasing the usability of citizen science data for decision-making and policy, and leveraging citizen science for environmental protection.

  20. Communicating Earth Science Through Music: The Use of Environmental Sound in Science Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, C.

    2017-12-01

    The need for increased public understanding and appreciation of Earth science has taken on growing importance over the last several decades. Human society faces critical environmental challenges, both near-term and future, in areas such as climate change, resource allocation, geohazard threat and the environmental degradation of ecosystems. Science outreach is an essential component to engaging both policymakers and the public in the importance of managing these challenges. However, despite considerable efforts on the part of scientists and outreach experts, many citizens feel that scientific research and methods are both difficult to understand and remote from their everyday experience. As perhaps the most accessible of all art forms, music can provide a pathway through which the public can connect to Earth processes. The Earth is not silent: environmental sound can be sampled and folded into musical compositions, either with or without the additional sounds of conventional or electronic instruments. These compositions can be used in conjunction with other forms of outreach (e.g., as soundtracks for documentary videos or museum installations), or simply stand alone as testament to the beauty of geology and nature. As proof of concept, this presentation will consist of a musical composition that includes sounds from various field recordings of wind, swamps, ice and water (including recordings from the inside of glaciers).

  1. Radioactive waste management policy in the UK of best practicable environmental options for waste disposal and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.D.; Feates, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    The organisations which produce radioactive waste carry the direct responsibility for safe and effective management of the wastes and for meeting the costs. UK Nirex Ltd., the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, has been set up to develop and operate new disposal facilities. Individual producers of radioactive waste undertake research related to the treatment of their own wastes, and UK Nirex Ltd. commissions research related to the disposal facilities it wishes to develop. Whatever new disposal facilities are developed and used, UK Nirex Ltd. will have to show that any proposed facilities comply with the principles for assessment of proposals for the protection of the human environment issued by the Government Authorising Departments in 1984, and which incorporate basic radiological safety requirements

  2. The Reciprocal Links between Evolutionary-Ecological Sciences and Environmental Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozzi, Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Illustrates the reciprocal relationships between the sciences and environmental ethics by examining the Darwinian theory of evolution and discussing its implications for ecologists and ethicists. (CCM)

  3. Radiation environmental impact assessment of the radioisotope's application on nuclear medical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongshi

    2004-01-01

    The radiation environmental impact assessment of the radioisotope's application on nuclear medical science is introduced, including the assessment criteria, the assessment methods and the environmental impact assessment of three wastes emission. (authors)

  4. Reconstructing recent environmental change in the Carpathian Basin; advocating an interdisciplinary approach for 2020 environmental science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon HUTCHINSON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to environmental science is particularly important in the field of palaeoenvironmental research. Indeed, while the majority of such studies employ a range of proxies in their investigation, the more innovative studies tend to truly cross discipline boundaries. The investigation of depositional environments (e.g., lake sediments and mires as archives of environmental history has a long tradition in the Carpathian region. However, glacial lakes across the region have also been described as under-investigated despite their potential for palaeolimnological study (Buczko et al. 2009. Studies have also largely focused on relatively early (Late Glacial and Early Holocene environmental change.  Nevertheless, there is an increasing interest in the reconstruction of more human-driven impacts on the environment and events in the very recent past on a century to decade timescale e.g., post Industrial Revolution and following political change from the mid 1940s and in the late 1980s. Furthermore, efforts have are also being made to inform the debate about future climate and environmental changes linking palaeoenvironmental records to predictive computer modelling.

  5. Environmental protection: Researches in National Inst. of Radiological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ban-nai, T.; Doi, M.; Fujimori, A.; Ishii, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kawaguchi, I.; Kubota, Y.; Maruyama, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Nakamori, T.; Takeda, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yanagisawa, K.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies for radiological protection of the environment have been made at the National Inst. of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Transfer of radionuclides and related elements has been investigated for dose estimation of non-human biota. A parameter database and radionuclide transfer models have been also developed for the Japanese environments. Dose (rate)-effect relationships for survival, growth and reproduction have been investigated in conifers, Arabidopsis, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, duckweeds, daphnia and medaka. Also genome-wide gene expression analysis has been carried out by high coverage expression profiling (HiCEP). Effects on aquatic microbial communities have been studied in experimental ecosystem models, i.e., microcosms. Some effects were detected at a dose rate of 1 Gy day -1 and were likely to arise from inter-species interactions. The results obtained at NIRS have been used in development of frameworks for environmental protection by some international bodies, and will contribute to environmental protection in Japan and other Asian countries. (authors)

  6. Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Exposure to inorganic and organic arsenic compounds is a major public health problem that affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Exposure to arsenic is associated with cancer and noncancer effects in nearly every organ in the body, and evidence is mounting for health effects at lower levels of arsenic exposure than previously thought. Building from a tremendous knowledge base with > 1,000 scientific papers published annually with “arsenic” in the title, the question becomes, what questions would best drive future research directions? Objectives: The objective is to discuss emerging issues in arsenic research and identify data gaps across disciplines. Methods: The National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Research Program convened a workshop to identify emerging issues and research needs to address the multi-faceted challenges related to arsenic and environmental health. This review summarizes information captured during the workshop. Discussion: More information about aggregate exposure to arsenic is needed, including the amount and forms of arsenic found in foods. New strategies for mitigating arsenic exposures and related health effects range from engineered filtering systems to phytogenetics and nutritional interventions. Furthermore, integration of omics data with mechanistic and epidemiological data is a key step toward the goal of linking biomarkers of exposure and suscepti

  7. Environmental Sciences Division Toxicology Laboratory standard operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kszos, L.A.; Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Logsdon, G.M.

    1989-09-01

    This document was developed to provide the personnel working in the Environmental Sciences Division's Toxicology Laboratory with documented methods for conducting toxicity tests. The document consists of two parts. The first part includes the standard operating procedures (SOPs) that are used by the laboratory in conducting toxicity tests. The second part includes reference procedures from the US Environmental Protection Agency document entitled Short-Term Methods for Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater Organisms, upon which the Toxicology Laboratory's SOPs are based. Five of the SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia survival and reproduction test. These SOPs include procedures for preparing Ceriodaphnia food (SOP-3), maintaining Ceriodaphnia cultures (SOP-4), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-13), analyzing the test data (SOP-13), and conducting a Ceriodaphnia reference test (SOP-15). Five additional SOPs relate specifically to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larval survival and growth test: methods for preparing fathead minnow larvae food (SOP-5), maintaining fathead minnow cultures (SOP-6), conducting the toxicity test (SOP-9), analyzing the test data (SOP-12), and conducting a fathead minnow reference test (DOP-14). The six remaining SOPs describe methods that are used with either or both tests: preparation of control/dilution water (SOP-1), washing of glassware (SOP-2), collection and handling of samples (SOP-7), preparation of samples (SOP-8), performance of chemical analyses (SOP-11), and data logging and care of technical notebooks (SOP-16)

  8. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training: Grades 5--6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: safe and unsafe conditions for chemical combinations; growth rates and environmental needs of plants; photosynthesis and effects of ozone-layer depletion; the circulatory system, the importance of exercise to the heart, and selected circulatory diseases; the nervous system; specific nutritional values of the different food groups; significance of including, reducing, or eliminating certain foods for a healthy diet; effects of some common chemicals on plant growth and animal life; plants` and animals` natural habitats; and dangers of non-biodegradable garbage.

  9. Improving Science and IT Literacy by Providing Urban-Based Environmental Science Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuff, K. E.; Corazza, L.; Liang, J.

