Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W
Objective To report on the career intentions, three years after qualification, of 12 national cohorts of UK-trained doctors who qualified between 1974 and 2012, and, specifically, to compare recent UK medical graduates' intentions to work in medicine in the UK with earlier graduates. Design Questionnaire surveys of cohorts of UK medical graduates defined by year of graduation. Setting UK. Participants 30,272 UK medical graduates. Main outcome measures Stated level of intention to pursue a long-term career in medicine in the UK. Results The response rate was 62% (30,272/48,927). We examined responses to the question ' Apart from temporary visits abroad, do you intend to practise medicine in the United Kingdom for the foreseeable future?' Of doctors from UK homes, 90% had specified that they would 'definitely or probably' practise medicine in the UK in the surveys of 1977-1986, 81% in 1996-2011 and 64% in 2015. Those who said that they would probably or definitely not practise medicine in the UK comprised 5% in 1977-1986, 8% in 1996-2011 and 15% in 2015. Most who were not definite about a future career in UK medicine indicated that they would wish to practise medicine outside the UK rather than to leave medicine. Conclusions The wish to remain in UK medical practice in the 2015 survey was unprecedentedly low in this unique series of 40 years of surveys.
Barat, Atena; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W
To report UK-trained doctors' career choices for dermatology, career destinations, and factors influencing career pathways. Multicohort multipurpose longitudinal surveys of UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1974 and 2015. In all, 40,412 doctors (58% of graduates) responded in year 1, 31,466 (64%) in year 3, and 24,970 (67%) in year 5. One year after graduation, 1.7% of women and 0.6% of men made dermatology their first choice but by five years after graduation the respective figures were 1.0% and 0.7%. Compared to their predecessors, its popularity fell more substantially from years 1 to 5 among recent graduates (2005-15), particularly for women (from 2.1% in year 1 to 0.8% in year 5) compared with a fall from 0.8% to 0.5% among men. The most important factor influencing dermatology choice was "hours/working conditions": in year one, 69% regarded this as important compared with 31% of those choosing other hospital physician specialties. Only 18% of respondents who chose dermatology at year 1 eventually worked in it; however, almost all practising dermatologists (94%), 10 years after qualifying, had made their future career decision by year 5. Dermatology is popular among female UK graduates. Most dermatologists made their career decision late but decisively.
Full Text Available Objective. To report UK-trained doctors’ career choices for dermatology, career destinations, and factors influencing career pathways. Methods. Multicohort multipurpose longitudinal surveys of UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1974 and 2015. Results. In all, 40,412 doctors (58% of graduates responded in year 1, 31,466 (64% in year 3, and 24,970 (67% in year 5. One year after graduation, 1.7% of women and 0.6% of men made dermatology their first choice but by five years after graduation the respective figures were 1.0% and 0.7%. Compared to their predecessors, its popularity fell more substantially from years 1 to 5 among recent graduates (2005–15, particularly for women (from 2.1% in year 1 to 0.8% in year 5 compared with a fall from 0.8% to 0.5% among men. The most important factor influencing dermatology choice was “hours/working conditions”: in year one, 69% regarded this as important compared with 31% of those choosing other hospital physician specialties. Only 18% of respondents who chose dermatology at year 1 eventually worked in it; however, almost all practising dermatologists (94%, 10 years after qualifying, had made their future career decision by year 5. Conclusion. Dermatology is popular among female UK graduates. Most dermatologists made their career decision late but decisively.
Lambert, Trevor; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
Doctors who graduated in the UK after 2005 have followed a restructured postgraduate training programme (Modernising Medical Careers) and have experienced the introduction of the European Working Time Regulation and e-portfolios. In this paper, we report the views of doctors who graduated in 2008 three years after graduation and compare these views with those expressed in year 1. Questionnaires about career intentions, destinations and views sent in 2011 to all medical graduates of 2008. 3228 UK medical graduates. Comments on work, education and training. Response was 49% (3228/6538); 885 doctors wrote comments. Of these, 21.8% were unhappy with the standard of their training; 8.4% were positive. Doctors made positive comments about levels of supervision, support, morale and job satisfaction. Many doctors commented on poor arrangements for rotas, cover and leave, which had an adverse effect on work-life balance, relationships, morale and health. Some doctors felt pressured into choosing their future specialty too early, with inadequate career advice. Themes raised in year 3 that were seldom raised in year 1 included arrangements for flexible working and maternity leave, obtaining posts in desired locations and having to pay for courses, exams and conferences. Many doctors felt training was available, but that European Working Time Regulation, rotas and cover arrangements made it difficult to attend. Three years after graduation, doctors raised similar concerns to those they had raised two years earlier, but the pressures of career decision making, family life and job seeking were new issues.
Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
Objective To report the reasons why doctors are considering leaving medicine or the UK. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting UK. Participants Questionnaires were sent three years after graduation to all UK medical graduates of 2008 and 2012. Main outcome measures Comments from doctors about their main reasons for considering leaving medicine or the UK (or both). Results The response rate was 46.2% (5291/11,461). Among the 60% of respondents who were not definitely intent on remaining in UK medicine, 50% were considering working in medicine outside the UK and 10% were considering leaving medicine. Among those considering working in medicine outside the UK, the most commonly cited reasons were to gain wider experience, that things would be 'better' elsewhere and a negative view of the National Health Service and its culture, state and politics. Other reasons included better training or job opportunities, better pay and conditions, family reasons and higher expectations. Three years after graduation, doctors surveyed in 2015 were significantly more likely than doctors surveyed in 2011 to cite factors related to the National Health Service, to pay and conditions, to their expectations and to effects on work-life balance and patient care. Among those considering leaving medicine, the dominant reason for leaving medicine was a negative view of the National Health Service (mentioned by half of those in this group who commented). Three years after graduation, doctors surveyed in 2015 were more likely than doctors surveyed in 2011 to cite this reason, as well as excessive hours and workload, and financial reasons. Conclusions An increasingly negative view is held by many doctors of many aspects of the experience of being a junior doctor in the National Health Service, and the difficulty of delivering high-quality patient care within what many see as an under-funded system. Policy changes designed to encourage more doctors to remain should be motivated by a desire to address
Maisonneuve, Jenny J; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
The UK medical graduates of 2008 and 2009 were among the first to experience a fully implemented, new, UK training programme, called the Foundation Training Programme, for junior doctors. We report doctors' views of the first Foundation year, based on comments made as part of a questionnaire survey covering career choices, plans, and experiences. Postal and email based questionnaires about career intentions, destinations and views were sent in 2009 and 2010 to all UK medical graduates of 2008 and 2009. This paper is a qualitative study of 'free-text' comments made by first-year doctors when invited to comment, if they wished, on any aspect of their work, education, training, and future. The response rate to the surveys was 48% (6220/12952); and 1616 doctors volunteered comments. Of these, 61% wrote about their first year of training, 35% about the working conditions they had experienced, 33% about how well their medical school had prepared them for work, 29% about their future career, 25% about support from peers and colleagues, 22% about working in medicine, and 15% about lifestyle issues. When concerns were expressed, they were commonly about the balance between service provision, administrative work, and training and education, with the latter often suffering when it conflicted with the needs of medical service provision. They also wrote that the quality of a training post often depended on the commitment of an individual senior doctor. Service support from seniors was variable and some respondents complained of a lack of team work and team ethic. Excessive hours and the lack of time for reflection and career planning before choices about the future had to be made were also mentioned. Some doctors wrote that their views were not sought by their hospital and that NHS management structures did not lend themselves to efficiency. UK graduates from non-UK homes felt insecure about their future career prospects in the UK. There were positive comments about
Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W
Objective To report on any adverse effects on health and wellbeing of working as a doctor, as described by senior doctors. Design Questionnaires sent in 2014 to all medical graduates of 1974 and 1977. Participants 3695 UK medical graduates. Setting United Kingdom. Main outcome measures Statements about adverse effects upon health, wellbeing and career. Results The aggregated response rate from contactable doctors was 84.6% (3695/4369). In response to the question 'Do you feel that working as a doctor has had any adverse effects on your own health or wellbeing?', 44% of doctors answered 'yes'. More GPs (47%) than hospital doctors (42%) specified that this was the case. Three-quarters of doctors who answered 'yes' cited 'stress/work-life balance/workload' as an adverse effect, and 45% mentioned illness. In response to the statement 'The NHS of today is a good employer when doctors become ill themselves', 28% of doctors agreed, 29% neither agreed nor disagreed and 43% disagreed. More women doctors (49%) than men doctors (40%) disagreed with this statement. More general practitioners (49%) disagreed than hospital doctors (37%). Conclusions Chronic stress and illness, which these doctors attributed to their work, were widely reported. Although recent changes may have alleviated some of these issues, there are lessons for the present and future if the NHS is to ensure that its medical workforce receives the support which enables current doctors to enjoy a full and satisfying career and to contribute fully to health service provision in the UK. Older doctors, in particular, need support to be able to continue successfully in their careers.
Tiffin, Paul A; Paton, Lewis W; Mwandigha, Lazaro M; McLachlan, John C; Illing, Jan
International medical graduates working in the UK are more likely to be censured in relation to fitness to practise compared to home graduates. Performance on the General Medical Council's (GMC's) Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) tests and English fluency have previously been shown to predict later educational performance in this group of doctors. It is unknown whether the PLAB system is also a valid predictor of unprofessional behaviour and malpractice. The findings would have implications for regulatory policy. This was an observational study linking data relating to fitness to practise events (referral or censure), PLAB performance, demographic variables and English language competence, as evaluated via the International English Language Test System (IELTS). Data from 27,330 international medical graduates registered with the GMC were analysed, including 210 doctors who had been sanctioned in relation to at least one fitness to practise issue. The main outcome was risk of eventual censure (including a warning). The significant univariable educational predictors of eventual censure (versus no censures or referrals) were lower PLAB part 1 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.00) and part 2 scores (HR, 0.94; 0.91 to 0.97) at first sitting, multiple attempts at both parts of the PLAB, lower IELTS reading (HR, 0.79; 0.65 to 0.94) and listening scores (HR, 0.76; 0.62 to 0.93) and higher IELTS speaking scores (HR, 1.28; 1.04 to 1.57). Multiple resits at either part of the PLAB and higher IELTS speaking score (HR, 1.49; 1.20 to 1.84) were also independent predictors of censure. We estimated that the proposed limit of four attempts at both parts of the PLAB would reduce the risk in this entire group by only approximately two censures per 5 years in this group of doctors. Making the PLAB, or any replacement assessment, more stringent and raising the required standards of English reading and listening may result in fewer fitness
McManus, I C; Keeling, A; Paice, E
The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory, and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five. Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire and personality. Results Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Conclusions Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style.
McManus, IC; Keeling, A; Paice, E
Background The study investigated the extent to which approaches to work, workplace climate, stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine as a career in doctors aged about thirty are predicted by measures of learning style and personality measured five to twelve years earlier when the doctors were applicants to medical school or were medical students. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of doctors. The participants were first studied when they applied to any of five UK medical schools in 1990. Postal questionnaires were sent to all doctors with a traceable address on the current or a previous Medical Register. The current questionnaire included measures of Approaches to Work, Workplace Climate, stress (General Health Questionnaire), burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and satisfaction with medicine as a career and personality (Big Five). Previous questionnaires had included measures of learning style (Study Process Questionnaire) and personality. Results Doctors' approaches to work were predicted by study habits and learning styles, both at application to medical school and in the final year. How doctors perceive their workplace climate and workload is predicted both by approaches to work and by measures of stress, burnout and satisfaction with medicine. These characteristics are partially predicted by trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Stress, burnout and satisfaction also correlate with trait measures of personality taken five years earlier. Conclusions Differences in approach to work and perceived workplace climate seem mainly to reflect stable, long-term individual differences in doctors themselves, reflected in measures of personality and learning style. PMID:15317650
Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
To report the changes to UK medicine which doctors who have emigrated tell us would increase their likelihood of returning to a career in UK medicine. Questionnaire survey. UK-trained medical graduates. Questionnaires were sent 11 years after graduation to 7158 doctors who qualified in 1993 and 1996 in the UK: 4763 questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were sent 17 and 19 years after graduation to the same cohorts: 4554 questionnaires were returned. Comments from doctors working abroad about changes needed to UK medicine before they would return. Eleven years after graduation, 290 (6%) of respondents were working in medicine abroad; 277 (6%) were doing so 17/19 years after graduation. Eleven years after graduation, 53% of doctors working abroad indicated that they did not intend to return, and 71% did so 17/19 years after graduation. These respondents reported a number of changes which would need to be made to UK medicine in order to increase the likelihood of them returning. The most frequently mentioned changes cited concerned 'politics/management/funding', 'pay/pension', 'posts/security/opportunities', 'working conditions/hours', and 'factors outside medicine'. Policy attention to factors including funding, pay, management and particularly the clinical-political interface, working hours, and work-life balance may pay dividends for all, both in terms of persuading some established doctors to return and, perhaps more importantly, encouraging other, younger doctors to believe that the UK and the National Health Service can offer them a satisfying and rewarding career.
McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard
To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18,532, 14,094, and 14,376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14,235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two ways. Method 1 adjusted PLAB pass marks to equate median performance of PLAB
Snaith, B.; Harris, M.A.; Harris, R.
Introduction: Radiography aspires to be a research active profession, but there is limited information regarding the number of individuals with, or studying for, a doctoral award. This study aims to profile UK doctoral radiographers; including their chosen award, approach and employment status. Method: This was a prospective cohort study utilising an electronic survey. No formal database of doctoral radiographers existed therefore a snowball sampling method was adopted. The study sample was radiographers (diagnostic and therapeutic) based in the UK who were registered with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and who held, or were studying for, a doctoral award. Results: A total of 90 unique responses were received within the timescale. The respondents comprised 58 females (64.4%) and the majority were diagnostic radiographers (n = 71/90; 78.9%). The traditional PhD was the most common award, although increasing numbers were pursuing Education or Professional Doctorates. An overall increase in doctoral studies is observed over time, but was greatest amongst those working in academic institutions, with 63.3% of respondents (n = 57/90) working solely within a university, and a further 10% employed in a clinical–academic role (n = 9/90). Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that radiography is emerging as a research active profession, with increasing numbers of radiographers engaged in study at a doctoral level. This should provide a platform for the future development of academic and clinical research. - Highlights: • 90 radiographers were identified as holding, or studying for, a doctoral award. • The PhD is the most common award. • EdD and professional doctorates are increasing in popularity. • Academic staff were more likely to pursue such research training.
Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
We surveyed the UK medical qualifiers of 1993. We asked closed questions about their careers; and invited them to give us comments, if they wished, about any aspect of their work. Our aim in this paper is to report on the topics that this senior cohort of UK-trained doctors who work in UK medicine raised with us. Questionnaire survey. 3479 contactable UK-trained medical graduates of 1993. UK. Comments made by doctors about their work, and their views about medical careers and training in the UK. Postal and email questionnaires. Response rate was 72% (2507); 2252 were working in UK medicine, 816 (36%) of whom provided comments. Positive comments outweighed negative in the areas of their own job satisfaction and satisfaction with their training. However, 23% of doctors who commented expressed dissatisfaction with aspects of junior doctors' training, the impact of working time regulations, and with the requirement for doctors to make earlier career decisions than in the past about their choice of specialty. Some doctors were concerned about government health service policy; others were dissatisfied with the availability of family-friendly/part-time work, and we are concerned about attitudes to gender and work-life balance. Though satisfied with their own training and their current position, many senior doctors felt that changes to working hours and postgraduate training had reduced the level of experience gained by newer graduates. They were also concerned about government policy interventions.
Background Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors’ early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Methods Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974–2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Results One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors’ ‘domestic circumstances’ were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while ‘enthusiasm/commitment’, ‘financial prospects’, ‘experiences of the job so far’ and ‘a particular teacher/department’ were important. Conclusions Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early
Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W
To report a qualitative study of themes doctors raised spontaneously, in a large-scale prospective cohort study covering many aspects of their medical careers, when referring to their own chronic illness or disability. Questionnaire survey. UK. Questionnaires were sent one, five and 10 years after graduation to 44,539 doctors who qualified between 1993 and 2012 in the UK: 38,613 questionnaires were returned and 11,859 respondents provided comments made by doctors about their training or work. The comments of 123 doctors about their own chronic illness or disability. Main themes raised included poor support for doctors with chronic illness or disability, delays in and changes to careers (either planned ahead or imposed), the impact of pressure at work, difficulties returning to work after illness, limitations on career choices and inadequate careers advice for doctors with chronic illness or disabilities. More needs to be done to ensure that doctors with chronic illness or disability receive appropriate support. Occupational health guidance should be monitored closely, with more support for ill doctors including adjustments to the job, help if needed with morale and mental health, and advice on career options. Further studies should establish the prevalence of long-term health conditions among doctors.
Turner, G.; Lambert, T.W.; Goldacre, M.J.
Aim: To report on trends in career choices for radiology among UK medical graduates. Materials and methods: One and 3 years after graduation, and at longer time intervals thereafter, postal questionnaire surveys were sent to all doctors who graduated from UK medical schools in 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 and 2002. Doctors were asked to specify their choice of long-term career and to identify factors influencing their choice. Employment details were also collected. Results were analysed using χ 2 statistics and binary logistic regression. Results: Seventy-four percent (24,621/33,412) and 73% (20,720/28,459) of doctors responded 1 and 3 years after graduation. Choices for radiology in year 1 increased significantly over time (1.7% of 1974 graduates to 3.2% of 2002 graduates; χ 2 test for trend = 15.3, p < 0.001). In particular, there has been a steady increase from the cohorts of 1993 onwards. Thirty-eight percent of those who chose radiology in year 1, and 80% who chose radiology in year 3, were still working in radiology 10 years after graduation. Hours and working conditions influenced long-term career choices more for radiology than for other careers. Conclusions: The proportion of UK trained junior doctors who want to become radiologists has increased in recent years. However, although medical school intake and the numbers making an early choice for radiology have risen, it is unclear whether sufficient UK graduates will be attracted to radiology to fulfil future service requirements from UK trained graduates alone
Giesler, Marianne; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Biller, Silke
The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates' view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation. Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514) and 2010/2011 (N=598) were analysed. One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently "a doctorate is usual" (85%) and "improvement of job opportunities" (75%), 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not. Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious.
Full Text Available Introduction: The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates’ view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation.Method: Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514 and 2010/2011 (N=598 were analysed.Results: One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently “a doctorate is usual” (85% and “improvement of job opportunities” (75%, 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not.Discussion: Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious.
Giesler, Marianne; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Biller, Silke
Introduction: The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates’ view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation. Method: Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514) and 2010/2011 (N=598) were analysed. Results: One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently “a doctorate is usual” (85%) and “improvement of job opportunities” (75%), 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not. Discussion: Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious. PMID:26958656
Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers
Lunt, Ingrid; McAlpine, Lynn; Mills, David
This paper explores the changing relationships between the UK government, its research councils and universities, focusing on the governing, funding and organisation of doctoral training. We use the Doctoral Training Centres (DTCs) funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) as a prism through which to study the shifting nature of…
Morrow, Gill; Rothwell, Charlotte; Burford, Bryan; Illing, Jan
Historically, overseas-qualified doctors have been essential for meeting service needs in the UK National Health Service (NHS). However, these doctors encounter many cultural differences, in relation to training, the healthcare system and the doctor-patient relationship and training. To examine whether Hofstede's cultural model may help us understand the changes doctors from other countries experience on coming to work in the UK, and to identify implications for supervisors and clinical teams. Telephone interviews were conducted with overseas medical graduates before starting work as a Foundation Year One (F1) doctor, followed up after four months and 12 months; and with educational supervisors. Data were analysed using a confirmatory thematic approach. Sixty-four initial interviews were conducted with overseas doctors, 56 after four months, and 32 after 12 months. Twelve interviews were conducted with educational supervisors. The changes doctors experienced related particularly to Hofstede's dimensions of power distance (e.g. in relation to workplace hierarchies and inter-professional relationships), uncertainty avoidance (e.g. regarding ways of interacting) and individualism-collectivism (e.g., regarding doctor-patient/family relationship; assertiveness of individuals). Hofstede's cultural dimensions may help us understand the adaptations some doctors have to make in adjusting to working in the UK NHS. This may promote awareness and understanding and greater 'cultural competence' amongst those working with them or supervising them in their training.
Lambert, Trevor; Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael
To seek doctors' views about the NHS as an employer, our surveys about doctors' career intentions and progression, undertaken between 1999 and 2013, also asked whether the NHS was, in their view, a good 'equal opportunities' employer for women doctors, doctors from ethnic minority groups and doctors with disabilities. Surveys undertaken in the UK by mail and Internet. UK medical graduates in selected graduation years between 1993 and 2012. Respondents were asked to rate their level of agreement with three statements starting 'The NHS is a good equal opportunities employer for…' and ending 'women doctors', 'doctors from ethnic minorities' and 'doctors with disabilities'. Of first-year doctors surveyed in 2013, 3.6% (78/2158) disagreed that the NHS is a good equal opportunities employer for women doctors (1.7% of the men and 4.7% of the women); 2.2% (44/1968) disagreed for doctors from ethnic minorities (0.9% of white doctors and 5.8% of non-white doctors) and 12.6% (175/1387) disagreed for doctors with disabilities. Favourable perceptions of the NHS in these respects improved substantially between 1999 and 2013; among first-year doctors of 2000-2003, combined, the corresponding percentages of disagreement were 23.5% for women doctors, 23.1% for doctors from ethnic minorities and 50.6% for doctors with disabilities. Positive views about the NHS as an equal opportunities employer have increased in recent years, but the remaining gap in perception of this between women and men, and between ethnic minority and white doctors, is a concern. © The Royal Society of Medicine.
Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael
Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome.
Goldacre, Michael J; Laxton, Louise; Lambert, Trevor W; Webster, Premila
The aim of this paper is to describe UK-trained doctors' early intentions about seeking careers in public health and their eventual speciality destinations. Analysis of longitudinal studies of medical graduates from all UK medical schools in selected year-of-qualification cohorts from 1974 to 2008; data collected by postal questionnaires at various times after qualifying; and selection, for this paper, of doctors who expressed an early preference for a career in public health and/or who eventually practised in it. Of all doctors eventually practising in public health, for whom we had early choices, public health had been the unreserved first choice of 8% (10/125) in their first post-qualification year, 27% (33/122) in their third year and 59% (51/86) in their fifth year. Including first choices for public health 'tied' with an equal preference for a different speciality, and doctors' second and third choices for public health, 19% (24/125) of practising public health doctors had considered public health as a possible career in their first post-graduation year, 41% (50/122) in the third and 83% (71/86) in the fifth year. Comparisons with other specialities show that doctors in public health chose their speciality relatively late after qualification.
Drejer, Ina; Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Petersen, Karin Dam
specialize to become general practitioners (GPs). Access to medical services is included among the services important for ensuring the basics in a welfare society. The analysis is limited to general practitioners (GPs), although access to other types of medical professionals is also an important aspect......University graduates are not evenly distributed geographically, and attraction and retention of university graduates is high on the agenda in many regional development strategies. In this paper we study the geographical mobility of a particular type of university graduates: medical doctors who...... of local access to medical services. We have chosen GPs because they – except in cases of emergency – are the main entrance to medical services in Denmark. We study how different factors may influence where GPs choose to set up medical practice. We pay particular attention to the importance of local...
Svirko, Elena; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
To explore the impact of Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) training on the stability of medical career choices in the UK. Graduates of 2002 and 2008 from all UK medical schools, 1 and 3 years postgraduation. Questionnaire surveys were conducted of 2002 and 2008 graduates from all UK medical schools 1 and 3 years post graduation. Doctors gave their specialty choice(s) and rated the influence of each of 11 factors on their career choice. 2008 graduates were a little more likely than graduates of 2002 to retain their year 1 choice in year 3 (77.3% vs. 73.3%; p = 0.002). Among 2008 graduates, the percentage retaining their year 1 choice varied between 42% (clinical oncology) and 79% (general practice). Enthusiasm for a specialty, student experience and inclinations before medical school were associated with choice retention; consideration of domestic circumstances and hours/working conditions were associated with changes of choice. 2008 graduates were more likely than 2002s to be influenced by enthusiasm for a specialty, self-appraisal of their skills, working hours and their domestic circumstances; and less likely to be influenced by their experience of jobs, a particular teacher/department or eventual financial prospects. Post-MMC, graduates were less likely to change their career choice and more likely to be motivated by personal factors and self-assessment of their suitability to a particular area of work. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
To report on doctors' reasons, as expressed to our research group, for choosing academic careers and on factors that would make a career in clinical academic medicine more attractive to them. Postal, email and web questionnaires. UK. A total of 6936 UK-trained doctors who graduated in 1996, 1999 and 2000. Open-ended comments about a career in clinical academic medicine. Of doctors who provided reasons for pursuing a long-term career in clinical academic medicine, the main reasons were enjoyment of academic work and personal satisfaction, whether expressed directly in those terms, or in terms of intellectual stimulation, enjoyment of research, teaching and the advancement of medicine, and the job being more varied than and preferable to clinical work alone. Doctors' suggestions for making clinical academic medicine more attractive included improved pay and job security, better funding of research, greater availability of academic posts, more dedicated time for research (and less service work) and more support and mentoring. Women were more likely than men to prioritise flexible working hours and part-time posts. Medical schools could provide more information, as part of student teaching, about the opportunities for and realities of a career in clinical academic medicine. Women, in particular, commented that they lacked the role models and information which would encourage them to consider seriously an academic career. Employers could increase academic opportunities by allowing more time for teaching, research and study and should assess whether job plans make adequate allowance for academic work.
Clarke, Rachel T; Pitcher, Alex; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
To report on what doctors at very different levels of seniority wrote, in their own words, about their concerns about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and its implementation in the National Health Service (NHS). All medical school graduates from 1993, 2005 and 2009 were surveyed by post and email in 2010. The UK. Using qualitative methods, we analysed free-text responses made in 2010, towards the end of the first year of full EWTD implementation, of three cohorts of the UK medical graduates (graduates of 1993, 2005 and 2009), surveyed as part of the UK Medical Careers Research Group's schedule of multipurpose longitudinal surveys of doctors. Of 2459 respondents who gave free-text comments, 279 (11%) made unprompted reference to the EWTD; 270 of the 279 comments were broadly critical. Key themes to emerge included frequent dissociation between rotas and actual hours worked, adverse effects on training opportunities and quality, concerns about patient safety, lowering of morale and job satisfaction, and attempts reportedly made in some hospitals to persuade junior doctors to collude in the inaccurate reporting of compliance. Further work is needed to determine whether problems perceived with the EWTD, when they occur, are attributable to the EWTD itself, and shortened working hours, or to the way that it has been implemented in some hospitals.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK General Medical Council has emphasized the lack of evidence on whether graduates from different UK medical schools perform differently in their clinical careers. Here we assess the performance of UK graduates who have taken MRCP(UK Part 1 and Part 2, which are multiple-choice assessments, and PACES, an assessment using real and simulated patients of clinical examination skills and communication skills, and we explore the reasons for the differences between medical schools. Method We perform a retrospective analysis of the performance of 5827 doctors graduating in UK medical schools taking the Part 1, Part 2 or PACES for the first time between 2003/2 and 2005/3, and 22453 candidates taking Part 1 from 1989/1 to 2005/3. Results Graduates of UK medical schools performed differently in the MRCP(UK examination between 2003/2 and 2005/3. Part 1 and 2 performance of Oxford, Cambridge and Newcastle-upon-Tyne graduates was significantly better than average, and the performance of Liverpool, Dundee, Belfast and Aberdeen graduates was significantly worse than average. In the PACES (clinical examination, Oxford graduates performed significantly above average, and Dundee, Liverpool and London graduates significantly below average. About 60% of medical school variance was explained by differences in pre-admission qualifications, although the remaining variance was still significant, with graduates from Leicester, Oxford, Birmingham, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and London overperforming at Part 1, and graduates from Southampton, Dundee, Aberdeen, Liverpool and Belfast underperforming relative to pre-admission qualifications. The ranking of schools at Part 1 in 2003/2 to 2005/3 correlated 0.723, 0.654, 0.618 and 0.493 with performance in 1999–2001, 1996–1998, 1993–1995 and 1989–1992, respectively. Conclusion Candidates from different UK medical schools perform differently in all three parts of the MRCP(UK examination, with the
Kanwar, R S
Doctoral and post-doctoral training programs at leading research universities in the USA are highly important in generating the much needed knowledge in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics for keeping rural and urban economies strong and societies healthy and prosperous. In addition, innovative graduate and post doctoral research programs are the driving engines of the success of U.S. economy and have made the U.S. the most successful model of generating new knowledge in the broader areas of life sciences (and agricultural education, research, and extension). We need to do everything in our power to make these training programs innovative, collaborative, independent, and resourceful so that students are trained in different disciplines making them more flexible within a range of challenges and opportunities. The training programs must empower students to solve complex and interdisciplinary problems of the society in 21st century and make our students competitive within a global economic system, to improve the health of the nation's economy. If our land grant schools and institutions of higher learning are not preparing doctoral students to be globally competitive scientists to create new knowledge and technologies to solve complex and interdisciplinary problems of the 21st century, then either we need to redefine the mission of our land grant system or we risk losing our role to serve the public and industry effectively. Doctoral and post doctoral students should be given the needed skills and experiences to prepare them for tenure track faculty jobs at leading US Universities in the 21st century as well as prepare them for the world outside of academia. I would say minimum competency skills are needed as "bare survival skills" for all doctoral students to become successful after obtaining PhD degrees. Today's PhD students will be working in a global but highly competitive, rapidly changing, and complex world. It is no longer enough to be a good
McManus, I. C.; Wakeford, R.
OBJECTIVES: To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. DESIGN: Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Phys...
Focussing on recent UK graduates, a wage gap of 12% is found. The unexplained component of the gap is small and a large fraction of the gap can be explained by subject choice, job characteristics, motivation and expectation variables. Motivation and expectations account for 44% of the explained gap, thus most studies over-estimate the unexplained component of the gender wage gap. Following stereotypes, women tend to be more altruistic and less career oriented than men, character traits that a...
Surman, Geraldine; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael
Doctors' job satisfaction is important to the health service to ensure commitment, effective training, service provision and retention. Job satisfaction matters to doctors for their personal happiness, fulfilment, service to patients and duty to employers. Monitoring job satisfaction trends informs workforce planning. We surveyed UK-trained doctors up to 5 years after graduation for six graduation year cohorts: 1996, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2008, 2012. Doctors scored their job enjoyment (Enjoyment) and satisfaction with time outside work (Leisure) on a scale from 1 (lowest enjoyment/satisfaction) to 10 (highest). Overall, 47% had a high level of Enjoyment (scores 8-10) 1 year after graduation and 56% after 5 years. For Leisure, the corresponding figures were 19% and 37% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. For Leisure at 1 year, high scores were given by about 10% in the 1990s, rising to about 25% in the mid-2000s. Low scores (1-3) for Enjoyment were given by 15% of qualifiers of 1996, falling to 5% by 2008; corresponding figures for Leisure were 42% and 19%. At 5 years, the corresponding figures were 6% and 4%, and 23% and 17%. Enjoyment and Leisure were scored higher by general practitioners than doctors in other specialties. Both measures varied little by sex, ethnicity or medical school attended. Scores for Enjoyment were generally high; those for Leisure were lower. Policy initiatives should address why this aspect of satisfaction is low, particularly in the first year after graduation but also among hospital doctors 5 years after graduation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Roland, M.; Rao, S.R.; Sibbald, B.S.; Hann, M.; Harrison, S.; Walter, A.; Guthrie, B.; Desroches, C.; Ferris, T.G.; Campbell, E.G.
BACKGROUND The authors aimed to determine US and UK doctors' professional values and reported behaviours, and the extent to which these vary with the context of care. METHOD 1891 US and 1078 UK doctors completed the survey (64.4% and 40.3% response rate respectively). Multivariate logistic
Goldacre, Michael J; Fazel, Seena; Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor
Recruitment of adequate numbers of doctors to psychiatry is difficult. To report on career choice for psychiatry, comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other clinical careers. Questionnaire studies of all newly qualified doctors from all UK medical schools in 12 qualification years between 1974 and 2009 (33 974 respondent doctors). One, three and five years after graduation, 4-5% of doctors specified psychiatry as their first choice of future career. This was largely unchanged across the 35 years. Comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other careers, factors with a greater influence on psychiatrists' choice included their experience of the subject at medical school, self-appraisal of their own skills, and inclinations before medical school. In a substudy of doctors who initially considered but then did not pursue specialty choices, 72% of those who did not pursue psychiatry gave 'job content' as their reason compared with 33% of doctors who considered but did not pursue other specialties. Historically, more women than men have chosen psychiatry, but the gap has closed over the past decade. Junior doctors' views about psychiatry as a possible career range from high levels of enthusiasm to antipathy, and are more polarised than views about other specialties. Shortening of working hours and improvements to working practices in other hospital-based specialties in the UK may have reduced the relative attractiveness of psychiatry to women doctors. The extent to which views of newly qualified doctors about psychiatry can be modified by medical school education, and by greater exposure to psychiatry during student and early postgraduate years, needs investigation.
Gauld, Robin; Horsburgh, Simon
Background At 44%, New Zealand has the highest proportion of international medical graduates (IMGs) in its workforce amongst OECD member countries. Around half of New Zealand’s IMGs come from the UK NHS, yet only around 50% stay longer than 1 year post-registration with significant costs to the New Zealand health care system. Why these doctors go to New Zealand and do not stay for long is an important question. Methods UK-trained doctors who had gained registration with the Medical Council of...
Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
To study trends in factors influencing junior doctors' choice of future specialty. Respondents were asked whether each of 15 factors had a great deal of influence on their career choice, a little influence or no influence on it. Percentages are reported of those who specified that a factor had a great deal of influence on their career choice. UK. A total of 15,765 UK-trained doctors who graduated between 1999 and 2012. Questions about career choices and factors which may have influenced those choices, in particular comparing doctors who qualified in 2008-2012 with those who qualified in 1999-2002. Enthusiasm for and commitment to the specialty was a greater influence on career choice in the 2008-2012 qualifiers (81%) than those of 1999-2002 (64%), as was consideration of their domestic circumstances (43% compared with 20%). Prospects for promotion were less important to recent cohorts (16%) than older cohorts (21%), as were financial prospects (respectively, 10% and 14%). Domestic circumstances and working hours were considered more important, and financial prospects less important, by women than men. Inclination before medical school was rated as important by 41% of doctors who were over 30 years old, compared with 13% of doctors who were under 21, at the time of starting medical school. The increasing importance of both domestic circumstances and enthusiasm for their specialty choice in recent cohorts suggest that today's young doctors prize both work-life balance and personal fulfilment at work more highly than did their predecessors. The differences in motivations of older and younger generations of doctors, men and women, and doctors who start medical school relatively late are worthy of note. © The Royal Society of Medicine.
Maisonneuve, Jenny J; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
To report on doctors' views, from all specialty backgrounds, about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and its impact on the National Health Service (NHS), senior doctors and junior doctors. All medical school graduates from 1999 to 2000 were surveyed by post and email in 2012. The UK. Among other questions, in a multipurpose survey on medical careers and career intentions, doctors were asked to respond to three statements about the EWTD on a five-point scale (from strongly agree to strongly disagree): 'The implementation of the EWTD has benefited the NHS', 'The implementation of the EWTD has benefited senior doctors' and 'The implementation of the EWTD has benefited junior doctors'. The response rate was 54.4% overall (4486/8252), 55.8% (2256/4042) of the 1999 cohort and 53% (2230/4210) of the 2000 cohort. 54.1% (2427) of all respondents were women. Only 12% (498/4136 doctors) agreed that the EWTD has benefited the NHS, 9% (377) that it has benefited senior doctors and 31% (1289) that it has benefited junior doctors. Doctors' views on EWTD differed significantly by specialty groups: 'craft' specialties such as surgery, requiring extensive experience in performing operations, were particularly critical. These cohorts have experience of working in the NHS before and after the implementation of EWTD. Their lack of support for the EWTD 4 years after its implementation should be a concern. However, it is unclear whether problems rest with the current ceiling on hours worked or with the ways in which EWTD has been implemented.
Goldacre, Michael J.; Fazel, Seena; Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor
Background Recruitment of adequate numbers of doctors to psychiatry is difficult. Aims To report on career choice for psychiatry, comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other clinical careers. Method Questionnaire studies of all newly qualified doctors from all UK medical schools in 12 qualification years between 1974 and 2009 (33 974 respondent doctors). Results One, three and five years after graduation, 4–5% of doctors specified psychiatry as their first choice of future career. This was largely unchanged across the 35 years. Comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other careers, factors with a greater influence on psychiatrists’ choice included their experience of the subject at medical school, self-appraisal of their own skills, and inclinations before medical school. In a substudy of doctors who initially considered but then did not pursue specialty choices, 72% of those who did not pursue psychiatry gave ‘job content’ as their reason compared with 33% of doctors who considered but did not pursue other specialties. Historically, more women than men have chosen psychiatry, but the gap has closed over the past decade. Conclusions Junior doctors’ views about psychiatry as a possible career range from high levels of enthusiasm to antipathy, and are more polarised than views about other specialties. Shortening of working hours and improvements to working practices in other hospital-based specialties in the UK may have reduced the relative attractiveness of psychiatry to women doctors. The extent to which views of newly qualified doctors about psychiatry can be modified by medical school education, and by greater exposure to psychiatry during student and early postgraduate years, needs investigation. PMID:23099446
Altair Alberto Fávero
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the trajectories and institutional destinations of graduates of doctoral programs in Education from Brazilian public universities in the last twelve years (2000-2012. The research is characterized as Mixed Methods (CRESWELL and CLARK, 2013 and was developed from data available in the electronic site of the CAPES, referring to graduate programs and Lattes Platform. Of the 3,598 graduates surveyed, a small number represents researchers who went straight to masters and doctorate degrees shortly after undergraduate studies. Almost one-third of respondents obtained doctorate degrees in between 10 and 15 years after graduation. About 15% held a doctorate between 20 and 25 years after graduation. We found that less than 25% of respondents were master's degree students in 2013 and less than 10% have contributed to the training of young doctors. We believe that the development of this research, unprecedented on this scale in the area of education, can contribute to the evaluation of expansion conditions and qualification programs and courses. In addition to taking a look at the activities and the working arrangements of the young doctors in Education in Brazil and prepare analytical frameworks that can contribute to the proposition of strategic funding policies and the setting of teachers in disadvantaged regions. Keywords: Postgraduate studies. Education. Graduate student training. Employability.
HassabElnaby, Hassan R.; Dobrzykowski, David D.; Tran, Oanh Thikie
Accounting has been faced with a severe shortage in the supply of qualified doctoral faculty. Drawing upon the international mobility of foreign scholars and the spirit of the international medical graduate program, this article suggests a model to fill the demand in accounting doctoral faculty. The underlying assumption of the suggested model is…
Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
Summary Objectives To report on doctors’ reasons, as expressed to our research group, for choosing academic careers and on factors that would make a career in clinical academic medicine more attractive to them. Design Postal, email and web questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants A total of 6936 UK-trained doctors who graduated in 1996, 1999 and 2000. Main outcome measures Open-ended comments about a career in clinical academic medicine. Results Of doctors who provided reasons for pursuing a long-term career in clinical academic medicine, the main reasons were enjoyment of academic work and personal satisfaction, whether expressed directly in those terms, or in terms of intellectual stimulation, enjoyment of research, teaching and the advancement of medicine, and the job being more varied than and preferable to clinical work alone. Doctors’ suggestions for making clinical academic medicine more attractive included improved pay and job security, better funding of research, greater availability of academic posts, more dedicated time for research (and less service work) and more support and mentoring. Women were more likely than men to prioritise flexible working hours and part-time posts. Conclusions Medical schools could provide more information, as part of student teaching, about the opportunities for and realities of a career in clinical academic medicine. Women, in particular, commented that they lacked the role models and information which would encourage them to consider seriously an academic career. Employers could increase academic opportunities by allowing more time for teaching, research and study and should assess whether job plans make adequate allowance for academic work. PMID:26380103
Economists and policy makers often emphasise the importance of human capital as a key determinant in the pursuit of economic growth. The highest formal qualification in the educational system is the doctorate, which is attained after the first stage of tertiary education at ISCED 6 level. Doctorate holders play a central role in research and…
Mehta, Clare Marie; Keener, Emily; Shrier, Lydia
We build on Diana Leonard's work on gender and graduate education by qualitatively investigating the perceived advantages and disadvantages of being a female graduate student in the USA and the UK. We interviewed six female students (ages 22-30) pursuing master's degrees in psychology or social sciences in the USA and the UK. Students from both…
Rao, Sowmya R; Sibbald, Bonnie; Hann, Mark; Harrison, Stephen; Walter, Alex; Guthrie, Bruce; Desroches, Catherine; Ferris, Timothy G; Campbell, Eric G
Background The authors aimed to determine US and UK doctors' professional values and reported behaviours, and the extent to which these vary with the context of care. Method 1891 US and 1078 UK doctors completed the survey (64.4% and 40.3% response rate respectively). Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare responses to identical questions in the two surveys. Results UK doctors were more likely to have developed practice guidelines (82.8% UK vs 49.6% US, pretribution. UK doctors were more likely than US doctors to agree that significant medical errors should always be disclosed to patients. More US doctors reported that they had not disclosed an error to a patient because they were afraid of being sued. Discussion The context of care may influence both how professional values are expressed and the extent to which behaviours are in line with stated values. Doctors have an important responsibility to develop their healthcare systems in ways which will support good professional behaviour. PMID:21383386
Miller, Christopher J; Till, Alex; McKimm, Judy
The need for doctors at all levels to undergo some form of leadership development is well evidenced, but provision remains patchy and models underpinning such development are often inconsistent. This article sets out the findings of a literature review into leadership development opportunities for doctors in training in the UK.
McCormack, Ruaidhri; Clifford, Margaret; Conroy, Marian
To review studies over a 20-year period that assess the attitudes of UK doctors concerning active, voluntary euthanasia (AVE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS), assess efforts to minimise bias in included studies, determine the effect of subgroup variables (e.g. age, gender) on doctors' attitudes, and make recommendations for future research. Three electronic databases, four pertinent journals, reference lists of included studies. Literature search of English articles between January 1990 and April 2010. Studies were excluded if they did not present independent data (e.g. commentaries) or if they related to doctors outside the UK, patients younger than 18 years old, terminal sedation, withdrawing or withholding treatment, or double-effect. Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted. Following study selection and data extraction, 15 studies were included. UK doctors oppose the introduction of both AVE and PAS in the majority of studies. Degree of religiosity appeared as a statistically significant factor in influencing doctors' attitudes. The top three themes in the qualitative analysis were the provision of palliative care, adequate safeguards in the event of AVE or PAS being introduced, and a profession to facilitate AVE or PAS that does not include doctors. UK doctors appear to oppose the introduction of AVE and PAS, even when one considers the methodological limitations of included studies. Attempts to minimise bias in included studies varied. Further studies are necessary to establish if subgroup variables other than degree of religiosity influence attitudes, and to thoroughly explore the qualitative themes that appeared.
