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Sample records for uk air almanac

  1. Explanatory supplement to the astronomical almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, Sean E

    2013-01-01

    The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac offers explanatory material, supplemental information and detailed descriptions of the computational models and algorithms used to produce The Astronomical Almanac, which is an annual publication prepared jointly by the US Naval Observatory and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office in the UK. Like The Astronomical Almanac, The Explanatory Supplement provides detailed coverage of modern positional astronomy. Chapters are devoted to the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, orbital ephemerides, precession, nutation, Earth rotation, and coordinate transformations. These topics have undergone substantial revisions since the last edition was published. Astronomical positions are intertwined with timescales and relativity in The Astronomical Almanac, so related chapters are provided in The Explanatory Supplement. The Astronomical Almanac also includes information on lunar and solar eclipses, physical ephemerides of solar system bodies, and calendars, so T...

  2. Nuclear industry almanac v.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, G.; Jeffs, E.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Industry Almanac. National energy profiles of 17 Western European countries are given, concentrating on electricity supply and the role nuclear power plays in meeting the demand for electric power. The nuclear industries of Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom are described and addresses of establishments and industries are listed. (U.K.)

  3. Indoor air quality: a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadge, A.

    1995-01-01

    Outdoor air quality has generally improved in the UK over the last 2 decades but during this period changing conditions within the home have tended to reduce ventilation and increase the opportunity for accumulation of undesirable levels of indoor air pollutants. Information obtained from laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that indoor air pollutants are an important cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality in the UK. This paper reviews the major indoor air pollutants of concern in the UK and considers some of the special issues relevant to indoor environment. (author) 3 figs., 37 refs

  4. Biomass and air quality the UK experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnley, E.

    2009-01-01

    Policies to encourage the use of biomass in the UK can perhaps be held up as an example of how not to develop integrated environmental policy. The UK has considered the air quality effects of biomass burning only after putting in place policies that will hugely increase the amount of biomass burning plant that will be installed. Whilst these issues are now being addressed, it will be some time before a satisfactory framework will be in place. The current situation is not a positive one for all involved - air quality practitioners, climate change policy makers and the wider biomass industry. For clean air organisations such as Environmental Protection UK and our European counterparts there are essentially two lessons to take away. The first is that we have to raise our sights to look for potential threats to air quality from wider policy measures, and flag up potential concerns at the earliest opportunity. It is easy to focus on the job in hand (for example emissions from vehicles) and miss developments further afield. Secondly, and most importantly, we have to offer our own solutions to wider environmental challenges. Climate change is likely to remain the dominant global environmental issue for decades to come; clean air agencies need to understand this and put forward low carbon solutions that offer strong synergies with air quality. The alternative is for policy makers to see air i quality standards and clean air agencies as a barrier t to progress towards a low carbon economy, rather than a positive source of solutions. (N.C.)

  5. The water almanac 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R.

    1991-01-01

    The Water Almanac 1992 - a yearbook for the entire water field - presents contributions on current topics in water engineering and in water law and environmental law and information on FRG public authorities or institutions responsible for water resources management or water research, as well as on educational facilities in this field in the FRG, Austria and Switzerland, including independent scientific institutions. The contribution on the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident for the environment in western Europe has been analysed as a separate document for retrieval from the database. (BBR) [de

  6. Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac, Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Urban, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    "The Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac" (hereafter "The Explanatory Supplement") is a comprehensive reference book on the topic of positional astronomy, covering the theories and algorithms used to produce "The Astronomical Almanac" (AsA), an annual publication produced jointly by the Nautical Almanac Office of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (HMNAO) of the UK Hydrographic Office. The first edition of The Explanatory Supplement appeared in 1961 and was reprinted with amendments during the 1970s. The second edition was printed in 1992 and reprinted until 2006. Since the second edition, several changes have taken place in positional astronomy regarding reference systems and internationally accepted models, data sets, and computational methods; these have been incorporated into the AsA. Additionally, the data presented in the AsA have been modified over the years, with new tables being added and some being discontinued. Given these changes, a new edition of The Explanatory Supplement is appropriate. The third edition has been in development for the last few years and will be available in 2010. The book is organized similarly to the second (1991) edition, with each chapter written by subject matter experts. Authors from USNO and HMNAO contributed to the majority of the book, but there are authors from Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Technical University of Dresden, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, University of Texas Austin, and University of Virginia. This paper will discuss this latest edition of the Explanatory Supplement.

  7. The Einstein almanac

    CERN Document Server

    Calaprice, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein was an exceptional human being. Perhaps nothing reflects the breadth and scope of his brilliance, his interests, and his influence better than his publications -- more than six hundred scientific papers, books, essays, reviews, and opinion pieces. Einstein began publishing in March 1901 with a scientific work that appeared in the German journal Annalen der Physik when he was twenty-two; the last publication was an editorial in the journal Common Cause which appeared a few months before his death in 1955. In the fifty-four-year interval, his published work ranged widely over relativity theory and quantum physics, nationalism, Judaism, war, peace, and education. Indeed, Einstein's literary output was so abundant that even many of his most informed admirers are not familiar with all of it. The Einstein Almanac takes a look at Einstein's year-by-year output, explaining his three-hundred most important publications and setting them into the context of his life, science, and world history. Concentr...

  8. Indians in Almanacs (1793-1815)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrick, Jon S.

    1975-01-01

    The American Indian appeared frequently in the almanac literature of 1783-1815 and was used as a source of humor, political comment, romanticism, etc, much of which contributed to the cultural conflict of the times. (JC)

  9. Stars on Local Time: A Personal Almanac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb-Roberts, M.

    2016-01-01

    First presented at INSAP VIII, the artwork A Personal Almanac is my interpretation of the familiar seasons-of-life allegory. The booklet's eight pairs of seasonal pages— spring equinox through the cross-quarter Groundhog Day—portray a life in the decades from the 1940s to the 2010s under the stars of rural Georgia, France, Miami, West Africa and the other places I have lived. A Personal Almanac is included in the art book A Durable Tale, the illustrated story of my thirty-year search in the Southeast United States and in West Africa for living memories of old star almanacs. In that odyssey I uncovered some very deep roots for an oral literature of the African desert, the nomadic bard's star story that I believe inspired creation of the first nine tablets of the standard version Babylonian Gilgamesh.

  10. Multiyear interactive computer almanac, 1800-2050

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Naval Observatory

    2005-01-01

    The Multiyear Interactive Computer Almanac (MICA Version 2.2.2 ) is a software system that runs on modern versions of Windows and Macintosh computers created by the U.S. Naval Observatory's Astronomical Applications Department, especially for astronomers, surveyors, meteorologists, navigators and others who regularly need accurate information on the positions, motions, and phenomena of celestial objects. MICA produces high-precision astronomical data in tabular form, tailored for the times and locations specified by the user. Unlike traditional almanacs, MICA computes these data in real time, eliminating the need for table look-ups and additional hand calculations. MICA tables can be saved as standard text files, enabling their use in other applications. Several important new features have been added to this edition of MICA, including: extended date coverage from 1800 to 2050; a redesigned user interface; a graphical sky map; a phenomena calculator (eclipses, transits, equinoxes, solstices, conjunctions, oppo...

  11. Development of Nautical Almanac at Korea Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, In-Woo; Shin, Junho

    1994-12-01

    In Korea Astronomy Observatory, we developed a S/W package to compile the Korean Nautical Almanac. We describe the motivation to develop the S/W and explain the S/W package in general terms. In appendix, we describe the procedure to calculate the polaris table in more detail. When we developed the S/W, we paid much attention to produce accurate data. We also made great effort to automate the compilation of Nautical Almanac as far as possible, since the compilation is time consuming labour extensive. As a result, the S/W we developed turns out to be very accurate and efficient to compile Nautical Almanac. In fact, we could compile a Korean Nautical Almanac in a few days.

  12. Air quality management: evolution of policy and practice in the UK as exemplified by the experience of English local government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, C. I.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Woodfield, N. K.

    The air quality management (AQM) framework in the UK is designed to be an effects-based solution to air pollutants currently affecting human health. The AQM process has been legislated through The Environment Act 1995, which required the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published. AQM practice and capability within local authorities has flourished since the publication of the NAQS in March 1997. This paper outlines the policy framework within which the UK operates, both at a domestic and European level, and reviews the air quality management process relating to current UK policy and EU policy. Data from questionnaire surveys are used to indicate the involvement of various sectors of local government in the air quality management process. These data indicate an increasing use of monitoring, and use of air dispersion modelling by English local authorities. Data relating to the management of air quality, for example, the existence and work of air quality groups, dissemination of information to the public and policy measures in place on a local scale to improve air quality, have also been reported. The UK NAQS has been reviewed in 1999 to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the socio-economic issues involved. The AQM process, as implemented by UK local authorities, provides an effective model for other European member states with regards to the implementation of the Air Quality Framework Directive. The future direction of air quality policy in the UK is also discussed.

  13. The UK National Air Quality Strategy: the effects of the proposed changes on Local Air Quality Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, C.I.; Ling, K.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [Univ. of the West of England, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Bristol (GB)] [and others

    1999-07-01

    The UK has implemented a system of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) to tackle the many contemporary sources of air pollution, notably transport, industry and domestic fuel burning, in a holistic manner. The current legislation stems from the Environment Act 1995, which required a National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published outlining the Governments policies with respect to the assessment and management of air quality. The NAQS, originally published in March 1997, is on a rolling programme of reviews in order to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the economic and social issues involved. Following the first review (currently at consultation state), this paper will comment on how the proposed changes may affect the LAQM process. The proposed changes will also be summarised and discussed in the context of European Union air quality objectives and the economic analysis of NAQS.

  14. Modelling future impacts of air pollution using the multi-scale UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, Tim; Dore, Anthony J; ApSimon, Helen; Hall, Jane; Kryza, Maciej

    2013-11-01

    Integrated assessment modelling has evolved to support policy development in relation to air pollutants and greenhouse gases by providing integrated simulation tools able to produce quick and realistic representations of emission scenarios and their environmental impacts without the need to re-run complex atmospheric dispersion models. The UK Integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) has been developed to investigate strategies for reducing UK emissions by bringing together information on projected UK emissions of SO2, NOx, NH3, PM10 and PM2.5, atmospheric dispersion, criteria for protection of ecosystems, urban air quality and human health, and data on potential abatement measures to reduce emissions, which may subsequently be linked to associated analyses of costs and benefits. We describe the multi-scale model structure ranging from continental to roadside, UK emission sources, atmospheric dispersion of emissions, implementation of abatement measures, integration with European-scale modelling, and environmental impacts. The model generates outputs from a national perspective which are used to evaluate alternative strategies in relation to emissions, deposition patterns, air quality metrics and ecosystem critical load exceedance. We present a selection of scenarios in relation to the 2020 Business-As-Usual projections and identify potential further reductions beyond those currently being planned. © 2013.

  15. A survey of the transport of radioactive materials by air to, from and within the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.; Watson, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive materials are frequently transported overseas by air for medical and industrial purposes. Among the advantages of this mode of transport is that urgent delivery is often required because some radionuclides are short lived. There are also a limited number of shipments by air within the UK. Scheduled passenger services or freight only aircraft may be used. Packages of radioactive materials are transported in aircraft holds at recommended segregation distances from areas occupied by passengers and crew. Many workers are involved in air transport and it is necessary to have procedures in place to minimise their exposure to ionising radiation

  16. 150 Years of the American Nautical Almanac Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, S. J.

    1999-05-01

    In 1849, 50 years before the founding of the American Astronomical Society, the American Nautical Almanac Office was established in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Although the British had published a Nautical Almanac since 1767, both patriotic and practical reasons lay behind the founding of an American Nautical Almanac Office in the context of the growth of science in the United States. Lt. Charles Henry Davis served as the first Superintendent. In 1866 the Office moved to Washington, D. C., and beginning in 1893 it was physically located at the new (present) site of the U. S. Naval Observatory, of which it became a part over the next few years, and where it has since remained. >From its beginning the work of the Office was much broader than the publication of data for navigation. The Office also sought to improve the theories of motion of the Sun, Moon and planets, and the astronomical constants on which the Almanac was based. Under Simon Newcomb, Superintendent of the Office from 1877 until his retirement in 1897, a consistent system of constants was devised; some of these constants remained unchanged until 1984. The American Nautical Almanac Office was dominated before World War II by its Directors William S. Eichelberger (1910-1929) and A. James Robertson (1929-1939). During the War years Wallace J. Eckert introduced punched card techniques to the Office. Gerald Clemence used these techniques to improve planetary theories during his years as Director (1945-1958), and also ushered in the era of the electronic computer for both research and production. International collaboration was a hallmark of the tenures of Clemence, Edgar Woolard, Raynor Duncombe and P. K. Seidelmann, who also implemented changes necessitated by the Space Age. Since 1990 the Nautical Almanac Office has been part of the Astronomical Applications Department of the Naval Observatory.

  17. Air quality management: evolution of policy and practice in the UK as exemplified by the experience of English local government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, C.I.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Woodfield, N.K. [University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom). Air Quality Research Group, Dept. of Environmental Sciences

    2001-03-01

    The air quality management (AQM) framework in the UK is designed to be an effects-based solution to air pollutants currently affecting human health. The AQM process has been legislated through The Environment Act 1995, which required the National Air Quality Strategy (NAQS) to be published. AQM practice and capability within local authorities has flourished since the publication of the NAQS in March 1997. This paper outlines the policy framework within which the UK operates, both at a domestic and European level, and reviews the air quality management process relating to current UK policy and EU policy. Data from questionnaire surveys are used to indicate the involvement of various sectors of local government in the air quality management process. These data indicate an increasing use of monitoring, and use of air dispersion modelling by English local authorities. Data relating to the management of air quality, for example, the existence and work of air quality groups, dissemination of information to the public and policy measures in place on a local scale to improve air quality, have also been reported. The UK NAQS has been reviewed in 1999 to reflect developments in European legislation, technological and scientific advances, improved air pollution modelling techniques and an increasingly better understanding of the socio-economic issues involved. The AQM process, as implemented by UK local authorities, provides an effective model for other European member states with regards to the implementation of the Air Quality Framework Directive. The future direction of air quality policy in the UK is also discussed. (Author)

  18. A Method for Correlation of Gravestone Weathering and Air Quality (SO2), West Amidlands, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michael John

    From the beginning of the Industrial Revolution through the environmental revolution of the 1970s Britain suffered the effects of poor air quality primarily from particulate matter and acid in the form of NOx and SO x compounds. Air quality stations across the region recorded SO 2 beginning in the 1960s however the direct measurement of air quality prior to 1960 is lacking and only anecdotal notations exist. Proxy records including lung tissue samples, particulates in sediments cores, lake acidification studies and gravestone weathering have all been used to reconstruct the history of air quality. A 120-year record of acid deposition reconstructed from lead-lettered marble gravestone weathering combined with SO2 measurements from the air monitoring network across the West Midlands, UK region beginning in the 1960s form the framework for this study. The study seeks to create a spatial and temporal correlation between the gravestone weathering and measured SO 2. Successful correlation of the dataset from 1960s to the 2000s would allow a paleo-air quality record to be generated from the 120-year record of gravestone weathering. Decadal gravestone weathering rates can be estimated by non-linear regression analysis of stone loss at individual cemeteries. Gravestone weathering rates are interpolated across the region through Empirical Bayesian Kriging (EBK) methods performed through ArcGISRTM and through a land use based approach based on digitized maps of land use. Both methods of interpolation allow for the direct correlation of gravestone weathering and measured SO2 to be made. Decadal scale correlations of gravestone weathering rates and measured SO2 are very weak and non-existent for both EBK and the land use based approach. Decadal results combined together on a larger scale for each respective method display a better visual correlation. However, the relative clustering of data at lower SO2 concentrations and the lack of data at higher SO2 concentrations make the

  19. Applying air pollution modelling within a multi-criteria decision analysis framework to evaluate UK air quality policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalabi, Zaid; Milojevic, Ai; Doherty, Ruth M.; Stevenson, David S.; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Milner, James; Vieno, Massimo; Williams, Martin; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-10-01

    A decision support system for evaluating UK air quality policies is presented. It combines the output from a chemistry transport model, a health impact model and other impact models within a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework. As a proof-of-concept, the MCDA framework is used to evaluate and compare idealized emission reduction policies in four sectors (combustion in energy and transformation industries, non-industrial combustion plants, road transport and agriculture) and across six outcomes or criteria (mortality, health inequality, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity, crop yield and air quality legal compliance). To illustrate a realistic use of the MCDA framework, the relative importance of the criteria were elicited from a number of stakeholders acting as proxy policy makers. In the prototype decision problem, we show that reducing emissions from industrial combustion (followed very closely by road transport and agriculture) is more advantageous than equivalent reductions from the other sectors when all the criteria are taken into account. Extensions of the MCDA framework to support policy makers in practice are discussed.

  20. Relationships between air-tightness and its influencing factors of post-2006 new-build dwellings in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei [School of Architecture, Design and Environment, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Addressing air leakage of dwellings is important to improving energy efficiency and thermal comfort. This paper reports on the air permeability test results of 287 post-2006 new-build dwellings in the UK. The paper explores the relationships between air-tightness and its influencing factors including build method, dwelling type, management context, design target, season, number of significant penetrations, and envelope and floor area. One-way ANOVA analysis was utilised to compare means of air permeability in relation to the individual factors, and two- and three-way ANOVA analyses were applied for examining the interactions between them. The air-tightness of the dwellings averaged 5.97 m{sup 3}/(h m{sup 2}) at 50 Pa, which has improved from UK historic data. Dwellings built using precast concrete panels were significantly air-tighter than those built using timber frame, whilst those masonry and reinforced concrete frame dwellings were most leaky. Greater extent of innovative practice and 'self-build' procurement led to achieving superior air-tightness. Interaction was observed between 'build method' and 'dwelling type' and between 'dwelling type' and 'management context'. A modest positive correlation was noticed between air permeability and design target, which became weak in relation to the number of significant penetrations and envelope area. Applying the linear regression technique a predictive model is developed for estimating air permeability of dwellings. This model integrates the influencing factors and their significant interactions. The findings should contribute to future research in predicting impacts of controlling the influencing factors on achieving air-tightness of dwellings more consistently. (author)

  1. Air pollution, deprivation and health: understanding relationships to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, H; Barnes, J; Jones, S J; Longhurst, J W S; Scally, G; Hayes, E

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to air quality management efforts by reducing air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities. An ecological study assessed small-area associations between air pollution (nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter), deprivation status and health outcomes in Wales, UK. Air pollution concentrations were highest in 'most' deprived areas. When considered separately, deprivation-health associations were stronger than air pollution-health associations. Considered simultaneously, air pollution added to deprivation-health associations; interactions between air pollution and deprivation modified and strengthened associations with all-cause and respiratory disease mortality, especially in 'most' deprived areas where most-vulnerable people lived and where health needs were greatest. There is a need to reduce air pollution-related risks for all. However, it is also the case that greater health gains can result from considering local air pollution problems and solutions in the context of wider health-determinants and acting on a better understanding of relationships. Informed and co-ordinated air pollution mitigation and public health action in high deprivation and pollution areas can reduce risks and inequalities. To achieve this, greater public health integration and collaboration in local air quality management policy and practice is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Characterisation and quantification of the sources of PM10 during air pollution episodes in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, David; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Tubb, A.

    2006-01-01

    Data for concentrations of PM 10 and gaseous pollutants from sites in the UK Automatic Urban and Rural Network have been examined during periods of elevated concentrations of PM 10 . The ratios of concentrations of PM 10 to those of the other pollutants were used to determine the most probable source of the additional particles. The hypothesis is that because the concentrations of PM 10 were divided by those of the other pollutants, the ratio should decrease when PM 10 and the other pollutants have a common source. Conversely, the ratio should increase when the sources are different. During episodes where road traffic was the most probable source of the additional particles, the ratios of concentrations of PM 10 to carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen did decrease, but the comparable ratios for sulphur dioxide and ozone increased. In contrast, during episodes known to have been caused by construction activity, all these ratios increased. This is taken to show that the basic hypothesis is valid. For prolonged episodes, it was possible to use data averaged over the total duration of the episode for the purposes of source identification. For sporadic construction, or other short-duration episodes, it was necessary to use time series data. The data have also been used to calculate the differences between hourly average concentrations of pollutants measured during episodes and long-term hourly average concentrations. These have been used to model the additional PM 10 during air pollution episodes associated with construction activities and road traffic emissions. This confirms the lack of relationship between PM 10 and other pollutants during construction works. During episodes arising from road traffic emissions, there was good agreement between measured and modelled additional concentrations of PM 10 when an appropriate factor, F, related to the contribution of road traffic emissions to PM 10 at different site types was applied. The values used were 0.2 (Suburban

  3. Ceque System of Cuzco: A Yearly Calendar-Almanac in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidema, R. Tom

    The Incas used for the administration of Cuzco, the capital of their empire, and its valley a system of 41 directions, called ceque, as viewed from their central temple of the Sun. This system registered their concerns with space, including ritual space, hierarchy, and time, the latter in the form of a detailed calendar-almanac of weekly, monthly, seasonal, and yearly activities. From Inca times are also preserved some textiles that represent different regular calendars concerning the sun, moon, and stars. Detailed ethnohistoric evidence allows the reconstruction of the Ceque calendar-almanac.

  4. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, D Amutha; Boccaccini, A R; Deegan, D; Cheeseman, C R

    2008-11-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable.

  5. Air pollution control residues from waste incineration: Current UK situation and assessment of alternative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amutha Rani, D.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Deegan, D.; Cheeseman, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Current disposal options for APC residues in the UK and alternative treatment technologies developed world-wide have been reviewed. APC residues are currently landfilled in the UK where they undergo in situ solidification, although the future acceptability of this option is uncertain because the EU waste acceptance criteria (WAC) introduce strict limits on leaching that are difficult to achieve. Other APC residue treatment processes have been developed which are reported to reduce leaching to below relevant regulatory limits. The Ferrox process, the VKI process, the WES-PHix process, stabilisation/solidification using cementitious binders and a range of thermal treatment processes are reviewed. Thermal treatment technologies convert APC residues combined with other wastes into inert glass or glass-ceramics that encapsulate heavy metals. The waste management industry will inevitably use the cheapest available option for treating APC residues and strict interpretation and enforcement of waste legislation is required if new, potentially more sustainable technologies are to become commercially viable

  6. Modelling relationships between lichen bioindicators, air quality and climate on a national scale: Results from the UK OPAL air survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed, Lindsay; Wolseley, Pat; Gosling, Laura; Davies, Linda; Power, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution has many negative effects on the natural environment, from changes in plant growth patterns to loss of ecosystem function. This study uses citizen science to investigate national-scale patterns in the distribution and abundance of selected lichen species on tree trunks and branches, and to relate these to air pollution and climate. Volunteers collected data for nine lichen indicators on 19,334 deciduous trees. Submitted data provided information on species-level patterns, and were used to derive composite lichen indices. Multiple linear regression and ANCOVA were used to model the relationships between lichen response variables on Quercus spp. and pollution, climate and location. The study demonstrated significant relationships between patterns in indicator lichens and levels of N- and S-containing pollutants on trunks and twigs. The derived lichen indices show great potential as a tool to provide information on local, site-specific levels of air quality. -- Highlights: •Data on presence and abundance of selected lichens were collected by members of the public. •Indicator species and indices were modelled against air pollution and climate data. •Lichens and indices show significant relationships with nitrogenous air pollution. •Lichen indices are useful tools for providing information on local air quality. -- Data on selected lichen taxa collected by members of the public in England is used to show the relationship of indicator taxa and pollution indices to air pollution and climate data

  7. 'Ye Olde Hot Aire' : reporting on human contributions to climate change in the UK tabloid press

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykoff, Maxwell T; Mansfield, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This letter explores daily print media coverage of climate change in four United Kingdom (UK) tabloid newspapers: The Sun (and News of the World), Daily Mail (and Mail on Sunday), the Daily Express (and Sunday Express), and the Mirror (and Sunday Mirror). Through examinations of content in articles over the last seven years (2000-2006), triangulated with semi-structured interviews of journalists and editors, the study finds that UK tabloid coverage significantly diverged from the scientific consensus that humans contribute to climate change. Moreover, there was no consistent increase in the percentage of accurate coverage throughout the period of analysis and across all tabloid newspapers, and these findings are not consistent with recent trends documented in United States and UK 'prestige press' or broadsheet newspaper reporting. Findings from interviews indicate that inaccurate reporting may be linked to the lack of specialist journalists in the tabloid press. This study therefore contributes to wider discussions of socio-economic inequality, media and the environment. Looking to newspapers that are consumed by typically working class readership, this article contributes to ongoing investigations related to what media representations mean for ongoing science-policy interactions as well as potentialities for public engagement

  8. Twenty years of measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in UK ambient air by nationwide air quality networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Andrew S; Brown, Richard J C; Coleman, Peter J; Conolly, Christopher; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C; Butterfield, David M; Sarantaridis, Dimitris; Donovan, Brian J; Roberts, Ian

    2013-06-01

    The impact of human activities on the health of the population and of the wider environment has prompted action to monitor the presence of toxic compounds in the atmosphere. Toxic organic micropollutants (TOMPs) are some of the most insidious and persistent of these pollutants. Since 1991 the United Kingdom has operated nationwide air quality networks to assess the presence of TOMPs, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in ambient air. The data produced in 2010 marked 20 years of nationwide PAH monitoring. This paper marks this milestone by providing a novel and critical review of the data produced since nationwide monitoring began up to the end of 2011 (the latest year for which published data is available), discussing how the networks performing this monitoring has evolved, and elucidating trends in the concentrations of the PAHs measured. The current challenges in the area and a forward look to the future of air quality monitoring for PAHs are also discussed briefly.

  9. Applying the ecosystem service concept to air quality management in the UK: a case study for ammonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Hicks, Kevin; Morrissey, Tim

    2011-01-01

    in magnitude to those for human health impacts. The ecosystem service approach thus offers the potential to provide a holistic appraisal of the effects of emission reductions, and could therefore make a valuable contribution to future air quality management. However, improvements in data collection...... feasibility of using an ecosystem services approach to appraise alternative scenarios for controlling agricultural ammonia emissions in the UK. The effect of ammonia emission reductions on ecosystems service delivery was assessed using an impact pathway approach. A ‘weakest link’ analysis identified...... that economic valuation of impacts on many key ecosystem services was constrained by inadequate dose–response relationships to predict physical changes in service flows and/or by an inability to produce economic valuations of the predicted physical changes. For effects on biodiversity, both the timescale...

  10. Survey of gaseous air pollutants at selected UK sites: XIX. Data digest for Stevenage, Hertfordshire, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.S.; Drury, V.; Lilley, K.; Powell, K.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient air-quality measurements of six gaseous pollutants continued during 1984 at Stevenage, Hertfordshire sponsored by the Department of the Environment. These data are presented here in the form of frequency distributions, averages, and other parameters for winter, summer, annual, and monthly periods. Time-series graphs of pollutant concentrations for 1984 and of the historical data base between April 1977 and December 1984 are also included.

  11. Survey of gaseous air pollutants at selected UK sites: XVIII. Data digest for Sibton, Suffolk, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.; Drury, V.; Lilley, K.; Powell, K.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient air-quality measurements of ozone continued during 1984 at Sibton, Suffolk sponsored by the Department of the Environment. Insolation was also recorded. These data are presented in the form of frequency distributions, averages, and other parameters for winter, summer, annual, and monthly periods. Time-series graphs of ozone concentrations for 1984 and of the historical data base between July 1973 and December 1984 are also included.

  12. Improving the Determination of Eastern Elongations of Planetary Satellites in the Astronomical Almanac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rura, Christopher; Stollberg, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The Astronomical Almanac is an annual publication of the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and contains a wide variety of astronomical data used by astronomers worldwide as a general reference or for planning observations. Included in this almanac are the times of greatest eastern and northern elongations of the natural satellites of the planets, accurate to 0.1 hour UT. The production code currently used to determine elongation times generates X and Y coordinates for each satellite (16 total) in 5 second intervals. This consequentially caused very large data files, and resulted in the program devoted to determining the elongation times to be computationally intensive. To make this program more efficient, we wrote a Python program to fit a cubic spline to data generated with a 6-minute time step. This resulted in elongation times that were found to agree with those determined from the 5 second data currently used in a large number of cases and was tested for 16 satellites between 2017 and 2019. The accuracy of this program is being tested for the years past 2019 and, if no problems are found, the code will be considered for production of this section of The Astronomical Almanac.

  13. Element composition and mineralogical characterisation of air pollution control residue from UK energy-from-waste facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogush, Anna [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment (CREE), Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering (CEGE), University College London UCL, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A., E-mail: j.stegemann@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Resource Efficiency & the Environment (CREE), Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering (CEGE), University College London UCL, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Wood, Ian [Department of Earth Sciences, University College London UCL, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Center for Advanced Microstructures & Devices, Louisiana State University, 6980 Jefferson Hwy, Baton Rouge, LA 70806 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • 66 elements, including “critical strategic elements” were determined in UK EfW APC residues. • Metal pollutants (Zn, Pb, As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sb, Sn, Se, Ag and In) are enriched in APC residues. • Metal pollutants were widely associated with fine deposits of highly soluble CaCl{sub x}OH{sub 2−x}. • Specific metal (Zn, Pb, Cu)-bearing minerals were also detected in APC residues. - Abstract: Air pollution control (APC) residues from energy-from-waste (EfW) are alkaline (corrosive) and contain high concentrations of metals, such as zinc and lead, and soluble salts, such as chlorides and sulphates. The EPA 3050B-extractable concentrations of 66 elements, including critical elements of strategic importance for advanced electronics and energy technologies, were determined in eight APC residues from six UK EfW facilities. The concentrations of Ag (6–15 mg/kg) and In (1–13 mg/kg), as well as potential pollutants, especially Zn (0.26–0.73 wt.%), Pb (0.05–0.2 wt.%), As, Cd, Cu, Mo, Sb, Sn and Se were found to be enriched in all APC residues compared to average crustal abundances. Results from a combination of scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and also powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy give an exceptionally full understanding of the mineralogy of these residues, which is discussed in the context of other results in the literature. The present work has shown that the bulk of the crystalline phases present in the investigated APC residues include Ca-based phases, such as CaCl{sub x}OH{sub 2−x}, CaCO{sub 3}, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaSO{sub 4}, and CaO, as well as soluble salts, such as NaCl and KCl. Poorly-crystalline aragonite was identified by FTIR. Sulphur appears to have complex redox speciation, presenting as both anhydrite and hannebachite in some UK EfW APC residues. Hazardous elements (Zn and Pb) were widely associated with soluble Ca- and Cl-bearing phases

  14. Characterisation and quantification of the sources of PM{sub 10} during air pollution episodes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, David [Environmental Quality Unit, Department of Planning, Transport and Sustainable Development, Bristol City Council, The CREATE Centre, Smeaton Road, Bristol BS1 6XN (United Kingdom); Longhurst, J.W.S.; Tubb, A. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-01

    Data for concentrations of PM{sub 10} and gaseous pollutants from sites in the UK Automatic Urban and Rural Network have been examined during periods of elevated concentrations of PM{sub 10}. The ratios of concentrations of PM{sub 10} to those of the other pollutants were used to determine the most probable source of the additional particles. The hypothesis is that because the concentrations of PM{sub 10} were divided by those of the other pollutants, the ratio should decrease when PM{sub 10} and the other pollutants have a common source. Conversely, the ratio should increase when the sources are different. During episodes where road traffic was the most probable source of the additional particles, the ratios of concentrations of PM{sub 10} to carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen did decrease, but the comparable ratios for sulphur dioxide and ozone increased. In contrast, during episodes known to have been caused by construction activity, all these ratios increased. This is taken to show that the basic hypothesis is valid. For prolonged episodes, it was possible to use data averaged over the total duration of the episode for the purposes of source identification. For sporadic construction, or other short-duration episodes, it was necessary to use time series data. The data have also been used to calculate the differences between hourly average concentrations of pollutants measured during episodes and long-term hourly average concentrations. These have been used to model the additional PM{sub 10} during air pollution episodes associated with construction activities and road traffic emissions. This confirms the lack of relationship between PM{sub 10} and other pollutants during construction works. During episodes arising from road traffic emissions, there was good agreement between measured and modelled additional concentrations of PM{sub 10} when an appropriate factor, F, related to the contribution of road traffic emissions to PM{sub 10} at different site types

  15. Assessment of environmental co-benefits of energy system decarbonisation - the case of UK air quality using Remote Sensing and Model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Z.; Konadu, D. D.; Damoah, R.