    2007-12-01

    A U.C. Berkeley-based outreach program known as Environmental Science Information Technology Activities has been in operation over the past four years. The primary aim of the program is to provide opportunities for grades 9 and 10 students in diverse East San Francisco Bay Area communities to develop deeper understandings of the nature and conduct of science, which will increase their capacity to enroll and perform successfully in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses in the future. Design of the program has been informed by recent research that indicates a close relationship between educational activities that promote the perception of STEM as being relevant and the ability to foster development of deeper conceptual understandings among teens. Accordingly, ESITA includes an important student-led environmental science research project component, which provides participants with opportunities to engage in research investigations that are directly linked to relevant, real-world environmental problems and issues facing their communities. Analysis of evidence gleaned from questionnaires, interviews with participants and specific assessment/evaluation instruments indicates that ESITA program activities, including after-school meetings, summer and school year research projects, and conference preparations and presentations has provided students with high-quality inquiry science experiences that increased their knowledge of STEM and IT concepts, as well as their understanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise. In addition, the program has achieved a high degree of success in that it has: enhanced participants' intellectual self-confidence with regard to STEM; developed deeper appreciation of how scientific research can contribute to the maintenance of healthy local environments; developed a greater interest in participating in STEM-related courses of study and after school programs; and improved attitudes toward STEM. Overall

  10. Report on the CESE (Council of Environmental Science and Engineering) conference: environmental effects of utilizing more coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lees, B.

    1980-03-01

    A review of a Council of Environmental Science and Engineering conference which looked at the consequences of increased amounts of coal being burned or converted into other products. The speakers and summaries of their papers are given.

  11. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ince, M; Wheatley, A [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research.

  12. Measuring methane emissions from a UK landfill using the tracer dispersion method and the influence of operational and environmental factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees-White, T.; Mønster, Jacob; Beaven, R. P.

    2018-01-01

    The methane emissions from a landfill in south-east, UK were successfully quantified during a six-day measurement campaign using the tracer dispersion method. The fair weather conditions made it necessary to perform measurements in the late afternoon and in the evening when the lower solar flux...

  13. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, M.; Wheatley, A.

    1996-01-01

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research

  14. Citizen science identifies the effects of nitrogen deposition, climate and tree species on epiphytic lichens across the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welden, N A; Wolseley, P A; Ashmore, M R

    2018-01-01

    A national citizen survey quantified the abundance of epiphytic lichens that are known to be either sensitive or tolerant to nitrogen (N) deposition. Records were collected across the UK from over 10,000 individual trees of 22 deciduous species. Mean abundance of tolerant and sensitive lichens was related to mean N deposition rates and climatic variables at a 5 km scale, and the response of lichens was compared on the three most common trees (Quercus, Fraxinus and Acer) and by assigning all 22 tree species to three bark pH groups. The abundance of N-sensitive lichens on trunks decreased with increasing total N deposition, while that of N-tolerant lichens increased. The abundance of N-sensitive lichens on trunks was reduced close to a busy road, while the abundance of N-tolerant lichens increased. The abundance of N-tolerant lichen species on trunks was lower on Quercus and other low bark pH species, but the abundance of N-sensitive lichens was similar on different tree species. Lichen abundance relationships with total N deposition did not differ between tree species or bark pH groups. The response of N-sensitive lichens to reduced nitrogen was greater than to oxidised N, and the response of N-tolerant lichens was greater to oxidised N than to reduced N. There were differences in the response of N-sensitive and N-tolerant lichens to rainfall, humidity and temperature. Relationships with N deposition and climatic variables were similar for lichen presence on twigs as for lichen abundance on trunks, but N-sensitive lichens increased, rather than decreased, on twigs of Quercus/low bark pH species. The results demonstrate the unique power of citizen science to detect and quantify the air pollution impacts over a wide geographical range, and specifically to contribute to understanding of lichen responses to different chemical forms of N deposition, local pollution sources and bark chemistry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrating Climate Change Science and Sustainability in Environmental Science, Sociology, Philosophy and Business Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Cantzler, J.; Croom, S.; Huston, C.; Woods, M.

    2015-12-01

    Courses on sustainability can be taught from multiple perspectives with some focused on specific areas (environmental, socio-cultural, economic, ethics) and others taking a more integrated approach across areas of sustainability and academic disciplines. In conjunction with the Climate Change Education Program efforts to enhance climate change literacy with innovative approaches, resources and communication strategies developed by Climate Education Partners were used in two distinct ways to integrate climate change science and impacts into undergraduate and graduate level courses. At the graduate level, the first lecture in the MBA program in Sustainable Supply Chain Management is entirely dedicated to climate change science, local and global impacts and discussions about key messages to communicate to the business community. Basic science concepts are integrated with discussions about mitigation and adaptation focused on business leaders. The concepts learned are then applied to the semester-long business plan project for the students. At the undergraduate level, a new model of comprehensive integration across disciplines was implemented in Spring 2015 across three courses on Sustainability each with a specific lens: Natural Science, Sociology and Philosophy. All three courses used climate change as the 'big picture' framing concept and had similar learning objectives creating a framework where lens-specific topics, focusing on depth in a discipline, were balanced with integrated exercises across disciplines providing breadth and possibilities for integration. The comprehensive integration project was the creation of the climate action plan for the university with each team focused on key areas of action (water, energy, transportation, etc.) and each team built with at least one member from each class ensuring a natural science, sociological and philosophical perspective. The final project was presented orally to all three classes and an integrated paper included

  16. Investigation of Environmental Topics in the Science and Technology Curriculum and Textbooks in Terms of Environmental Ethics and Aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacin Simsek, Canan

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve environmental problems, it is thought that education should be connected with values. For this reason, it is emphasized that environmental issues should be integrated with ethical and aesthetic values. In this study, 6th, 7th and 8th grade science and technology curriculum and textbooks were investigated to find out how much…

  17. The Materials Used and the Pupils Involved in Environmental Studies and Environmental Science at GCE 'O' and 'A' Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayford, Christopher

    1984-01-01

    Discusses types of students and materials and resources used in O- and A-level environmental studies and environmental science courses. Indicates that these subjects are very susceptable to the attitudes of teachers (as shown by their willingness to produce satisfactory materials) and by the motivation of students. (JN)

  18. 78 FR 32259 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, July 15, 2013, 8:00 a...

  19. A Module-Based Environmental Science Course for Teaching Ecology to Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffrey R.

    2010-01-01

    Using module-based courses has been suggested to improve undergraduate science courses. A course based around a series of modules focused on major environmental issues might be an effective way to teach non-science majors about ecology and ecology's role in helping to solve environmental problems. I have used such a module-based environmental…

  20. 78 FR 47715 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Environmental Health Sciences Review Committee, July 24, 2013, 08:00 a.m. to July 26, 2013, 02:00...

  1. The Value of Conceptual Models in Coping with Complexity and Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Karen P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.; Leemans, Rik

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual models are useful for facing the challenges of environmental sciences curriculum and course developers and students. These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. In this article, we review the merits of conceptual models in facing these challenges. These…

  2. Los Alamos Life Sciences Division's biomedical and environmental research programs. Progress report, January-December 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, L.M.; Stafford, C.G.; Bolen, S.K.

    1981-09-01

    Highlights of research progress accomplished in the Life Sciences Division during the year ending December 1980 are summarized. Reports from the following groups are included: Toxicology, Biophysics, Genetics; Environmental Pathology, Organic Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences. Individual abstracts have been prepared for 46 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  3. Exploring Mars and Beyond: Science Fiction a Resource for Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryder W.

    The purpose of this article is to show how traditional science fiction, an empowering literature of social criticism, can be used by environmental educators to reach the traditional goals of environmental education. The sub-genres of science fiction are discussed along with ways in which they can be used to reach certain goals of environmental…

  4. 78 FR 33416 - Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science Advisory Board Environmental Justice Technical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL--9819-3] Notification of a Public Meeting of the Science... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Environmental Justice Technical Guidance Review Panel to provide advice through...

  5. Bringing the Tools of Big Science to Bear on Local Environmental Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronson, Scott; Jones, Keith W.; Brown, Maria

    2013-01-01

    We describe an interactive collaborative environmental education project that makes advanced laboratory facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory accessible for one-year or multi-year science projects for the high school level. Cyber-enabled Environmental Science (CEES) utilizes web conferencing software to bring multi-disciplinary,…

  6. Infusion of Climate Change and Geospatial Science Concepts into Environmental and Biological Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Bhaskar, M. S.; Rosenzweig, J.; Shishodia, S.