Spooner, Sharon; Pearson, Emma; Gibson, Jonathan; Checkland, Kath
This study draws on an in-depth investigation of factors that influenced the career decisions of junior doctors. Junior doctors in the UK can choose to enter specialty training (ST) programmes within 2 years of becoming doctors. Their specialty choices contribute to shaping the balance of the future medical workforce, with views on general practice (GP) careers of particular interest because of current recruitment difficulties. This paper examines how experiences of medical work and perceptions about specialty training shape junior doctors' career decisions. Twenty doctors in the second year of a Foundation Training Programme in England were recruited. Purposive sampling was used to achieve a diverse sample from respondents to an online survey. Narrative interviewing techniques encouraged doctors to reflect on how experiences during medical school and in medical workplaces had influenced their preferences and perceptions of different specialties. They also spoke about personal aspirations, work priorities and their wider future.Junior doctors' decisions were informed by knowledge about the requirements of ST programmes and direct observation of the pressures under which ST doctors worked. When they encountered negative attitudes towards a specialty they had intended to choose, some became defensive while others kept silent. Achievement of an acceptable work-life balance was a central objective that could override other preferences.Events linked with specific specialties influenced doctors' attitudes towards them. For example, findings confirmed that while early, positive experiences of GP work could increase its attractiveness, negative experiences in GP settings had the opposite effect. Junior doctors' preferences and perceptions about medical work are influenced by multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors and experiences. This paper highlights the importance of understanding how perceptions are formed and preferences are developed, as a basis for generating
Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
To report doctors' views about the European Working Time Directive ('the Directive'). Survey of the medical graduates of 2002 (surveyed in 2013-2014). Medical graduates. UK. Questions on views about the Directive. The response rate was 64% (2056/3196). Twelve per cent of respondents agreed that the Directive had benefited senior doctors, 39% that it benefited junior doctors, and 17% that it had benefited the NHS. More women (41%) than men (35%) agreed that the Directive had benefited junior doctors. Surgeons (6%) and adult medical specialists (8%) were least likely to agree that the Directive had benefited senior doctors. Surgeons (20%) were less likely than others to agree that the Directive had benefited junior doctors, whilst specialists in emergency medicine (57%) and psychiatry (52%) were more likely to agree. Surgeons (7%) were least likely to agree that the Directive had benefited the NHS. Most respondents (62%) reported a positive effect upon work-life balance. With regard to quality of patient care, 45% reported a neutral effect, 40% reported a negative effect, and 15% a positive effect. Most respondents (71%) reported a negative effect of the Directive on continuity of patient care, and 71% felt that the Directive had a negative effect upon junior doctors' training opportunities. Fifty-two per cent reported a negative effect on efficiency in managing patient care. Senior doctors agreed that the Directive benefited doctors' work-life balance. In other respects, they were more negative about it. Surgeons were the least positive about aspects of the Directive.
Osburn, Kathryn Ann
Despite decades of research and reform efforts designed to bolster female retention in scientific disciplines, the conundrum of women's departure from doctoral programs in the sciences remains. This qualitative case study investigated the aspects of the graduate school experience that female doctoral students described as facilitating or impeding their successful degree completion in chemistry. I analyzed the graduate school narratives of twelve female participants who represented both successful and unsuccessful doctoral recipients from four advisors at one university. Participants identified four types of experiences that facilitated their retention in the doctoral program: feeling successful and confident in meeting the program requirements, having positive research experiences, receiving support from social networks, and being dedicated to career goals. Participants cited four kinds of experiences that impeded their continued participation in the doctoral program: having negative research experiences, feeling a lack of success and confidence in meeting the program requirements, changing career goals, and receiving no support from social networks. The graduate school experiences of participants who did and did not successfully attain their degree objectives differed in terms of four dimensions: pre-program experiences, academic experiences, advisory experiences, and social experiences. Based on these findings, I have proposed a model of attrition and retention that emphasizes the role that these unique program experiences play in shaping participants' sense of professional fit within the community of doctoral chemists, consequently contributing to their differential program outcomes. This study not only offers a new perspective on the phenomenon of female doctoral attrition in the sciences but also informs the development of more gender-inclusive graduate science practices and policies that will support the retention of female doctoral students.
Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Saxon, Terrill F.; Johnson, Heather
Research suggests that new doctoral graduates face increased publication pressure to achieve tenure: doctoral programs may have also increased this expectation. We examined whether faculty graduating before and after the year 2000 differed significantly in total publications, peer-reviewed publications, and first-authored publications as of the…
Swickert, Mary Lee
Reports on interviews of 10 doctoral graduates of counselor education programs to determine how they viewed professional identity. Results focus on uniqueness of counselors, career development issues, dislike of research, grouping for support, dislike of managed care, anger over turf wars, and affinity with holistic and preventive medicine. (RJM)
Joseph B. A. Afful
Full Text Available A key support service in doctoral research that has increasingly gained attention is academic writing courses. This position paper argues for the institutionalization of graduate writing courses in universities in Ghana in order to acquaint doctoral students with the theoretical, procedural, and practical aspects of the writing of high stakes academic genres. An overview (including evaluation of existing courses on research- related writing in some universities is proffered. The study consequently presents arguments to support a proposal for institutional graduate writing courses in Ghanaian universities, followed by a discussion of other pertinent issues such as the curriculum, staffing, and funding. It is hoped that the institutionalization of such a writing support service will ultimately improve the quality of doctoral research education in Ghana
McGuinness, Seamus; Sloane, Peter J.
There is much disagreement in the literature over the extent to which graduates are mismatched in the labour market and the reasons for this. In this paper we utilise the Flexible Professional in the Knowledge Society (REFLEX) data set to cast light on these issues, based on data for UK graduates. We find substantial pay penalties for…
Juan Francisco Canal Domínguez
Full Text Available The increasing demand for highly qualifi ed workers in developed countries has raised a new interest in analysing whether doctoral training meets the needs of the European labour market. Job satisfaction enables an approach to both the relationship between training and job position and to a company?s successful management of its relationship with those workers who are PhD holders. The results indicate that an analysis based on earnings is relevant, as it makes it possible to identify two clear job satisfaction behaviours: on the one hand, as earnings increase, so does job satisfaction, although this is found to a lesser extent in the higher earnings range; on the other hand, when moving up in the salary range, the relative assessment of job satisfaction components changes, as well as their signifi cance in explaining the variations in job satisfaction.
Steinberg, Michael; Morin, Anna K
Objective. To evaluate the impact of admission characteristics on graduation in an accelerated doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program. Methods. Selected prematriculation characteristics of students entering the graduation class years of 2009-2012 on the Worcester and Manchester campuses of MCPHS University were analyzed and compared for on-time graduation. Results. Eighty-two percent of evaluated students (699 of 852) graduated on time. Students who were most likely to graduate on-time attended a 4-year school, previously earned a bachelor's degree, had an overall prematriculation grade point average (GPA) greater than or equal to 3.6, and graduated in the spring just prior to matriculating to the university. Factors that reduced the likelihood of graduating on time were also identified. Work experience had a marginal impact on graduating on time. Conclusion. Although there is no certainty in college admission decisions, prematriculation characteristics can help predict the likelihood for academic success of students in an accelerated PharmD program.
In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation.
To review studies over a 20-year period that assess the attitudes of UK doctors concerning active, voluntary euthanasia (AVE) and physician-assisted suicide (PAS), assess efforts to minimise bias in included studies, determine the effect of subgroup variables (e.g. age, gender) on doctors\\' attitudes, and make recommendations for future research. Data sources: Three electronic databases, four pertinent journals, reference lists of included studies. Review methods: Literature search of English articles between January 1990 and April 2010. Studies were excluded if they did not present independent data (e.g. commentaries) or if they related to doctors outside the UK, patients younger than 18 years old, terminal sedation, withdrawing or withholding treatment, or double-effect. Quantitative and qualitative data were extracted.
Gordon, Lisi; Jindal-Snape, Divya; Morrison, Jill; Muldoon, Janine; Needham, Gillian; Siebert, Sabina; Rees, Charlotte
To explore trainee doctors' experiences of the transition to trained doctor, we answer three questions: (1) What multiple and multidimensional transitions (MMTs) are experienced as participants move from trainee to trained doctor? (2) What facilitates and hinders doctors' successful transition experiences? (3) What is the impact of MMTs on trained doctors? A qualitative longitudinal study underpinned by MMT theory. Four training areas (health boards) in the UK. 20 doctors, 19 higher-stage trainees within 6 months of completing their postgraduate training and 1 staff grade, associate specialist or specialty doctor, were recruited to the 9-month longitudinal audio-diary (LAD) study. All completed an entrance interview, 18 completed LADs and 18 completed exit interviews. Data were analysed cross-sectionally and longitudinally using thematic Framework Analysis. Participants experienced a multiplicity of expected and unexpected, positive and negative work-related transitions (eg, new roles) and home-related transitions (eg, moving home) during their trainee-trained doctor transition. Factors facilitating or inhibiting successful transitions were identified at various levels: individual (eg, living arrangements), interpersonal (eg, presence of supportive relationships), systemic (eg, mentoring opportunities) and macro (eg, the curriculum provided by Medical Royal Colleges). Various impacts of transitions were also identified at each of these four levels: individual (eg, stress), interpersonal (eg, trainees' children spending more time in childcare), systemic (eg, spending less time with patients) and macro (eg, delayed start in trainees' new roles). Priority should be given to developing supportive relationships (both formal and informal) to help trainees transition into their trained doctor roles, as well as providing more opportunities for learning. Further longitudinal qualitative research is now needed with a longer study duration to explore transition journeys for
Louis J. Grabowski
Full Text Available The emerging body of research on business professional doctoral programs has focused primarily on the programs’ composition and management, offering limited insight into students’ motivations and the impact the degree has on graduates and their careers. However, understanding these student motivations and career impacts is valuable for several reasons. In addition to helping future candidates assess various programs and the business professional doctoral degree itself, it can help enrolled students maximize their academic experience and help administrators improve these programs so that they better meet students’ personal and professional expectations. To bridge this research gap, this study pursued a mixed-methods approach to glean insights into why people pursue professional doctorates in business, the ultimate personal and professional outcomes of students, and the educational process producing those outcomes. The study revealed that most students entered these programs with a desire for personal or professional transformation, including the possibility of entering academia or a new industry. Moreover, the vast majority of program graduates believed they had experienced such a transformation, often in both professional and personal ways. Further, while important to personal growth, alumni perceived that certain program elements—such as the student networks they created and non-research related coursework—had little to no effect upon their career and viewed their research and the research process as far more important to their professional development. Based upon these findings, the researchers propose a comprehensive process model to explain the personal and professional factors and outcomes for graduates of business professional doctoral programs. They also suggest practical steps that students and administrators can take to improve the business professional doctoral educational experience.
Full Text Available Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD program is a new dimension of pharmacy education in developing countries. The PharmD graduates are expected to participate in patient health care by providing pharmaceutical care. The graduates should have enough necessary clinical knowledge, competitiveness and skills in community, hospital and clinical pharmacy related services. There is a need of curriculum that fit into the program outcome that helps to attain graduate competency. Programs in India, Pakistan, Iran and Nepal were reviewed based on the available literature. Even though it is evident that the PharmD curriculum in developing countries has made an attempt to provide patient-oriented approach for pharmacists, the existing curriculum, training and orientation have several pitfalls. It needs assessment, evaluation and improvement.
Jones, Norman; Whybrow, D; Coetzee, R
Studies suggest that medical doctors can suffer from substantial levels of mental ill-health. Little is known about military doctors' mental health and well-being; we therefore assessed attitudes to mental health, self-stigma, psychological distress and help-seeking among UK Armed Forces doctors. Six hundred and seventy-eight military doctors (response rate 59%) completed an anonymous online survey. Comparisons were made with serving and ex-military personnel (n=1448, response rate 84.5%) participating in a mental health-related help-seeking survey. Basic sociodemographic data were gathered, and participants completed measures of mental health-related stigmatisation, perceived barriers to care and the 12-Item General Health Questionnaire. All participants were asked if in the last three years they had experienced stress, emotional, mental health, alcohol, family or relationship problems, and whether they had sought help from formal sources. Military doctors reported fewer mental disorder symptoms than the comparison groups. They endorsed higher levels of stigmatising beliefs, negative attitudes to mental healthcare, desire to self-manage and self-stigmatisation than each of the comparison groups. They were most concerned about potential negative effects of and peer perceptions about receiving a mental disorder diagnosis. Military doctors reporting historical and current relationship, and alcohol or mental health problems were significantly and substantially less likely to seek help than the comparison groups. Although there are a number of study limitations, outcomes suggest that UK military doctors report lower levels of mental disorder symptoms, higher levels of stigmatising beliefs and a lower propensity to seek formal support than other military reference groups. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Jensen, Morten Lind; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Maria Birkvad
Aim of the study: Several studies using a variety of assessment approaches have demonstrated that young doctors possess insufficient resuscitation competence. The aims of this study were to assess newly graduated doctors’ resuscitation competence against an internationally recognised standard and...
Taylor David CM
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Methods Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. Results The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. Conclusion According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.
Watmough, Simon D; O'Sullivan, Helen; Taylor, David C M
In 1996 Liverpool reformed its medical curriculum from a traditional lecture based course to a curriculum based on the recommendations in Tomorrow's Doctors. A project has been underway since 2000 to evaluate this change. This paper focuses on the views of graduates from that reformed curriculum 6 years after they had graduated. Between 2007 and 2009 45 interviews took place with doctors from the first two cohorts to graduate from the reformed curriculum. The interviewees felt like they had been clinically well prepared to work as doctors and in particular had graduated with good clinical and communication skills and had a good knowledge of what the role of doctor entailed. They also felt they had good self directed learning and research skills. They did feel their basic science knowledge level was weaker than traditional graduates and perceived they had to work harder to pass postgraduate exams. Whilst many had enjoyed the curriculum and in particular the clinical skills resource centre and the clinical exposure of the final year including the "shadowing" and A & E attachment they would have liked more "structure" alongside the PBL when learning the basic sciences. According to the graduates themselves many of the aims of curriculum reform have been met by the reformed curriculum and they were well prepared clinically to work as doctors. However, further reforms may be needed to give confidence to science knowledge acquisition.
Kalsi, A S; Kochhar, S; Lewis, N J; Hemmings, K W
Objective To assess new UK graduates' knowledge of training and service provision within restorative dentistry.Design A national descriptive cross-sectional survey.Subjects and methods An online survey assessing clinicians' knowledge of restorative dentistry, who had graduated within the last four years in the UK, was distributed across the UK via postgraduate dental deaneries. One-hundred responses were accepted as a sample of a potential population of 4,000.Main outcome measure How well respondents understood the service provision and training aspects of the specialty of restorative dentistry.Results The responses were received from graduates from a variety of dental schools across the UK. Of those respondents, 41 reported receiving career guidance within restorative dentistry. 45 new graduates were confident in their understanding of the specialty, while 53 were confident in the differences between restorative dentistry and monospecialty training. The respondents appeared unaware regarding treatment priorities within restorative dentistry departments. Most respondents felt that receiving teaching on restorative dentistry as a specialty and career pathway would be beneficial.Conclusion The results suggest that new graduates may benefit from clarification regarding the specialty of restorative dentistry, however, caution must be taken due to the limitations of the study.
Despite anti-discrimination policies, women are paid 20% less then men in the UK. A large proportion of this wage gap is usually left unexplained. In this paper, I investigate whether the unexplained component is due to misspecification. Using a sample of recent UK graduates, I examine the role of choice variables (subject of study and occupation) as well as career expectations and aspirations. The evidence indicates that women are more altruistic and less career-oriented than men. Career bre...
Illing, Jan C; Morrow, Gill M; Rothwell nee Kergon, Charlotte R; Burford, Bryan C; Baldauf, Beate K; Davies, Carol L; Peile, Ed B; Spencer, John A; Johnson, Neil; Allen, Maggie; Morrison, Jill
There is evidence that graduates of different medical schools vary in their preparedness for their first post. In 2003 Goldacre et al. reported that over 40% of UK medical graduates did not feel prepared and found large differences between graduates of different schools. A follow-up survey showed that levels of preparedness had increased yet there was still wide variation. This study aimed to examine whether medical graduates from three diverse UK medical schools were prepared for practice. This was a qualitative study using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Prospective and cross-sectional data were collected from the three medical schools.A sample of 60 medical graduates (20 from each school) was targeted. They were interviewed three times: at the end of medical school (n = 65) and after four (n = 55) and 12 months (n = 46) as a Year 1 Foundation Programme doctor. Triangulated data were collected from clinicians via interviews across the three sites (n = 92). In addition three focus groups were conducted with senior clinicians who assess learning portfolios. The focus was on identifying areas of preparedness for practice and any areas of lack of preparedness. Although selected for being diverse, we did not find substantial differences between the schools. The same themes were identified at each site. Junior doctors felt prepared in terms of communication skills, clinical and practical skills and team working. They felt less prepared for areas of practice that are based on experiential learning in clinical practice: ward work, being on call, management of acute clinical situations, prescribing, clinical prioritisation and time management and dealing with paperwork. Our data highlighted the importance of students learning on the job, having a role in the team in supervised practice to enable them to learn about the duties and responsibilities of a new doctor in advance of starting work.
Arnold, J.; Schalk, R.; Bosley, S.; van Overbeek, S.
This project was designed to examine university graduates' expectations and experiences of employment in small organizations in the UK and the Netherlands. Specifically, three predictions were made on the basis of existing literature and tested using self-report questionnaire data gathered from 126
Gauld, Robin; Horsburgh, Simon
At 44%, New Zealand has the highest proportion of international medical graduates (IMGs) in its workforce amongst OECD member countries. Around half of New Zealand's IMGs come from the UK NHS, yet only around 50% stay longer than 1 year post-registration with significant costs to the New Zealand health care system. Why these doctors go to New Zealand and do not stay for long is an important question. UK-trained doctors who had gained registration with the Medical Council of New Zealand and currently practising in New Zealand were surveyed (n = 1357) on the motivation for their move to New Zealand, experiences once there and what was prompting any intentions to move away from New Zealand. Multivariate proportional odds models (POM) were used to quantify various associations. The survey had a 47% response (n = 632). Quality of life considerations motivated 96% of respondents to move to New Zealand, although 65% indicated they were pushed by a desire to leave the NHS. POM analyses revealed older respondents were significantly less likely than younger respondents to be motivated by quality of life considerations. Younger doctors were significantly more likely to be seeking to leave the NHS. Seventy-six per cent of respondents signalling an intention to leave New Zealand indicated that the desire to return to the UK was the primary reason for this. There is a long history of medical migration from the UK to New Zealand. However, the 65% of respondents in this study seeking to leave the NHS was much higher than found elsewhere, perhaps reflecting increasing workplace and funding pressures in recent years. Of concern to policy makers were the higher odds of seeking to leave the NHS motivating younger doctors. Various changes "down under", in New Zealand as well as Australia, mean their IMG markets may well be tightening up.
Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter; Watson, Verity; Krucien, Nicolas; Skåtun, Diane
Many individual and job-related factors are known to influence medical careers decision making. Medical trainees' (residents) views of which characteristics of a training post are important to them have been extensively studied but how they trade-off these characteristics is under-researched. Such information is crucial for the development of effective policies to enhance recruitment and retention. Our aim was to investigate the strength of UK foundation doctors' and trainees' preferences for training post characteristics in terms of monetary value. We used an online questionnaire study incorporating a discrete choice experiment (DCE), distributed to foundation programme doctors and doctors in training across all specialty groups within three UK regions, in August-October 2013. The main outcome measures were monetary values for training-post characteristics, based on willingness to forgo and willingness to accept extra income for a change in each job characteristic, calculated from regression coefficients. The questionnaire was answered by 1323 trainees. Good working conditions were the most influential characteristics of a training position. Trainee doctors would need to be compensated by an additional 49.8% above the average earnings within their specialty to move from a post with good working conditions to one with poor working conditions. A training post with limited rather than good opportunities for one's spouse or partner would require compensation of 38.4% above the average earnings within their specialty. Trainees would require compensation of 30.8% above the average earnings within their specialty to move from a desirable to a less desirable locality. These preferences varied only to a limited extent according to individual characteristics. Trainees place most value on good working conditions, good opportunities for their partners and desirable geographical location when making career-related decisions. This intelligence can be used to develop alternative
Patel, Rikesh K; Sayers, Adele E; Patrick, Nina L; Hughes, Kaylie; Armitage, Jonathan; Hunter, Iain Andrew
Hospitals are increasingly looking for mobile solutions to meet their information technology needs. Medical professionals are using personal mobile devices to support their work, because of limitations in both time and space. Our aims were to assess smartphone use amongst UK surgical doctors, the prevalence of medical app use and online activity. A thirteen-item questionnaire was derived to identify the proportion of surgical doctors of all grades using smartphones within the workplace. The following factors were evaluated: use of medical apps; use of online medical resources and if users were willing to use their own smartphone for clinical use. A total of 341 participants were surveyed with a complete response rate: 93.5% of which owned a smartphone, with 54.2% of those owning medical apps and 86.2% using their device to access online medical resources. Junior doctors were more likely to use medical apps over their senior colleagues (p = 0.001) as well as access the Internet on their smartphone for medical information (p smartphone for clinical use, which was found not to be dependent on seniority (p = 0.922). Online resources contribute significantly to clinical activities with the majority of smartphone users willing to use their own device. The information gathered from this study can aid developers to create software dedicated to the smartphone operating systems in greatest use and to potentially increase the use of a bring your own device (BYOD) scheme.
Full Text Available Post Graduate training involves Patient care, education and administrative activities. But in today's modern life, the patient doctor ratio is so high that it leads to long working hours among PG residents which leads to fatigue & stress, which ultimately affects the care-giver as well as the patients. A survey was done among 20 PG residents to analyse performance, behavior, attitude and practices in patient care by PG Residents and to understand the affliction of their personal life. It was found that the PG Residents are working for an average time of 110 hrs/week ranging from 80–132 hours/week. It was also found to affect their performance, self-care, needle stick injuries & personal life.
Kuncel, Nathan R.; Wee, Serena; Serafin, Lauren; Hezlett, Sarah A.
Extensive research has examined the effectiveness of admissions tests for use in higher education. What has gone unexamined is the extent to which tests are similarly effective for predicting performance at both the master's and doctoral levels. This study empirically synthesizes previous studies to investigate whether or not the Graduate Record…
McManus, I C; Smithers, Eleni; Partridge, Philippa; Keeling, A; Fleming, Peter R
Objective To assess whether A level grades (achievement) and intelligence (ability) predict doctors' careers. Design Prospective cohort study with follow up after 20 years by postal questionnaire. Setting A UK medical school in London. Participants 511 doctors who had entered Westminster Medical School as clinical students between 1975 and 1982 were followed up in January 2002. Main outcome measures Time taken to reach different career grades in hospital or general practice, postgraduate qualifications obtained (membership/fellowships, diplomas, higher academic degrees), number of research publications, and measures of stress and burnout related to A level grades and intelligence (result of AH5 intelligence test) at entry to clinical school. General health questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory, and questionnaire on satisfaction with career at follow up. Results 47 (9%) doctors were no longer on the Medical Register. They had lower A level grades than those who were still on the register (P < 0.001). A levels also predicted performance in undergraduate training, performance in postregistration house officer posts, and time to achieve membership qualifications (Cox regression, P < 0.001; b=0.376, SE=0.098, exp(b)=1.457). Intelligence did not independently predict dropping off the register, career outcome, or other measures. A levels did not predict diploma or higher academic qualifications, research publications, or stress or burnout. Diplomas, higher academic degrees, and research publications did, however, significantly correlate with personality measures. Conclusions Results of achievement tests, in this case A level grades, which are particularly used for selection of students in the United Kingdom, have long term predictive validity for undergraduate and postgraduate careers. In contrast, a test of ability or aptitude (AH5) was of little predictive validity for subsequent medical careers. PMID:12869457
Custers, Eugène J F M; Ten Cate, Olle T J
Despite frequent complaints that biomedical knowledge is quickly forgotten after it has been learned, few investigations of actual long-term retention of basic science knowledge have been conducted in the medical domain. Our aim was to illuminate the long-term retention of basic science knowledge, particularly of unrehearsed knowledge. Using a cross-sectional study design, medical students and doctors in the Netherlands were tested for retention of basic science knowledge. Relationships between retention interval and proportion of correct answers on a knowledge test were investigated. The popular notion that most of basic science knowledge is forgotten shortly after graduation is not supported by our findings. With respect to the full test scores, which reflect a composite of unrehearsed and rehearsed knowledge, performance decreased from approximately 40% correct answers for students still in medical school, to 25-30% correct answers for doctors after many years of practice. When rehearsal during the retention interval is controlled for, it appears that little knowledge is lost for 1.5-2 years after it was last used; from then on, retention is best described by a negatively accelerated (logarithmic) forgetting curve. After ≥ 25 years, retention levels were in the range of 15-20%. Conclusions about the forgetting of unrehearsed knowledge in this study are in line with findings reported in other domains: it proceeds in accordance with the Ebbinghaus curve for meaningful material, except that in our findings the 'downward' part appears to start later than in most other studies. The limitations of the study are discussed and possible ramifications for medical education are proposed. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2011.
de Silva, Nipun Lakshitha; Samarasekara, Keshinie; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Samarakoon, Lasitha; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika; Rajapakse, Senaka
Migration of medical professionals is a long recognized problem in Sri Lanka, but it has not been studied in depth. Undergraduate and postgraduate medical education in Sri Lanka is state sponsored, and loss of trained personnel is a loss of investment. This study assessed the intention to migrate among medical students and newly passed out graduates from the largest medical school in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo in September 2013 with the participation of first and fourth year medical students and pre-intern medical graduates. Data was collected using a self administered, pre-tested questionnaire that collected data on socio-demographic details, intention to migrate and factors influencing a decision for or against migration. There were 374 respondents, 162 from first year (females; 104, 64.2%), 159 from fourth year (females; 85, 53.5%) and 53 pre interns (females; 22, 41.5%). Of the entire sample, 89 (23.8%) had already decided to migrate while another 121 (32.3%) were not sure of their decision. The most cited reasons for migration were a perceived better quality of life, better earnings and more training opportunities in the host country. There were no socio-demographic characteristics that had a significant association with the intention to migrate, indicating that it is a highly individualized decision. The rate of intention to migrate in this sample is low when compared to international studies from Africa and South Asia, but is still significant. The core reasons which prompt doctors to migrate should be addressed by a multipronged approach to prevent brain drain.
Dolton, Peter J; Kidd, Michael P; Fooken, Jonas
This paper seeks to identify the effect of the implementation of the European Working Time Directive on the working hours of UK doctors. The Labour Force Survey is used to compare the working hours of doctors with a variety of control groups before and after the implementation of the directive. The controls include those unconstrained by the directive and doctor counterparts working in Europe. We use differences-in-differences and matching methods to estimate the impact of this natural experiment, distinguishing between the anticipation and enactment of the European Working Time Directive. We find that the legislation reduced the hours of senior doctors by around 8 hours in total including the component attributable to anticipation effects and allowing for (exogenously set) rising wages. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Curtis, Anthony; Eley, Lizzie; Gray, Selena; Irish, Bill
This qualitative study sought to elicit the views, experiences, career journeys and aspirations of women in senior post-graduate medical education roles to identify steps needed to help support career progression. In-depth semi-structured telephone interviews. UK. Purposive sample of 12 women in a variety of senior leadership roles in post-graduate medical education in the UK. Self reported motivating influences, factors that helped and hindered progress, key branch points, and key educational factors and social support impacting on participants' career in postgraduate medicine. Respondents often reported that career journeys were serendipitous, rather than planned, formal or well structured. Senior women leaders reported having a high internal locus of control, with very high levels of commitment to the NHS. All reported significant levels of drive, although the majority indicated that they were not ambitious in the sense of a strong drive for money, prestige, recognition or power. They perceived that there was an under-representation of women in senior leadership positions and that high-quality female mentorship was particularly important in redressing this imbalance. Social support, such a spouse or other significant family member, was particularly valued as reaffirming and supporting women's chosen career ambition. Factors that were considered to have hindered career progression included low self-confidence and self-efficacy, the so-called glass ceiling and perceived self-limiting cultural influences. Factors indirectly linked to gender such as part-time versus working full time were reportedly influential in being overlooked for senior leadership roles. Implications of these findings are discussed in the paper. Social support, mentorship and role modelling are all perceived as highly important in redressing perceived gender imbalances in careers in post-graduate medical education.
International medical graduates (IMGs) form a vital group of general practitioners (GPs) in the NHS. They are known to face additional challenges above and beyond those faced by UK medical graduates in the course of their GP training. Whilst they are a heterogeneous group of professionals, their views on what they need to learn, and how they are supported, are often distant from those of the educators responsible for planning their education. This study was undertaken, through narrative-based focus groups, to explore the issues which matter to the IMGs, in an attempt to empower their voices about their experiences in GP training, and to see what lessons could be drawn from these views. The findings confirmed the central importance, and considerable challenge involved, in making an effective transition into the culture of the NHS and UK general practice. The IMGs felt that induction needed to be an on-going, iterative process of learning which continued throughout training, with a more effective individualised learning needs analysis at the start of GP training. Lack of sophisticated language skills was highlighted as a real concern. Recognition that their lack of knowledge about the NHS at the start of training should not be seen as an indicator of deficiency, but a clue to what they needed to learn were also key messages. IMGs also felt the earlier in their training they undertook a GP placement, the quicker they would start to understand the culture of general practice in the UK. Further work following on from this research should include how to manage change in the educational network for these barriers to be overcome.
Dunbar, R. W.; MacDonald, R.
The professional development program, "On the Cutting Edge", offers annual multi-day workshops for graduate students and post-doctoral fellows interested in pursuing academic careers. Goals are to prepare participants to become more effective teachers, stronger candidates for academic positions, and more aware of the realities of academic jobs. Insights that participants especially hope to gain from these workshops include feedback on the application process, especially an understanding of how search committees work; the different realities of balancing teaching, research, and personal life in a range of academic institutions; and expectations for tenure. The ten-person leadership team represents, by design, a wide range of academic career paths and institutions, and provides approximately 1:6 leader: participant ratio. Specific sessions include research on learning, an introduction to course and lab design, effective teaching and assessment strategies, developing a teaching statement, time management and early career faculty success, and moving research forward into new settings. Optional workshop sessions and discussions include the following topics: dual-career couples; families and careers; teaching portfolios; effective negotiation strategies; tenure and promotion; effective field trips; getting started in undergraduate research; opportunities in K-12 education; career options beyond faculty positions. Highlights of the workshop are faculty panel discussions about career paths and the academic job search. By workshop end, participants complete a goal setting and action planning activity. Two years of evaluation data suggest our goals are being met. Participants particularly appreciate the practical ideas and the opportunity to interact with, and learn from, a diverse leadership team and other participants.
Barry, Deborah S.
As the realities of the academic job market have forced some PhD recipients to accept less-preferable position types, there has been increasing concerns that these students are not prepared for their careers, especially in STEM fields. However, aside from the labor market, few studies have explored the influences on career aspiration and attainment among doctoral degree holders. This study utilized the socialization theory framework to identify aspects of the doctoral education process that are predictive of the likelihood of certain career aspirations among science and engineering doctoral candidates and career attainment among STEM doctoral recipients by utilizing nationally representative datasets: The National Research Council's Assessment of Research Doctorate Programs student questionnaire and the National Science Foundation's Survey of Earned Doctorates. This study identified field of study, research productivity rank of doctoral programs, primary type of finding doctoral students received, level of satisfaction with research experiences, and their sense of belonging within their doctoral program as factors that predict the likelihood of certain career aspirations compared with a career in education. Doctoral candidates' background characteristics that were significant predictors of career aspirations were gender, marital status, dependent status, race, age, and citizenship status. Further, this study identified participant's field of study, the Carnegie Rank of institutions attended, primary type of funding received, length of time to PhD, gender, marital status, dependent status, race, citizenship stats, and age as factors that predict the likelihood of the career outcomes investigated in this study, including doctoral recipients' employment field and primary work activity.
Pohl, Joanne M; Savrin, Carol; Fiandt, Kathryn; Beauchesne, Michelle; Drayton-Brooks, Shirlee; Scheibmeir, Monica; Brackley, Margaret; Werner, Kathryn E
To ensure that nurse practitioners are prepared to deliver safe, high-quality health care, the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties (NONPF) publishes documents that outline the expected competencies for nurse practitioner (NP) practice (Domains and Core Competencies of Nurse Practitioner Practice and Practice Doctorate Nurse Practitioner Entry-Level Competencies). Having participated in the development of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies for graduate education, NONPF convened a task force to compare NONPF competencies with QSEN competencies for graduate education. This paper reports the first step of that cross-mapping process, comparing NONPF competencies with the QSEN knowledge objectives. Overall findings indicate close congruence across the 2 sets of competencies; however there are areas in which gaps are noted or for which clarification is required.
Weiler, Richard; Chew, Stephen; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel
Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of disease prevention and treatment. There is, however, a considerable disparity between public health policy, clinical guidelines and the delivery of physical activity promotion within the National Health Service in the UK. If this is to be addressed in the battle against non-communicable diseases, it is vital that tomorrow's doctors understand the basic science and health benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the provision...
Hancock, Sally; Hughes, Gwyneth; Walsh, Elaine
Doctoral scientists increasingly forge non-academic careers after completing the doctorate. Governments and industry in advanced economies welcome this trend, since it complements the "knowledge economy" vision that has come to dominate higher education globally. Knowledge economy stakeholders consider doctoral scientists to constitute…
A large proportion of the gender wage gap is usually left unexplained. In this paper, we investigate whether the unexplained component is due to misspecification. Using a sample of recent UK graduates, we introduce variables on career expectations and character traits, variables that are typically not observed. The evidence indicates that women…
Boquet, Elizabeth; Kazer, Meredith; Manister, Nancy; Lucas, Owen; Shaw, Michael; Madaffari, Valerie; Gannett, Cinthia
In 2010, Fairfield University, a Jesuit Carnegie Masters Level 1 University located in the Northeast, established its first doctoral-level program: the Doctorate of Nursing Practice (DNP). In a developing program such as the DNP, some of the most pressing concerns of current rhetoric and writing in the disciplines align and interact with the…
Emmanouil, Beatrice; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W
It is important to inform medical educators and workforce planners in Anaesthesia about early career choices for the specialty, factors that influence them and to elucidate how recent choices of men and women doctors relate to the overall historical trends in the specialty's popularity. We analysed longitudinal data on career choice, based on self-completed questionnaires, from national year-of-qualification cohorts of UK-trained doctors from 1974 to 2012 surveyed one, three and 5 years post-qualification. Career destination data 10 years post-qualification were used for qualifiers between 1993 and 2002, to investigate the association between early choice and later destinations. In years 1, 3 and 5 post-qualification, respectively, 59.9% (37,385), 64.6% (31,473), and 67.2% (24,971) of contactable doctors responded. There was an overall increase, from the early to the later cohorts, in the percentage of medical graduates who wished to enter anaesthesia: for instance year 1 choices rose from 4.6 to 9.4%, comparing the 1974 and 2012 cohorts. Men were more likely than women to express an early preference for a career in anaesthesia: for example, at year 3 after qualification anaesthesia was the choice of 10.1% of men and 7.9% of women. There was a striking increase in the certainty with which women chose anaesthesia as their future career specialty in recent compared to earlier cohorts, not reflected in any trends observed in men choosing anaesthesia. Sixty percent of doctors who were anaesthetists, 10 years after qualifying, had specified anaesthesia as their preferred specialty when surveyed in year 1, 80% in year 3, and 92% in year 5. Doctors working as anaesthetists were less likely than those working in other hospital specialties to have specified, as strong influences on specialty choice, 'experience of the subject' as students, 'inclinations before medical school', and 'what I really want to do'. Men anaesthetists were more influenced in their specialty
Weiler, Richard; Chew, Stephen; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel
Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of disease prevention and treatment. There is, however, a considerable disparity between public health policy, clinical guidelines and the delivery of physical activity promotion within the National Health Service in the UK. If this is to be addressed in the battle against non-communicable diseases, it is vital that tomorrow's doctors understand the basic science and health benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the provision of physical activity teaching content in the curricula of all medical schools in the UK. Our results, with responses from all UK medical schools, uncovered some alarming findings, showing that there is widespread omission of basic teaching elements, such as the Chief Medical Officer recommendations and guidance on physical activity. There is an urgent need for physical activity teaching to have dedicated time at medical schools, to equip tomorrow's doctors with the basic knowledge, confidence and skills to promote physical activity and follow numerous clinical guidelines that support physical activity promotion.
Moreton, Adam; Collier, Andrew
What can be learned from a 45-year journey to reduced junior doctors' working hours? The authors investigated the impact of financially punitive measures (the 2001 New Deal contract) and legislation (Working Time Regulations) on the average working week for doctors-in-training.
Gillard, J H; Dent, T H; Jolly, B C; Wallis, D A; Hicks, B H
We asked British medical schools and teaching hospitals about the training they offer to medical students and hospital doctors in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The response rate was 96%. Training that is practical and consistent with guidelines is offered to nearly all students and house officers, often by consultants. Training for other junior doctors and consultants is much less common. The organisation of training is haphazard, and many hospitals have no resuscitation training officers. As a result, few doctors receive the frequent retraining needed to maintain competence in managing cardiopulmonary arrest.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A bill to legalize physician-assisted suicide in the UK recently made significant progress in the British House of Lords and will be reintroduced in the future. Until now there has been little discussion of the clinical implications of physician-assisted suicide for the UK. This paper describes problematical issues that became apparent from a review of the medical and psychiatric literature as to the potential effects of legalized physician-assisted suicide. Discussion Most deaths by physician-assisted suicide are likely to occur for the illness of cancer and in the elderly. GPs will deal with most requests for assisted suicide. The UK is likely to have proportionately more PAS deaths than Oregon due to the bill's wider application to individuals with more severe physical disabilities. Evidence from other countries has shown that coercion and unconscious motivations on the part of patients and doctors in the form of transference and countertransference contribute to the misapplication of physician-assisted suicide. Depression influences requests for hastened death in terminally ill patients, but is often under-recognized or dismissed by doctors, some of whom proceed with assisted death anyway. Psychiatric evaluations, though helpful, do not solve these problems. Safeguards that are incorporated into physician-assisted suicide criteria probably decrease but do not prevent its misapplication. Summary The UK is likely to face significant clinical problems arising from physician-assisted suicide if it is legalized. Terminally ill patients with mental illness, especially depression, are particularly vulnerable to the misapplication of physician-assisted suicide despite guidelines and safeguards.
Thompson, Kris; Coon, Jill; Handford, Leandrea
With the move to the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) degree and increasing tuition costs, there is concern about financing entry-level education. The purposes of this study were to identify how students finance their DPT education and to describe the financial impact after graduation. A written survey was used to collect data on financing DPT education, student debt, and the financial impact on graduates. There were 92 subjects who had graduated from one program. Frequencies as well as nonparametric statistics using cross-tabulations and chi-squared statistics were calculated. The response rate was 55%. Of the respondents, 86% had student loans, 66% worked during school, 57% received some family assistance, and 21% had some scholarship support. The amount of monthly loan repayment was not statistically related to the ability to save for a house, the ability to obtain a loan for a house or car, or the decision to have children. Saving for the future (p = 0.016) and lifestyle choices (p = 0.035) were related to the amount of monthly loan repayment. Major sources of funding were student loans, employment income, and/or family assistance. Respondent's ability to save for the future and lifestyle choices were negatively impacted when loan debt increased. Physical therapist education programs should consider offering debt planning and counseling.
Halliday, Laura; Walker, Abigail; Vig, Stella; Hines, John; Brecknell, John
Grit is characterised by the ability to persevere during difficulties and maintain a sustained effort over an extended period of time. Throughout their careers, doctors will experience many periods of stress and difficulty. This may result in burnout, defined by the presence of exhaustion and disengagement from work. This study aims to characterise the relationship between grit and burnout in doctors and to establish whether there are differences between specialties and levels of training. A multicentre cross-sectional survey by questionnaire was used. Participants were recruited from training days and an online medical forum. The survey consisted of the Short Grit Scale and the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, which examine levels of grit and burnout, respectively. 548 responses were collected. We found a weak negative correlation between grit and burnout in UK doctors (r=-0.243, p<0.001). Hospital consultants had significantly higher grit scores than trainees. The highest level of burnout was found among general practitioners (GPs). When GPs were analysed separately, the correlation between grit and resilience was not seen. An understanding of an individual's level of grit may be used to identify doctors at a greater risk of burnout. As a high level of grit is associated with less burnout, interventions to improve grit through resilience training should be examined. Further research is needed to understand how grit levels change during a doctor's career and why GPs experience higher levels of burnout. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hickerton, Bethan C; Fitzgerald, Daniel John; Perry, Elizabeth; De Bolla, Alan R
Hospital badges have multiple important purposes, but their essential role remains the clear identification of the bearer, including their professional status. The modernisation of medical careers in the National Health Service has changed terminology dramatically, resulting in a plethora of new job titles emerging among both doctors and nurses. To determine whether the new or old terminology allowed clearer identification of medical doctors by patients and nurses. We replicated 11 identification badges used in the Royal Cornwall Hospital and Wrexham Maelor Hospital, both current and before the introduction of new medical training terminology. Data were collected from 114 patients and 67 nurses, by asking them to (1) identify which name badges represented doctors and (2) rank them in order of seniority. Only 11% of patients and 60% of nurses identified a 'Foundation Year 1 Trainee' as a qualified medical doctor. Indeed, only 'General Practice Vocational Trainee' and 'Consultant' were both readily identifiable as qualified doctors to both patients and nurses. Ranking was also a problem, with only 19% of patients and 45% of nurses able to correctly grade medical doctors using the current terminology. The old terminology allowed more accurate identification by nurses, with over 80% successfully ranking and marking the title appropriately. Current terminology is a source of confusion to both patients and members of the immediate medical care team, with nurses unable to correctly identify medical doctors. Our study indicates that a review of terminology is necessary to ensure patients, and staff, are able to communicate effectively. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Dieker, Lisa; Wienke, Wilfred; Straub, Carrie; Finnegan, Lisa
In this article, the authors provide a summary of the current techniques being used to recruit, retain, and support a diverse range of scholars, including students with disabilities, in a doctoral program. The manuscript provides a summary of the current need for leadership personnel who are scholars with knowledge in special education, general…
Drisko, James W.; Evans, Kristin
This national survey of PhD faculty assessed the research preparation of entering doctoral social work students on a wide range of research knowledge and related skills. The prior literature shows that PhD programs repeat much BSW and MSW research course content. This study shows that the trend continues and has perhaps widened. PhD research…
Stimpson, Catharine R.
The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a collection of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). Essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. Intended to engender conversation about the conceptual foundation of doctoral…
Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard
This paper examines the key issues at stake for national economies in increasing the number of PhDs to meet expected needs for human capital in science, technology and innovation using illustrations mainly from the European Commission's "Careers of Doctorate Holders" surveys on PhD labour market outcomes; it has been shown that PhD…
The doctoral viva voce examination has existed in Britain since the PhD (or DPhil) was introduced at Oxford University almost a hundred years ago. However, despite some recent research studies, it seems that the viva remains somewhat under-researched and that viva voce examinations continue to take place according to largely unchanged and…
Brooks, Hannah L; Pontefract, Sarah K; Hodson, James; Blackwell, Nicholas; Hughes, Elizabeth; Marriott, John F; Coleman, Jamie J
Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) can be used to educate Foundation Programme trainee (F1 and F2) doctors. Despite the advantages of TEL, learning behaviours may be exhibited that are not desired by system developers or educators. The aim of this evaluation was to investigate how learner behaviours (e.g. time spent on task) were affected by temporal (e.g. time of year), module (e.g. word count), and individual (e.g. knowledge) factors for 16 mandatory TEL modules related to prescribing and therapeutics. Data were extracted from the SCRIPT e-Learning platform for first year Foundation trainee (F1) doctors in the Health Education England's West Midland region from 1(st) August 2013 to 5(th) August 2014. Generalised Estimating Equation models were used to examine the relationship between time taken to complete modules, date modules were completed, pre- and post-test scores, and module factors. Over the time period examined, 688 F1 doctors interacted with the 16 compulsory modules 10,255 times. The geometric mean time taken to complete a module was 28.9 min (95% Confidence Interval: 28.4-29.5) and 1,075 (10.5%) modules were completed in less than 10 min. In February and June (prior to F1 progression reviews) peaks occurred in the number of modules completed and troughs in the time taken. Most modules were completed, and the greatest amount of time was spent on the learning on a Sunday. More time was taken by those doctors with greater pre-test scores and those with larger improvements in test scores. Foundation trainees are exhibiting unintended learning behaviours in this TEL environment, which may be attributed to several factors. These findings can help guide future developments of this TEL programme and the integration of other TEL programmes into curricula by raising awareness of potential behavioural issues that may arise.