    2016-12-01

    The UK has a binding obligation to reduce GHG emission by 80% (based on 1990 levels) by 2050. Meeting this target requires extensive decarbonisation of the UK energy system. Different pathways that achieve this target at the lowest system costs are being explored at different levels of policy and decisions on future energy infrastructure. Whilst benefits of decarbonisation are mainly focused on the impacts on climate change, there are other potential environmental and health impacts such as air-quality. In particular, a decrease in fossil fuel use by directly substituting current systems with low-carbon technologies could lead to significant reductions in the concentrations of SO2, NOX, CO and other atmospheric pollutants. So far, the proposed decarbonisation pathways tend to target the electricity sector first, followed by a transition in transport and heating technologies and use. However, the spatial dimension of where short term changes in the energy sector occur in relation to high density population areas is not taken into account when defining the energy transition strategies. This may lead to limited short-term improvements in air quality within urban areas, where use of fossil fuels for heating and transport is the main contribution to overall atmospheric pollutant levels. It is therefore imperative to explore decarbonisation strategies that prioritise transition in sectors of the energy system that produce immediate improvements in air quality in key regions of the UK. This study aims to use a combination of Remote Sensing observations and atmospheric chemistry/transport modelling approaches to estimate and map the atmospheric pollutants impact of the traditional approach of decarbonising electricity first compared to a slower transition in the electricity sector, but faster change in end use sectors (heating and transport). This would provide an additional standard to compare future energy system pathways beyond the traditional metrics of cost and GHG

  16. Air pollution, deprivation and health: Understanding relationships to add value to local air quality management policy and practice in Wales, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Brunt, H.; Barnes, J.; Jones, S.; Longhurst, J.; Scally, G.; Hayes, E. T.

    2017-01-01

    Background \\ud Air pollution exposure reduces life expectancy. Air pollution, deprivation and poor-health status combinations can create increased and disproportionate disease burdens. Problems and solutions are rarely considered in a broad public health context, but doing so can add value to air quality management efforts by reducing air pollution risks, impacts and inequalities.\\ud \\ud Methods \\ud An ecological study assessed small-area associations between air pollution (nitrogen dioxide a...

  17. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ince, M; Wheatley, A [Loughborough Univ. of Technology (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research.

  18. Environmental health research in the UK and European Union : research priorities in water and air pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ince, M.; Wheatley, A.

    1996-01-01

    The contents are involvement of the European community, integration of research and development programmes ; surface water quality and pollution incidents; surface water pollution in the UK ; eutrophication ; drinking water quality ; causes and current treatment for removal of pollutants ; future causes of water pollution ; and , water and wastewater research

  19. Implications of chiral signatures of PCBs in soil, outdoor, and indoor air in the West Midlands conurbation, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamshidi, A.; Hazrati, S.; Harrad, S. [Birmigham Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    This paper provided additional data related to a study conducted to determine chiral signatures of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in outdoor air and topsoil from urban, rural and semi-urban locations in the United Kingdom's West Midlands conurbation. The study hypothesized that the ventilation of PCB-contaminated indoor air was a principal source of the racemic PCBs observed in outdoor air. Measurements of chiral signatures of PCBs in indoor air were measured. Chiral signatures of PCB 136 and 149 were expressed in terms of enantiomeric excess. Outdoor air and soil samples were collected from 10 sites located on a southwest to northeast transect of the conurbation at intervals of between 3 and 17 km. Topsoil and air samples were collected on a monthly basis to examine seasonal variability. Passive air samplers were used to provide a time-integrated atmospheric signal over each sampling period. Twenty indoor air samples were collected using PUF disk samplers. All samples were then extracted, purified, and subjected to enantioselective gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Results suggested that chiral signatures in outdoor air for all target PCBs were racemic at all locations, and confirmed earlier hypotheses that the ventilation of PCB-contaminated indoor air is the principal source of PCB contamination in the urban atmosphere. It was concluded that actions to reduce PCB stocks remaining in use in indoor environments will result in a significant reduction in atmospheric concentrations. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Cause-specific mortality in professional flight crew and air traffic control officers: findings from two UK population-based cohorts of over 20,000 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stavola, Bianca L; Pizzi, Costanza; Clemens, Felicity; Evans, Sally Ann; Evans, Anthony D; dos Santos Silva, Isabel

    2012-04-01

    Flight crew are exposed to several potential occupational hazards. This study compares mortality rates in UK flight crew to those in air traffic control officers (ATCOs) and the general population. A total of 19,489 flight crew and ATCOs were identified from the UK Civil Aviation Authority medical records and followed to the end of 2006. Consented access to medical records and questionnaire data provided information on demographic, behavioral, clinical, and occupational variables. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were estimated for these two occupational groups using the UK general population. Adjusted mortality hazard ratios (HR) for flight crew versus ATCOs were estimated via Cox regression models. A total of 577 deaths occurred during follow-up. Relative to the general population, both flight crew (SMR 0.32; 95% CI 0.30, 0.35) and ATCOs (0.39; 0.32, 0.47) had lower all-cause mortality, mainly due to marked reductions in mortality from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases, although flight crew had higher mortality from aircraft accidents (SMR 42.8; 27.9, 65.6). There were no differences in all-cause mortality (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.79, 1.25), or in mortality from any major cause, between the two occupational groups after adjustment for health-related variables, again except for those from aircraft accidents. The latter ratios, however, declined with increasing number of hours. The low all-cause mortality observed in both occupational groups relative to the general population is consistent with a strong "healthy worker effect" and their low prevalence of smoking and other risk factors. Mortality among flight crew did not appear to be influenced by occupational exposures, except for a rise in mortality from aircraft accidents.

  1. Preserving The UK-US Special Relationship: A Tactically Capable And Interoperable Royal Air Force In 2036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Maxwell Air Force Base , Alabama July 2015 / June 2016 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. AU/ACSC/Radley J...Force in the context of the United States’ pivot to Asia, pursuit of the ‘Third Offset, and the potential for future warfare in an Anti-Access/Area...upholding the contemporary rules- based international order, the United Kingdom is likely to remain committed to maintaining a close strategic

  2. Survey of gaseous air pollutants at selected UK sites: XX. Data digest for Central London Laboratory, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.; Drury, V.J.; Lilley, K.; Powell, K.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient air-quality measurements of six gaseous pollutants plus black smoke and particulate lead continued during 1984 at the Central London Laboratory. The data are presented here in the form of frequency distributions, averages, and other parameters for winter, summer, annual and monthly periods. Time-series graphs of pollutant concentrations for 1984 and of the historical data base between July 1972 and December 1984 are also included.

  3. Survey of gaseous air pollutants at selected UK sites: XXI. Data digest for Cromwell Road, London, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broughton, G.F.J.; Bower, J.; Drury, V.J.; Lilley, K.; Powell, K.

    1987-01-01

    Ambient air-quality measurements of four gaseous pollutants plus black smoke and particulate lead continued during 1984 at the Cromwell Road kerbside site sponsored by the Department of the Environment. These data are presented here in the form of frequency distributions, averages, and other parameters for winter, summer, annual and monthly periods. Time-series graphs of pollutant concentrations for 1984 and of the historical data base between March 1973 and December 1984 are also included.

  4. Road traffic noise, air pollution and incident cardiovascular disease: A joint analysis of the HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yutong; Hodgson, Susan; Blangiardo, Marta; Gulliver, John; Morley, David; Fecht, Daniela; Vienneau, Danielle; de Hoogh, Kees; Key, Tim; Hveem, Kristian; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution on incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. In pooled complete-case sample of the three cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom (N = 355,732), 21,081 incident all CVD cases including 5259 ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 2871 cerebrovascular cases were ascertained between baseline (1993-2010) and end of follow-up (2008-2013) through medical record linkage. Annual mean 24-hour weighted road traffic noise (Lden) and air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm [PM10], ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5] and nitrogen dioxide [NO2]) exposure at baseline address was modelled using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU) and European-wide Land Use Regression models. Individual-level covariate data were harmonised and physically pooled across the three cohorts. Analysis was via Cox proportional hazard model with mutual adjustments for both noise and air pollution and potential confounders. No significant associations were found between annual mean Lden and incident CVD, IHD or cerebrovascular disease in the overall population except that the association with incident IHD was significant among current-smokers. In the fully adjusted models including adjustment for Lden, an interquartile range (IQR) higher PM10 (4.1 μg/m3) or PM2.5 (1.4 μg/m3) was associated with a 5.8% (95%CI: 2.5%-9.3%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 0.2%-7.4%) higher risk for all incident CVD respectively. No significant associations were found between NO2 and any of the CVD outcomes. We found suggestive evidence of a possible association between road traffic noise and incident IHD, consistent with current literature. Long-term particulate air pollution exposure, even at concentrations below current European air quality standards, was significantly associated with incident CVD. Copyright

  5. Almanac 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Pascal; Franzen, Olaf; Lansky, Alexandra J

    2014-01-01

    regurgitation is often associated with comorbidities which make surgery high risk. The MitraClip is a promising percutaneous alternative to surgical valve repair or replacement. Other procedures discussed in this review are the percutaneous left atrial appendage closure as a non-pharmacologic therapy to prevent......, hypertension, etc. One of the most important new treatment options is the percutaneous treatment for aortic valve stenosis (transcatheter aortic valve implantation), since aortic valve disease is a rather common problem in elderly patients, with many of them at high risk for surgery. Similarly, mitral...... strokes, and renal denervation for resistant hypertension. This review explains the basic principles of these procedures, the most important clinical evidence, and also provides additional recent clinical data on each of them....

  6. The Dissolution of the Mexican-American Border and Redefinition of Chicano/a /Mexican Identity in Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, David

    2006-01-01

    In Leslie Marmon Silko's Almanac of the Dead, notions of Mexican identity are deconstructed. This article analyzes how Silko, through a variety of characters and sub-plotlines, brings to the surface hidden tensions in the contsruction of Mexican identity through the melding of the sangre limpia...

  7. 2012-2013 CAUT Almanac of Post-Secondary Education in Canada = 2012-2013 Almanach de l'enseignement postsecondaire au Canada de l'ACPPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In previous editions of the CAUT Almanac, data for provincial postsecondary education expenditures, total expenditures and university and college revenues and expenditures was reported from Statistics Canada's Financial Management System (FMS), which Statistics Canada last published for the 2008-2009 fiscal year. Statistics Canada will be adopting…

  8. What fluids are given during air ambulance treatment of patients with trauma in the UK, and what might this mean for the future? Results from the RESCUER observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, David N; Hancox, James M; Raitt, James; Smith, Iain M; Crombie, Nicholas; Doughty, Heidi; Perkins, Gavin D; Midwinter, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We investigated how often intravenous fluids have been delivered during physician-led prehospital treatment of patients with hypotensive trauma in the UK and which fluids were given. These data were used to estimate the potential national requirement for prehospital blood products (PHBP) if evidence from ongoing trials were to report clinical superiority. Setting The Regional Exploration of Standard Care during Evacuation Resuscitation (RESCUER) retrospective observational study was a collaboration between 11 UK air ambulance services. Each was invited to provide up to 5 years of data and total number of taskings during the same period. Participants Patients with hypotensive trauma (systolic blood pressure 1 type. The most common fluid was 0.9% saline, given to 486/537 (90.5%) of patients who received fluids, at a median volume of 750 (IQR 300–1500) mL. Three per cent of patients received PHBP. Estimated projections for patients eligible for PHBP at these 11 services and in the whole UK were 313 and 794 patients per year, respectively. Conclusions One in 40 air ambulance taskings were manned by physicians to retrievepatients with hypotensive trauma. The most common fluid delivered was 0.9% saline. If evidence justifies universal provision of PHBP, approximately 800 patients/year would be eligible in the UK, based on our data combined with others published. Prospective investigations are required to confirm or adjust these estimations. PMID:29362272

  9. Vendendo saúde! Revisitando os antigos almanaques de farmácia Selling health! A new look at old-time pharmacy almanacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Luiz Gomes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo destaca a importância dos almanaques de farmácia como fonte de pesquisa em relação à história dos medicamentos, apresentando imagens desses impressos relacionadas às estratégias de promoção dos produtos farmacêuticos. A idéia de ciência veiculada pelos almanaques de farmácia também é analisada, indicando a relevância desse tipo de fonte para a história da ciência e da propaganda no Brasil.Offering images of pharmaceutical products and marketing strategies, pharmacy almanacs are a valuable source when researching the history of medications. The article analyzes the idea of science that was presented in these almanacs and demonstrates how this research source is pertinent to the history both of science and of advertising in Brazil.

  10. Assessment of air quality and climate co-benefits of decarbonisation of the UK energy system using remote sensing and model simulations - the case for prioritizing end uses in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Daniel Dennis; Damoah, Richard; Li, Pei-hao

    2017-04-01

    The UK has a binding obligation to reduce GHG emission by 80% (based on 1990 levels) by 2050. Meeting this target requires extensive decarbonisation of the UK energy system. Different pathways that achieve this target at the lowest system costs are being explored at different levels of policy and decisions on future energy infrastructure. Whilst benefits of decarbonisation are mainly focused on the impacts on climate change, there are other potential environmental and health impacts such as air-quality. In particular, a decrease in fossil fuel use by directly substituting current systems with low-carbon technologies could lead to significant reductions in the concentrations of SO2, NOX, CO and other atmospheric pollutants. So far, the proposed decarbonisation pathways tend to target the electricity sector first, followed by a transition in transport and heating technologies and use. However, the spatial dimension of where short term changes in the energy sector occur in relation to high density population areas is not taken into account when defining the energy transition strategies. This may lead to limited short-term improvements in air quality within urban areas, where use of fossil fuels for heating and transport is the main contribution to overall atmospheric pollutant levels. It is therefore imperative to explore decarbonisation strategies that prioritise transition in sectors of the energy system that produce immediate improvements in air quality in key regions of the UK. This study aims to use a combination of Remote Sensing observations and atmospheric chemistry/transport modelling approaches to estimate and map the impact on NOx of the traditional approach of decarbonising electricity first compared to a slower transition in the electricity sector, but faster change in the transport sector. This is done by generating a set of alternative energy system pathways with a higher share of zero emissions vehicles in 2030 than the energy system optimization model

  11. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  12. Air-sea fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory on the south-west coast of the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Kitidis, Vassilis; Cazenave, Pierre W.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Brooks, Ian M.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    We present air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), momentum, and sensible heat measured by the eddy covariance method from the recently established Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) on the south-west coast of the United Kingdom. Measurements from the south-westerly direction (open water sector) were made at three different sampling heights (approximately 15, 18, and 27 m above mean sea level, a.m.s.l.), each from a different period during 2014-2015. At sampling heights ≥ 18 m a.m.s.l., measured fluxes of momentum and sensible heat demonstrate reasonable ( ≤ ±20 % in the mean) agreement with transfer rates over the open ocean. This confirms the suitability of PPAO for air-sea exchange measurements in shelf regions. Covariance air-sea CO2 fluxes demonstrate high temporal variability. Air-to-sea transport of CO2 declined from spring to summer in both years, coinciding with the breakdown of the spring phytoplankton bloom. We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first successful eddy covariance measurements of CH4 emissions from a marine environment. Higher sea-to-air CH4 fluxes were observed during rising tides (20 ± 3; 38 ± 3; 29 ± 6 µmole m-2 d-1 at 15, 18, 27 m a.m.s.l.) than during falling tides (14 ± 2; 22 ± 2; 21 ± 5 µmole m-2 d-1), consistent with an elevated CH4 source from an estuarine outflow driven by local tidal circulation. These fluxes are a few times higher than the predicted CH4 emissions over the open ocean and are significantly lower than estimates from other aquatic CH4 hotspots (e.g. polar regions, freshwater). Finally, we found the detection limit of the air-sea CH4 flux by eddy covariance to be 20 µmole m-2 d-1 over hourly timescales (4 µmole m-2 d-1 over 24 h).

  13. Development and Validation of a Predictive Model to Assess the Impact of Coastal Operations On Urban Scale Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    originating in Los Angeles. The long ridge of ozone in the north east part of Figure 14a is due to polluted air from San Diego area that has undergone...Further north of this small ridge (2 ppbv), we find a decrease in O3 of up to 6ppb (i.e., without DoD emissions, O3 is reduced by 6ppb). This period is...ships on urban air quality. 35 6.0 References Alexis, A., P. Gaffney , C. Garcia, M. Nystrom, and R. Rood (2000), The 1999 California Almanac of

  14. Angelita La Escapía e a fotografia viva de Marx: feminismo e passados presentes em Almanac of the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VILELA LÚCIA HELENA DE AZEVEDO

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Análise de Almanac of the Dead à luz de teorias feministas e de uma perspectiva pós-moderna segundo a qual a noção de passados presentes é enfatizada através da exploração da metáfora da fotografia viva de Marx, mostrada no romance. A paixão da personagem Angelita pela fotografia de Marx é vista como uma forma de síntese entre a percepção indígena do tempo como eternos presentes - que é também resistência à opressão, uma vez que o passado não é jamais esquecido - e os conceitos marxistas de tempo e história.

  15. The UK biomass industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billins, P.

    1998-01-01

    A brief review is given of the development of the biomass industry in the UK. Topics covered include poultry litter generation of electricity, gasification plants fuelled by short-rotation coppice, on-farm anaerobic digestion and specialized combustion systems, e.g. straw, wood and other agricultural wastes. (UK)

  16. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reap, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas from shale rock is a new, rapidly expanding industry in the United States (US). However, there is concern that these operations could be having large negative impacts such as groundwater contamination, increased air pollution and seismic events. The United Kingdom (UK) is looking at the potential for emulating the success of 'shale gas' in the US. Differences in population density and geological conditions mean that the public health impacts recorded in the US cannot be directly extrapolated to the UK. There is limited academic literature available but findings suggest that the UK government is not fully recognising the inherent risks of hydraulic fracturing exposed by this literature. Government reports suggest a reliance on engineering solutions and better practice to overcome problems found in the US when evidence suggests that there are inherent risks and impacts that cannot be eliminated. This study applies US results to approximate the impact of one exposure pathway, inhalation of hydrocarbons by the public from operational air emissions over the 30 year lifetime of a well and finds that 7.2 extra cancer cases from exposure to air contamination would be expected in the UK if all test sites, approved test sites and test sites awaiting approval as of January 2015 went on to extract gas. In conclusion, limited assessment of the public health implications of hydraulic fracturing operations is available but the UK government appears to not be applying the precautionary principle to potentially significant legislation.

  17. UK ignores treaty obligations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, P.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed critique is offered of United Kingdom (UK) political policy with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, an interim agreement valid while nuclear disarmament was supposed to occur, by a representative of Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigning group. The author argues that the civil and military nuclear programmes are still firmly linked, and emphasises his opinions by quoting examples of how UK politicians have broken treaty obligations in order to pursue their own political, and in some cases financial, goals. It is argued that the treaty has failed to force nuclear countries to disarm because of its promoted civil nuclear power programmes. (U.K.)

  18. UK nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronow, W.S.

    Regulations and conditions for the commissioning of nuclear power plants in the UK, their siting, licence conditions, design safety assessment, inspection during construction and conditions for safety in operation are listed. (J.P.)

  19. UK victims of trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Burgoyne

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of court cases shows how hard it is forvictims of trafficking to win the right to remain in the UK. Case law is inconsistent and more research and data collection are urgently needed.

  20. Almanac Songs and Singers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    ) effort against Fascism. Issues addressed herein will include assessing strategies in the practices of musical performers who have political agendas, investigating the usefulness of Guy Debord’s terminology of détournement ("turning expressions of the capitalist system and its media culture against itself...

  1. UK Mission to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    At the end of June, nine experts from UK industry visited CERN to study techniques for developing distributed computing systems and to look at some specific applications. In a packed three-day programme, almost 40 CERN experts presented a comprehensive survey of achievements.

  2. UK Royal Navy WWII Logbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 2006, the UK and NOAA's Climate Database Modernization Program (CDMP) funded the imaging of approximately 8,000 Royal Navy logbooks in the UK National Archives...

  3. Hewitt launches Research Councils UK

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "Trade and Industry Secretary Patricia Hewitt today launched 'Research Councils UK' - a new strategic partnership that will champion research in science, engineering and technology across the UK" (1 page).

  4. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  5. UK Tax Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deakin, John F.

    1998-07-01

    The presentation deals with the North Sea fiscal regime, a modern system for corporation tax payments, transfer pricing, general anti-avoidance rule for direct taxes, treaty refunds, deductibility of interest for corporation tax, UK/US double taxation convention, and plain and simple tax legislation. Part of the background for the presentation was the fact that in England a new Labour Government had replaced the Conservatives and the new Chancellor had announced a review of the North Sea fiscal regime.

  6. Managing UK nuclear liabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, Mike; MacKerron, Gordon.

    1997-01-01

    This paper sets out a framework for a fundamental reappraisal of the management of nuclear liabilities in the United Kingdom, built around two policy objectives, sustainable development and cost-effectiveness. The practical implications of the policy objectives are explored in relation to nuclear liability strategies, such as the adequacy or otherwise of current funding arrangements, the completeness of liability estimates and the distribution of financial responsibility between the public and private sector. A fundamental review of the management of nuclear liabilities is urged in the light of inadequacies identified in this paper. (UK)

  7. UK retail marketing survey 94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This document draws together data on the United Kingdom (UK) petroleum market up to the end of 1993. Lists include suppliers of petrol to the UK market listed by brand name, a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets, UK outlets which retail derv. Average retail prices for motor spirit and derv per litre are given as are sites fitted with Vapour Recovery equipment. Other tables shown indicate various companies' share of the market in terms of the percentage of petrol sites, including supermarkets. The volumes of motor spirit and derv delivered to retail and commercial customers between 1984 and 1993 is also given. (UK)

  8. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  9. UK manufacturers construction joint venture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report examines the legal and commercial framework for UK manufacturers to collaborate in a construction venture for a small combustion/steam cycle power plant fueled with biomass. The integration of technology and project plan, the working capital and capitalisation, financial aspects, the market plan, turnkey packages, joint venture entities, and collaboration are discussed. (UK)

  10. Solar energy: a UK assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    A panel convened by UK-ISES to analyze all aspects of solar energy systems and to assess the potential for solar energy utilization and research and development needs in the UK and for export is reported. Topics covered include: solar energy in relation to other energy sources; international solar energy research and development program; the physical nature of solar energy and its availability in the UK and other countries; thermal collection, storage, and low-temperature applications; solar energy and architecture; solar thermal power systems; solar cells; agricultural and biological systems; photochemical systems; social, legal, and political considerations with particular reference to the UK; and future policy on solar research and development for the UK. (WDM)

  11. Innovative UK Approaches to Acquisition Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Financial and Operational Imperatives Size of UK armed forces UK Industry ? Political influence PFI / PPP Increased Scrutiny - NAO “ Commercialisation “ of the...acquisition KNOWLEDGE (EXPERIENCE – Lessons learned) KNOWLEDGE (Training) KNOWLEDGE ( Education ) OPTIMAL OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE Operational Capability UK

  12. Almanaque da Dengue: leituras e narrativas de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde Almanaque de Dengue: lecturas y narraciones de Agentes Comunitarios de Salud Dengue Almanac: readings and narratives of Community Health Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal David

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se um estudo de leitura e apropriação como metodologia de aproximação ao universo narrativo de Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS, usando um dispositivo de informação e comunicação - o Almanaque da Dengue (AD. O objetivo foi o de perceber as formas de construção e apropriação de saberes sobre dengue e saúde por parte dos ACS, além de avaliar a serventia do AD como um dispositivo info-comunicacional. Foram realizadas oficinas com agentes do Rio de Janeiro, com vistas à desconstrução e leitura relacional do AD. A análise das narrativas gerou três categorias temáticas: abundância informacional nos ciclos epidêmicos; culpabilização da vítima; contradições e ambiguidades no trabalho dos ACS como mediadores. O AD mostrou-se um instrumento útil na discussão e apropriação de informações sobre a saúde, devido ao caráter textual relacional e não linear dos seus conteúdos, e ao seu formato interativo e não impositivo de formulações sobre a dengue e saúde.Presentase un estudio de lectura y apropiación como método de acercamiento al universo narrativo de los agentes comunitarios de salud (ACS, utilizando un dispositivo de información y comunicación, el Almanaque de Dengue (AD. Objetivó-se ampliar la comprensión acerca de las formas de construcción y apropiación de conocimientos sobre dengue y salud, y evaluar el Almanac como un dispositivo info-comunicacional. La metodología cualitativa se desarrolló por medio de talleres con ACS de Río de Janeiro, para la deconstrucción y lectura relacional del AD. Los resultados se clasificaron en tres temas: la abundancia de información en ciclos epidémicos, culpa de la víctima, las contradicciones y ambigüedades en la labor de la ACS. El AD ha demostrado ser una herramienta útil para el debate y la propiedad de la información de salud, debido al carácter relacional y no lineal de su contenido y su formato interactivo, no prescriptivo sobre dengue y

  13. Funding Decommissioning - UK Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    'Funding' started with CEGB and SSEB (state-owned electric utilities) in 1976 using the internal un-segregated fund route (i.e unfunded). This continued until privatisation of electricity industry (excluding nuclear) in 1990. Assets bought with the internal un-segregated fund were mostly transferred into non-nuclear private utilities. New state-owned Nuclear Electric (England and Wales) was given a 'Fossil Fuel Levy', a consumer charge of 10% on retail bills, amounting to c. BP 1 bn. annually. This allowed Nuclear Electric to trade legally (A reserve of BP 2.5 bn. was available from Government if company ran out of money). By 1996 the newer nuclear stations (AGRS plus PWR) were privatised as British Energy. British Energy started an external segregated fund, the Nuclear Decommissioning Fund, with a starting endowment of c. BP 225 m. - and BE made annual contributions of British Pound 16 m. into the Fund. Assumptions were that BE had 70 to accumulate cash and could get a 3.5% average annual real return. Older stations (Magnox) were left in private sector and went to BNFL in 1997. Magnox inherited the surplus cash in BE - mostly unspent Fossil Fuel Levy receipts - of c. BP 2.6 bn. Government gave an 'Undertaking' to pay BP 3.8 bn. (escalating at 4.5% real annually) for Magnox liabilities, should Magnox Electric run out of cash. BNFL inherited the BP 2.6 bn. and by 2000 had a 'Nuclear Liabilities Investment Portfolio' of c. BP 4 bn. This was a quasi-segregated internal fund for liabilities in general. [Note: overall UK nuclear liabilities in civilian sector were running at c. BP 48 bn. by now]. BE started profitable and paid BP 100 m. annually in dividends to private investors for several years. BE ran into severe financial problems after 2001 and Government organised restructuring aid, now approved by European Commission. Terms include: - BE now to contribute BP 20 m. a year into an expanded Nuclear Liabilities Fund; - A bond issue of BP 275 m. to go to Fund; - 65

  14. "UK today" Tallinnas / Tuuli Oder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oder, Tuuli, 1958-

    2001-01-01

    Vabariikliku inglise keele olümpiaadi raames toimus Tallinnas viktoriini "UK today" lõppvoor. Osalesid 22 kooli kaheliikmelised võistkonnad. Viktoriini tulemused koolide lõikes ja küsimused õigete vastustega

  15. Sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornley, Patricia; Upham, Paul; Tomei, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Use of bioenergy as a renewable resource is increasing in many parts of the world and can generate significant environmental, economic and social benefits if managed with due regard to sustainability constraints. This work reviews the environmental, social and economic constraints on key feedstocks for UK heat, power and transport fuel. Key sustainability constraints include greenhouse gas savings achieved for different fuels, land availability, air quality impacts and facility siting. Applying those constraints, we estimate that existing technologies would facilitate a sustainability constrained level of medium-term bioenergy/biofuel supply to the UK of 4.9% of total energy demand, broken down into 4.3% of heat demands, 4.3% of electricity, and 5.8% of transport fuel. This suggests that attempts to increase the supply above these levels could have counterproductive sustainability impacts in the absence of compensating technology developments or identification of additional resources. The barriers that currently prevent this level of supply being achieved have been analysed and classified. This suggests that the biggest policy impacts would be in stimulating the market for heat demand in rural areas, supporting feedstock prices in a manner that incentivised efficient use/maximum greenhouse gas savings and targeting investment capital that improves yield and reduces land-take.

  16. UK legislation on radiological health and safety. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H D

    1983-02-01

    A brief survey is given of current UK legislation on radiological health and safety in areas in which ''Ionising Radiations Regulations 1982'' do not apply. Such areas in which separate Acts or Regulations for ionising radiations operate include: 1) Factories Act Regulations; 2) the disposal of radioactive wastes; 3) the transport of radioactive materials by air, sea, road, rail and post; 4) nuclear reactors and allied plants; 5) schools and further educational establishments and 6) research laboratories.

  17. Nuclear power and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, St.

    2009-01-01

    This series of slides describes the policy of the UK government concerning nuclear power. In January 2008 the UK Government published the White Paper on the Future of Nuclear Power. The White Paper concluded that new nuclear power stations should have a role to play in this country's future energy mix. The role of the Government is neither to build nuclear power plants nor to finance them. The White Paper set out the facilitative actions the Government planned to take to reduce regulatory and planning risks associated with investing in new nuclear power stations. The White Paper followed a lengthy period of consultation where the UK Government sought a wide variety of views from stakeholders and the public across the country on the future of nuclear power. In total energy companies will need to invest in around 30-35 GW of new electricity generating capacity over the next two decades. This is equivalent to about one-third of our existing capacity. The first plants are expected to enter into service by 2018 or sooner. The Office for Nuclear Development (OND) has been created to facilitate new nuclear investment in the UK while the Nuclear Development Forum (NDF) has been established to lock in momentum to secure the long-term future of nuclear power generation in the UK. (A.C.)

  18. Modelling the long-range transport of secondary PM 10 to the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, A. L.; Derwent, R. G.; Maryon, R. H.

    The fine fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM 10) is known to be harmful to human health. In order to establish how current air quality standards can best be met now and in the future, it is necessary to understand the cause of PM 10 episodes. The UK Met Office's dispersion model, NAME, has been used to model hourly concentrations of sulphate aerosol for 1996 at a number of UK locations. The model output has been compared with measured values of PM 10 or sulphate aerosol at these sites and used to provide attribution information. In particular two large PM 10 episodes in March and July 1996 have been studied. The March episode has been shown to be the result of imported pollution from outside the UK, whereas the July case was dominated by UK emissions. This work highlights the need to consider trans-boundary pollution when setting air quality standards and when making policy decisions on emissions.

  19. 60 years of Health Protection under the Clean Air Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Longhurst, J.

    2016-01-01

    2016 marks 60 years of UK Clean Air Acts. This presentation explores the challenges, opportunities and progress since the Clean Air Act, 1956. It reflects upon historical attempts to manage air pollution noting success factors and barriers to progress. Particular attention is given to the impact of the 1952 Great Smog and the role of National Smoke Abatement Society, the forerunner of Environmental Protection UK, in creating the momentum for the 1956 Act. The presentation concludes with a rev...

  20. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  1. Maturing safety in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debenham, A.; Kovan, D.

    1994-01-01

    AEA Technology provides UK nuclear industry with technical services and R+D support, concentrating on plant performance, safety and environmental issues. Today, safety has a new set of priorities, reflected by a more demanding regulatory regime which takes account of concerns such as human factors, severe accidents, risks during plant outages, the need for improving safety culture, etc

  2. Nuclear prospects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Robert

    1993-01-01

    During the late 1980s and early 1990s the UK government decided to privatise the UK electricity supply industry. In order to introduce competition into the generation side of the business it was decided that the large generating boards - the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and in Scotland, the South of Scotland Electricity Board and North of Scotland Hydro Board, - should be split up into smaller companies. In England and Wales two companies were proposed. The larger company National Power would include the nuclear generating business in England and Wales, the smaller company, Power Gen would use fossil generation only. Scotland was also to have two companies, Scottish Power - including Scotland's nuclear stations - and Scottish Hydro. But these were troubled times for the UK nuclear industry. A lot of misinformation was being issued by its opponents, in particular about decommissioning and fuel reprocessing costs. Looking back I can see there were reasons for that. Both National Power and Scottish Power wanted to be absolutely certain that they got the best possible deal and that every imaginable, and unimaginable, cost that may ever arise would be taken care of. This attitude resulted in the estimate of huge liabilities and 'unprecedented guarantees' that the then Secretary of State for Energy in the UK, could not accept

  3. Country report for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, T.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the status of the UK nuclear industry, activities concerning fast reactor are reviewed. There is no government funded program except for decommissioning work at Dounrey. Major activities are concerned with knowledge preservation, fuel cycle modelling and scenario studies, and gas-cooled fast reactor feasibility studies. European, international and BNFL collaboration are also reviewed

  4. Indian Diaspora In The UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author traces the history of formation of the Indian diaspora in the UK, evaluates the key trends that characterize the current state of diaspora. The article highlights the level of involvement and participation of diaspora in the evolution of the bilateral relations, as well as the influence of diaspora over home and foreign policy in the UK and India. The diaspora today is not just a unique vibrant connection between the two countries, it has also become a factor of influence over domestic, social and economic affairs in both the UK and India. There is a growing number of Indians among British statesmen and politicians. Indians occupy significant posts in various sectors in Britain, including business and finance. This contributes to strengthening of economic ties between the two countries, particularly important considering Britain’s forthcoming exit from the EU. As to internal political matters, though potential issues exist (those include, for instance, the possible transfer from India into Britain of problematic inter-caste relations, India’s criticism over unbalanced approach to teaching colonial history in British schools, the Indian diaspora due to its’ inherent tolerance and moderation generally plays a stabilizing role in the UK, especially on the background of radicalization of other ethnic communities. For the new India the diaspora today is not just an important source of financing, competences and know-how, it is also a significant lobbying and soft-power instrument. This article is part of a broader research, related to the contemporary relations between the United Kingdom and India. Indian diaspora in the UK is an integral part of the unique centuries-long history that connects the two countries. It is poised to remain a strong factor contributing to interdependence and cooperation between Britain and India in the XXI century.