    2017-12-01

    The objective of our activity is to improve the students understanding and interpretation of geospatial science and climate change concepts and its applications in the field of Environmental and Biological Sciences in the College of Science Engineering and Technology (COEST) at Texas Southern University (TSU) in Houston, TX. The courses of GIS for Environment, Ecology and Microbiology were selected for the curriculum infusion. A total of ten GIS hands-on lab modules, along with two NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) lab modules on climate change were implemented in the "GIS for Environment" course. GIS and Google Earth Labs along with climate change lectures were infused into Microbiology and Ecology courses. Critical thinking and empirical skills of the students were assessed in all the courses. The student learning outcomes of these courses includes the ability of students to interpret the geospatial maps and the student demonstration of knowledge of the basic principles and concepts of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and climate change. At the end of the courses, students developed a comprehensive understanding of the geospatial data, its applications in understanding climate change and its interpretation at the local and regional scales during multiple years.

  7. Defining criteria for good environmental journalism and testing their applicability: An environmental news review as a first step to more evidence based environmental science reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rögener, Wiebke; Wormer, Holger

    2017-05-01

    While the quality of environmental science journalism has been the subject of much debate, a widely accepted benchmark to assess the quality of coverage of environmental topics is missing so far. Therefore, we have developed a set of defined criteria of environmental reporting. This instrument and its applicability are tested in a newly established monitoring project for the assessment of pieces on environmental issues, which refer to scientific sources and therefore can be regarded as a special field of science journalism. The quality is assessed in a kind of journalistic peer review. We describe the systematic development of criteria, which might also be a model procedure for other fields of science reporting. Furthermore, we present results from the monitoring of 50 environmental reports in German media. According to these preliminary data, the lack of context and the deficient elucidation of the evidence pose major problems in environmental reporting.

  8. Influence of an Intensive, Field-Based Life Science Course on Preservice Teachers' Self-Efficacy for Environmental Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauth-Nare, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Personal and professional experiences influence teachers' perceptions of their ability to implement environmental science curricula and to positively impact students' learning. The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine what influence, if any, an intensive field-based life science course and service learning had on preservice teachers'…

  9. Effects of Science Interest and Environmental Responsibility on Science Aspiration and Achievement: Gender Differences and Cultural Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Mei-Shiu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is twofold: (1) to investigate gender differences in the effects of science interest and environmental responsibility on science aspiration and achievement and (2) to explore the relations between cultural supports (macroeconomic and gender equality) and both boys' and girls' tendencies to integrate the aforementioned…

  10. Transforming participatory science into socioecological praxis: valuing marginalized environmental knowledges in the face of the neoliberalization of nature and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Burke; Nik Heynen

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science and sustainability science promise the more just and democratic production of environmental knowledge and politics. In this review, we evaluate these participatory traditions within the context of (a) our theorization of how the valuation and devaluation of nature, knowledge, and people help to produce socio-ecological hierarchies, the uneven...

  11. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A.

    1997-02-01

    The Environmental Science and Technology Department aspires to develop new ideas and methods for industrial and agricultural production through basic and applied research thus exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The Department endeavours to develop a competent scientific basis for future production technology and management methods in industrial and agricultural production. The research approach in the Department is mainly experimental. Selected departmental research activities during 1996 are introduced and reviewed in seven chapters: 1. Introduction, 2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution, 3. Gene Technology and Population Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, 5. Trace Analysis and Reduction of Pollution in the Geosphere, 6. Ecology, and 7. Other Activities. The Department's contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes are presented together with information about the use of its large experimental facilities. Information about the Department's contribution to education and training are included in the report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. The names of the scientific and technical staff members, visiting scientists, Postdoctoral fellows, Ph.D students and M.Sc. students are also listed. (au) 15 tabs., 63 ills., 207 refs

  12. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A; Gissel Nielsen, G; Gundersen, V; Nielsen, O J; Oestergaard, H; Aarkrog, A [eds.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Science and Technology Department engage in research to improve the scientific basis for new methods in industrial and agricultural production. Through basic and applied research in chemistry, biology and ecology the department aspires to develop methods and technology for the future industrial and agricultural production exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The research approach in the department is predominantly experimental. The research activities are organized in five research programmes and supported by three special facility units. In this annual report the main research activities during 1993 are introduced and reviewed in eight chapters. Chapter 1. Introduction. The five research programmes are covered in chapter 2-7: 2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution, 3. Gene Technology and Population Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition and Mineral Cycling, 5. Trace Analysis and reduction of Pollution in the Geosphere, 6. Ecology, 7. Other Research Activities. The three special activity units in chapter 8. Special Facilities. The department`s contribution to national and international collaborative research projects and programmes is presented in addition to information about large research and development facilities used and managed by the department. The department`s educational and training activites are included in the annual report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. Names of the scientific and technical staff members, visiting scientists, post. doctoral fellows, Ph.D. students and M.Sc. students are also listed. (au) (9 tabs., 43 ills., 167 refs.).

  13. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O. J.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A. [eds.

    1997-02-01

    The Environmental Science and Technology Department aspires to develop new ideas and methods for industrial and agricultural production through basic and applied research thus exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The Department endeavours to develop a competent scientific basis for future production technology and management methods in industrial and agricultural production. The research approach in the Department is mainly experimental. Selected departmental research activities during 1996 are introduced and reviewed in seven chapters: 1. Introduction, 2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution, 3. Gene Technology and Population Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, 5. Trace Analysis and Reduction of Pollution in the Geosphere, 6. Ecology, and 7. Other Activities. The Department`s contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes are presented together with information about the use of its large experimental facilities. Information about the Department`s contribution to education and training are included in the report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. The names of the scientific and technical staff members, visiting scientists, Postdoctoral fellows, Ph.D students and M.Sc. students are also listed. (au) 15 tabs., 63 ills., 207 refs.

  14. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A. [eds.

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Science and Technology Department aspires to develop new ideas and methods for industrial and agricultural production through basic and applied research thus exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The department endeavours to develop a competent scientific basis for future production technology and management methods in industrial and agricultural production. The research approach in the department is mainly experimental. Selected departmental research activities during 1993 are presented and reviewed in seven chapters: 1. Introduction, 2. The Atmospheric Environment, 3. Plant Genetics and Resistance Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, 5. Applied Geochemistry, 6. Ecology and Mineral Cycling, 7. Other Activities. The Department`s contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes are presented together with information about large experimental facilities used in the department. Information about the department`s contribution to education and training are included in the report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. The names of the scientific and technical staff members, visiting scientists, Postdoctoral fellows, Ph.D students and M.Sc students are also listed. (au).

  15. Drop-In Clinics for Environmental Science Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcie Lynne Jacklin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of drop in clinics as a new pedagogical approach in information literacy instruction. Although drop in clinics have been used before for library instruction purposes, they are generally aligned with improvement of student academic writing. In the scenario described in this article, in contrast, the drop in clinic is used in a different manner. The drop in clinic as described here offers students an opportunity to engage in self-directed learning by letting them control the content of the instruction. The clinic is offered to students as a way for them to direct their own learning of the course content. It is facilitated by the librarian but it is not controlled by the librarian. The use of this innovative approach is grounded in the example of environmental science and tourism students at a medium sized university in Ontario and it is an approach that has been jointly promoted to students by both the librarian and the course instructor.

  16. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O.J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    The Environmental Science and Technology Department aspires to develop new ideas and methods for industrial and agricultural production through basic and applied research thus exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The department endeavours to develop a competent scientific basis for future production technology and management methods in industrial and agricultural production. The research approach in the department is mainly experimental. Selected departmental research activities during 1995 are introduced and reviewed in seven chapters: 1. Introduction, 2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution, 3. Gene Technology and Population biology, 4. Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, 5. Trace analysis and Reduction of Pollution in the Geosphere, 6. Ecology, and 7. Other Activities. The department`s contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes are presented together with information about large experimental facilities used in the department. Information about the department`s contribution to education and training are included in the report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. The names of the scientific and technical staff members, visiting scientists, Postdoctoral fellows, Ph.D students and M.Sc. students are also listed. (au) 15 tabs., 40 ills., 163 refs.

  17. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A. [eds.