O'Brien, J W; Natarajan, M; Shaikh, I
The UK Supreme Court recently ruled that when consenting patients for treatments or procedures, clinicians must also discuss any associated material risks. We surveyed medical staff at a large UK teaching hospital in order to ascertain knowledge of consent law and current understanding of this change. Email survey sent to medical staff in all specialities at Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital in February 2016. 245 responses (141 Consultants and 104 junior doctors, response rate 32%). 82% consent patients for procedures at least monthly and 23% daily. 31% were not familiar with the concept of material risk. 35% were familiar with the recent change in consent law, 41% were not. 18% were "very uncertain" and 64% "a little uncertain" that their consenting process meets current legal requirements. >92% think that landmark cases and changes in law should be discussed through professional bodies and circulated better locally. The majority were not familiar with the concept of material risk and recent legal changes. A majority were not confident that their practice meets current requirements, suggesting that recent changes in consent law may not be widely understood at this hospital. We suggest more guidance and education may be necessary than is currently available. Increased understanding of recent changes to consent law will reduce the risk taken by NHS trusts and offer patients a service compliant with Supreme Court guidance.
Hancock, Sally; Walsh, Elaine
The science, technology, engineering, mathematics (STEM) doctorate is the established entry qualification for a scientific research career. However, contemporary STEM doctoral graduates assume increasingly diverse professional paths, with many forging non-academic careers. Using the UK as an example, the authors suggest that the STEM PhD fails to…
Biesma, Regien G; Pavlova, Milena; Vaatstra, Rina; van Merode, Godefridus G; Czabanowska, Katarzyna; Smith, Tony; Groot, Wim
Constant changes in society and the public health domain force public health professionals into new roles and the development of new competencies. Public health professionals will need to be trained to respond to this challenge. The aim of this comparative study among Poland, the UK and the Netherlands is to identify competence needs for Master of Public Health graduates entering the labour market from a European perspective. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to employers in the three countries, rating the importance of competency in public health on a master's level. In all three countries, interpersonal competencies, like team working and communication skills, are rated as highly important. However, employers in the UK and Poland generally rate public health specific competencies as much more important than their Dutch colleagues. It is concluded that while public health specific knowledge is providing a useful starting point for entry-level public health professionals, employers increasingly recognise the value of generic competencies such as communication and team working skills. The results suggest a stronger emphasis on teaching methods that encourage active learning and the integration of skills, which is crucial for enhancing graduates' employability, and foster an open attitude to multidisciplinary working, which is essential in modern health care.
Luft, Julie A.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.; Roehrig, Gillian H.; Turner, Jessica
Graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) in the sciences are a common feature of U.S. universities that have a prominent mission of research. During the past 2 decades, increased attention has been paid to the professional development of GTAs as instructors. As a result, universities have created training programs to assist GTAs in selecting instructional methods, curricular formats, and assessments when they serve as laboratory, lecture, or discussion group instructors. Unfortunately, few studies explore the educational and instructional environment of GTAs in these reformed settings. This study was conducted to address this specific need. As a constructivist inquiry, qualitative methods were used to collect and analyze the data to elucidate the educational and instructional environment of science GTAs at a doctoral/research university in which various training programs existed. We found that GTAs worked autonomously, that traditional practices and curricula existed in laboratories, and that instructors frequently held limited views of undergraduates' abilities and motivation. Findings in this initial study about GTAs suggest that developers of GTA training programs draw on the literature regarding science teacher education, and that reward systems be instituted that recognize faculty and staff for their participation in GTA training programs.
Kim, Dongbin; Roh, Jin-young
This study explores whether patterns of doctorate attainment among Chinese and Korean international students in the USA have changed over time, both in terms of quantity (i.e., number of international students) and quality (i.e., the selectivity of the undergraduate and doctoral institutions), and whether these changes reflect the improvements in…
Williamson, Louise M.
This exploratory study was an investigation of the mission and emphases of twenty-two science & engineering doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) programs in ten fields of study at nine public research universities in the United States and the corresponding influence those factors impose on placement of Ph.D. graduates of those programs into academic program settings. Ph.D. program chairs participated via protocol to provide descriptive, statistical, and experiential details of their Ph.D. programs and offered insight on current conditions for academic placement opportunities. The quantitative analysis served as the basis of examination of influencers in graduate placement for those Ph.D. programs that are informed about placement activity of their graduates. Among the nine tested hypotheses there were no statistically significant findings. The qualitative expressions of this study---those found in the confounding variables, the limitations of the study, those questions that elicited opinions and further discussion and follow-up queries with program chairs---added most meaningfully, however, to the study in that they served as a gauge of the implications of neglect for those Ph.D. programs that remain uninformed about their graduate placement activity. Central to the findings of this study was that one compelling fact remains the same. Denecke, Director of Best Practice at the Council of Graduate Schools, pointed out years ago that just as "we know very little about why those who finish and why those who leave do so, we also know surprisingly little about where students go after their degrees...we therefore have little information about how effective doctoral programs are in preparing doctorates for short- and long-term career success." The fact remains that the effectiveness of doctoral programs in the context of career success is just as uncertain today. A serious admonition is that one-half of those programs that participated in this study remain uninformed about the
Students and graduates alike are encouraged to enhance their skills and knowledge by moving to a different European country as both national governments and European institutions anticipate individual skill gains, closer European networks and a boost to national economies as a result. Using data from a longitudinal survey, this paper follows…
Joyce, Emmeline; Cowing, Jennifer; Lazarus, Candice; Smith, Charlotte; Zenzuck, Victoria; Peters, Sarah
Co-occuring physical symptoms, unexplained by organic pathology (known as Functional Syndromes, FS), are common and disabling presentations. However, FS is absent or inconsistently taught within undergraduate medical training. This study investigates the reasons for this and identifies potential solutions to improved implementation. Twenty-eight medical educators from thirteen different UK medical schools participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis proceeded iteratively, and in parallel with data production. Barriers to implementing FS training are beliefs about the complexity of FS, tutors' negative attitudes towards FS, and FS being perceived as a low priority for the curriculum. In parallel participants recognised FS as ubiquitous within medical practice and erroneously assumed it must be taught by someone. They recommended that students should learn about FS through managed exposure, but only if tutors' negative attitudes and behaviour are also addressed. Negative attitudes towards FS by educators prevents designing and delivering effective education on this common medical presentation. Whilst there is recognition of the need to implement FS training, recommendations are multifaceted. Increased liaison between students, patients and educators is necessary to develop more informed and effective teaching methods for trainee doctors about FS and in order to minimise the impact of the hidden curriculum. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Garbin, Livia Maria; de Castro Sajioro Azevedo, Ana Lídia; da Silva, Leandra Terezinha Roncolato; Laus, Ana Maria; Chaves, Lucieli Dias Pedreschi; Gualda, Dulce Maria Rosa; Rossi, Lídia Aparecida
This descriptive study aimed to characterize the graduates of the Inter-unit Doctoral Program in Nursing of the School of Nursing of the University of São Paulo, who defended their theses in the period 1998-2008, in relation to the location they developed their Masters and their pre and post-doctoral employment, also to investigate the theses defended in relation to the thematic areas and methodological approaches used. Data were collected from the Fenix-USP System and the Lattes Curriculum System. Of the 190 graduates, 178 had curricula available online. Of those, 58.4% performed teaching and research activities when they entered the doctoral program, which were activities mainly developed at Federal Universities (34.8%). This predominance was maintained after the conclusion of the doctoral studies. The thematic areas most studied were Women's Health (20.5%) and Adults/Elderly Health (13.2%). Regarding the methodological approach, 68.4% used qualitative methods. The data evidenced the contributions of this Program to research.
Clegg, Mary; Pye, Joanne; Wylie, Kevan R.
Introduction: It has been suggested that an indicator of a doctor's ability to assess patients' sexual function relates to the level of earlier training. The amount and quality of training the doctor receives at the undergraduate level and beyond could contribute to the doctor's confidence and competence. Aims: To evaluate whether doctors found that the teaching in human sexuality received at medical school was sufficient for their future practice and whether their chosen medical specialty...
Sin, I Lin
This thesis explores the role of foreign cultural capital, that is, Western knowledge, skills, dispositions and qualifications obtained through various modes of UK international tertiary education in facilitating social reproduction and mobility. The focus is on Malaysian young adults from middle-class backgrounds. It offers a critical exploration of the intricacies and contradictions surrounding the applicability of Bourdieu’s concept of cultural capital in explaining occupati...
Comunian, Roberta; Faggian, Alessandra; Jewell, Sarah
The recent change in funding structure in the UK higher education system has fuelled an animated debate about the role that arts and humanities (A & H) subjects play not only within higher education but more broadly in the society and the economy. The debate has engaged with a variety of arguments and perspectives, from the intrinsic value of A & H, to their contribution to the broader society and their economic impact, particularly in relation to the creative economy, through knowledge excha...
Employers expect graduates and postgraduates to demonstrate their education through more than good grades. Learning activities that develop subject skills during formalized programmes of undergraduate and postgraduate study also develop employability skills, if the curriculum is suitably aligned, and developmental planning is supported. Only little extra provision is required, but all development needs to be explicitly signposted to the learner, and the curriculum should be developed in consultation with employers. This review aims to raise awareness of current issues in the context of enhancing employability that arise from an increased global competition on the job market and the expectation of the Higher Education sector to produce work-ready graduates and postgraduates that are well equipped to adapt to a quickly changing work environment particularly due to transferable skills. In the context of lessons from the UK, these current issues and employability are discussed, and approaches to Personal Development Planning that prepare students for lifelong learning and that enable communicating and evidencing achievement are addressed. Issues specific to postgraduates, how actual work experience should be maximized as well as other career influences such as learned societies and social networking are highlighted. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two
Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. Methods A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8% doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement, stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut, and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure, as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Results Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem. Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant
McManus, I C; Jonvik, Hallgeir; Richards, Peter; Paice, Elisabeth
Sir William Osler suggested in 1899 that avocations (leisure activities) in doctors are related to an increased sense of vocation (professional engagement) and a decreased level of burnout. This study evaluated those claims in a large group of doctors practicing in the UK while taking into account a wide range of background variables. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to 4,457 UK-qualified doctors who had been included in four previous studies of medical school selection and training, beginning in 1980, 1985, 1990 and 1989/1991. A total of 2,845 (63.8%) doctors returned the questionnaire. Questions particularly asked about work engagement, satisfaction with medicine as a career, and personal achievement (Vocation/engagement), stress, emotional exhaustion, and depersonalization (BurnedOut), and 29 different leisure activities (Avocation/Leisure), as well as questions on personality, empathy, work experience, and demography. Doctors reporting more Avocation/Leisure activities tended to be women, to have older children, to be less surface-rational, more extravert, more open to experience, less agreeable, and to fantasize more. Doctors who were more BurnedOut tended to be men, to be more sleep-deprived, to report a greater workload and less choice and independence in their work, to have higher neuroticism, lower extraversion and lower agreeableness scores, and to have lower self-esteem. In contrast, doctors with a greater sense of Vocation/engagement, tended to see more patients, to have greater choice and independence at work, to have a deep approach to work, to have a more supportive-receptive work environment, to be more extravert and more conscientious, and to report greater self-esteem.Avocation/Leisure activities correlated significantly with Vocation/engagement, even after taking into account 25 background variables describing demography, work, and personality, whereas BurnedOut showed no significant correlation with Avocation/Leisure activities. Popular
Smith, Samantha E; Tallentire, Victoria R; Pope, Lindsey M; Laidlaw, Anita H; Morrison, Jill
To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. All four regions of Scotland. Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. Semistructured interviews were coded using template analysis. Six perspectives, described by Feldman and Ng, were used as the initial coding template. The codes were then configured to form a framework that explores the interplay of factors influencing Foundation Year 2 (F2) doctors' decisions to leave UK medicine. Seventeen participants were interviewed. Six perspectives were explored. Structural influences (countrywide and worldwide issues) included visas, economic and political considerations, structure of healthcare systems and availability of junior doctor jobs worldwide. Organisational influences (the National Health Service (NHS) and other healthcare providers) included staffing and compensation policies, the working environment and the learning environment. Occupational influences (specific to being a junior doctor) comprised the junior doctor contract, role and workload, pursuit of career interests and the structure of training. Work group influences (relationships with colleagues) included support at work, task interdependence and use of locums. Personal life influences consisted of work-life balance, and support in resolving work-life conflict. The underlying theme of 'taking a break' recurred through multiple narratives. F2s give reasons similar to those given by any professional considering a change in their job. However, working within the NHS as an F2 doctor brought specific challenges, such as a need to make a choice of specialty within the F2 year, exposure to workplace bullying and difficulties in raising concerns. Despite these challenges, most F2s did not view their decision to leave as a permanent job
Potvin, Geoff; Chari, Deepa; Hodapp, Theodore
Graduate admissions play a critical gatekeeping role in the physics community not only because they select students who are allowed to begin their graduate studies, but also because they influence how students perceive graduate school, and in some cases whether or not they will even choose to apply. In conjunction with the APS Bridge Program, we conducted a national survey of graduate directors (and related faculty) of physics Ph.D. programs in the United States to explore graduate admissions practices. Our focus was on criteria used in determining admissions, mechanisms through which graduate applicants are handled, and how student representation considerations are incorporated into admissions (if at all). We report here on existing graduate admission practices in physics departments and highlight some critical issues for understanding barriers for diversifying graduate physics, including the use of GRE scores (and the relative importance placed on them). We find that the use of a minimum GRE score for admission, a practice in opposition to recommendations made by the tests designers, is reported to be used in many departments (more than one in three). We also find letters of recommendation to be highly valued in admissions decisions. Our data describe various initiatives at the institutional or individual level to increase gender diversity in admissions. A sizable number of departments also express a latent demand for greater numbers of students from traditionally marginalized racial or ethnic groups, but simultaneously report a lack of such applicants.
Rodriguez Santana, Idaira; Chalkley, Martin
To analyse how training doctors' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics vary according to the specialty that they are training for. Descriptive statistics and mixed logistic regression analysis of cross-sectional survey data to quantify evidence of systematic relationships between doctors' characteristics and their specialty. Doctors in training in the United Kingdom in 2013. 27 530 doctors in training but not in their foundation year who responded to the National Training Survey 2013. Mixed logit regression estimates and the corresponding odds ratios (calculated separately for all doctors in training and a subsample comprising those educated in the UK), relating gender, age, ethnicity, place of studies, socioeconomic background and parental education to the probability of training for a particular specialty. Being female and being white British increase the chances of being in general practice with respect to any other specialty, while coming from a better-off socioeconomic background and having parents with tertiary education have the opposite effect. Mixed results are found for age and place of studies. For example, the difference between men and women is greatest for surgical specialties for which a man is 12.121 times more likely to be training to a surgical specialty (relative to general practice) than a woman (p-valuevalue<0.01). There are systematic and substantial differences between specialties in respect of training doctors' gender, ethnicity, age and socioeconomic background. The persistent underrepresentation in some specialties of women, minority ethnic groups and of those coming from disadvantaged backgrounds will impact on the representativeness of the profession into the future. Further research is needed to understand how the processes of selection and the self-selection of applicants into specialties gives rise to these observed differences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article
Payne Karl Frederick
Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.
Clegg, Mary; Pye, Joanne; Wylie, Kevan R
It has been suggested that an indicator of a doctor's ability to assess patients' sexual function relates to the level of earlier training. The amount and quality of training the doctor receives at the undergraduate level and beyond could contribute to the doctor's confidence and competence. To evaluate whether doctors found that the teaching in human sexuality received at medical school was sufficient for their future practice and whether their chosen medical specialty and exposure to issues related to sexual health affected this opinion. One hundred seventy doctors maintaining contact with the University of Sheffield Medical School Alumni Office after qualifying in 2004 were sent self-completion postal questionnaires. Space was allocated for supplementary comments to their answers. Self-completion postal questionnaire. Although the response rate was low, there appeared to be an impact of the teaching of human sexuality on the clinical practice of doctors. More than two-thirds of respondents rated the teaching as useful and more than 70% felt more confident in diagnosing and managing male and female sexual issues. The results show a link between the undergraduate teaching of sexual medicine and education and a subsequent proactive approach to sexuality issues; unfortunately, the study does not provide any information about the level of skills or ability in this field of medicine. We have confirmed that the Sheffield model might be suitable for teaching sexual medicine issues in the United Kingdom but cannot confirm that the current format is suitable for international undergraduate audiences. Future study could include other medical schools and a comparison of sexual medicine practice among physicians who received undergraduate medical education and overall numbers could be increased to compare current practice with the number of hours of sexual medicine education as a key parameter. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Techakehakij, Win; Arora, Rajin
Physician scarcity in rural areas is a major obstacle to healthcare access, leading to health inequity worldwide. In Thailand, a special recruitment program of medical education [Collaborative Project to Increase Production of Rural Doctors (CPIRD)] was initiated with four different medical training tracks. No previous research has examined the rural retention of new medical graduates across the CPIRD tracks, compared with those receiving conventional medical education (Normal track). This study examines the public retention of rural physicians from different tracks of entry. A retrospective study was conducted in new medical graduates who entered Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) hospitals from January 2003 to October 2014, and followed up until June 2015, using administrative data from the Personnel Administration Division, MoPH. The CPIRD registry database was used to identify physicians' tracks of entry. Survival analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to compare the annual retention and the probability of 3-year retention of rural physicians. Results clearly demonstrated a high rural retention of CPIRD medical graduates, compared with their Normal track peers, regarding both lower annual resignation (HR 0.456, P rural retention were revealed across the different CPIRD tracks. Evidence from this study can be used as part of the information to reshape the physician production policy to reduce health inequity in rural areas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Zyluk, Andrzej; Puchalski, Piotr; Szlosser, Zbigniew
Teaching surgery during university curriculum comprises transferring theoretical knowledge traditionally and simultaneously acquiring manual skills, i.e., suturing, stitch removal, limb immobilization, catheterization, and assisting operations. Observations of doctors several years after graduation led to the reflection that teachers' ideas about surgical knowledge and skills that are useful in daily practice frequently fail to meet the facts of the case. The objective of this study was to determine which part of the surgical knowledge and skills taught via the university surgical curriculum proved to be useful in the daily practice of young doctors. A custom-made questionnaire was designed and mailed to 200 randomly chosen doctors who had graduated from the medical faculty at the authors' university 5 to 6 years previously. The questionnaire comprised 9 items concerning the knowledge and skills that proved to be the most useful in participants' daily practice, regardless of their specialty. A total of 64 completed questionnaires were returned (32% of 200 sent) and were the subject of analysis. The most useful knowledge in daily practice was that acquired from general surgery, followed by oncological and vascular surgery. The most useful was knowledge about the rational interpretation of clinical symptoms and signs acquired from examination of the patient, followed by arriving at an accurate diagnosis through logical analysis, and next developing "oncological sensitivity" to diagnosing neoplasms. The most effective teaching model was specialized outpatient clinic rounds, followed by training manual skills on a model and classical ward-round teaching. The most frequently learned (acquired) manual skills were removal of stitches, rectal examination, and examination of the abdomen. Of these skills, the most useful in daily practice appeared to be removal of stitches, catheterization of the urinary bladder, and wound suturing. Learning and practicing manual skills
The purpose of this research is to expand on existing understandings of graduate employability through exploring the lived experiences and perceptions of key informants, in this case, those with direct line management responsibilities for graduates. The context of this research is focused on Human Resources (HR) graduates, a discipline that has seen little qualitative inquiry across the Higher Education (HE), employability and HR literature, and which is currently dominated by skills-led appr...
McAlpine, Lynn; Turner, Gill
Increasingly, research staff positions rather than lectureships are the reality for social sciences PhD graduates wishing academic work. Within this context, our longitudinal study examined how social science doctoral students and research staff in two UK universities imagined their futures in and out of academia. The variation over time in how…
Huang, Rong; Turner, Rebecca
Recent policy developments in English Higher Education have resulted in employability placed in the spotlight, whereby the success of universities will be measured based on graduate employment. This represents the latest focus placed on employability in the sector, as universities are increasingly expected to provide employment-ready graduates to…
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
heavily from the support from informal and extra-curricular researcher communities and non-formal support systems even beyond the institution in the private and societal lifeworlds. The chapter describes and analyses such forms of organizational and existential darkness within doctoral education...... and professionalization of doctoral education, with Graduate schools increasing in size and organizational complexity. Paradoxically, we see in contemporary research into doctoral students’ learning experiences that the students do not favour the formalized support systems and supervision, but on the contrary draw most......, and discusses how institutions and doctoral programmes could use such sprawling spaces for learning to build doctoral ecologies and to strengthening existentially based pedagogies within doctoral education....
Dixon-Woods, Mary; Yeung, Karen; Bosk, Charles L
This article identifies the role played by a series of medical scandals in the U.K., occurring from the mid-1990s onwards, in ending a collegial model of self-regulation of the medical profession that had endured for 150 years. The state's original motive in endorsing professional self-regulation was to resolve the principal-agent problem inherent in the doctor-patient relationship. The profession, in return for its self-regulating privileges, undertook to act as a reliable guarantor for the competence and conduct of each of its members. Though sufficient to ensure that most doctors were "good", the collegial model adopted by the profession left it fatally vulnerable to the problem of "bad apples": those unwilling, incapable or indifferent to delivering on their professional commitments and who betrayed the trust of both patients and peers. Weak administrative systems in the NHS failed to compensate for the defects of the collegium in controlling these individuals. The scandals both provoked and legitimised erosion of the profession's self-regulatory power. Though its vulnerability to bad apples had been present since the founding of the 19th century profession, it was the convergence of social and political conditions at a particular historical moment that transformed the scandals into an unstoppable imperative for reform. Huge public anger, the voice permitted to a coalition of critics, shifts in social attitudes, the opportunity presented for imposing standards for accountability, and the increasing ascendancy of pro-interventionist managerialist and political agendas from the early 1990s onwards were all implicated in the response made to scandals and the shape the reforms took. Scandals need to be understood not as simple determinants of change, but as one performative element in a constellation of socially contingent forces and contexts. The new rebalancing of the "countervailing powers" has dislodged the profession as the senior partner in the regulation of
Buck, Benjamin; Romeo, Katy Harper; Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L
One possible explanation for the dearth of psychologists working in severe mental illness (SMI) areas is a lack of training opportunities. Recent studies have shown that while training opportunities have increased, there remain fewer resources available for SMI training compared to other disorders. Examines whether students express discomfort working with this population and whether they are satisfied with their level of training in SMI. One-hundred sixty-nine students currently enrolled in doctoral programs in clinical psychology in the United States and Canada were surveyed for their comfort treating and satisfaction with training related to a number of disorders. RESULTS indicate that students are significantly less comfortable treating and finding a referral for a patient with schizophrenia as well as dissatisfied with their current training in SMI and desirous of more training. Regression analyses showed that dissatisfaction with training predicted a desire for more training; however, discomfort in treating people with SMI did not predict a desire for more training in this sample. This pattern generally held across disorders. Our results suggest general discomfort among students surveyed in treating SMI compared to other disorders.
Park, Hee-Young; Berkowitz, Oren; Symes, Karen; Dasgupta, Shoumita
The goal of this study was to investigate associations between admissions criteria and performance in Ph.D. programs at Boston University School of Medicine. The initial phase of this project examined student performance in the classroom component of a newly established curriculum named "Foundations in Biomedical Sciences (FiBS)". Quantitative measures including undergraduate grade point average (GPA), graduate record examination (GRE; a standardized, computer-based test) scores for the verbal (assessment of test takers' ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information and concepts provided in writing) and quantitative (assessment of test takers' problem-solving ability) components of the examination, previous research experience, and competitiveness of previous research institution were used in the study. These criteria were compared with competencies in the program defined as students who pass the curriculum as well as students categorized as High Performers. These data indicated that there is a significant positive correlation between FiBS performance and undergraduate GPA, GRE scores, and competitiveness of undergraduate institution. No significant correlations were found between FiBS performance and research background. By taking a data-driven approach to examine admissions and performance, we hope to refine our admissions criteria to facilitate an unbiased approach to recruitment of students in the life sciences and to share our strategy to support similar goals at other institutions.
Hay, C R M; Xiang, H; Scott, M; Collins, P W; Liesner, R; Dolan, G; Hollingsworth, R
Haemtrack is an electronic home treatment diary for patients with inherited bleeding disorders, introduced in 2008. It aimed to improve the timeliness and completeness of patient-reported treatment records, to facilitate analysis of treatment and outcome trends. The system is easy to use, responsive and accessible. The software uses Microsoft technologies with a SQL Server database and an ASP.net website front-end, running on personal computers, android and I-phones. Haemtrack interfaces with the UK Haemophilia Centre Information System and the National Haemophilia Database (NHD). Data are validated locally by Haemophilia Centres and centrally by NHD. Data collected include as follows: treatment brand, dose and batch number, time/date of bleed onset and drug administration, reasons for treatment (prophylaxis, bleed, follow-up), bleed site, severity, pain-score and outcome. Haemtrack was used by 90% of haemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) in 2015, registering 2683 patients using home therapy of whom 1923 used Haemtrack, entering >17 000 treatments per month. This included 68% of all UK patients with severe haemophilia A. Reporting compliance varied and 55% of patients reported ≥75% of potential usage. Centres had a median 78% compliance overall. A strategy for progressively improving compliance is in place. Age distribution and treatment intensity were similar in Haemtrack users/non-users with severe haemophilia treated prophylactically. The Haemtrack system is a valuable tool that may improve treatment compliance and optimize treatment regimen. Analysis of national treatment trends and large-scale longitudinal, within-patient analysis of changes in regimen and/or product will provide valuable insights that will guide future clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sharpe, Richard A; Thornton, Christopher R; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J
The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the highest prevalence of asthma in the world, which represents a significant economic and societal burden. Reduced ventilation resulting from increased energy efficiency measures acts as a modifier for mould contamination and risk of allergic diseases. To our knowledge no previous study has combined detailed asset management property and health data together to assess the impact of household energy efficiency (using the UK Government's Standard Assessment Procedure) on asthma outcomes in an adult population residing in social housing. Postal questionnaires were sent to 3867 social housing properties to collect demographic, health and environmental information on all occupants. Detailed property data, residency periods, indices of multiple deprivation (IMD) and household energy efficiency ratings were also investigated. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals while allowing for clustering of individuals coming from the same location. Eighteen percent of our target social housing population were recruited into our study. Adults had a mean age of 59 (SD±17.3) years and there was a higher percentage of female (59%) and single occupancy (58%) respondents. Housing demographic characteristics were representative of the target homes. A unit increase in household Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) rating was associated with a 2% increased risk of current asthma, with the greatest risk in homes with SAP >71. We assessed exposure to mould and found that the presence of a mouldy/musty odour was associated with a two-fold increased risk of asthma (OR 2.2 95%; CI 1.3-3.8). A unit increase in SAP led to a 4-5% reduction in the risk of visible mould growth and a mouldy/musty odour. In contrast to previous research, we report that residing in energy efficient homes may increase the risk of adult asthma. We report that mould contamination increased the risk of asthma, which is in agreement with existing
Shokri, Alireza; Nabhani, Farhad
Purpose - This research aims to investigate the feasibility of a systematic Lean Six Sigma (LSS) education through the curriculum of business schools to respond to the existing gap between the graduate’s expectation of employability and skill requirements by the Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs).\\ud \\ud Design/approach/methodology - One UK business school has been used as a case study to conduct an extensive module and programme review followed by a semi-structured interview with the ...
Staff members of the Agency working at the Seibersdorf laboratory are continuing to achieve high academic distinction. Two more - both Austrian - have now been awarded the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. Joachim Kramer, who is 26, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur in 1967 with the degree of Diplom-Ingenieur and then started work in the plant breeding and genetics section of the laboratory under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen. The results of the research work he carried out were accepted as the subject of a thesis for which he has now been granted his doctorate. The doctoral promotion took place on 30 June, at a ceremony attended by Dr. Andre Finkelstein, Deputy Director General for Research and Isotopes. The subject of Dr. Kramer's thesis was a comprehensive study of the mutagenic effects of fast neutrons and gamma rays, and the influence of various modifying factors such as water content, oxygen and metabolic state of seeds at the time of irradiation. This work has contributed significantly to the understanding of the mechanisms by which these two types of ionizing radiation produce mutations in seeds. The knowledge gained will be of great importance in the efficient use of ionizing radiation in practical plant breeding. Paul Wassermann, who is 33 years old, joined the Agency in 1965. He, too, graduated from the Hochschule fur Bodenkultur as Diplom-Ingenieur in agriculture, having graduated with honours previously from the agricultural secondary school at Raumberg, Austria, in 1958. Dr. Wassermann's own words may be used to explain how he came to gain his doctorate. 'In October, 1966, I completed my studies at the Hochschule,' he writes. 'I was employed at the Agency laboratories in Seibersdorf, working in the plant and soils group. Encouraged by the interesting research which was performed there, a thesis entitled 'the Fate of Nitrogen in Submerged Rice Soils' was started, which finally led to the doctor's degree in Agriculture in June this year
Lachish, Shelly; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor
Identifying factors that improve job satisfaction of new doctors and ease the difficult transition from student to doctor is of great interest to public health agencies. Studies to date have focused primarily on the value of changes to medical school curricula and induction processes in this regard, but have overlooked the extent to which institutional support can influence new doctors' enjoyment of and attitude to work. Here, we examine variation in the perceived level of support received by new medical graduates in the United Kingdom (UK) from their employer and whether this influences enjoyment of and attitudes to the first postgraduate year, and whether doctors who perceived a lower level of support were less inclined to intend a long term career in medicine in the UK. All UK medical graduates of 2012 were surveyed in 2013 in a cross-sectional study, towards the end of their first post-graduate year (the 'F1' year of the 2-year Foundation Training Programme for new UK doctors). We used linear regression to assess whether the level of support doctors reported receiving from their employing Trust (Very Good, Good, Adequate, Poor, or Very Poor) was associated with the extent to which they enjoyed their F1 year. Similarly, we assessed the strength of associations between self-reported level of Trust support and doctors' responses to 12 statements about fundamental aspects of their working lives, each assessed on a 5-point scale of agreement. Using χ (2) tests we examined whether doctors' intentions to practise medicine in the UK varied with the level of support they reported receiving from their Trust. The response rate was 45 % (2324/5171). Of 2324 responding junior doctors, 63.8 % reported receiving 'Very Good' (23.6 %) or 'Good' (40.2 %) initial support from their Trust, while a further 27.4 % stated they received 'Adequate' support. 'Poor' support was reported by 5.8 % and 'Very Poor' support by 2.2 %. We found very strong positive associations between
Sloane, C.; Miller, P.K.
Introduction: Recent years have seen significant changes in the way medical imaging services are delivered, rapid changes in technology and big increases in the number and ranges of examinations undertaken. Given these changes the study aimed to critically evaluate the fitness for purpose of newly qualified diagnostic radiography. Method: The study employed a grounded theory approach to analyse the interviews of 20 radiology managers from a range of medical imaging providers across the UK. Results: Four key themes emerged from the analysis. These were: curriculum content and structure review; diversification in the role of the radiographer; professionalism and coping and the reformation of career structures. Conclusion: The results indicate the role of the radiographer is now in a state of flux and challenge radiology managers and educators to design curricula and career structures which are better matched the role of the radiographer in the very rapidly changing technological, organisational and social contexts of modern society. - Highlights: • Imaging services have undergone many changes in recent years. • The role of the radiographer is now in a state of flux. • The role of the radiographer varies greatly between employers. • There is a need to develop curricula and career structure's which match roles. • Graduates must be excellent communicators, resilient and have realistic expectations.
Beran, Roy G
The pharmaceutical industry is seen as seducing doctors by providing expensive gifts, subsidising travel and underwriting practice expenses in return for those doctors prescribing products that otherwise they would not use. This paints doctors in a very negative light; suggests doctors are available to the highest bidder; implies doctors do not adequately act as independent agents; and that doctors are driven more by self-interest than by patient needs. Similar practices, in other industries, are accepted as normal business behaviour but it is automatically assumed to be improper if the pharmaceutical industry supports doctors. Should the pharmaceutical industry withdraw educational grants then there would be: fewer scientific meetings; reduced attendance at conferences; limited post graduate education; and a depreciated level of maintenance of professional standards. To suggest that doctors prescribe inappropriately in return for largesse maligns their integrity but where there is no scientific reason to choose between different treatments then there can be little argument against selecting the product manufactured by a company that has invested in the doctor and the question arises as to whether this represents bad medicine? This paper will examine what constitutes non-professional conduct in response to inducements by the pharmaceutical industry. It will review: conflict of interest; relationships between doctors and pharma and the consequences for patients; and the need for critical appraisal before automatically decrying this relationship while accepting that there remain those who do not practice ethical medicine.
Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)
Mr. Wen-chuan Li of China has become the first student to obtain a doctor's degree as a result of research work carried out in the Agency. Mr. Li, who is 33, graduated as a Bachelor of Agriculture at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University in 1960 and in 1966 was granted a fellowship to study mutations in plant breeding at the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory near Vienna, under the direction of Dr. Knut Mikaelsen, a professor of the University of Bergen. The Hochschule fur Bodenkultur of Vienna accepted the research as being suitable for a thesis and have now granted the degree of Doctor of Agriculture. The subject of the thesis was modifying factors influencing the mutagenic effects of alkylating agents as compared with ionizing radiations in barley. Alkylating agents are involved in the use of chemicals as a means of changing the characteristics of seeds to bring about changes aimed at improving the quality of crops. Mr. Li's work is regarded as a significant contribution to the understanding of the mechanics by which mutations are induced, to the efficient use of chemicals and ionizing radiations in practical applications, and to the efforts of the Agency in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization to benefit food supplies. Mr. Li has now completed his fellowship with the Agency and has been appointed an Assistant Professor in Plant Breeding at Taiwan Provincial Chung-hsing University. The photograph, taken in the plastic hot house at Seibersdorf, shows him studying rice plants grown from seeds subjected to irradiation. Another noteworthy achievement is that of Mr. Karl-Franz Lacina, a security guard at the Agency's headquarters. At the age of 50 he has been accorded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Vienna University, the result of six years' work in his leisure time. The major subject was Arabic, with French and philosophy as supporting subject. (author)
Rajan, Pavithra; Bellare, Bharati
It is now known that resident doctors registered for postgraduate studies are prone to work related stress and eventual burnout. Though stress can happen in any profession, reduced performance of resident doctors due to vocational stress could cause an increase in medical errors and thus affect the quality of life of the patients. Resident doctors at a Municipal hospital in India form a unique population as number of stresses they undergo are many and varied. To study the prevalence of work-related stress and its anticipated solutions among the resident doctors registered for postgraduate studies in clinical subjects at a tertiary Municipal hospital. A stratified sampling cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Inpatient, Outpatient, and Intensive Care Units at a tertiary Municipal hospital in Mumbai, India. Data collection was done using a validated 20-point questionnaire to assess the factors causing stress and their anticipated solutions. Simple percentage analysis of stress questionnaire. 71 resident doctors completed the survey. The major stressors in this cohort were inadequate hostel/quarter facilities (92.1%), and the need to perform extra duties (80.0%). Also, non-conducive environment for clinical training and studies (81.7%), inadequate study (78.9%) and break (81.2%), threat from deadly infections (74.6%), and overburdening with work (69.0%) were the other major stress causing factors. The perceived stress busters were good music (40.8%) and family and friends (40.8%). Eighty-seven percent of the respondents perceived regular physical exercise to be an effective mode of stress management and 83.8% expressed their need to have a simple therapeutic gymnasium established within the campus with a qualified trainer. There is a high level of work related stress among the resident doctors registered for postgraduate clinical studies at a tertiary Municipal hospital in Mumbai. One of the perceived stress busters is regular physical exercise that is
Kalraiya, Ashish; Buddhdev, Pranai
Musculoskeletal problems account for a vast proportion of presentations encountered by doctors globally, with figures ranging from 15-36%. However, the time medical schools allocate to learning orthopedics is by no means proportional to this. This study aims to bridge this gap by developing an international orthopedic teaching program tailored to the specific knowledge and skills required by junior doctors in different countries. This prospective study asked fifty junior doctors, who had recently completed an orthopedics job, what three orthopedic teaching topics taught retrospectively would have benefitted their clinical practice. The most requested topics were used to design educational workshops for junior doctors and these consequently comprised the TROJAN (Teaching Requested by Orthopaedic Juniors And Novices) training program. Data was collected from twenty-five junior doctors in KwaZulu-Natale State, South Africa, and twenty-five in London, UK. It is therefore in these two countries that the TROJAN program was subsequently made available. Participants who selected topics were within two years of graduating medical school and had worked an orthopedic or Accident and Emergency job within the last year. 49% of topics chosen by SA doctors were practical skills such as wrist and ankle fracture reduction techniques, and management of open fractures. The most requested topic by UK doctors (11 out of 25) was management of neck of femur fractures. This is rationalized by the fact South African doctors require more hands-on responsibility in their daily practice whereas in the UK greater emphasis is placed on optimizing patients for theatre and making sound management plans. TROJAN currently develops orthopedic skills and knowledge in junior doctors in South Africa and United Kingdom with teaching customized based upon location. Feedback has been exceptionally positive with every candidate thus far rating the usefulness of TROJAN as the highest option, very useful.
Bourne, Tom; Vanderhaegen, Joke; Vranken, Renilt; Wynants, Laure; De Cock, Bavo; Peters, Mike; Timmerman, Dirk; Van Calster, Ben; Jalmbrant, Maria; Van Audenhove, Chantal
To examine doctors' experiences of complaints, including which aspects are most stressful. We also investigated how doctors felt complaints processes could be improved. A qualitative study based on a cross-sectional survey of members of the British Medical Association (BMA). We asked the following: (1) Try to summarise as best as you can your experience of the complaints process and how it made you feel. (2) What were the most stressful aspects of the complaint? (3) What would you improve in the complaints system? We sent the survey to 95 636 doctors, and received 10 930 (11.4%) responses. Of these, 6146 had a previous, recent or current complaint and 3417 (31.3%) of these respondents answered questions 1 and 2. We randomly selected 1000 answers for analysis, and included 100 using the saturation principle. Of this cohort, 93 responses for question 3 were available. Doctors frequently reported feeling powerless, emotionally distressed, and experiencing negative feelings towards both those managing complaints and the complainants themselves. Many felt unsupported, fearful of the consequences and that the complaint was unfair. The most stressful aspects were the prolonged duration and unpredictability of procedures, managerial incompetence, poor communication and perceiving that processes are biased in favour of complainants. Many reported practising defensively or considering changing career after a complaint, and few found any positive outcomes from complaints investigations. Physicians suggested procedures should be more transparent, competently managed, time limited, and that there should be an open dialogue with complainants and policies for dealing with vexatious complaints. Some felt more support for doctors was needed. Complaints seriously impact on doctors' psychological wellbeing, and are associated with defensive practise. This is not beneficial to patient care. To improve procedures, doctors propose they are simplified, time limited and more
Ynalvez, Ruby; Garza-Gongora, Claudia; Ynalvez, Marcus Antonius; Hara, Noriko
Although doctoral mentors recognize the benefits of providing quality advisement and close guidance, those of sharing project management responsibilities with mentees are still not well recognized. We observed that mentees, who have the opportunity to co-manage projects, generate more written output. Here we examine the link between research…
Quality health care is an issue of concern worldwide, and nursing can and must play a major and global role in transforming the healthcare environment. Doctorally prepared nurses are very much needed in the discipline to further develop and expand the science, as well as to prepare its future educators, scholars, leaders, and policy makers. In 1968, the Master of Science in Nursing Program was initiated in Turkey, followed by the Nursing Doctoral Education Program in 1972. Six University Schools of Nursing provide nursing doctoral education. By the graduating year of 2001, 154 students had graduated with the Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing (Ph.D.), and 206 students were enrolled in related courses. Many countries in the world are systematically building various collaborative models in their nursing doctoral education programs. Turkey would like to play an active role in creating collaborative nursing doctoral education programs with other countries. This paper centres on the structure and model of doctoral education for nurses in Turkey. It touches on doctoral programs around the world; describes in detail nursing doctoral education in Turkey, including its program structure, admission process, course units, assessment strategies and dissertation procedure; and discusses efforts to promote Turkey as a potential partner in international initiatives to improve nursing doctoral education.
Pickles, Kristen; Carter, Stacy M; Rychetnik, Lucie; Entwistle, Vikki A
Objectives To examine how general practitioners (GPs) in the UK and GPs in Australia explain their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing practices and to illuminate how these explanations are similar and how they are different. Design A grounded theory study. Setting Primary care practices in Australia and the UK. Participants 69 GPs in Australia (n=40) and the UK (n=29). We included GPs of varying ages, sex, clinical experience and patient populations. All GPs interested in participating in the study were included. Results GPs' accounts revealed fundamental differences in whether and how prostate cancer screening occurred in their practice and in the broader context within which they operate. The history of prostate screening policy, organisational structures and funding models appeared to drive more prostate screening in Australia and less in the UK. In Australia, screening processes and decisions were mostly at the discretion of individual clinicians, and varied considerably, whereas the accounts of UK GPs clearly reflected a consistent, organisationally embedded approach based on local evidence-based recommendations to discourage screening. Conclusions The GP accounts suggested that healthcare systems, including historical and current organisational and funding structures and rules, collectively contribute to how and why clinicians use the PSA test and play a significant role in creating the mindlines that GPs employ in their clinic. Australia's recently released consensus guidelines may support more streamlined and consistent care. However, if GP mindlines and thus routine practice in Australia are to shift, to ultimately reduce unnecessary or harmful prostate screening, it is likely that other important drivers at all levels of the screening process will need to be addressed. PMID:27920082
Richardson, R. M.; Ormand, C. J.; MacDonald, H.; Dunbar, R. W.; Allen-King, R. M.; Manduca, C. A.
Launching an academic career presents a number of challenges. A recent article in the Chronicle of Higher Education depicts academia as an “ivory sweatshop,” citing rising standards for tenure. Most graduate programs provide minimal training for life beyond graduate school. The professional development program “On the Cutting Edge” fills this gap by providing workshops and web resources on academic careers for graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and early career faculty. These workshops and web resources address a wide range of topics related to teaching, research, and managing one’s career, tailored for each group. The Preparing for an Academic Career in the Geosciences workshop to help graduate students and postdoctoral fellows make the transition into an academic career has been offered annually since 2003. It provides a panel on academic careers in different institutional settings, sessions on research on learning, various teaching strategies, design of effective teaching activities, moving research forward to new settings, effective teaching and research statements, the job search process, negotiation, and presenting oneself to others. Complementary online resources (http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/careerprep/index.html) focus on these topics. The workshops and web resources offer guidance for each step of the job search process, for developing and teaching one’s own courses, and for making the transition from being a research student to being in charge of a research program. Online resources also include case studies of successful dual career couples, documenting their job search strategies. A four-day workshop for Early Career Geoscience Faculty: Teaching, Research, and Managing Your Career, offered annually since 1999, provides sessions on teaching strategies, course design, developing a strategic plan for research, supervising student researchers, navigating departmental and institutional politics, preparing for tenure, time and
Felkenes, George T.
Graduates of six institutions were surveyed in an effort to develop a profile of doctoral graduates from institutions that have traditionally offered doctoral programs oriented specifically toward the field of criminal justice. A second research objective was to develop an understanding of the attitudes, frustrations, and utilization patterns of…
Scott P. Kerlin
Full Text Available This article probes the implications of neo-conservative public education policies for the future of the academic profession through a detailed examination of critical issues shaping contemporary doctoral education in U.S. and Canadian universities. Institutional and social factors such as financial retrenchment, declining support for affirmative action, downward economic mobility, a weak academic labor market for tenure-track faculty, professional ethics in graduate education, and backlash against women's progress form the backdrop for analysis of the author's survey of current doctoral students' opinions about funding, support, the job market, and quality of learning experiences.