  5. Almanac of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Climatic change, greenhouse gases, energy, water, wastes, natural and industrial risks, poverty, all theses are debated in this book. The politicians, industrialists and experts point of view and concrete recommendations are illustrated by children drawings. (A.L.B.)

  6. Some Navigation and Almanac Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    angular input ,’ td output is in radians. In the direct rhumb line solution for the spheroid earth, if cosa 12 =0, then A2 = At + and( and (26a) =CC...LDoLT*U :au’CO(LD) EZ󈧭N(LD):XnM6*854(*CB*CL: OGEZ 150: A~UAL-AB/IID * 2550 Y--CB*8L : XuB*X-a*Iz*CL:MGSU 120: AZ’A2/] tD 2560 PUNT :P117 ’ALTITUK a m;AL...31e13) 4BD ) :NMinO:SFUFU(IF) 269 P&M 13IAMTOI a O;STU$(B1) ’l 2700 GO8B 2720:CLB :NEXT N:G070 2090 2710 2720 P1.111 :P~iT mPRZU C TO CONTIuE 2730 C

  7. Air quality management: challenges and solutions in delivering air quality action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beattie, C.I.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Woodfield, N.K.

    2000-07-01

    The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (DETR, 2001) has the aim of showing how improved local air quality in the UK may be delivered. Through a process of reviewing and assessing local air quality in both urban and rural localities, a clear picture is emerging of areas of the UK where air quality objectives are not likely to be met. The next challenge will be the identification of the required actions and new ways of working to achieve specific air quality objectives. The declaration of air quality management areas, where objectives are not predicted to be met by their target years, involves co-ordinated local action and collaborative working, which can only be effective with support across local authority departments and external stake holders. This paper provides a background to the relevant legislation underpinning, local air quality management and summarises the review and assessment process. It then comments on future directions in relation to the designation of Air Quality Management Areas and considers the requirements of action plans to deliver the goal of cleaner air in the UK. It is concluded that the UK has developed a highly sophisticated system of air quality management over a relatively short period of time, and with it has brought a new way of local authority working. The challenge of the next stage of the process is likely to be in implementing cost effective and proportional solutions to identified problems at the local level. (Author)

  8. Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the UK construction minerals industry Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Nottingham, UK Email: Sustainability is not just about environmental protection it also concerns biodiversity, community relations, competence, employment, geodiversity, health and safety, resource efficiency, restoration and stakeholder accountability. The UK construction minerals industry aims to supply essential materials in a sustainabl...

  9. Levels of radioactivity in the UK from the accident at Chernobyl, USSR on 26 April 1986. A compilation of the results of environmental measurements in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The compilation includes information available to NRPB up to 23 May 1986. The data includes activity concentrations in air, waters (rain, surface, underground, tapwater and non-potable), grass (including forage and general herbage and mosses), outdoor dose/rates for gamma activity, milks, leafy vegetables and other foodstuffs such as fish, eggs, cheese, milk products and meat. (U.K.).

  10. The transport of civil plutonium by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents the review entitled ''The Transport of Civil Plutonium by Air'' reported by the Advisory Committee on the Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials (ACTRAM) 1988. The contents contain chapters on the following topics:- the reasons for air transport, the various regulations, packagings for plutonium transport, testing of the packagings, accidents, the consequences of a release, and emergency arrangements. (U.K.)

  11. Online Shopping In The UK

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. Ramachandran; K. K. Karthick; M. Saravana Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This paper will contribute to current academic literature in the area of online retailing and consumer behaviour. Our research outlines a survey conducted with respondents from the UK to ascertain their attitudes to grocery shopping both off and online. The findings indicate that, whilst the vast majority of our sample has experience of online shopping, few actively engage in online grocery shopping. Some of the reasons for this are highlighted and the key issues relate to consumer trust and ...

  12. Factors determining UK album success

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Caroline; Simmons, Robert

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a recently compiled dataset on the UK album sales to determine which factors contribute to best-selling album sales success. We control for factors including length of time since release, nationality of artist, artist type and album type, testing the increasing returns to information hypothesis. Information on general public online review scores for the albums in the dataset allows for a strong test of the accuracy of online reviews in predicting music sales, as online revie...

  13. Radon exposures in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  14. Remote interest in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.

    1993-01-01

    The United Kingdom nuclear industry has moved on from its low-technology solutions to remote handling problems which were popular in the 1950s and 1960s. A change in attitude has occurred which means that users are looking for high-technology solutions to today's remote handling problems. This review focuses on the ways in which their needs are being met and on the demands for future development which they are generating. (UK)

  15. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Cockburn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163 completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a if they provided nutritional advice; (b their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%, even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05. Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05. In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  16. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  17. Worldwide open access: UK leadership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Harnad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The web is destined to become humankind's cognitive commons, where digital knowledge is jointly created and freely shared. The UK has been a leader in the global movement toward open access (OA to research but recently its leadership has been derailed by the joint influence of the publishing industry lobby from without and well-intentioned but premature and unhelpful over-reaching from within the OA movement itself. The result has been the extremely counterproductive ‘Finch Report’ followed by a new draft of the Research Councils UK (RCUK OA mandate, downgrading the role of cost-free OA self-archiving of research publications (‘green OA’ in favor of paying subscription publishers over and above subscriptions, out of scarce research funds, in exchange for making single articles OA (‘hybrid gold OA’. The motivation of the new policy is to reform publication and to gain certain re-use rights (CC-BY, but the likely effect would be researcher resistance, very little OA and a waste of research funds. There is still time to fix the RCUK mandate and restore the UK's leadership by taking a few very specific steps to clarify and strengthen the green component by adding a mechanism for monitoring and verifying compliance, with consequences for non-compliance, along lines also being adopted in the EC and the US.

  18. Changes in O3 and NO2 due to emissions from Fracking in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Alexander; Ordonez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Poor air quality is a problem that affects millions of people around the world. Understanding the driving forces behind air pollution is complicated as the precursor gases which combine to produce air pollutants react in a highly non-linear manner and are subject to a range of atmospheric transport mechanisms compounded by the weather. A great deal of money has been spent on mitigating air pollution and so it's important to assess the impacts that new technologies that emit air pollutant precursors may have on local and regional air pollution. One of the most highly discussed new technologies that could impact air quality is the adoption of wide-scale hydraulic fracturing or "fracking" for natural gas. Indeed in regions of the USA where fracking is commonplace large levels of ozone (O3 - a key air pollutant) have been observed and attributed directly to the fracking process. In this study, a numerical modelling framework was used to assess possible impacts of fracking in the UK where at present no large scale fracking facilities are in operation. A number of emissions scenarios were developed for the principle gas phase air pollution precursors: the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These emissions scenarios were then used in a state-of-the-art numerical air quality model (the UK Met Office operational air quality forecasting model AQUM) to determine potential impacts related to fracking on UK air quality. Comparison of base model results and observations for the year 2013 of NOx, O3 and VOCs from the UK Automatic Urban and Rural Network (AURN) showed that AQUM has good skill at simulating these gas phase air pollutants (O3 r=0.64, NMGE=0.3; NO2 r=0.62, NMGE=0.51). Analysis of the simulations with fracking emissions demonstrate that there are large changes in 1hr max NO2 (11.6±6.6 ppb) with modest increases in monthly mean NO2, throughout the British Isles (150±100 ppt). These results highlight that stringent measures should be

  19. Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2007-01-01

    Contents: Turning the tide : tidal power in the UK -- Executive summary -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 1 : UK tidal resource assessment -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 2 : tidal technologies overview -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 3 : Severn barrage proposals -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 4 : Severn non-barrage options -- Tidal power in the UK : research report 5 : UK case studies. Summarised in the Welsh language version of the executive ...

  20. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  1. The UK national response plan: An 'all-risk' approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englefield, C.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The UK has been using and regulating radioactive materials for many years. The law, and the regulatory systems to implement it have developed over time, to meet the perceived need. More recently, the threat of inadvertent movements of, and illicit trafficking in radioactive materials has become apparent. This relatively new challenge cannot be met by a single U.K. law enforcement body. There will be Police and security services interest in any cases that arise of deliberate trafficking in fissile materials, and there will be statutory concerns for Customs and Excise. At the operational level, they do not have radioanalytical services and radiation protection support immediately available, as the frequency of occurrence of such incidents is extremely low. However, the typical case is an inadvertent movement. These usually involve orphaned sources, where none of the above law enforcement bodies have a statutory locus. In such cases, it is the UK environment agencies that take the lead (as regulators of radioactive substances), together with Health and Safety Executive as regulators of radiation safety. However they do not have all the statutory powers needed to intervene. This is in contrast to the position in some other countries. The UK paper at the International Conference of Regulators in Buenos Aires in December 2000 described the UK's co-ordination work to create synergies between law enforcement bodies and potentially affected industry groups. This was described as an 'All Risk Approach'. This is seen as the best way to manage an effective response to the challenge, given that the legislation cannot at present provide all the necessary powers. This new paper will describe the UK Response Plan and how it is designed to cover all risk: radiological and socio-economic. It will also describe how the Plan is being tested and validated as a project. The plan draws on UK Emergency Planning policy, as well as IAEA guidance on the Prevention, Detection and

  2. Funding bombshell hits UK physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael; Durrani, Matin

    2008-01-01

    Physicists and astronomers in the UK are coming to terms with a massive funding crisis that engulfed one of the country's main funding agencies last month. As a result of an £80m black hole in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), it has decided to stop funding research into the International Linear Collider (ILC), withdraw from the Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile, and cease all support for high-energy gamma-ray astronomy and ground-based solar-terrestrial physics. Research grants in particle physics and astronomy could also be cut by up to 25%, which may lead to job losses at university departments.

  3. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  4. Energy strategies for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, S.C.; Vaidya, K.G.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides the first comprehensive and integrated model of the UK energy sector which focuses on decision-making and optimisation rather than on forecasting or simulation. It incorporates the production and investment policy of all the major fuels (coal, oil, gas and electricity) over a fifty year horizon and analyses strategy under a variety of different assumptions about costs, demands, technolgy and future decisions. The authors cover the wide spectrum of energy problems and policy, including scenarios of rising il and gas prices, and there are striking calculations of the (low) costs of a non-nuclear plus conservation strategy. (author)

  5. History magazines in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Haydn, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the phenomenon of popular history magazines as a facet of public history. The UK has seen a substantial increase in the number of popular history magazines available to the public, with some magazines reaching high levels of circulation. The paper looks at the range of magazines available – from ‘heritage’ and ‘family’ history, to special interest magazines, and more ‘serious’ and scholarly history magazines. What is it that makes history magazines sell, and what influence ...

  6. GIS-based models for ambient PM exposure and health impact assessment for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, John R; Grice, Susannah; Kent, Andrew; Cooke, Sally

    2009-01-01

    GIS-based models have been developed to map ambient PM 10 and PM 25 mass concentrations across the UK. The resulting maps are used for the assessments of air quality required by the EU ambient air quality directives, health impact assessment and the development of UK air quality policy. Maps are presented for 2006 along with projections to 2020. The largest single contribution to the UK population-weighted mean annual mean background concentrations of PM 10 in 2006 is estimated to be from secondary PM (43%), followed by the contribution from primary PM (24%). Concentrations are predicted to decline by 15% for PM 10 and 13% for PM 25 over the period from 2006 to 2020. The extent of exceedence of the 24-hour limit value is predicted to decline from 1.9% to 0.1% of urban major roads over the same period. The potential health benefits of reductions in ambient PM are large. A reduction in concentration of 0.93 μg m -3 as a result of a possible package of measures has been estimated within the UK Air Quality Strategy to result in a reduction in life years lost of approximately 2 - 4 million over a period of 100 years.

  7. Introducing wood pellet fuel to the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, R A; Giffard, A

    2001-07-01

    Technical and non-technical issues affecting the introduction of wood pellet-fired heating to the UK were investigated with the aim of helping to establish a wood pellet industry in the UK. The project examined the growth and status of the industry in continental Europe and North America, reviewed relevant UK standards and legislation, identified markets for pellet heating in the UK, organised workshops and seminars to demonstrate pellet burning appliances, carried out a trial pelletisation of a range of biomass fuels, helped to set up demonstration installations of pellet-fired appliances, undertook a promotional campaign for wood pellet fuel and compiled resource directories for pellet fuel and pellet burning appliances in the UK. The work was completed in three phases - review, identification and commercialisation. Project outputs include UK voluntary standards for wood pellet fuel and combustion appliances, and a database of individuals with an interest in wood pellet fuel.

  8. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-10

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

  9. Propaganda e crítica social nas cronologias dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII Propaganda and social criticism in the chronologies of the astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in 17 th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Mesquita Hidalgo Ferreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de uma ampla investigação sobre a utilização dos almanaques astrológicos durante a Guerra Civil inglesa no século XVII como veículo de propaganda e crítica social. Durante esse conflito, havia astrólogos partidários das forças parlamentaristas, como John Booker, e outros partidários das forças realistas, como George Wharton. O presente trabalho analisa algumas dessas publicações, mostrando como o envolvimento político dos autores se manifestava de forma explícita (e, algumas vezes, não tão direta nos referidos almanaques.This article is part of an extensive investigation carried out concerning the use of astrological almanacs during the English Civil War in the 17th century as a medium for propaganda and social criticism. During that conflict there were astrologers who were partisans of the Parliament, such as John Booker, and other who supported the King, such as George Wharton. This work analyses some of those publications, showing that the political commitment of the authors was noticeable in an explicit form (and sometimes in an indirect way in those almanacs.

  10. Pub Culture in the U.K.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙鑫

    2015-01-01

    In the U.K., pubs can be seen everywhere. They play an important role in the British society. How pubs came into being in the U.K.? Why is pub culture formed and what makes it prosperous? What effects does pub culture make on British society both in the past and in the present? Does any British character be shown in pub culture in the U.K.? In this paper, I will give a brief in-troduction of pub culture's history and development in the U.K.. Besides, the above questions will be explored and analyzed one by one.

  11. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  12. Improving environmental strategies of the UK oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanega, J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a strategic review of the current environmental policies and practices of the UK Oil and Gas Industry. It begins with an analysis of the current environmental impacts of the UK Oil and Gas Industry, including air emissions, effluents to sea and industrial wastes. The importance of environmental issues to UK operators is related to financial conseqeunces of environmental damage to the North Sea, poor public opinion and the spectre of increased government regulations. There is a survey of the best practices of environmental management programmes, including environmental assessment, monitoring auditing and contingency planning and emergency response, with historical lessons from Cadiz to Valdez and the industry's reaction to Exxon Valdez. After critically assessing the weaknesses of environmental management programmes, the author calls for systematic environmental assessment, employing inventory, monitoring, risk assessment and quantified risk assessment. There are recommendations on how to minimise the impact on the environment through the use of existing technology, training, incident response and crisis management, auditing, testing and industry-wide collaboration. (Author)

  13. Alcohol imagery on popularly viewed television in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  15. Diabetes services in the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, I. G.; Swift, P. G F; Skinner, T. C.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the current level of diabetes services and to compare the results with previous national surveys. Methods: A questionnaire was mailed to all paediatricians in the UK identified as providing care for children with diabetes aged under 16 years. Information was sought on staffing...... consultants who did not contribute to the survey. Of 244 consultants, 78% expressed a special interest in diabetes and 91% saw children in a designated diabetic clinic. In 93% of the clinics there was a specialist nurse (44% were not trained to care for children; 47% had nurse:patient ratio > 1:100), 65......% a paediatric dietitian, and in 25% some form of specialist psychology or counselling available. Glycated haemoglobin was measured routinely at clinics in 88%, retinopathy screening was performed in 87%, and microalbuminuria measured in 66%. Only 34% consultants used a computer database. There were significant...

  16. Nuclear physics in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Nuclear physics is the study of the heavy but tiny nucleus that lies at the centre of all atoms and makes up 99.9 per cent by weight of everything we see. There are many applications of nuclear physics including direct contributions to medicine and industry, such as the use of radioactive isotopes as diagnostic tracers, or of beams of nuclei for tailoring the properties of semiconductors. More indirectly, ideas and concepts of nuclear physics have influence in many corners of modern science and technology. Physicists in the UK have a long tradition in nuclear physics, and have developed a world-wide reputation for the excellence of their work. This booklet explains more about this rich field of study, its applications, its role in training, and its future directions. (author)

  17. Electricity supply in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, R; Evans, N

    1986-01-01

    This study is about future needs for electricity in the United Kingdom, the options for meeting these needs, and the issues that affect the choices between options. It examines the implications of the nuclear accident at Chernobyl and the problems that could arise if decisions on new power station construction continue to be delayed following the Sizewell PWR Inquiry. The book reviews the historical development of electricity supply in the UK. Alternative scenarios are outlined for future energy and electricity demand and their implications for future power station construction are deduced. Issues that are discussed include the choice of coal or nuclear power and the related political uncertainties, environmental problems such as acid rain, feasibility and costs of electricity supply options, and the likely effect on future energy import costs of alternative choices for electricity supply.

  18. Geothermal resources of the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that geothermal energy applications and research are being actively pursued in the United Kingdom despite the relatively normal heat flow regime. The cumulative expenditure on geothermal activity from 1975 to 1989 has been approximately Brit-pounds 46 million of 32% of the Renewable Energy Research Budget to date. The first practical application is a 2 MWt scheme at Southampton as part of a district heating scheme. Commercial operation started in February 1988 and further expansion is planned. The UK's enthusiasm for Hot Dry Rock has dimmed slightly as the entire program is reappraised and the long heralded deep exploration hole has yet to materialize. Future activity looks likely to focus on geothermal opportunities that have multiple uses or applications for the fluids in small scale schemes and Hot Dry Rock research will probably be linked to a pan-European program based in France

  19. Cocaine in the UK--1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, J; Johns, A; Caan, W

    1993-01-01

    More than 100 years after Freud's original endorsement of the drug, the use of cocaine is a problem for both users and for society, which struggles to organise effective responses to the epidemic of the last decade. During the 1980s the rapid spread of smokeable cocaine (including 'crack') was seen in the Americas (particularly the US). The initial simple predictions of an identical European epidemic were mistaken. The available data on the extent of cocaine use and of cocaine problems in the UK are examined. New forms of cocaine have been developed by black-market entrepreneurs ('freebase' and 'crack'), and new technologies have emerged for their use; with these new technologies have come new effects and new problems. The general psychiatrist now needs a knowledge of directly and indirectly related psychopathology which has an increasing relevance to the diagnosis and management of the younger patient.

  20. The UK nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J. G.

    1995-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, nuclear power plants are operated by three companies: Nuclear Electric (NE), Scottish Nuclear (SN), and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). The state-operated power industry was privatized in 1989 with the exception of nuclear power generation activities, which were made part of the newly founded (state-owned) NE and SN. At the same time, a moratorium on the construction of new nuclear power plants was agreed. Only Sizewell B, the first plant in the UK to be equipped with a pressurized water reactor, was to be completed. That unit was first synchronized with the power grid on February 14, 1995. Another decision in 1989 provided for a review to be conducted in 1994 of the future of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in the country. The results of the review were presented by the government in a white paper on May 9, 1995. Accordingly, NE and SN will be merged and privatized in 1996; the headquarters of the new holding company will be in Scotland. The review does not foresee the construction of more nuclear power plants. However, NE hopes to gain a competitive edge over other sources of primary energy as a result of this privatization, and advocates construction of a dual-unit plant identical with Sizewell B so as to avoid recurrent design and development costs. Outside the UK, the company plans to act jointly with the reactor vendor, Westinghouse, especially in the Pacific region; a bid submitted by the consortium has been shortisted by the future operator of the Lungmen nuclear power plant project in Taiwan. In upgrading the safety of nuclear power plants in Eastern Europe, the new company will be able to work through existing contacts of SN. (orig.) [de

  1. The UK commercial demonstration fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.A.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper on the UK Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor design was presented to the seminar on 'European Commercial Fast Reactor Programme, London 1987. The design is discussed under the topic headings:- primary circuit, intermediate heat exchangers and pumps, fuel and core, refuelling, steam generators, and nuclear island layout. (U.K.)

  2. UK creates new funding super-body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The UK government has passed its higher-education and research bill, which includes the creation of UK Research and Innovation (UKRI) - a new umbrella organization that will oversee the country’s seven research councils such as the Science and Technology Facilities Council and the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.

  3. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  4. The regulatory framework in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, headed: basic regulatory requirements covering the transport of radioactive material in the UK; responsibility for safety (competent authority; provision of regulations; implementation of regulations (international and national); design of transport flask; safety case; testing; assessment; approval certificate; compliance assurance; administration); advice and information on the regulatory safety standards. (U.K.)

  5. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  6. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  7. Occurrence of Legionella in UK household showers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Samuel; Stevenson, David; Bennett, Allan; Walker, Jimmy

    2017-04-01

    Household water systems have been proposed as a source of sporadic, community acquired Legionnaires' disease. Showers represent a frequently used aerosol generating device in the domestic setting yet little is known about the occurrence of Legionella spp. in these systems. This study has investigated the prevalence of Legionella spp. by culture and qPCR in UK household showers. Ninety nine showers from 82 separate properties in the South of England were sampled. Clinically relevant Legionella spp. were isolated by culture in 8% of shower water samples representing 6% of households. Legionella pneumophila sg1 ST59 was isolated from two showers in one property and air sampling demonstrated its presence in the aerosol state. A further 31% of showers were positive by Legionella spp. qPCR. By multi-variable binomial regression modelling Legionella spp. qPCR positivity was associated with the age of the property (p=0.02), the age of the shower (p=0.01) and the frequency of use (p=0.09). The concentration of Legionella spp. detected by qPCR was shown to decrease with increased frequency of use (p=0.04) and more frequent showerhead cleaning (p=0.05). There was no association between Legionella spp. qPCR positivity and the cold water supply or the showerhead material (p=0.65 and p=0.71, respectively). Household showers may be important reservoirs of clinically significant Legionella and should be considered in source investigations. Simple public health advice may help to mitigate the risk of Legionella exposure in the domestic shower environment. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethical, legal and professional issues arising from social media coverage by UK Helicopter Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Sarah; Adcock, Christopher; Steel, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    Social media (SoMe) are gaining increasing acceptance among, and use by, healthcare service deliverers and workers. UK Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) use SoMe to deliver service information and to fundraise, among other purposes. This article examines UK HEMS use of SoMe between January and February 2014 to determine the extent of adoption and to highlight trends in use. The database of the Association of Air Ambulances, crosschecked with UK Emergency Aviation, was used to identify flying, charitable UK HEMS. This search identified 28 UK HEMS, of which 24 services met the criteria for selection for review. Using information harvested from the public domain, we then systematically documented SoMe use by the services. SoMe use by UK HEMS is extensive but not uniform. All selected UK HEMS maintained websites with blogs, as well as Facebook, Twitter, Wikipedia and JustGiving profiles, with the majority of services using Ebay for Charity, LinkedIn and YouTube. Some HEMS also held a presence on Pinterest, Google+, Instagram and Flickr, with a minority of services maintaining their own Rich Site Summary (RSS) feed. The SoMe adopted, while varied, allowed for increased, and different forms of, information delivery by HEMS to the public, often in real time. Such use, though, risks breaching patient confidentiality and data protection requirements, especially when information is viewed cumulatively across platforms. There is an urgent need for the continued development of guidance in this unique setting to protect patients while UK HEMS promote and fundraise for their charitable activities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  10. The future of UK gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallas, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Traditionally, an oil company wishing to develop UK gas reserves almost always faced a protracted gas sales negotiation with British Gas. British Gas then had an effective monopoly in the resale of that gas to final consumers. This traditional pattern is now in a process of fundamental change, as a result of recent UK gas market re-regulation and the emergence of a new large scale opportunity to sell gas for power generation. The impact of these changes is still not very well understood outside a relatively small group of gas specialists but is likely to be significant for British Gas, consumers and UK gas producers. This paper outlines the background to the recent changes, the possible future of UK gas marketing and the likely impact on gas producers in the North Sea

  11. CERN sells management system to UK's Transacsys

    CERN Multimedia

    Rohde, L

    2001-01-01

    CERN has sold its Internal Transaction Management system to UK company Transacsys for 1 MCHF. The company will market it with Oracle although CERN will continue to work with Transacsys on the future developments (1/2 page).

  12. A rescue plan for UK physics funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Brumfiel, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    "Britain's most troubled research council is about to undergo radical surgery. On 4 March, UK science minister Paul Drayson unveiled his plan to reform the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC)" (0.5 page)

  13. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    Basic nuclear data requirements for industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC), covering half-lives, decay data, fission yields and the content of computerised data files. While the UKCNDC Request list was reviewed at the end of 1989 to reveal new and continued requirements, funding problems have increased during the year. Difficulties in the UK nuclear power industry are reflected in the decline in experimental studies, although evaluation efforts have been maintained. (author)

  14. Analysing UK real estate market forecast disagreement

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Patrick; Newell, G.; Matysiak, George

    2005-01-01

    Given the significance of forecasting in real estate investment decisions, this paper investigates forecast uncertainty and disagreement in real estate market forecasts. Using the Investment Property Forum (IPF) quarterly survey amongst UK independent real estate forecasters, these real estate forecasts are compared with actual real estate performance to assess a number of real estate forecasting issues in the UK over 1999-2004, including real estate forecast error, bias and consensus. The re...

  15. UK nuclear medicine survey, 1989/90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, A.T.; Shields, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    A postal survey of UK nuclear medicine departments was carried out to obtain information on activity during the year 1989/90. A rise of 14% in the number of administrations of radiopharmaceuticals was found compared to 1982: a rise of 22% in imaging studies was offset by a 30% decrease in the number of nonimaging investigations. The estimated total number of administrations in the UK was 430 000. (author)

  16. The future of the UK gas network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, Paul E.; McDowall, Will

    2013-01-01

    The UK has an extensive natural gas pipeline network supplying 84% of homes. Previous studies of decarbonisation pathways using the UK MARKAL energy system model have concluded that the low-pressure gas networks should be mostly abandoned by 2050, yet most of the iron pipes near buildings are currently being replaced early for safety reasons. Our study suggests that this programme will not lock-in the use of gas in the long-term. We examine potential future uses of the gas network in the UK energy system using an improved version of UK MARKAL that introduces a number of decarbonisation options for the gas network including bio-methane, hydrogen injection to the natural gas and conversion of the network to deliver hydrogen. We conclude that hydrogen conversion is the only gas decarbonisation option that might enable the gas networks to continue supplying energy to most buildings in the long-term, from a cost-optimal perspective. There is an opportunity for the government to adopt a long-term strategy for the gas distribution networks that either curtails the iron mains replacement programme or alters it to prepare the network for hydrogen conversion; both options could substantially reduce the long-term cost of supplying heat to UK buildings. - Highlights: • We examine the long-term future of the UK gas pipe networks using the UK MARKAL model. • The iron mains replacement programme will not lead to gas infrastructure lock-in. • Bio-methane and hydrogen injection have only a small role in our future scenarios. • The most cost-optimal strategy might be to convert the networks to deliver hydrogen. • Adopting a long-term gas strategy could reduce the cost of providing heat in the UK

  17. The UK and British Gas: Any future for Norwegian gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungles, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the UK natural gas market and the future for Norwegian gas in the UK. The role of the British Gas in the domestic and European markets is discussed. Topics are: The UK gas supply market; the UK upstream gas market and the Interconnector; the European market, competition and deregulation; the prospects for Norwegian gas

  18. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    1.Malaria is the tropical disease most commonly imported into the UK, with 1300-1800 cases reported each year, and 2-11 deaths. 2. Approximately three quarters of reported malaria cases in the UK are caused by Plasmodium falciparum, which is capable of invading a high proportion of red blood cells and rapidly leading to severe or life-threatening multi-organ disease. 3. Most non-falciparum malaria cases are caused by Plasmodium vivax; a few cases are caused by the other species of plasmodium: Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium malariae or Plasmodium knowlesi. 4. Mixed infections with more than one species of parasite can occur; they commonly involve P. falciparum with the attendant risks of severe malaria. 5. There are no typical clinical features of malaria; even fever is not invariably present. Malaria in children (and sometimes in adults) may present with misleading symptoms such as gastrointestinal features, sore throat or lower respiratory complaints. 6. A diagnosis of malaria must always be sought in a feverish or sick child or adult who has visited malaria-endemic areas. Specific country information on malaria can be found at http://travelhealthpro.org.uk/. P. falciparum infection rarely presents more than six months after exposure but presentation of other species can occur more than a year after exposure. 7. Management of malaria depends on awareness of the diagnosis and on performing the correct diagnostic tests: the diagnosis cannot be excluded until more than one blood specimen has been examined. Other travel related infections, especially viral haemorrhagic fevers, should also be considered. 8. The optimum diagnostic procedure is examination of thick and thin blood films by an expert to detect and speciate the malarial parasites. P. falciparum and P. vivax (depending upon the product) malaria can be diagnosed almost as accurately using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which detect plasmodial antigens. RDTs for other Plasmodium species are not as reliable. 9

  19. Characterisation: Challenges and Opportunities - A UK Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emptage, Matthew; Loudon, David; Mcleod, Richard; Milburn, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation plays a very important role in the nuclear industry supporting: the development and implementation of decommissioning strategies/plans (and the optimisation of associated costs through reduction in technical risks); regulatory compliance demonstration; waste prevention/minimisation; evaluation and optimisation of worker radiation doses; and maintaining public confidence. Recognising these important drivers, the UK regulators are working with the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) to undertake a review of characterisation practice in the UK nuclear (decommissioning) industry. The objective of the characterisation review is to understand the current characterisation challenges and to determine strategic and tactical opportunities (including sharing of standards and guidance, capabilities, learning from experience, good practice, research and development, training, quality assurance) to optimise characterisation practice. The work is being undertaken through review of nuclear operator's characterisation practice, with input from the NDA, the UK regulators, nuclear operators and representatives from the supply chain, and through consideration of good practice case studies. To support this, a catalogue of relevant national/international guidance documents is also be compiled. Finally a workshop with representatives from all parties has taken place to consider the findings and establish a common understanding of challenges and opportunities and to start to consider how they can be addressed. The review is establishing a collective (UK regulator's, NDA; nuclear operator's and supply chain) understanding of opportunities to improve characterisation practice in the UK. The characterisation review process is described and early results are presented and discussed. Subsequent work in 2016 will be required to prioritise the opportunities and to build a consensus to facilitate development and implementation of an improvement plan. The aim

  20. Strategy for energy policy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, T.

    2012-01-01

    UK Energy Policy is leading the world in showing how governments can effectively respond to the now widely accepted challenges of security of supply, low-carbon generation and pragmatic implementation. Confidence in the UK as place to invest in new nuclear is very high-there are already 3 developers who have between them already invested over 1 billion, 5 sites are planned to be developed and between 10 and 12 new reactors are planned to be built. To be clear, this is by far the largest commitment to new nuclear in the Western World and swamps in other countries. This achievement is a combination of vision, continuity, political consensus and a group of ministers and officials who are clear in the goals for the long-term sustain ability of an energy policy that will dramatically affect the lives of many generations to come. Recognising the multi-generational obligations and consequences of government policy's key to ensuring that this investment continues, together with the maintenance of the trust that investors have developed in the management of energy policy by the UK government. There is no doubt in the commitment of the UK government to delivering the safe, secure and low-carbon energy future of the UK. The opportunities for businesses and high-quality job creation are undoubted-all that now has to happen is for developers, reactor vendors, construction companies and communities to show how they can together deliver the cheapest form of low-carbon base load to time and to cost and to the benefit of local communities and the UK economy. the world is watching for the UK to show how it can be done. (Author)

  1. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two

  2. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard

    2014-04-17

    To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18,532, 14,094, and 14,376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14,235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two ways. Method 1 adjusted PLAB pass marks to equate median performance of PLAB

  3. UK nuclear terrorism insurance arrangements: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M. G.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of terrorism in the UK is not new, but since the New York World Trade Centre attacks in 2001, the potential scale of any terrorist attack has required a considerable reassessment. With UK foreign policy closely aligned to that of the USA, the UK security services now consider it is simply a matter of when and no longer if the UK is attacked. For insurers of any type this fact would cause concern; for insurers involved in high profile and potentially catastrophic loss targets such as nuclear power plants, any attack could have a severe impact on solvency and shareholder's funds. This paper's objective is to describe the terrorism insurance arrangements put in place in the U.K. both before and after the September 2001 attacks. These arrangements have been designed both to safeguard insurers' solvency and to ensure that the nuclear industry and general public can continue to be reassured by the availability of insurance should an attack ever occur.(author)

  4. Statement about UK referendum on the EU

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many people have expressed their concerns about the consequences of the 23 June vote in the UK for CERN, and for the UK’s relationship with CERN. CERN is an intergovernmental organisation subject to its own treaty. We are not part of the European Union, and several of our Member States, including Switzerland, in which we are headquartered, are not EU Members. Britain’s membership of CERN is not affected by the UK electorate’s vote to leave the European Union. We look forward to continuing the very constructive relationship we have shared with the UK, one of our founding members, long into the future. CERN was founded on the principle of international collaboration, and our success over the years is built on that. We will continue to work proactively to encourage ever-greater international collaboration in particle physics, and to help ensure that the UK continues to play a very active role. UK nationals remain eligible for all categories of employment at CERN, a...