    1993-03-01

    Through basic and strategic research, the Environmental Science and Technology Department aspires to develop new ideas for industrial and agricultural production thus exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The department endeavours to develop a competent scientific basis for future production technology and management methods in industrial and agricultural production. The research approach in the department in predominantly experimental. Selected department research activities during 1992 are introduced and reviewed in seven chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. The Atmospheric Environment. 3. Plant Genetics and Resistance Biology. 4. Plant Nutrition and Mineral Cycling. 5. Chemistry of the Geosphere. 6. Ecology and Mineral Cycling. 7. Other Activities. The department`s contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes in presented in addition in formation about large research and development facilities used and management by the department. The department`s educational and training activities are included in the annual report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. The names of the scientific and technological staff members, visiting scientists, Post. doctoral fellows, Ph.D. students and M.Sc. students are also listed. (au).

  18. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A.

    1993-03-01

    Through basic and strategic research, the Environmental Science and Technology Department aspires to develop new ideas for industrial and agricultural production thus exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The department endeavours to develop a competent scientific basis for future production technology and management methods in industrial and agricultural production. The research approach in the department in predominantly experimental. Selected department research activities during 1992 are introduced and reviewed in seven chapters: 1. Introduction. 2. The Atmospheric Environment. 3. Plant Genetics and Resistance Biology. 4. Plant Nutrition and Mineral Cycling. 5. Chemistry of the Geosphere. 6. Ecology and Mineral Cycling. 7. Other Activities. The department's contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes in presented in addition in formation about large research and development facilities used and management by the department. The department's educational and training activities are included in the annual report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. The names of the scientific and technological staff members, visiting scientists, Post. doctoral fellows, Ph.D. students and M.Sc. students are also listed. (au)

  19. BEST: Bilingual environmental science training, Grades 3--4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This booklet is one of a series of bilingual guides to environmental-science learning activities for students to do at home. Lesson objectives, materials required, procedure, vocabulary, and subjects integrated into the lesson are described in English for each lesson. A bilingual glossary, alphabetized by English entries, with Spanish equivalents and definitions in both English and Spanish, follows the lesson descriptions, and is itself followed by a bibliography of English-language references with annotations in English. This booklet includes descriptions of ten lessons that cover the following topics: the identification of primary and secondary colors in the environment; recognizing the basic food tastes; the variety of colors that can be made by crushing plant parts; the variety of animal life present in common soil; animal tracks; evidence of plant and animal life in the local environment; recycling, reducing, and composting as alternative means of garbage disposal; waste associated with packaging; paper- recycling principles; and how organic waste can be composted into usable soil. 2 figs.

  20. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A.

    1995-02-01

    The Environmental Science and Technology Department engage in research to improve the scientific basis for new methods in industrial and agricultural production. Through basic and applied research in chemistry, biology and ecology the department aspires to develop methods and technology for the future industrial and agricultural production exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The research approach in the department is predominantly experimental. The research activities are organized in five research programmes and supported by three special facility units. In this annual report the main research activities during 1993 are introduced and reviewed in eight chapters. Chapter 1. Introduction. The five research programmes are covered in chapter 2-7: 2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution, 3. Gene Technology and Population Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition and Mineral Cycling, 5. Trace Analysis and reduction of Pollution in the Geosphere, 6. Ecology, 7. Other Research Activities. The three special activity units in chapter 8. Special Facilities. The department's contribution to national and international collaborative research projects and programmes is presented in addition to information about large research and development facilities used and managed by the department. The department's educational and training activites are included in the annual report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. Names of the scientific and technical staff members, visiting scientists, post. doctoral fellows, Ph.D. students and M.Sc. students are also listed. (au) (9 tabs., 43 ills., 167 refs.)

  1. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O.J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A.

    1996-03-01

    The Environmental Science and Technology Department aspires to develop new ideas and methods for industrial and agricultural production through basic and applied research thus exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The department endeavours to develop a competent scientific basis for future production technology and management methods in industrial and agricultural production. The research approach in the department is mainly experimental. Selected departmental research activities during 1995 are introduced and reviewed in seven chapters: 1. Introduction, 2. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution, 3. Gene Technology and Population biology, 4. Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, 5. Trace analysis and Reduction of Pollution in the Geosphere, 6. Ecology, and 7. Other Activities. The department's contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes are presented together with information about large experimental facilities used in the department. Information about the department's contribution to education and training are included in the report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. The names of the scientific and technical staff members, visiting scientists, Postdoctoral fellows, Ph.D students and M.Sc. students are also listed. (au) 15 tabs., 40 ills., 163 refs

  2. Environmental Science and Technology Department annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, A.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Gundersen, V.; Nielsen, O.J.; Oestergaard, H.; Aarkrog, A.

    1994-02-01

    The Environmental Science and Technology Department aspires to develop new ideas and methods for industrial and agricultural production through basic and applied research thus exerting less stress and strain on the environment. The department endeavours to develop a competent scientific basis for future production technology and management methods in industrial and agricultural production. The research approach in the department is mainly experimental. Selected departmental research activities during 1993 are presented and reviewed in seven chapters: 1. Introduction, 2. The Atmospheric Environment, 3. Plant Genetics and Resistance Biology, 4. Plant Nutrition and Nutrient Cycling, 5. Applied Geochemistry, 6. Ecology and Mineral Cycling, 7. Other Activities. The Department's contribution to national and international collaborative research programmes are presented together with information about large experimental facilities used in the department. Information about the department's contribution to education and training are included in the report along with lists of publications, publications in press, lectures and poster presentations at international meetings. The names of the scientific and technical staff members, visiting scientists, Postdoctoral fellows, Ph.D students and M.Sc students are also listed. (au)

  3. STUDENTS’ SCIENCE LITERACY ABILITY PROFILE IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND GLOBAL WARMING MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Ulfa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research head for measure profile of students’ science literacy ability in environmental pollution and global warming material. The study was conducted in one of SMP Negeri Semarang with samples of 70 students from grade VII D and VII E. The profile of literacy science of students from the highest percentage till the lowest was science as a body of a knowledge was 70,36%, science as a way of thinking was 61,71%, the interaction between science, technology, and society was 61,43% categorized enough level, and science as a way for investigating was 38,21 categorized too less. keywords: science literacy, scince literacy ability

  4. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  5. Investigation necessities in ecology and environmental sciences as support to the environmental administration of the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Forero, Eduardo; Angel Sanint, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    This work intends to establish the knowledge demand in ecology and environmental sciences needed for the environmental management of energy projects; in this development a large number of people were consulted in order to obtain results as broad and valid as possible. Using several methodological strategies and sources (pool, workshop, document search and feedback from experts) an analysis on the needs of research as a necessary input to the environmental management process was obtained. A sub-sector analysis (coal, electricity, oil and alternative energies) was preformed to get the detail necessary to point out specific topics that are considered a priority for the allocation of research funds. This work should be a guide to orient the ecological an environment research with the management needs of the energy sector. It also should be useful as a reference for the definition of science and technology policies for the energy sector, the national environmental system and the national system of science and technology

  6. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit Report: UK Nuclear Decommissioning Policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-04-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is an independent body which advises the Secretaries of State for the Environment, Scotland and Wales, on civil radioactive waste management issues. Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. (author)

  7. A RWMAC commentary on the Science Policy Research Unit report: UK nuclear decommissioning policy: time for decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Chapter 4 of the RWMAC's Twelfth Annual Report discussed nuclear power plant decommissioning strategy. One of the RWMAC's conclusions was that the concept of financial provisioning for power station decommissioning liabilities, which might be passed on to society several generations into the future, deserved further study. A specification for such a study was duly written (Annex 2) and, following consideration of tendered responses, the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU) at Sussex University, was contracted to carry out the work. The SPRU report stands as a SPRU analysis of the subject. This separate short RWMAC report, which is being released at the same time as the SPRU report, presents the RWMAC's own commentary on the SPRU study. The RWMAC has identified five main issues which should be addressed when deciding on a nuclear plant decommissioning strategy. These are: the technical approach to decommissioning, the basis of financial provisions, treatment of risk, segregation of management of funds, and the need for a wider environmental view. These issues are addressed in this RWMAC report. (author)

  8. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hook, R. I.; Hildebrand, S. G.; Gehrs, C. W.; Sharples, F. E.; Shriner, D. S.; Stow, S. H.; Cushman, J. H.; Kanciruk, P.

    1993-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1992, which which extended from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. This report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division's major organizational units. Section activities are described in the Earth and Atmospheric sciences, ecosystem studies, Environmental analysis, environmental biotechnology, and division operations.