Phelps, Kay; Regen, Emma; Oliver, David; McDermott, Chris; Faull, Christina
Ventilatory support has benefits including prolonging survival for respiratory failure in motor neurone disease (MND). At some point some patients may wish to stop the intervention. The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance recommends research is needed on ventilation withdrawal. There is little literature focusing on the issues doctors encounter when withdrawing ventilation at the request of a patient. To identify and explore with doctors the ethical and legal issues that they had encountered in the withdrawal of ventilation at the request of a patient with MND. A retrospective thematic analysis of interviews of 24 doctors (including palliative care, respiratory, neurology and general practice) regarding their experiences with withdrawal of ventilation support from patients with MND. Respondents found withdrawal of ventilation at the request of patients with MND to pose legal, ethical and moral challenges in five themes: ethical and legal rights to withdrawal from treatment; discussions with family; discussions with colleagues; experiences of legal advice; issues contributing to ethical complexity. Though clear about the legality of withdrawal of treatment in theory, the practice led to ethical and moral uncertainty and mixed feelings. Many respondents had experienced negative reactions from other healthcare professionals when these colleagues were unclear of the distinction between palliation of symptoms, withdrawal of treatment and assisted death. Legal, ethical and practical guidance is needed for professionals who support a patient with MND who wishes to withdraw from ventilation. Open discussion of the ethical challenges is needed as well as education and support for professionals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Evans, Catrin; Stevenson, Keith
Educating nurses to doctoral level is an important means of developing nursing capacity globally. There is an international shortage of doctoral nursing programmes, hence many nurses seek their doctorates overseas. The UK is a key provider of doctoral education for international nursing students, however, very little is known about international doctoral nursing students' learning experiences during their doctoral study. This paper reports on a national study that sought to investigate the learning expectations and experiences of overseas doctoral nursing students in the UK. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in 2008/09 with 17 international doctoral nursing students representing 9 different countries from 6 different UK universities. Data were analysed thematically. All 17 interviewees were enrolled on 'traditional' 3 year PhD programmes and the majority (15/17) planned to work in higher education institutions back in their home country upon graduation. Studying for a UK PhD involved a number of significant transitions, including adjusting to a new country/culture, to new pedagogical approaches and, in some cases, to learning in a second language. Many students had expected a more structured programme of study, with a stronger emphasis on professional nursing issues as well as research - akin to the professional doctorate. Students did not always feel well integrated into their department's wider research environment, and wanted more opportunities to network with their UK peers. A good supervision relationship was perceived as the most critical element of support in a doctoral programme, but good relationships were sometimes difficult to attain due to differences in student/supervisor expectations and in approaches to supervision. The PhD was perceived as a difficult and stressful journey, but those nearing the end reflected positively on it as a life changing experience in which they had developed key professional and personal skills. Doctoral
Full Text Available Abstract Background Educating nurses to doctoral level is an important means of developing nursing capacity globally. There is an international shortage of doctoral nursing programmes, hence many nurses seek their doctorates overseas. The UK is a key provider of doctoral education for international nursing students, however, very little is known about international doctoral nursing students' learning experiences during their doctoral study. This paper reports on a national study that sought to investigate the learning expectations and experiences of overseas doctoral nursing students in the UK. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in 2008/09 with 17 international doctoral nursing students representing 9 different countries from 6 different UK universities. Data were analysed thematically. All 17 interviewees were enrolled on 'traditional' 3 year PhD programmes and the majority (15/17 planned to work in higher education institutions back in their home country upon graduation. Results Studying for a UK PhD involved a number of significant transitions, including adjusting to a new country/culture, to new pedagogical approaches and, in some cases, to learning in a second language. Many students had expected a more structured programme of study, with a stronger emphasis on professional nursing issues as well as research - akin to the professional doctorate. Students did not always feel well integrated into their department's wider research environment, and wanted more opportunities to network with their UK peers. A good supervision relationship was perceived as the most critical element of support in a doctoral programme, but good relationships were sometimes difficult to attain due to differences in student/supervisor expectations and in approaches to supervision. The PhD was perceived as a difficult and stressful journey, but those nearing the end reflected positively on it as a life changing experience in which they had
Lambert, Trevor; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael
In the UK many practising GPs did not choose general practice as their first choice of career when they originally graduated as doctors. To compare job satisfaction of GPs who chose general practice early or later in their career. Questionnaires were sent to all UK-trained doctors who graduated in selected years between 1993 and 2000. Questionnaires were sent to the doctors 1, 3, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Of all 3082 responders working in general practice in years 7 and 10, 38% had first specified general practice as their preferred career when responding 1 year after graduation, 19% by year 3, 21% by year 5, and 22% after year 5. Job satisfaction was high and, generally, there was little difference between the first three groups (although, when different, the most positive responses were from the earliest choosers); but there were slightly lower levels of job satisfaction in the 'more than 5 years' group. For example, in response to the statement 'I find enjoyment in my current post', the percentages agreeing in the four groups, respectively, were 91.5%, 91.1%, 91.0% and 88.2%. In response to 'I am doing interesting and challenging work' the respective percentages were 90.2%, 88.0%, 86.6% and 82.6%. Job satisfaction levels were generally high among the late choosers as well as the early choosers. On this evidence, most doctors who turn to general practice, after preferring another specialty in their early career, are likely to have a satisfying career.
Clarke, Rachel T; Pitcher, Alex; Lambert, Trevor W; Goldacre, Michael J
Objectives To report on what doctors at very different levels of seniority wrote, in their own words, about their concerns about the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) and its implementation in the National Health Service (NHS). Design All medical school graduates from 1993, 2005 and 2009 were surveyed by post and email in 2010. Setting The UK. Methods Using qualitative methods, we analysed free-text responses made in 2010, towards the end of the first year of full EWTD implementation, of three cohorts of the UK medical graduates (graduates of 1993, 2005 and 2009), surveyed as part of the UK Medical Careers Research Group's schedule of multipurpose longitudinal surveys of doctors. Results Of 2459 respondents who gave free-text comments, 279 (11%) made unprompted reference to the EWTD; 270 of the 279 comments were broadly critical. Key themes to emerge included frequent dissociation between rotas and actual hours worked, adverse effects on training opportunities and quality, concerns about patient safety, lowering of morale and job satisfaction, and attempts reportedly made in some hospitals to persuade junior doctors to collude in the inaccurate reporting of compliance. Conclusions Further work is needed to determine whether problems perceived with the EWTD, when they occur, are attributable to the EWTD itself, and shortened working hours, or to the way that it has been implemented in some hospitals. PMID:24503304
Rita de Cássia Ramos Louzada
Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa a relação entre a pós-graduação e o trabalho através de observação participante e relatos de um grupo de doutorandos, de um curso de excelência, na área de ciências da saúde (básica. As entrevistas (n=12, individuais e realizadas nos moldes do método de história de vida, foram gravadas, integralmente transcritas e submetidas à análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos doutorandos apresentava dúvidas quanto à futura inserção laboral e tinha interesse em trabalhar na universidade pública. Além disso, e em função do número insuficiente de postos permanentes de trabalho em ciência no país, os entrevistados pensavam em alternativas que envolviam, por um lado, as instituições de fomento, através de bolsas (pós-doutorado, projetos de pesquisa em colaboração, e por outro, os contratos temporários de trabalho (professor visitante em instituições públicas. Esses resultados são discutidos em função das metamorfoses observadas no campo científico.This analysis of the relation between graduate studies and work is based on participative observation and on the accounts of a group of doctoral candidates at a top school in the area of health sciences. Conducted using life history methodology, individual interviews (n=12 were recorded, transcribed in full, and subjected to content analysis. Findings showed that most of these doctoral candidates had doubts about their future on the market and were interested in working at a public university. Furthermore, because there are not enough permanent job positions in science in Brazil, the interviewees were considering job alternatives that involved either research institutions (doing post-doctoral work or collaborative research under fellowships or temporary contracts (visiting professor at a public institution. The article discusses the relationship between these findings and changes observed in the field of science.
Richards Jennifer MJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes to the structure of medical training worldwide require doctors to decide on their career specialty at an increasingly early stage after graduation. We studied trends in career choices for surgery, and the eventual career destinations, of UK graduates who declared an early preference for surgery. Methods Postal questionnaires were sent, at regular time intervals after qualification, to all medical qualifiers from all UK medical schools in selected qualification years between 1974 and 2005. They were sent in the first year after qualification, at year three and five years after qualification, and at longer time intervals thereafter. Results Responses were received from 27 749 of 38 280 doctors (73% at year one, 23 468 of 33151 (71% at year three, and 17 689 of 24 870 (71% at year five. Early career preferences showed that surgery has become more popular over the past two decades. Looking forward from early career choice, 60% of respondents (64% of men, 48% of women with a first preference for a surgical specialty at year one eventually worked in surgery (p Conclusions Surgery is a popular specialty choice in the UK. The great majority of doctors who progressed in a surgical career made an early and definitive decision to do so.
Advances in Remote Sensing Approaches for Hazard Mitigation and Natural Resource Protection in Pacific Latin America: A Workshop for Advanced Graduate Students, Post- Doctoral Researchers, and Junior Faculty
Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.; Waite, G. P.; Palma, J. L.; Gross, E. L.
Though much of the developing world has the potential to gain significantly from remote sensing techniques in terms of public health and safety, they often lack resources for advancing the development and practice of remote sensing. All countries share a mutual interest in furthering remote sensing capabilities for natural hazard mitigation and resource development. With National Science Foundation support from the Partnerships in International Research and Education program, we are developing a new educational system of applied research and engineering for advancing collaborative linkages among agencies and institutions in Pacific Latin American countries (to date: Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, and Ecuador) in the development of remote sensing tools for hazard mitigation and water resources management. The project aims to prepare students for careers in science and engineering through their efforts to solve suites of problems needing creative solutions: collaboration with foreign agencies; living abroad immersed in different cultures; and adapting their academic training to contend with potentially difficult field conditions and limited resources. The ultimate goal of integrating research with education is to encourage cross-disciplinary, creative, and critical thinking in problem solving and foster the ability to deal with uncertainty in analyzing problems and designing appropriate solutions. In addition to traditional approaches for graduate and undergraduate research, we have built new educational systems of applied research and engineering: (1) the Peace Corp/Master's International program in Natural Hazards which features a 2-year field assignment during service in the U.S. Peace Corps, (2) the Michigan Tech Enterprise program for undergraduates, which gives teams of students from different disciplines the opportunity to work for three years in a business-like setting to solve real-world problems, and (3) a unique university exchange
Push factors motivating migration most frequently include dissatisfaction with ... The year of graduation ranged from 1964 to 2000 (median 1985), and the year of leaving ... South African doctors working in Canada had increased by more than.
The development of education options for nurses has been inexorable and it is increasingly the case that senior nurses are considering a doctorate as the logical next step in their educational career. Such individuals need to make important decisions as to whether they should embark on a taught doctorate, professional doctorate or a traditional PhD. Each of these options will necessitate a considerable investment in time and money as well as the sacrifice of quality time and spare time over a significant number of years. A doctorate is not for everyone. Those still reading this text may be asking 'could this possibly be for me'? This paper will try to help the reader decide which if any option to take. It is suggested that nurses will now turn to the doctoral degree as their next adventure in academic study. It is argued that this development is not being controlled by management forces and indeed cannot be controlled by them. This last is chiefly because the move towards doctoral education is led by individuals who choose to study for a doctorate simply because they can. The paper considers what choices are available to nurses who wish to pursue a doctoral programme of study. In particular, this paper considers what new developments in doctoral courses are becoming available and what advantage there may be in studying for one of the newer professional doctorates rather than a traditional PhD. The material here is the result of a review of the literature on recent developments in doctoral education for nurses. The existing provision by UK and other universities was also reviewed, the data being collected by an informal review of universities' advertising material. It is inevitable that some nurses who are already qualified to degree and masters degree will take advantage of the doctoral degree opportunities which now newly present themselves. For nurses in practice, the advantages of the professional doctorate is that it is more structured, enables more peer and
Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from medical student to junior doctor in postgraduate training is a critical stage in career progression. We report junior doctors' views about the extent to which their medical school prepared them for their work in clinical practice. Methods Postal questionnaires were used to survey the medical graduates of 1999, 2000, 2002 and 2005, from all UK medical schools, one year after graduation, and graduates of 2000, 2002 and 2005 three years after graduation. Summary statistics, chi-squared tests, and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the results. The main outcome measure was the level of agreement that medical school had prepared the responder well for work. Results Response rate was 63.7% (11610/18216 in year one and 60.2% (8427/13997 in year three. One year after graduation, 36.3% (95% CI: 34.6, 38.0 of 1999/2000 graduates, 50.3% (48.5, 52.2 of 2002 graduates, and 58.2% (56.5, 59.9 of 2005 graduates agreed their medical school had prepared them well. Conversely, in year three agreement fell from 48.9% (47.1, 50.7 to 38.0% (36.0, 40.0 to 28.0% (26.2, 29.7. Combining cohorts at year one, percentages who agreed that they had been well prepared ranged from 82% (95% CI: 79-87 at the medical school with the highest level of agreement to 30% (25-35 at the lowest. At year three the range was 70% to 27%. Ethnicity and sex were partial predictors of doctors' level of agreement; following adjustment for them, substantial differences between schools remained. In years one and three, 30% and 34% of doctors specified that feeling unprepared had been a serious or medium-sized problem for them (only 3% in each year regarded it as serious. Conclusions The vast knowledge base of clinical practice makes full preparation impossible. Our statement about feeling prepared is simple yet discriminating and identified some substantial differences between medical schools. Medical schools need feedback from graduates about
Patel, Rakesh; Green, William; Shahzad, Muhammad Waseem; Larkin, Chris
Clinical decision support (CDS) tools improve clinical diagnostic decision making and patient safety. The availability of CDS to health care professionals has grown in line with the increased prevalence of apps and smart mobile devices. Despite these benefits, patients may have safety concerns about the use of mobile devices around medical equipment. This research explored the engagement of junior doctors (JDs) with CDS and the perceptions of patients about their use. There were three objectives for this research: (1) to measure the actual usage of CDS tools on mobile devices (mCDS) by JDs, (2) to explore the perceptions of JDs about the drivers and barriers to using mCDS, and (3) to explore the perceptions of patients about the use of mCDS. This study used a mixed-methods approach to study the engagement of JDs with CDS accessed through mobile devices. Usage data were collected on the number of interactions by JDs with mCDS. The perceived drivers and barriers for JDs to using CDS were then explored by interviews. Finally, these findings were contrasted with the perception of patients about the use of mCDS by JDs. Nine of the 16 JDs made a total of 142 recorded interactions with the mCDS over a 4-month period. Only 27 of the 114 interactions (24%) that could be categorized as on-shift or off-shift occurred on-shift. Eight individual, institutional, and cultural barriers to engagement emerged from interviews with the user group. In contrast to reported cautions and concerns about the impact of clinicians' use of mobile phone on patient health and safety, patients had positive perceptions about the use of mCDS. Patients reported positive perceptions toward mCDS. The usage of mCDS to support clinical decision making was considered to be positive as part of everyday clinical practice. The degree of engagement was found to be limited due to a number of individual, institutional, and cultural barriers. The majority of mCDS engagement occurred outside of the workplace
Taylor, Kathryn; Lambert, Trevor; Goldacre, Michael
To report the career destinations, views and future plans of a cohort of senior doctors who qualified in the 1980s. Postal questionnaire survey of all doctors who qualified from all UK medical schools in 1988. The response rate was 69%. We estimated that 81% of the total cohort was working in the NHS, 16 years after qualification; and that at least 94% of graduates who, when students, were from UK homes, were working in medicine. Of NHS doctors, 30% worked part-time. NHS doctors rated their job satisfaction highly (median score 19.9, scale 5-25) but were less satisfied with the amount of leisure time available to them (median score 5.4, scale 1-10). NHS doctors were very positive about their careers, but were less positive about working hours and some other aspects of the NHS. Women were more positive than men about working conditions; general practitioners were more positive than hospital doctors. Twenty-five percent reported unmet needs for further training or career-related advice, particularly about career development. Twenty-nine percent intended to reduce their hours in future, while 6%, mainly part-time women, planned to increase their hours. Overall, 10% of NHS doctors planned to do more service work in future and 24% planned to do less; among part-time women, 18% planned to do more and only 14% less. These NHS doctors, now in their 40s, had a high level of satisfaction with their jobs and their careers but were less satisfied with some other aspects of their working environment. A substantial percentage had expectations about future career development and change.
Doctors’ relationship with patients and their role in society is changing. Until the 1960s doctors concentrated on the welfare of patients with less emphasis placed on patients’ rights1. Over recent decades there has been increasing empowerment of the individual across all facets of society including health care. Doctors continue to be perceived as having expertise and authority over medical science. Patients, however, now hold sway over questions of values or preferences. We all must be aware of this change in the doctor- patient interaction. We need to be more aware of the outcomes that patients view as important. The concept of shared decision-making with the patient is now widely appreciated. The process involves a change in mind set particularly for doctors who trained in an earlier era.
1 ABSTRACT The aim of this text is to provide an analysis of the phenomenon of spin doctoring in the Euro-Atlantic area. Spin doctors are educated people in the fields of semiotics, cultural studies, public relations, political communication and especially familiar with the infrastructure and the functioning of the media industry. Critical reflection of manipulative communication techniques puts spin phenomenon in historical perspective and traces its practical use in today's social communica...
Yerkes, M.; Van de Schoot, R.; Sonneveld, H.
Despite increased attention for doctoral education in recent years, one particular phenomenon has received little attention—the unemployment of doctoral candidates following graduation. While the unemployment of doctoral recipients is relatively low in comparison to the general popula-tion, the
This article provides a quantitative picture of doctoral education in South Africa up to 2010, from the time the first doctorate was awarded in 1899. It identifies the different institutional profiles and emphases of doctoral graduation in South African universities at various periods of time in the context of economic, political and social…
Smith, Deborah Deutsch; Montrosse, Bianca Elizabeth
The first article in this special issue is about the doctoral programs, the suppliers of new doctoral graduates in special education. It focuses on one component of a larger effort, the Special Education Faculty Needs Assessment (SEFNA) project, which investigated many aspects of the supply of new doctoral graduates as well as the demand for new…
Woolf, Katherine; Rich, Antonia; Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann
Explore trainee doctors' experiences of postgraduate training and perceptions of fairness in relation to ethnicity and country of primary medical qualification. Qualitative semistructured focus group and interview study. Postgraduate training in England (London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent Surrey and Sussex) and Wales. 137 participants (96 trainees, 41 trainers) were purposively sampled from a framework comprising: doctors from all stages of training in general practice, medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, psychiatry, radiology, surgery or foundation, in 4 geographical areas, from white and black and minority ethnic (BME) backgrounds, who qualified in the UK and abroad. Most trainees described difficult experiences, but BME UK graduates (UKGs) and international medical graduates (IMGs) could face additional difficulties that affected their learning and performance. Relationships with senior doctors were crucial to learning but bias was perceived to make these relationships more problematic for BME UKGs and IMGs. IMGs also had to deal with cultural differences and lack of trust from seniors, often looking to IMG peers for support instead. Workplace-based assessment and recruitment were considered vulnerable to bias whereas examinations were typically considered more rigorous. In a system where success in recruitment and assessments determines where in the country you can get a job, and where work-life balance is often poor, UK BME and international graduates in our sample were more likely to face separation from family and support outside of work, and reported more stress, anxiety or burnout that hindered their learning and performance. A culture in which difficulties are a sign of weakness made seeking support and additional training stigmatising. BME UKGs and IMGs can face additional difficulties in training which may impede learning and performance. Non-stigmatising interventions should focus on trainee-trainer relationships at work and organisational changes to
Sloane, C; Miller, P K
Recent years have seen significant changes in the way medical imaging services are delivered, rapid changes in technology and big increases in the number and ranges of examinations undertaken. Given these changes the study aimed to critically evaluate the fitness for purpose of newly qualified diagnostic radiography. The study employed a grounded theory approach to analyse the interviews of 20 radiology managers from a range of medical imaging providers across the UK. Four key themes emerged from the analysis. These were: curriculum content and structure review; diversification in the role of the radiographer; professionalism and coping and the reformation of career structures. The results indicate the role of the radiographer is now in a state of flux and challenge radiology managers and educators to design curricula and career structures which are better matched the role of the radiographer in the very rapidly changing technological, organisational and social contexts of modern society. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Katherine P. Dabney
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female physicists experience conflict in achieving balance within their graduate school experiences and personal lives and that this then influences their view of their future careers and possible career choices. Female physicists report both early and long-term support outside of school by family, and later departmental support, as being essential to their persistence within the field. A greater focus on informal and out-of-school science activities for females, especially those that involve family members, early in life may help influence their entrance into a physics career later in life. Departmental support, through advisers, mentors, peers, and women’s support groups, with a focus on work-life balance can help females to complete graduate school and persist into an academic career.
@@ "To become a doctor is like becoming a bomb expert:It takes a long time to learn this skill; you must use care and intuition; and you must understand that your work has grave consequences for those around you,"said Amgalan Gamazhapov,an advanced medical student who studies traditional Chinese and Mongolian medicine at the Inner Mongolia Medical University.
Full Text Available The article presents the biographical data of John Langdon Down, his invaluable contribution to the development of rehabilitation programs for children with Down syndrome. The basis of these programs was the socialization of people with intellectual disabilities. In doctor Down’s rehabilitation center there were used methods, including health care, education, physical education, the formation of correct behavior.
Judie L. Brill
Full Text Available The aim of this critical literature review is to outline best practices in doctoral retention and the successful approach of one university to improve graduation success by providing effective mentorship for faculty and students alike. The focus of this literature review is on distance learning relationships between faculty and doctoral students, regarding retention, persistence, and mentoring models. Key phrases and words used in the search and focusing on mentoring resulted in over 20,000 sources. The search was narrowed to include only doctoral study and mentoring. Research questions of interest were: Why do high attrition rates exist for doctoral students? What are the barriers to retention? What are the benefits of doctoral mentoring? What programs do institutions have in place to reduce attrition? The researchers found a key factor influencing doctoral student retention and success is effective faculty mentorship. In particular, the design of a mentoring and faculty training program to increase retention and provide for success after graduation is important. This research represents a key area of interest in the retention literature, as institutions continue to search for ways to better support students during their doctoral programs and post-graduation. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v4i2.186
Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner
Doctoral education covers the “third cycle” of degrees following the bachelor’s and the master’s degree. The education of researchers is necessary for developing music therapy as a scientific discipline and calls for a certain research culture that not only brings knowledge on research...... with an integration of science and practice. This leads to a description of the principles of problem-based learning as a social constructive approach, problematization, self-directed learning and learning community. The chapter is concluded with an example of a model of doctoral education, the Aalborg model, where...... the coursework, supervision, and curriculum is based on problem-based learning. About the book: 'International Perspectives in Music Therapy Education and Training: Adapting to a Changing World,' the first anthology of its kind, edited by Professor Karen Goodman, brings noted educators from Brazil, Canada...
Holleyman, R; Vann Jones, S
Stress and mortality are negatively correlated and it is generally accepted that certain professions are more stressful than others. Medical graduates begin as a relatively homogenous population who then choose vastly different career options making doctors an ideal population in which to try to assess whether job stress is likely to be causal to increased mortality. To establish the influence of various modifiable risk factors on the life expectancy of UK doctors. We analysed a decade of obituaries from the British Medical Journal published between January 2003 and December 2012. Data included age at death (AAD), specialty, region (deanery), marriage status and children. A total of 3068 obituaries were eligible for inclusion. Mean AAD was 78.5 years. Male sex was associated with a significantly increased AAD by an additional 3.8 years (95% CI 2.4-5.2 years, P affect life expectancy. While this does not necessarily reflect quality of life, the additional years of life gained from having extra children have a positive effect on your quantity of life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J
Our aim was to report on doctors' descriptions of their current post at about 12 years after qualification, in respect of academic content, and to compare this with their long-term intentions. By academic content, we mean posts that are designated as clinical academic posts or clinical service posts that include research and/or teaching commitments. Questionnaire survey. All UK medical graduates of 1996 contacted in 2007, graduates of 1999 in 2012, and graduates of 2000 in 2012. UK. Responses about current posts and future intentions. Postal and email questionnaires. The response rate was 61.9% (6713/10844). Twenty eight per cent were working in posts with academic content (3.3% as clinical academics, 25% in clinical posts with some academic content). Seventeen per cent of women were working in clinical posts with some teaching and research, compared with 29% of men. A higher percentage of men than women intended to be clinical academics as their eventual career choice (3.9% overall, 5.4% of men, 2.7% of women). More doctors wished to move to a job with an academic component than away from one (N = 824 compared with 236). This was true for both men (433 compared with 118) and women (391 compared with 118). Women are under-represented both in holding posts with academic content and in aspirations to do so. It is noteworthy that many more doctors hoped to move into an academic role than to move out of one. Policy should facilitate this wish in order to address current shortfalls in clinical academic medicine.
: academy, doctoral research education, Ghana, graduate writing course, support .... courses draw international students from various departments throughout the .... know how to apply critical thinking to transform and create knowledge as well.
Pfeiffer, M; Dimitriadis, K; Holzer, M; Reincke, M; Fischer, M R
Weight and quality of medical doctoral theses have been discussed in Germany for years. Doctoral study programs in various graduate schools offer opportunities to improve quality of medical doctoral theses. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate distinctions and differences concerning motivation, choice of subject and the dissertation process between doctoral candidates completing the doctoral seminar for doctoral students in the Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich and doctoral candidates doing their doctorate individually. All 4000 medical students of the LMU obtained an online-questionnaire which was completed by 767 students (19 % response rate). The theoretical framework of this study was based upon the Self-Determination-Theory by Deci and Ryan. Doctoral candidates completing the doctoral study program were more intrinsically motivated than doctoral candidates doing their doctorate individually; no difference was found in their extrinsic motivation. In regard to choice of subject and dissertation process the doctoral students in the seminar were distinguished from the individual group by having chosen a more challenging project. They anticipated a demanding dissertation process including conference participation, publishing of papers, etc. Intrinsic motivation correlates positively with choosing a challenging project and a demanding dissertation process. High intrinsic motivation seems to be very important for autonomous scholarly practice. Our results suggest that doctoral study programs have a positive impact on intrinsic motivation and interest in research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
The working environment for hospital doctors in Ireland has undergone radical change in recent years with hospital posts becoming unattractive to doctors in training and to consultants. For young medical graduates, the tensions between training requirements and service demands have contributed to a ‘brain drain’ with over half leaving to work abroad after graduation. Many consultant posts are vacant or are filled on a temporary basis, impacting on the quality of patient care. This study se...
Weston, Emma; Crilly, Jim; Mossop, Liz; Foster, Tim
Unlike many other graduate career pathways in the UK, the food industry does not have a cohesive competency framework to support employers, students and degree providers. Food sciences-based technical graduates are a significant proportion of the industry's graduate intake; this study aims to provide such a framework. Initial work involving a…
Gourley, Dick R.
Issues concerning graduate programs in the pharmaceutical sciences are discussed, including: recent trends, recruitment, clinical instruction, doctoral programs, graduate faculty, master's programs, competition, supply and demand, and professional education of professionals. (SF)
Ewen, Heidi H.; Rowles, Graham D.; Watkins, John F.
This article reports on the Gerontology Doctoral Student Assessment Model (GDSAM), a comprehensive web-based system premised on developing an evaluation mechanism attuned to the special requirements of advanced graduate education at the doctoral level. The system focuses on longitudinal tracking of selected dimensions of intellectual,…
Hill, Susan T.; And Others
Because undergraduate education is the foundation for graduate studies, it is important to know where our Nation's science and engineering (S&E) doctorate recipients are receiving their undergraduate training. Specifically, this report addresses the following broad questions: (1) What are the undergraduate origins of S&E doctorate holders? (2)…
Siedine K. Coetzee
Full Text Available Background: The number of doctoral programmes in nursing has multiplied rapidly throughout the world. This has led to widespread concern about nursing doctoral education, specifically with regard to the quality of curricula and faculty, as well as to the availability of appropriate institutional resources. In South Africa, no study of these issues has been conducted at a national level. Objective: To explore and describe the quality of nursing doctoral education in South Africa from the perspectives of deans, faculty, doctoral graduates and students. Method: A cross-sectional survey design was used. All deans (N = 15; n = 12, faculty (N = 50; n = 26, doctoral graduates (N = 43; n = 26 and students (N = 106; n = 63 at South African nursing schools that offer a nursing doctoral programme (N = 16; n = 15 were invited to participate. Data were collected by means of structured email-mediated Quality of Nursing Doctoral Education surveys. Results: Overall, the graduate participants scored their programme quality most positively of all the groups and faculty scored it most negatively. All of the groups rated the quality of their doctoral programmes as good, but certain problems related to the quality of resources, students and faculty were identified. Conclusion: These evaluations, by the people directly involved in the programmes, demonstrated significant differences amongst the groups and thus provide valuable baseline data for building strategies to improve the quality of doctoral nursing education in South Africa.
Shankar, P R
In Nepal, a number of private sector medical schools have opened recently; although sufficient numbers of doctors are graduating there continues to be a doctor shortage in rural areas. This article analysed the rural doctor shortage in Nepal and reviewed the international literature for strategies that may be suitable for use in Nepal. Original research articles, reviews, magazine articles and project reports dealing with Nepal and other developing countries during the period 1995 to 2010 were sourced via Google, Google Scholar and Pubmed. Full text access was obtained via WHO's HINARI database. The health workforce in Nepal is unevenly distributed resulting in doctor shortages in rural areas. The recent introduction of mandatory rural service for scholarship students was aimed to reduce the loss of medical graduates to developed nations. High tuition fees in private medical schools and low Government wages prevent recent graduates from taking up rural positions, and those who do face many challenges. Potential corrective strategies include community-based medical education, selecting rural-background medical students, and providing a partial or complete tuition fee waiver for medical students who commit to rural service. Traditional healers and paramedical staff can also be trained for and authorized to provide rural health care. A range of strategies developed elsewhere could be used in Nepal, especially community-oriented medical education that involves rural doctors in training medical students. The reimbursement of tuition fees, assistance with relocation, and provision of opportunities for academic and professional advancement for rural doctors should also be considered. Government investment in improving working conditions in rural Nepal would assist rural communities to attract and retain doctors.
Golembiewski, Elizabeth H; Holmes, Ann M; Jackson, Joanna R; Brown-Podgorski, Brittany L; Menachemi, Nir
Given the call for more interdisciplinary research in public health, the objectives of this study were to (1) examine the correlates of interdisciplinary dissertation completion and (2) identify secondary fields most common among interdisciplinary public health graduates. We analyzed pooled cross-sectional data from 11 120 doctoral graduates in the Survey of Earned Doctorates, 2003-2015. The primary outcome was interdisciplinary dissertation completion. Covariates included primary public health field, sociodemographic characteristics, and institutional attributes. From 2003 to 2015, a total of 4005 of 11 120 (36.0%) doctoral graduates in public health reported interdisciplinary dissertations, with significant increases observed in recent years. Compared with general public health graduates, graduates of environmental health (odds ratio [OR] = 1.74; P dissertation work, whereas graduates from biostatistics (OR = 0.51; P dissertation was associated with being male, a non-US citizen, a graduate of a private institution, and a graduate of an institution with high but not the highest level of research activity. Many secondary dissertation fields reported by interdisciplinary graduates included other public health fields. Although interdisciplinary dissertation research among doctoral graduates in public health has increased in recent years, such work is bounded in certain fields of public health and certain types of graduates and institutions. Academic administrators and other stakeholders may use these results to inform greater interdisciplinary activity during doctoral training and to evaluate current and future collaborations across departments or schools.
Goldacre, Michael J; Goldacre, Raph; Lambert, Trevor W
To report doctors' rejection of specialties as long-term careers and reasons for rejection. Postal questionnaires. United Kingdom. Graduates of 2002, 2005 and 2008 from all UK medical schools, surveyed one year after qualification. Current specialty choice; any choice that had been seriously considered but not pursued (termed 'rejected' choices) with reasons for rejection. 2573 of 9155 respondents (28%) had seriously considered but then not pursued a specialty choice. By comparison with positive choices, general practice was under-represented among rejected choices: it was the actual choice of 27% of respondents and the rejected choice of only 6% of those who had rejected a specialty. Consideration of 'job content' was important in not pursuing general practice (cited by 78% of those who considered but rejected a career in general practice), psychiatry (72%), radiology (69%) and pathology (68%). The surgical specialties were the current choice of 20% of respondents and had been considered but rejected by 32% of doctors who rejected a specialty. Issues of work-life balance were the single most common factor, particularly for women, in not pursuing the surgical specialties, emergency medicine, the medical hospital specialties, paediatrics, and obstetrics and gynaecology. Competition for posts, difficult examinations, stressful working conditions, and poor training were mentioned but were mainly minority concerns. There is considerable diversity between doctors in their reasons for finding specialties attractive or unattractive. This underlines the importance of recruitment strategies to medical school that recognize diversity of students' interests and aptitudes.
Vocational training (VT) is a mandatory 12 month period for UK dental graduates after graduation. Graduates of Irish Dental Schools are eligible to enter the general dental service in Ireland or obtain an NHS performers list number in the UK immediately after qualification. Reports would suggest that some graduates of Irish Dental Schools are choosing to take part in VT in the UK and find the experience beneficial. This study aimed to record the uptake of VT amongst recent graduates from University College Cork and to document their experiences. It was designed to compare the attitudes and experiences of graduates of Irish Dental Schools who undertook VT compared with those who entered the general dental service.
Kanyi, Titus Kamau
Doctoral studies are at the apex of the education system. Attracting, recruiting, enrolling, and graduating the best suited students in doctoral education is, therefore, critical in ensuring the highest academic standards and service to society. Focusing on Rowan University's Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) in Educational Leadership program, this…
Rinfrette, Elaine S.; Maccio, Elaine M.; Coyle, James P.; Jackson, Kelly F.; Hartinger-Saunders, Robin M.; Rine, Christine M.; Shulman, Lawrence
Teaching in higher education is often not addressed in doctoral education, even though many doctoral graduates will eventually teach. This article describes a biweekly teaching workshop, presents pitfalls and challenges that beginning instructors face, and advocates pedagogical training for doctoral students. Led by a well-known social work…
Finn, Michael G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pennington, Leigh Ann [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
This study estimates the stay rate of foreign nationals who receive doctorates in science and engineering from U.S. universities. Stay rates are estimated using tax records in a way that does not violate individual confidentiality. The 2013 stay rate for all foreign doctorate recipients, including those on permanent visas at graduation, was 70 percent for those graduating 5 years earlier, and 62 percent for those graduating 10 years earlier.
Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.
Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.
Verma, Anju; Griffin, Ann; Dacre, Jane; Elder, Andrew
International Medical Graduates (IMGs) are known to perform less well in many postgraduate medical examinations when compared to their UK trained counterparts. This "differential attainment" is observed in both knowledge-based and clinical skills assessments. This study explored the influence of culture and language on IMGs clinical communication skills, in particular, their ability to seek, detect and acknowledge patients' concerns in a high stakes postgraduate clinical skills examination. Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework was used to look at the impact of culture on examination performance. This was a qualitative, interpretative study using thematic content analysis of video-recorded doctor-simulated patient consultations of candidates sitting the MRCP(UK) PACES examination, at a single examination centre in November 2012. The research utilised Hofstede's cultural dimension theory, a framework for comparing cultural factors amongst different nations, to help understand the reasons for failure. Five key themes accounted for the majority of communication failures in station 2, "history taking" and station 4, "communication skills and ethics" of the MRCP(UK) PACES examination. Two themes, the ability to detect clues and the ability to address concerns, related directly to the overall construct managing patients' concerns. Three other themes were found to impact the whole consultation. These were building relationships, providing structure and explanation and planning. Hofstede's cultural dimensions may help to contextualise some of these observations. In some cultures doctor and patient roles are relatively inflexible: the doctor may convey less information to the patient (higher power distance societies) and give less attention to building rapport (high uncertainty avoidance societies.) This may explain why cues and concerns presented by patients were overlooked in this setting. Understanding cultural differences through Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory
Dasgupta, Shoumita; Symes, Karen; Hyman, Linda
The Division of Graduate Medical Sciences at the Boston University School of Medicine houses numerous dynamic graduate programs. Doctoral students began their studies with laboratory rotations and classroom training in a variety of fundamental disciplines. Importantly, with 15 unique pathways of admission to these doctoral programs, there were…
Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Vernon, Bryan
There is little evidence of junior trainee perspectives in the design and implementation of medical ethics and law (MEL) curriculum in UK medical schools. To determine the ethical issues the foundation year 1 (FY1) doctors (first year after graduation) encountered during clinical practice and the skills and knowledge of MEL, which were useful in informing MEL curriculum development. The National Research Ethics Service gave ethical approval. Eighteen one-to-one interviews were conducted in each school with FY1 doctors. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim; a thematic analysis was undertaken with the transcriptions and saturation of themes was achieved. Themes closely overlapped between the two study sites. (1) Knowing my place as an FY1 (this theme consisted of four subthemes: challenging the hierarchy, being honest when the team is titrating the truth, taking consent for unfamiliar procedures and personal safety vs competing considerations); (2) Do not attempt resuscitation)/end-of-life pathway and its implications; (3) 'You have to be there' (contextualising ethics and law teaching through cases or role plays to allow students to explore future work situations); and (4) advanced interpersonal skills competency for ethical clinical practice. The data provide a snapshot of the real challenges faced by MEL FY1 doctors in early clinical practice: they may feel ill-prepared and sometimes unsupported by senior members of the team. The key themes suggest areas for development of undergraduate and postgraduate MEL curricula. We will work to develop our own curriculum accordingly. We intend to further investigate the applicability of our findings to UK medical ethics and law curriculum.
Mosca, Irene; Wright, Robert E
This article examines the nature of national and international graduate migration flows in the UK. Migration equations are estimated with microdata from a matched dataset of Students and Destinations of Leavers from Higher Education, information collected by the Higher Education Statistical Agency. The probability of migrating is related to a set of observable characteristics using multinomial logit regression. The analysis suggests that migration is a selective process with graduates with certain characteristics having considerably higher probabilities of migrating, both to other regions of the UK and abroad.
Kidwell, Clara Sue
There are no quick and easy tips to motivating American Indian students into graduate education. The decision to make a commitment of time and money to graduate training, particularly at the doctoral level, and the ability to succeed in such a program, is affected by a number of factors: (1) parental and peer encouragement; (2) awareness of career…
Ellis, Susanne D.
Results of the 1980-81 Graduate Student Survey of physics and astronomy students are presented. Information is presented on the following: employment offers for new physics masters and doctorate recipients, 1976-81; characteristics of the graduate physics student population, 1980-81, including sex, citizenship, professional society membership,…
In the following account I write about my experiences as a graduate student, studying for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree at the University of Cambridge in England. I recall my observations of life at graduate school and my own perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages offered by different
Buunaaisie, C; Manyara, A M; Annett, H; Bird, E L; Bray, I; Ige, J; Jones, M; Orme, J; Pilkington, P; Evans, D
This article aims to describe the public health career experiences of international graduates of a Master of Science in Public Health (MSc PH) programme and to contribute to developing the evidence base on international public health workforce capacity development. A sequential mixed methods study was conducted between January 2017 and April 2017. Ninety-seven international graduates of one UK university's MSc PH programme were invited to take part in an online survey followed by semistructured interviews, for respondents who consented to be interviewed. We computed the descriptive statistics of the quantitative data obtained, and qualitative data were thematically analysed. The response rate was 48.5%. Most respondents (63%) were employed by various agencies within 1 year after graduation. Others (15%) were at different stages of doctor of philosophy studies. Respondents reported enhanced roles after graduation in areas such as public health policy analysis (74%); planning, implementation and evaluation of public health interventions (74%); leadership roles (72%); and research (70%). The common perceived skills that were relevant to the respondents' present jobs were critical analysis (87%), multidisciplinary thinking (86%), demonstrating public health leadership skills (84%) and research (77%). Almost all respondents (90%) were confident in conducting research. Respondents recommended the provision of longer public health placement opportunities, elective courses on project management and advanced statistics, and 'internationalisation' of the programme's curriculum. The study has revealed the relevance of higher education in public health in developing the career prospects and skills of graduates. International graduates of this MSc PH programme were satisfied with the relevance and impact of the skills they acquired during their studies. The outcomes of this study can be used for curriculum reformation. Employers' perspectives of the capabilities of these
If doctors take the costs of treatment into account when prescribing medication, their objectives differ from their patients' objectives because the patients are insured. This misalignment of interests hampers communication between patient and doctor. Giving cost incentives to doctors increases...... welfare if (i) the doctor's examination technology is sufficiently good or (ii) (marginal) costs of treatment are high enough. If the planner can costlessly choose the extent to which doctors take costs into account, he will opt for less than 100%. Optimal health care systems should implement different...... degrees of cost incentives depending on type of disease and/or doctor....
Woolf, Katherine; Viney, Rowena; Rich, Antonia; Jayaweera, Hirosha; Griffin, Ann
To explore how representatives from organisations with responsibility for doctors in training perceive risks to the educational progression of UK medical graduates from black and minority ethnic groups (BME UKGs), and graduates of non-UK medical schools (international medical graduates (IMGs)). To identify the barriers to and facilitators of change. Qualitative semistructured individual and group interview study. Postgraduate medical education in the UK. Individuals with roles in examinations and/or curriculum design from UK medical Royal Colleges. Employees of NHS Employers. Representatives from 11 medical Royal Colleges (n=29) and NHS Employers (n=2) took part (55% medically qualified, 61% male, 71% white British/Irish, 23% Asian/Asian British, 6% missing ethnicity). Risks were perceived as significant, although more so for IMGs than for BME UKGs. Participants based significance ratings on evidence obtained largely through personal experience. A lack of evidence led to downgrading of significance. Participants were pessimistic about effecting change, two main barriers being sensitivities around race and the isolation of interventions. Participants felt that organisations should acknowledge problems, but felt concerned about being transparent without a solution; and talking about race with trainees was felt to be difficult. Participants mentioned 63 schemes aiming to address differential attainment, but these were typically local or specialty-specific, were not aimed at BME UKGs and were largely unevaluated. Participants felt that national change was needed, but only felt empowered to effect change locally or within their specialty. Representatives from organisations responsible for training doctors perceived the risks faced by BME UKGs and IMGs as significant but difficult to change. Strategies to help organisations address these risks include: increased openness to discussing race (including ethnic differences in attainment among UKGs); better sharing of
Aitchison, Claire; Mowbray, Susan
This paper explores the experiences of women doctoral students and the role of emotion during doctoral candidature. The paper draws on the concept of emotional labour to examine the two sites of emotional investment students experienced and managed during their studies: writing and family relationships. Emotion is perceived by many dominant…
This paper re-examines the widespread belief that doctors have a proneness for suicide greater than the general population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio for male physicians is 335 and for single women doctors 257. Doctors' wives have an even greater risk: their SMR is 458. These rates for doctors are higher than for most other professional groups (except pharmacists) and the rate for doctors' wives far exceeds that for wives of other professionals. The intrinsic causes of the physician's high occupational mortality include his knowledge of toxicology and ready access to lethal drugs, so that impulsive suicide is more often successful. Professional stress and overwork, particularly the unrelenting responsibility for decisions upon which the lives of others may depend, have been inculpated. These stresses interact with the decline in the doctors' self-respect and with a personality that is prestige-oriented and independent. Some physicians turn in their frustration to alcohol/and or drugs, accelerating the process of deterioration. The high suicide rate in doctors' wives appears to be the result of unrequited needs for caring and dependency which the doctors' career demands and personality deny them.