  5. UK intussusception audit: A national survey of practice and audit of reduction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, Edward; Williams, Rhianydd; Allan, Rosemary; Okoye, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To define current UK reduction practice and the reductions rates achieved. Materials and methods: Electronic surveys were sent to radiologists at 26 UK centres. This assessed methods of reduction, equipment, personnel, and protocol usage. Standardized audit proforma were also sent to evaluate all reductions performed in 2011. Results: Twenty-two of 26 centres (85%) replied. All used air enema under fluoroscopic guidance. Equipment was not standardized but could be broadly categorized into hand-pumped air-supply systems (seven centres) and pressurized air systems (15 centres). Seventeen centres followed a protocol based on British Society of Paediatric Radiologists (BSPR) guidelines. In 21 of the 22 centres a consultant paediatric radiologist led reductions and only 12 centres reported a surgeon being present. Three hundred and ten cases were reported across 22 centres. Cases per centre ranged from 0–31 (median 14). Reduction rates varied from 38–90% (median 71%). The overall perforation rate was 2.5%. Caseload did not significantly correlate with reduction rate, and there was no significant difference between the two types of equipment used. Median reduction rates were 15% higher in centres with a surgeon present at reduction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Intussusception care in the UK lacks standardization of equipment and personnel involved. National reduction rates are lower than in current international literature. Improved standardization may lead to an improvement in reduction rates and a surgeon should always be present at reduction

  6. Urban air quality management. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first in a series of reports commissioned by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) to represent members' views on the management of urban air quality in the growing cities in developing countries. In this report, a general, science based framework is provided as a basis for understanding the nature of the problem in any specific urban area, the range of solutions that might be available, and the potential impact of each solution and its least cost privatisation. The topics covered are: a process for urban air quality management; setting air quality targets; a structured approach to the assessment of current and future air quality modelling methodologies; identification and collation of air quality model input data; development of socio-economic scenarios -long-term trend forecasting; cost effectiveness studies; the IPIECA approach to urban air quality management - development of partnerships; encouraging commitment to implementation of programme recommendations. (7 figures; 2 tables; 18 references). (UK)

  7. UK Announces Intention to Join ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    Summary The Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) , the UK's strategic science investment agency, today announced that the government of the United Kingdom is making funds available that provide a baseline for this country to join the European Southern Observatory (ESO) . The ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky , and the ESO Community warmly welcome this move towards fuller integration in European astronomy. "With the UK as a potential member country of ESO, our joint opportunities for front-line research and technology will grow significantly", she said. "This announcement is a clear sign of confidence in ESO's abilities, most recently demonstrated with the construction and operation of the unique Very Large Telescope (VLT) on Paranal. Together we will look forward with confidence towards new, exciting projects in ground-based astronomy." It was decided earlier this year to place the 4-m UK Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope (VISTA) at Paranal, cf. ESO Press Release 03/00. Following negotiations between ESO and PPARC, a detailed proposal for the associated UK/ESO Agreement with the various entry modalities will now be presented to the ESO Council for approval. Before this Agreement can enter into force, the ESO Convention and associated protocols must also be ratified by the UK Parliament. Research and key technologies According to the PPARC press release, increased funding for science, announced by the UK government today, will enable UK astronomers to prepare for the next generation of telescopes and expand their current telescope portfolio through membership of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The uplift to its baseline budget will enable PPARC to enter into final negotiations for UK membership of the ESO. This will ensure that UK astronomers, together with their colleagues in the ESO member states, are actively involved in global scale preparations for the next generation of astronomy facilities. among these are ALMA

  8. Modelling UK energy demand to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.D.

    1980-01-01

    A recent long-term demand forecast for the UK was made by Cheshire and Surrey. (SPRU Occasional Paper Series No.5, Science Policy Research Unit, Univ. Of Sussex, 1978.) Although they adopted a sectoral approach their study leaves some questions unanswered. Do they succeed in their aim of making all their assumptions fully explicit. How sensitive are their estimates to changes in assumptions and policies. Are important problems and 'turning points' fully identified in the period up to and immediately beyond their time horizon of 2000. The author addresses these questions by using a computer model based on the study by Cheshire and Surrey. This article is a shortened version of the report, S.D. Thomas, 'Modelling UK Energy Demand to 2000', Operational Research, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 1979, in which full details of the author's model are given. Copies are available from the author. (author)

  9. Modelling UK energy demand to 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S D [Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK)

    1980-03-01

    A recent long-term demand forecast for the UK was made by Cheshire and Surrey. (SPRU Occasional Paper Series No.5, Science Policy Research Unit, Univ. Of Sussex, 1978.) Although they adopted a sectoral approach their study leaves some questions unanswered. Do they succeed in their aim of making all their assumptions fully explicit. How sensitive are their estimates to changes in assumptions and policies. Are important problems and 'turning points' fully identified in the period up to and immediately beyond their time horizon of 2000. The author addresses these questions by using a computer model based on the study by Cheshire and Surrey. This article is a shortened version of the report, S.D. Thomas, 'Modelling UK Energy Demand to 2000', Operational Research, Univ. of Sussex, Brighton, UK, 1979, in which full details of the author's model are given. Copies are available from the author.

  10. UK school visit: Alfriston School for girls

    CERN Multimedia

    Sophie Louise Hetherton

    2014-01-01

    Pupils with learning disabilities from Alfriston School in the UK visited the CMS detector last week. This visit was funded by the UK's Science and Technologies Facilities Council (STFC) as part of a grant awarded to support activities that will help to build the girls’ self-esteem and interest in physics.   Alfriston School students at CMS. On Friday, 10 October, pupils from Alfriston School – a UK secondary school catering for girls with a wide range of special educational needs and disabilities – paid a special visit to CERN. Dave Waterman, a science teacher at the school, recently received a Public Engagement Small Award from the STFC, which enabled the group of girls and accompanying teachers to travel to Switzerland and visit CERN. The awards form part of a project to boost the girls’ confidence and interest in physics. The aim is to create enthusiastic role models with first-hand experience of science who can inspire their peers back hom...

  11. UK Minister enthusiastic after visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    ON Tuesday 5 August the UK Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills, John Denham, came to CERN. The UK continues its strong links with CERN.The Minister was welcomed on arrival at CERN by Robert Aymar, the Director-General, and senior British scientists. Following a short presentation, he began a comprehensive tour of the Laboratory with a visit to both the LHC at point 5 and the CMS experiment. After lunch the Minister’s busy schedule continued, completing his overview of the main areas of UK participation at CERN. As soon as he had signed the guest book, he was whisked off to visit the LHCb experiment, the LHC computing grid project (LCG) and the ATLAS control room. However, the last item on his itinerary was perhaps the most illuminating. Meeting a diverse group of British scientists, from technical and summer students to staff members with more than 30 years of experience, the Minister had the opportunity...

  12. Kyoto commitments: CHP will help the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In order to meet the United Kingdom's targets for carbon dioxide emissions reduction, agreed at the Kyoto Summit, the UK Government is promoting the use of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Such schemes need to offer over 70% efficiency, have on-site or nearby heat uses, and allow flexibility for the export of electricity where this is appropriate. Electricity trading arrangements will need to be re-organised in line with similar commodities, in order to facilitate and promote the growth of CHP and renewable energy schemes. Financial incentives and regulation of electricity prices will also contribute to the promotion of CHP schemes, ultimately leading to reduced CO 2 pollution as a result of the growth in the UK's CHP capacity. (UK)

  13. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  14. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  15. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  16. 16th UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Gegov, Alexander; Jayne, Chrisina; Shen, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The book is a timely report on advanced methods and applications of computational intelligence systems. It covers a long list of interconnected research areas, such as fuzzy systems, neural networks, evolutionary computation, evolving systems and machine learning. The individual chapters are based on peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 16th Annual UK Workshop on Computational Intelligence, held on September 7-9, 2016, in Lancaster, UK. The book puts a special emphasis on novels methods and reports on their use in a wide range of applications areas, thus providing both academics and professionals with a comprehensive and timely overview of new trends in computational intelligence.

  17. Is the UK triple-A?

    OpenAIRE

    Polito, Vito; Wickens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The immediate background to this paper is the downgrade of the U.K.'s credit rating in February 2013, the market's view that this should have occurred earlier and the emphasis in fiscal policy on reducing debt rather than recovery from recession. We propose a measure of the U.K. sovereign credit rating based on an open economy macroeconomic model that is simple to compute and easily automated. Whether based on an ad hoc debt-GDP limit or a DSGE model of an open economy, our measure downgrades...

  18. UK medical selection: lottery or meritocracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Benjamin H L; Walsh, Jason L; Lammy, Simon

    2015-02-01

    From senior school through to consultancy, a plethora of assessments shape medical careers. Multiple methods of assessment are used to discriminate between applicants. Medical selection in the UK appears to be moving increasingly towards non-knowledge-based testing at all career stages. We review the evidence for non-knowledge-based tests and discuss their perceived benefits. We raise the question: is the current use of non-knowledge-based tests within the UK at risk of undermining more robust measures of medical school and postgraduate performance? © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  19. Modelling of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulopoulou, C.; Ashmore, M. R.; Byrne, M. A.; Kinnersley, R. P.

    A dynamic multi-compartment computer model has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor pollutant concentrations as a function of outdoor concentrations, indoor emission rates and building characteristics. The model has been parameterised for typical UK homes and workplaces and linked to a time-activity model to calculate exposures for a representative homemaker, schoolchild and office worker, with respect to NO 2. The estimates of population exposures, for selected urban and rural sites, are expressed in terms of annual means and frequency of hours in which air quality standards are exceeded. The annual mean exposures are estimated to fall within the range of 5-21 ppb for homes with no source, and 21-27 ppb for homes with gas cooking, varying across sites and population groups. The contribution of outdoor exposure to annual mean NO 2 exposure varied from 5 to 24%, that of indoor penetration of outdoor air from 17 to 86% and that of gas cooking from 0 to 78%. The frequency of exposure to 1 h mean concentrations above 150 ppb was very low, except for people cooking with gas.

  20. UK market for waste-to-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper four key questions relating to the UK market for waste-to-energy have been addressed. (1) What has happened in the market place over the last 20 years? (2) What are the driving forces behind the recent upsurge of interest? (3) What are the problems currently facing us? (4) What is the outlook likely to be for the future? (author)

  1. UK pulls out of plans for ILC

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2007-01-01

    "A funding crisis at one of the UK's leading research councils has forced the country to pull out of plans for the International Linear Collider (ILC). The science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) says in a report published today that it does not see "a practicable path towards the realization of this facility as currently conceived on a reasonable timescale". (1 page)

  2. UK money demand 1873-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Heino Bohn

    2007-01-01

    This paper performs a multivariate cointegration analysis of UK money demand 1873-2001, and illustrates how a long-run time series analysis may be conducted on a data set characterized by turbulent episodes and institutional changes. We suggest accounting for the effects of the two world wars...

  3. `Green heat` in a UK city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    This brief article describes the Sheffield `green heat` scheme which utilises heat from a local waste incinerator to operate an independent district heating scheme within Sheffield city centre. Standby and peak overload heat generation capacity is provided by four boiler plants ensuring integrity of supply. The benefits of the scheme and future developments are outlined. (UK)

  4. Integration and dispersal in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Griffiths

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available It is often suggested that Refugee Community-based Organisations (RCOs play a key role in assisting refugee adaptation and integration in the UK. But what happens when the reception policy for asylum seekers and refugees is fundamentally changed?

  5. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  6. UK Election 2015:Setting the Agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Martin John Edwards; Ramsay, Gordon Neil

    2015-01-01

    UK election 2015: setting the agenda builds on innovativework by Dr Martin Moore and Dr Gordon Ramsaystarted in January 2015. Using new methods forcollecting and analysing news and social media content,the report provides a fresh perspective on how politicalcommunication is changing in the digital era.

  7. The new electric power market in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, G.

    2000-01-01

    The New Electricity Trading Arrangements in UK are essentially based on bilateral contracts and a balancing mechanism. Under this new and very complex mechanism, the system operator will balance demand and supply, determine energy prices for out-of-balance positions and be subject to a global incentive scheme in order to perform efficiently its tasks [it

  8. Improving UK client-contractor relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    The client's aim in any decommissioning project is that the originally intended end point is achieved, within budget and on time. The contractor's aim is to have a satisfied client, so that both are happy to work together again, and to have a reasonable return for his efforts. How can these - not incompatible - aims best be achieved? (UK)

  9. Resilience improvements to UK nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Following the events at Fukushima, the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR), the UK nuclear safety regulator, undertook a series of reviews into the resilience of UK nuclear power plants to severe events. These reviews highlighted a number of areas in relation to electrical infrastructure where it considered licensees should review their arrangements, considering both onsite and offsite infrastructure as well as the ability to recover following a complete loss of site infrastructure. In response, UK licensees have been exploring four parallel approaches to improving the resilience for each of their sites. Firstly, through modifications on-site such as enhancements to the installed diesel generators and related systems. Secondly through improvements to the resilience of essential instrumentation to Station Black Out events. Thirdly, through the provision of off-site backup equipment that can be deployed to any site following a severe event. Finally, the provision of event qualified connection points on site to enable timely restoration of long term essential electrical supplies and cooling to key systems. This last item gives a central focus to the issues of switchboard availability and the resilience of the whole network to large potentially common cause internal and external hazards. This paper will discuss the electrically related findings of the ONR reviews, explore the reasoning behind those decisions, and describe the approaches being taken by UK licensees. (authors)

  10. Globalisation and MATESOL Programmes in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasrati, Mostafa; Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of a mixed-methods approach to investigating the association between globalisation and MATESOL in UK universities. Qualitative and quantitative data collected from academic staff through eight emails, four interviews and 41 questionnaires indicate that the globalised context of higher education has affected these…

  11. The Operational Performance of UK Airlines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. Georg; Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to measure the efficiency of UK airlines in light of all the recent industry challenges. Design/methodology/approach – The study measured the technical efficiency of airlines through the innovative data envelopment analysis (DEA) bootstrap methodology. Findi...

  12. A UK view of Bulgaria's potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddon, J.

    2002-01-01

    This is a personal view of the options and challenges for the future of Eastern Europe countries. The widening of Europe, UK situation and investment criteria are discussed. Bulgaria is considered in better shape than some European states as a host for new or replacement nuclear power station construction

  13. Migrant cap 'may damage' UK physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Scientists have expressed concern that changes to UK immigration rules - including a sharp drop in the number of visas available for the most highly skilled migrants - could make it more difficult for universities and other institutions to recruit talented researchers from overseas.

  14. Rental Values in UK Shopping Malls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuo, Tony Shun-Te; Lizieri, Colin; McCann, Phillip; Crosby, Neil

    This paper employs a unique dataset to analyse the retail rental levels of 1108 retail tenants in 148 UK regional shopping malls. The dataset integrates information regarding the characteristics of the shopping centre, the individual retailer, the brand, the individual unit occupied, the tenancy

  15. Student Representations of Psychology in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyard, Philip; Duffy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Psychology is a popular choice for UK students in their secondary school curriculum. Policy makers and elite universities, however, express concern about the subject. The British Psychological Society (2013) commissioned a detailed study of the provision of school curricula in psychology and as part of this work a survey of students was conducted.…

  16. Operational radiation protection in UK mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    The radiological conditions of the mining industry (coal-national, coal-private, non-coal) in the UK are described. From the point of view of radiological protection, non-coal miners have the highest occupational exposure of any group in the UK in relation to a recommended limit. From the point of view of general health and safety in non-coal mining, however, the situation does not look no serious. This is illustrated as follows. The US epidemiological study of uranium miners yields, on extrapolation, a risk estimate of some 0.3 deaths annually from lung cancer per 1000 miners exposed to 100 WLM. On the other hand, accident statistics for non-coal mines in the UK yield an estimate of two deaths annually per 1000 miners. Further perspective is given to the problem by the incidence of lung cancer among adult males within the UK, that is, 1.5 cases annually per 1000 persons. Narrow concern for the radiological safety of miners must therefore be tempered with broader concern for the other hazards they face

  17. The Continental Market Seen from the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, Michel

    1998-01-01

    In this presentation, the Chairman of a French gas company (Elf) comments on the evolution of the Continental gas market from a British point of view. He first discusses the differences between the US, British and Continental gas markets, recalls the provisions of the European Gas Directive and states why a fully competitive system is a long-term prospect in Continental Europe. Seen from the UK, the provisions of the EU directive may appear modest. Due to the long transportation, British gas companies may find it hard to compete on the gas market of Continental Europe. When Inter connector, the gas pipeline connecting the gas markets in UK and the Continent, begins operation, there will be a flow of gas from the UK to the Continent according to already signed contracts. But there may be contractual flows both ways. Gas prices will level off between the UK and Northern Europe, at least for the industry. The continental markets will change gradually, the Gas Directive and the Inter connector will help the move towards a more competitive gas industry, but the fundamentals will not change: low gas prices for the next few years, competition between the big three exporters to Continental Europe, and long-term contracts that will extend beyond 2005

  18. Ammonia emission factors for UK agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselbrook, T. H.; Van Der Weerden, T. J.; Pain, B. F.; Jarvis, S. C.; Chambers, B. J.; Smith, K. A.; Phillips, V. R.; Demmers, T. G. M.

    Ammonia (NH 3) emission inventories are required for modelling atmospheric NH 3 transport and estimating downwind deposition. A recent inventory for UK agriculture, estimating emission as 197 kt NH 3-N yr -1, was constructed using 1993 statistical and census data for the UK. This paper describes the derivation of the UK-based emission factors used in the calculation of that emission for a range of livestock classes, farm practices and fertiliser applications to agricultural land. Some emission factors have been updated where more recent information has become available. Some of the largest emission factors derived for each farming practice include 16.9 g NH 3-N dairy cow -1 d -1 for grazing, 148.8 g NH 3-N liveweight unit -1 yr -1 for housed broilers and 4.8 g NH 3-N m -2 d -1 for storage of solid pig and poultry waste as manure heaps. Emissions for land spreading of all livestock waste were 59% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied as a high dry matter content slurry and 76% of TAN applied as farm yard manure. An updated estimate of emission from UK agriculture, using updated emission factors together with 1997 statistical and census data, is presented, giving a total of 226 kt NH 3-N per year.

  19. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee: progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    Studies of the basic nuclear data for commercial and industrial application are monitored by the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee (UKCNDC). Such data are defined on the basis of chemical methods of analysis, and include half-lives, decay parameters and fission yields. Work undertaken within this area is described in this document for information. (author)

  20. UK strategy for nuclear industry LLW - 16393

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Matthew; Fisher, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In March 2007 the UK Government and devolved administrations (for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, from here on referred to as 'Government') published their policy for the management of solid low level waste ('the Policy'). The Policy sets out a number of core principles for the management of low level waste (LLW) and charges the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority with developing a UK-wide strategy in the case of LLW from nuclear sites. The UK Nuclear Industry LLW Strategy has been developed within the framework of the principles set out in the policy. A key factor in the development of this strategy has been the strategic partnership the NDA shares with the Low Level Waste Repository near Drigg (LLWR), who now have a role in developing strategy as well as delivering an optimised waste management service at the LLWR. The strategy aims to support continued hazard reduction and decommissioning by ensuring uninterrupted capability and capacity for the management and disposal of LLW in the UK. The continued availability of a disposal route for LLW is considered vital by both the nuclear industry and non-nuclear industry low level waste producers. Given that the UK will generate significantly more low level waste (∼ 3.1 million m 3 ) than there is capacity at the LLWR (∼0.75 million m 3 ), developing alternative effective ways to manage LLW is critical. The waste management hierarchy is central to the strategy, which includes strategic goals at all levels of the hierarchy to improve its application across the industry. (authors)

  1. Financing small scale wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Catherine

    1993-01-01

    This paper shows how wind energy projects in the UK have obtained finance. It attempts to list the financing options open to small scale developments and to note any likely problems which may occur. (UK)

  2. New Dimensions for Manufacturing: A UK Strategy for Nanotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Taylor, John M

    2002-01-01

    ... R&D for nanotechnology. This report, of the UK Advisory Group on Nanotechnology Applications, examines the growth of nanotechnology, its potential implications for industry in the UK, and proposes the elements of a strategy...

  3. Investigating the potential of overheating in UK dwellings as a consequence of extant climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, A.D.; Jenkins, D.P.; Kane, D.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic simulation is used with defined domestic building variants to investigate internal temperatures of UK dwellings. Factors such as a warming climate and varying internal heat gains are estimated to examine whether UK domestic buildings are likely to be prone to overheating in the future, and therefore require mechanical air conditioning. The study suggests that the ability, or inability, of the occupant to adapt to bedroom temperature is paramount in the understanding of the conditions for overheating. While this is difficult to quantify (and a range of comfort temperatures are proposed), the effect of changing the building construction and geographical location can result in significantly different thermal conditions. As might be expected, the problem appears most noticeable for buildings in the south of the UK and with lightweight constructions. Even with a window-opening schedule applied to such a scenario, the average internal temperature is simulated as being over 28 o C for almost 12% of the year. A different metric, defined as 'cooling nights', suggests that there might be a cooling problem in bedroom areas for approximately a third of the year. In the North of the UK, and also for solid wall dwellings, this problem diminishes significantly.

  4. UK-trained junior doctors' intentions to work in UK medicine: questionnaire surveys, three years after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W

    2017-12-01

    Objective To report on the career intentions, three years after qualification, of 12 national cohorts of UK-trained doctors who qualified between 1974 and 2012, and, specifically, to compare recent UK medical graduates' intentions to work in medicine in the UK with earlier graduates. Design Questionnaire surveys of cohorts of UK medical graduates defined by year of graduation. Setting UK. Participants 30,272 UK medical graduates. Main outcome measures Stated level of intention to pursue a long-term career in medicine in the UK. Results The response rate was 62% (30,272/48,927). We examined responses to the question ' Apart from temporary visits abroad, do you intend to practise medicine in the United Kingdom for the foreseeable future?' Of doctors from UK homes, 90% had specified that they would 'definitely or probably' practise medicine in the UK in the surveys of 1977-1986, 81% in 1996-2011 and 64% in 2015. Those who said that they would probably or definitely not practise medicine in the UK comprised 5% in 1977-1986, 8% in 1996-2011 and 15% in 2015. Most who were not definite about a future career in UK medicine indicated that they would wish to practise medicine outside the UK rather than to leave medicine. Conclusions The wish to remain in UK medical practice in the 2015 survey was unprecedentedly low in this unique series of 40 years of surveys.

  5. Geothermal heat pumps - gaining ground in the UK and worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Robin

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable energy companies examines the geothermal heat pump sector, and discusses the technology involved, installations of geothermal heat pumps, the activity in the UK market with increased interest in UK geothermal heat pump products from abroad, and developments in the building sector. The UK government's increased support for the industry including its sponsorship of the Affordable Warmth programme, and the future potential of ground source systems are discussed

  6. The future of learning disabilities nursing in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Anthony

    2014-07-02

    This article appraises the report Strengthening the Commitment, which is a UK-wide review of learning disabilities nursing by the UK's four chief nursing officers. Strengthening the Commitment has strategic importance in reviewing progress in the care of people with learning disabilities in the UK. It also has a role in helping to guide future strategies and initiatives addressing the continuing health inequalities experienced by people with learning disabilities throughout the UK.

  7. Air quality management and the art of the possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The UK government's proposed weakening of air quality objectives for fine particulates, and also possibly for nitrogen dioxide and ozone, but strengthening of the objectives for benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon monoxide, lead, and sulphur dioxide are examined. The arguing that the objective for particulates is unrealistic, the different types of particulates contributing to urban background levels, international pressure on particulate precursors, costs of meeting the nitrogen dioxide objective, the failed bid to put a price on the health effects, and the government's intention to issue a revised air quality strategy are considered. (UK)

  8. Research reactor fuel transport in the U.K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panter, R [U.K. Atomic Energy Authority, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1983-09-01

    This paper describes the containers currently used for transport of fresh or spent fuel elements for Research and Materials Test Reactors in the U.K., their status, operating procedures and some of the practical difficulties. In the U.K., MTR fuel cycle work is almost entirely the responsibility of the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority.

  9. Development opportunities for the UK offshore wind industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the UK's ability to compete for the construction of offshore wind farms. The European offshore wind farm market is examined, and the UK offshore construction equipment and wind farm construction methods are analysed, and recommendations for a purpose build or modified construction vessel are presented. The appendix gives UK construction companies addresses and contact names

  10. UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee request list - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    1990-03-01

    The 1986 UK request list for chemical nuclear data has been reviewed in detail by members of the UK Chemical Nuclear Data Committee. New requirements for data measurements and evaluations have been identified, and specific requests have been withdrawn. A new UK request list has evolved, and is given in the form of tabulations covering measurements and evaluations. (author)

  11. The Unfair Commercial Practices Directive in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Koutsias (Marios); C. Willett (Chris)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article shows that the UK has blended preventive and traditional UK criminal enforcement techniques to implement the UCPD; these techniques have been 'Europeanised' by the UCPD unfairness concepts; and the UCPD may also cause UK private law to be Europeanised in

  12. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  13. The UK sugar tax - a healthy start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C M

    2016-07-22

    The unexpected announcement by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer of a levy on sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) on the 16 March 2016, should be welcomed by all health professionals. This population based, structural intervention sends a strong message that there is no place for carbonated drinks, neither sugared nor sugar-free, in a healthy diet and the proposed levy has the potential to contribute to both general and dental health. The sugar content of drinks exempt from the proposed sugar levy will still cause tooth decay. Improving the proposed tax could involve a change to a scaled volumetric tax of added sugar with a lower exemption threshold. External influences such as the Common Agricultural Policy and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership may negate the benefits of the sugar levy unless it is improved. However, the proposed UK sugar tax should be considered as a start in improving the nation's diet.

  14. The UK Committee on Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, Keith; Ball, David J

    2005-01-01

    The UK Committee on Radioactive Waste Management is charged with recommending to Government, by July 2006, options for the long term management of the UK's radioactive waste legacy. These options should inspire public confidence. Now, more than halfway into the time allotted, we, as two former members of the Committee, express our concerns at the wayward approach that has been adopted. The Committee has placed emphasis on gaining public confidence but this has been done at the expense of recruiting the best scientific expertise in the management of radioactive waste, an act which we believe will actually undermine public confidence. Furthermore, given also the immense importance of this decision to public safety, national security and the national interest, we believe urgent steps should be taken to review the Committee's process, its management and its sponsorship. (opinion)

  15. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.; Harris, D.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK

  16. Update on dialysis economics in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Adnan; Baboolal, Keshwar

    2011-03-01

    The burgeoning population of patients requiring renal replacement therapy contributes a disproportionate strain on National Health Service resources. Although renal transplantation is the preferred treatment modality for patients with established renal failure, achieving both clinical and financial advantages, limitations to organ donation and clinical comorbidities will leave a significant proportion of patients with established renal failure requiring expensive dialysis therapy in the form of either hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. An understanding of dialysis economics is essential for both healthcare providers and clinical leaders to establish clinically efficient and cost-effective treatment modalities that maximize service provision. In light of changes to the provision of healthcare funds in the form of "Payment by Results," it is imperative for UK renal units to adopt clinically effective and financially accountable dialysis programs. This article explores the role of dialysis economics and implications for UK renal replacement therapy programs.

  17. Developing wind energy for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, Marcus [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (GB). Faculty of Technology

    1990-01-01

    There is now emerging a consensus that the sensitive development of renewable sources of energy, and in particular wind energy, is going to be of major environmental significance for the UK. Primarily, renewable sources of energy can act as a means of combating the Greenhouse Effect and of reducing the other environmental impacts of conventional energy technology, including the build-up of radioactive waste and the damaging emissions from fossil fuelled power stations. The UK has a large natural potential for harnessing energy from the wind (between 20% and 200% of our current electrical requirements). This potential is beginning to be tapped. Wind energy is now in a position where it can take advantage of the profound changes taking place in the form of the privatisation of the Electricity Supply Industry. In other countries wind energy has developed successfully. (author).

  18. DYNAMICS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the beginning of the 1990’s, organic agriculture in the UK has expanded rapidly, in the middle of the year 2003 it represented 4% of the agricultural surface with around 4000 farms, managing almost 720.000 hectares. This growth was brought by the consumers and decisional factors which see organic agriculture as a contribution to environment, social and nutritional welfare purposes. This is one of the sustainable food production strategies; another being the integrated agriculture, a less restrictive option for the farmers. The most recent national statistics presented by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs on organic farming were published in July of 2012. These present information gathered throughout 2011 for organic crops and livestock in the UK and the number of organic producers/processors registered with the Organic Certification Bodies in Great Britain.

  19. The UK Earth System Model project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongming

    2016-04-01

    In this talk we will describe the development and current status of the UK Earth System Model (UKESM). This project is a NERC/Met Office collaboration and has two objectives; to develop and apply a world-leading Earth System Model, and to grow a community of UK Earth System Model scientists. We are building numerical models that include all the key components of the global climate system, and contain the important process interactions between global biogeochemistry, atmospheric chemistry and the physical climate system. UKESM will be used to make key CMIP6 simulations as well as long-time (e.g. millennium) simulations, large ensemble experiments and investigating a range of future carbon emission scenarios.

  20. MNCs in Denmark and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Marginson, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Multinational companies (MNCs) have more opportunities than ever to forum shop and choose between different market systems - including different industrial relations (IR) systems. When an MNC choose to engage in a certain country, it also becomes an actor in the country's labor market system. MNCs...... are often quite large companies, and hence they can become significant players, potentially affecting the existing balances between the social partners. The question is whether MNCs adapt to the host country's labor market system (host country effect) - or if they seek in various ways to change the host...... to determine the employment relations. Quite the opposite to the UK, where trade unions are weak and where collective bargaining is far less widespread. Further analyses show that MNCs originating from liberal market economies (especially the US) acts differently in the two countries; in the UK they tend...

  1. Graphite core design in UK reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The cores in the first power producing Magnox reactors in the UK were designed with only a limited amount of information available regarding the anisotropic dimensional change behaviour of Pile Grade graphite. As more information was gained it was necessary to make modifications to the design, some minor, some major. As the cores being built became larger, and with the switch to the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) with its much higher power density, additional problems had to be overcome such as increased dimensional change and radiolytic oxidation by the carbon dioxide coolant. For the AGRs a more isotropic graphite was required, with a lower initial open pore volume and higher strength. Gilsocarbon graphite was developed and was selected for all the AGRs built in the UK. Methane bearing coolants are used to limit radiolytic oxidation. (author). 5 figs

  2. Food production and service in UK hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Jones, Eleri; Redmond, Elizabeth; Hewedi, Mahmoud; Wingert, Andreas; Gad El Rab, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply value stream mapping holistically to hospital food production/service systems focused on high-quality food. Multiple embedded case study of three (two private-sector and one public-sector) hospitals in the UK. The results indicated various issues affecting hospital food production including: the menu and nutritional considerations; food procurement; food production; foodservice; patient perceptions/expectations. Value stream mapping is a new approach for food production systems in UK hospitals whether private or public hospitals. The paper identifies opportunities for enhancing hospital food production systems. The paper provides a theoretical basis for process enhancement of hospital food production and the provision of high-quality hospital food.

  3. Second study of UK nuclear test participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darby, S.; Doll, R.; Kendall, G.