  9. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This progress report summarizes the research and development activities conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory during fiscal year (FY) 1992, which which extended from October 1, 1991, through September 30, 1992. This report is structured to provide descriptions of current activities and accomplishments in each of the division's major organizational units. Section activities are described in the Earth and Atmospheric sciences, ecosystem studies, Environmental analysis, environmental biotechnology, and division operations

  10. The Role of Policy Champions and Learning in Implementing Horizontal Environmental Policy Integration: Comparative Insights from European Structural Fund Programmes in the U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Gore

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines attempts to integrate environmental sustainability goals into the design and implementation of projects funded by the EU Structural Funds programmes in the U.K. between 2000 and 2006. It does so by comparing how the two “horizontal priorities” (environmental sustainability and gender equality fared in terms of understanding and acceptance by project applicants. It places this material within the wider context of literature on environmental policy integration and inter-agency cooperation. A “policy coordination” framework is used as a heuristic device to construct an account of the ways in which the two themes were handled through the interplay of the myriad of actors and organisations involved in the process. A key part in this involved the deployment of “policy champions” to work with external organisations bidding for funding to support projects that formed the core of programme implementation. The paper also examines the variable reactions on the part of project designers to the requirement to incorporate environmental and gender goals and the greater inter-professional networking that these implied. The comparison between the two priorities clearly demonstrates the difficulties inherent in the breadth and complexity of environmental issues and the need in the first instance to link them to relatively simple actions directly associated with economic development activity. The study concludes that this is essentially the first step in a more protracted “policy learning” process.

  11. An Investigation of the Goals for an Environmental Science Course: Teacher and Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation uses an ethnographic case study approach to explore the benefits and challenges of including a variety of goals within a high school Environmental Science curriculum. The study focuses on environmental education (EE) goals established by the Belgrade Charter (1975), including developing students' environmental awareness and…

  12. How do marine and coastal citizen science experiences foster environmental engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Church, Emma K; Loder, Jenn; Fielding, Kelly S; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2018-05-01

    Citizen science programs enable community involvement in scientific research. In addition to fostering greater science literacy, some citizen science programs aim to foster engagement in environmental issues. However, few data are available to indicate whether and how citizen science programs can achieve greater environmental engagement. We survey individuals choosing to attend one of seventeen reef citizen science events and examine the extent to which attendees reported three indicators of greater environmental engagement: (i) willingness to share information, (ii) increased support for marine conservation and citizen science, and (iii) intentions to adopt a new behavior. Most participants reported being willing to share information about reef conservation (91%) and described increased support for marine science and conservation (87%). Half of participants (51%) reported intentions to adopt a new conservation behavior. We found that key elements of the citizen science experience associated with these outcomes were learning about actions to protect reefs and coasts (procedural learning), experiencing surprise, and experiencing negative emotions about environmental problems. Excitement was also associated with positive outcomes, but only in participants who were less likely to see themselves as environmental, or were less frequent visitors to reefs and coasts. Importantly, the association between factual learning and environmental engagement outcomes was limited or negative. These findings suggest that the way citizen science experiences make people feel, may be more important for fostering future environmental engagement than factual-based learning. When designing citizen science programs for community members, these findings provide a reminder to not focus on provision of factual information alone, but to highlight environmental impacts while providing meaningful experiences and building environmental skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching Environmental Soil Science to Students older than 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Civera, Cristina; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Burguet, María

    2014-05-01

    The life expectancy growth is a general trend for the world population, which translates into an increase of people older than 55 years in Western societies. This entails to the rise of health problems as well as large investments in healthcare. In general, we are spectators Y tambe voldria saber si ens pots fer una asse of how a large group of citizens have a new life after retirement. The XXI century societies are facing the problem of the need of a healthy population, even after retirement. There is a need in developing new strategies to allow those citizens to improve their knowledge of the environmental changes. The research in Soil Science and related disciplines is the strategy we are using on the Geograns program to inform the students (older than 55) about the changes the Earth and the Soil System are suffering. And this should be done in a healthy and active teaching environment. The NAUGRAN program is being developed by the University of Valencia for more than 10 years and shows the advances on education for senior students. Within this program, Geograns is bringing the environmentalist ideas to the students. This is a difficult task as those students were born in a society were nature was created to be exploited and not to be conserved (e.g. Green Revolution, agricultural transformations of the 60's in Spain). This is the reason why the University of Valencia developed at the end of the 90's a program to teach students older than 55. This paper shows the advances on new strategies developed during 2013 with a group of these senior students. The main strategy was to take the students to visit the nature and to explain the functioning of the Earth and Soil System. Those visits were organized with the collaboration of scientist, environmentalist, farmers and technicians; and the guiding thread was trekking. This mix showed our students different views and sides of the same phenomena (e.g. tillage operations, soil erosion problems, water quantity and

  14. Aiming for long-term, objective-driven science communication in the UK [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Prokop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Communicating science to wider lay audiences is an increasingly important part of a scientist's remit, and is something that many scientists are keen to embrace. However, based on surveys carried out amongst the UK public, as well as our own experiences in developing and delivering such activities, we believe that they are not always as effective at engaging members of the general public as they could be. In this opinion article we argue that in order to achieve more effective science communication, we need more objective-driven and long-term initiatives. As well as being implemented by the scientists themselves, funding organisations can play an important role in helping to drive such initiatives, and we suggest a list of actionable items that might allow for some of these ideas to be implemented.

  15. Depictions of global environmental change in science fiction : an overview of educational applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadonaga, L. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2000-06-01

    This paper examined how the use of science fiction books and movies can be used as a tool to educate the public. Narratives encourage interest in global environmental changes and can help demystify how science works. Although most science fiction depictions of global environmental change are outdated and oversimplified, the genre can encourage discussion of ecological and social impacts. Writers of science fiction consider both natural systems and human societies, anticipating the work of impacts researchers. It was argued that while both science fiction writers and global change researchers require knowledge and creativity to construct realistic extrapolations, a well-written science fiction book is likely to reach a larger audience. Science fiction books emphasize that climate projections are intended as warnings. If properly handled, they can improve public awareness of issues such as global warming and climatic change. It was suggested that collaboration between researchers and science fiction writers could produce some interesting work. 48 refs.

  16. The effects of smoking status and ventilation on environmental tobacco smoke concentrations in public areas of UK pubs and bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Joanna; Watson, Adrian F. R.; Gee, Ivan L.

    UK public houses generally allow smoking to occur and consequently customer ETS exposure can take place. To address this, in 1999 the UK Government and the hospitality industry initiated the Public Places Charter (PPC) to increase non-smoking facilities and provide better ventilation in public houses. A study involving 60 UK pubs, located in Greater Manchester, was conducted to investigate the effects of smoking area status and ventilation on ETS concentrations. ETS markers RSP, UVPM, FPM, SolPM and nicotine were sampled and analysed using established methodologies. ETS marker concentrations were significantly higher ( P mobile in these environments and tends to remain in the smoking areas. This result, together with the much higher reductions in nicotine concentrations between smoking and non-smoking areas compared to other markers, suggests that nicotine is not the most suitable marker to use in these environments as an indicator of the effectiveness of tobacco control policies. The use of ventilation systems (sophisticated HVAC systems and extractor fans in either the on or off mode) did not have a significant effect ( P > 0.05) on ETS marker concentrations in either the smoking or non-smoking areas. The PPC aims to reduce non-smoking customers' exposure through segregation and ventilation and provide customer choice though appropriate signs. This study indicates that although ETS levels are lower in non-smoking sections and signs will assist customers in reducing their exposure, some exposure will still occur because ETS was detected in non-smoking areas. Existing ventilation provision was not effective in reducing exposure and signs advertising ventilated premises may be misleading to customers. Improvements in the design and management of ventilation systems in pubs and bars are required to reduce customer exposure to ETS, if the aims of the PPC are to be met.