This study investigates female undergraduates' aspirations for master's and doctoral degree programs in Taiwan's universalized and stratified higher education system. It considers the potential effects of economic prospects, parental attitudes, and gender values. First, graduate education is perceived as a means to enhance one's comparative…
Rich, Antonia; Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine
Investigate the work-life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. 96 trainees and 41 trainers. Trainees comprised UK graduates and International Medical Graduates, across all stages of training in 6 specialties (General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, Surgery) and Foundation. Postgraduate training was characterised by work-life imbalance. Long hours at work were typically supplemented with revision and completion of the e-portfolio. Trainees regularly moved workplaces which could disrupt their personal lives and sometimes led to separation from friends and family. This made it challenging to cope with personal pressures, the stresses of which could then impinge on learning and training, while also leaving trainees with a lack of social support outside work to buffer against the considerable stresses of training. Low morale and harm to well-being resulted in some trainees feeling dehumanised. Work-life imbalance was particularly severe for those with children and especially women who faced a lack of less-than-full-time positions and discriminatory attitudes. Female trainees frequently talked about having to choose a specialty they felt was more conducive to a work-life balance such as General Practice. The proposed junior doctor contract was felt to exacerbate existing problems. A lack of work-life balance in postgraduate medical training negatively impacted on trainees' learning and well-being. Women with children were particularly affected, suggesting this group would benefit the greatest from changes to improve the work-life balance of
Faghihi, Foroozandeh; Ethington, Corinna A.
This study examined the extent to which an individual doctoral student's characteristics and involvement in the academic and social life of the department influences the student's perception of growth and development during graduate school, and thus the student's persistence in pursuing a graduate degree. The study surveyed doctoral students…
Margetts, J K
Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available ... You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications List More » ... can play an active role in your health care by talking to your doctor. Clear and honest ...
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This study reports UK doctors' opinions about legalisation of medically assisted dying (euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide), comparing this with the UK general public. A postal survey of 3733 UK medical practitioners was done. The majority of UK doctors are opposed to legalisation, contrasting with the UK general public. Palliative medicine specialists are particularly opposed. A strong religious belief is independently associated with opposition to assisted dying. Frequency of treating patients who die is not independently associated with attitudes. Many doctors supporting legalisation also express reservations and advocate safeguards; many doctors opposing legalisation believe and accept that treatment and nontreatment decisions may shorten life. It is hoped that future debates about legalisation can proceed with this evidence in mind.
Full Text Available The problem of low graduation rates at the graduate level has been linked to the challenges of dissertation work. Given that this is a process of “disciplinary enculturation”, where graduate students acquire the ways of being and doing of each discipline, the social relations of doctoral candidates should be analyzed. Several studies have explored the support provided by social ties within academia but have, nevertheless, ignored other spheres. This qualitative study, based on in-depth interviews, explores the personal-sphere social relations in the dissertation writing process from the point of view of doctoral candidates and recent graduates in the fields of Education and Linguistics. Results indicate that the emotional, financial, economic, and academic support offered by these social ties is a necessary, although not in itself, sufficient condition. Some strategies for increasing institutional support to facilitate the process of writing a dissertation are offered.
Balzac wrote his novels during a time of great literary and scientific change. Romanticism gave way to the school of realism, of which Balzac could be considered the founder. It was via realism, where both the positive and negative aspects of life were depicted, that doctors naturally gained a much more active role in novels. In conjunction with this was the development of science and medicine, which fascinated Balzac, also leading to the significant and prevalent role of doctors in his works. His fascination with the sciences led to him to gain many acquaintances and much knowledge in the medical domain, especially in neuropsychiatry and physiology. His fictional doctors, such as Desplein and Bianchon, thus demonstrate considerable knowledge of pathology, physiology, and neuropsychiatry. The doctors in Balzac's novels can be grouped into four categories: provincial doctors, Parisian doctors, country doctors, and military doctors. They were most often fictitious representations of real individuals (e.g. Guillaume Dupuytren), and often symbolize schools of thought which were in vogue at the time. In addition to the accurate scientific depiction of doctors, it must be noted that his doctors not only played an active role in clinically assessing their patients, but also had a sociological role in assessing society; it is through his doctors that Balzac gave his opinion of the world in which he lived. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ahmad, Amina; Haque Shaikh, Siraj Ul; Tayyab, Muhammad; Gardezi, Javed Raza
To determine the percentage of medical teachers and fresh doctors who feel that graduating doctors are competent or incompetent to handle common ailments and to evaluate the reasons for their perceptions. Sequential mixed method. First phase extending from December 2010 to December 2011 and second phase was conducted in March 2014. First phase comprised electronic distribution of questionnaire to 100 medical teachers and fresh doctors working in hospitals attached with 5 private and 5 public sector medical colleges of Lahore and Karachi to rate an average house officer on a frequency scale of 1 - 6 and do self-assessment, in case of a fresh doctor. The second phase included interviews of 20 medical teachers to explore justification for their rating in the survey questionnaire and for triangulation of data. Quantitative data was analyzed through SPSS version 15 to calculate frequencies and percentages and interviews were analyzed through quasi-statistical approach. In survey, 38.36% out of 73 medical teachers and 30% out of 20 medical teachers in interviews confirmed their confidence on consulting fresh doctors for common ailments as opposed to 61.64% and 70% respectively, expressing their dissatisfaction. Self-assessment of fresh doctors indicated that 40% are confident in handling common medical conditions as opposed to 33.3% out of 75 respondents, who are not confident about their clinical skills. Faculty and self-assessment of fresh doctors has a fair overlap, indicating room for further improvement in the house job training program.
Fitzgerald, J Edward F; Tang, Siau-Wei; Ravindra, Pravisha; Maxwell-Armstrong, Charles A
Despite promotional measures at a national level, female surgeons account for only 10% of the consultant workforce in the United Kingdom. With rising proportions of female medical graduates, it is important that surgery continues to recruit the most able candidates regardless of sex. This study investigates the differing perceptions of surgical careers among recent medical school graduates and identifies factors discouraging female doctors from pursuing a career in surgery. Newly qualified graduates from the University of Nottingham Medical School, Nottingham, UK, were invited to complete a nonmandatory questionnaire investigating career intentions and factors influencing this. Two hundred and eight questionnaires were returned (a 66% response rate). Male respondents were significantly more likely to rate surgery as an attractive or very attractive career (P = .0116). Overall, only 33 (25%) female doctors expressed interest in a surgical career as opposed to 33 (42%) male doctors (P = .010). Frequently cited reasons included no interest in surgery itself (21%) and negative attitudes toward women in surgery among the surgical teams (18%). Irrespective of career interests, 59% of male and 68% of female respondents believed surgery was not a career welcoming women (P = .186). Reasons included difficulty maintaining family life, limited flexible training, and lack of role models. This study identifies significant sex differences in the perception of surgical careers. The majority believes surgery does not welcome female trainees. Future strategies to promote surgery must address attitudes and behaviors in both sexes while taking active steps to support female surgeons during their training and in the workplace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria
What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…
Smith, Kelly; Beasley, Martin
Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the factors that influenced seven graduates in the creative and digital industries to start their own businesses in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK--an area with lack of employing establishments and locally registered businesses. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews…
Marjanovic, Sonja; Lichten, Catherine A; Robin, Enora; Parks, Sarah; Harte, Emma; MacLure, Calum; Walton, Clare; Pickett, James
To identify research support strategies likely to be effective for strengthening the UK's dementia research landscape and ensuring a sustainable and competitive workforce. Interviews and qualitative analysis; systematic internet search to track the careers of 1500 holders of UK doctoral degrees in dementia, awarded during 1970-2013, to examine retention in this research field and provide a proxy profile of the research workforce. 40 interviewees based in the UK, whose primary role is or has been in dementia research (34 individuals), health or social care (3) or research funding (3). Interviewees represented diverse fields, career stages and sectors. While the UK has diverse strengths in dementia research, needs persist for multidisciplinary collaboration, investment in care-related research, supporting research-active clinicians and translation of research findings. There is also a need to better support junior and midlevel career opportunities to ensure a sustainable research pipeline and future leadership. From a sample of 1500 UK doctorate holders who completed a dementia-related thesis in 1970-2013, we identified current positions for 829 (55%). 651 (43% of 1500) could be traced and identified as still active in research (any field) and 315 (21%) as active in dementia research. Among recent doctoral graduates, nearly 70% left dementia research within 4-6 years of graduation. A dementia research workforce blueprint should consider support for individuals, institutions and networks. A mix of policy interventions are needed, aiming to attract and retain researchers; tackle bottlenecks in career pathways, particularly at early and midcareer stages (eg, scaling-up fellowship opportunities, rising star programmes, bridge-funding, flexible clinical fellowships, leadership training); and encourage research networks (eg, doctoral training centres, succession and sustainability planning). Interventions should also address the need for coordinated investment to improve
Avaliação do diagnóstico e tratamento em parada cardiorrespiratória entre os médicos com mais de cinco anos de graduação Assessment of the diagnostic and treatment in cardiac arrest between doctors with five years after graduation
Fabiano Timbó Barbosa
Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: As novas diretrizes contêm importantes modificações para melhorar à prática de reanimação e a sobrevida de pacientes com parada cardíaca (PC. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o conhecimento teórico a cerca da PC e reanimação cardiopulmonar (RCP entre os médicos com mais de cinco anos graduação. MÉTODO: Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva com abordagem quantitativa em Hospital de Emergência no Estado de Alagoas. A população foi composta por médicos com mais de cinco anos de graduação. Para a coleta de dados utilizou-se questionário com perguntas sobre o tema. Os resultados foram analisados de conformidade com a literatura sobre parada cardíaca e reanimação cardiopulmonar. RESULTADOS: Responderam ao questionário 39 profissionais. O diagnóstico da PC foi corretamente respondido por 76,9%; e, em um caso clínico houve aumento para 87,2%. As indicações do bicarbonato de sódio foram corretamente respondidas por 30,8% e a indicação adequada do uso de vasopressina era conhecida por 15,4% dos participantes. CONCLUSÕES: Esse estudo revelou alguma deficiência no conhecimento dos médicos quando questionados sobre a terapêutica usada na PCR. Mostrou pouco conhecimento acerca da vasopressina como alternativa à adrenalina e o uso freqüente do bicarbonato de sódio é utilizado de maneira inadequada. O estudo apresentou dados que justificam o treinamento contínuo para médicos com mais de cinco anos de formado.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: New resuscitation guidelines contain significant changes intended to improve resuscitation practice and survival from cardiac arrest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the theoretical knowledge about cardiac arrest (CA and cardiac and pulmonary resuscitation (CPR among doctors after five years of the graduation. METHODS: The questionnaire survey was conducted in an Emergency Hospital in the State of Alagoas. The population was composed of doctors with
UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025
Irish dental graduates are eligible to enter general dental practice immediately after qualification. Unlike their United Kingdom counterparts, there is no requirement to undertake vocational training (VT) or any pre-registration training. VT is a mandatory 12-month period for all UK dental graduates who wish to work within the National Health Service. It provides structured, supervised experience in training practices and through organised study days.
Full Text Available James GM Crossley,1,2 Pirashanthie Vivekananda-Schmidt1 1University of Sheffield School of Medicine, Sheffield, 2Chesterfield Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Chesterfield, UK Abstract: In 2009, the General Medical Council UK (GMC published its updated guidance on medical education for the UK medical schools – Tomorrow's Doctors 2009. The Council recommended that the UK medical schools introduce, for the first time, a clinical placement in which a senior medical student, “assisting a junior doctor and under supervision, undertakes most of the duties of an F1 doctor”. In the UK, an F1 doctor is a postgraduation year 1 (PGY1 doctor. This new kind of placement was called a student assistantship. The recommendation was considered necessary because conventional UK clinical placements rarely provided medical students with opportunities to take responsibility for patients – even under supervision. This is in spite of good evidence that higher levels of learning, and the acquisition of essential clinical and nontechnical skills, depend on students participating in health care delivery and gradually assuming responsibility under supervision. This review discusses the gap between student and doctor, and the impact of the student assistantship policy. Early evaluation indicates substantial variation in the clarity of purpose, setting, length, and scope of existing assistantships. In particular, few models are explicit on the most critical issue: exactly how the student participates in care and how supervision is deployed to optimize learning and patient safety. Surveys indicate that these issues are central to students' perceptions of the assistantship. They know when they have experienced real responsibility and when they have not. This lack of clarity and variation has limited the impact of student assistantships. We also consider other important approaches to bridging the gap between student and doctor. These include supporting the
Lange, Sheila Edwards
The need to broaden participation in the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate and graduate programs is currently a matter of national urgency. The small number of women and underrepresented minorities (URM) earning doctoral degrees in STEM is particularly troubling given significant increases in the number of students earning master's degrees since 1990. In the decade between 1990 and 2000, the total number of master's recipients increased by 42%. During this same time period, the number of women earning master's degrees increased by 56%, African Americans increased by 132%, American Indians by 101%, Hispanics by 146%, and Asian Americans by 117% (Syverson, 2003). Growth in underrepresented group education at the master's level raises questions about the relationship between master's and doctoral education. Secondary data analysis of the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) was used to examine institutional pathways to the doctorate in STEM disciplines and transitions from master's to doctoral programs by race and gender. While the study revealed no significant gender differences in pathways, compared to White and Asian American students, URM students take significantly different pathways to the doctorate. URM students are significantly more likely to earn the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees at three different institutions. Their path is significantly more likely to include earning a master's degree en route to the doctorate. Further, URM students are more likely to experience transition between the master's and doctoral degrees, and the transitions are not limited to those who earn master's degrees at master's-only institutions. These findings suggest that earning a master's degree is more often a stepping stone to the doctorate for URM students. Master's degree programs, therefore, have the potential to be a valuable resource for policymakers and graduate programs seeking to increase the diversity of URM students
Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann
Objectives Investigate the work–life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Design Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants 96 trainees and 41 trainers. Trainees comprised UK graduates and International Medical Graduates, across all stages of training in 6 specialties (General Practice, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Psychiatry, Radiology, Surgery) and Foundation. Results Postgraduate training was characterised by work–life imbalance. Long hours at work were typically supplemented with revision and completion of the e-portfolio. Trainees regularly moved workplaces which could disrupt their personal lives and sometimes led to separation from friends and family. This made it challenging to cope with personal pressures, the stresses of which could then impinge on learning and training, while also leaving trainees with a lack of social support outside work to buffer against the considerable stresses of training. Low morale and harm to well-being resulted in some trainees feeling dehumanised. Work–life imbalance was particularly severe for those with children and especially women who faced a lack of less-than-full-time positions and discriminatory attitudes. Female trainees frequently talked about having to choose a specialty they felt was more conducive to a work–life balance such as General Practice. The proposed junior doctor contract was felt to exacerbate existing problems. Conclusions A lack of work–life balance in postgraduate medical training negatively impacted on trainees' learning and well-being. Women with children were particularly affected, suggesting this group would
Análise crítica dos resumos de teses de um Programa de Pós-Graduação Análisis crítico de los resúmenes de tesis de un Programa de Postgrado Critical analysis of doctoral dissertation abstracts of a Graduate Program in Nursing
Mônica Oliveira Batista Oriá
, dentro de los criterios exigidos.OBJECTIVE: To analyze doctoral dissertation abstracts of a graduate program in nursing. METHODS: This exploratory study was conducted in December, 2005. The doctoral dissertation abstracts were evaluated using criteria set by the NBR 6028/1990 of the Brazilian Association of Technical Norms on a 12-item scale. The analysis was conducted with the GraphPad Prism software. RESULTS: Sixty five doctoral dissertations were defended between February 2001 and December 2005. Among these dissertations, 38.98% consisted of topics in public health. Abstracts published in 2005 had higher score in the ABNT scale (c²=6.84, p=0.008. Scores were transformed into grades, which led to 61% of approval. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study might contribute to faculty and student's reflections on the quality of doctoral dissertation abstracts, which must meet established NBR/ABNT criteria.
Kjaer, N. K.; Clausen, L. W.; Qvesel, D.
was 58 months. 6% of the recruited doctors had a PhD. 61% of the doctors were graduates from the University of Southern Denmark. 14% graduated from the University of Copenhagen and 12% from Aarhus University. Finally, 13% graduated from a foreign university. CONCLUSION: Applicants accepted for specialist......INTRODUCTION: It was previously shown that applicants for postgraduate medical specialist training in Denmark were old. In order to prevent potential shortage of specialists, the Danish health authorities have passed legislation to speed up the output of new specialists. The aim of this study...... was to highlight the present characteristics of young doctors who entered specialist training. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data include 443 doctors who were enrolled in a formalized postgraduate medical training programme in the Region of Southern Denmark from 2009 to 2011. RESULTS: 41% of the recruited young doctors...
Kniola, David; Chang, Mido; Olsen, Deborah
Transformative graduate education programs (TGP) are programs that are national in scope and are intended to impact the reformation of graduate education in the United States. We employ data from national sources and shift the unit of analysis from the individual doctoral student to the doctoral institution as whole in order to begin to assess the…
Varzgalis, M; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J
The United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) hospital systems are dependent on junior doctors for their functionality however it is increasingly difficult to recruit UK/ROI trained doctors to fill these posts. Directive 2005/36/EC, which came into force in 2007, is the principal European legislation on the recognition of equivalence of professional qualifications across Europe. European trained doctors are therefore attractive candidates for junior doctor posts. However, although their training is recognised as equivalent by the Irish Medical Council (IMC) and General Medical Council (GMC) they are not being appointed to equivalent posts by the Health Service Executive (HSE) or National Health Service (NHS). With the influence of European Union (EU) centralisation, modification of UK/ROI consultant grade is imminent, possibly to pyramidal structure of the Continental European model with clearer lines of corporate responsibility. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldacre Michael J
Full Text Available Abstract Background The paper aims to report trends in career choices for ophthalmology among UK medical graduates. Methods Postal questionnaire surveys were undertaken of qualifiers from all UK medical schools in nine qualification years since 1974. Data were analysed by univariate cross-tabulation. The significance of comparisons between groups of doctors were calculated by the use of chi-squared tests and adjusted residuals. Results Ophthalmology was the first choice of long term career for 2.3% of men and 1.5% of women one year after qualification; 2.0% of men and 1.4% of women three years after; and 1.8% of men and 1.2% of women at five years. Comparing early choices with eventual destinations, 64% who chose ophthalmology in year one, 84% in year three, and 92% in year five eventually practised in the specialty. The concordance between year one choice and eventual destination was higher for ophthalmology than for most other specialties. 'Enthusiasm for and commitment to the specialty' was the most important single factor in influencing career choice. The prospect of good working hours and conditions was also an important influence: it influenced career choice a great deal for a higher percentage of those who chose ophthalmology (66% in the third year than those who made other surgical choices (23%. Conclusion Those choosing ophthalmology show a high level of commitment to it. Their commitment is strengthened by the prospect of attractive hours and working conditions. Many doctors who become ophthalmologists have already made their choice by the end of their first post-qualification year.
Andres, Lesley; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Castano, Liliana Del Pilar Gallego
In the last decade, doctoral education has undergone a sea change with several global trends increasingly apparent. Drivers of change include massification and professionalization of doctoral education and the introduction of quality assurance systems. The impact of these drivers, and the forms...... that they take, however, are dependent on doctoral education within a given national context. This paper is frontline in that it contributes to the literature on doctoral education by examining the ways in which these global trends and drivers are being taken up in policies and practices by various countries. We...... do so by comparing recent changes in each of the following countries: Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, the UK, and the USA. Each country case is based on national education policies, policy reports on doctoral education (e.g., OECD and EU policy texts), and related materials. We use the same...
Menke, Kristen Ann
Counseling psychology doctoral trainees' satisfaction with their clinical methods training is an important predictor of their self-efficacy as counselors, persistence in graduate programs, and probability of practicing psychotherapy in their careers (Fernando & Hulse-Killacky, 2005; Hadjipavlou & Ogrodniczuk, 2007; Morton & Worthley,…
This paper explores the drive to expand the quantity and quality of PhD's in South Africa and the impact this has had on under-represented groups, in particular black graduates. Based on both qualitative and quantitative data, the paper argues that while there has been a significant increase in the number of black students in doctoral education,…
Guerin, Cally; Jayatilaka, Asangi; Ranasinghe, Damith; McCulloch, Alistair; Calder, Paul
A "knowledge society" relies on a workforce with high-level skills in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Continuing development of ICT will arise partly from research undertaken by doctoral graduates. However, compared to other cognate disciplines, ICT has relatively few students taking up doctoral studies. This article…
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Godskesen, Mirjam Irene; Kobayashi, Sofie
In this paper we focus on individual coaching carried out by an external coach as a new pedagogical element that can impact doctoral students’ sense of progress in doctoral education. The study used a mixed methods approach in that we draw on quantitative and qualitative data from the evaluation...... impact the supervisor – student relationship in a positive way....
Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Robinson, Gill; Wisker, Gina
This paper presents our cross-national research into what we term the ‘doctoral learning penumbra’, which covers the diverse, unnoticed, and often unrecognised forms of help and support that doctoral students draw from during their PhD, and which are vital for completion. Our aim is to better...
Full Text Available Georgina Kerry,1 Shyam Gokani,2 Dara Rasasingam,2 Alexander Zargaran,3 Javier Ash,2 Aaina Mittal2 1College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, 2Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, 3Faculty of Medicine, St George’s University of London, London, UK Abstract: Technological advancements have revolutionized modern medicine and smartphones are now ubiquitous among health care professionals. The ability to look up information promptly is invaluable to doctors and medical students alike, but there is an additional contiguous benefit to patients. Queries can be answered more accurately through fingertip access to evidence-based medicine, and physicians have instant access to emergency care protocols. However, is consideration always extended to the patient’s perception of the use of smartphones by doctors? Do patients know why we use smartphones to assist us in their care? What do they think when they see a doctor using a smartphone?An independent question, conducted within a wider service evaluation (ethical approval not required, full verbal and written electronic consent provided by all patients at St. Mary’s Hospital, London, indicated that although the majority (91.0% of patients owned a smartphone, many (61.6% did not agree that the use of smartphones at work by doctors is professional. This highlights the potential for damage to the doctor–patient relationship. There is a risk that these patients will disconnect with care services with possible detriment to their health. Additionally, it is notable that a larger proportion of those patients aged >70 years found the use of smartphones by doctors at work unprofessional, compared with patients aged <70 years.Adequate communication between the doctor and patient is critical in ensuring that doctors can make use of modern technology to provide the best possible care and that patients are comfortable with this and do not feel isolated or
Fox, R; Nash, R; Liu, Z-W; Singh, A
Epistaxis is a common and potentially life-threatening emergency. This survey assesses understanding and confidence in epistaxis management amongst current junior doctors. A cross-sectional study was conducted of foundation year one and two doctors based at three National Health Service trusts within a single region of the UK, assessing basic understanding and procedural confidence. A total of 111 foundation doctors completed this survey. The average duration of undergraduate exposure to otolaryngology was 8.1 days. Forty-one per cent of respondents stated that they would apply pressure to the nasal bones to control epistaxis. Seventy-five per cent lacked confidence in their ability to manage epistaxis. Those with two weeks or more of undergraduate exposure to otolaryngology were more confident than those with one week or less of exposure (p epistaxis management, with patient safety implications. Confidence is associated with the duration of undergraduate exposure to otolaryngology. A minimum emergency safe competency should be a priority during foundation training if not achieved in UK medical schools.
Cheng, R; Lourenço, F; Resnick, S
Purpose – Despite rising graduate unemployment in the UK, there are insufficient numbers of graduates employed in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). The literature suggests that a teaching emphasis on large organisational business models in Higher Education Institutions (HEI), particularly in the teaching of marketing theory, renders the SME sector unattractive to graduate employment and conversely, it is perceived that graduates lack additional ‘soft skills’ vital for SME development...
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Ding, Qun; Devine, Nesta
Chinese international students constitute the largest proportion of overseas students in several English-speaking countries such as the UK and New Zealand. Little research has been done concerning those undertaking doctoral study. This qualitative study explores how Chinese overseas doctoral students become involved in church communities and how…
Wheatly, S; Redmond, A D
Six years after the Royal College of Physicians published its report, most hospitals in the UK with acute coronary beds fail to train or test their doctors adequately in the skills of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Doctors want more training, and consultants try to give it, but there is a lack of funds for this basic yet critical task.
Mills, David; Paulson, Julia
Recent research on doctoral education in the U.K. has revealed the increasing number and diversity of academic relationships that shape the lives of research students, and students' own role in activating, mobilising and maintaining these relationships. Higher education policy reforms promoting doctoral "skills training",…
Eastman, Christine; Maguire, Kate
This paper argues for a pedagogic practice to overcome the challenges that many professional practitioners face in undertaking a professional doctorate. Recent examination feedback on a professional doctoral programme of 300 candidates in the UK highlighted that a number of candidates often struggle to write persuasively, critically and…
Ferreira da Silveira, Francisco José; Botelho, Camila Carvalho; Valadão, Carolina Cirino
Breaking bad news is one of doctors' duties and it requires them to have some skills, given that this situation is difficult and distressful for patients and their families. Moreover, it is also an uncomfortable condition for doctors. The aim of this study was to evaluate doctors' capacity to break bad news, ascertain which specialties are best prepared for doing this and assess the importance of including this topic within undergraduate courses. Observational cross-sectional quantitative study conducted at a university hospital in Belo Horizonte (MG), Brazil. This study used a questionnaire based on the SPIKES protocol, which was answered by 121 doctors at this university hospital. This questionnaire investigated their attitudes, posture, behavior and fears relating to breaking bad news. The majority of the doctors did not have problems regarding the concept of bad news. Nevertheless, their abilities diverged depending on the stage of the protocol and on their specialty and length of time since graduation. Generally, doctors who had graduated more than ten years before this survey felt more comfortable and confident, and thus transmitted the bad news in a better conducted manner. Much needs to be improved regarding this technique. Therefore, inclusion of this topic in undergraduate courses is necessary and proposals should be put forward and verified.
Dr. Michael G. Finn
Study of the stay rate in the United States of foreign nationals receiving their S/E doctorates from U.S. universities. This study has estimated stay rates in 2007 for persons receiving a doctorate one, two, five, and ten years previously. The two-year stay rate (for 2005 graduates) recovered from the decline experienced earlier in the decade. The five-year stay rate (for 2002 graduates) is lower; the ten-year stay rate (for 1997 graduates) reached a new high.
Full Text Available This paper presents the structure mode of organization and storage of data that is contained in a graduation diploma. The graduation diploma is of three types, based on the three important cycles of study (bachelor, master, and doctoral degree. We do an analysis of the information that is included in the graduation diploma and how we can manage this from the quality point of view.We print the graduation diploma once on the form, elaborated by our Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation (MECI, we can make a duplicate in certain cases.We suggest an online application which is based on a software solution using Apache, PHP and MySQL.
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Kidwell, Clara Sue; LaPidus, Jules B.
This pamphlet guides the college graduate in determining whether graduate school is an appropriate choice in career planning. Chapter titles include: "Why Graduate School?,""What is Graduate Education?,""Preparation for Graduate School,""Career Options with a Graduate Degree,""Making the Decision,""Financing a Graduate Education,""Choosing a…
The aim of this paper is to outline the NDA National Graduate Programme (nuclear graduates). The NDA has a remit under the Energy Act (2004) 'to maintain and develop the skills for decommissioning and nuclear clean-up'. Although current research is now being reviewed, there is significant evidence to suggest that the age profile in the Site Licence Companies is skewed towards older workers and there is likely to be a skill shortage in 3-5 years. As nuclear clean-up is a national issue; skill shortages also become a national issue in a very real sense. In addition, evidence suggests that the industry needs to be constantly challenged in order to achieve its targets for decommissioning. The NDA has a unique position under the Act. It is both a strategic overseer and direct employer. To this end the 'National Graduate Programme' is aligned to both the NDA's previous succession plans and the needs of the industry. Industry needs leadership that challenges the status quo and moves the UK nuclear industry to become best in class; Industry needs a dedicated to programme to address skills shortages and difficult to recruit areas such as, but not exclusively, estimators, schedulers, contract managers, site engineers, decommissioning technicians, safety monitors; The NDA has indicated a 'commercial and politically savvy' cohort is required to meet its own internal challenges and to ensure sustainability in its own workforce, and to be sensitive to the needs of customers and suppliers alike; Need to create a more diversified workforce in the nuclear industry and also plan for new skills evolving from research and development breakthroughs; Need to ensure that Tier 1, 2, 3 and 4 contractors invest in the leadership and skills for the future. World Class - delivery will be benchmarked against UK based multinational companies who operate in a global graduate attraction and development marketplace. The graduates targeted will be from leading institutions and will have a blend of
Katherine P. Dabney; Robert H. Tai
The underrepresentation of women in physics doctorate programs and in tenured academic positions indicates a need to evaluate what may influence their career choice and persistence. This qualitative paper examines eleven females in physics doctoral programs and professional science positions in order to provide a more thorough understanding of why and how women make career choices based on aspects both inside and outside of school and their subsequent interaction. Results indicate that female...
Bracke, N; Moens, L
The Doctoral Schools at Ghent University have a three-fold mission: (1) to provide support to doctoral students during their doctoral research, (2) to foster a quality culture in (doctoral) research, (3) to promote the international and social stature and prestige of the doctorate vis-a-vis potential researchers and the potential labour market. The Doctoral Schools offer top-level specialized courses and transferable skills training to doctoral students as part of their doctoral training programme. They establish mechanisms of quality assurance in doctoral research. The Doctoral Schools initialize and support initiatives of internationalization. They also organize information sessions, promotional events and interaction with the labour market, and as such keep a finger on the pulse of external stakeholders.
Lovdal, L T; Pearson, R
A study was conducted to determine what consumers value in doctors' behavior. Results indicate that consumers in the sample population studied prefer doctors who are friendly and caring as well as those who are technically competent. However, these respondents reported less favorable opinions about doctors' friendliness (i.e., affective behavior) than they did about doctors' competence (i.e., instrumental behavior).
Medical thrillers have been a mainstay of popular fiction since the late 1970s and still attract a wide readership today. This article examines this specialized genre and its core conventions within the context of professionally-based fiction, i.e. the class of thrillers written by professionals or former professionals. The author maps this largely unchartered territory and analyzes the fictional representations of doctors and medicine provided in such novels. He argues that medical thrillers, which are not originally aimed at specialized readers and sometimes project a flawed image of medicine, may be used as a pedagogical tool with non-native learners of medical English.
Since the 1990s, globalization has become a central phenomenon for all of society, including graduate education and particularly doctoral education. Globalization takes place in a context where doctoral education and research capacity are unevenly distributed and where a few research universities, mainly in wealthy countries, have become powerful…
Lorettu, Liliana; Falchi, Lorenzo; Nivoli, Fabrizia L; Milia, Paolo; Nivoli, Giancarlo; Nivoli, Alessandra M
To examine possible risk factors for the doctor to be killed by the patient in the clinical practice by examining a series of murders that involved physicians. This aim has been achieved through a retrospective review on clinical cases of doctors killed by patients within the period between 1988 and 2013, in Italy. In this period 18 Italian doctors have been killed in the workplace, with a rate of 0.3/100,000. In 7 cases, the murder resulted in the context of doctor-dissatisfaction; in 7 cases the murder was committed by a psychiatric patient; 1 case in the context of a stalking; 3 cases occurred in a workplace which was not safe enough. Four categories of at-risk contexts have been identified. One category includes a murder in the context of a doctor-dissatisfaction, perceived by patient. The second category concerns murders committed by patients suffering from mental illness. A third category includes homicides in a workplace which is not safe. The last category comprises the murder in the context of stalking. These categories identify specific dangerous situations for physicians, in which are highlighted elements that have played a crucial role in the murder and for which special precautions are suggested preventive.
Hadley, Lindsay; Black, David; Welch, Jan; Reynolds, Peter; Penlington, Clare
Clinical leadership is considered essential for maintaining and improving patient care and safety in the UK, and is incorporated in the curriculum for all trainee doctors. Despite the growing focus on the importance of leadership, and the introduction of the Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF) in the UK, leadership education for doctors in training is still in its infancy. Assessment is focused on clinical skills, and trainee doctors receive very little formal feedback on their leadership competencies. In this article we describe the approach taken by Health Education Kent, Sussex and Surrey (HEKSS) to raise the profile of leadership amongst doctors in training in the South Thames Foundation School (STFS). An annual structured formative assessment in leadership for each trainee has been introduced, supported by leadership education for both trainees and their supervisors in HEKSS trusts. We analysed over 500 of these assessments from the academic year 2012/13 for foundation doctors in HEKSS trusts, in order to assess the quality of the feedback. From the analysis, potential indicators of more effective formative assessments were identified. These may be helpful in improving the leadership education programme for future years. There is a wealth of evidence to highlight the importance and value of formative assessments; however, particularly for foundation doctors, these have typically been focused on assessing clinical capabilities. This HEKSS initiative encourages doctors to recognise leadership opportunities at the beginning of their careers, seeks to help them understand the importance of acquiring leadership skills and provides structured feedback to help them improve. Leadership education for doctors in training is still in its infancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dowell, Jon; Cleland, Jennifer; Fitzpatrick, Siobhan; McManus, Chris; Nicholson, Sandra; Oppé, Thomas; Petty-Saphon, Katie; King, Olga Sierocinska; Smith, Daniel; Thornton, Steve; White, Kirsty
Educating doctors is expensive and poor performance by future graduates can literally cost lives. Whilst the practice of medicine is highly evidence based, medical education is much less so. Research on medical school selection, undergraduate progression, Fitness to Practise (FtP) and postgraduate careers has been hampered across the globe by the challenges of uniting the data required. This paper describes the creation, structure and access arrangements for the first UK-wide attempt to do so. A collaborative approach has created a research database commencing with all entrants to UK medical schools in 2007 and 2008 (UKMED Phase 1). Here the content is outlined, governance arrangements considered, system access explained, and the potential implications of this new resource discussed. The data currently include achievements prior to medical school entry, admissions tests, graduation point information and also all subsequent data collected by the General Medical Council, including FtP, career progression, annual National Training Survey (NTS) responses, career choice and postgraduate exam performance data. UKMED has grown since the pilot phase with additional datasets; all subsequent years of students/trainees and stronger governance processes. The inclusion of future cohorts and additional information such as admissions scores or bespoke surveys or assessments is now being piloted. Thus, for instance, new scrutiny can be applied to selection techniques and the effectiveness of educational interventions. Data are available free of charge for approved studies from suitable research groups worldwide. It is anticipated that UKMED will continue on a rolling basis. This has the potential to radically change the volume and types of research that can be envisaged and, therefore, to improve standards, facilitate workforce planning and support the regulation of medical education and training. This paper aspires to encourage proposals to utilise this exciting resource.
Bolli, Thomas; Agasisti, Tommaso; Johnes, Geraint
Using National Research Council data, we investigate the determinants of graduation rates in US Ph.D. programmes. We emphasise the impact that support and facilities offered to doctoral students have on completion rates. Significant, strong and positive effects are found for the provision of on-site graduate conferences and dedicated workspace,…
Blois, Marsden S., Jr.; Wasserman, Anthony I.
A graduate academic program in medical information science has been established at the University of California, San Francisco, for the education of scientists capable of performing research and development in information technology in the health care setting. This interdisciplinary program, leading to a Doctor of Philosophy degree, consists of an…
money. With the cost of tuition having increased by five percent the last two years, ( Gose , 1997) the financing ofa graduate education can be an area...Maher B. (1995). Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change. Washington, D.C.: National Research Council. 102 103 Gose , B
On 10 May, over 130 PhD students and their supervisors, from both CERN and partner universities, gathered for the 4th Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber. The assembly was followed by a poster session, at which eighteen doctoral students presented the outcome of their scientific work. The CERN Doctoral Student Programme currently hosts just over 200 students in applied physics, engineering, computing and science communication/education. The programme has been in place since 1985. It enables students to do their research at CERN for a maximum of three years and to work on a PhD thesis, which they defend at their University. The programme is steered by the TSC committee, which holds two selection committees per year, in June and December. The Doctoral Student Assembly was opened by the Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti, who stressed the importance of the programme in the scientific environment at CERN, emphasising that there is no more rewarding activity than lear...
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Boyce, Barbara Ann; Lund, Jackie; O'Neil, Kason
Quality preparation of doctoral students is a key to the survival of physical education teacher education. Past research has revealed a shortage of students graduating with a doctoral degree in physical education and a general reluctance of teachers to leave their jobs to pursue an advanced degree. As the number of universities preparing new…
Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi
In the context of Swedish reforms of postgraduate and doctoral education in a global knowledge economy, this article aims to theorise on the documented processes of doing collaborative analysis during elective graduate course-work on deconstructive methodologies in the social sciences, with 10 doctoral students over a period of seven months. I…
Thomson, George A; Foster, Matthew; Sheriff, Rezvi; Mendis, Lalitha; Fernando, Devaka J S; Blundell, Caroline; Worrall, Jeffrey; Black, Carol
The UK offers excellent postgraduate medical education, and overseas doctors in training often covet a period of training in the UK. Some overseas training authorities make UK training mandatory prior to appointment as a consultant. Unfortunately, the organisation of such training often proves to be ad hoc, and may lack educational value. UK training faces challenges as a result of reduced hours of work, more structured and intensive educational needs, and pressures of increasing clinical demand. A plethora of new 'trust' posts have developed, often with limited educational value, creating a risk that training quality for overseas doctors is reduced. Against this background, such posts can be used to create international training partnerships such as that at Sherwood Forest Hospitals NHS Trust (SFHT), providing high-quality general and specialty training. Given the success of this strategy, it would be desirable for other UK trusts to provide similar schemes offering specialties not covered at SFHT.
Karazsia, Bryan T; Stavnezer, Amy Jo; Reeves, Jonathan W
Discussions of and recommendations for the training of clinical neuropsychologists exist at the doctoral, internship, and post-doctoral level. With few exceptions, the literature on undergraduate preparations in clinical neuropsychology is sparse and lacks empirical evidence. In the present study, graduate-level faculty and current trainees completed surveys about graduate school preparations. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for research methods, statistics, and assessment. Preferences for "goodness of fit" also emerged as important admissions factors. These results offer evidence for desirable undergraduate preparations for advanced study in clinical neuropsychology. Although undergraduate training in psychology is intentionally broad, results from this study suggest that students who desire advanced study in clinical neuropsychology need to tailor their experiences to be competitive in the application process. The findings have implications for prospective graduate students, faculty who train and mentor undergraduates, and faculty who serve on admissions committees.
Wu-Pong, Susanna; Gobburu, Jogarao; O'Barr, Stephen; Shah, Kumar; Huber, Jason; Weiner, Daniel
Despite pharma's recent sea change in approach to drug discovery and development, U.S. pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs are currently maintaining traditional methods for master's and doctoral student education. The literature on graduate education in the biomedical sciences has long been advocating educating students to hone soft skills like communication and teamwork, in addition to maintaining excellent basic skills in research. However, recommendations to date have not taken into account the future trends in the pharmaceutical industry. The AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group has completed a literature survey of the trends in the pharmaceutical industry and graduate education in order to determine whether our graduate programs are strategically positioned to prepare our graduates for successful careers in the next few decades. We recommend that our pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs take a proactive leadership role in meeting the needs of our future graduates and employers. Our graduate programs should bring to education the innovation and collaboration that our industry also requires to be successful and relevant in this century.
Rich, Antonia; Viney, Rowena; Needleman, Sarah; Griffin, Ann; Woolf, Katherine
Objectives Investigate the work?life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Design Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Participants ...
Teses produzidas nos programas de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem de 1983 a 2001 Tesis producidas en los programas de postgrado en enfermería de 1983-2001 Nursing doctoral theses produced on graduate programs between 1983-2001
Alacoque Loorenzini Erdmann
intervención en la práctica profesional y de desarrollo de la tecnología se encuentren, aún, en fase de construcción.This study describes the relationship between nursing doctoral dissertations and research lines defined by the Brazilian Nursing field in three areas: professional, care and organizational. It isa descriptive-exploratory research, based on reports of Graduate Programs evaluated by Capes and on The Informative Guide of Nursing Research and Researchers CEPEn/ABEn, from 1983 to 2001, totalling 448 abstracts. The care field includes the greatest production, followed by the organizational and professional areas. The studies disclose tendency towards the qualitative approach revealing possibilities for a more profound knowledge about reality or a more through understanding of social phenomena related to nursing practice. On the other hand, studies on interventions in professional practice and technological development are still under construction.
MacDonald, Joanna; Sohn, Sangsu; Ellis, Pete
This study aimed to examine the nature and extent of use of the social networking service Facebook by young medical graduates, and their utilisation of privacy options. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of the use of Facebook by recent medical graduates, accessing material potentially available to a wider public. Data were then categorised and analysed. Survey subjects were 338 doctors who had graduated from the University of Otago in 2006 and 2007 and were registered with the Medical Council of New Zealand. Main outcome measures were Facebook membership, utilisation of privacy options, and the nature and extent of the material revealed. A total of 220 (65%) graduates had Facebook accounts; 138 (63%) of these had activated their privacy options, restricting their information to 'Friends'. Of the remaining 82 accounts that were more publicly available, 30 (37%) revealed users' sexual orientation, 13 (16%) revealed their religious views, 35 (43%) indicated their relationship status, 38 (46%) showed photographs of the users drinking alcohol, eight (10%) showed images of the users intoxicated and 37 (45%) showed photographs of the users engaged in healthy behaviours. A total of 54 (66%) members had used their accounts within the last week, indicating active use. Young doctors are active members of Facebook. A quarter of the doctors in our survey sample did not use the privacy options, rendering the information they revealed readily available to a wider public. This information, although it included some healthy behaviours, also revealed personal information that might cause distress to patients or alter the professional boundary between patient and practitioner, as well as information that could bring the profession into disrepute (e.g. belonging to groups like 'Perverts united'). Educators and regulators need to consider how best to advise students and doctors on societal changes in the concepts of what is public and what is private.
Greene, Francis J.; Saridakis, George
This article examines the career progression of self-employed graduates immediately following graduation and four years subsequently. Using a career socialization theory specific to entrepreneurial settings, it links the role of skills acquired in UK higher education courses and the use of support with self-employment outcomes. Using a wide range…
Butler, Michael J. R.; Gheorghiu, Lidia
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a UK business school is addressing the Government's skills strategy through its Graduate Certificate in Management, and to identify good practice and development needs and to clarify how the Graduate Certificate is adapting to the needs of Generation X and Millennial students. The paper also…
Full Text Available There has been a seismic shift in the lives of people because of technology. People are far better informed than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. Much of this information is available through the media but even more is available and archived on the internet. The forces pushing the internet into health and health care are strong and unstoppable, ensuring that the internet and the choices it offers must be part of the design of our future health care system. We are no longer content to wait in queues as we live at a faster pace than earlier generations — we don’t not have time to wait for appointments months, weeks or even days in advance. The internet offers the prospect of online consultations in the comfort of your own home. The physical examination will change as new devices are developed to allow the necessary sounds and signals emitted by our malfunctioning bodies to be recorded, interpreted and captured at a remote location. Meanwhile, for those who prefer to see a health care practitioner in person the options to consult practitioners other than doctors who can advise on our health is expanding. The reality is we can’t afford to train or pay for all the doctors we need under the current “doctor-knows-best” system of health care. Patients no longer believe the rhetoric and are already voting with their feet. Pharmacists, nurses and other allied health professionals are beginning to play a much greater role in offering relief from symptoms and monitoring of chronic diseases. Of course, the doctor of the future will still need to offer face-to-face consultations to some people most of the time or most people some of the time. The social role doctors play will continue to be important as humans will always need other humans to personally respond to their distress. As doctors reinvent themselves, the internet and the value of time with patients will be the driving forces that move us into a more sustainable future in health care.
INTRODUCTION: Irish dental graduates are eligible to enter general dental practice immediately after qualification. Unlike their United Kingdom counterparts, there is no requirement to undertake vocational training (VT) or any pre-registration training. VT is a mandatory 12-month period for all UK dental graduates who wish to work within the National Health Service. It provides structured, supervised experience in training practices and through organised study days. AIMS: This study aimed to profile the career choices made by recent dental graduates from UCC. It aimed to record the uptake of VT and associate posts, and where the graduates gained employment. METHODOLOGY: A self-completion questionnaire was developed and circulated electronically to recent graduates from UCC. An existing database of email addresses was used and responses were returned by post or by email. A copy of the questionnaire used is included as Appendix 1. RESULTS: Questionnaires were distributed over an eight-week period and 142 were returned, giving a response rate of 68.90%. Responses were gathered from those who graduated between 2001 and 2007; however, the majority came from more recent classes. Overall, the majority of graduates took up associate positions after qualification (71.8%) with smaller numbers undertaking VT (28.2%). Increasing numbers have entered VT in recent years, including 54.3% from the class of 2007. Overall, the majority of graduates initially took up positions in England (43%); however, in recent times more have been employed in Scotland. Subsequent work profiles of the graduates illustrate that the majority are now working as associates in general practice (51.4%) and in Ireland (54.2%). CONCLUSIONS: There has been an increase in the proportion of UCC graduates undertaking VT. Graduates tended to move away from Ireland initially to gain employment. There has been a shift away from employment in England towards Scotland where the majority of new UCC graduates are now
Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.
Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…
Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.
The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables
Finn, Michael G. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
This report provides estimates of stay rates for foreign students who received doctorates in science or engineering (S/E) from U.S. universities. For this paper, the stay rate represents the proportion of foreign doctorate recipients from U.S. universities who stayed in the United States after graduation for any reason and is always specific to a particular year. Each line in the tables that follow describes a different group of these degree recipients.
Ellington, Peter; Williams, Amanda
Students graduating from undergraduate accounting degree programmes in the UK are eligible for and attracted by accreditation available from professional accountancy body (PAB) examinations. The study reviews factual information available from PAB websites to confirm that virtually all accounting degrees in the UK have accreditation, and many are…
Full Text Available Intuitive expertise in the application of advanced interdisciplinary facilitation is the subject of this personal reflection on the graduate supervisory style of Professor David Squires in computers in education. This single-case reflective study examines the characteristics of effective supervision observed during masters and doctoral supervision at King's College in the years 1990-9. Interdisciplinarity in ICT graduate studies particularly requires a fluency of supervisory expertise in enabling supervisees to combine multiple complex perspectives from a number of fields of knowledge. Intuitive combinatory aspects of supervision are highlighted in this reflection on the role carried out by an academic expert in facilitating student success. This is examined from a perspective incorporating affective as well as intellectual elements, informed by characteristics identified in professional sports and performing arts coaching/mentoring. Key characteristics comprising a model of intuitive expertise in ICT graduate supervision were outlined. The resultant portrait aims to complement existing literature on graduate supervision, with reference to the field of ICTI computers in education relating to student hypermedia composition.
Inaparthy, Praveen K; Sayana, Murali K; Maffulli, Nicola
The ever-growing population of the UK has resulted in increasing demands on its healthcare service. Changes have been introduced in the UK medical training system to avoid loss of training time and make it more focused and productive. Modernizing medical careers (MMC) was introduced in 2005. This promised to reduce the training period for a safe trauma specialist, in trauma and orthopedics, to 10 years. At around the same time, the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) was introduced to reduce the working hours for junior doctors in training, to improve patient safety and also work-life balance of junior doctors. Introduction of the assessment tools from Orthopedic Competency assessment project (OCAP) will help tailor the training according to the needs of the trainee. The aim of this article is to review the changes in the UK orthopedic surgical training over the past two decades. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kendra Lowery; Rachel Geesa; Kat McConnell
Objectives: In preparation for creating a peer-mentoring program for education doctorate (EdD) students, we conducted a literature review to learn about the characteristics of peer-mentoring programs for graduate students and EdD students specifically. Method: Our search criteria included articles about peer mentoring for graduate students only; published in peer-reviewed journals since the year 2000; and about programs that involved more experienced students, students farther along in t...
This is the latest in a series of studies conducted for the National Science Foundation to estimate the proportion of foreign science / engineering doctorate recipients from U.S. universities who stayed in the United States after graduation. Sixty-six percent of those who graduated in 2003 were still in the United States in 2005, a 5 percent decline since the last report. But the five-year stay rate continues to climb, now at 68 percent.
Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo Esteban; Mendoza-Barrera, Germán Eduardo; Valderrama-Treviño, Alan Isaac; Alcántara-Medina, Stefany; Macías-Huerta, Nain Abraham; Tapia-Jurado, Jesús
The Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree that can be obtained in universities. Graduate Education Program in Medicine in Mexico is divided into 2 major categories: Medical Specialty and Master studies/Doctor of Philosophy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of master's degrees and Doctor of Philosophy in general surgery. A literature search in PubMed and Medline among others, from 1970 to 2015 with subsequent analysis of the literature reviews found. The physicians who conducted doctoral studies stand out as leaders in research, teaching and academic activities. Dual training with a doctorate medical specialty is a significant predictor for active participation in research projects within the best educational institutions. It is important to study a PhD in the education of doctors specialising in surgery, who show more training in teaching, research and development of academic activities. Currently, although there is a little proportion of students who do not finish the doctoral program, the ones who do are expected to play an important role in the future of medical scientific staff. It has been shown that most doctors with Doctor of Philosophy have wide range of career options. The importance of doctoral studies in the formation of general surgery is due to various reasons; the main one being comprehensively training physician scientists who can develop in clinical, teaching and research. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Key facts and figures about the labour market for new graduates in the UK were published recently in the IES Annual Graduate Review 1998-99, which indicates that the demand for graduates amongst the traditional recruiters has continued to grow steadily, along with reports of recruitment difficulties. It is noteworthy that last year one in three graduates went into fixed-term or temporary appointments, while many of those who took up permanent jobs went into lower level work that did not make use of their graduate skills. Many graduates are taking more than a year, and sometimes up to three years, to find their way into permanent jobs and careers. Those graduating in computer science, engineering and mathematics, medicine and related subjects, or education have been the most likely to gain high level managerial, professional or technical jobs and have the lowest unemployment rates. In contrast, those with biological science, humanities, social sciences or creative arts degrees are most likely to be unemployed initially. Many new graduates commenced their jobs by earning salaries in the range Â£10 000-15 000, but they should of course continue to earn more than those lesser qualified, as well as having lower unemployment rates. Of the 400 000 students who graduated in 1998 (more than double the total of a decade ago), over half had first degrees and the rest undergraduate or postgraduate qualifications. Despite the growth, entry to the physical sciences, engineering and technology has been falling, as has the proportion on sandwich courses. Women now comprise the majority of entrants to first degrees but remain under-represented in mathematics, physical science and engineering or technology courses. Interestingly more than one in three students now has a paid job during their course; such work experience can be beneficial to their long-term job searches. In the longer term, numbers of graduates are expected to stay broadly constant over the next three years
Cleland, Jennifer A; Johnston, Peter; Watson, Verity; Krucien, Nicolas; Skåtun, Diane
Many individual- and job-related factors are known to influence medical careers decision making. Previous research has extensively studied medical trainees' (residents') and students' views of the factors that are important. However, how trainees and students trade off these factors at times of important careers-related decision making is under-researched. Information about trade-offs is crucial to the development of effective policies to enhance the recruitment and retention of junior doctors. Our aim was to investigate the strength of UK medical students' preferences for the characteristics of training posts in terms of monetary value. We distributed a paper questionnaire that included a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to final-year medical students in six diverse medical schools across the UK. The main outcome measure was the monetary value of training post characteristics, based on willingness to forgo and willingness to accept extra income for a change in each job characteristic calculated from regression coefficients. A total of 810 medical students answered the questionnaire. The presence of good working conditions was by far the most influential characteristic of a training position. Medical students consider that, as newly graduated doctors, they will require compensation of an additional 43.68% above average earnings to move from a post with excellent working conditions to one with poor working conditions. Female students value excellent working conditions more highly than male students, whereas older medical students value them less highly than younger students. Students on the point of completing medical school and starting postgraduate training value good working conditions significantly more than they value desirable geographical location, unit reputation, familiarity with the unit or opportunities for partners or spouses. This intelligence can be used to address the crisis in workforce staffing that has developed in the UK and opens up fruitful
Kim, Mi Ja; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Ahn, Yang-Heui; Kim, Euisook; Yun, Soon-Nyoung; Lee, Kwang-Ja
The rapidly increasing number of nursing doctoral programs has caused concern about the quality of nursing doctoral education, including in Korea. To describe the perceived quality of Korean nursing doctoral education in faculty, student, curriculum and resources. Focus group. Fourteen Korean nursing doctoral programs that are research focused and include coursework. Four groups of deans, faculty, students and graduates; students completed three semesters of doctoral program; and graduates completed doctoral programs within the most recent 3 years. Focus groups examined the strengths and weaknesses of faculty, students, curriculum, and resources. Faculty strengths were universities' recognition of faculty research/scholarship and the ability of faculty to attract extramural funding. Faculty weaknesses were aging faculty; high faculty workload; insufficient number of faculty; and teaching without expertise in nursing theories. Student strengths were diverse student backgrounds; multidisciplinary dissertation committee members, and opportunities to socialize with peers and graduates/faculty. Students' weaknesses were overproduction of PhDs with low academic quality; a lower number and quality of doctoral applicants; and lack of full-time students. Curriculum strengths were focusing on specific research areas; emphasis on research ethics; and multidisciplinary courses. Curriculum weaknesses were insufficient time for curriculum development; inadequate courses for core research competencies; and a lack of linkage between theory and practice. Resources strengths were inter-institutional courses with credit transfer. Weaknesses were diminished university financial support for graduate students and limited access to school facilities. Variations in participant groups (providers [deans and faculty] vs. receivers [students and graduates]) and geographical location (capital city vs. regional) were noted on all the four components. The quality characteristics of faculty
Tapper, Elliot B.
Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation...
Curtin, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.; Ostrove, Joan M.
International doctoral students in the United States face challenges of acculturation in academia yet complete graduate school at higher rates and more quickly than their domestic counterparts. This study examined advisor support, sense of belonging, and academic self-concept among international and domestic doctoral students at a research…
Tapper, Elliot B
Doctors have been portrayed on television for over 50 years. In that time, their character has undergone significant changes, evolving from caring but infallible supermen with smoldering good looks and impeccable bedside manners to drug-addicted, sex-obsessed antiheroes. This article summarizes the major programs of the genre and explains the pattern of the TV doctors' character changes. Articulated over time in the many permutations of the doctor character is a complex, constant conversation between viewer and viewed representing public attitudes towards doctors, medicine, and science.
Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware
Jude Edward B
Full Text Available Abstract Background As many as 30% of doctors working for the National Health System (NHS of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK have obtained their primary qualifications from a country outside the European Union. However, factors driving this migration of doctors to the UK merit continuing exploration. Our objective was to obtain training and employment profile of UK doctors who obtained their primary medical qualification outside the European Union (non-European doctors and to assess self-reported reasons for their migration. Methods We conducted an online survey of non-European doctors using a pre-validated questionnaire. Results One thousand six hundred and nineteen doctors of 26 different nationalities completed the survey. Of the respondents, 90.1% were from India and over three-quarters migrated to the UK mainly for 'training'. Other reasons cited were 'better pay' (7.2%, 'better work environment' (7.1% and 'having family and friends in the UK' (2.8%. Many of the respondents have been in the UK for more than a year (88.8%, with 31.3% having spent more than 3 years gaining experience of working in the NHS. Most respondents believe they will be affected by recent changes to UK immigration policy (86.6%, few report that they would be unaffected (3.7% and the rest are unsure (9.8%. Conclusion The primary reason for many non-European doctors to migrate to the UK is for training within the NHS. Secondary reasons like better pay, better work environment and having friends and family in the UK also play a role in attracting these doctors, predominantly from the Indian subcontinent and other British Commonwealth countries.
Hale, L. V. A.; Lutter, J. C.; Shultz, G. V.
Graduate students play a critical role in undergraduate education at doctorate granting institutions; but generally have minimal opportunity to develop teaching expertise. Furthermore, little is known about how graduate students develop teaching expertise in this context. We investigated the development of topic-specific pedagogical content…
Full Text Available The core business of medicine is the consultation. During the consultation one human being responds to another in distress. Most doctors spend more time talking with people than performing surgery, prescribing pills or ordering tests. The extent to which the doctor succeeds as a communicator may even govern the ‘success’ of any procedure performed, if we define success as relief from the condition causing distress. As human beings our ability to benefit from what is offered to alleviate our symptoms is limited by the extent to which we feel that we have been heard and supported with empathy. It has been demonstrated that the human body has the capacity to heal and that healers are limited by their capacity to facilitate that process. That is not to say that ‘talking’ can spare us the need for other interventions. In this review the author examines the factors that impact on the medical consultation with particular emphasis on the scope for harm when the consultation is interrupted.
Health behaviour involves maintaining, improving and restoration of health. The aim of the author was to assess correlations of health behaviour with age, gender, job type and overtime. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire (N = 186). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Doctors working in in-patient care drink more coffee (p = 0.034) and energy drinks (p = 0.018); they eat undisturbed only on weekends at home (p = 0.032). Men consume more alcohol (p = 0.003), red meats (pmeals (p = 0.018) and their daily fluid consumption exceeds 2 litres (p = 0.005); their body mass index values are higher compared to women (peat more hot meals (p = 0.005), and those under the age of 30 consume more crisps, fast food (p = 0.001) and energy drinks (p = 0.005), while they are more active (p = 0.010). Dietary habits of doctors are not ideal and their physical activity is diminished compared to international trends. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(30), 1198-1206.
de Leeuw, Peter W
To investigate how often doctors fall in love or are in a relationship with a colleague. Descriptive questionnaire. Doctors and medical students completed an online questionnaire during the summer of 2012. The questions concerned baseline characteristics as well as their feelings of happiness. In addition, we asked them whether they were in love or had ever been with a colleague and whether this had resulted in a steady relationship. A total of 401 individuals participated, of which 41% were male and 59% female. Their mean age was 40 years. Altogether, 40% of the participants indicated to be or have been in love with a colleague. This occurred more often in women than men. In 82% the relationship was of an equivalent nature; it was hierarchical in the remainder. In only 23% of cases, the relationship was steady; this was independent of age. Dermatologists appeared to be the least apt to fall in love with a colleague, while obstetricians had the highest rate. Although love between colleagues is a frequently occurring phenomenon, this is associated with a steady relationship in only about 25% of cases. There is wide variation among specialists in their proneness to intercollegial love.
Hallock, James A; McKinley, Danette W; Boulet, John R
Global shortages of healthcare workers in both developed and developing countries are of great concern. Research on physician migration typically focuses on medical school graduates, most often those seeking postgraduate training opportunities elsewhere. An overview of medical school migration patterns is presented in this paper. To put this phenomenon into the broader context of global physician migration, data is also presented on the distribution of medical schools, physician density, the flow of international medical graduates to the US, and the present composition of the US physician workforce. Results of the study indicate that many individuals leave their home country for undergraduate medical education. Given the movement of students and physicians, both for medical school and for advanced training opportunities, it is evident that some medical schools in the world are training doctors for their home country as well as for the international labor market. Overall, given the internationalization of medical education, collaborative efforts will be needed to develop an adequate, balanced, and well-trained global physician workforce.
Jeannot, Jean Gabriel; Bischoff, Thomas
The majority of the Swiss population uses the internet to seek information about health. The objective is to be better informed, before or after the consultation. Doctors can advise their information-seeking patients about high quality websites, be it medical portals or websites dedicated to a specific pathology. Doctors should not see the internet as a threat but rather as an opportunity to strengthen the doctor-patient relationship.
Boyd, Linda D; Bailey, Angela
To advance the profession of dental hygiene, graduate education is necessary to support growth in research, education, administration, and practice in the discipline and to sustain credibility in a climate in which other health professions require entry-level master's and doctoral degrees. The purpose of this study was to explore what dental hygienists perceive as barriers to pursuing a graduate degree. A survey was developed based on the literature and other national surveys. Data were collected from 160 respondents to the survey: 50 percent held an entry-level baccalaureate degree in dental hygiene, while the rest held an entry-level associate degree (48 percent) or certificate (2 percent) in dental hygiene. All respondents had completed a bachelor's degree. The top five barriers these respondents identified in pursuing graduate education were as follows: 1) cost of graduate education, 2) family responsibilities are too great, 3) concerns about personal funding to pay for graduate education, 4) finding time for graduate school while working, and 5) fear of thesis research. Dental hygiene is one of the few health professions that still have entry-level degrees at the associate and baccalaureate levels. The profession needs to reduce such barriers to enable dental hygienists to pursue graduate education and thus ensure an adequate supply of future leaders, educators, and researchers.
Nylenna, Magne; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw
Doctors' job satisfaction has been discussed internationally in recent years based on reports of increasing professional dissatisfaction. We have studied Norwegian doctors' job satisfaction and their general satisfaction with life. A survey was conducted among a representative sample of practicing Norwegian doctors in 2008. The validated 10-item Job Satisfaction Scale was used to assess job satisfaction. 1,072 (65 %) doctors responded. They reported a mean job satisfaction of 5.3 on a scale from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 7 (very satisfied). Job satisfaction increased with increasing age. Private practice specialists reported the highest level of job satisfaction (5.8), and general practitioners reported higher job satisfaction (5.5) than hospital doctors (5.1). Among specialty groups, community doctors scored highest (5.6) and doctors in surgical disciplines lowest (5.0). While long working hours was negatively correlated with job satisfaction, the perception of being professionally updated and having part-time affiliation(s) in addition to a regular job were positively correlated with job satisfaction. 52.9 % of doctors reported a very high general satisfaction. Norwegian doctors have a high level of job satisfaction. Satisfaction with life in general is also high and at least in line with that in the Norwegian population.
Willcocks, Stephen George; Wibberley, Gemma
The purpose of this paper is to explore involving doctors in shared leadership. It examines the policies that have led to the focus on shared leadership and the implications for practice. This is a conceptual paper, examining policy developments and key literature to understand the move towards shared leadership. It focuses on UK NHS, and in particular doctors, although the concepts will be relevant to other disciplines in healthcare, and healthcare systems in other countries. This paper suggests that the shared-leadership approach for doctors has potential given the nature of clinical practice, the inherently collaborative nature of healthcare and the demands of new healthcare organisations. Health policy reform, generally, will mean that all doctors need to be engaged with leadership, albeit, perhaps, at different levels, and with different degrees of formality. Leadership will remain an important precondition for the success of the reforms. This is likely to be the case for other countries involved in healthcare reform. To highlight the benefits and barriers to shared leadership for doctors. Offers an alternative to traditional approaches to leadership.
Barnett-Vanes, Ashton; Ho, Guiyi; Cox, Timothy M
This study surveyed all UK medical schools regarding their Bachelor of Medicine (MB), Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) (MB/PhD) training policy in order to map the current training landscape and to provide evidence for further research and policy development. Deans of all UK medical schools registered with the Medical Schools Council were invited to participate in this survey electronically. The number of medical schools that operate institutional MB/PhD programmes or permit self-directed student PhD intercalation. Medical school recruitment procedures and attitudes to policy guidance. 27 of 33 (81%) registered UK medical schools responded. Four (14%) offer an institutional MB/PhD programme. However, of those without institutional programmes, 17 (73%) permit study interruption and PhD intercalation: two do not (one of whom had discontinued their programme in 2013), three were unsure and one failed to answer the question. Regarding student eligibility, respondents cited high academic achievement in medical studies and a bachelor's or master's degree. Of the Medical schools without institutional MB/PhD programmes, 5 (21%) have intentions to establish a programme, 8 (34%) do not and 3 were unsure, seven did not answer. 19 medical schools (70%) considered national guidelines are needed for future MB/PhD programme development. We report the first national survey of MB/PhD training in the UK. Four medical schools have operational institutional MB/PhD programmes, with a further five intending to establish one. Most medical schools permit study interruption and PhD intercalation. The total number MB/PhD students yet to graduate from medical school could exceed 150, with 30 graduating per year. A majority of medical school respondents to this survey believe national guidelines are required for MB/PhD programme development and implementation. Further research should focus on the MB/PhD student experience. Discussion regarding local and national MB/PhD policies between medical
Salani, Deborah; Albuja, Laura Dean; Azaiza, Khitam
This article will review an innovative on-line preimmersion course for a hybrid doctor of nursing practice (DNP) program and a traditional face-to-face doctor of philosophy nursing program. The doctoral candidates include both postbaccalaureate and postmaster's students. The authors of the preimmersion course developed and initiated the course in order to address various issues that have surfaced in discussions between students and faculty. Examples of common themes identified include writing skills, statistics, life-work-school balance, and navigating instructional technology. Doctoral studies may pose challenges to students studying nursing, in regard to academic rigor and experiencing on-line education for the first time, especially for students who have been out of school for an extended amount of time or are not accustomed to a nontraditional classroom; thus, having a preimmersion course established may facilitate a smooth transition to rigorous academic studies in a hybrid program. The course, which was developed and delivered through Blackboard, a learning management system, includes the following 9 preimmersion modules: academic strategies (learning styles, creating an effective PowerPoint presentation), library support (introduction to the university library, literature review tutorial, and citation styles), mindfulness, wellness, statistics essentials, writing express, DNP capstone, netiquette, and DNP/doctor of philosophy mentorship. Each module consists of various tools that may promote student success in specific courses and the programs in general. The purpose of designing the preimmersion course is to decrease attrition rates and increase success of the students. While the majority of students have succeeded in their coursework and been graduated from the program, the authors of this article found that many students struggled with the work, life, and school balance. Future work will include the evaluation of results from graduate students enrolled in
Bernard, R. E.; Mayfield, K. K.
Geoscience is currently recognized as the least diverse of all STEM fields. While attention typically focuses on K-12 and undergraduate populations, the extreme lack of diversity among graduate students, and doctoral students in particular, should be examined and addressed. In 2016, members of underrepresented minority (URM) groups made up only 6% of those graduating with geoscience PhDs. In all STEM fields, only 48% of Hispanic/Latino and 38% of Black/African American doctoral studies had earned doctorates within 7 years, with 36% of members of these groups leaving the program entirely. Recent studies suggest that these high attrition rates can be attributed, in part, to a mismatch between motivations of URM members and PhD-granting institutions while students are pursuing scientific education and careers. Traditional STEM doctoral programs do not offer, facilitate, or incentivize substantial opportunities to integrate social justice issues, community involvement, and altruism—factors which have been found to be of more importance to these populations than to male members of well-represented groups. URM members are also less likely to be interested in purely academic research careers, so doctoral programs may be failing to attract (and failing to prepare) diverse populations by not offering experiences beyond typical research and TA duties. In this presentation, trends in motivation and persistence among URM students in STEM will be discussed, in addition to highlighting education and outreach activities that can be successfully incorporated for a more fulfilling, balanced, attractive, and preparatory education experience. Specific activities undertaken and recommended by the presenter in her PhD experience include the following: a federal research internship, a state government policy internship, a formal partnership with a local K-12 teacher though a former NSF GK-12 program, a two-week education workshop aboard a scientific research drillship, and attending a
Lee, Alison; Brennan, Marie; Green, Bill
Portents of the demise of the Professional Doctorate have emerged in some recent policy and institutional circles in Australia, raising questions about the meaning and relevance of the Professional Doctorate in an era of "league tables" and research assessment in Australia. This article argues that such portents, based largely on narrow…
Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.
Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... of key journals and personal contact with content area experts. Randomised controlled trials and non-equivalent group designs with pre- and post-intervention measures were included. Outcome measures were those used by the study authors. For each study we determined whether these were positive, negative...
Starck, Patricia L; Love, Karen; McPherson, Robert
In recent years, the focus has been on increasing the number of registered nurse (RN) graduates. Numerous states have initiated programs to increase the number and quality of students entering nursing programs, and to expand the capacity of their programs to enroll additional qualified students. However, little attention has been focused on an equally, if not more, effective method for increasing the number of RNs produced-increasing the graduation rate of students enrolling. This article describes a project that undertook the task of compiling graduation data for 15 entry-level programs, standardizing terms and calculations for compiling the data, and producing a regional report on graduation rates of RN students overall and by type of program. Methodology is outlined in this article. This effort produced results that were surprising to program deans and directors and is expected to produce greater collaborative efforts to improve these rates both locally and statewide.
Siemens is an international company acting in different domains: power generation, communication and information, traffic, health, etc. To be more flexible and active in a world in constant evolution, the company proposes a graduate program where young people with a special background have the possibility to start an international career in all the domains of activity. This graduate program is especially important in the domain of nuclear energy, where the know-how transfer between the previous generation and the new one is a constant point of interest. This article presents the conditions to be accepted in this graduate program, and the supplementary training supporting this program. The Siemens graduate program (Sg) proposes a global concept with a main emphasis being international. (authors)
Stodt, Martha McGinty; Thielens, Wagner, Jr.
An exploratory study of students entering four elite fields found that most sought both credentials and competence. Stiff competition within chosen occupations led the majority of students to seek every advantage that graduate education could provide. (Author/MLW)
Kramer, Karen L.
Presents five vocational graduates who have become successful entrepreneurs. Their businesses include an ice cream parlor, an investment service, a dog grooming business, microcomputer program manufacturing, and high-fashion clothing and cosmetics for problem skin. (JOW)
According to European and German law, the medical education of physicians must take place in a scientific degree program at a university or under the supervision of a university. To keep up the ideal of a scientific degree program, various organizations and associations, such as the German Research Foundation, the German Council of Science and Humanities and the German Medical Faculty Association, see the need for an even stronger anchoring of academic learning content in the course of study. Traditionally, a scientific project, which is carried out during the studies, provides the basis for the Doctor of Medicine (Dr. med.) after graduation, although the research projects as a basis for medical degrees are currently not obligatory parts of the curricula. The number of medical students performing such research projects is significantly decreasing, thus they are missing major skills for working in science. To counteract these developments, faculties of medicine are currently developing model curricula including deepened scientific education. Despite these efforts, the German Association of Faculties of Medicine argues that the performance of research projects leading to the doctoral degree is most suitable for obtaining expertise in scientific work. According to recommendations by the German Council of Science on the requirements for quality assurance of graduation doctoral degree programs have been introduced. This and further measures, like MD/PhD programs or research-based additional study programs serving the scientific qualification of medical students, are the subject of this article.
Jones, Lyle V., Ed.; And Others
The quality of doctoral-level chemical engineering (N=79), civil engineering (N=74), electrical engineering (N=91), and mechanical engineering (N=82) programs at United States universities was assessed, using 16 measures. These measures focused on variables related to: (1) program size; (2) characteristics of graduates; (3) reputational factors…
Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.
Using data from a national survey of Ph.D.-holding chemists and physicists, time-to-doctoral degree is found to be a strong predictor of salary: each additional year in graduate school corresponds to a significantly lower average salary. This is true even while controlling for standard measures of scientific merit (grant funding and publication…
Wangmo, Tenzin; Ewen, Heidi H.; Webb, Alicia K.; Teaster, Pamela B.; Russell Hatch, Laurie
This study examined elder mentors' and students' roles, functions, and satisfaction with the Elder Mentorship program at the Graduate Center for Gerontology, University of Kentucky. The Elder Mentorship program matches gerontology doctoral students with older adults in the community. Parallel surveys were constructed to evaluate the program from…
Jansen, Jonathan D.
One of the underlying concerns in the Study Panel on the South African PhD, a large-scale, overview investigation of the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf), was the negative consequences of signalling the need for more doctoral graduates to boost the presumed link to national competitiveness within a global knowledge economy. There was…
Merced, Matthew; Stutman, Zachariah E.; Mann, Sandra T.
Psychology graduate students in the United States are expected to demonstrate competency in the history of psychology. Despite the topic's importance, there are limited guidelines. The present study examined history and systems of psychology (HSP) course syllabi from American Psychological Association accredited Doctor of Psychology programs. Of…
Choudry, Aziz; Rochat, Désirée
Working and writing together as supervisor and graduate student in a Canadian university, the authors bring their community/activist/adult education learning backgrounds into dialogue--and tension--with doctoral studies by reflecting on their personal learning paths and thinking about what this means for teaching and learning in academic contexts.…
De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret
Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…
Gittens, Cheryl Bailey
Interventions such as the Ronald E. McNair Post-Baccalaureate Achievement Program (McNair Scholars Program) are among the national strategies for promoting doctoral degree attainment amongst first-generation college students from low socioeconomic backgrounds or groups underrepresented in graduate education. This study aimed to understand how…
This article reports on a recent small-scale phenomenological study into the student experience of the doctoral "viva voce". It was prompted by strong concerns about "viva voce" processes on the part of a Director of Graduate Studies in an English university. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 respondents…
Walker, Jude; Yoon, EeSeul
This paper draws on Bourdieu's concepts of "field," "capital" and "habitus" to examine the learning and enculturation of alumni of a Canadian PhD programme in the discipline of Education. We introduce the concept of "doctoral capital" to help explain how and why some PhD graduates go on to secure faculty…
Despite strong trends in most Western countries towards gender equality in educational attainments, men are still considerably more likely to obtain doctoral degrees. Using data comprising nearly all students graduating from Norwegian universities during 1981-1996, separate event history analyses are carried out of recruitment to and completion of…
Means, Darris R.; Beatty, Cameron C.; Blockett, Reginald A.; Bumbry, Michael; Canida, Robert L., II; Cawthon, Tony W.
Using an intersectionality and Black queer studies framework, this article presents reflections from Black gay men who are current doctoral students or recent graduates of higher education, student affairs, and leadership studies programs to provide a deeper understanding of the challenges and successes that they experienced during their doctoral…
McCain, R Scott; McKinley, Nicola; Dempster, Martin; Campbell, W Jeffrey; Kirk, Stephen J
The aim of this study was to measure resilience, coping and professional quality of life in doctors. A cross-sectional study using an online questionnaire in a single National Health Service trust, including both primary and secondary care doctors. 283 doctors were included. Mean resilience was 68.9, higher than population norms. 100 (37%) doctors had high burnout, 194 (72%) doctors had high secondary traumatic stress and 64 (24%) had low compassion satisfaction. Burnout was positively associated with low resilience, low compassion satisfaction, high secondary traumatic stress and more frequent use of maladaptive coping mechanisms, including self-blame, behavioural disengagement and substance use. Non-clinical issues in the workplace were the main factor perceived to cause low resilience in doctors. Despite high levels of resilience, doctors had high levels of burnout and secondary traumatic stress. Doctors suffering from burnout were more likely to use maladaptive coping mechanisms. As doctors already have high resilience, improving personal resilience further may not offer much benefit to professional quality of life. A national study of professional Quality of Life, Coping And REsilience, which we are proposing to undertake, will for the first time assess the UK and Ireland medical workforce in this regard and guide future targeted interventions to improve professional quality of life. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Montoya, Isaac D; Kimball, Olive M
Over the past decade, clinical doctorate programs in health disciplines have proliferated amid both support and controversy among educators, professional organizations, practitioners, administrators, and third-party payers. Supporters argue that the explosion of new knowledge and increasing sophistication of technology have created a need for advanced practice models to enhance patient care and safety and to reduce costs. Critics argue that necessary technological advances can be incorporated into existing programs and believe that clinical doctorates will increase health care costs, not reduce them. Despite the controversy, many health disciplines have advanced the clinical doctorate (the most recent is the doctor of nursing practice in 2004), with some professions mandating the doctorate as the entry-level degree (i.e., psychology, pharmacy, audiology, and so on). One aspect of the introduction of clinical doctoral degrees has been largely overlooked, and that is the marketing aspect. Because of marketing considerations, some clinical doctorates have been more successfully implemented and accepted than others. Marketing is composed of variables commonly known as "the four P's of marketing": product, price, promotion, and place. This report explores these four P's within the context of clinical doctorates in the health disciplines.
This paper discusses the impact of medical technology on health care in light of the fact that doctors are becoming more reliant on technology for obtaining patient information, making diagnoses and in carrying out treatments. Evidence has shown that technology can negatively affect doctor-patient communications, physical examination skills, and…
Centra, John A; Kuykendall, Nancy M.
This study describes the current status and professional development of a sample of women doctorates and compares them to a sample of men who have attained the same educational status. Chapters cover the sample and procedures used; employment patterns; doctorates in academe; publications, income, and job satisfaction; marriage and family life;…
Chemical and Engineering News, 1982
The University of Texas (Dallas) has initiated a new Ph.D. program specifically to train chemists for doctoral level work in industry (Doctor of Chemistry). Participants will complete three research practica (at an industrial site and in two laboratory settings) instead of the traditional dissertation, emphasizing breadth and flexibility in…
von der Tann Matthias
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom, specialist treatment and intervention services for doctors are underdeveloped. The MedNet programme, created in 1997 and funded by the London Deanery, aims to fill this gap by providing a self-referral, face-to-face, psychotherapeutic assessment service for doctors in London and South-East England. MedNet was designed to be a low-threshold service, targeting doctors without formal psychiatric problems. The aim of this study was to delineate the characteristics of doctors utilising the service, to describe their psychological morbidity, and to determine if early intervention is achieved. Methods A cross-sectional study including all consecutive self-referred doctors (n = 121, 50% male presenting in 2002–2004 was conducted. Measures included standardised and bespoke questionnaires both self-report and clinician completed. The multi-dimensional evaluation included: demographics, CORE (CORE-OM, CORE-Workplace and CORE-A an instrument designed to evaluate the psychological difficulties of patients referred to outpatient services, Brief Symptom Inventory to quantify caseness and formal psychiatric illness, and Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results The most prevalent presenting problems included depression, anxiety, interpersonal, self-esteem and work-related issues. However, only 9% of the cohort were identified as severely distressed psychiatrically using this measure. In approximately 50% of the sample, problems first presented in the preceding year. About 25% were on sick leave at the time of consultation, while 50% took little or no leave in the prior 12 months. A total of 42% were considered to be at some risk of suicide, with more than 25% considered to have a moderate to severe risk. There were no significant gender differences in type of morbidity, severity or days off sick. Conclusion Doctors displayed high levels of distress as reflected in the significant proportion of those who were at some risk of
A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)
Leitch, Sharon; Dovey, Susan M
By the time medical students graduate many wish to work part-time while accommodating other lifestyle interests. To review flexibility of medical registration requirements for provisional registrants in New Zealand, Australia, the United Kingdom, Ireland and Canada. Internet-based review of registration bodies of each country, and each state or province in Australia and Canada, supplemented by emails and phone calls seeking clarification of missing or obscure information. Data from 20 regions were examined. Many similarities were found between study countries in their approaches to the registration of new doctors, although there are some regional differences. Most regions (65%) have a provisional registration period of one year. Extending this period was possible in 91% of regions. Part-time options were possible in 75% of regions. All regions required trainees to work in approved practice settings. Only the UK provided comprehensive documentation of their requirements in an accessible format and clearly explaining the options for part-time work. Australia appeared to be more flexible than other countries with respect to part- and full-time work requirements. All countries need to examine their registration requirements to introduce more flexibility wherever possible, as a strategy for addressing workforce shortages.
Intolerance and grouse against doctors is a global phenomenon but India seems to lead the world in violence against doctors. According to World Health Organization, about 8-38% healthcare workers suffer physical violence at some point in their careers. Many more are verbally abused or threatened. Public is almost behaving like health sector terrorists. The spate of increasing attacks on doctors by damaging their property and causing physical injury is not acceptable by any civilized society. The public is becoming increasingly intolerant to a large number of social issues because of poor governance and vote bank politics. There is a need to arrest the development of further distrust between doctors and their patients/relatives, otherwise it will compromise all achievements of medical science and adversely affect healing capabilities of doctors. Rude and aggressive behavior of the patients or their family members, and arrogant and lackadaisical approach of the doctor, adversely affects the doctor-patient relationship and the outcome of the patient. The doctors, hospital administration and government must exercise "zero tolerance" with respect to acts of violence against healthcare professionals. It is possible to reduce the incidence of intolerance against doctors but difficult to eliminate it completely. The healthcare providers should demonstrate greater compassion and empathy with improved communication skills. The hospitals must have adequate infrastructure, facilities and staff to handle emergencies without delay and with due confidence and skills. The security of healthcare providers, especially in sensitive areas, should be improved by having adequate number of security guards, frisking facilities, extensive CCTV network and availability of "Quick response team" to handle unruly mob. In case of any grievances for alleged mismanagement, the public should handle the situation in a civilized manner and seek redressal through Medical Protection Act and legal
Mandeville, Kate L; Ulaya, Godwin; Lagarde, Mylene; Gwesele, Lyson; Dzowela, Titha; Hanson, Kara; Muula, Adamson S
There have been longstanding concerns over Malawian doctors migrating to high-income countries. Early career is a particularly vulnerable period. After significant policy changes, we examined the retention of recent medical graduates within Malawi and the public sector. We obtained data on graduates between 2006 and 2012 from the University of Malawi College of Medicine and Malawi Ministry of Health. We utilised the alumni network to triangulate official data and contacted graduates directly for missing or uncertain data. Odds ratios and chi-squared tests were employed to investigate relationships by graduation year and gender. We traced 256 graduates, with complete information for more than 90%. Nearly 80% of registered doctors were in Malawi (141/178, 79.2%), although the odds of emigration doubled with each year after graduation (odds ratio = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.54-2.56, P < 0.0001). Of the 37 graduates outside Malawi (14.5%), 23 (62.2%) were training in South Africa under a College of Medicine sandwich programme. More than 80% of graduates were working in the public sector (185/218, 82.6%), with the odds declining by 27% for each year after graduation (odds ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.61-0.86, P < 0.0001). While most doctors remain in Malawi and the public sector during their early careers, the odds of leaving both increase with time. The majority of graduates outside Malawi are training in South Africa under visa restrictions, reflecting the positive impact of postgraduate training in Malawi. Concerns over attrition from the public sector are valid and require further exploratory work. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
It can often be an enlightening affair to be made aware of the limitations of one's knowledge on a subject in which one is gainfully employed - having read this book, I am grateful for such a salutary experience. As a doctoral supervisor, I feel justified in considering myself better informed and equipped to perform a role for which, there is very little contemporary literature available. The manner in which Taylor and Beasley have comprehensively tackled this omission, going beyond the usual checklist for supervisors, is a huge strength of the book, bringing to life the real world of doctoral supervision. This text is a timely publication given the momentous changes of the past decade in terms of the doctorate, modes and methods of study, the candidate population and new demands upon supervisors. Although the book appears to be primarily written for a UK audience it is relevant to all those involved in helping the doctoral candidate achieve their goal.
Moran, Eamonn; Misra, Debananda
This article discusses the current challenges faced by the two authors--both participants on a professional doctorate (PD) programme in education at a leading UK university--in gaining legitimacy as higher education (HE) professionals. By: (1) reflecting upon their own professional experiences in HE and as PD students; (2) utilizing…
This paper analyses the pedagogical pathways of a group of first-generation Iranian migrant doctors in the UK. It explores the complex system of class production and growing up as a classed subject in Iran, a process that ties young women's educational aspirations to female independence on the one hand and to the modern feminine, heterosexual…
Full Text Available Background: Much of the contentious debate surrounding the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (“Obamacare” concerned its financing and its attempt to guarantee (near universal access to healthcare through the private insurance market. Aside from sensationalist stories of “death panels,” much less attention went to implications of the bill for the actual provision of healthcare. Methodology: This paper examines the "patient-centered medical home" (PCMH model which has been widely promoted as a means of reviving and improving primary care (i.e. general internal medicine, family medicine, and pediatrics. Argument: The PCMH and many of its components (e.g pay-for-performance, electronic medical records were interventions that were implemented on a massive basis without any evidence of benefit. Recent research has not generally supported clinical benefits with the PCMH model. Instead it seems to designed to de-professionalize (make proletarians of health care workers and enforce corporate models of health. The core values of professional work are undermined while the PCMH does nothing to address the structural marginalization of primary care within US health care. Conclusions: The development of alternative models will require political changes. Both doctors and teachers are in a position of advocate for more progressive systems of care and education.
What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - adult; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - adult; Seizure - what to ask your doctor ... call to find more information about driving and epilepsy? What should I discuss with my boss at ...
Ferudun SEZGİN,; Hasan KAVGACI ,; Ali Çağatay KILINÇ
This study aimed to examine the self evaluations of educational administration and supervision graduate students about their own qualifications in the context of National Qualifications Framework for Higher Education in Turkey (NQF-HETR) in a descriptive way. In this respect, this study was designed as a qualitative research. Participants consisted of 15 master and 6 doctoral students who had completed the courses at educational administration and supervision graduate program. To collect the ...
Full Text Available This paper reports on an investigation of mechanisms that assist Information Systems post-graduate research students to focus their projects. An evaluation is presented of the experiences of Information Systems research students in focussing their research projects based on a survey conducted of students who participated in two of the first three Information Systems doctoral consortia to be held in Australia. The survey sought to determine whether a doctoral consortium or 'systematic expert review' is the most valuable mechanism for focussing a research proposal. Systematic expert review was considered by the students to be more effective than the doctoral consortium process for the purpose of focussing their research project proposals.
Himmelstein, Mary S; Sanchez, Diana T
Mortality and morbidity data suggest that men have shorter life expectancies than women and outrank women on several leading causes of death. These gendered disparities may be influenced by psychosocial factors like masculinity. Three studies (Total N=546) examined the role of masculinity in men's doctor choices and doctor-patient interactions. In Studies 1 and 2, men completed measures of masculinity, gender bias, and doctor preference. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the direct relationship between masculinity and male doctor preference and the indirect relationship of masculinity on male doctor preference through an association with gendered competence stereotypes. Participants in Study 3 disclosed symptoms in private followed by disclosure to a male or female interviewer in a clinical setting. Using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), we examined the interaction among symptom reporting, masculinity and doctor gender, controlling for participant comfort. In Study 1, results suggested that masculinity encouraged choice of a male doctor directly and indirectly via beliefs that men make more competent doctors than women; Study 2 directly replicated the results of Study 1. In Study 3, independent of participant comfort, an interaction between interviewer gender and masculinity emerged such that men scoring higher on masculinity reported symptoms less consistently to male interviewers (relative to higher scoring men reporting to female interviewers); the reverse was found for men scoring low on masculinity. Taken together these studies suggest that masculinity may affect men's health by encouraging choice of a male doctor with whom doctor-patient communication may be impaired. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dung Do Van
Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of the process to develop more community-oriented medical teaching in Vietnam, eight medical schools prepared a set of standard learning objectives with attention to the needs of a doctor working with the community. Because they were prepared based on government documents and the opinions of the teachers, it was necessary to check them with doctors who had already graduated and were working at different sites in the community. Methods Each of the eight medical faculties asked 100 practising recent graduates to complete a questionnaire to check the relevance of the skills that the teachers considered most important. We used mean and standard deviation to summarize the scores rated by the respondents for each skill and percentile at four points: p50, p25, p10 and p5 to describe the variation of scores among the respondents. Correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationship between skill levels set by the teachers and the perception of practicing doctors regarding frequency of using skills and priority for each skill. Additional information was taken from the records of focus group discussions to clarify, explain or expand on the results from the quantitative data. Results In many cases the skills considered important by teachers were also rated as highly necessary and/or frequently used by the respondents. There were, however, discrepancies: some skills important to teachers were seldom used and not considered important by the doctors. In focus group discussions the doctors also identified skills that are not taught at all in the medical schools but would be needed by practising doctors. Conclusion Although most of the skills and skill levels included in the learning objectives by the teachers were consistent with the opinions of their graduates, the match was not perfect. The experience of the graduates and their additional comments should be included as inputs to the definition of learning objectives for
Ekanem, V J; Gerry, I E
It is to the disadvantage of the doctors in training that there is a decline in the rate of clinical autopsy world wide. This decline may to an extent depend on the attitude of the physicians. To evaluate the attitude of resident doctors towards the practice of clinical autopsy and to determine their role in the decline of clinical autopsy. We carried out a survey of the attitude of resident doctors undergoing training in the various clinical departments of our teaching hospital towards clinical autopsy practice. This survey was by means of a structured randomly distributed questionnaire. Questions were asked on their willingness to request for autopsy, the number of autopsies that they have requested for so far, what hinders them from requesting for autopsy, the level of participation at autopsy and the importance of autopsies in the health care delivery system Eighteen (30%) out of 60 resident doctors attributed their inability to request for autopsy on their not being in direct control of the patients, while 16 (26.7%) found it difficult to get consent from the relatives. Seventeen per cent of them gave reason of not being able to obtain report from the pathologist, 13.3% said it was difficult to get pathologist to perform autopsy on time while only 11% said they knew the diagnosis in most of their cases. Almost all the resident doctors (98.5%) agreed that autopsy is a necessary procedure and is important for their training and health care delivery system Autopsy rate can increase if the resident doctors receive more blessings to request for autopsy from their consultants. Increased exposure to autopsies and education with regards to the benefits of autopsies at both the undergraduate and post graduate level will contribute to improvement in the rate of clinical autopsy.