    1994-01-01

    A second epidemiological analysis of mortality and cancer incidence in UK participants in the UK atmospheric nuclear tests and associated experimental programmes has provided broadly reassuring results. Overall death rates in test participants are lower than those in the general population and similar to those in a closely matched control group. Observations in the extended period of follow-up suggest that the excess of multiple myeloma seen in the first analysis was a chance finding. The extended follow-up does not provide any new evidence to support the finding of apparent excess of leukaemia found in the first analysis. However, the possibility that test participation may have caused a small risk of leukaemia in the early years after the tests cannot be ruled out. (author)

  4. UK nuclear power: gone but not forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The nuclear power industry in Britain will not now be privatised. The future of nuclear power in the UK is discussed. In Scotland the South of Scotland Electricity Board will be expecting to sell some of its electricity to Britain. The structure of the new electricity supply industry in Scotland will also be unusual with most of the country's electricity being produced by a state-run company, while two private companies produce the rest and sell it on to customers. The situation in England is uncertain mainly because of the policy and potential costs involved in decommissioning of the Magnox stations as they are shutdown at the end of their service life. The privatisation of the electricity industry has highlighted the problems of decommissioning. It has also shown that the nuclear industry assumed itself to be immortal and has also assumed that money is not important, an attitude which has alarmed the City financiers. (UK)

  5. U.K. nuclear data progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, D.J.S.; Cookson, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    The report summarises nuclear data research in the United Kingdom between January and December 1984. The nuclear data presented includes contributions from government research laboratories and Universities, as well as from various collaborations. The section on nuclear data forum includes three individual papers (being processed separately), these are: the DIMPLE criticality experiments, the potential use of criticality benchmark experiments in nuclear data evaluation, and the use of benchmark experiments for the validation of nuclear data. (U.K.)

  6. The UK sounding rocket and balloon programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delury, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The UK civil science balloon and rocket programmes for 1979/80/81 are summarised and the areas of scientific interest for the period 1981/85 mentioned. In the main the facilities available are 10 in number balloons up to 40 m cu ft launched from USA or Australia and up to 10 in number 7 1/2'' diameter Petrel rockets. This paper outlines the 1979 and 1980 programmes and explains the longer term plans covering the next 5 years. (Auth.)

  7. Competitive intelligence in UK firms: A typology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Sheila; Pickton, David W.; Callow, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    There is a danger of allowing competitive analysis to receive less than adequate attention in the marketing planning process as it is subordinated to a customer driven focus. Clearly important though customers are, they should not dominate marketing strategy and planning to the exclusion of other influential groups, one of these being competitors. With this in mind, a pilot research project was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how UK companies conduct competitive intelligence. ...

  8. Offshore wind industry capabilities in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a questionnaire survey distributed to companies and organisations interested in opportunities in offshore wind energy industries that may results in the improved competitiveness of the industry. The potential areas of advantage for the UK offshore industry are examined including resource and design conditions, turbine design and manufacture, electrical systems, operation and maintenance, project management and finance. Networking and communications are considered.

  9. Electric power market regulations in UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G.; Napolano, L.

    2000-01-01

    The wholesale electricity market in UK is being radically reformed, with the abolition of a centralised market (the Pool) and the introduction of a system based around bilateral trading and real-time balancing (NETA), with the aim of increasing competition in the sector. This article analyses the English experience to draw some implications on the relationship between market design, market structure and market power, and to provide some insights for the design of the future Italian market [it

  10. UK national consensus conference on radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craven-Howe, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    UK CEED organised a consensus conference to debate radwaste disposal. It lasted from 21-24 May 1999. Among the witnesses called to give evidence were UKAEA, BNFL, Nuclear Industries' Inspectorate, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace. The end result was a report produced by the panel of members of the public, recording their views and recommendations. Conclusions are presented. (author)

  11. Studies project development off U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that capital spending on U.K. Continental Shelf (UKCS) oil and gas development in 1992-94 will reach about $36 billion, Arthur Andersen Petroleum Services (AAPS) predicts. Expenditures during the 3 year period would be about 55% more than capital spending for UKCS development in 1989-91 AAPS noted. Another industry forecast, by Grampian Regional Council, Aberdeen, estimates more than 90 new fields could be developed on the UKCS during the next 20 years

  12. TheUK approach to hazard assesment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmore, P.L.; Burton, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    This approach takes into account the limitation of total magnitude range for UK events, as revaled by Gumbel's Third Distribution, and derives an estimate of the combination of magnitude and distance which is most likely to produce any given value of intensity. It thereby avoids some of the problems of defining real hazards in terms of historical intensity and of extrapolation to very long return periods

  13. The UK nuclear programme: The Sizewell experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The current status of the Sizewell 'B' PWR programme and the effect on it of the proposed privatisation of U.K electricity generation is reviewed. Departures from and additions to the Standard Nuclear Unit Power Plant System (SNUPPS) reference plant design are given. These include Reactor Coolant System overpressure protection and the addition of an Emergency Charging System and an Emergency Boration System. Improvements in monitoring Reactor Coolant System water level during refuelling and maintenance shutdown operations are presented. (author)

  14. Návrh corporate designu FTVS UK

    OpenAIRE

    Lhota, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Title of study: Proposal for the corporate design of FTVS UK Study aim: An analysis of the present situation in the area of the faculty's visual style and proposals for its amelioration by means of a graphic manual. Method: Analysis of internal and external documents and a semi-structured interview are used in this Master's Thesis. Results: A complete graphic manual of FTVS will be presented as a final proposal for an amelioration of the present state. Key words: company communication, compan...

  15. The politicisation of UK immigration policy

    OpenAIRE

    Onslow-Cole, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Article by Julia Onslow-Cole (A senior partner and head of CMS Cameron McKenna's global immigration business practice) examining the development of UK business immigration law from 2003-4. Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, University of London.

  16. EC tells Bonn let in UK coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-06-23

    The European Commission has told the German federal government to open the door for coal imports from other EC member countries. As an initial step, the Commission is suggesting that some of the power station coal which was to be sourced from German stockpiles under the November 1991 agreement between Rurhkohle AG, the state mining company and the generators, be supplied by other member states such as the UK. The implications of this move for the German coal industry are discussed. 2 tabs.

  17. The effects of Air Pollution on Health Status in Great Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanis, Eleftherios; Ozdamar, Oznur

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the effects of air pollution on self-reported health status. Moreover, this study explores the willingness to pay for improving the air quality in UK. The estimates are based on data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS). The effects of air pollution on individuals’ health status are estimated and their monetary value is calculated. In particular, two main air pollutants are examined; ground-level ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). Moreover, various approaches ...

  18. Review of electrical energy storage technologies and systems and of their potential for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a review of current energy storage technologies and their potential application in the UK. Five groups of storage technologies are examined: compressed air energy storage; battery energy storage systems including lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, sodium-sulphur, sodium-nickel and lithium ion batteries; electrochemical flow cell systems, including the vanadium redox battery, the zinc bromide battery and the polysulphide battery; kinetic energy storage systems, ie flywheel storage; and fuel cell/electrolyser systems based on hydrogen. Details are given of the technology, its development status, potential applications and the key developers, manufacturers and suppliers. The opportunities available to UK industry and the potential for systems integration and wealth creation are also discussed.

  19. Technology status review and carbon abatement potential of renewable transport fuels in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J; Bauen, A

    2003-07-01

    The document reviews the technology for the production of renewable transport fuels (RTFs) and includes a discussion on the costs of the different RTF options and the role they might play in helping reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The motivation for using RTFs in the UK are (1) to reduce transport sector costs; (2) reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (3) improve air quality; (4) improve energy security in the transport sector and (5) assist rural development through domestic production of biomass-based fuels. The RTFs of most interest at present are ethanol produced in the fermentation of sugar and starchy crops, and biodiesel from oil crops. Figures for the UK potential for RTFs are given. It is pointed out however that given the finite availability of renewable sources and the competition for other applications, the use of RTFs will need to be efficient for sustainability. The report was prepared by Imperial College London as part of the DTI New and Renewable Energy Programme.

  20. UK position paper on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, G J [National Nuclear Corporation Ltd., Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Glass, D [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom); Newman, R N [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berekely Nuclear Laboratory, Berkeley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Ramsdale, S A [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Snelling, K W [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  1. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  2. Energy, the UK and the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, N.

    1982-01-01

    The emphasis of effort in European energy policy should be placed on external relations rather than internal regulation. The divergence of the interests of the United States and Europe in energy policy will no longer allow Europe to depend on US initiative. The temporary relaxation of world oil markets has engendered unrealistic complacency. The European Community must develop its important role as a means whereby the member states can formulate common initiatives to press within international institutions. Strong presentation of interests externally has to be complemented by internal adaptation. The Community has at the moment few means of influencing the form and nature of energy investment. This paper proposes a fund of the order of Pound1 bn per annum to be used for the promotion of projects whose intrinsic benefits are not fully translated into commercial advantage and which need political stimulus. Such a Fund might be, but need not necessarily be, financed by a small levy on imported oil. The UK should present more aggressively the considerable benefits which accrue to the Community from UK resources. There is perhaps an opportunity to take a more extrovert view of the relationship between the UK and the continental gas transport systems. (author)

  3. Wind energy - current status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty two windfarms are operational or are under construction in the U.K. They have a total installed capacity of approximately 140 MW and will generate about 360 GWh in a full year and provide the electricity needs of about 250 000 individuals and save the emission of about 400 000 tonnes of CO 2 each year. Developments so far have required an investment of about Pound 140 million provided mostly by banks and large corporate investors. Financing these projects has broken new ground for renewable technologies and established a framework for the financing of windfarms built using future NFFO contracts. Obtaining planning consents for these windfarms has involved thirteen public inquiries, eight of which have been successful. Four of these remain unused and the result of another is awaited. Statutory and other bodies have responded to the rapid deployment of windfarms by issuing guidelines and these together with Public Inquiry documentation now provide invaluable guidance for the industry. The U.K. market is arguably the most 'open' in Europe and Danish Wind Turbine manufacturers have gained over 50 per cent of the total market. A Japanese manufacturer has gained 25 per cent whilst the major U.K. turbine supplier has gained 17 per cent market share. There are still over thirty manufacturers worldwide and signs that a combination of innovation and market pressures are continuing to reduce the costs of wind energy. (author)

  4. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  5. A novel approach for investigating the trends in nitrogen dioxide levels in UK cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Margaret Carol; Galatioto, Fabio; Chakravartty, Ayan; Namdeo, Anil

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the variations in levels of nitrogen dioxide, NO 2 , monitored over the decade 2001–2010, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne (UK) city centre, to develop fundamental understanding of the periods of persistence of levels of NO 2 greater than 40 μg m −3 (∼21 ppb) defined as air pollution event duration. The appropriateness of the hazard theory as a mechanism to understand failure rate of the duration of poor air pollution events was explored. The results revealed two types of air quality events. The longer duration air quality events (between 24 and 68 h) were associated with the “extreme-weather” conditions and were responsible for a small number of extremely long air pollution duration events. These created bias in the results and therefore the analysis was restricted specifically to the ‘normal-weather’ related air pollution event durations, conforming to a geometric distribution. This novel approach shows promise as a mechanism to monitor and investigate year on year trends observed in air quality data. -- Highlights: • Innovative method for the analysis of the duration of pollution events. • Hazard theory to better understand reasons of pollution events prevail year on year. • Duration of time of exceedences used as a parameter to assess trends in pollution. • Deteriorated or improved air quality from year to year over a decade investigated. -- Capsule: Explored appropriateness of the hazard theory to understand the failure rate of air pollution events and to investigate the year on year trends observed in air quality data in major cities

  6. IEA PVPS Task 1 - UK Expert. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunning, R.

    2003-07-01

    The paper relates to work carried out under contract to the UK Renewable Energy Programme, and describes the terms of reference of the UK representation in the IEA PVPS Task 1 which provides a forum for exchange of information on photovoltaic (PV) technology between 21 participating countries. The main benefit derived by the UK is access to international expertise in PV technology. Using information obtained from participation in Task 1, the UK produces a National Survey Report which reports on developments in PV technology in the UK over the previous 12 months. The report covers installed capacity, prices, budgets and costs: it is freely available on the UK PVPS website. The newsletter PV Power, is prepared and distributed biannually - 18 issues have been published by mid-2003. IT Power is currently the UK representative on the IEA PVPS Task 1.

  7. Can EC and UK national methane emission inventories be verified using high precision stable isotope data?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, D.; Holmes, C.W.; Nisbet, E.G.; Rata, N.D.

    2002-01-01

    The main anthropogenic sources of methane in industrialised countries (landfill/waste treatment, gas storage and distribution, coal) are far easier to reduce than CO 2 sources and the implementation of reduction strategies is potentially profitable. Statistical databases of methane emissions need independent external verification and carbon isotope data provide one way of estimating the expected source mix for each country if the main source types have been characterised isotopically. Using this method each country participating in the CORINAIR 94 database has been assigned an expected isotopic value for its emissions. The averaged δ 13 C of methane emitted from the CORINAIR region of Europe, based on total emissions of each country is -55.4 per mille for 1994. This European source mix can be verified using trajectory analysis for air samples collected at background stations. Methane emissions from the UK, and particularly the London region, have undergone more detailed analysis using data collected at the Royal Holloway site on the western fringe of London. If the latest emissions inventory figures are correct then the modelled isotopic change in the UK source mix is from -48.4 per mille in 1990 to -50.7 per mille in 1997. This represents a reduction in emissions of 25% over a 7-year period, important in meeting proposed UK greenhouse gas reduction targets. These changes can be tested by the isotopic analysis of air samples at carefully selected coastal background and interior sites. Regular sampling and isotopic analysis coupled with back trajectory analysis from a range of sites could provide an important tool for monitoring and verification of EC and UK methane emissions in the run-up to 2010. (author)

  8. UK energy policy ambition and UK energy modelling-fit for purpose?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to lead amongst other G20 countries, the UK government has classified the twin energy policy priorities of decarbonisation and security of supply as a 'centennial challenge'. This viewpoint discusses the UK's capacity for energy modelling and scenario building as a critical underpinning of iterative decision making to meet these policy ambitions. From a nadir, over the last decade UK modelling expertise has been steadily built up. However extreme challenges remain in the level and consistency of funding of core model teams - critical to ensure a full scope of energy model types and hence insights, and in developing new state-of-the-art models to address evolving uncertainties. Meeting this challenge will facilitate a broad scope of types and geographical scale of UK's analytical tools to responsively deliver the evidence base for a range of public and private sector decision makers, and ensure that the UK contributes to global efforts to advance the field of energy-economic modelling. - Research highlights: → Energy modelling capacity is a critical underpinning for iterative energy policy making. → Full scope of energy models and analytical approaches is required. → Extreme challenges remain in consistent and sustainable funding of energy modelling teams. → National governments that lead in global energy policy also need to invest in modelling capacity.

  9. Report on primate supply for biomedical scientific work in the UK. EUPREN UK Working Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S; Thomas, C; West, P; Wolfensohn, S; Wood, M

    1997-10-01

    A Working Party of the UK group of European Primate Resources Network (EUPREN) considered primate supply for scientific work in the UK. Through a questionnaire, which achieved a very good response, it obtained details of primate use, sources and breeding in the UK and it put forward options to ensure that animal welfare is the best possible whilst ensuring continued supply. The questionnaire showed that contract research laboratories and pharmaceutical companies use about 80% of the 4233 primates used annually at the moment, with the rest accounted for by academic establishments and public sector laboratories. Fifty-four per cent are cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), of which nearly 90% are captive-bred outside the European Union (EU), the remainder being bred in the UK. Nearly 90% of cynomolgus macaques are used by only five institutions. Thirty-seven per cent of primates used are marmosets (Callithrix jacchus jacchus), all of which are bred in the UK. Most of the rest are rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), about half of which are captive-bred outside the EU, the other half being bred in the UK. Overall primate use has increased from about 3000 per year in 1990 and users predict that requirements for all species except baboons (Papio sp.) will be maintained or increase. Marmoset breeding in the UK is already closely matched to use, and it could be increased reasonably easily if necessary. Some of the existing breeding centres of macaques in the UK would be prepared to consider expanding to supply others, although investment and imported breeding stock would be needed and it is likely that a large investment would be needed to breed a significant fraction of the macaque use in the UK. A further problem is that the users of only about 10% of the cynomolgus macaques said that they could replace this species by rhesus macaques, which are easier to breed in the UK. The questionnaire showed that much of the use of macaques would be transferred to other countries

  10. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  11. Implications of sustainability constraints on UK bioenergy development: Assessing optimistic and precautionary approaches with UK MARKAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowall, Will; Anandarajah, Gabrial; Dodds, Paul E.; Tomei, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Bioenergy is an important renewable energy resource. However, assessments of the future of bioenergy are beset with uncertainty and contested values, suggesting that a precautionary approach to bioenergy resource development may be warranted. This paper uses UK MARKAL to examine the implications of adopting a precautionary approach to bioenergy development in the UK. The paper reports a detailed review of UK bioenergy resources and sustainability constraints, and develops precautionary and optimistic resource scenarios. The paper then examines the implications of these scenarios using the energy systems model MARKAL, finding that a precautionary approach adds to the cost of decarbonisation, but does not significantly alter the optimal technology mix. In particular, biomass and co-firing CCS emerge as optimal technologies across scenarios. The question of UK land availability for bioenergy production is highlighted within the paper. With less land available for bioenergy production, the costs of decarbonisation will rise; whereas if more land is available for bioenergy, then less land is available for either food production or ecosystem conservation. This paper quantifies one side of this trade-off, by estimating the additional costs incurred when UK land availability for bioenergy production is constrained. - Highlights: ► We assess UK bioenergy resources under optimistic and precautionary approaches. ► Using MARKAL, we find that sustainability constraints add to decarbonisation costs. ► Preferred use of bioenergy is similar in optimistic and precautionary cases. ► Best use of bioenergy is heat and power, not transport, if CCS is available. ► The marginal value of additional land availability to the energy system is high.

  12. Computer modelling of the UK wind energy resource: UK wind speed data package and user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, S F; Ravenscroft, F

    1993-12-31

    A software package has been developed for IBM-PC or true compatibles. It is designed to provide easy access to the results of a programme of work to estimate the UK wind energy resource. Mean wind speed maps and quantitative resource estimates were obtained using the NOABL mesoscale (1 km resolution) numerical model for the prediction of wind flow over complex terrain. NOABL was used in conjunction with digitised terrain data and wind data from surface meteorological stations for a ten year period (1975-1984) to provide digital UK maps of mean wind speed at 10m, 25m and 45m above ground level. Also included in the derivation of these maps was the use of the Engineering Science Data Unit (ESDU) method to model the effect on wind speed of the abrupt change in surface roughness that occurs at the coast. With the wind speed software package, the user is able to obtain a display of the modelled wind speed at 10m, 25m and 45m above ground level for any location in the UK. The required co-ordinates are simply supplied by the user, and the package displays the selected wind speed. This user manual summarises the methodology used in the generation of these UK maps and shows computer generated plots of the 25m wind speeds in 200 x 200 km regions covering the whole UK. The uncertainties inherent in the derivation of these maps are also described, and notes given on their practical usage. The present study indicated that 23% of the UK land area had speeds over 6 m/s, with many hill sites having 10m speeds over 10 m/s. It is concluded that these `first order` resource estimates represent a substantial improvement over the presently available `zero order` estimates. (18 figures, 3 tables, 6 references). (author)

  13. Double income tax between UK and US, 1914-1945 – Impact on UK multinationals

    OpenAIRE

    Izawa, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Tax rates on business income in many countries increased enormously during World War I and stayed at a much higher level than before the war. Particularly, the UK multinationals with subsidiaries based elsewhere other than the Empire suffered from the situation because the UK did not provide a foreign tax relief until 1945, when a tax treaty with US was signed. The aim of this paper is to clarify the historical premises of establishment of the tax treaty in 1945. The major premise of this pap...

  14. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  15. Fuel demand on UK roads and dieselisation of fuel economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David

    2009-01-01

    Because of high oil prices, and climate change policy, governments are now seeking ways to improve new car fuel economy thus contributing to air quality and energy security. One strategy is to increase dieselisation rates of the vehicle fleet. Recent trends in fuel economy show improvement since 1995, however, efforts need to go further if the EU Voluntary Agreement targets on CO 2 (a greenhouse gas emission standard) are to be achieved. Trends show diesel car sales have accelerated rapidly and that the advantage of new car fuel economy of diesel cars over gasoline ones is narrowing posing a new challenge. We estimate the demand for new car fuel economy in the UK. In the long-run consumers buy fuel economy, but not in the short-run. We found that long-term income and price changes were the main drivers to achieve improvements particularly for diesel cars and that there is no break in the trend of fuel economy induced by the agreement adopted in the 1990s. Policy should target more closely both consumer choice of, and use of, diesel cars.

  16. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  17. UK surplus source disposal programme - 16097

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Gordon H.; Reeves, Nigel; Nisbet, Amy C.; Garnett, Andrew; Williams, Clive R.

    2009-01-01

    The UK Surplus Source Disposal Programme (SSDP), managed by the Environment Agency, was designed to remove redundant radioactive sources from the public domain. The UK Government Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) was concerned that disused sources were being retained by hospitals, universities and businesses, posing a risk to public health and the environment. AMEC provided a range of technical and administrative services to support the SSDP. A questionnaire was issued to registered source holders and the submitted returns compiled to assess the scale of the project. A member of AMEC staff was seconded to the Environment Agency to provide technical support and liaise directly with source holders during funding applications, which would cover disposal costs. Funding for disposal of different sources was partially based on a sliding scale of risk as determined by the IAEA hazard categorisation system. This funding was also sector dependent. The SSDP was subsequently expanded to include the disposal of luminised aircraft instruments from aviation museums across the UK. These museums often hold significant radiological inventories, with many items being unused and in a poor state of repair. These instruments were fully characterised on site by assessing surface dose rate, dimensions, source integrity and potential contamination issues. Calculations using the Microshield computer code allowed gamma radiation measurements to be converted into total activity estimates for each source. More than 11,000 sources were disposed of under the programme from across the medical, industrial, museum and academic sectors. The total activity disposed of was more than 8.5 E+14 Bq, and the project was delivered under budget. (authors)

  18. A Water Grid for the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathard, A.; Fowler, H. J.; Kilsby, C. G.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenically aggravated climate change associated with intensive expansion of the global economy has increased the demand for water whilst simultaneously altering natural variability in its distribution, straining water resources unsustainably and inequitably in many parts of the world, increasing drought risk, and encouraging decision-makers to reconsider the security of water supply. Indeed, in the absence of additional resource development, contemporary planning forecasts imply increased water stress across much of the United Kingdom. Until recently the regulatory authorities of the UK promoted increased efficiency of water delivery and consumption combined with a portfolio of financial instruments as a means of reducing water stress, maintaining present levels of consumer service without significant further exploitation of the environment. However, despite an increasingly sophisticated understanding of climate change and its effects, significant uncertainty remains in the quantification of its impacts on the water sector, and questions persist as to the effectiveness of such demand management measures compared to that of more traditional infrastructure improvements. Faced with possible futures provided for by detrimentally over-stressed resources, what opportunities remain for future strategic development in the UK? Is there a single national strategy that is both politically and socially acceptable? Do the benefits of national water infrastructure projects outweigh their costs? This ongoing study aims to evolve robust national adaptation strategies by quantifying the projected impacts of climate change across mainland UK using multi-model and perturbed-physics ensembles of projected future climate, encapsulating uncertainties in a scenario-driven integrated water resources model incorporating socio-economic elements.

  19. UK medicines regulation: responding to current challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Natalie; Hudson, Ian

    2016-12-01

    The medicines regulatory environment is evolving rapidly in response to the changing environment. Advances in science and technology have led to a vast field of increasingly complicated pharmaceutical and medical device products; increasing globalization of the pharmaceutical industry, advances in digital technology and the internet, changing patient populations, and shifts in society also affect the regulatory environment. In the UK, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) regulates medicines, medical devices and blood products to protect and improve public health, and supports innovation through scientific research and development. It works closely with other bodies in a single medicines network across Europe and takes forward UK health priorities. This paper discusses the range of initiatives in the UK and across Europe to support innovation in medicines regulation. The MHRA leads a number of initiatives, such as the Innovation Office, which helps innovators to navigate the regulatory processes to progress their products or technologies; and simplification of the Clinical Trials Regulations and the Early Access to Medicines Scheme, to bring innovative medicines to patients faster. The Accelerated Access Review will identify reforms to accelerate access for National Health Service patients to innovative medicines and medical technologies. PRIME and Adaptive Pathways initiatives are joint endeavours within the European regulatory community. The MHRA runs spontaneous reporting schemes and works with INTERPOL to tackle counterfeiting and substandard products sold via the internet. The role of the regulator is changing rapidly, with new risk-proportionate, flexible approaches being introduced. International collaboration is a key element of the work of regulators, and is set to expand. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. Fast reactor fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Williams, J.; Buck, C.

    1977-01-01

    Enriched uranium metal fuel irradiated in the Dounreay Fast Reactor has been reprocessed and refabricated in plants specifically designed for the purpose in the U.K. since 1961. Efficient and reliable fuel recycle is essential to the development of a plutonium based fast reactor system and the importance of establishing at an early stage fast reactor fuel reprocessing has been reinforced by current world difficulties in reprocessing high burn-up thermal reactor oxide fuel. In consequence, the U.K. has decided to reprocess irradiated fuel from the 250 MW(E) Prototype Fast Reactor as an integral part of the fast reactor development programme. Flowsheet and equipment development work for the small scale fully active demonstration plant have been carried out over the past 5 years and the plant will be commissioned and ready for active operation during 1977. In parallel, a comprehensive waste management system has been developed and installed. Based on this development work and the information which will arise from active operation of the plant a parallel development programme has been initiated to provide the basis for the design of a large scale fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant to come into operation in the late 1980s to support the projected U.K. fast reactor installation programme. The paper identifies the important differences between fast reactor and thermal reactor fuel reprocessing technologies and describes some of the development work carried out in these areas for the small scale P.F.R. fuel reprocessing operation. In addition, the development programme in aid of the design of a larger scale fast reactor fuel reprocessing plant is outlined and the current design philosophy is discussed

  1. Control of ionising radiation - a UK viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of radiological protection is to provide an appropriate standard of protection for mankind, both as individuals and collectively, without unduly limiting the beneficial practices giving rise to radiation exposure. Guidance on the fundamental principles for radiation protection is provided on a global scale by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Member states of the European Union, such as the UK, are bound by the Euratom Treaty that requires the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) to develop uniform standards for radiological protection. These standards are based on recommendations from ICRP and are laid down in Euratom Directives relating to the safety of workers and the public, and of patients undergoing medical exposures. Member states are required to introduce national legislation to comply with Directives. In addition to ICRP and CEC, other international bodies are involved in developing practical standards and guidelines for radiological protection. For example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides guidelines relating to the transport of radioactive material, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides information on the biological effects of radiation. In the UK, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) was established in 1970 as a statutory advisory body. It has no regulatory functions. NRPB advises Government on the acceptability and applicability of international recommendations. Principles are then applied in the UK by Acts of Parliament and subsidiary instruments such as regulations, licences, authorizations and approvals. Various government departments are involved in policing the control of radiation according to their particular role, for example the Department of the Environment in relation to pollution, and the Department of Employment for the health and safety of workers. (author)

  2. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  3. Norwegians would - UK wouldn't

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, David.

    1988-01-01

    The Norwegians are now the world leaders in wave power technology and are exporting oscillating water column power stations to Tonga, Western Samoa, Vanuatu and Bali. The United Kingdom research programme was curtailed, although a wave power unit is being constructed on Islay in the Inner Hebrides. Those who favour nuclear energy generation claim that renewable sources, such as wave power, are uneconomic, but the Norwegians claim that the cost of wave-generated electricity is between 3p and 8p depending on local conditions. The economic case for nuclear power over renewables that will be presented at the Hinkley Point C Inquiry is thus less convincing. (U.K.)

  4. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  5. Ambient air pollution, traffic noise and adult asthma prevalence : A BioSHaRE approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Yutong; Zijlema, Wilma L.; Doiron, Dany; Blangiardo, Marta; Burton, Paul R.; Fortier, Isabel; Gaye, Amadou; Gulliver, John; de Hoogh, Kees; Hveem, Kristian; Mbatchou, Stephane; Morley, David W; Stolk, Ronald P.; Elliott, Paul; Hansell, Anna L.; Hodgson, Susan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of both ambient air pollution and traffic noise on adult asthma prevalence, using harmonised data from three European cohort studies established in 2006-2013 (HUNT3, Lifelines and UK Biobank). Residential exposures to ambient air pollution (particulate matter with

  6. How do you explain the risk of air pollution to your patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, Pippa; Brunekreef, Bert; Grigg, Jonathan

    .@ERStalk Environ & Health committee workshop concludes: HCPs vital to raising awareness of air pollution to patients http://ow.ly/pfOe301FoIg  A recent report by the Royal College of Physicians in the UK has highlighted the pressing need for action on air quality, both in terms of awareness and

  7. Gas prices in the UK: markets and insecurity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, Professor P. Wright argues that the high and volatile gas price experienced by UK consumers over the last 3 years are the result of the extend of liberalization in the UK - which has made UK prices much more sensitive to insecurities of supply. Businesses pay the cost of this, straightaway, while the strategies which gas companies have used to respond to heightened price risks means domestic consumers also bear the cost of higher supply-markups. The prospect of high levels of demand in bad winters then just adds to price risk and its associated costs. The implication of this analysis is that it is illogical for the UK's regulator and government to blame the UK's high prices on the slow progress of liberalization in the rest of Europe - greater liberalization in Europe might simply replicate the UK's price difficulties throughout Europe

  8. Gas prices in the UK: markets and insecurity of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article Professor Philip Wright argues that the high and volatile gas prices experienced by UK consumers over the last 3 years are the result of the extent of liberalization in the UK which has made UK prices much more sensitive to insecurities of supply. Businesses pay the cost of this, straightaway, while the strategies which gas companies have used to respond to heightened price risks means domestic consumers also bear the cost of higher supply-markups. The prospect of high levels of demand in bad winters then just adds to price risk and its associated costs. The implication of this analysis is that it is illogical for the UK's regulator and government to blame the UK's high prices on the slow progress of liberalization in the rest of Europe - greater liberalization in Europe might simply replicate the UK's price difficulties throughout Europe. (author)

  9. Assisted reproductive travel: UK patient trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2011-11-01

    Media reporting of 'fertility tourism' tends to portray those who travel as a cohesive group, marked by their desperation and/or selfishness and propensity towards morally questionable behaviour. However, to date little has been known about the profile of those leaving the UK for treatment. This paper discusses the first UK-based study of patient assisted reproduction travel that was designed to explore individual travel trajectories. It is argued that existing ways of conceptualizing cross-border reproductive care as 'fertility or reproductive tourism' are in danger of essentializing what the data suggest are diverse, complex and often ambiguous motivations for reproductive travel. The concept of seriality is used to suggest that, whilst 'reproductive tourists' share some characteristics, they also differ in significant ways. This paper argues that, through an examination of the personal landscapes of fertility travel, the diverse processes involved in reproductive travel can be better understood and policymakers can be assisted to avoid what might be regarded as simplistic responses to cross-border reproductive care. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Islamist groups in the UK and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ilyas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001 and 7/7 the search to find out why and how Muslims born in Europe join political and violence orientated Islamist groups has occupied policy makers and social scientist. The search has produced explanations that suggest social grievance, Islam and physiological problems are the motivations for why some Muslims join and act on behalf of Islamist groups in the UK. However, the approaches tend not to focus the role emotions generated from events that involve Muslim suffering play in some individuals becoming interested in acquiring and acting upon them. These events are often experienced variously by Muslims living in Europe through the media and are used by Islamist groups as resources to recruit. Consequently, this paper is based on interviews carried out with Islamists in the UK and tentatively discusses two process that take into account the emotional effect of events that concern Muslims in order to make sense of how some Muslims become compelled to acquire extreme ideas, act upon extreme ideas (independently or behalf of a group or join Islamist groups.