  17. A confluence of traditions: Examining teacher practice in the merging of secondary science and environmental education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrid, Steele

    Embedding environmental education within secondary science curriculum presents both philosophical and practical difficulties for teachers. This ethnographic/narrative study, with its methodology grounded in eco-feminism and realism/constructivism, examines the work of six secondary science teachers as they engage in an action research project focused on merging environmental education in their science lessons. Over the course of several months the teachers examine and discuss their views and their professional development related to the project. In the place of definitive conclusions, eight propositions relating the work of secondary science teachers to environmental education, form the basis for a discussion of the implications of the study. The implications are particularly relevant to secondary schools in Ontario, Canada, where the embedding of environmental education in science studies has been mandated.

  18. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center--providing comprehensive earth science for complex societal issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David G.; Wallace, Alan R.; Schneider, Jill L.

    2010-01-01

    Minerals in the environment and products manufactured from mineral materials are all around us and we use and come into contact with them every day. They impact our way of life and the health of all that lives. Minerals are critical to the Nation's economy and knowing where future mineral resources will come from is important for sustaining the Nation's economy and national security. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program (MRP) provides scientific information for objective resource assessments and unbiased research results on mineral resource potential, production and consumption statistics, as well as environmental consequences of mining. The MRP conducts this research to provide information needed for land planners and decisionmakers about where mineral commodities are known and suspected in the earth's crust and about the environmental consequences of extracting those commodities. As part of the MRP scientists of the Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center (WMERSC or 'Center' herein) coordinate the development of national, geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral-resource databases and the migration of existing databases to standard models and formats that are available to both internal and external users. The unique expertise developed by Center scientists over many decades in response to mineral-resource-related issues is now in great demand to support applications such as public health research and remediation of environmental hazards that result from mining and mining-related activities. Western Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center Results of WMERSC research provide timely and unbiased analyses of minerals and inorganic materials to (1) improve stewardship of public lands and resources; (2) support national and international economic and security policies; (3) sustain prosperity and improve our quality of life; and (4) protect and improve public health, safety, and environmental quality. The MRP

  19. Integrating Social Science, Environmental Science, and Engineering to Understand Vulnerability and Resilience to Environmental Hazards in the Bengal Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Ackerly, B.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    the delta. Assessing the impacts of climate change and other environmental stresses on delta populations and designing effective responses will require understanding interactions between the physical and human environments at multiple scales. As part of a multidisciplinary research project drawing on sedimentology, hydrology, remote-sensing, engineering, political science, sociology, psychology, and anthropology we are studying the interactions of human and natural systems in coastal Bangladesh to understand conditions that contribute to vulnerability and resilience at both the household and the community level. Building on Elinor Ostrom's socioecological systems approach, we have developed a theoretical framework for studying vulnerability and resilience when coupled human-natural systems are subject to significant changes and exogenous forcings. We will report on this framework using examples of successful and unsuccessful interventions to manage or mitigate exposure to environmental hazards, and we will also report on progress toward using our framework to identify and understand factors that contribute to the success or failure of such projects.

  20. Advancing sustainable consumption in the UK and China: the mediating effect of pro-environmental self-identity

    OpenAIRE

    Dermody, Janine; Hanmer-Lloyd, Stuart; Koenig-Lewis, Nicole; Zhao, Anita Lifen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we respond to the call for more holistic and culturally diverse research to advance understanding of (non)sustainable consumption behaviour. Our conceptual model incorporates materialism, environmental concern, social consumption motivation, pro-environmental self-identity and sustainable consumption behaviours. This paper contributes to knowledge by examining the mediating role of pro-environmental self-identity to more fully explain consumers’ (non)sustainable consumption beh...

  1. Assessment of environmental co-benefits of energy system decarbonisation - the case of UK air quality using Remote Sensing and Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Z.; Konadu, D. D.; Damoah, R.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a binding obligation to reduce GHG emission by 80% (based on 1990 levels) by 2050. Meeting this target requires extensive decarbonisation of the UK energy system. Different pathways that achieve this target at the lowest system costs are being explored at different levels of policy and decisions on future energy infrastructure. Whilst benefits of decarbonisation are mainly focused on the impacts on climate change, there are other potential environmental and health impacts such as air-quality. In particular, a decrease in fossil fuel use by directly substituting current systems with low-carbon technologies could lead to significant reductions in the concentrations of SO2, NOX, CO and other atmospheric pollutants. So far, the proposed decarbonisation pathways tend to target the electricity sector first, followed by a transition in transport and heating technologies and use. However, the spatial dimension of where short term changes in the energy sector occur in relation to high density population areas is not taken into account when defining the energy transition strategies. This may lead to limited short-term improvements in air quality within urban areas, where use of fossil fuels for heating and transport is the main contribution to overall atmospheric pollutant levels. It is therefore imperative to explore decarbonisation strategies that prioritise transition in sectors of the energy system that produce immediate improvements in air quality in key regions of the UK. This study aims to use a combination of Remote Sensing observations and atmospheric chemistry/transport modelling approaches to estimate and map the atmospheric pollutants impact of the traditional approach of decarbonising electricity first compared to a slower transition in the electricity sector, but faster change in end use sectors (heating and transport). This would provide an additional standard to compare future energy system pathways beyond the traditional metrics of cost and GHG

  2. Environmental Sciences Division. Annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Reichle, D.E.

    1981-03-01

    Research conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division for the Fiscal Year 1980 included studies carried out in the following Division programs and sections: (1) Advanced Fossil Energy Program, (2) Nuclear Program, (3) Environmental Impact Program, (4) Ecosystem Studies Program, (5) Low-Level Waste Research and Development Program, (6) National Low-Level Waste Program, (7) Aquatic Ecology Section, (8) Environmental Resources Section, (9) Earth Sciences Section, and (10) Terrestrial Ecology Section. In addition, Educational Activities and the dedication of the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park are reported. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 10 sections of this report

  3. Environmental Sciences Division. Annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1980. [Lead abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Reichle, D.E.

    1981-03-01

    Research conducted in the Environmental Sciences Division for the Fiscal Year 1980 included studies carried out in the following Division programs and sections: (1) Advanced Fossil Energy Program, (2) Nuclear Program, (3) Environmental Impact Program, (4) Ecosystem Studies Program, (5) Low-Level Waste Research and Development Program, (6) National Low-Level Waste Program, (7) Aquatic Ecology Section, (8) Environmental Resources Section, (9) Earth Sciences Section, and (10) Terrestrial Ecology Section. In addition, Educational Activities and the dedication of the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park are reported. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 10 sections of this report.

  4. Earth and environmental science in the 1980's: Part 1: Environmental data systems, supercomputer facilities and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Overview descriptions of on-line environmental data systems, supercomputer facilities, and networks are presented. Each description addresses the concepts of content, capability, and user access relevant to the point of view of potential utilization by the Earth and environmental science community. The information on similar systems or facilities is presented in parallel fashion to encourage and facilitate intercomparison. In addition, summary sheets are given for each description, and a summary table precedes each section.

  5. Advice and Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for Citizen-Science Environmental Health Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzyk, Timothy M; Huang, Hongtai; Williams, Ronald; Kaufman, Amanda; Essoka, Jonathan

    2018-05-11

    Citizen science provides quantitative results to support environmental health assessments (EHAs), but standardized approaches do not currently exist to translate findings into actionable solutions. The emergence of low-cost portable sensor technologies and proliferation of publicly available datasets provides unparalleled access to supporting evidence; yet data collection, analysis, interpretation, visualization, and communication are subjective approaches that must be tailored to a decision-making audience capable of improving environmental health. A decade of collaborative efforts and two citizen science projects contributed to three lessons learned and a set of frequently asked questions (FAQs) that address the complexities of environmental health and interpersonal relations often encountered in citizen science EHAs. Each project followed a structured step-by-step process in order to compare and contrast methods and approaches. These lessons and FAQs provide advice to translate citizen science research into actionable solutions in the context of a diverse range of environmental health issues and local stakeholders.

  6. Environmental Empowerment - the role of Co-operation between Civil Society, Universities and Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Hansen, Anne Grethe

    2006-01-01

    The University based Science Shops were established in the 1970s in the Netherlands, and in Denmark and other countries in the 1980s and 1990s. The aim was to give civil society organisations access to scientific knowledge and to empower citizen participation regarding environmental and social...... improvements. It has recently been suggested that the role of Science Shops should change as a consequence of the stated increasing professionalisation of the Non Governmental Organisations and Civil Society Organisations, and of industry’s increasing interest in introducing environmental management measures....... Increasing internationalisation of the environmental agenda has contributed to this as well as a general acceptance of environmental considerations in industry policy and strategy. However, with departure point in three different Science Shop projects, the article proposes that Science Shops are still...