Weitz, Antje; Stevens, Bjorn; Marotzke, Jochem
The mission of the International Max Planck Research School on Earth System Modelling (IMPRS-ESM) is to provide a high quality, modern and structured graduate education to students pursuing a doctoral degree in Earth system modelling. In so doing, the IMPRS-ESM also strives to advance the emerging discipline (or cross-discipline) of Earth system modelling; to provide a framework for attracting the most talented and creative young women and men from around the world to pursue their doctoral education in Germany; to provide advanced as well as specialized academic training and scientific guidance to doctoral students; to encourage academic networking and publication of research results; to better integrate doctoral research at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (MPI-M) with education and research at the University of Hamburg and other cooperating institutions. Core elements are rigorous selection of doctoral students, effective academic supervision, advanced academic training opportunities and interdisciplinary communication as well as administrative support. IMPRS-ESM graduates have been recognized with a variety of awards. 85% of our alumni continue a career in research. In this presentation we review the challenges for an interdisciplinary PhD program in Earth system sciences and the types of routines we have implemented to surmount them as well as key elements that we believe contribute to the success of our doctoral program.
Glasgow, Nicholas J; Bonning, Michael; Mitchell, Rob
The working hours of junior doctors have been a focus of discussion in Australia since the mid-1990s. Several national organizations, including the Australian Medical Association (AMA), have been prominent in advancing this agenda and have collected data (most of which is self-reported) on the working hours of junior doctors over the last 15 years. Overall, the available data indicate that working hours have fallen in a step-wise fashion, and AMA data suggest that the proportion of doctors at high risk of fatigue may be declining. It is likely that these changes reflect significant growth in the number of medical graduates, more detailed specifications regarding working hours in industrial agreements, and a greater focus on achieving a healthy work-life balance. It is notable that reductions in junior doctors' working hours have occurred despite the absence of a national regulatory framework for working hours. Informed by a growing international literature on working hours and their relation to patient and practitioner safety, accreditation bodies such as the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) and the Australian Medical Council (AMC) are adjusting their standards to encourage improved work and training practices.
A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)
Wheeler, Rebecca McCombs; Eichelberger, Lisa Wright
Increasing the number of nurses with doctorates is a goal of the nursing profession. The Georgia Nursing Leadership Coalition developed a survey to understand the perspectives of nurses pursuing doctoral degrees in Georgia to improve recruitment and retention strategies. A 26-item online survey was distributed to all students enrolled in Georgia-based doctoral programs in nursing in spring 2014. One hundred fifty responses were received (54% response rate). Most students first seriously considered doctoral education during their master's programs or more than 5 years into practice. For most, obtaining a doctoral degree was a personal life goal. Work-life balance was the most significant barrier. Recruitment of nurses to doctoral programs should focus on messaging, timing, and highlighting the unique aspects of programs. Schools should work to reduce barriers. Understanding students' perspectives of doctoral education in nursing can improve recruitment strategies and increase the number of nurses graduating with doctorates in Georgia. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(8):466-470.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Esteban Hernández Esteve
Full Text Available TESIS DOCTORALES Doctoral dissertations María Soledad Campos Lucena: El control de las arcas municipales a través de la rendición de cuentas. La transformación del proceso del Antiguo al Nuevo régimen y la consolidación del modelo liberal: 1745-1914 The control of municipal coffers by means of account rendering. The change from Ancien Régime to the New Regime and the consolidation of liberalism: 1745-1914 Candelaria Castro Pérez: La institución parroquial a través de los registros contables del Señorío episcopal de la Villa de Agüimes. (1500-1860 The parochial institution seen through the account books of the Episcopal domain of the city of Aguimes (1500-1860 José Julián Hernández Borreguero: El Cabildo Catedral de Sevilla: organización y sistema contable. (1625-1650 Administrative and accounting organization of the Seville Cathedral. (1625-1650 Juan Lanero Fernández: El esplendor de la teneduría de libros: la partida doble en los tratados contables ingleses de la dinastia Tudor (1543-1588 Bookkeeping splendor: double-entry in the English accounting treatises at the time of the Tudor dynasty (1543-1588 María Llompart Bibiloni: Un análisis histórico-contable de la Procuración del Real Patrimonio en el Reino de Mallorca, período 1310-1330 An accounting historical análisis of the Royal Exchequer of the Kingdom of Mallorca (1310-1330
Pruthi, Sonal; Goel, Ashish
Physicians have tried to understand whether crying for a patient is a raw emotion that demonstrates their lack of control over themselves and the situation, or whether it is a sign of humanity and concern for one's fellow beings. Studies on medical students and doctors'narrations of times when they have shed tears over a patient's suffering or death have established beyond doubt that medical students and physicians are not immune to their patients'suffering and may cry when overwhelmed by stress and emotions. Even though humanity is the cornerstone of medicine, depersonalisation has somehow crept into the physician-patient relationship and crying is considered incompatible with the image of a good physician, who is supposed to be strong, confident and fully in charge. Thus, crying has been equated to weakness and at times, incompetence. This could be attributed to the fact that our medical curriculum has ingrained in us the belief that emotion clouds rationality and prevents us from being objective while making decisions regarding a patient's clinical progress. Our curriculum fails to teach us how to handle emotional situations, witness the dying process, communicate bad news, interact with the bereaved during the period of grief immediately following death, and reduce the professional stress involved in working with newly bereaved persons. Our training focuses on cure, amelioration of disease and the restoration of good health, with little emphasis on death, which is an absolute reality. It is crucial that medical educators take note of these lacunae in the curriculum. Physicians and teachers must recognise and accept the emotions that medical students experience in these situations, and teach them to offer their patients a sound blend of rationality and compassion with an attitude of humility.
Devine, Oliver Patrick; Harborne, Andrew Christopher; McManus, I C
In the United Kingdom (UK), medical schools are free to develop local systems and policies that govern student assessment and progression. Successful completion of an undergraduate medical degree results in the automatic award of a provisional licence to practice medicine by the General Medical Council (GMC). Such a licensing process relies heavily on the assumption that individual schools develop similarly rigorous assessment policies. Little work has evaluated variability of undergraduate medical assessment between medical schools. That absence is important in the light of the GMC's recent announcement of the introduction of the UKMLA (UK Medical Licensing Assessment) for all doctors who wish to practise in the UK. The present study aimed to quantify and compare the volume, type and intensity of summative assessment across medicine (A100) courses in the United Kingdom, and to assess whether intensity of assessment correlates with the postgraduate attainment of doctors from these schools. Locally knowledgeable students in each school were approached to take part in guided-questionnaire interviews via telephone or Skype(TM). Their understanding of assessment at their medical school was probed, and later validated with the assessment department of the respective medical school. We gathered data for 25 of 27 A100 programmes in the UK and compared volume, type and intensity of assessment between schools. We then correlated these data with the mean first-attempt score of graduates sitting MRCGP and MRCP(UK), as well as with UKFPO selection measures. The median written assessment volume across all schools was 2000 min (mean = 2027, SD = 586, LQ = 1500, UQ = 2500, range = 1000-3200) and 1400 marks (mean = 1555, SD = 463, LQ = 1200, UQ = 1800, range = 1100-2800). The median practical assessment volume was 400 min (mean = 472, SD = 207, LQ = 400, UQ = 600, range = 200-1000). The median intensity (minutes per mark ratio) of summative written assessment was 1.24 min per mark
SIEMENS is an international company acting in various domains: power generation, communication and information, traffic, health...etc. To increase flexibility and activity in a world in constant evolution, the company proposes a graduate program where young people with a special background have the possibility to start an international career in one of the different business areas. This graduate program is also very important in the domain of nuclear energy, where the know-how transfer between the previous generation and the new one is a constant point of interest. (author)
all the characteristics of a rite of passage. The graduates wear a traditional cap with a cross as cockade emblem; this special cross is a symbol of Denmark. For graduates of non-Christian background, alternative cockade emblems are available, e.g. a Star of David or a crescent; this shows...... that the cross emblem is also perceived as a Christian symbol. Social anthropologists Sally Moore and Barbara Myerhoff have suggested a scheme of the categories of religious versus scared for analysing secular rituals where religious symbols are sometimes exhibited. The applicability of their approach...
Spooner, S; Gibson, Jon; Rigby, Dan; Sutton, Matt; Pearson, Emma; Checkland, Kath
To examine the extent, and nature, of impact on junior doctors' career decisions, of a proposed new contract and the uncertainty surrounding it. Mixed methods. Online survey exploring: doctors' future training intentions; their preferred specialty training (ST) programmes; whether they intended to proceed immediately to ST; and other plans. Linked qualitative interviews to explore more fully how and why decisions were affected. Doctors (F2s) in second year of Foundation School (FS) Programmes in England. Invitations sent by FSs. Open to all F2s November 2015-February 2016. All FSs represented. Survey completed by 816 F2s. Sample characteristics broadly similar to national F2 cohort. Proportions of doctors intending to proceed to ST posts in the UK, to defer or to exit UK medicine. Proportion of doctors indicating changes in training and career plans as a result of the contract and/or resulting uncertainty. Distribution of changes across training programmes. Explanations of these intentions from interviews and free text comments. Among the responding junior doctors, 20% indicated that issues related to the contract had prompted them to switch specialty and a further 20% had become uncertain about switching specialty. Switching specialty choice was more prevalent among those now choosing a community-based, rather than hospital-based specialty. 30% selecting general practice had switched choice because of the new contract. Interview data suggests that doctors felt they had become less valued or appreciated in the National Health Service and in society more broadly. Doctors reported that contract-related issues have affected their career plans. The most notable effect is a move away from acute to community-based specialities, with the former perceived as more negatively affected by the proposed changes. It is concerning that young doctors feel undervalued, and this requires further investigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use
van de Ven AL
Full Text Available Anne L van de Ven,1,2 Mary H Shann,3 Srinivas Sridhar1,2 1Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, 2Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3School of Education, Boston University, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: The Nanomedicine program at Northeastern University provides a unique interdisciplinary graduate education that combines experiential research, didactic learning, networking, and outreach. Students are taught how to apply nanoscience and nanotechnology to problems in medicine, translate basic research to the development of marketable products, negotiate ethical and social issues related to nanomedicine, and develop a strong sense of community involvement within a global perspective. Since 2006, the program has recruited 50 doctoral students from ten traditional science, technology, and engineering disciplines to participate in the 2-year specialization program. Each trainee received mentoring from two or more individuals, including faculty members outside the student’s home department and faculty members at other academic institutions, and/or clinicians. Both students and faculty members reported a significant increase in interdisciplinary scholarly activities, including publications, presentations, and funded research proposals, as a direct result of the program. Nearly 90% of students graduating with a specialization in nanomedicine have continued on to careers in the health care sector. Currently, 43% of graduates are performing research or developing products that directly involve nanomedicine. This article identifies some key elements of the Nanomedicine program, describes how they were implemented, and reports on the metrics of success.Keywords: nanomedicine, IGERT, nanotechnology, nanoscience, education, graduate training
Elliot, Dely; Guccione, Kay; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
-Martek, Chen & McAlpine, 2011). PGRs’ motivation, creativity, resilience and momentum during their long and intense doctoral journey are often strongly sustained by unseen informal structures, social support systems and extra-curricular activities tacitly providing emotional, social, pastoral and academic......Part 1 Abstract Ongoing educational and psycho-social challenges in doctoral education (e.g. psychological distress, attrition and delay in completion) warrant a more comprehensive understanding of the expanded doctoral education context and how the different facets of doctoral support mechanisms......, 2016b; Bengtsen & Barnett, 2017; Bryan & Guccione, 2018; Elliot et al., 2016b, 2016c; Wisker et al., 2017). Yet, there remains a somewhat limited understanding not only of these multifaceted components but how they interact with already existing formal and informal support mechanisms offered...
Wisker, Gina; Robinson, Gill; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard
Much international doctoral learning research focuses on personal, institutional and learning support provided by supervisors, managed relationships,‘nudging’ robust, conceptual, critical, creative work. Other work focuses on stresses experienced in supervisor-student relationships and doctoral...... journeys. Some considers formal and informal learning communities supporting students on research journeys, and roles played by families, friends and others, sometimes o ering encouragement and sometimes added stress. However, little has been explored concerning often uno cial, largely unrecognised...... sanctioned (‘lightside’), and less well recognised often unsanctioned (‘darkside’) on doctoral research and writing learning journey, instigating questions about doctoral student needs, and the range of support provided, both legitimate, well known, less legitimate. This work concentrates on the ‘darkside’....
Husbands, Christopher T
Those students who were among the first sociology graduates in the UK barely feature in standard histories of the discipline, which all have an intellectual and institutional focus. This article remedies this neglect by researching the social backgrounds and later careers of sociology graduates from the London School of Economics and Political Science [LSE] and Bedford College for Women from the first such graduate in 1907 until those graduating in the 1930s. Data for this exercise were compiled from a variety of sources. The more important are: UK censuses, especially that of 1911; various civil registration records; archived student files; and, for the graduates who entered university teaching, issues of the Yearbook of the Universities of the Empire [later the Commonwealth Universities' Yearbook]. The dataset includes all identified graduates in the BSc(Econ), Special Subject Sociology, degree from 1907 to 1935 and all in the BA (Honours) in Sociology degree from 1925 to 1939. LSE sociology graduates tended to be older and to have more cosmopolitan backgrounds, with fathers more likely than for Bedford College graduates to come from commercial rather than professional backgrounds. Both institutions' graduates' careers tended to the Civil Service and local government. LSE graduates gravitated to education, especially to higher education if male, whilst those of Bedford College went into welfare work, countering a stereotype from some previous literature that especially women graduates were heavily constrained to follow careers in schoolteaching. The article also gives comparisons with the social-class profile and career destinations of several cohorts of postwar sociology graduates, noting a number of similarities. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2015.
Regulations and conditions for the commissioning of nuclear power plants in the UK, their siting, licence conditions, design safety assessment, inspection during construction and conditions for safety in operation are listed. (J.P.)
Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.
Kurinczuk, J J; Draper, E S; Field, D J; Bevan, C; Brocklehurst, P; Gray, R; Kenyon, S; Manktelow, B N; Neilson, J P; Redshaw, M; Scott, J; Shakespeare, J; Smith, L K; Knight, M
Established in 1952, the programme of surveillance and Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK is the longest running such programme worldwide. Although more recently instituted, surveillance and confidential enquiries into perinatal deaths are also now well established nationally. Recent changes to funding and commissioning of the Enquiries have enabled both a reinvigoration of the processes and improvements to the methodology with an increased frequency of future reporting. Close engagement with stakeholders and a regulator requirement for doctors to participate have both supported the impetus for involvement of all professionals leading to greater potential for improved quality of care for women and babies. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Gafson, I.; Currie, J.; O Dwyer, S.; Woolf, K.; Griffin, A.
Physician dissatisfaction in the workplace has consequences for patient safety. Currently in the UK, 1 in 5 doctors who enter specialist training in obstetrics and gynaecology leave the programme before completion. Trainee attrition has implications for workforce planning, organization of health-care services and patient care. The authors conducted a survey of current trainees' and former trainees' views concerning attrition and ‘peri-attrition’ – a term coined to describe the trainee who has...
This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London. Abstract This thesis investigates the factors that affect the take-up of statutory digital reporting of statutory accounts and returns to the tax authority (HM Revenue and Customs) and voluntary digital reporting to the company registry (Companies House) by small private companies in the UK. In doing so, it identifies the costs and benefits of this innovation from the perspective...
Jones, Stephen; Noppen, Joost; Lettice, Fiona
The DevOps phenomenon is gathering pace as more UK organisations seek to leverage the benefits it can potentially bring to software engineering functions. However substantial organisational change is inherent to adopting DevOps, especially where there are prior and established methods. As part of a wider piece of doctoral research investigating the management challenges of DevOps adoption, we present early findings of a six month qualitative diary study following the adoption of DevOps within...
Olaf Gjerløw Aasland
Full Text Available Doctors are among the healthiest segments of the population in western countries. Nevertheless, they complain strongly of stress and burnout. Their own explanation is deprofessionalisation: The honourable art of doctoring has been replaced by standardised interventions and production lines; professional autonomy has withered. This view is shared by many medical sociologists who have identified a “golden age of medicine,” or “golden age of doctoring,” starting after World War II and declining around 1970. This article looks at some of the central sociological literature on deprofessionalisation, particularly in a perspective of countervailing powers. It also looks into another rise-and-fall model, proposed by the medical profession itself, where the fall in professional power was generated by the notion that there are no more white spots to explore on the map of medicine. Contemporary doctoring is a case of cognitive dissonance, where the traditional doctor role seems incompatible with modern health care.Keywords: deprofessionalisation, professional autonomy, cognitive dissonance, golden age of doctoring
Cheraghi, Mohammad-Ali; Jasper, Melanie; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba
Nurses with doctorates are increasing in number throughout the world, yet the multitude of roles they play following graduation is unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe clinical nurses' perceptions and expectations of the role of doctorally-prepared nurses in Iran. A qualitative study, using a content analysis approach was conducted with 43 clinical nurses chosen using a purposive sampling strategy. Oral, semi-structured and written interviews were used to generate data. During data analysis, three main themes emerged; "advantages of the doctoral degree", "clarification of doctorally-prepared nurses' role in clinical practice", and "unmet expectations of doctorally-prepared nurses". An understanding of the expectations of nurses on the role of doctorally-prepared nurses is needed to improve the collaboration between clinical nurses and doctorally-prepared nurses; remove misunderstandings on the abilities and skills of doctorally-prepared nurses; incorporate the expectations into doctoral education in order to facilitate their collaboration; and also remove the theory and practice gap through the utilisation of doctorally-prepared nurses' knowledge and skills in practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beattie, Sharon; Crampton, Paul E S; Schwarzlose, Cathleen; Kumar, Namita; Cornwall, Peter L
The proportion of junior doctors required to complete psychiatry placements in the UK has increased, due in part to vacant training posts and psychiatry career workforce shortages, as can be seen across the world. The aim of this study was to understand the lived experience of a Foundation Year 1 junior doctor psychiatry placement and to understand how job components influence attitudes. The study was conducted using a cross-sectional qualitative phenomenological approach. Hospital and community psychiatry department settings in the North East of England, UK. In total, 14 Foundation Year 1 junior doctors were interviewed including seven men and seven women aged between 23 and 34 years. The majority had completed their medical degree in the UK and were White British. The lived experience of a junior doctor psychiatry placement was understood by three core themes: exposure to patient recovery, connectedness with others in the healthcare team and subjective interpretations of psychiatry. The experiences were moderated by instances of role definition, reaction to the specialty and the organisational fit of the junior doctor capacity in the specialty. The study reinforces and adds to the literature by identifying connectedness as being important for both job satisfaction and morale, which is currently damaged within the junior doctor population. The study provides in-depth insights into the lived experience of psychiatry placements and can be taken forward by educationalists to ensure the placements are meaningful experiences for junior doctors by developing role definition, belonging, structure and psychiatric care responsibility. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Templer, D I; Tomeo, M E; Pointkowski, S R; Mitroff, D; Niederhauser, R N; Siscoe, K
Clinical psychologists who graduated from traditional programs and those who graduated from professional schools were compared on both scientifically and professionally oriented criteria of achievement and recognition. Upon controlling for year of graduation from a doctoral program, the professional school graduates were less likely to be APA fellows, less likely to be on the editorial board of specified research oriented journals in clinical psychology, less likely to have diplomate status in the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), less likely to have been president of state psychological associations, and less likely to have been APPIC internship directors.
Caple, Richard B.
Explores how the understanding of graduate students' special needs and circumstances enhances counseling of this population. Looks at stress factors, educational preparation, delayed gratification, achieving autonomy, intellectual development, and the counseling process. Emphasizes the importance of establishing trust in the therapeutic dialog so…
Von Gonten, W.D.; Whiting, R.L.
Petroleum Engineering educational programs produce graduates primarily for the upstream sector of the petroleum industry. This paper presents a summary of both the undergraduate and graduate petroleum engineering programs in the United States. The undergraduate portion of the paper will address the curriculum, accreditation, enrollments, student recruitment, faculty, jobs, starting salaries, and a historical perspective. The graduate section will address both master and doctoral level programs including the number and size of programs, curriculum, admission requirements, program administration, jobs, salaries, and a historical perspective
Karazsia, Bryan T.; Smith, Lena
In the present study, faculty who teach in clinical and counseling doctor of philosophy (PhD) or doctor of psychology (PsyD) programs completed surveys regarding preferences for prospective student preparations to graduate programs. Faculty expectations of minimum and ideal undergraduate training were highest for scientific methods, though…
Mohammed Saji Salahudeen
Full Text Available Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD is a professional pharmacy degree qualification offered by universities world-wide. While the graduates from the West are familiar with scope and job opportunities that present on completion of a PharmD degree, graduates from Asia and the Middle-East are coming to grips with the future of PharmD program and the role that it could play in career advancement. Through this review, we would like to highlight that numerous credential programs are available which can be added to the armory of PharmD graduates for advancement of their professional careers. The credentials detailed in this review are designed for PharmD graduates to optimize pharmaceutical care in specialized clinical settings such as geriatrics and ambulatory medicine. We have assembled an extensive list of post-PharmD educational opportunities to enhance professional practice for pharmacy graduates.
Smith, Samantha E.; Tallentire, Victoria R.; Pope, Lindsey M.; Laidlaw, Anita H.; Morrison, Jill
This work was funded by a Scottish Medical Education Research Consortium grant. Objectives: To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. Setting : All four regions of Scotland. Participants: Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. Primary and secondary outc...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing migration of health professionals to affluent countries is not a recent phenomenon and has been addressed in literature. However the various facets of physician migration from Pakistan, the third leading source of International medical graduates has not been rigorously evaluated. The objective of the current study was to survey final year students and recent medical graduates in Lahore, Pakistan about their intentions to train abroad, their post training plans as well as to identify the factors responsible for their motivation for international migration. Method A self administered structured questionnaire was developed to collect respondents' demographic and educational characteristics, intention to train abroad, their preferred destination & post training intentions of returning to Pakistan. Various influencing factors which impact on medical graduate's motivation to train abroad or stay in Pakistan were explored using a 10 point scale. SPSS software was used for data entry and analysis. Results Of the 400 eligible respondents, 275 responded (response rate 68.7%. One hundred and sixty six respondents (60.4% intended to train abroad either for a specialty (54.9% or a subspecialty (5.5% The United States and United Kingdom were the most preferred destination. While 14.2% intended to return to Pakistan immediately after training, a significant percentage (10% never intended to return to Pakistan or wished to stay abroad temporarily (37%. Professional excellence and establishing quickly in the competitive market were the most important goal to be achieved by the respondents for intention for postgraduate training abroad. The most common reasons cited for training abroad were the impact of residency training on future career (mean score 8.20 ± 2.3, financial conditions of doctors (mean score 7.97 ± 2.37 and job opportunities (mean score7.90 ± 2.34. Conclusion An alarming percentage of medical graduates from
Imran, Nazish; Azeem, Zahra; Haider, Imran I; Amjad, Naeem; Bhatti, Muhammad R
The increasing migration of health professionals to affluent countries is not a recent phenomenon and has been addressed in literature. However the various facets of physician migration from Pakistan, the third leading source of International medical graduates has not been rigorously evaluated. The objective of the current study was to survey final year students and recent medical graduates in Lahore, Pakistan about their intentions to train abroad, their post training plans as well as to identify the factors responsible for their motivation for international migration. A self administered structured questionnaire was developed to collect respondents' demographic and educational characteristics, intention to train abroad, their preferred destination & post training intentions of returning to Pakistan. Various influencing factors which impact on medical graduate's motivation to train abroad or stay in Pakistan were explored using a 10 point scale. SPSS software was used for data entry and analysis. Of the 400 eligible respondents, 275 responded (response rate 68.7%). One hundred and sixty six respondents (60.4%) intended to train abroad either for a specialty (54.9%) or a subspecialty (5.5%) The United States and United Kingdom were the most preferred destination. While 14.2% intended to return to Pakistan immediately after training, a significant percentage (10%) never intended to return to Pakistan or wished to stay abroad temporarily (37%). Professional excellence and establishing quickly in the competitive market were the most important goal to be achieved by the respondents for intention for postgraduate training abroad. The most common reasons cited for training abroad were the impact of residency training on future career (mean score 8.20 ± 2.3), financial conditions of doctors (mean score 7.97 ± 2.37) and job opportunities (mean score7.90 ± 2.34). An alarming percentage of medical graduates from Lahore, Pakistan intend to migrate for post graduate
Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar
The aim of this research is to examine graduate students' needs and preferences for written feedback on academic writing from their lecturers and thesis supervisors. Quantitative method via survey questionnaire was used to collect data from 21 respondents. The data collection involved Master and Doctorate students at a tertiary level institution…
Eden, Jill, Ed.; Berwick, Donald, Ed.; Wilensky, Gail, Ed.
Today's physician education system produces trained doctors with strong scientific underpinnings in biological and physical sciences as well as supervised practical experience in delivering care. Significant financial public support underlies the graduate-level training of the nation's physicians. Two federal programs--Medicare and…
Campbell, Arthur; Feinstein, Jonathan S.; Hong, Soonwook; Qian, Sharon; Williams, Trevor C.
The authors present an empirical analysis of what is taught in core micro-economics at a set of top U.S. doctoral economics programs. Their aim is to evaluate the diversity across programs and assess whether there are distinct "schools of thought" in graduate economics education. Their empirical findings reveal substantial, in fact,…
Michalski, Daniel S.; Cope, Caroline; Fowler, Garth A.
The 2016 Graduate Study in Psychology Summary Report reflects data collected from more than 500 departments and programs offering master's and doctoral degrees in psychology and related training. This report represents data from the 2013-2014 academic year and aggregates these data in the following areas: survey participation; admissions review,…
To identify the impact of family life on the ways women practice rural medicine and the changes needed to attract women to rural practice. Census of women rural doctors in Victoria in 2000, using a self-completed postal survey. General and specialist practice. Two hundred and seventy-one female general practitioners and 31 female specialists practising in Rural, Remote and Metropolitan Area Classifications 3-7. General practitioners are those doctors with a primary medical degree and without additional specialist qualifications. Interaction of hours and type of work with family responsibilities. Generalist and specialist women rural doctors carry the main responsibility for family care. This is reflected in the number of hours they work in clinical and non-clinical professional practice, availability for on-call and hospital work, and preference for the responsibilities of practice partnership or the flexibility of salaried positions. Most of the doctors had established a satisfactory balance between work and family responsibilities, although a substantial number were overworked in order to provide an income for their families or meet the needs of their communities. Thirty-six percent of female rural general practitioners and 56% of female rural specialists preferred to work fewer hours. Female general practitioners with responsibility for children were more than twice as likely as female general practitioners without children to be in a salaried position and less likely to be a practice partner. The changes needed to attract and retain women in rural practice include a place for everyone in the doctor's family, flexible practice structures, mentoring by women doctors and financial and personal recognition. Women make up less than a quarter of the rural general practice workforce and an even smaller percentage of the specialist rural medical workforce. As a result their experiences are not well articulated in research on rural medical practice and their needs are
IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGAD 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European EmergencyCall 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors will...
Garza, Oscar W.; Witry, Matthew J.; Chang, Elizabeth H.; Letendre, Donald E.; Trewet, CoraLynn B.
Objective. To develop and implement a flexible-credit elective course to empower student pharmacists to develop lifelong leadership skills and provide teaching practice opportunities for graduate students. Design. An elective course focusing on leadership development for second- and third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students was designed and taught by 4 graduate students under the mentorship of 2 faculty members. Student pharmacists could enroll in a 1-, 2-, or 3-credit-hour version of the course. Assessment. Attainment of course objectives was measured using student pharmacist reflection papers and continuing professional development portfolios. Additionally, self-assessments of graduate students and faculty members delivering the course were conducted. In their responses on course evaluations, student pharmacists indicated they found the course a valuable learning experience. Graduate students found course development to be challenging but useful in developing faculty skills. Conclusion. This flexible-credit elective course taught by graduate students was an innovative way to offer formal leadership instruction using limited college resources. PMID:24371347
Koffi-Tessio, Annick Viwalé; Oniankitan, Owonayo; Mijiyawa, Moustafa
A study has been carried out by Togolese medical doctors in order to determine the perceived and the real life of their profession. The study, which was transversal, has taken in account a sample of 52 medical doctors made on the basis of a cautious choice. Most of these medical doctors (15 general practitioners, 23 specialists and 14 hospitalo-universitaires) work in the medical cares centres of Lomé. A sheet of survey has permitted the collection of demographic data and data relating to the medical studies and career. The 52 medical doctors included in the study (7 women, 45 men) were between 25 and 59 years old; their age of getting their A-level was between 16 and 23 years old, and that of getting the doctorate diploma between 24 and 37. The length of professional experience stands between 8 months and 27 years. The marital status was specified by 47 of the 52 medical doctors: 13 single, one divorced, and 33 married; 5 of the 7 women who took part in the survey were single and without any child. The love of the profession (65%), the social status it confers (37%) and the honour tied to the profession (27%) were the main motives of choosing the profession. The decision of doing medical studies was taken during secondary studies by 45 of the 52 persons. The faculty of medicine of Lomé has been the study frame to general medicine studies of 35 persons (67%). The low payment (83%), the poverty of the patients (83%), the narrowness of the technical platform (79%), the insufficiency of cares structures in paramedical personnel (67%), the insufficiency of continuing education (60%), and the lack or insufficiency of drugs (58%) were the main problems encountered during their professional experience by the people questioned. 22 medical doctors (43%) have estimated that their profession has given them a particular social status. Only 8 medical doctors have found that the real things they have gone trough in the profession matches with the idea they had, while 32 (62
The doctor who attended the mother of Adolf Hitler in her terminal illness has been blamed as a cause of the Holocaust. The medical details recorded of this professional relationship are presented and discussed. Dr Bloch's medical care of Mrs Hitler was consistent with the prevailing medical practice of the management of fungating breast carcinoma. Indeed, the general practitioner's care and attention of the family appear to have been astute and supportive. There is nothing to suggest that Dr Bloch's medical care was other than competent. Doctors who have the (mis)fortune to professionally attend major figures of history may be unfairly viewed, despite their appropriate and adequate care.
The Carnegie Foundation commissioned a collection of essays as part of the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID). Essays and essayists represent six disciplines that are part of the CID: chemistry, education, English, history, mathematics, and neuroscience. Intended to engender conversation about the conceptual foundation of doctoral…
Newlands, Freda; Shrewsbury, Duncan; Robson, Jean
Dyslexia is the most common form of specific learning difficulty affecting approximately 6% of the general UK population and believed to affect approximately 2% of UK medical students. The impact of dyslexia on early practice has not been studied. To develop an understanding of the challenges faced by doctors with dyslexia in the first year of practice and their support requirements. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with seven foundation year 1 doctors with dyslexia from Scottish hospitals between March 2013 and August 2013. Foundation doctors indicated that due to their dyslexia, they experience difficulty with all forms of communication, time management and anxiety. There were concerns about disclosure of their dyslexia to colleagues and supervisors. Coping strategies used frequently were safety-netting and planning; technology solutions did offer some assistance. Although technological interventions have the potential to offer benefits to foundation doctors with dyslexia, increased openness about a diagnosis of dyslexia with discussion between doctor and supervisors about the challenges and anxieties is likely to provide the most benefit. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Feldon, David F.; Rates, Christopher; Sun, Chongning
In the biological sciences, very little is known about the mechanisms by which doctoral students acquire the skills they need to become independent scientists. In the postsecondary biology education literature, identification of specific skills and effective methods for helping students to acquire them are limited to undergraduate education. To establish a foundation from which to investigate the developmental trajectory of biologists' research skills, it is necessary to identify those skills which are integral to doctoral study and distinct from skills acquired earlier in students' educational pathways. In this context, the current study engages the framework of threshold concepts to identify candidate skills that are both obstacles and significant opportunities for developing proficiency in conducting research. Such threshold concepts are typically characterised as transformative, integrative, irreversible, and challenging. The results from interviews and focus groups with current and former doctoral students in cellular and molecular biology suggest two such threshold concepts relevant to their subfield: the first is an ability to effectively engage primary research literature from the biological sciences in a way that is critical without dismissing the value of its contributions. The second is the ability to conceptualise appropriate control conditions necessary to design and interpret the results of experiments in an efficient and effective manner for research in the biological sciences as a discipline. Implications for prioritising and sequencing graduate training experiences are discussed on the basis of the identified thresholds.
At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.
Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena
We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants' choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013-2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p =0.0001). UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants.
Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena
Background We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001). Conclusion UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants. PMID:28458589
Mehmood, Syed Imran; Norcini, John J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.
Background: Career advice is an important instrument to help students with the proper specialty selection. The study aims (1) to explore the views of newly graduated doctors in Saudi Arabia about their experience with the current status of career support system during medical training and (2) to
Jalongo, Mary Renck; Boyer, Wanda; Ebbeck, Marjory
Expectations for academic writing and publication have intensified in Academia. Doctoral students in colleges of education are advised to publish even before they graduate and evidence of successful publication is influential in hiring, tenure, and promotion decisions. The purpose of this research was to study the process of writing for…
Youdas, James W.; Krause, David A.; Hellyer, Nathan J.; Rindflesch, Aaron B.; Hollman, John H.
Medical professionals and public consumers expect that new physical therapy graduates possess cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills required to provide safe and high-quality care to patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if a repertoire of ten professional behaviors assessed at the beginning of doctorate of physical therapy…
Bachynsky, E A; Dale, V H M; Kinnison, T; Gazzard, J; Baillie, S
A questionnaire was designed to assess recent veterinary graduates' proficiency in early career business skills, from the perspectives of graduates of 2006-2008 and employers of recent graduates in the UK. Recent graduates perceived themselves to be generally more competent in financial matters than employers considered them to be. However, when specific skills were assessed, graduates felt less prepared than employers considered them to be competent. Overall, graduates and employers rated recent graduates' preparedness/competence as poor to average for all skills, which were regarded as having average to high importance. Both groups commented on the difficulties faced by new graduates in terms of client communication (generally and financially), and having the confidence to charge clients appropriately for veterinary services. The results of this study indicate that veterinary schools need to take a more active role in the teaching of basic finance skills in order to equip graduates with essential early career competencies. It is anticipated that the information reported will help inform undergraduate curriculum development and highlight the need for increased training at the continuing education level.
van de Ven, Anne L; Shann, Mary H; Sridhar, Srinivas
The Nanomedicine program at Northeastern University provides a unique interdisciplinary graduate education that combines experiential research, didactic learning, networking, and outreach. Students are taught how to apply nanoscience and nanotechnology to problems in medicine, translate basic research to the development of marketable products, negotiate ethical and social issues related to nanomedicine, and develop a strong sense of community involvement within a global perspective. Since 2006, the program has recruited 50 doctoral students from ten traditional science, technology, and engineering disciplines to participate in the 2-year specialization program. Each trainee received mentoring from two or more individuals, including faculty members outside the student's home department and faculty members at other academic institutions, and/or clinicians. Both students and faculty members reported a significant increase in interdisciplinary scholarly activities, including publications, presentations, and funded research proposals, as a direct result of the program. Nearly 90% of students graduating with a specialization in nanomedicine have continued on to careers in the health care sector. Currently, 43% of graduates are performing research or developing products that directly involve nanomedicine. This article identifies some key elements of the Nanomedicine program, describes how they were implemented, and reports on the metrics of success.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...
"Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).
Foda, H M
Numerous otoplastic techniques have been described for the correction of protruding ears. Technique selection in otoplasty should be done only after careful analysis of the abnormal anatomy responsible for the protruding ear deformity. A graduated surgical approach is presented which is designed to address all contributing factors to the presenting auricular deformity. The approach starts with the more conservative cartilage-sparing suturing techniques, then proceeds to incorporate other more aggressive cartilage weakening maneuvers. Applying this approach resulted in better long-term results with less postoperative lateralization than that encountered on using the cartilage-sparing techniques alone.
of addressing complex problems by applying a codesign approach involves a broad range of methods and outcomes. With a focus on design dialogue and collaboration, the codesigner’s toolbox encompass tools and media that are: • Documentary-oriented (audio, image, and video recording to enrich the capture...... and comunication of, for example, field research) • Artefact-oriented (prototyping in 2D and 3D, visualization techniques, design games, and props & probes) • Performance-oriented (staging events, scenarios, role play) Codesign graduates are qualified to do research and work within design consultancies. They can...
Full Text Available The Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice is proud to publish issue 32 (1. This issue features a special section highlighting the scholarship of graduate students. While it is always a pleasure to read promising work by newer scholars in the fields of law and social justice, we are certain that this collection of articles represents some of the finest and thought-provoking scholarship stemming from current graduate students in law. The articles stem from a graduate student essay contest that WYAJ held in 2013 and for which we received many submissions. The collection of selected papers offers a view of legal and interdisciplinary research examining issues that are topically diverse but which are all of deep, long-term importance to the world of access to justice. A reader of the special section on Graduate Student Scholarship will find explorations of access to justice from the perspectives of equality rights, discretion, adjudication and methods of legal service delivery, to name a few. A prize was offered to two papers judged to be of exceptional quality. I am very pleased to announce that the winners of those two prizes are Andrew Pilliar, for his article “Exploring a Law Firm Business Model to Improve Access to Justice” and Blair A. Major, for his contribution, “Religion and Law in R v NS: Finding Space to Re-think the Balancing Analysis”. The Editorial Board thanks all those who submitted papers to the contest and to this final special issue of the Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice. Another notable feature of this issue is the introduction of a section called Research Notes. The Yearbook will periodically publish peer-reviewed research notes that present the findings of empirical (quantitative, qualitative or mixed method research studies. This section aims to contribute to the growing and important body of empirical scholarship within the realm of access to justice socio-legal research. We hope that you enjoy
Lincoln, Ian; Walker, Arthur
Proposes a remodeled funding system for UK higher education that incorporates a graduate tax system and reduces dependency on general taxation. Estimates this system's effects on available resources, economic attractiveness to students, and implications for public expenditure. Proposal offers a non-means-tested grant for students, combined with an…
Papafilippou, Vanda; Bentley, Laura
This article, drawing upon the Paired Peers project, a longitudinal qualitative study (n = 90), examines how seven UK engineering graduates, four women and three men, construct their career identities during the transitionary period from university to work. It explores how gender and the occupational cultures that reside within the sector, and the…
Business plays an important role in most economies around the world, but businesses rely on the higher education system to supply an adequate number of qualified business graduates. In nations such as the USA, the UK and Australia, business degrees are the most popular university qualification; and the growth in the number of Chinese…
Terjesen, Siri; Vinnicombe, Susan; Freeman, Cheryl
Purpose: Building on person-organisation fit and gender self-schema, this research aims to examine UK university final year students' perception of the importance of organisational attributes and their presence in three major graduate employers. This study also seeks to explore which organisational attributes attract Generation Y men and women to…
Bosshard, G; Broeckaert, B; Clark, D; Materstvedt, L J; Gordijn, B; Müller-Busch, H C
To analyse legislation and medical professional positions concerning the doctor's role in assisted dying in western Europe, and to discuss their implications for doctors. This paper is based on country-specific reports by experts from European countries where assisted dying is legalised (Belgium, The Netherlands), or openly practiced (Switzerland), or where it is illegal (Germany, Norway, UK). Laws on assisted dying in The Netherlands and Belgium are restricted to doctors. In principle, assisted suicide (but not euthanasia) is not illegal in either Germany or Switzerland, but a doctor's participation in Germany would violate the code of professional medical conduct and might contravene of a doctor's legal duty to save life. The Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill proposed in the UK in 2005 focused on doctors, whereas the Proposal on Assisted Dying of the Norwegian Penal Code Commission minority in 2002 did not. Professional medical organisations in all these countries except The Netherlands maintain the position that medical assistance in dying conflicts with the basic role of doctors. However, in Belgium and Switzerland, and for a time in the UK, these organisations dropped their opposition to new legislation. Today, they regard the issue as primarily a matter for society and politics. This "neutral" stance differs from the official position of the Royal Dutch Medical Association which has played a key role in developing the Dutch practice of euthanasia as a "medical end-of-life decision" since the 1970s. A society moving towards an open approach to assisted dying should carefully identify tasks to assign exclusively to medical doctors, and distinguish those possibly better performed by other professions.
@@Professor XU Jian-zhong was born in a family of traditional Chinese doctor in Beijing, August, 1930. His native place is Putian, Fujian Province. Prof. XU has engaged for more than 40 years in clinical medicine since he was graduated from Shanxi Medical University in 1954. From 1958 to 1961, he was released from work to attend the TCM Learning Class for Doctors of Western Medicine for 3 years and granted the first grade prize by the Ministry of Health at graduation. Since then, the integration of traditional Chinese and western medicine (TCM-WM) has been the cause he devoted himself to. Now, he is Chief Doctor in Xiyuan Hospital, China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, visiting professor of postgraduate education Department of China Academy of TCM, and Director of Specialty Committee of Respiratory Diseases, Chinese Association of Integration of Traditional and Western Medicine (CAIM).
Jaundice - what to ask your doctor; What to ask your doctor about newborn jaundice ... What causes jaundice in a newborn child? How common is newborn jaundice? Will the jaundice harm my child? What are the ...
What to ask your doctor about epilepsy - child; Seizures - what to ask your doctor - child ... should I discuss with my child's teachers about epilepsy? Will my child need to take medicines during ...
Tadisina, Suresh K.; Bhasin, Vijay
The application of a pairwise comparison methodology (Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process) to the doctoral program selection process is illustrated. A hierarchy for structuring and facilitating the doctoral program selection decision is described. (Author/MLW)
... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...
What to ask your doctor about angina and heart disease; Coronary artery disease - what to ask your doctor ... the signs and symptoms that I am having angina? Will I always have the same symptoms? What ...
Holmstrom, Engin Inel; Holmstrom, Robert W.
This study investigated factors underlying discrimination against woman doctoral students. Analyses revealed that faculty attitudes and behavior toward woman doctoral students contributed significantly to their emotional stresses and self-doubts. (Author/NE)
What to ask your doctor about concussion - child; Mild brain injury - what to ask your doctor - child ... What type of symptoms or problems will my child have? Will my child have problems thinking or ...
According to the latest report by the National Science Foundation, only eighty-three (83) African-Americans received doctoral degrees in all engineering disciplines in 2000. North Carolina A&T State University (NC A&T) awarded Ph.D.s to 15 African-Americans, in only two engineering disciplines over the past 4 years. It clearly indicates that the partnership between NASA and NC A&T plays a significant role in producing minority engineering Ph.D.s, which this country needs to establish an ethnically diverse workforce to compete in a global economy. Many of these students would not have been able to study for their doctoral degrees without the Ronald E. McNair Graduate Research Fellowship Program.
Avellar, Sergio Oswaldo de Carvalho
Internal migration of master and doctoral degree holders in Brazil is a recent phenomenon, but it has intensified over the past decades. The expansion of this movement of skilled labor between the various regions of the country is mainly due to the deconcentration of the National System of Graduate Study (SNPG) and also to the expansion of higher education. The main economic activity (Education) employing this population group is linked, directly or indirectly, to educational policy for highe...