  11. Reference dosimetry for CT in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.; Wall, B.F.

    2001-01-01

    Computed tomography is firmly established as a major source of population exposure from diagnostic x-ray examinations and thus a particular focus for radiological protection initiatives. The concept of reference doses is widely recognised as a useful and practical tool for promoting improvements in the optimisation of protection for patients undergoing radiological examinations. National diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) have already been successfully applied in the UK for some conventional x-ray examinations within a framework for advice on patient protection. This approach is being extended to include CT, utilising the robust methodology for reference dosimetry that has been developed by the European Commission (EC) for the particular conditions of exposure in CT. This is based on the dosimetric concepts of weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI w ) per slice in serial scanning or per rotation in helical scanning, and dose-length product (DLP) per complete examination. Notwithstanding some initial values proposed by the EC, specific national DRLs for CT practice in the UK will be established on the basis of widescale national survey data. (author)

  12. Radiation regulations - a UK/European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, P.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Basic standards for radiation protection in the European Union are laid down in Directives made under the EURATOM Treaty that must be implemented by Member States in national legislation. These Directives are presently based on the 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and include Basic Safety Standards (1996) for the protection of workers and the public, and the Medical Exposure Directive (1997) for the protection of patients. UK legislation has recently been revised to meet these new standards, principally through the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 and the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations (IR(ME)R) 2000. A framework of formal and informal guidance supports these regulations. IR(ME)R 2000 clarifies and strengthens the roles and responsibilities of Employers, Practitioners, Operators and Referrers in relation to the justification and optimisation of protection for individual medical exposures. In particular, there is now a formal requirement for the adoption of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) by employers as a practical tool for promoting patient protection during diagnostic exposures. The recent revision of regulations concerned with medical exposures in the UK is seen as an evolutionary rather than revolutionary process to strengthen the safe and effective use of radiation in medicine. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  13. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  14. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  15. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  16. Nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allardice, R.H.; Harris, D.W.; Mills, A.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing has been carried out on an industrial scale in the United Kingdom since 1952. Two large reprocessing plants have been constructed and operated at Windscale, Cumbria and two smaller specialized plants have been constructed and operated at Dounreay, Northern Scotland. At the present time, the second of the two Windscale plants is operating, and Government permission has been given for a third reprocessing plant to be built on that site. At Dounreay, one of the plants is operating in its original form, whilst the second is now operating in a modified form, reprocessing fuel from the prototype fast reactor. This chapter describes the development of nuclear fuel reprocessing in the UK, commencing with the research carried out in Canada immediately after the Second World War. A general explanation of the techniques of nuclear fuel reprocessing and of the equipment used is given. This is followed by a detailed description of the plants and processes installed and operated in the UK. (author)

  17. Customer privacy on UK healthcare websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Darren P

    2006-09-01

    Privacy has been and continues to be one of the key challenges of an age devoted to the accumulation, processing, and mining of electronic information. In particular, privacy of healthcare-related information is seen as a key issue as health organizations move towards the electronic provision of services. The aim of the research detailed in this paper has been to analyse privacy policies on popular UK healthcare-related websites to determine the extent to which consumer privacy is protected. The author has combined approaches (such as approaches focused on usability, policy content, and policy quality) used in studies by other researchers on e-commerce and US healthcare websites to provide a comprehensive analysis of UK healthcare privacy policies. The author identifies a wide range of issues related to the protection of consumer privacy through his research analysis using quantitative results. The main outcomes from the author's research are that only 61% of healthcare-related websites in their sample group posted privacy policies. In addition, most of the posted privacy policies had poor readability standards and included a variety of privacy vulnerability statements. Overall, the author's findings represent significant current issues in relation to healthcare information protection on the Internet. The hope is that raising awareness of these results will drive forward changes in the industry, similar to those experienced with information quality.

  18. Altering existing buildings in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The profiles of both existing housing and existing public and commercial buildings show that many have very poor thermal efficiency. The UK housing stock is replaced at a low rate of about 1% a year, so to cut energy use it is essential to address the challenges of existing buildings. This will involve reducing energy demand through passive measures such as retrofitted insulation, replacement of windows and proper airtightness, while ensuring adequate ventilation. Active measures include upgrading improved boilers and adding locally produced energy from wind, biomass, solar power and other sources. The introduction of Display Energy Certificates will increase energy awareness but there will also need to be a programme of increased demolition for the worst-performing homes. In addition, buildings will need to be adapted to cope with worse weather, higher temperatures and increased flood risk as climate change takes effect. Overheating, rather than excessive cold, is set to become a growing problem for householders and employees in existing UK buildings

  19. Worker exposures: How much in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Basically, four categories of workers are involved with transport operations: handlers, drivers, health physics monitoring staff, and supervisory staff. In 1984, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) published results of a study covering all four of these worker categories, all types of radioactive material, and all modes of transport used in the United Kingdom. The study covered occupationally related exposure during all normal transport operations of radioactive materials, but did not cover potential consequences of accidents. Although mainly concerned with exposure of workers, the study included the exposure of the public from the transport of irradiated Magnox fuel from the first generation of nuclear power stations. The current evaluation - based on measurements as distinct from earlier assessments which were theoretical estimates - shows that the public exposure is much lower than the calculated maximum based on pessimistic assumptions. For workers, the study concluded that the annual collective dose from the transport of all radioactive materials in the UK is approximately 1 man-sievert. This compares with an annual collective dose estimated at 500 man-sievert from all occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the UK

  20. The Use of Social Media by UK Local Resilience Forums

    OpenAIRE

    Meaton, Julia; Stringer, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The potential uses of social media in the field of emergency preparedness, resilience and response (EPRR) are varied and interesting. The UK government have produced guidance documents for its use in the UK EPRR field but evidence of use is poorly documented and appears sporadic. This paper presents the results of a survey of Local Resilience Forums (LRF) in the UK on their use and engagement with social media. The findings suggest that the level of application of social media strategies as e...

  1. Guide to UK renewable energy companies 2001. 6. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This 2001 edition of the guide to UK renewable companies and equipment and service providers presents summaries of the different industry sectors covering wind power, photovoltaics, solar water heating, geothermal heat pump, hydroelectric power, marine current and wave technology, bioenergy, power generation from landfill gas, energy from waste, and cogeneration. A UK company classification listing and index is provided along with listing of UK organisations and companies and an index of advertisers

  2. Supporting UK adaptation: building services for the next set of UK climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Fai; Lowe, Jason

    2016-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Act 2008, the UK Government sets out a national adaptation programme to address the risks and opportunities identified in a national climate change risk assessment (CCRA) every five years. The last risk assessment in 2012 was based on the probabilistic projections for the UK published in 2009 (UKCP09). The second risk assessment will also use information from UKCP09 alongside other evidence on climate projections. However, developments in the science of climate projeciton, and evolving user needs (based partly on what has been learnt about the diverse user requirements of the UK adaptation community from the seven years of delivering and managing UKCP09 products, market research and the peer-reviewed literature) suggest now is an appropriate time to update the projections and how they are delivered. A new set of UK climate projections are now being produced to upgrade UKCP09 to reflect the latest developments in climate science, the first phase of which will be delivered in 2018 to support the third CCRA. A major component of the work is the building of a tailored service to support users of the new projections during their development and to involve users in key decisions so that the projections are of most use. We will set out the plan for the new climate projections that seek to address the evolving user need. We will also present a framework which aims to (i) facilitate the dialogue between users, boundary organisations and producers, reflecting their different decision-making roles (ii) produce scientifically robust, user-relevant climate information (iii) provide the building blocks for developing further climate services to support adaptation activities in the UK.

  3. UK experience of planning the nuclear contribution to the UK power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catchpole, S.; Jenkin, F.P.

    1977-01-01

    The paper outlines U.K. experience in planning nuclear programmes. It examines the factors which have determined the size of such programmes together with those factors which have influenced their implementation. The paper also discusses the role which the utility has played in the deployment of nuclear power in the U.K. At present, nuclear energy can only be utilised on a large scale via the electricity route and the forecasting of electricity demand is therefore a key element in determining the size of the nuclear programme. Other important issues which affect the nuclear contribution are: national fuel policies, discontinuities in price and availability of imported fossil fuels, plant capital costs, fuel price relativities, plant siting, rate of introduction of new nuclear systems, manufacturer's capability, public attitudes towards nuclear power and financing. These issues are dealt with in some detail including their relative importance in the U.K. The paper also discusses the contribution of the various nuclear bodies in the U.K. in securing the implementation of the nuclear programmes. From the inception of nuclear power in the U.K., it has been recognised that a major utility has a central role to play not only in commercial operation but also in the procurement of plant and materials. As explained in the paper this ''informed buyer'' approach, which is being increasingly adopted by other major utilities, calls for an organisation and technical infrastructure far more complex than is the case for fossil plants. The requirements of safety, which is unambiguously the responsibility of the utility, and of high availability of plant operation demand a rigorous approach to design, quality assurance, project management, construction and operation. To this must be added sound research and development and staff training facilities. The paper explains how experience in these vital areas has been built up

  4. The UK gas market in transition to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, D.

    1997-01-01

    Virtually every aspect of the UK gas market is currently experiencing rapid change and major uncertainties. The fast-track to full competition in 1998 requires a new customer-handling infrastructure, new rules and new marketing strategies.The introduction of competition in the UK is proving more complex than most of its architects assumed. The UK provides considerable evidence not only on market design but also the management of the transitional process. The path from a state-owned monopoly through privatisation to competition is overviewed, and some of the lessons are considered which other countries (and the European Commission) contemplating reforms may glean from the UK experience. (R.P.)

  5. Energy UK 2011? Give us just a little more time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; O`Callaghan, P.W. [Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Faculty of Environmental Studies

    1995-04-01

    The article analyses the trends from `published proved` fossil reserves, consumption and lives, both in the UK and globally. Despite fears of global warming, and the 1988 Toronto Protocol, energy consumption rates globally have increased 25% over the past two decades. And although they fluctuate, UK rates have not declined significantly. In the absence of imports UK indigenous fossil fuels will be depleted in 2011. The UK has vast reserves of coal, shale oil and peat, but is currently unable to complete with cheap imported fuel. The authors urge continuous review of the economic, political and social factors. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. UK Citizens Lack Simple, Objective Knowledge of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2017-01-01

    214); ‘A direct European tax will be created’ (EBS 214); ‘National citizenship will disappear’ (EBS 214); and ‘Most of the European budget is spent on administrative and personnel costs’ (EB65) UK respondents were far more likely to answer incorrectly that these were true. This is likely the result...... of disinformation in UK politics and media. The data suggests that not only are UK respondents unable to answer simple questions about the EU, but that they are relatively more likely to answer incorrectly rather than admit they did not know, reflecting disinformation about the EU in the UK. This lack of simple...

  7. Changes needed to medicine in the UK before senior UK-trained doctors, working outside the UK, will return: questionnaire surveys undertaken between 2004 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2017-12-01

    To report the changes to UK medicine which doctors who have emigrated tell us would increase their likelihood of returning to a career in UK medicine. Questionnaire survey. UK-trained medical graduates. Questionnaires were sent 11 years after graduation to 7158 doctors who qualified in 1993 and 1996 in the UK: 4763 questionnaires were returned. Questionnaires were sent 17 and 19 years after graduation to the same cohorts: 4554 questionnaires were returned. Comments from doctors working abroad about changes needed to UK medicine before they would return. Eleven years after graduation, 290 (6%) of respondents were working in medicine abroad; 277 (6%) were doing so 17/19 years after graduation. Eleven years after graduation, 53% of doctors working abroad indicated that they did not intend to return, and 71% did so 17/19 years after graduation. These respondents reported a number of changes which would need to be made to UK medicine in order to increase the likelihood of them returning. The most frequently mentioned changes cited concerned 'politics/management/funding', 'pay/pension', 'posts/security/opportunities', 'working conditions/hours', and 'factors outside medicine'. Policy attention to factors including funding, pay, management and particularly the clinical-political interface, working hours, and work-life balance may pay dividends for all, both in terms of persuading some established doctors to return and, perhaps more importantly, encouraging other, younger doctors to believe that the UK and the National Health Service can offer them a satisfying and rewarding career.

  8. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  9. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  10. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  11. A survey of atmospheric trace elements in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.

    1976-08-01

    Concentrations of some 36 trace and major elements were measured in air particulate, rainwater and dry deposition samples collected each month at seven non-urban sites in the U.K. from January to December 1975. The samples were bulked for analysis each quarter year, and the majority were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The main objectives were to provide information on concentrations of elements in air to compare with urban measurements, to study the longer term trends in atmospheric concentrations, and to record the deposition inventory to the ground. Continuity of data from the sampling station network has been maintained since January 1972, but at the Wraymires site in north-west England operations began one year earlier. (author)

  12. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, M.; Smith, R.; Fowler, D.

    2003-01-01

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O 3 in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O 3 ) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O 3 concentration and O 3 deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O 3 deposition varies from ∼50 Gg-O 3 month -1 in the winter to over 200 Gg-O 3 month -1 in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O 3 . The net O 3 production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O 3 concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O 3 production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O 3 (-25 to -800 Gg-O 3 month -1 ) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O 3 month -1 )

  13. An ozone budget for the UK: using measurements from the national ozone monitoring network; measured and modelled meteorological data, and a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy model of dry deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, M.; Smith, R.; Fowler, D

    2003-05-01

    A method of calculating a mass budget for O{sub 3} in the UK boundary layer is presented which shows that the spatial scale of the UK is small relative to the footprint of the atmosphere influenced by UK emissions. - Data from the UK national air-quality monitoring network are used to calculate an annual mass budget for ozone (O{sub 3}) production and loss in the UK boundary layer during 1996. Monthly losses by dry deposition are quantified from 1 kmx1 km scale maps of O{sub 3} concentration and O{sub 3} deposition velocities based on a 'big-leaf' resistance analogy. The quantity of O{sub 3} deposition varies from {approx}50 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the winter to over 200 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1} in the summer when vegetation is actively absorbing O{sub 3}. The net O{sub 3} production or loss in the UK boundary layer is found by selecting days when the UK is receiving 'clean' Atlantic air from the SW to NW. In these conditions, the difference in O{sub 3} concentration observed at Mace Head and a rural site on the east coast of the UK indicates the net O{sub 3} production or loss within the UK boundary layer. A simple box model is then used to convert the concentration difference into a mass. The final budget shows that for most of the year the UK is a net sink for O{sub 3} (-25 to -800 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1}) with production only exceeding losses in the photochemically active summer months (+45 Gg-O{sub 3} month{sup -1})

  14. The introduction of local air quality management in the United Kingdom: A review and theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. W. S.; Lindley, S. J.; Watson, A. F. R.; Conlan, D. E.

    In the light of recent episodes of poor air quality in many of the U.K.'s major urban areas, concern has been expressed regarding the apparent inability of existing air quality control procedures to effectively tackle contemporary scenarios. As a result of this, a new philosophy for air quality control has been sought which can provide a solid basis for the preservation and future improvement of air quality. It is proposed that a suitable mechanism for this would be found through the adoption of an integrated and holistic local air quality management approach. This paper will present and discuss a theoretical framework for the application of local air quality management in the U.K. and investigate the potential of the Environment Act (1995) to provide such a framework.

  15. High pressure hydrogen by electrolysis. [UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, I; Highgate, D; Ljungstroem, O [ed.

    1976-01-01

    This review is designed to provide a solution to two problems of very differing scale. The first problem is the provision of a reliable energy supply for a small isolated community, while the second problem concerns the energy economy within the UK in the future situation where adequate supplies of petroleum products are scarce, expensive and politically unreliable. The central thesis of this review is to identify certain key items of hardware and technology which if developed to provide a solution to the first problem, will, at the same time provide a means for introducing a solution to the second problem in an economically and socially acceptable way, that is, without major capital investment, unemployment or disruption to major industries.

  16. Social sensing of floods in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Rudy; Boulton, Chris A; Shotton, Humphrey; Williams, Hywel T P

    2018-01-01

    "Social sensing" is a form of crowd-sourcing that involves systematic analysis of digital communications to detect real-world events. Here we consider the use of social sensing for observing natural hazards. In particular, we present a case study that uses data from a popular social media platform (Twitter) to detect and locate flood events in the UK. In order to improve data quality we apply a number of filters (timezone, simple text filters and a naive Bayes 'relevance' filter) to the data. We then use place names in the user profile and message text to infer the location of the tweets. These two steps remove most of the irrelevant tweets and yield orders of magnitude more located tweets than we have by relying on geo-tagged data. We demonstrate that high resolution social sensing of floods is feasible and we can produce high-quality historical and real-time maps of floods using Twitter.

  17. Nuclear safety in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pape, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The regulation of nuclear installations in the UK works through a licensing system. Licences are granted by the HSE (Health and Safety Executive), through HMNII (HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate). HMNII's approach to the assessment of installations follows a set of Safety Assessment Principles (SAPs). Originally two sets of SAPs were produced, one for nuclear power reactors and the other for chemical plants (reprocessing etc..). During the 1980's it was found possible to combine the principles for all types of installation into one document with the earlier total of about 700 principles being reduced to 333. The new SAPs published in 1992 include a refinement of the approach to licensing which comprises a standard set of conditions for each site. The conditions usually set some objective, either for a physical feature or for maintenance. This paper describes the mechanics of the licensing process, the Tolerability of Risk (TOR) principle, and the SAPs. (J.S.). 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  18. The compassion gap in UK universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Waddington

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context: This critical reflection is set in the context of increasing marketisation in UK higher education, where students are seen as consumers, rather than learners with power. The paper explores the dark side of academic work and the compassion gap in universities, in order to make recommendations for practice development in higher education and the human services. Aims: The paper aims to show how reflexive dialogue can be used to enable the development of compassionate academic practice. Conclusions and implications for practice: Toxic environments and organisational cultures in higher education have compounded the crisis in compassionate care in the NHS. Implications for practice are: Narrative approaches and critical appreciative inquiry are useful methods with which to reveal, and rectify, failures of compassion Courageous conversations are required to challenge dysfunctional organisational systems and processes Leadership development programmes should include the application of skills of compassion in organisational settings

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility and UK Retailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a preliminary examination of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR commitments and agendas being addressed and reported by the UK‟s leading retailers. The paper begins with a short discussion of the characteristics and origins of CSR and of the current structure of retailing in the UK. This is followed by an illustrative examination of the CSR issues publicly reported by the UK‟s top ten country of origin retailers and the paper draws its empirical material from the CSR reports posted on the World Wide Web by these retailers. The findings reveal that the UK‟s top ten retailers are addressing and reporting on four sets of CSR themes namely those relating to the environment; the marketplace; the workplace and the community. The paper concludes with a discussion of a number of general issues relating to these themes.

  20. Photovoltaics: PV takes off the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, Ray; Gregory, Jenny

    2000-01-01

    Despite historical ups and downs, there is still ambition to bring increasingly efficient photovoltaic (PV) systems to the market. PV for major remote telecommunications systems is now an established part of the market, many mobile phone systems are powered by PV and there is potential for increased use of home solar systems, especially in developing countries. Over the past few years, building-integrated PV (BIPV) has been on the increase. In 1999, global production from PV exceeded 200 MW and the UK installed capacity was greater than 1 MW. BIPV is a fast growing market and its characteristics and advantages are discussed. PV installations at Nottingham University, Greenwich Pavilion, BP Amoco Sunbury, Baglan Bay, BP filling stations, and Sainsbury's are described

  1. Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, T O

    1985-01-01

    The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it...

  2. Performance testing of UK personal dosimetry laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, T.O.

    1985-01-01

    The proposed Ionising Radiations Regulations will require all UK personal dosimetry laboratories that monitor classified personnel to be approved for personal dosimetry by the Health and Safety Executive. It is suggested that these approvals should be based on general and supplementary criteria published by the British Calibration Service (BCS) for laboratory approval for the provision of personal dosimetry services. These criteria specify certain qualitative requirements and also indicate the need for regular tests of performance to be carried out to ensure constancy of dosimetric standards. This report concerns the latter. The status of the BCS criteria is discussed and the need for additional documents to cover new techniques and some modifications to existing documents is indicated. A means is described by which the technical performance of laboratories, concerned with personal monitoring for external radiations, can be assessed, both initially and ongoing. The costs to establish the scheme and operate it are also estimated. (author)

  3. A statistical analysis of UK financial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, J.; Nadarajah, S.

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, with a growing interest in big or large datasets, there has been a rise in the application of large graphs and networks to financial big data. Much of this research has focused on the construction and analysis of the network structure of stock markets, based on the relationships between stock prices. Motivated by Boginski et al. (2005), who studied the characteristics of a network structure of the US stock market, we construct network graphs of the UK stock market using same method. We fit four distributions to the degree density of the vertices from these graphs, the Pareto I, Fréchet, lognormal, and generalised Pareto distributions, and assess the goodness of fit. Our results show that the degree density of the complements of the market graphs, constructed using a negative threshold value close to zero, can be fitted well with the Fréchet and lognormal distributions.

  4. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  5. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  6. Benchmarking urban energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    This study asks what is the ‘best’ way to measure urban energy efficiency. There has been recent interest in identifying efficient cities so that best practices can be shared, a process known as benchmarking. Previous studies have used relatively simple metrics that provide limited insight on the complexity of urban energy efficiency and arguably fail to provide a ‘fair’ measure of urban performance. Using a data set of 198 urban UK local administrative units, three methods are compared: ratio measures, regression residuals, and data envelopment analysis. The results show that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses regarding the ease of interpretation, ability to identify outliers and provide consistent rankings. Efficient areas are diverse but are notably found in low income areas of large conurbations such as London, whereas industrial areas are consistently ranked as inefficient. The results highlight the shortcomings of the underlying production-based energy accounts. Ideally urban energy efficiency benchmarks would be built on consumption-based accounts, but interim recommendations are made regarding the use of efficiency measures that improve upon current practice and facilitate wider conversations about what it means for a specific city to be energy-efficient within an interconnected economy. - Highlights: • Benchmarking is a potentially valuable method for improving urban energy performance. • Three different measures of urban energy efficiency are presented for UK cities. • Most efficient areas are diverse but include low-income areas of large conurbations. • Least efficient areas perform industrial activities of national importance. • Improve current practice with grouped per capita metrics or regression residuals

  7. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  8. Opportunities for the UK in solar detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P A; Walker, G M

    1997-12-31

    The most investigated approach to the solar detoxification of water involves the use of titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, as the photocatalyst. The involvement of engineers in photocatalytic water detoxification research has been far too low, the research effort in photochemical reactor design has not been sufficient, with the result that a well-defined application for solar, or UV lamp, -driven TiO{sub 2}-based water detoxification technology has not been identified. The most effective and carefully investigated reactor design remains that in which TiO{sub 2} is added as a slurry to the contaminated water, however, the cost implications of the subsequent separation of the slurry from the treated water have not been addressed in any sensible fashion. The poor quantum efficiencies, rate constants and overlap between the solar emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of TiO{sub 2} has resulted in very low solar detoxification efficiencies. This, in turn, means that very large areas of land will be necessary to accommodate a solar detoxification reactor, however UK industry, and the water companies in particular, have no interest in investing in water and/or wastewater treatment methods which demand increased land usage. In addition both industry and the water companies have little or no knowledge of, or interest in, novel detoxification technologies. From the above, the only conclusion can be that the application of the solar-driven photocatalytic detoxification of high-volume and most low-volume water in the UK is not a commercial option, and so is unlikely to be in the near future. (author)

  9. The UK Nitrate Time Bomb (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R.; Wang, L.; Stuart, M.; Bloomfield, J.; Gooddy, D.; Lewis, M.; McKenzie, A.

    2013-12-01

    The developed world has benefitted enormously from the intensification of agriculture and the increased availability and use of synthetic fertilizers during the last century. However there has also been unintended adverse impact on the natural environment (water and ecosystems) with nitrate the most significant cause of water pollution and ecosystem damage . Many countries have introduced controls on nitrate, e.g. the European Union's Water Framework and Nitrate Directives, but despite this are continuing to see a serious decline in water quality. The purpose of our research is to investigate and quantify the importance of the unsaturated (vadose) zone pathway and groundwater in contributing to the decline. Understanding nutrient behaviour in the sub-surface environment and, in particular, the time lag between action and improvement is critical to effective management and remediation of nutrient pollution. A readily-transferable process-based model has been used to predict temporal loading of nitrate at the water table across the UK. A time-varying nitrate input function has been developed based on nitrate usage since 1925. Depth to the water table has been calculated from groundwater levels based on regional-scale observations in-filled by interpolated river base levels and vertical unsaturated zone velocities estimated from hydrogeological properties and mapping. The model has been validated using the results of more than 300 unsaturated zone nitrate profiles. Results show that for about 60% of the Chalk - the principal aquifer in the UK - peak nitrate input has yet to reach the water table and concentrations will continue to rise over the next 60 years. The implications are hugely significant especially where environmental objectives must be achieved in much shorter timescales. Current environmental and regulatory management strategies rarely take lag times into account and as a result will be poorly informed, leading to inappropriate controls and conflicts

  10. Seasonal UK Drought Forecasting using Statistical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Doug; Fowler, Hayley; Kilsby, Chris; Serinaldi, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In the UK drought is a recurrent feature of climate with potentially large impacts on public water supply. Water companies' ability to mitigate the impacts of drought by managing diminishing availability depends on forward planning and it would be extremely valuable to improve forecasts of drought on monthly to seasonal time scales. By focusing on statistical forecasting methods, this research aims to provide techniques that are simpler, faster and computationally cheaper than physically based models. In general, statistical forecasting is done by relating the variable of interest (some hydro-meteorological variable such as rainfall or streamflow, or a drought index) to one or more predictors via some formal dependence. These predictors are generally antecedent values of the response variable or external factors such as teleconnections. A candidate model is Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS). GAMLSS is a very flexible class allowing for more general distribution functions (e.g. highly skewed and/or kurtotic distributions) and the modelling of not just the location parameter but also the scale and shape parameters. Additionally GAMLSS permits the forecasting of an entire distribution, allowing the output to be assessed in probabilistic terms rather than simply the mean and confidence intervals. Exploratory analysis of the relationship between long-memory processes (e.g. large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, sea surface temperatures and soil moisture content) and drought should result in the identification of suitable predictors to be included in the forecasting model, and further our understanding of the drivers of UK drought.

  11. Opportunities for the UK in solar detoxification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, P.A.; Walker, G.M.

    1996-12-31

    The most investigated approach to the solar detoxification of water involves the use of titanium dioxide, TiO{sub 2}, as the photocatalyst. The involvement of engineers in photocatalytic water detoxification research has been far too low, the research effort in photochemical reactor design has not been sufficient, with the result that a well-defined application for solar, or UV lamp, -driven TiO{sub 2}-based water detoxification technology has not been identified. The most effective and carefully investigated reactor design remains that in which TiO{sub 2} is added as a slurry to the contaminated water, however, the cost implications of the subsequent separation of the slurry from the treated water have not been addressed in any sensible fashion. The poor quantum efficiencies, rate constants and overlap between the solar emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum of TiO{sub 2} has resulted in very low solar detoxification efficiencies. This, in turn, means that very large areas of land will be necessary to accommodate a solar detoxification reactor, however UK industry, and the water companies in particular, have no interest in investing in water and/or wastewater treatment methods which demand increased land usage. In addition both industry and the water companies have little or no knowledge of, or interest in, novel detoxification technologies. From the above, the only conclusion can be that the application of the solar-driven photocatalytic detoxification of high-volume and most low-volume water in the UK is not a commercial option, and so is unlikely to be in the near future. (author)

  12. The use of an air filtration system in podiatry clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarnon, Nichola; Burrow, Gordon; Maclaren, William; Aidoo, Kofi; Hepher, Mike

    2003-06-01

    A small-scale study was conducted to ascertain the efficiency and effectiveness of an air filtration system for use in podiatry/chiropody clinics (Electromedia Model 35F (A), Clean Air Ltd, Scotland, UK). Three clinics were identified, enabling comparison of data between podiatry clinics in the West of Scotland. The sampling was conducted using a portable Surface Air Sampler (Cherwell Laboratories, Bicester, UK). Samples were taken on two days at three different times before and after installation of the filtration units. The global results of the study indicate the filter has a statistically significant effect on microbial counts, with an average percentage decrease of 65%. This study is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, such a system has been tested within podiatric practice.

  13. Influence on UK Nuclear Regulation from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the UKs response to the Fukushima Daiichi Accident and highlights the influence that this has had on UK nuclear regulation since March 2011. ONR’s Incident Suite was staffed from the first day of the accident and remained active on a 24 hours basis for over two weeks. The purpose was to provide advice to the UK government specifically prompt assurance of why this accident couldn’t take place in the UK and practical advice in relation to the 17,000 UK nationals in Japan at that time. In the early phase of the accident ONR took part in international cooperation with the US, Canadian and French regulators in order to determine the actual technical status of the Fukushima Daiichi power plant units. The UK Secretary of State requested that the ONR Chief Inspector identify any lessons to be learnt by the UK nuclear industry and in doing so cooperate and coordinate with international colleagues. The Interim report was produced (May 2011) this focused on civil NPP’s, provided background to radiation, technology and regulations. This report compared the Japan situation with the UK and identified 11 conclusions and 26 recommendations.

  14. Do UK Institutional Shareholders Monitor their Investee Firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    As institutional investors are the largest shareholders in most listed UK firms, one expects them to monitor the firms they invest in. However, there is mounting empirical evidence which suggests that they do not perform any monitoring. This paper provides a new test on whether UK institutional

  15. The IB Diploma and UK University Degree Qualifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Gemmill, Gerda

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the International Baccalaureate (IB) Diploma has become widely accepted as a university-entry qualification in the UK, but there has been little quantitative research into the achievements of IB students at degree level. This study investigates IB students from one selective independent school who entered UK universities between…

  16. Is Communications a Strategic Activity in UK Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative exploratory paper investigates whether communications/public relations is regarded by opinion formers in UK education as a strategic business activity or a tactical marketing tool. It is based upon depth interviews with 16 senior managers with strategic roles in UK higher or further education, or Government bodies, conducted…

  17. A review of the UK fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picker, C.; Ainsworth, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The general position with regard to nuclear power and fast reactors in UK during 1995 is described. The status of fast reactor studies made in UK is outlined and a description and statement regarding the conclusions of the programme of studies associated with the closure of the Prototype Fast Reactor is included. (author)

  18. Has Economics become an Elite Subject for Elite UK Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James; Reeves, Alan; Talbot, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The decline in the number of UK universities offering undergraduate degree programmes in subjects such as sciences, mathematics, modern languages and humanities has been well documented and is now of real concern. It appears that economics may be going through a decline in new (post-1992) UK universities with many economics programmes having been…

  19. A review of the UK fast reactor programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picker, C [AEA Technolgy plc, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Ainsworth, K F [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-01

    The general position with regard to nuclear power and fast reactors in UK during 1995 is described. The status of fast reactor studies made in UK is outlined and a description and statement regarding the conclusions of the programme of studies associated with the closure of the Prototype Fast Reactor is included. (author)

  20. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  1. Prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Derek; Open Univ., Milton Keynes

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the prospects for local community wind energy projects in the UK. After explaining the advantages of such projects compared to purely commercial developments, the scale and funding for the projects are discussed. It is argued that such projects are beneficial both financially to individual members and also to the local rural economies particularly in deprived regions. (UK)

  2. Staffing UK University Campuses Overseas: Lessons from MNE Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, John; Wood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that as their internal labor markets become more multinational in scope, UK universities may acquire similar staffing characteristics to commercial multinational enterprises (MNEs). Comparing evidence from four UK universities with several surveys of MNEs it concludes that, although there are broad similarities in the…

  3. Students and Sex Work in the UK: Providers and Purchasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ron; Jones, Amy; Sanders, Teela

    2013-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that changes in the funding of UK higher education in recent years have been accompanied by an increased student presence in the sex industry, ostensibly for financial reasons and to make ends meet. The current study comprises a sample of students ("N" = 200) drawn from several universities in the UK. Data…

  4. Studies on urokinase (UK) therapy of thromboembolic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakayama, Ryuji; Satake, Kisaburo; Hisamatsu, Tokugoro; Fukase, Masaichi

    1974-01-01

    In order to determine the urokinase (UK) concentration in blood, a radioimmunoassay method was developed, in which a radioactive material labeled with 125 I-Na was used. In this method, the movement of UK in blood and the relationship between the UK concentration and fibrinolytic activity were studied with the following results: 1) The concentration of UK in normal human blood was found to be 6.84 +- 2.53 PKU early in the morning with an apparent daily rythmic fluctuation in concentration. 2) With an intravenous drip of 20,000 to 30,000 PKU, the UK concentration increased 6 to 8 PKU/ml above the early morning value, then in one to two hours it returned to the previous value once again. In some of the cases, a slight, transient decrease occurred. 3) Following the UK drip, UK concentration in the blood and fibrinolytic activity varied in a parallel fashion. Plasminogen and antiplasmin levels were not altered by administration of only 20,000 to 30,000 PKU of UK. Fibrinogen was lowered, but the fluctuation was within the physiological range. (S. Oyama)

  5. Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Neil C. C.; Sentance, Sue; Crick, Tom; Humphreys, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we…

  6. UK Government: New postgraduate scheme - Dorothy Hodgkin awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The UK Prime Minister today announced a new GBP10m initiative, the Dorothy Hodgkin Postgraduate Awards, which will allow over 100 PhD students from India, China, Hong Kong, Russia and the developing world to study in top UK universities (1 page).

  7. "Big Society" in the UK: A Policy Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Alongside the UK Coalition Government's historic public spending cuts, the "Big Society" has become a major narrative in UK political discourse. This article reviews key features of Big Society policies against their aims of rebalancing the economy and mending "Broken Britain", with particular reference to their implications…

  8. Food advertising during children's television in Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J; Hennessy-Priest, K; Ingimarsdóttir, S; Sheeshka, J; Ostbye, T; White, M

    2009-09-01

    Television advertisements for less healthy foods are thought to contribute to overweight and obesity in children. In the UK, new regulations on television food advertising to children came into effect in April 2007. These prohibit advertisements for "less healthy" foods during or around programmes "of particular appeal to" (OPAT) children. In Canada, self-regulated codes of practice on television food advertising to children were recently strengthened. To document the nutritional content of food advertised and number of advertisements OPAT children broadcast in the UK and central Canada before the introduction of the new UK regulations. All food advertisements broadcast on four popular channels in Canada and the three terrestrial commercial channels in the UK during 1 week in 2006 were identified and linked to relevant nutritional data. Food advertisements OPAT children and for "less healthy" products were identified using the criteria in the UK regulations. 2315 food related advertisements broadcast in Canada and 1365 broadcast in the UK were included. 52-61% were for "less healthy" products; 5-11% were OPAT children. Around 5% of food advertisements would have been prohibited under the new UK regulations. There were few differences in the nutritional content of food described in advertisements that were and were not OPAT children. There was little evidence that food described in advertisements OPAT children were any less healthy than those that were not. Few food advertisements are likely to be prohibited by the new UK regulations.