  7. About Region 3's Laboratory and Field Services at EPA's Environmental Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mission & contact information for EPA Region 3's Laboratory and Field Services located at EPA's Environmental Science Center: the Office of Analytical Services and Quality Assurance & Field Inspection Program

  8. Excel 2016 for environmental sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J; Horton, Howard F

    2016-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical environmental science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel is an effective learning tool for quantitative analyses in environmental science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Environmental Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel 2016 to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formulas and directs the reader to use Excel commands to solve specific, easy-to-understand environmental science problems. Practice problems are provided at the end of each chapte...

  9. ESI-VI10 Jost Van Dyke, U.K. Virgin Islands 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  10. Elementary Students' Retention of Environmental Science Knowledge: Connected Science Instruction versus Direct Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhaskar; DeFranco, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 3rd-grade elementary students' gain and retention of science vocabulary over time in two different classes--"connected science instruction" versus "direct instruction." Data analysis yielded that students who received connected science instruction showed less gain in science knowledge in the short term compared to students who…

  11. Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS): The Effectiveness of an Afterschool Environmental Science Program for Increasing Female Students' Interest in Science Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler-Wood, Tandra; Ellison, Amber; Lim, Okyoung; Periathiruvadi, Sita

    2012-02-01

    Bringing Up Girls in Science (BUGS) was an afterschool program for 4th and 5th grade girls that provided authentic learning experiences in environmental science as well as valuable female mentoring opportunities in an effort to increase participants' academic achievement in science. BUGS participants demonstrated significantly greater amounts of gain in science knowledge as measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills in Science (ITBS-S). The original BUGS participants and contrasts have now completed high school and entered college, allowing researchers to assess the long-term impact of the BUGS program. Fourteen former BUGS participants completed two instruments to assess their perceptions of science and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Their results were compared to four contrast groups composed entirely of females: 12 former BUGS contrasts, 10 college science majors, 10 non-science majors, and 9 current STEM professionals. Results indicate that BUGS participants have higher perceptions of science careers than BUGS contrasts. There were no significant differences between BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM professionals in their perceptions of science and STEM careers, whereas the BUGS contrast group was significantly lower than BUGS participants, Science Majors, and STEM Professionals. Additional results and implications are discussed within.

  12. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renouf, M.A.; Wegener, M.K.; Nielsen, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops-US corn and UK sugar beet-to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency

  13. An environmental life cycle assessment comparing Australian sugarcane with US corn and UK sugar beet as producers of sugars for fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renouf, M.A. [School of Geography, Planning and Architecture, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Wegener, M.K. [School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, The University of Queensland, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Nielsen, L.K. [Australian Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); CRC for Sugar Industry Innovation through Biotechnology, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    Sugarcane is a highly suitable substrate for the production of bio-products. As well as producing high yields of sugar, much of the plant's fibre is also recovered and used as a source of renewable energy. A life cycle assessment (LCA) of sugarcane production and processing in Australia was performed to develop an environmental profile of sugarcane as a source of bio-products. The application examined was fermentation products from sugar. The sugarcane results were compared with results for other sugar producing crops - US corn and UK sugar beet - to gauge its relative environmental performance. The results show sugarcane to have an advantage in respect of energy input, greenhouse gas emissions and possibly acidification potential due to its high saccharide yield and the displacement of fossil fuels with surplus renewable energy from cane fibre (bagasse). However Australian sugarcane can exhibit high nitrous oxide emissions, which would reduce greenhouse gas advantages in some regions. For eutrophication, sugar beet provides advantages due to the avoided production of other agricultural crops displaced by the use of beet pulp as an animal feed. The three factors found to have the most influence on the environmental impacts of these agro-industrial systems were the commodities displaced by by-products, agricultural yields, and nitrogen use efficiency. (author)

  14. A centralized information management system for environmental science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namboodiri, K. [Martin Marietta Technical Services, Inc., Bay City, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    During the past few decades there have been several serious initiatives focusing on the applications of computational technology towards understanding the diverse fields of environmental research such as environmental monitoring, pollution prevention, and hazardous chemical mitigation. Recently, due to the widespread application of high performance computer technology and the renewed interest of the industrial community in environmental protection, we are witnessing an era of environmental information explosion. In light of these large-scale computer-driven developments, the author identifies a highly desirable initiative for this field, which is solely devoted to a centralized environmental database and information management system. This talk will focus on some design aspects of such an information management system.

  15. Teaching Development of Foundation Environmental Science Course Using Undergraduate Handbook of Buriram Rajabhat University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntida Thammamrat

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is an attempt to apply the handbook as a tool for teaching foundation of environmental science. The aims of this investigation were 1 to develop a course handbook that fills the standard criteria of 80/80 2 to compare mean derived from pretest and posttest scores 3 to compare student’s attitude toward environmental science from the pretest and posttest scores and 4 to compare student’s environmental scientific skills prior to and after using a study handbook. The key informants were 56 students drawn from 1st- year students of Environmental Science Department of Buriram Rajabhat University in 2558 (B.E academic year. Four instruments of data collection were constructed including 1 the course handbook 2 test of student’s basic knowledge on environmental science, 3 the test of student’s attitude toward environmental science, and 4 the test of student’s environmental scientific skills. The statistics analysis in this study comprised frequency percentage, mean, standard deviation and dependent t – test, which were of used for examining the hypothesis. The findings of this investigation revealed that 1 the efficiency of the handbook entitled “Foundation of environmental science” met the criteria of 80/80 in all aspects with value 83.93/91.81 2 the scores derived from student’s posttest is higher than pretest with .05 statistical significant difference 3 teaching through the handbook enhanced the level of student attitude toward environmental science with .05 statistical significant difference and 4 the environmental scientific skills of the students learning through the handbook are significantly higher than before, at .05 level.

  16. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Kids' Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opportunity to highly motivated science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) focused undergraduate students in the Raleigh-Durham area to solidly connect with NIEHS, and receive frontier-level training in biomedical research. More Information It's Spring! ...

  17. Advanced Placement Environmental Science and the Curriculum and Community Enterprise for Restoration Science (CCERS) Project in the New York City High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birney, Lauren; McNamara, Denise

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of social justice through the lens of equitable access to Advanced Placement courses in the City of New York High Schools, with focus on Advanced Placement Environmental Science. A critical component of the Advanced Placement Environmental Science course is the incorporation of environmental fieldwork. The National…

  18. An Ecological System Curriculum: An Integrated MST Approach to Environmental Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Nina A.

    This paper describes an inquiry-based, student-centered mathematics, science, and technology curriculum guide. It features activities addressing such environmental science topics as groundwater modeling, water filtration, soil permeability and porosity, water temperature and salinity, and quadrant studies. Activities are organized so that the…

  19. Fieldwork, Co-Teaching and Co-Generative Dialogue in Lower Secondary School Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Yuli; Koul, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    This article reports one of the case studies in a 3-year longitudinal study in environmental science education. This case explores the process of teaching about ecosystems through co-teaching and co-generative dialogue in a Year-9 science classroom in Western Australia. Combining with co-teaching and co-generative dialogue aimed at transforming…

  20. Anthropogenic Climate Change in Undergraduate Marine and Environmental Science Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…

  1. A Reconstructed Vision of Environmental Science Literacy: The case of Qatar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) develop a conceptual framework for environmental science literacy; and consequently (b) examine the potential of science standards/curricula to prepare environmentally literate citizens. The framework comprised four pillars: science content knowledge, scientific inquiry, nature of science (NOS), and socioscientific issues (SSI). A conceptual understanding of these pillars as interconnected was presented and justified. Then the developed framework was used to examine the potential of the Qatari science standards to prepare environmentally literate citizens. Results showed that the secondary Qatari science standards generally take up the pillars of science content and scientific inquiry in an explicit manner. The NOS pillar is rarely addressed, while the SSI pillar is not addressed in the objectives and activities in a way that aligns with the heavy emphasis given in the overall aims. Moreover, the connections among pillars are mostly manifested within the activities and between the science content and scientific inquiry. The objectives and activities targeting the environment were less frequent among the four pillars across the Qatari standards. Again, the connections related to the environment were less frequent in conformity with the limited environmental objectives and activities. Implications from this study relate to the need for the distribution of the four pillars across the standards as well as the presentation of the different pillars as interconnected.