Ekpo, Ernest U; Snaith, Beverly; Harris, Martine A; McEntee, Mark F
Research is critical to evidence-based practice, and the rapid developments in technology provide opportunities to innovate and improve practice. Little is known about the research profile of the medical radiation science (MRS) profession in Australia and New Zealand (NZ). This study provides a baseline of their doctoral activity. A cross-sectional survey of MRS professionals in Australia and NZ holding a doctorate or undertaking doctoral studies, was performed using an online tool (Bristol Online Survey ® , Bristol, UK). A chain-referral sampling technique was adopted for data collection. An email invitation with a link to the survey was generated and distributed through email and social media. The survey contained questions related to participant demographics, doctoral status, qualification route, funding and employment. There were 63 responses to the survey comprising 50.8% diagnostic radiographers (DRs; n = 32), 23.8% radiation therapists (RTs; n = 15), with the remaining 25.4% (n = 16) equally split between sonographers and nuclear medicine technologists (NMTs). A total of 40 (63.5%) of respondents had completed their doctoral qualification. In NZ, only DRs held a doctoral award constituting 0.3% of DRs and 0.2% of the total registered MRS population. In Australia, there was a greater proportion of doctoral NMTs (n = 8/1098; 0.7%) than RTs (n = 15/2394; 0.6%) and DRs (n = 27/12,001; 0.2%). Similar to other countries, findings show a very small percentage of doctoral MRS professionals in Australia and NZ. Strategies to engage and support individuals in research, up to and beyond doctoral study, need to be embedded in practice. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australian Society of Medical Imaging and Radiation Therapy and New Zealand Institute of Medical Radiation Technology.
Editorial Editorial Welcome to this special doctoral workshop on Research Methodology which forms part of what is now a well-established support mechanism for researchers in the discipline of the Built Environment and more particularly construction management. The ARCOM doctoral series, around now for some seventeen years, has addressed many of the diverse research areas that PhD researchers in the discipline have chosen to focus on in their doctoral journey. This doctoral workshop has as ...
Mørcke, Anne Mette; Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Kjeldsen, Inge Trads
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to assess the coherence between the undergraduate medical program at Aarhus University and the foundation year. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire survey included 503 doctors graduated from Aarhus University from the winter of 2007....../2008 to the summer of 2009. RESULTS: The response rate was 73%. Approximately 73% of the respondents were in their foundation year or their first year of specialist training and 83% generally felt well-prepared. Respondents found that most of the learning outcomes of the undergraduate medical curriculum at Aarhus...... of diagnoses, initiation of treatment, pharmacotherapy, handling of own emotions and structuring of own learning. Also, 40% stated that their clerkships had only had little value in preparing them for their foundation year. CONCLUSION: Overall, graduates felt well-prepared and characterized the education...
The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)
Scharfenberg, Janna; Schaper, Katharina; Krummenauer, Frank
The German "Dr med" plays a specific role in doctoral thesis settings since students may start the underlying doctoral project during their studies at medical school. If a Medical Faculty principally encourages this approach, then it should support the students in performing the respective projects as efficiently as possible. Consequently, it must be ensured that students are able to implement and complete a doctoral project in parallel to their studies. As a characteristic efficiency feature of these "Dr med" initiatives, the proportion of doctoral projects successfully completed shortly after graduating from medical school is proposed and illustrated. The proposed characteristic can be estimated by the time period between the state examination (date of completion of the qualifying medical examination) and the doctoral examination. Completion of the doctoral project "during their medical studies" was then characterised by a doctoral examination no later than 12 months after the qualifying medical state examination. To illustrate the estimation and interpretation of this characteristic, it was retrospectively estimated on the basis of the full sample of all doctorates successfully completed between July 2009 and June 2012 at the Department of Human Medicine at the Faculty of Health of the University of Witten/Herdecke. During the period of investigation defined, a total number of 56 doctoral examinations were documented, 30 % of which were completed within 12 months after the qualifying medical state examination (95% confidence interval 19 to 44 %). The median duration between state and doctoral examination was 27 months. The proportion of doctoral projects completed parallel to the medical studies increased during the investigation period from 14 % in the first year (July 2009 till June 2010) to 40 % in the third year (July 2011 till June 2012). Only about a third of all "Dr med" projects at the Witten/Herdecke Faculty of Health were completed during or close to
Mash, Robert; Almeida, Magda; Wong, William C W; Kumar, Raman; von Pressentin, Klaus B
China, India, Brazil and South Africa contain 40% of the global population and are key emerging economies. All these countries have a policy commitment to universal health coverage with an emphasis on primary health care. The primary care doctor is a key part of the health workforce, and this article, which is based on two workshops at the 2014 Towards Unity For Health Conference in Fortaleza, Brazil, compares and reflects on the roles and training of primary care doctors in these four countries. Key themes to emerge were the need for the primary care doctor to function in support of a primary care team that provides community-orientated and first-contact care. This necessitates task-shifting and an openness to adapt one's role in line with the needs of the team and community. Beyond clinical competence, the primary care doctor may need to be a change agent, critical thinker, capability builder, collaborator and community advocate. Postgraduate training is important as well as up-skilling the existing workforce. There is a tension between training doctors to be community-orientated versus filling the procedural skills gaps at the facility level. In training, there is a need to plan postgraduate education at scale and reform the system to provide suitable incentives for doctors to choose this as a career path. Exposure should start at the undergraduate level. Learning outcomes should be socially accountable to the needs of the country and local communities, and graduates should be person-centred comprehensive generalists.
Carr, Sandra E; Celenza, Antonio; Puddey, Ian B; Lake, Fiona
Little recent published evidence explores the relationship between academic performance in medical school and performance as a junior doctor. Although many forms of assessment are used to demonstrate a medical student's knowledge or competence, these measures may not reliably predict performance in clinical practice following graduation. This descriptive cohort study explores the relationship between academic performance of medical students and workplace performance as junior doctors, including the influence of age, gender, ethnicity, clinical attachment, assessment type and summary score measures (grade point average) on performance in the workplace as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. There were two hundred participants. There were significant correlations between performance as a Junior Doctor (combined overall score) and the grade point average (r = 0.229, P = 0.002), the score from the Year 6 Emergency Medicine attachment (r = 0.361, P gender or ethnicity on the overall combined score of performance of the junior doctor. Performance on integrated assessments from medical school is correlated to performance as a practicing physician as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. These findings support the value of combining undergraduate assessment scores to assess competence and predict future performance.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Following implementation of Modernising Medical Careers (MMC in the UK, potential radiology trainees must decide on their career and apply sooner than ever before. We aimed to determine whether current trainees were sufficiently informed to make an earlier career decision by comparing the early radiology experiences of Traditional and Foundation Trainees. Methods 344 radiology trainees were appointed through MMC in 2007/08. This cohort was surveyed online. Results Response rate was 174/344 (51%. Traditional Trainees made their career decision 2.6 years after graduation compared with 1.2 years for Foundation Trainees (57/167, 34%. Nearly half of responders (79/169, 47% experienced no formal radiology teaching as undergraduates. Most trainees regularly attended radiology meetings, spent time in a radiology department and/or performed radiology research. Many trainees received no career advice specific to radiology (69/163, 42% at any point prior to entering the specialty; this includes both formal and informal advice. Junior doctor experiences were more frequently cited as influencing career choice (98/164, 60%. An earlier career decision was associated with; undergraduate radiology projects (-0.72 years, p = 0.018, career advice (-0.63 years, p = 0.009 and regular attendance at radiology meetings (-0.65 years, p = 0.014. Conclusion Early experience of radiology enables trainees to make an earlier career decision, however current radiology trainees were not always afforded relevant experiences prior to entering training. Radiologists need to be more proactive in encouraging the next generation of trainees.
Background Following implementation of Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) in the UK, potential radiology trainees must decide on their career and apply sooner than ever before. We aimed to determine whether current trainees were sufficiently informed to make an earlier career decision by comparing the early radiology experiences of Traditional and Foundation Trainees. Methods 344 radiology trainees were appointed through MMC in 2007/08. This cohort was surveyed online. Results Response rate was 174/344 (51%). Traditional Trainees made their career decision 2.6 years after graduation compared with 1.2 years for Foundation Trainees (57/167, 34%). Nearly half of responders (79/169, 47%) experienced no formal radiology teaching as undergraduates. Most trainees regularly attended radiology meetings, spent time in a radiology department and/or performed radiology research. Many trainees received no career advice specific to radiology (69/163, 42%) at any point prior to entering the specialty; this includes both formal and informal advice. Junior doctor experiences were more frequently cited as influencing career choice (98/164, 60%). An earlier career decision was associated with; undergraduate radiology projects (-0.72 years, p = 0.018), career advice (-0.63 years, p = 0.009) and regular attendance at radiology meetings (-0.65 years, p = 0.014). Conclusion Early experience of radiology enables trainees to make an earlier career decision, however current radiology trainees were not always afforded relevant experiences prior to entering training. Radiologists need to be more proactive in encouraging the next generation of trainees. PMID:23031228
Deakin, John F.
The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.
Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert
This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…
What to ask your doctor about dementia; Alzheimer disease - what to ask your doctor; Cognitive impairment - what to ask your doctor ... Alzheimer's Association. Dementia Care Practice Recommendations ... in a Home Setting. Updated 2009. Alz.org. www.alz.org/national/ ...
This article attends to the affective-political dimensions of doctoral aspiration. It considers why doctoral students continue to hope for an 'academic good life' in spite of the depressed and precarious features of the academic present. The article emerges from 2013 research with ten doctoral students in the Arts and Social Sciences, at a…
... Migraine - what to ask your doctor; Tension-type headache - what to ask your doctor; Cluster headache - what to ask your doctor ... How can I tell if the headache I am having is dangerous? What are ... headache ? A migraine headache ? A cluster headache ? What medical ...
Purpose: In the context of far-reaching changes in higher education and the labour market, there has been extensive discussion on what constitutes graduate employability and what shapes graduates' labour market outcomes. Many of these discussions are based on skills-centred approaches and related supply-side logic. The purpose of this paper is to…
Matsouka, Kyriaki; Mihail, Dimitrios M.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the views of university graduates and human resource managers (HRMs) on graduates' employability in terms of the soft skills required by the labour market. Soft skills (personal attributes that enhance an individual's interactions, job performance and career prospects) are necessary in the labour…
Recent policy and organisational changes within UK primary care have emphasised graduated access to care, speed of access to the first available general practitioner (GP) and care being provided by a range of healthcare professionals. These trends have been strengthened by the current GP contract and Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF). Concern has been expressed that the potential for personal care is being diminished as a result and that this will reduce quality standards. This paper presents data from a study that explored with patients and GPs what personal care means and whether it has continuing importance to them. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview participants and Framework Analysis supported analysis of emerging themes. Twenty-nine patients, mainly women with young children, and twenty-three GPs were interviewed from seven practices in Lothian, Scotland, ranged by practice size and relative deprivation score. Personal care was defined mainly, though not exclusively, as care given within the context of a continuing relationship in which there is an interpersonal connection and the doctor adopts a particular consultation style. Defined in this way, it was reported to have benefits for both health outcomes and patients' experience of care. In particular, such care was thought to be beneficial in attending to the emotions that can be elicited when seeking and receiving health care and in enabling patients to be known by doctors as legitimate seekers of care from the health service. Its importance was described as being dependent upon the nature of the health problem and patients' wider familial and social circumstances. In particular, it was found to provide support to patients in their parenting and other familial caring roles. Personal care has continuing salience to patients and GPs in modern primary care in the UK. Patients equate the experience of care, not just outcomes, with high quality care. As it is mainly conceptualised and
Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines the relationship between academic success and labor market outcomes among graduating pharmacy students. Unlike previous studies, this paper characterizes labor market outcome not only as an individual's starting salary, but also whether or not the student had a position secured at the time of graduation, whether or not a signing bonus was received, and the setting in which (she will practice. Methods: A standard exit survey was administered to graduating Doctor of Pharmacy students at a Midwestern, public university within two weeks of graduation. The relationship between academic success and initial labor market outcome was assessed using cross-tabulations, chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results: There were no significant relationships between grade point averages and signing bonuses, starting salaries or employment offers. Students with higher grade point averages were less likely to work in chain community pharmacies, and more likely to work in a hospital or other health-system setting. Conclusions: The relationships between academic and direct measures of labor market outcomes (salary and bonuses were not necessarily positive, as standard economic theory predicts. Rather, the relationship is indirect, as it appears that students with greater academic success obtained employment in more clinical settings, which carry a different mix of pecuniary and non-pecuniary benefits. Type: Original Research
Cimbala, John M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States)
The primary objective of this project is to stimulate academic interest in the conventional hydropower field by supplying research support for at least eight individual Master of Science (MS) or Doctoral (PhD) level research projects, each consisting of a graduate student supervised by a faculty member. We have completed many of the individual student research projects: 2 PhD students have finished, and 4 are still working towards their PhD degree. 4 MS students have finished, and 2 are still working towards their MS degree, one of which is due to finish this April. In addition, 4 undergraduate student projects have been completed, and one is to be completed this April. These projects were supervised by 7 faculty members and an Advisory/Review Panel. Our students and faculty have presented their work at national or international conferences and have submitted several journal publications. Three of our graduate students (Keith Martin, Dan Leonard and Hosein Foroutan) have received HRF Fellowships during the course of this project. All of the remaining students are anticipated to be graduated by the end of Fall Semester 2014. All of the tasks for this project will have been completed once all the students have been graduated, although it will be another year or two until all the journal publications have been finalized based on the work performed as part of this DOE Hydropower project.
The differences between male and female doctors are investigated, and what patients expect from their doctors is examined. Some conclusions are drawn from the preferences which patients express for male and female doctors and from the different outcomes of male and female doctor-patient interactions.
Matheson, Catherine B; Matheson, David J; Saunders, John H; Howarth, Claire
The UK General Medical Council recommends that medical students have the opportunity of shadowing the outgoing new doctor whose post they will soon undertake. At the University of Nottingham the two-week shadowing period was preceded by two weeks of lectures/seminars wherein students followed sessions on topics such as common medical/surgical emergencies, contracts, time management, surviving the first two years of clinical practice, careers advice and so on. The present study aimed to gain a better knowledge and understanding of the lasting impact of a four-week preparation course for new Foundation Year 1 doctors [F1 s - interns]. The objectives chosen to achieve this aim were: 1/ to determine the extent to which the lecture/seminar course and shadowing period achieved their stated aim of smoothing the transition from life as a medical student to work as a new doctor; 2/ to evaluate perceptions of the importance of various forms of knowledge in easing the transition between medical student and new doctor In the spring of 2007, 90 graduates from Nottingham were randomly selected and then emailed a link to a short, online survey of quantitative and qualitative questions. Of these 76 responded. Analysis of quantitative data was carried out using SPSS 16.0 and employed McNemar's test. Analysis of the qualitative data was carried out using the constant comparative method. Only 31% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that the lecture/seminar part of the course prepared them well for their first FY1 post; 14% agreed that during their first job they drew on the knowledge gained during the lecture/seminar course; 94% strongly agreed or agreed that the shadowing part of the course was more useful than the lecture/seminar part. Experiential knowledge gained in the shadowing was the most highly valued, followed by procedural knowledge with propositional knowledge coming far behind. Our study shows that new doctors retrospectively value most the knowledge they are able
On Wednesday 2 April, CERN hosted its third Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber. CERN PhD students show off their posters in CERN's Main Building. Speaking to a packed house, Director-General Rolf Heuer gave the assembly's opening speech and introduced the poster session that followed. Seventeen CERN PhD students presented posters on their work, and were greeted by their CERN and University supervisors. It was a very successful event!
Duke, Dawn C; Denicolo, Pam M
Over the past two decades, there has been a flurry of government papers and policy reports worldwide calling for increased number and diversity of doctoral researchers and a broadening of the curriculum to meet the developing needs of respective national 'knowledge-driven' economies. This has been followed by position papers and best practice examples of employability skills development in boundary-crossing doctoral programmes, especially in response to these initiatives. However, there is a disassociation between this ample literature expounding the new doctorate with its broader remit, inclusivity and production of 'industry-ready' graduates and the comparatively sparse literature on the doctoral candidates' experiences of their programmes and career readiness. Within this review, we briefly outline international government initiatives and examples of the responses by Life Science and Biomedical doctoral programmes to address these various challenges. Furthermore, we explore the recent literature on the lived experience of doctoral researchers by examining their perception of the recent changes to the research context to make recommendations for universities and supervisors on how to better support an ever more diverse doctoral population for a wide range of career opportunities. Examples of how doctoral researchers themselves can make the best of currently available opportunities are also provided. © FEMS 2017.
Wood, Fiona; Martin, Sean Michael; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Elwyn, Glyn; Precious, Elizabeth; Kinnersley, Paul
The need to involve patients more in decisions about their care, the ethical imperative and concerns about ligation and complaints has highlighted the issue of informed consent and how it is obtained. In order for a patient to make an informed decision about their treatment, they need appropriate discussion of the risks and benefits of the treatment. To explore doctors' perspectives of gaining informed consent for routine surgical procedures. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews selected by purposive sampling. Data were analysed thematically. Twenty doctors in two teaching hospitals in the UK. Doctors described that while consent could be taken over a series of consultations, it was common for consent to be taken immediately prior to surgery. Juniors were often taking consent when they were unfamiliar with the procedure. Doctors used a range of communication techniques to inform patients about the procedure and its risks including quantifying risks, personalizing risk, simplification of language and use of drawings. Barriers to effective consent taking were reported to be shortage of time, clinician inexperience and patients' reluctance to be involved. Current consent processes do not appear to be ideal for many doctors. In particular, junior doctors are often not confident taking consent for surgical procedures and require more support to undertake this task. This might include written information for junior staff, observation by senior colleagues when undertaking the task and ward-based communication skills teaching on consent taking. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to reach a conclusion based on the synthesis of doctoral dissertations published about surveying (geomatic engineering by using content analysis. For this purpose, 325 doctoral dissertations published in Turkey were analyzed using content analysis technique. As a result of performed analysis, it has been determined that 70.46's% of doctoral dissertations have been published in the last fifteen years. It has been shown that most doctoral dissertations were published by Istanbul Technical University, Yıldız Technical University, Selçuk University and Karadeniz Technical University. Most of the doctorate studies have been carried out in the discipline of public measurements/ land management with the rate of %32.62. 89.54% of the publishing language of the PhD thesis is Turkish, the average number of pages is 156. 68.45% of the PhD thesis advisors have professor doctor title. The most covered subjects are geographic information systems (15.46%, GPS/GNSS (12.36% and satellite image analysis (11.24%.
Scicluna Helen A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The University of New South Wales (UNSW Faculty of Medicine replaced its old content-based curriculum with an innovative new 6-year undergraduate entry outcomes-based integrated program in 2004. This paper is an initial evaluation of the perceived and assessed clinical capabilities of recent graduates of the new outcomes-based integrated medical program compared to benchmarks from traditional content-based or process-based programs. Method Self-perceived capability in a range of clinical tasks and assessment of medical education as preparation for hospital practice were evaluated in recent graduates after 3 months working as junior doctors. Responses of the 2009 graduates of the UNSW’s new outcomes-based integrated medical education program were compared to those of the 2007 graduates of UNSW’s previous content-based program, to published data from other Australian medical schools, and to hospital-based supervisor evaluations of their clinical competence. Results Three months into internship, graduates from UNSW’s new outcomes-based integrated program rated themselves to have good clinical and procedural skills, with ratings that indicated significantly greater capability than graduates of the previous UNSW content-based program. New program graduates rated themselves significantly more prepared for hospital practice in the confidence (reflective practice, prevention (social aspects of health, interpersonal skills (communication, and collaboration (teamwork subscales than old program students, and significantly better or equivalent to published benchmarks of graduates from other Australian medical schools. Clinical supervisors rated new program graduates highly capable for teamwork, reflective practice and communication. Conclusions Medical students from an outcomes-based integrated program graduate with excellent self-rated and supervisor-evaluated capabilities in a range of clinically-relevant outcomes. The program
Ahmed, A A; Fateha, B; Benjamin, S
We examined the supply and demand of medical doctors and dentists in Bahrain. Demand for physicians and dentists was based on the objective of having a physician-to-population ratio of 1:650, and a dentist-to-population ratio of 1:5000. Analysis of the current workforce and projected graduates in the period 1998-2005 indicated that the supply of Bahraini medical doctors and dentists until the year 2005 will not be sufficient to meet the projected demand in these categories. By the year 2005, Bahraini doctors and dentists will provide 82.5% and 75.9% of medical and dental demands respectively. The remaining 17.2% of physicians and 24.1% of dentists will have to be recruited from abroad. Thus, the prospect of oversupply of Bahrainis among these categories until the year 2005 is highly unlikely.
Potvin, Geoff; Tai, Robert H.
Drawing from a national survey of Ph.D.-holding physical scientists, we present evidence that doctoral completion time is a strong predictor of future salary prospects: each additional year in graduate school corresponds to a substantially lower average salary. This is true even while controlling for typical measures of scientific merit (grant funding and publication rates) and several other structural and career factors expected to influence salaries. Extending this picture to include gender effects, we show that women earn significantly less than men overall and experience no effect of doctoral completion time on their salaries, while men see a significant gain in salary stemming from earlier completion times. Doctoral completion time is shown to be largely unconnected to measures of prior academic success, research independence, and scientific merit suggesting that doctoral completion time is, to a great extent, out of the control of individual graduate students. Nonetheless, it can be influential on an individual's future career prospects, as can gender-related effects.
Full Text Available Community-based research (CBR is an advanced form of academic service-learning through which university students, faculty, and community organizations collaborate to conduct inquiry projects aimed at producing social change. Despite its potential for advancing learning in graduate studies, little research exists on CBR implementations or outcomes in doctoral programs. This study examined the effectiveness of integrating CBR into an educational leadership doctorate across three consecutive cohorts in which students worked in teams to conduct CBR projects, each in partnership with a community organization pursuing a social justice initiative. A mixed-methods developmental case study design produced quantitative and qualitative data on students’ perceived effectiveness of cooperative/collaborative interaction and team decision making in CBR, experience with and learning from CBR in the education doctorate, and development of CBR competencies. Triangulated results overall revealed students’ (a positive attitudes toward CBR, (b enhanced understanding of and commitment to CBR and how to conduct it, (c expanded understanding and application of technical research skills, (d growth in coopera-tive/collaborative and conflict resolution skills, and (e development of leadership project management skills. These findings may assist faculty in planning innovative, authentic, applied, professional training in the education doctorate capable of advancing students’ graduate inquiry skills while also enhancing competencies for successful leadership in the field.
It is one of the hottest summer days that Cambridge has ever had.We wereclad(clothe的过去式和过去分词)in the black gown once more.However thiswill probably be my last time to wear it.I had not been wearing it that much af-ter all.After this day,it will be shipped back to my home and lie in my closet,just to be dug out many years later and the sight of it will bring me back to thisvery day.It is our graduation day,the day wher we can add a hood(头巾;兜帽)
Nicholas, Kaen E
ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committee's chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuit it's a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years
Brock, Luana; Cunha, Edileuza; Tavares, José Roberto; Gonçalves, Iran; Paola, Angelo A V de; Moisés, Valdir; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos
Stricto sensu post-graduation in Brazil was implemented in 1965 to increase university professors' teaching quality and to prepare full, independent researchers. The brazilian share in ISI publications has increased significantly since then, but little information is available on postgraduate quality. To review 29 years of the postgraduate programs in cardiology at the Federal University of São Paulo and to analyze master and doctorate graduates' characteristics regarding their origin, publications and subsequent career. We developed a questionnaire to evaluate 168 postgraduates who produced 196 theses (116 master's and 80 doctorate) over the period 1975-2004 and contacted 95.9% of them. Information on publications were obtained through the usual science databases. 30% of graduates came from the North-Northeast-Central West regions and only 50% returned to their original area. Mean age at admission was 32.5 and 34.9 years old for master and doctorate students, respectively; average program duration was, respectively, 39.0 and 43.2 months and approximately 50% went through it without any grants. Thesis publications throughout these 29 years averaged 36.5% for master's and 61.9% for doctorate, but any publishing afterwards occurred in 70.2 and 90.6% of the cases. The average impact factor of the published theses was 1.3 for master's degree and 3.1 for doctorate programs with 65.5% and 87.5% of Qualis A, respectively. Currently, there are graduates in 17 states of the country and 12 have became full professors. Although the stricto sensu program, especially the master's degree program, has many areas that need improvement, they seem to be contributing to improve professional quality and the number of brazilian indexed publications.
Klausen, Trond Beldo
This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960–1975. These are cohorts for whom university...
Omar, Ramli; Khoon, Koh Aik; Hamzah, Mohd Fauzi; Ahmadan, Siti Rohayu
This paper reports on the surveys which were conducted between 2006 and 2008 on graduates' perceptions towards the infrastructure at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). It covered three major aspects pertaining to learning, living and leisure on campus. Eight out of 14 components received overwhelming approval from our graduates. (Contains 1…
Gwekwerere, Yovita Netsai
Doctoral programs play a significant role in preparing future leaders. Science Education doctoral programs play an even more significant role preparing leaders in a field that is critical to maintaining national viability in the face of global competition. The current science education reforms have the goal of achieving science literacy for all students and for this national goal to be achieved; we need strong leadership in the field of science education. This qualitative study investigated how doctoral programs are preparing their graduates for leadership in supporting teachers to achieve the national goal of science literacy for all. A case study design was used to investigate how science education faculty interpreted the national reform goal of science literacy for all and how they reformed their doctoral courses and research programs to address this goal. Faculty, graduate students and recent graduates of three science education doctoral programs participated in the study. Data collection took place through surveys, interviews and analysis of course documents. Two faculty members, three doctoral candidates and three recent graduates were interviewed from each of the programs. Data analysis involved an interpretive approach. The National Research Council Framework for Investigating Influence of the National Standards on student learning (2002) was used to analyze interview data. Findings show that the current reforms occupy a significant part of the doctoral coursework and research in these three science education doctoral programs. The extent to which the reforms are incorporated in the courses and the way they are addressed depends on how the faculty members interpret the reforms and what they consider to be important in achieving the goal of science literacy for all. Whereas some faculty members take a simplistic critical view of the reform goals as a call to achieve excellence in science teaching; others take a more complex critical view where they question
... With Osteoporosis: How to Find a Doctor For People With Osteoporosis: How to Find a Doctor Isabel ... a doctor with expertise in osteoporosis. For many people, finding a doctor who is knowledgeable about osteoporosis ...
Spiro, J H; Roenneburg, M; Maly, B J
Physicians' emotional problems need to be recognized and treated. Intervention and prevention in this problem area have been attempted at the Medical College of Wisconsin through a programme of peer counselling designed to teach student physicians how to recognize and treat emotional difficulties faced by their peers. During the 18 months that the programme has been in operation, 20 peer counsellors reported a total 1,185 hours spent in counselling their peers, lending credence to the speculation that doctors will turn to their peers for help if, in medical school, there is acceptance of fallibility and responsiveness on the part of peers.
Newbronner, Elizabeth; Borthwick, Rachel; Finn, Gabrielle; Scales, Michael; Pearson, David
Across the UK, 13% of undergraduate medical education is undertaken in primary care (PC). Students value their experiences in this setting but uncertainty remains about the extent to which these placements influence their future practice. To explore the impact of PC based undergraduate medical education on the development of medical students and new doctors as clinicians, and on students' preparedness for practice. Mixed method study across two UK medical schools. Focus groups and individual interviews with Year 5 medical students, Foundation Year 2 doctors and GP Specialty Trainees; online surveys of Year 5 medical students and Foundation Year 2 doctors. PC placements play an important part in the development of all 'apprentice' doctors, not just those wanting to become GPs. They provide a high quality learning environment, where students can: gradually take on responsibility; build confidence; develop empathy in their approach to patient care; and gain understanding of the social context of health and illness. The study suggests that for these results to be achieved, PC placements have to be high quality, with strong links between practice-based learning and teaching/assessment in medical school. GP tutors need to be enthusiastic and students actively involved in consultations.
In many countries in Europe doctoral e-theses are an integrated part of institutional repositories, which have been set up in recent years. In some countries they have been harvested on a national level, like in the Netherlands with the ‘Promise of Science’ portal (http://www.darenet.nl/promiseofscience) . In October 2006 SURFfoundation (The Netherlands), JISC (UK) and DIVA (funded through BIBSAM in Sweden) started a common project to harvest repositories with e-theses on an international scale and to set up a freely accessible European portal and test in practice the interoperability. The project, which aims at creating a value added service for doctoral e-Theses, will finish in June 2007. In the presentation we will show some lessons learned and the first results of the Demonstrator, an interoperable portal of European doctoral e-theses in five countries: Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK. Furthermore, we will present the developments regarding the European coordination of doctoral...
Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.
This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)
Adams, A; Vail, L; Buckingham, C D; Kidd, J; Weich, S; Roter, D
This paper explores differences in how primary care doctors process the clinical presentation of depression by African American and African-Caribbean patients compared with white patients in the US and the UK. The aim is to gain a better understanding of possible pathways by which racial disparities arise in depression care. One hundred and eight doctors described their thought processes after viewing video recorded simulated patients presenting with identical symptoms strongly suggestive of depression. These descriptions were analysed using the CliniClass system, which captures information about micro-components of clinical decision making and permits a systematic, structured and detailed analysis of how doctors arrive at diagnostic, intervention and management decisions. Video recordings of actors portraying black (both African American and African-Caribbean) and white (both White American and White British) male and female patients (aged 55 years and 75 years) were presented to doctors randomly selected from the Massachusetts Medical Society list and from Surrey/South West London and West Midlands National Health Service lists, stratified by country (US v.UK), gender, and years of clinical experience (less v. very experienced). Findings demonstrated little evidence of bias affecting doctors' decision making processes, with the exception of less attention being paid to the potential outcomes associated with different treatment options for African American compared with White American patients in the US. Instead, findings suggest greater clinical uncertainty in diagnosing depression amongst black compared with white patients, particularly in the UK. This was evident in more potential diagnoses. There was also a tendency for doctors in both countries to focus more on black patients' physical rather than psychological symptoms and to identify endocrine problems, most often diabetes, as a presenting complaint for them. This suggests that doctors in both countries
Ohtsuki, Tsuyuka; Kodaka, Manami; Sakai, Rumi; Ishikura, Fuminobu; Watanabe, Yoichiro; Mann, Anthony; Haddad, Mark; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Inagaki, Masatoshi
-psychiatric doctors believe that depression care is beyond the scope of their duties. It is suggested that educational programs or guidelines for depression care developed in other countries such as the UK are not directly adaptable for Japanese non-psychiatric doctors. Developing a focused educational program that motivates non-psychiatric doctors to play a role in depression care is necessary to enhance recognition and treatment of depression in Japan.
Hewitt, Elise; Hestbaek, Lise; Pohlman, Katherine A
An outline of the minimum core competencies expected from a certified pediatric doctor of chiropractic was developed using a Delphi consensus process. The initial set of seed statements and substatements was modeled on competency documents used by organizations that oversee chiropractic and medical...... education. These statements were distributed to the Delphi panel, reaching consensus when 80% of the panelists approved each segment. The panel consisted of 23 specialists in chiropractic pediatrics (14 females) from across the broad spectrum of the chiropractic profession. Sixty-one percent of panelists...... had postgraduate pediatric certifications or degrees, 39% had additional graduate degrees, and 74% were faculty at a chiropractic institution and/or in a postgraduate pediatrics program. The panel were initially given 10 statements with related substatements formulated by the study's steering...
W. Aaron Collie
Full Text Available The preparation and publication of dissertations can be viewed as a subsystem of scholarly communication, and the treatment of data that support doctoral research can be mapped in a very controlled manner to the data curation lifecycle. Dissertation datasets represent “low-hanging fruit” for universities who are developing institutional data collections. The current workflow for processing electronic theses and dissertations (ETD at a typical American university is presented, and a new practice is proposed that includes datasets in the process of formulating, awarding, and disseminating dissertations in a way that enables them to be linked and curated together. The value proposition and new roles for the university and its student-authors, faculty, graduate programs and librarians are explored.
Almost half of all graduate students leave their doctoral programs without finishing. Who leaves, taking which skills and strengths with them, is still poorly understood, however, because it is hard to measure exactly what graduate students learn in their doctoral programs. Since the expertise required of a PhD holder is highly dependent on discipline, the development of a better understanding of graduate education and attrition requires studying the process at the departmental level. This is a qualitative study of the cultural values and norms of academic astronomy, as transmitted through the socialization of graduate students in to giving talks, asking questions, and participating in departmental speaking events. This study also looks at the conflicts that arise when implicit cultural norms, which are practiced but remain unacknowledged, are inconsistent with the official, explicit values and norms for speaking in astronomy. Doctoral students and faculty members in a single astronomy department, at a large western university, filled out a short survey about the stakes involved in astronomy speaking events. A subset of these individuals was interviewed in- depth about the goals of, and their experiences with, five departmental speaking events: Coffee Hour, Journal Club, research talks, Thesis defense talks, and Colloquia. These interviewees were: (1) graduate students who had given a verbal presentation at one of these events, and (2) graduate students and faculty members who were in the audience at a graduate student's presentation. The desired outcomes which were expressed for these speaking events included: (1) lively, informal discussion among all participants, (2) increasing graduate student verbal participation in these events as they "learn to speak like astronomers," and (3) the utility of these events in helping graduate students learn and practice their speaking and reasoning skills related to astronomy research. In practice these goals were not achieved
Griffin, Ann; Jones, Melvyn M; Khan, Nada; Park, Sophie; Rosenthal, Joe; Chrysikou, Vasiliki
Medical education in community settings is an essential ingredient of doctors' training and a key factor in recruiting general practitioners (GP). Health Education England's report 'Broadening the Foundation' recommends foundation doctors complete 4-month community placements. While Foundation GP schemes exist; other community settings, are not yet used for postgraduate training. The objective of this study was to explore how community-based training of junior doctors might be expanded into possible 'innovative community education placements' (ICEPs), examining opportunities and barriers to these developments. A qualitative study where semistructured interviews were undertaken and themes were generated deductively from the research questions, and iteratively from transcripts. UK community healthcare. Stakeholders from UK Community healthcare providers and undergraduate GP and community educators. Nine participants were interviewed; those experienced in delivering community-based undergraduate education, and others working in community settings that had not previously trained doctors. Themes identified were practicalities such as 'finance and governance', 'communication and interaction', 'delivery of training' and 'perceptions of community'. ICEPs were willing to train Foundation doctors. However, concerns were raised that large numbers and inadequate resources could undermine the quality of educational opportunities, and even cause reputational damage. Organisation was seen as a challenge, which might be best met by placing some responsibility with trainees to manage their placements. ICEP providers agreed that defined service contribution by trainees was required to make placements sustainable, and enhance learning. ICEPs stated the need for positive articulation of the learning value of placements to learners and stakeholders. This study highlighted the opportunities for foundation doctors to gain specialist and generalist knowledge in ICEPs from diverse clinical
Carr, Susan M; Lhussier, Monique; Chandler, Colin
The doctoral research terrain is changing, as new-styles, for example professional doctorates, are being developed (Park, C., 2005. New variant PhDL the changing nature of the doctorate in the UK. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 27(2), 189-207). There is a scarcity of literature aimed at supervisors (Gatfield, T., 2005, An investigation into PhD supervisory management styles: development of a dynamic conceptual model and its managerial implications. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management 27(3), 311-325) and this is particularly so in relation to professional doctorates. In this position paper we argue that the supervisory approach required for a professional doctorate student is different than that required for a PhD. Professional doctorate students, like PhD students, are required to make an explicit contribution to knowledge. Their emphasis, however, needs to be in producing knowledge that is theoretically sound, original, and of relevance to their practice area. This is of increasing importance within healthcare with the growing emphasis on patient driven translational research. As such, the students and their supervisors face unique challenges of balancing academic requirements with praxis. We suggest this requires specific tools to make explicit the dialogical relationship between a particular project and the cultural, social, educational and political aspects of its environment. We expose the potential of soft systems methodology as a means to highlight the emergent aspects of a doctoral practice development project, their respective and evolving supervisory interactions. This focus of this paper is therefore not about guiding supervision in a managerial sense, but rather at offering methodological suggestions that could underpin applied research at doctoral level. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iputo, Jehu E
Introduction The South African health system has disturbing inequalities, namely few black doctors, a wide divide between urban and rural sectors, and also between private and public services. Most medical training programs in the country consider only applicants with higher-grade preparation in mathematics and physical science, while most secondary schools in black communities have limited capacity to teach these subjects and offer them at standard grade level. The Faculty of Health Sciences at Walter Sisulu University (WSU) was established in 1985 to help address these inequities and to produce physicians capable of providing quality health care in rural South African communities. Intervention Access to the physician training program was broadened by admitting students who obtained at least Grade C (60%) in mathematics and physical science at standard grade, and who demonstrated appropriate personal attributes. An innovative curriculum, combining problem-based learning with community-based education (PBL/CBE) in small tutorial group settings, was also adopted. This approach was aimed at educating and graduating a broader cohort of students, while training future doctors to identify, analyze, and treat health problems in the rural South African context. Outcomes To date, 745 doctors (72% black Africans) have graduated from the program, and 511 students (83% black Africans) are currently enrolled. After the PBL/CBE curriculum was adopted, the attrition rate for black students dropped from 23% to 80%, and the proportion of students graduating within the minimum period rose from 55% to >70%. Many graduates are still completing internships or post-graduate training, but preliminary research shows that 36% percent of graduates practice in small towns and rural settings. Further research is underway to evaluate the impact of their training on health services in rural Eastern Cape Province and elsewhere in South Africa. Conclusions The WSU program increased access to
Rich, A.; Viney, R.; Needleman, S.; Griffin, A.; Woolf, K. V. M.
Objectives Investigate the work–life balance of doctors in training in the UK from the perspectives of trainers and trainees. Design Qualitative semistructured focus groups and interviews with trainees and trainers. Setting Postgraduate medical training in London, Yorkshire and Humber, Kent, Surrey and Sussex, and Wales during the junior doctor contract dispute at the end of 2015. Part of a larger General Medical Council study about the fairness of postgraduate medical training. Part...
Marcin Kautsch; Kathy Hartley
This paper surveys the attitudes to managerial roles shown by Polish and British doctors and their evolution over the past decades. The paper is based on a review and analysis of literature, policy documents, healthcare statistic sand semi-structured interviews. Results of this research show that in the past doctors were reluctant to assume managerial roles in the UK system, whereas they were actually keen to do so in the Polish one. Changes in both countries (more market orientation in both ...
Mehmood, Syed Imran; Norcini, John J; Borleffs, Jan C C
Career advice is an important instrument to help students with the proper specialty selection. The study aims (1) to explore the views of newly graduated doctors in Saudi Arabia about their experience with the current status of career support system during medical training and (2) to identify cross-cultural similarities and differences. A cross-sectional design study was conducted using a questionnaire to elicit the responses of participants from newly qualified doctors concerning the availability and significance of career advice. SPSS (version 11.0; Chicago, IL) was used to analyze the data and statistical tests, such as chi-square and unpaired t tests, were used to analyze the observations. A response rate of 94.7% was obtained. Among this group, 102 were males and 78 were females. Only 53% did receive career advice. The majority of men felt that career advice during medical studies was inadequate, while women were less negative (69% versus 32%; p = 0.0001). Furthermore, men were more disappointed about the possibilities for career advice after graduating than women (34% versus 13%, p = 0.0001). The results show that only half of newly graduated doctors had received any career advice during medical training. As the health care system cannot afford the potential waste of time and resources for doctors, career guidance should begin in undergraduate training so that the process of thinking about their future career starts longtime before they make their career choice.
Due to unsatisfactory number of researches investigating ELT post-graduate programs, and perceptions of academics and students in these programs regarding mediation theory of Feuerstein, this study attempted to investigate the aspects of this theory in doctorate and master programs in ELT department of a state university. Methodologically, this…
Davis, Brittany; Coryell, Joellen E.
This paper derives from a case study of a 10-day cross-cultural field study experience held in Italy in which graduate students from master and doctoral levels in adult education participated. During group reflections, several students who participated in the course expressed the value of learning through personal connections made with students as…
Joanna A Gilmore
Full Text Available Doctoral attrition consistently hovers around 50% with relevant literature identifying several mediating factors, including departmental culture, student demographics, and funding. To advance this literature, we interviewed 38 graduate faculty advisors in science, engineering, or mathematics disciplines at a research-extensive university to capture their perceptions of factors supporting graduate student success. Using a constant-comparison method, we found that faculty perceptions aligned within three major categories, termed: motivated student behaviors, formative student learning experiences, and essential student knowledge and skills. Student motivation was most prominently represented in findings. This aligns with prior studies showing that faculty tend to identify the cause of graduate student failure as lying within the students themselves and rarely discuss their role or the department’s contribution to attrition. Thus findings offer an opportunity to reflect and improve upon practice. The study also highlights actions graduate students can take to increase success, such as developing collegial relationships and early involvement in research and scholarly writing. We encourage graduate faculty advisors and others to identify ways to help graduate students overcome common obstacles to enduring and succeeding within graduate programs. Faculty perceptions are also examined by discipline and faculty rank, and directions for future research are offered.
Corrêa, Guilherme Torres; Ribeiro, Victoria Maria Brant
The scope of this research is to discuss the relevance and need for pedagogical training of university lecturers in the Public Health field. The contention is that college teaching is a practice that requires specific training, since it is characterized by complex elements that transcend the mastery of given content. Considering stricto sensu graduate studies as an important stage in the training of future university lecturers, an attempt was made to identify and analyze the subjects and practices of pedagogical training in academic masters and doctorate programs in Public Health. To achieve the research aim, this work was based on Pierre Bourdieu's field theory and on Tomaz Tadeu da Silva's curriculum theory. Results indicate that the programs do not consider the aspect of teacher training as a major issue. With regard to the Public Health field approximately 61% of masters and 38% of doctorate programs have pedagogical training subjects/practices. Furthermore, there is a tendency for technical-instrumental training, which is in line with the history of the Public Health field. The conclusion is that there is a need to develop a culture that values college and graduate Public Health teaching, considering the complexity of pedagogical practice in all its dimensions.
This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)
O'Connor, E M; Nason, G J; Manecksha, R P
Traditionally, surgery and certain surgical sub-specialities in particular have been predominantly male orientated. In recent years, there has been an increased proportion of female medical graduates which will ultimately have an effect on speciality choices. The aim of this study was to assess the gender diversity among urologists in the UK and Ireland. The total number and gender breakdown of consultant urologists and trainees in the UK and Ireland was obtained from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) and the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) membership offices. The total number and gender breakdown of medical school entrants and graduates in 2015 was obtained from the six medical schools in the Republic of Ireland. There are a total of 1,012 consultant urologists in the UK and Ireland. In the UK, 141 (14.6%) are female compared to four (8.2%) in Ireland, p= 0.531. There was a significant increase in the number of females between consultant urologists and trainees in both the UK (p=0.0001) and Ireland (p=0.015). In recent years, there has been a significant change in the percentage of female trainees in the UK and Ireland (22.8% (n=75) in 2011 vs 31.7% (n=93) in 2014, p=0.019. Between the six medical schools in Ireland, there were significantly more female entrants (n=726, 56.5%) than female graduates (n=521, 51.2%) in 2015, p=0.013.There has been a significant shift in gender diversity in urology in the UK and Ireland. Efforts to increase diversity should be pursued to attract further trainees to urology.
E M O’Connor, E M
Traditionally, surgery and certain surgical sub-specialities in particular have been predominantly male orientated. In recent years, there has been an increased proportion of female medical graduates which will ultimately have an effect on speciality choices. The aim of this study was to assess the gender diversity among urologists in the UK and Ireland. The total number and gender breakdown of consultant urologists and trainees in the UK and Ireland was obtained from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) and the Irish Society of Urology (ISU) membership offices. The total number and gender breakdown of medical school entrants and graduates in 2015 was obtained from the six medical schools in the Republic of Ireland. There are a total of 1,012 consultant urologists in the UK and Ireland. In the UK, 141 (14.6%) are female compared to four (8.2%) in Ireland, p= 0.531. There was a significant increase in the number of females between consultant urologists and trainees in both the UK (p=0.0001) and Ireland (p=0.015). In recent years, there has been a significant change in the percentage of female trainees in the UK and Ireland (22.8% (n=75) in 2011 vs 31.7% (n=93) in 2014, p=0.019. Between the six medical schools in Ireland, there were significantly more female entrants (n=726, 56.5%) than female graduates (n=521, 51.2%) in 2015, p=0.013.There has been a significant shift in gender diversity in urology in the UK and Ireland. Efforts to increase diversity should be pursued to attract further trainees to urology.