  9. The Prevalence of Intellectual Disability in a Major UK Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Susan; Shackell, Phil; Mottram, Pat; Lancaster, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Over-representation of people with learning disability in prisons has been demonstrated in many Western jurisdictions. This was the first comprehensive research in a UK prison. The research used a random 10% sample of a prison population (n = 140). A semi-structured interview, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (UK version) and the Vineland…

  10. Stress among UK Academics: Identifying Who Copes Best

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    This article examined levels of stress and associated coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored…

  11. Nuclear power and public acceptance in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction; UK nuclear experience (experience of the Central Electricity Generating Board; impartial assessment); Sizewell inquiry (into proposal to construct a PWR based plant as Sizewell B; inquiry process; ground covered; economics and safety; project management); public acceptance (sociological studies); long-term programme. (U.K.)

  12. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  13. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, I. C.; Wakeford, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. DESIGN: Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Phys...

  14. The impact of energy price shocks on the UK economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the results of six scenarios considering the impact of energy price shocks on the UK economy. The six scenarios considered are: UK aggregate energy price scenario; pan-Europe aggregate energy price; global aggregate energy price; UK temporary gas price; UK permanent gas price; crude (Brent) oil price. As expected, shocks to aggregate energy prices cause the largest macroeconomic and energy demand effects (in terms of growth rate volatility). Shocks to gas prices produce a greater growth volatility for macroeconomic and energy demand than shocks to oil prices. In general terms, shocks specific to the UK market tend to produce more growth rate volatility than wider ranging price shocks (global or pan-European). All of the price shocks considered have a recursive effect on the main indicators, which tend to stabilise around the baseline level in the long run. The report summarises the results obtained in the different scenarios

  15. Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market - end 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Suppliers of petrol to the UK retail market (as at 31.12.94) are tabulated, with brand names and company names, areas of operation, and total numbers of retail petrol outlets displaying brand names, self-service sites, company-owned sites and outlets retailing Derv given. Statistics resulting from a retail marketing survey (1995) are listed and cover UK petrol sites from 1985-1994; motorway brands; a regional breakdown of petrol and derv outlets; UK outlets retailing derv; average UK prices for petrol and derv per litre; percentage of petrol sites per company (1994); number of company petrol sites as a percentage of total; number of outlets at hypermarkets/supermarkets; and vapour recovery sites. (UK)

  16. Cost viability of 3D printed house in UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, A. L. Mohd; Omar, S. A.; Yehia, Z.; Al-Ojaili, S.; Hashim, A.; Orhan, O.

    2018-03-01

    UK has been facing housing crisis due to the rising price of the property on sale. This paper will look into the viability of 3D printing technology as an alternative way for house construction on UK. The analysis will be carried out based on the data until the year of 2014 due to limited resources availability. Details cost breakdown on average size house construction cost in UK were analysed and relate to the cost viability of 3D printing technology in reducing the house price in UK. It is found that the 3D printing generates saving of up to around 35% out of total house price in UK. This cost saving comes from the 3D printed construction of walls and foundations for material and labour cost.

  17. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future

  18. Learning the law: practical proposals for UK medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetts, J K

    2016-02-01

    Ongoing serious breaches in medical professionalism might be avoided if UK doctors rethink their approach to law. UK medical education has a role in creating a climate of change by re-examining how law is taught to medical students. Adopting a more insightful approach in the UK to the impact of The Human Rights Act and learning to manipulate legal concepts, such as conflict of interest, need to be taught to medical students now if UK doctors are to manage complex decision-making in the NHS of the future. The literature is reviewed from a unique personal perspective of a doctor and lawyer, and practical proposals for developing medical education in law in the UK are suggested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. In the loop Large Hadron Collider project - UK engineering firms

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, N

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the latest measures being taken to boost the level of UK engineering firms' involvement in research at CERN (Centre for Nuclear Research), including its 27 km circular Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project. Virtually all of the components on this complex project have had to be custom-made, usually in the form of collaboration. It is part of these collaborations that some UK firms have proved they can shine. However, despite the proven capabilities, the financial return continues to be less than the government's funding. Each of the 20 CERN member states provides funds in proportion to its GDP and the UK is the second largest financial contributor. UK firms become price-competitive where a contract calls for a degree of customisation or product development, project management and tight quality control. Development of the Particle Physics Grid, for dissemination and analysis of data from the LHC, continues to provide major supply opportunities for UK manufacturers.

  20. Regulation of nuclear power in the UK after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The essential philosophy underlying safe nuclear power in the UK is to establish a safe design and then monitor the manufacture, construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance to ensure that the safe design intent is not violated either deliberately or unintentionally. In the UK any commercial nuclear installation must have a nuclear site licence. The Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII) is the agency responsible for granting licences and ensuring the safe design and operation of the installation by the licensee. The way in which the NII does this for the 27 licensed sites that it regulates in the UK is explained. This covers plant assessment and site inspection. Following the accident at Chernobyl the NII reviewed the way in which it regulates nuclear power in the UK. Some changes in specific areas were recommended but no changes in the general philosophy were considered necessary. (UK)

  1. Saharan dust plume charging observed over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri A.; Marlton, Graeme J.; Ryder, Claire L.; Bennett, Alec J.

    2018-05-01

    A plume of Saharan dust and Iberian smoke was carried across the southern UK on 16th October 2017, entrained into an Atlantic cyclone which had originated as Hurricane Ophelia. The dust plume aloft was widely noticed as it was sufficiently dense to redden the visual appearance of the sun. Time series of backscatter from ceilometers at Reading and Chilbolton show two plumes: one carried upwards to 2.5 km, and another below 800 m into the boundary layer, with a clear slot between. Steady descent of particles at about 50 cm s‑1 continued throughout the morning, and coarse mode particles reached the surface. Plumes containing dust are frequently observed to be strongly charged, often through frictional effects. This plume passed over atmospheric electric field sensors at Bristol, Chilbolton and Reading. Consistent measurements at these three sites indicated negative plume charge. The lower edge plume charge density was (‑8.0 ± 3.3) nC m‑2, which is several times greater than that typical for stratiform water clouds, implying an active in situ charge generation mechanism such as turbulent triboelectrification. A meteorological radiosonde measuring temperature and humidity was launched into the plume at 1412 UTC, specially instrumented with charge and turbulence sensors. This detected charge in the boundary layer and in the upper plume region, and strong turbulent mixing was observed throughout the atmosphere’s lowest 4 km. The clear slot region, through which particles sedimented, was anomalously dry compared with modelled values, with water clouds forming intermittently in the air beneath. Electrical aspects of dust should be included in numerical models, particularly the charge-related effects on cloud microphysical properties, to accurately represent particle behaviour and transport.

  2. Defining indoor heat thresholds for health in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mindy; Carmichael, Catriona; Murray, Virginia; Dengel, Andy; Swainson, Michael

    2013-05-01

    It has been recognised that as outdoor ambient temperatures increase past a particular threshold, so do mortality/morbidity rates. However, similar thresholds for indoor temperatures have not yet been identified. Due to a warming climate, the non-sustainability of air conditioning as a solution, and the desire for more energy-efficient airtight homes, thresholds for indoor temperature should be defined as a public health issue. The aim of this paper is to outline the need for indoor heat thresholds and to establish if they can be identified. Our objectives include: describing how indoor temperature is measured; highlighting threshold measurements and indices; describing adaptation to heat; summary of the risk of susceptible groups to heat; reviewing the current evidence on the link between sleep, heat and health; exploring current heat and health warning systems and thresholds; exploring the built environment and the risk of overheating; and identifying the gaps in current knowledge and research. A global literature search of key databases was conducted using a pre-defined set of keywords to retrieve peer-reviewed and grey literature. The paper will apply the findings to the context of the UK. A summary of 96 articles, reports, government documents and textbooks were analysed and a gap analysis was conducted. Evidence on the effects of indoor heat on health implies that buildings are modifiers of the effect of climate on health outcomes. Personal exposure and place-based heat studies showed the most significant correlations between indoor heat and health outcomes. However, the data are sparse and inconclusive in terms of identifying evidence-based definitions for thresholds. Further research needs to be conducted in order to provide an evidence base for threshold determination. Indoor and outdoor heat are related but are different in terms of language and measurement. Future collaboration between the health and building sectors is needed to develop a common

  3. Globalisation of Researcher Mobility within the UK Higher Education: Explaining the Presence of Overseas Academics in the UK Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Nabil; Fenton, Steve

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that the power structure that lies within the UK elite universities dictates a division of labour through which the inflows of overseas academics into the UK academic labour markets are skewed towards these elite academic institutions where they are employed primarily in research-only posts. These posts, are less valued and…

  4. Current and future climate- and air pollution-mediated impacts on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Ruth M; Heal, Mathew R; Wilkinson, Paul; Pattenden, Sam; Vieno, Massimo; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Chalabi, Zaid; Kovats, Sari; Milojevic, Ai; Stevenson, David S

    2009-12-21

    We describe a project to quantify the burden of heat and ozone on mortality in the UK, both for the present-day and under future emission scenarios. Mortality burdens attributable to heat and ozone exposure are estimated by combination of climate-chemistry modelling and epidemiological risk assessment. Weather forecasting models (WRF) are used to simulate the driving meteorology for the EMEP4UK chemistry transport model at 5 km by 5 km horizontal resolution across the UK; the coupled WRF-EMEP4UK model is used to simulate daily surface temperature and ozone concentrations for the years 2003, 2005 and 2006, and for future emission scenarios. The outputs of these models are combined with evidence on the ozone-mortality and heat-mortality relationships derived from epidemiological analyses (time series regressions) of daily mortality in 15 UK conurbations, 1993-2003, to quantify present-day health burdens. During the August 2003 heatwave period, elevated ozone concentrations > 200 microg m-3 were measured at sites in London and elsewhere. This and other ozone photochemical episodes cause breaches of the UK air quality objective for ozone. Simulations performed with WRF-EMEP4UK reproduce the August 2003 heatwave temperatures and ozone concentrations. There remains day-to-day variability in the high ozone concentrations during the heatwave period, which on some days may be explained by ozone import from the European continent.Preliminary calculations using extended time series of spatially-resolved WRF-EMEP4UK model output suggest that in the summers (May to September) of 2003, 2005 & 2006 over 6000 deaths were attributable to ozone and around 5000 to heat in England and Wales. The regional variation in these deaths appears greater for heat-related than for ozone-related burdens.Changes in UK health burdens due to a range of future emission scenarios will be quantified. These future emissions scenarios span a range of possible futures from assuming current air quality

  5. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  6. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  7. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  8. Aerosol trace metals, particle morphology and total gaseous mercury in the atmosphere of Oxford, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, M. L. I.; Meheran, N.; Mather, T. A.; de Hoog, J. C. M.; Pyle, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    An investigation of atmospheric trace metals was conducted in Oxford, UK, a small city ˜60 miles northwest of London, in 2007 and 2008. Concentrations of Sr, Mo, Cd, Pb, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn in aerosol were measured in bulk and size segregated samples. In addition, total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were monitored semi-continuously by cold vapour-atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. Metal concentrations in Oxford were intermediate between previously reported levels of UK rural and urban areas for most metals studied and levels of Cd, Ni and Pb were within European guidelines. Metal concentrations appeared to be influenced by higher traffic volume on a timescale of hours. The influence of traffic on the aerosols was also suggested by the observation of carbonaceous particles via scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Air mass back trajectories suggest air masses arriving in Oxford from London and mainland Europe contained the highest metal concentrations. Aerosol samples collected over Bonfire Weekend, a period of intense firework use and lighting of bonfires in the UK, showed metal concentrations 6-46 times higher than at other times. Strontium, a tracer of firework release, was present at higher concentrations and showed a change in its size distribution from the coarse to fine mode over Bonfire Weekend. The presence of an abundance of spherical Sr particles was also confirmed in SEM images. The average TGM concentration in Oxford was 3.17 ng m -3 (st. dev. 1.59) with values recorded between 1.32 and 23.2 ng m -3. This is a higher average value than reported from nearby rural locations, although during periods when air was arriving from the west, similar concentrations to these rural areas were seen in Oxford. Comparison to meteorological data suggests that TGM in Oxford's air is highest when wind is arriving from the east/southeast. This may be due to emissions from London/mainland Europe with a possible contribution from emissions from a local

  9. The siting of UK nuclear reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimston, Malcolm; Nuttall, William J; Vaughan, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Choosing a suitable site for a nuclear power station requires the consideration and balancing of several factors. Some 'physical' site characteristics, such as the local climate and the potential for seismic activity, will be generic to all reactors designs, while others, such as the availability of cooling water, the area of land required and geological conditions capable of sustaining the weight of the reactor and other buildings will to an extent be dependent on the particular design of reactor chosen (or alternatively the reactor design chosen may to an extent be dependent on the characteristics of an available site). However, one particularly interesting tension is a human and demographic one. On the one hand it is beneficial to place nuclear stations close to centres of population, to reduce transmission losses and other costs (including to the local environment) of transporting electricity over large distances from generator to consumer. On the other it is advantageous to place nuclear stations some distance away from such population centres in order to minimise the potential human consequences of a major release of radioactive materials in the (extremely unlikely) event of a major nuclear accident, not only in terms of direct exposure but also concerning the management of emergency planning, notably evacuation.This paper considers the emergence of policies aimed at managing this tension in the UK. In the first phase of nuclear development (roughly speaking 1945-1965) there was a highly cautious attitude, with installations being placed in remote rural locations with very low population density. The second phase (1965-1985) saw a more relaxed approach, allowing the development of AGR nuclear power stations (which with concrete pressure vessels were regarded as significantly safer) closer to population centres (in 'semi-urban' locations, notably at Hartlepool and Heysham). In the third phase (1985-2005) there was very little new nuclear development, Sizewell

  10. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  11. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  12. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  13. Fossil resource trade balances. Emerging trends for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papathanasopoulou, Eleni; Jackson, Tim

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which the UK can be classified as a net importer of fossil resources and a creator of pollution havens abroad between 1968 and 2000. Using input-output techniques and a derived Resource Flow Classification System, both the physical trade balance (PTB) and pollution trade balance (UTB) associated with fossil resource use are computed. The PTB shows that between 1968 and the early 1980's the UK is presented as a net importer of direct fossil resource flows. Between 1984 and 2000, the UK is identified as a net exporter of direct fossil resources. These trends are primarily explained by the UK's discovery and commercial production of North Sea oil and gas fields in the late 1970s. On the other hand, the UTB shows that over the whole period the indirect used flows attributable to the UK's exports are higher than those attributable to its imports. These findings suggest that the UK did not create pollution havens abroad from the use of fossil resources between 1968 and 2000. However, it is noticeable in both cases that from 1995 the UK's position as a net exporter has been decreasing considerably. Maturing North Sea oil and gas fields set against increasing demands for fossil fuels and imported goods is signalling a return to the UK's pre-1984 dependence on direct imported fossil resources and the possible creation of pollution havens abroad. Knowledge of these trends contributes to the evidence base for the UK's changing import and export structure and the potential environmental repercussions at home and abroad. (author)

  14. Fossil resource trade balances. Emerging trends for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papathanasopoulou, Eleni; Jackson, Tim [Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7TH (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The aim of this paper is to examine the extent to which the UK can be classified as a net importer of fossil resources and a creator of pollution havens abroad between 1968 and 2000. Using input-output techniques and a derived Resource Flow Classification System, both the physical trade balance (PTB) and pollution trade balance (UTB) associated with fossil resource use are computed. The PTB shows that between 1968 and the early 1980's the UK is presented as a net importer of direct fossil resource flows. Between 1984 and 2000, the UK is identified as a net exporter of direct fossil resources. These trends are primarily explained by the UK's discovery and commercial production of North Sea oil and gas fields in the late 1970s. On the other hand, the UTB shows that over the whole period the indirect used flows attributable to the UK's exports are higher than those attributable to its imports. These findings suggest that the UK did not create pollution havens abroad from the use of fossil resources between 1968 and 2000. However, it is noticeable in both cases that from 1995 the UK's position as a net exporter has been decreasing considerably. Maturing North Sea oil and gas fields set against increasing demands for fossil fuels and imported goods is signalling a return to the UK's pre-1984 dependence on direct imported fossil resources and the possible creation of pollution havens abroad. Knowledge of these trends contributes to the evidence base for the UK's changing import and export structure and the potential environmental repercussions at home and abroad. (author)

  15. Breastfeeding practice in the UK: midwives' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Christine M; Thomson, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Despite breastfeeding prevalence increasing, many mothers in developed countries are dissatisfied with care provided by midwives. However, a paucity of research exists related to midwives' experiences of supporting breastfeeding mothers. This study explored the experiences of English midwives' during their breastfeeding support role. A qualitative study using grounded theory principles was used. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and analysed using constant comparative techniques. The setting was two maternity hospitals in the North of England, UK. Thirty midwives who cared for normal, healthy babies participated. Volunteers were recruited using theoretical sampling techniques. The core category that emerged is called 'surviving baby feeding' and relates to midwives' experiences when supporting mothers. The results reported in this paper refer to one category called 'doing well with feeding' which has three main themes: (1) communicating sensitively, (2) facilitating breastfeeding, and (3) reducing conflicting advice. Participating midwives reported practice that suggests that they valued breastfeeding, attempted to provide realistic information and advice, and tried to minimise confusion for mothers. However, some midwives used an authoritative manner when conversing with mothers. English midwives' reported practice demonstrates that these midwives appreciated that breastfeeding mothers required specific support. However, breastfeeding education that encourages midwives to develop effective skills in ascertaining mother's needs, but also encourages mothers to effectively participate in their care, should be provided. Further research is needed to clarify breastfeeding mothers' expectations and needs.

  16. Nuclear power in the UK electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear Electric was formed in the public sector to operate only nuclear power plant, and the Company has been foremost in developing the UK's capability for PWR design and construction. It is now obliged to compete on equal terms with privately-owned generators, and we have made it clear that we would invest in further nuclear plant only if the terms were commercially attractive to the company. The competitive environment in which we now operate has led us to recognise that the priority for the Company in the Nuclear Review is to seek the commercial flexibility which accompanies privatisation. Accordingly, our evidence to the Government in the Nuclear Review has shown that the problems of confidence which surrounded nuclear power in 1989 have been substantially resolved. The improved accounting costs and low avoidable costs of the existing stations make the commercial case for their continued operation. The completion of Szewell B has not only given us a gist class new, profitable power plant, but given confidence in the costs and performance of any follow-on PWRs. In the longer term, a greater recognition of the external environmental costs of fossil-fuel generation may swing the market in favour of nuclar power construction. (orig.) [de

  17. The UK core performance code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutt, P.K.; Gaines, N.; McEllin, M.; White, R.J.; Halsall, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Over the last few years work has been co-ordinated by Nuclear Electric, originally part of the Central Electricity Generating Board, with contributions from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and British Nuclear Fuels Limited, to produce a generic, easy-to-use and integrated package of core performance codes able to perform a comprehensive range of calculations for fuel cycle design, safety analysis and on-line operational support for Light Water Reactor and Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor plant. The package consists of modern rationalized generic codes for lattice physics (WIMS), whole reactor calculations (PANTHER), thermal hydraulics (VIPRE) and fuel performance (ENIGMA). These codes, written in FORTRAN77, are highly portable and new developments have followed modern quality assurance standards. These codes can all be run ''stand-alone'' but they are also being integrated within a new UNIX-based interactive system called the Reactor Physics Workbench (RPW). The RPW provides an interactive user interface and a sophisticated data management system. It offers quality assurance features to the user and has facilities for defining complex calculational sequences. The Paper reviews the current capabilities of these components, their integration within the package and outlines future developments underway. Finally, the Paper describes the development of an on-line version of this package which is now being commissioned on UK AGR stations. (author)

  18. Retrofit electrochromic glazing in a UK office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Kelly Waskett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochromic (EC glazing is now considered a viable alternative to fixed transmittance glazing. It has the potential to enable occupants to control daylight glare and solar heat gain without the use of blinds or external shading devices, giving users more access to daylight with all its inherent benefits. Furthermore, EC glazing can reduce energy consumption by decreasing cooling loads and electric lighting usage. Most research to date has studied the effects of EC glazing in scale models, computer simulations and full scale test rooms, and some of these studies have included human participants. However, there is a general lack of understanding regarding the performance and suitability of EC glazing in real-world working environments. A case study of the first UK retrofit application of EC glazing is being conducted in two adjacent offices in a university campus building. The offices are occupied by administration staff and have large southeastfacing windows. The existing double glazed units were replaced with commercially-available EC glazed units in 2012. Over a period of more than 18 months, the rooms were monitored intensively to record the effect of the EC glazing on both the physical room environment and the occupants themselves. A large amount of data from the monitoring programme is currently undergoing detailed analysis. Initial findings emerging from the installation and post-installation period are described in this paper.

  19. Uses of the Twins UK genetic database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Tim D

    2007-11-01

    Tim Spector is a Professor of Genetic Epidemiology at King's College London and Director of the Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit at St Thomas' Hospital, London. Professor Spector graduated from St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical School, London, in 1982. After working in General Medicine, he completed a MSc in Epidemiology, and his MD degree at the University of London in 1989. He founded the UK Twins Registry of 10,000 twins in 1993, which is one of the largest collections of genotype and phenotype information on twins worldwide, whose breadth of research has expanded to cover a wide range of common complex traits many of which were previously thought to be mainly due to aging and the environment. He has published over 350 research articles on common diseases. He has written several original articles on the genetics of a wide range of diseases and traits including back pain, acne, inflammation, obesity, memory, musical ability and sexuality. He is the principal investigator of the EU Euroclot and Treat OA study, and a partner in five others. He has written several books, focusing on osteoporosis and genetics and, in 2003, he published a popular book on genetics: Your Genes Unzipped.

  20. Natural radionuclides in the UK marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollo, S F.N.; Camplin, W C; Allington, D J; Young, A K [Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Lowestoft (United Kingdom). Fisheries Radiobiological Lab.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of natural radionuclides giving rise to radiation exposure of man from marine consumption pathways has been known for some time. However, the extent of surveys of levels in marine biota has been limited. This paper presents new data on concentrations of natural radionuclides in fish, shellfish and seaweeds taken from coastal sampling locations in the U.K. Sampling included areas where levels due to natural sources would be predominant, but efforts were made to study potential sources of technologically enhanced discharges to seas and rivers, particularly the phosphogypsum plant at Whitehaven in Cumbria. The highest concentrations (up to 371 Bq.kg[sup -1] (wet) [sup 210]Po) were observed in winkles near Whitehaven. The general levels at sites remote from known sources were much lower. Monthly concentrations in molluscs at a single location were elevated by approximately a factor of 2 during the summer months. An assessment of the expected doses to members of the public from marine consumption pathways is made. (author).

  1. Financing the UK's renewable energy boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindley, D.

    1996-01-01

    The opportunity to invest in and operate renewable energy power projects in the United Kingdom is the result of the financial measures established by the Electricity Act 1989, which created the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation. In the three different orders specified so far, approximately 1400 MW (declared net capacity) of contracts have been awarded to schemes generating electricity from wind, hydro, landfill gas, sewage gas, waste combustion and other combustion (using forestry wastes and biomass) schemes. The majority of projects that have become operational so far have been financed either on 'balance sheet' or by a combination of non-recourse or limited recourse project loans and investor equity. In order to fulfil the government's goal to have 1500 MW (declared net capacity) of electricity from renewables by 2000 and a total investment of in excess of 1.5 billion pounds will be required. This paper reviews the terms of the Non Fossil Fuel Obligation, gives details of contracts awarded so far, reviews the financing methods used, summarises the project risk and the means of mitigation and provides case histories of several different renewable energy projects financed in the UK. (author) 11 tabs., 10 refs

  2. UK laboratory intercomparison on internal dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, J.; Birchall, A.; Bull, R.; Cockerill, R.; Jarvis, N.S.; Marsh, J.W.; Peace, M.S.; Roberts, G.; Scarlett, C.; Spencer, D.; Stewart, P

    2003-07-01

    A laboratory intercomparison for internal dose assessment from a variety of intake scenarios is described. This is the first UK intercomparison using the revised ICRP Human Respiratory Tract and biokinetic models. Four United Kingdom laboratories participated and six cases were assessed. Overall, the agreement in internal dose assessments between laboratories was considered satisfactory with 79% of the assessed committed effective doses, e(50), for cases within a band of {+-}40% of the median value. The range (highest/lowest) in e(50) estimated by the laboratories was smallest (1.2) for a case involving inhalation of {sup 137}Cs. The range was greatest (6.0) for a case involving a wound with, and possible inhalation of, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am; the variation between laboratories in assessment of intakes could not be considered to be satisfactory in this case. Judgements on the most appropriate data to use in estimating intakes, choice of parameter values for use with the ICRP models and allowing for the effects of treatment with DTPA were important sources of variability between laboratories. (author)

  3. U.K. policy responses to international influences - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of U.K. participation in international discussions directed towards the safe development and application of nuclear power. Particular attention is given to the International Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), which is stated to be looking at the whole question of proliferation and the merits and disadvantages of a range of alternative fuel cycles and nuclear power strategies. A summary is also given of U.K. participation in work on radiological protection (through the I.C.R.P.) and radioactive waste disposal. International cooperation in research and development is mentioned. Public involvement in policy making is also discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  4. Metal Recycling in the UK - a decade of developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Joe

    2014-01-01

    In the last 10 years, metal recycling in the UK has developed from a rarely used technique to a cornerstone of the UK national LLW strategy. The paper will explore the drivers for developing the metal recycling supply chain, policy and legislative developments, key milestones, and consider issues with market development both in its initial slow phases and now in a rapidly developing mode. The paper will contrast some of the initial inertia and blockers in the UK with the now-proven benefits of the approach, including financial, environmental and ethical. (author)

  5. Survey of employment in the UK wind energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, G.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of employment in the UK wind energy industry has been carried out. It related to the financial years 1993-4 and 1994-5. A questionnaire was sent to all organisations working in wind energy in the UK. Some 249 replies were received. The paper reports on the findings regarding overall employment in the industry, employment in the major sectors of the industry, jobs by type of organisation, the major employers, the location of jobs, and the overall impact on employment in the UK economy. (Author)

  6. Spatially Explicit Analysis of Water Footprints in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Barrett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Water Footprint, as an indicator of water consumption has become increasingly popular for analyzing environmental issues associated with the use of water resources in the global supply chain of consumer goods. This is particularly relevant for countries like the UK, which increasingly rely on products produced elsewhere in the world and thus impose pressures on foreign water resources. Existing studies calculating water footprints are mostly based on process analysis, and results are mainly available at the national level. The current paper assesses the domestic and foreign water requirements for UK final consumption by applying an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model in combination with geo-demographic consumer segmentation data. This approach allows us to calculate water footprints (both direct and indirect for different products as well as different geographies within the UK. We distinguished between production and consumption footprints where the former is the total water consumed from the UK domestic water resources by the production activities in the UK and the latter is the total water consumed from both domestic and global water resources to satisfy the UK domestic final consumption. The results show that the production water footprint is 439 m3/cap/year, 85% of which is for the final consumption in the UK itself. The average consumption water footprint of the UK is more than three times bigger than the UK production water footprint in 2006. About half of the UK consumption water footprints were associated with imports from Non-OECD countries (many of which are water-scarce, while around 19% were from EU-OECD countries, and only 3% from Non-EU-OECD countries. We find that the water footprint differs considerably across sub-national geographies in the UK, and the differences are as big as 273 m3/cap/year for the internal water footprint and 802 m3/cap/year for the external water footprint. Our results suggest

  7. Implementation of the basic safety standards directive in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.

    2003-01-01

    Implementation of the European Council BSS Directive 96/29/Euratom in the UK is not achieved through any one piece of legislation (though the majority of the provisions are implemented by the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999) but by a mosaic of provisions, supported by codes of practice, non-statutory guidance and administrative arrangements. The paper describes some of the features of UK occupational radiation protection and the reason for the apparent differences between the UK and other EU Member States in their approach to agreeing the precise provisions of European legislation. (author)

  8. UK Nuclear Science Forum. Progress report: Data studies during 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.

    2001-06-01

    The UK Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) now meets once per year to discuss issues of direct relevance to forum members, and to review nuclear data for application in the UK nuclear industry. Links are also maintained through the year, mainly through e-mail and the normal postal system. Work of immediate interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g., half-lives and gamma-ray emission probabilities), fission yields and thermal neutron cross sections; all known UK studies in 2000 are summarised in this document. Specific applications and international links of relevance in the field of nuclear data are also described

  9. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  10. Experiences with maternal and perinatal death reviews in the UK--the MBRRACE-UK programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurinczuk, J J; Draper, E S; Field, D J; Bevan, C; Brocklehurst, P; Gray, R; Kenyon, S; Manktelow, B N; Neilson, J P; Redshaw, M; Scott, J; Shakespeare, J; Smith, L K; Knight, M

    2014-09-01

    Established in 1952, the programme of surveillance and Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the UK is the longest running such programme worldwide. Although more recently instituted, surveillance and confidential enquiries into perinatal deaths are also now well established nationally. Recent changes to funding and commissioning of the Enquiries have enabled both a reinvigoration of the processes and improvements to the methodology with an increased frequency of future reporting. Close engagement with stakeholders and a regulator requirement for doctors to participate have both supported the impetus for involvement of all professionals leading to greater potential for improved quality of care for women and babies. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Climate change - the contribution from air travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley, Colin

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the Intergovernment Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report on Aviation and the Global Atmosphere (published in 1999). It was considered necessary to treat air transport on its own since aircraft are unique in delivering emissions into the upper atmosphere rather than at ground level. The study was commissioned at the request of the International Civil Aviation Organisation and the Montreal Protocol. More than 300 experts contributed and the report has quantified the effect of aviation on the atmosphere on a world wide basis and highlighted areas where improved data are required. (UK)

  12. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  13. Careers in astronomy in Germany and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fohlmeister, Janine; Helling, Christiane

    2014-04-01

    Janine Fohlmeister and Christiane Helling discuss the outcomes of surveys addressing the career situation of astronomers in Germany and the UK, finding social and cultural differences between communities as well as gender bias in both.

  14. The development of Radiation Protection Training courses in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paynter, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper considers use of modern training materials and aids in radiation protection training activities. The development in the UK of training courses to satisfy the training requirements for Radiation Protection Advisers is also discussed. (Author)

  15. Curbing UK impacts on global biodiversity: an agenda for action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Steve [Scott Wilson Ltd (United Kingdom); Craeynest, Lies [WWF (United Kingdom); Bass, Steve

    2008-05-15

    Stemming the tide of biodiversity loss is a global issue with national implications. The UK has set up initiatives to reduce its impacts on biodiversity worldwide — but as a government review found in 2006, these have yet to add up to a comprehensive strategy. How can the gaps be filled? New research suggests that action on a number of fronts is key. Many UK policies and practices clearly affect biodiversity even though they do not directly address it. For instance, UK imports such as coffee, cocoa and sugar are linked to biodiversity loss. By integrating relevant mainstream concerns such as trade and exploitation of natural resources into an overall strategy, the UK government could better demonstrate its commitment to reducing biodiversity loss significantly by the target date of 2010.

  16. Nuclear and renewable energies, master cards of UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    UK's greenhouse gas emissions have increased in 2004 and 2005 and the country is no longer self-sufficient with respect to energy supplies. In front of global warming and energy security threats, UK is reconsidering its energy policy. Based on low carbon solutions, the UK energy economy tries to valorize renewable energies: recovery of methane, combined combustion of biomass and fossil fuels, development of offshore wind and wave power, etc. One reason is also for UK to locally recover part of its lost autonomy thanks to energy decentralization. Since 2006, public hearings have been launched to consider a renewal of the present nuclear park, a development of offshore gas storage and LNG terminal facilities and a promotion of cogeneration systems. (J.S.)

  17. 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Rankin

    2009-04-01

    This report summarizes the 2009 UK/US Nuclear Engineering Workshop held April 20-21, 2010, in Washington, D.C. to discuss opportunities for nuclear engineering collaboration between researchers in the United States and the United Kingdom.