  2. Investigation of Pre-Service Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Sustainable Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keles, Özgül

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate pre-service science teachers' sustainable environmental education attitudes and the factors affecting them in terms of some variables (gender and grade level). The study group of the current research is comprised of 154 pre-service teachers attending the Department of Science Education in the…

  3. Youth Environmental Science Outreach in the Mushkegowuk Territory of Subarctic Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Kozlovic, Daniel R.; De Iuliis, Gerry; Liberda, Eric N.; General, Zachariah; Liedtke, Jeff; McCarthy, Daniel D.; Gomez, Natalya; Metatawabin, Daniel; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2011-01-01

    We connected youth of the Mushkegowuk Territory (specifically Fort Albany First Nation) with environmental science and technology mentors in an outreach program contextualized to subarctic Ontario that addressed some of the environmental concerns identified by members of Fort Albany First Nation. Most activities were community-based centering on…

  4. Synthesis for the Interdisciplinary Environmental Sciences: Integrating Systems Approaches and Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Gregory L.; Wee, Bryan Shao-Chang; Chin, Anne; Tindle, Amy Depierre; Guth, Dan; Mason, Hillary

    2013-01-01

    As our understanding of complex environmental issues increases, institutions of higher education are evolving to develop new learning models that emphasize synthesis across disciplines, concepts, data, and methodologies. To this end, we argue for the implementation of environmental science education at the intersection of systems theory and…

  5. 76 FR 62422 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Cancellation of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences; Cancellation of Meeting Notice is hereby given of the cancellation of the Interagency Breast Cancer and Environmental Research Coordinating Committee, October 12, 2011, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m...

  6. Literacy and Arts-Integrated Science Lessons Engage Urban Elementary Students in Exploring Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P.; Elser, C. F.; Klein, J. L.; Rule, A. C.

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive case study examined student attitudes, writing skills and content knowledge of urban fourth and fifth graders (6 males, 9 female) during a six-week literacy, thinking skill, and art-integrated environmental science unit. Pre- and post-test questions were used to address knowledge of environmental problems and student environmental…

  7. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  8. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Reichle, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Research programs from the following sections and programs are summarized: aquatic ecology, environmental resources, earth sciences, terrestrial ecology, advanced fossil energy program, toxic substances program, environmental impacts program, biomass, low-level waste research and development program, US DOE low-level waste management program, and waste isolation program.

  9. Heuristic principles to teach and learn boundary crossing skills in environmental science education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortuin, K.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s academic environmental science curricula have emerged all over the world addressing a wide range of topics and using knowledge from various disciplines. These curricula aim to deliver graduates with competencies to study, understand and address complex environmental problems.

  10. A new approach to environmental education: environment-challenge for science, technology and society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach to environmental education within the project Environment: Challenge for Science, Technology and Education, realized on the Alternative Academic Education Network (AAEN) in Belgrade. The project is designed for graduate or advanced undergraduate students of science, medicine, engineering, biotechnology, political and law sciences. It is multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary project aimed to support students interest in different areas of the environmental sciences through strong inter-connection between modern scientific ideas, technological achievements and society. The project contains four basic courses (Living in the Environment; Physical and Chemical Processes in the Environment; Industrial Ecology and Sustainable Development; Environmental Philosophy and Ethics) and a number of elective courses dealing with environmental biology, adaptation processes , global eco politics, environmental ethics, scientific and public policy, environmental consequences of warfare, environmental pollution control, energy management, environmental impact assessment, etc. The standard ex catedra teaching is replaced with active student-teacher communication method enabling students to participate actively in the subject through seminars, workshops, short essays and individual research projects

  11. Environmental Sciences Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.I.; Reichle, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Research programs from the following sections and programs are summarized: aquatic ecology, environmental resources, earth sciences, terrestrial ecology, advanced fossil energy program, toxic substances program, environmental impacts program, biomass, low-level waste research and development program, US DOE low-level waste management program, and waste isolation program

  12. The Power of One: The Impact of Family and Consumer Sciences Education on Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    2010-01-01

    The issues related to environmental sustainability can be overwhelming. It is difficult to imagine that actions of one person could make a difference. This article addresses that perception and illustrates the impact of one person, a family and consumer sciences educator, on the lives of others and on environmental resources. Making a difference…

  13. Advanced Technologies and Data Management Practices in Environmental Science: Lessons from Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Mayernik, Matthew S.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Allen, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental scientists are increasing their capitalization on advancements in technology, computation, and data management. However, the extent of that capitalization is unknown. We analyzed the survey responses of 434 graduate students to evaluate the understanding and use of such advances in the environmental sciences. Two-thirds of the…

  14. The Integration of Environmental Education in Science Materials by Using "MOTORIC" Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarjita, I. Wayan; Ardi, Muhammad; Rachman, Abdul; Supu, Amiruddin; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2015-01-01

    The research of the integration of Environmental Education in science subject matter by application of "MOTORIC" Learning models has carried out on Junior High School Kupang Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia. "MOTORIC" learning model is an Environmental Education (EE) learning model that collaborate three learning approach i.e.…

  15. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  16. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increase in healthcare facilities and rapid environmental degradation: A technological paradox in Nigeria's urban centres · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Coker, MKC Sridhar, 577-585 ...

  17. Applied Science Division annual report, Environmental Research Program FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, E.J.; Novakov, T.

    1984-05-01

    The primary concern of the Environmental Research Program is the understanding of pollutant formation, transport, and transformation and the impacts of pollutants on the environment. These impacts include global, regional, and local effects on the atmosphere and hydrosphere, and on certain aspects of human health. This multidisciplinary research program includes fundamental and applied research in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology, as well as research on the development of advanced methods of measurement and analysis. During FY 1983, research concentrated on atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied physics and laser spectroscopy, combustion theory and phenomena, environmental effects of oil shale processing, freshwater ecology and acid precipitation, trace element analysis for the investigation of present and historical environmental impacts, and a continuing survey of instrumentation for environmental monitoring

  18. Environmental Sciences Division: Summaries of research in FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report focuses on research in global change, as well as environmental remediation. Global change research investigates the following: distribution and balance of radiative heat energy; identification of the sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; and prediction of changes in the climate and concomitant ecological effects. Environmental remediation develops the basic understanding needed to remediate soils, sediments, and ground water that have undergone radioactive and chemical contamination.

  19. Modelling socio-environmental sensitivities: how public responses to low carbon energy technologies could shape the UK energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran Jay, Brighid; Howard, David; Hughes, Nick; Whitaker, Jeanette; Anandarajah, Gabrial

    2014-01-01

    Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public's socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway) as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD) which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY) that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO) where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD) and all show increased cost (especially in ECO).

  20. Modelling Socio-Environmental Sensitivities: How Public Responses to Low Carbon Energy Technologies Could Shape the UK Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brighid Moran Jay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low carbon energy technologies are not deployed in a social vacuum; there are a variety of complex ways in which people understand and engage with these technologies and the changing energy system overall. However, the role of the public’s socio-environmental sensitivities to low carbon energy technologies and their responses to energy deployments does not receive much serious attention in planning decarbonisation pathways to 2050. Resistance to certain resources and technologies based on particular socio-environmental sensitivities would alter the portfolio of options available which could shape how the energy system achieves decarbonisation (the decarbonisation pathway as well as affecting the cost and achievability of decarbonisation. Thus, this paper presents a series of three modelled scenarios which illustrate the way that a variety of socio-environmental sensitivities could impact the development of the energy system and the decarbonisation pathway. The scenarios represent risk aversion (DREAD which avoids deployment of potentially unsafe large-scale technology, local protectionism (NIMBY that constrains systems to their existing spatial footprint, and environmental awareness (ECO where protection of natural resources is paramount. Very different solutions for all three sets of constraints are identified; some seem slightly implausible (DREAD and all show increased cost (especially in ECO.