  18. Oil and gas operational and policy issues in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1992-01-01

    The method of arriving at monthly values under Schedule 3 OTA 1975 applies to all oil which can include LPG and condensate as well as crude oil and gas. The majority of crude oil is now sold spot and in 1987 the method of arriving at monthly values was amended better to reflect this aspect of the crude oil market. The UK gas market was such that the proceeds of sale of large amounts of natural gas were exempt from PRT under Section 10 OTA 1975 and very little gas was disposed of other than at arms length to British Gas. British Gas no longer buys virtually all gas produced from the UK Continental Shelf and neither does it sell all the gas used by UK customers. The use of natural gas to generate electricity has opened up a new market for UK landed gas. How do these changes affect gas valuation.?. (Author)

  19. Study into solar thermal electricity export opportunities for the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The overall objectives of the project described in this report were: to provide an assessment of the world-wide opportunities currently available for the development of high temperature solar thermal (H-TSTh) technology; to identify United Kingdom companies and expertise which could benefit from the exploitation of export markets for H-TSTh; to estimate the potential benefits to the UK of such exploitation; and to review the current status of H-TSTh technology. Despite limited involvement at present, it is concluded that the UK would be well placed with respect to longer term market opportunities if current developments by UK companies in fixed bowl technology and Stirling engines for dish Stirling system are successful. Opportunities also exist for turbine supply, civil contractors, insurance, finance and operation, but discussions with relevant UK companies has revealed only limited interest. (Author)

  20. Regulation of fuel cycle facilities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascroft-Hutton, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The UK has facilities for the production of uranium hexafluoride, its enrichment, conversion into fuel and for the subsequent reprocessing of irradiated fuel and closure of the fuel cycle. All of these facilities must be licensed under UK legislation. HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate has delegated powers to issue the licence and to attach any conditions it considers necessary in the interests of safety. The fuel cycle facilities in the UK have been licensed since 1971. This paper describes briefly the UK nuclear regulatory framework and the fuel cycle facilities involved. It considers the regulatory practices adopted together with similarities and differences between regulation of fuel cycle facilities and power reactors. The safety issues associated with the fuel cycle are discussed and NII's regulatory strategy for these facilities is set out. (author)

  1. A review of the UK fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picker, C.; Ainsworth, K.F.

    1998-01-01

    The general position with regard to nuclear power and fast reactors in the UK during 1996 is described. The main UK Government-funded fast reactor research and development programme was concluded in 1993, to be replaced by a smaller programme which is mainly funded and managed by British Nuclear Fuels plc. The main focus of this programme sustains the UK participation in the European Fast Reactor (EFR) collaboration and the broader international links built-up over the previous decades. The status of fast reactor studies made in the UK in 1996 is outlined and, with respect to the Prototype Fast Reactor at Dounreay, a report of progress with the closure studies, fuel reprocessing and decommissioning activities is provided. (author)

  2. Growing health in UK prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baybutt, Michelle; Dooris, Mark; Farrier, Alan

    2018-05-29

    Globally, prisoners tend to come from marginalized and socially disadvantaged sections of the society and exhibit a high incidence of ill health, linked to social exclusion and multiple complex needs. Prisons therefore offer an important opportunity to tackle inequality and injustice, through promoting health, reducing reoffending and facilitating community reintegration.This paper reports on and critically discusses findings from an evaluative research study, which aimed to identify and explore impacts of prisoners' participation in an innovative social and therapeutic horticultural programme, 'Greener on the Outside for Prisons' (GOOP), delivered in prisons in North West England. Focus groups with 16 prisoners and semi-structured interviews with six prison staff were conducted at five sites. Presented under three overarching themes (health and well-being; skills development, employability, and work preparedness; and relationships), findings suggest that engagement with and participation in GOOP were important in improving positive mental well-being, increasing physical activity and knowledge about healthier eating; developing skills and work readiness; and building relationships and catalysing and strengthening prosocial behaviours, important for good citizenship and effective resettlement. The paper concludes that - in the context of the current UK prison reform agenda and concern about the high incidence of violence, substance misuse, self-harm and suicide - prison-based horticulture can offer multiple benefits and make a significant contribution to the creation of safe, secure, supportive and health-enhancing environments. Furthermore, it contends that by joining up health and justice agendas, programmes such as GOOP have the potential to serve as powerful catalysts for wider systemic change, thereby helping tackle inequalities and social exclusion within societies across the globe.

  3. Chemical cleaning of UK AGR boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.; Turner, P.; Ghosh, A.; Clary, W.; Tice, D.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time in their operational lives, UK advanced gas-cooled reactor once-through boilers have been chemically cleaned. Chemical cleaning was necessary to avoid lost output resulting from boiler pressure drops, which had been increasing for a number of years. Chemical cleaning of these boilers presents a number of unique difficulties. These include lack of access to the boilers, highly sensitised 316H superheater sections that cannot be excluded from the cleaning flow path, relatively thin boiler tube walls and an intolerance to boiler tube failure because of the role of the boilers in nuclear decay heat removal. The difficulties were overcome by implementing the clean in a staged manner, starting with an extensive materials testwork programme to select and then to substantiate the cleaning process. The selected process was based on ammoniated citric acid plus formic acid for the principal acid cleaning stage. Materials testwork was followed by an in-plant trial clean of six boiler tubes, further materials testwork and the clean of a boiler tube in a full-scale test rig. An overview is presented of the work that was carried out to demonstrate that the clean could be carried out safely, effectively and without leading to unacceptable corrosion losses. Full-scale chemical cleaning was implemented by using as much of the existing plant as possible. Careful control and monitoring was employed to ensure that the cleaning was implemented according to the specified design, thus ensuring that a safe and effective clean was carried out. Full-scale cleaning has resulted in significant boiler pressure drop recovery, even though the iron burden was relatively low and cleaning was completed in a short time. (orig.)

  4. Valve testing for UK PWR safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.T.; Bryant, S.

    1989-01-01

    Extensive testing and development has been done by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) to support the design, construction and operation of Sizewell B, the UK's first PWR. A Blowdown Rig for the Assessment of Valve Operability - (BRAVO) has been constructed at the CEGB Marchwood Engineering Laboratory to reproduce PWR Pressurizer fluid conditions for the full scale testing of Pressurizer Relief System (PRS) valves. A full size tandem pair of Pilot Operated Safety Relief Valves (POSRVs) is being tested under the full range of pressurizer fluid conditions. Tests to date have produced important data on the performance of the valve in its Cold Overpressure protection mode of operation and on methods for the in-service testing of the valve. Also, a full size pressurizer safety valve has been tested under full PRS fluid conditions to develop a methodology for the pre-service testing of the Sizewell valves. Further work will be carried out to develop procedures for the in-service testing of the valve. In the Main Steam Safety Valve test program carried out at the Siemens-KWU Test Facilities, a single MSSV from three potential suppliers was tested under full secondary system conditions. The test results have been analyzed and are reflected in the CEGB's arrangements for the pre-service and in-service testing of the Sizewell MSSVs. Valves required to interrupt pipebreak flow must be qualified for this duty by testing or a combination of testing and analysis. To obtain guidance on the performance of such tests gate and globe valves have been subjected to simulated pipebreaks under PWR primary circuit conditions. In the light of problems encountered with gate valve closure under these conditions, further tests are currently being carried out on the BRAVO facility on a gate valve, in preparation for the full scale flow interruption qualification testing of the Sizewell main steam isolation valve

  5. The UK system of recognising qualified experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.

    2002-01-01

    EURATOM Basic Safety Standards (BSS) Directives have long included requirements for the involvement of qualified experts, the definition of which has scarcely changed since at least 1976. The Directive requirement, in the definition of qualified expert,, for competent authorities to recognise the capacity to act as a qualified expert has been interpreted by Member States in widely differing ways, ranging from the minimalist or case by case to the highly detailed and prescriptive. In the United Kingdom (UK), the qualified expert for occupational radiation protection is the radiation protection adviser and the competent authority is the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985, which largely implemented the 1980 BSS Directive, required an employer to appoint one or more radiation protection advisers for the purpose of advising him as to the observance of these Regulations and other health and safety matters in connection with ionising radiation. The Regulations addressed the question of recognition by forbidding an employer to appoint a person as a radiation protection adviser unless: that person was suitably qualified and experienced; the employer had notified the Health and Safety Executive in writing of the intended appointment at least 28 days in advance, giving the name of the person and particulars of his qualifications and experience and the scope of the advice he would be required to give; and the employer had received from HSE an acknowledgement in writing of the notification. This system allowed HSE to follow up and query any apparently unsuitable potential appointments while applying a light overall administrative touch. The Approved Code of Practice supporting the Regulations included advice on the qualifications, experience and qualities that the employer should look for in a suitable radiation protection adviser

  6. The UK radiotherapy dosimetry audit network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Radiotherapy dosimetry intercomparison in the UK has been carried out in limited studies since the 1960s. However the first national dosimetry intercomparison involving all radiotherapy centres was conducted in the late 1980s. This was based on visits to each centre, using ionisation chamber dosimetry. It audited megavoltage photon beam calibration and other single field parameters. It also measured doses in a three-field 'treatment' in a trapezoidal phantom constructed from epoxy-resin water-equivalent material and compared these to locally planned doses. This included off-axis points, oblique incidence, inhomogeneities, etc. The study found mean measured beam calibration doses close to stated values (ratio 1.003), with a standard deviation (sd) of the distribution of 1.5% and 97% of doses within the pro-set 3% tolerance. For the planned multi-field irradiations, mean dose ratios (measured/stated) were 1.01 (sd 3%, 90% of results within 5%). A number of discrepancies were identified, leading to improved practice. A follow up study (mid-1990s) for electron beam audit also repeated the megavoltage photon calibration audit. For photons, an improvement was noted (mean ratio 1.003, sd 1.0%, 100% within 3%), whilst for electron beams, the mean ratio of measured/stated dose was 0.994 (sd 1.8%, 94% within 3%, 99% within 5%). In parallel with - and growing out of - this, a national audit network began to develop in 1991/2. It utilised similar methodology to the intercomparison and a network approach to allow parallel developments of the scope of the system. The network has eight regional groups, each with up to 10 radiotherapy centres, serving average populations of 7-8 million. Each group organises audits of its own centres and has developed at its own pace. Most have piloted methodology, phantoms, etc. for new audits which can then be used by other groups. All 65 UK centres are included. The network is co-ordinated by an IPEM Steering Committee (current chair

  7. Outsourcing the law firm library: the UK experience

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Since 2009, a number of large and leading UK law firms have outsourced their in-house law library and research service to outsource service providers. Integreon, the leading provider of these services in the UK, commenced operations in Australia in 2011. Since that time, a number of other providers of outsourced law library and legal research services have attracted a number of top-tier Australian law firms as clients. These outsource providers are not currently providing law library and lega...

  8. Promotion of an indigenous manufacturing industry in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.

    1998-01-01

    Of the large European wind energy markets, that of the UK is uniquely dominated by imported technology. An indigenous manufacturing base is desirable for strategic reasons, and to create employment and export opportunities. Analysis of the wind energy policies of other countries indicates the factors required to stimulate local manufacture. This paper examines how UK wind energy policy may be shaped for this purpose, taking account of the lessons learned under NFFO/SRO, and elsewhere in Europe. (Author)

  9. The status of spent fuel storage in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, M.J.; Topliss, I.R.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear generating capacity in the UK is static with no units currently under construction. There are three main nuclear fuel types used in the UK for Magnox reactors, AGRs and PWRs. All Magnox fuel will ultimately be reprocessed following a short period of interim storage. AGR fuel will either be reprocessed or long term stored in ponds. PWR fuel will be stored underwater at the reactor site for the foreseeable future, with no decision as yet made to its ultimate management route. (author)

  10. Impact of Dividend Policy on Share Price Volatility: UK Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, YIDING

    2012-01-01

    This research attempts to shed light on the linkage between dividend policy and share price volatility in the context of UK. As a rework and extension of pervious research, the study is expected to reveal the potential impact of dividend change on the fluctuation of stock price, taking existing theoretical and empirical framework as basis. A snapshot of UK economy is provided after the preceding introductory section. The third chapter consists of a review of theories and empirical studies. Wi...

  11. A Point of View on the UK Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescoeur, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    The United Kingdom chose to leave the European Union at a crucial moment for the Energy Union, and in a period when the necessity of leading a coherent energy transition is strongly shared by EU countries. In the light of this conjunction of events, this study analyses the determining factors of the UK energy policy. The industrial revolution started in England, a country endowed with abundant coal supplies but also with robust policies and the right technical, economic and social conditions for making the most out of these natural resources. Likewise, the UK developed effective domestic and foreign policies in the first half of the 20. century and successfully managed the second industrial revolution, which was based on the use of oil and electricity. The UK energy system has gone through significant changes over the past forty years, with the gradual phase out of coal, the development of oil and gas production in the North Sea, the transformation of the electricity system, the re-building of a credible nuclear strategy and the rise of a low-carbon economy. These changes have been implemented at a reasonable cost, at least compared to the cost incurred by the other EU energy systems. The consistency and stability of the UK energy policies are striking, and one must admit that they are driven by a great sense of pragmatism. They are developed through trial and error and their results are openly debated and confronted to the three objectives of having secure, affordable and sustainable energy supplies. There is no doubt about who is the main beneficiary from these policies: it should always be the UK national community. Its interests are well-defended, government after government, and this national focus is probably the main reason why the UK energy policy appears to be very consistent. The EU has often tried to replicate the UK initiatives in the field of energy, but probably without taking proper account of the specificities of the UK context

  12. Liquidity risk and the performance of UK mutual funds

    OpenAIRE

    Foran, Jason; O'Sullivan, Niall

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of liquidity risk, both as a stock characteristic as well as systematic liquidity risk, in UK mutual fund performance for the first time. Using four alternative measures of stock liquidity we extract principal components across stocks in order to construct systematic or market liquidity factors. We find that on average UK mutual funds are tilted towards liquid stocks (except for small stock funds as might be expected) but that, counter-intuitively, liquidity as a stock cha...

  13. Potential for biogas on farms in the UK (1990 update)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosey, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    In a previous report, the potential for generating renewable energy as biogas on farms in the UK using a new generation of 'package plant' anaerobic digestion units was investigated. It was concluded that the digestion technology was rugged and reliable but rather expensive for general farm use. An update report is presented to determine whether anaerobic digester design concepts, increasing environmental constraints on farm waste disposal and the Electricity Industry's Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation has modified these conclusions. (UK)

  14. Performance clustering and incentives in the UK pension fund industry

    OpenAIRE

    David Blake; Bruce N. Lehmann; Allan Timmermann

    2002-01-01

    Despite pension fund managers being largely unconstrained in their investment decisions, this paper reports evidence of clustering in the performance of a large cross-section of UK pension fund managers around the median fund manager. This finding is explained in terms of the predominance of a single investment style (balanced management), the fee structures and incentives operating in the UK pension fund industry to maximise relative rather than absolute performance, the high concentration i...

  15. Sun safety knowledge and practice in UK postal delivery workers

    OpenAIRE

    Houdmont, J.; Davis, S.; Griffiths, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postal delivery workers spend a large proportion of their work time outdoors, placing them at increased risk for skin cancer. To date, no studies have examined occupational sun safety knowledge and practice within this group in the UK.\\ud Aims: To describe the occupational sun safety knowledge and practice of UK postal delivery workers and to investigate the association of demographic, personal and occupational factors with knowledge and practice in order to identify potential str...

  16. Stress among UK academics : identifying who copes best?

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, Mitra; Macaskill, Ann; Reidy, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examined the levels of stress and coping strategies among UK academics. Adopting a positive psychology approach, the influence of the character strengths of hope, optimism, gratitude and self-efficacy, on stress, subjective well-being (SWB), and mental health (GHQ) was examined in 216 academics in a UK university. The study explored the relationship between coping styles and work-coping variables of sense of coherence and work locus of control and stress. No significant differences...

  17. Implementation of food safety management systems in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, L. D.; Julien, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the first stage of work being undertaken to understand the factors that have impacted on the current state of food safety in the UK food manufacturing sector. The paper first explores developments in international food safety regulation in general and in particular, the UK. Using a survey and case study methodology, the paper examines the response of food manufacturing enterprises to food safety regulation, and uses statistical techniques to investigate th...

  18. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the UK. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA observed in

  19. The cost of pressure ulcers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gerry; Dealey, Carol; Posnett, John

    2004-05-01

    To estimate the annual cost of treating pressure ulcers in the UK. Costs were derived from a bottom-up methodology, based on the daily resources required to deliver protocols of care reflecting good clinical practice. Health and social care system in the UK. Patients developing a pressure ulcer. A bottom-up costing approach is used to estimate treatment cost per episode of care and per patient for ulcers of different grades and level of complications. Also, total treatment cost to the health and social care system in the UK. The cost of treating a pressure ulcer varies from pound 1,064 (Grade 1) to pound 10,551 (Grade 4). Costs increase with ulcer grade because the time to heal is longer and because the incidence of complications is higher in more severe cases. The total cost in the UK is pound 1.4- pound 2.1 billion annually (4% of total NHS expenditure). Most of this cost is nurse time. Pressure ulcers represent a very significant cost burden in the UK. Without concerted effort this cost is likely to increase in the future as the population ages. To the extent that pressure ulcers are avoidable, pressure damage may be indicative of clinical negligence and there is evidence that litigation could soon become a significant threat to healthcare providers in the UK, as it is in the USA.

  20. The alcohol industry, charities and policy influence in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Charities exist to pursue a public benefit, whereas corporations serve the interests of their shareholders. The alcohol industry uses corporate social responsibility activities to further its interests in influencing alcohol policy. Many charities also seek to influence alcohol and other policy. The aim of this study was to explore relationships between the alcohol industry and charities in the UK and whether these relationships may be used as a method of influencing alcohol policy. Methods: The charity regulator websites for England and Wales and for Scotland were the main data sources used to identify charities involved in UK alcohol policy making processes and/or funded by the alcohol industry. Results: Five charities were identified that both receive alcohol industry funding and are active in UK alcohol policy processes: Drinkaware; the Robertson Trust; British Institute of Innkeeping; Mentor UK and Addaction. The latter two are the sole remaining non-industry non-governmental members of the controversial responsibility deal alcohol network, from which all other public health interests have resigned. Conclusion: This study raises questions about the extent to which the alcohol industry is using UK charities as vehicles to further their own interests in UK alcohol policy. Mechanisms of industry influence in alcohol policy making globally is an important target for further investigations designed to assist the implementation of evidenced-based policies. PMID:24913316

  1. Why nuclear power failed the market test in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesshire, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Conservative Party's manifesto for the general election of May 1987 contained two pledges of relevance to the UK electricity supply industry (ESI). These were to privatize the industry; and to continue to support the development of civil nuclear power in the private sector. As anticipated by some independent commentators, in the event these objectives proved incompatible. The costs of nuclear power have long been a vexed issue and UK nuclear costs have been higher than those in many other countries. While most of the UK ESI has now been privatized, nuclear generation remains in the public sector. This article seeks to explore the reasons for this fundamental and politically embarrassing policy reversal, a rarity under three successive Conservative administrations since 1979. It would be incorrect to argue that private ownership and nuclear power are inherently incompatible. Rather the specific - competitive - form of privatization proposed for the UK failed to provide sufficient guarantees for the London capital market. Thus, at least in this specific case, nuclear power failed the market test. The implications of this for the UK nuclear industry have been profound. As a result, the UK case has wider international lessons as the pressures for privatization, liberalization and greater cost transparency bear down upon electric utilities in other countries. (author)

  2. Air travellers' awareness of the preventability of otic barotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell-Innes, A; Young, E; Vasiljevic, A; Rashid, M

    2014-06-01

    Otic barotrauma is common among air travellers and can cause severe otalgia, perforation of the tympanic membrane and hearing loss. Many prevention measures exist, with varying evidence to support their use. There are no data to establish if air travellers are aware of them or indeed use them. We aimed to establish air travellers' knowledge of such prevention measures. We surveyed air travellers at two UK airports by means of a questionnaire. Answers to the questionnaire were collected over a two-week period. Overall, 179 air travellers with a mean age of 28 years (range: 15-72 years) completed the questionnaire. There were 66 female and 113 male air travellers. The majority (84 per cent) complained of symptoms while flying and 30 per cent were not aware of any prevention measures. Barotrauma-related symptoms were reported in 25 per cent of air travellers who were unaware of any prevention measures. Nearly all air travellers (86 per cent) indicated that more information regarding prevention measures would be useful. Air travellers are often not aware of prevention measures to avoid otic barotrauma, and the majority suffer as a result. Increasing public awareness of simple prevention measures would have a significant impact on air travellers.

  3. This common inheritance. UK annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This latest White Paper in the `This Common Inheritance` series assessing progress made by the United Kingdom in 1996 and priority issues of 1997 to address the issue of sustainable development. During the year the new National Air Quality Strategy has been published, the Noise Act has been enacted, an agenda for action on water resources and supply has been issued, pilot schemes have been developed to encourage the sale of energy services rather than the supply of energy alone and the landfill tax has been implemented. The report gives an overview of progress in each area and then presents, in tabular form, summaries of previous commitments, action in 1996 and commitments to action in 1997 and beyond in the areas: global atmosphere, air quality, freshwater, the sea, soil, wildlife and habitats, agriculture, forestry, fisheries, mineral extraction and supply, energy supply, manufacturing, biotechnology, waste, transport etc. Separate sections tabulate how sustainability is being put into practice and also tabulate actions being taken in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. 3 apps.

  4. An empirical model for predicting urban roadside nitrogen dioxide concentrations in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.R.; Goodwin, J.W.L.; King, K.; Murrells, T.P.; Bush, T.J.

    2001-01-01

    An annual mean concentration of 40μgm -3 has been proposed as a limit value within the European Union Air Quality Directives and as a provisional objective within the UK National Air Quality Strategy for 2010 and 2005, respectively. Emissions reduction measures resulting from current national and international policies are likely to deliver significant reductions in emissions of oxides of nitrogen from road traffic in the near future. It is likely that there will still be exceedances of this target value in 2005 and in 2009 if national measures are considered in isolation, particularly at the roadside. It is envisaged that this 'policy gap' will be addressed by implementing local air quality management to reduce concentrations in locations that are at risk of exceeding the objective. Maps of estimated annual mean NO 2 concentrations in both urban background and roadside locations are a valuable resource for the development of UK air quality policy and for the identification of locations at which local air quality management measures may be required. Maps of annual mean NO 2 concentrations at both background and roadside locations for 1998 have been calculated using modelling methods, which make use of four mathematically straightforward, empirically derived linear relationships. Maps of projected concentrations in 2005 and 2009 have also been calculated using an illustrative emissions scenario. For this emissions scenario, annual mean urban background NO 2 concentrations in 2005 are likely to be below 40μgm -3 , in all areas except for inner London, where current national and international policies are expected to lead to concentrations in the range 40-41μgm -3 . Reductions in NO x emissions between 2005 and 2009 are expected to reduce background concentrations to the extent that our modelling results indicate that 40μgm -3 is unlikely to be exceeded in background locations by 2009. Roadside NO 2 concentrations in urban areas in 2005 and 2009 are expected to be

  5. Demography and disorders of German Shepherd Dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dan G; Coulson, Noel R; Church, David B; Brodbelt, Dave C

    2017-01-01

    The German Shepherd Dog (GSD) has been widely used for a variety of working roles. However, concerns for the health and welfare of the GSD have been widely aired and there is evidence that breed numbers are now in decline in the UK. Accurate demographic and disorder data could assist with breeding and clinical prioritisation. The VetCompass TM Programme collects clinical data on dogs under primary veterinary care in the UK. This study included all VetCompass TM dogs under veterinary care during 2013. Demographic, mortality and clinical diagnosis data on GSDs were extracted and reported. GSDs dropped from 3.5% of the annual birth cohort in 2005 to 2.2% in 2013. The median longevity of GSDs was 10.3 years (IQR 8.0-12.1, range 0.2-17.0). The most common causes of death were musculoskeletal disorder (16.3%) and inability to stand (14.9%). The most prevalent disorders recorded were otitis externa ( n  = 131, 7.89, 95% CI: 6.64-9.29), osteoarthritis (92, 5.54%, 95% CI: 4.49-6.75), diarrhoea (87, 5.24%, 95% CI: 4.22-6.42), overweight/obesity (86, 5.18%, 95% CI: 4.16-6.36) and aggression (79, 4.76%, 95% CI: 3.79-5.90). This study identified that GSDs have been reducing in numbers in the UK in recent years. The most frequent disorders in GSDs were otitis externa, osteoarthritis, diarrhoea, overweight/obesity and aggression, whilst the most common causes of death were musculoskeletal disorders and inability to stand. Aggression was more prevalent in males than in females. These results may assist veterinarians to offer evidence-based advice at a breed level and help to identify priorities for GSD health that can improve the breed's health and welfare.

  6. Multiple-pollutant cost-effectiveness of greenhouse gas mitigation measures in the UK agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eory, Vera; Topp, Cairistiona F.E.; Moran, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curves can inform integrated environmental policy. ► We incorporated the co-effects on NH 3 , NO 3 − , P and sediment, as monetary values, into the UK GHG MACC. ► Adding co-effects modifies the GHG MACC, though with little impact unless using high damage values. ► Further research is needed on the co-effects of GHG mitigation measures and on damage values. ► Analysis should focus on the co-effects of measures that are slightly above or below the threshold. -- Abstract: This paper develops multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curve analysis to identify an optimal set of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation measures considering the trade-offs and synergies with other environmental pollutants. The analysis is applied to UK agriculture, a sector expected to make a contribution to the national GHG mitigation effort. Previous analyses using marginal abatement cost curves (MACCs) have determined the sector's GHG abatement potential based on the cost-effectiveness of a variety of technically feasible mitigation measures. Most of these measures have external effects on other pollution loads arising from agricultural activities. Here the monetary values of four of the most important impacts to water and air (specifically ammonia, nitrate, phosphorous and sediment) are included in the cost-effectiveness analysis. The resulting multiple-pollutant marginal abatement cost curve (MP MACC) informs the design of sustainable climate change policies by showing how the MP MACC for the UK agriculture can differ from the GHG MACC. The analysis also highlights research gaps, and suggests a need to understand the wider environmental effects of GHG mitigation options and to reduce the uncertainty in pollutant damage cost estimates

  7. Air Land Sea Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based at Royal Air Force Honington, Suffolk (United...heavy as an actual weapon.4 Ideally, this practice imbued a soldier with more energy and stamina during real combat, given the feel of the genuine but...through tactical forces, to individual training. Unidentified Royal Air Force Regiment forward air controllers from the Air Land Integration Cell , Based

  8. U.K. nuclear data progress report for the period April 1975 to March 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayther, D.B.

    1976-08-01

    The Progress Report describes the activities of the UK Nuclear Data Committee, lists the UK data in a CINDA type index, and reports briefly on each UK activity under the organization concerned (AERE Harwell, AEE Winfrith, NPL, AWRE Aldermaston, University of Aston in Birmingham, University of Edinburgh, University of London Reactor Centre). (U.K.)

  9. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware

  10. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  11. Deterrence at Three: US, UK and French Nuclear Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Tertrais, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    tested the red line by using small amounts of sarin. Following the massive August 2013 chemical-weapons attack by forces loyal to Bashar al-Assad, the three states attempted unsuccessfully to mobilise a response. The British government lost a crucial vote in the House of Commons through party mismanagement, after which President Barack Obama unexpectedly decided to make a limited air strike subject to congressional authorisation. Left on its own, Paris decided not to act unilaterally. The apparent diplomatic solution, brokered by Russia, arguably addressed the problem of Syria's chemical weapons, but does not alter the distressing reality that US-UK-French crisis management and strategic communications broke down completely

  12. Measurement of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds and particle associated PAH in three UK regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saborit, Juana Mari Delgado; Aquilina, Noel J; Meddings, Claire; Baker, Stephen; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Harrison, Roy M

    2009-06-15

    Personal exposures to 15 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of 100 adult nonsmokers living in three UK areas, namely London, West Midlands, and rural South Wales, were measured using an actively pumped sampler carried around by the volunteers for 5/1 (VOC/PAH) consecutive 24-h periods, following their normal lifestyle. Results from personal exposure measurements categorized by geographical location, type of dwelling, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are presented. The average personal exposure concentration to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, and benzo(a)pyrene representing the main carcinogenic components of the VOC and PAH mixture were 2.2 +/- 2.5 microg/m3, 0.4 +/- 0.7 microg/m3, and 0.3 +/- 0.7 ng/m3 respectively. The association of a number of generic factors with personal exposure concentrations was investigated, including first-line property, traffic, the presence of an integral garage, and ETS. Only living in houses with integral garages and being exposed to ETS were identified as unequivocal contributors to VOC personal exposure, while only ETS had a clear effect upon PAH personal exposures. The measurements of personal exposures were compared with health-based European and UK air quality guidelines, with some exceedences occurring. Activities contributing to high personal exposures included the use of a fireplace in the home, ETS exposure, DIY (i.e., construction and craftwork activities), and photocopying, among others.

  13. Trombe walls with nanoporous aerogel insulation applied to UK housing refurbishments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Dowson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an opportunity to improve the efficiency of passive Trombe walls and active solar air collectors by replacing their conventional glass covers with lightweight polycarbonate panels filled with nanoporous aerogel insulation. This study investigates the thermal performance, energy savings, and financial payback period of passive Aerogel Trombe walls applied to the existing UK housing stock. Using parametric modeling, a series of design guidance tables have been generated, providing estimates of the energy savings and overheating risk associated with applying areas of Trombe wall to four different house types across the UK built to six notional construction standards. Calculated energy savings range from 183 kWh/m2/year for an 8 m2 system retrofitted to a solid walled detached house to 62 kWh/m2/year for a 32 m2 system retrofitted to a super insulated flat. Predicted energy savings from Trombe walls up to 24 m2 are found to exceed the energy savings from external insulation across all house types and constructions. Small areas of Trombe wall can provide a useful energy contribution without creating a significant overheating risk. If larger areas are to be installed, then detailed calculations would be recommended to assess and mitigate potential overheating issues.

  14. Introduction to the DAPPLE Air Pollution Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, S.J.; ApSimon, H.; Colvile, R.N.; Kaur, S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.; Wang, H. [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Royal school of Mines Building, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Rd., South Kensington, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.; Belcher, S.; Dobre, A. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Earley Gate, P.O. Box 243, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Bell, M.; Tate, J. [Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Boddy, J.W.; Smalley, R.J.; Tomlin, A.S. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Britter, R.; Neophytou, M. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington St., Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Cheng, H.; Lawton, T.; Robins, A. [EnFlo, Department of Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Clark, R.; Walsh, P. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Dimitroulopoulou, S. [BRE, Environmental Engineering Centre, Garston, Watford WD25 9XX (United Kingdom); Greally, B.; Knights, A.; Makepeace, A.; Martin, D.; Nickless, G.; Price, C.; Shallcross, D.; Simmonds, P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Neville, S. [Environmental Sciences, Westminster City Council House, Marylebone Rd, London, NW1 5PT (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    The Dispersion of Air Pollution and its Penetration into the Local Environment (DAPPLE) project brings together a multidisciplinary research group that is undertaking field measurements, wind tunnel modelling and computer simulations in order to provide better understanding of the physical processes affecting street and neighbourhood-scale flow of air, traffic and people, and their corresponding interactions with the dispersion of pollutants at street canyon intersections. The street canyon intersection is of interest as it provides the basic case study to demonstrate most of the factors that will apply in a wide range of urban situations. The aims of this paper are to introduce the background of the DAPPLE project, the study design and methodology for data collection, some preliminary results from the first field campaign in central London (28 April-24 May 2003) and the future for this work. Updated information and contact details are available on the web site at http://www.dapple.org.uk.

  15. Airborne asbestos fibre levels in buildings: a summary of UK measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, G J; Jaffrey, S A; Rood, A P

    1989-01-01

    The UK Health and Safety Executive, in conjunction with the Department of the Environment, has carried out a number of surveys of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations in buildings. All samples have been collected on membrane filters and analysed by analytical transmission electron microscopy. Four categories of buildings under normal occupation have been investigated; non-domestic buildings containing sprayed or trowelled asbestos, domestic buildings containing sprayed asbestos or asbestos plaster, buildings with warm air heaters containing asbestos and buildings without asbestos materials. A number of buildings have also been surveyed during and after the removal of asbestos materials. The choice of measurement indices and analytical procedures is reviewed, before measurements are compared in terms of the concentration of asbestos fibres greater than 5 microns long. The decision whether to remove asbestos from occupied buildings is discussed with reference to the associated cost and risk. In the present survey, management of undamaged asbestos appeared preferable to large-scale removal.

  16. What is the prognosis of nitrogen losses from UK soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, T. P.; Worrall, F.; Whelan, M.; Howden, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The UK’s high population density, intensive agriculture and relative short, unimpeded rivers mean that the UK is a known “hotspot” of fluvial nitrogen flux. Furthermore, it is known that the fluvial flux of nitrogen from the UK is increasing. This study estimates the release of nitrate from the UK terrestrial biosphere to understand this rising fluvial flux and i to assess the in-stream losses of nitrate, thusgiving an assessment of the fluvial component of the total nitrogen budget of UK. The approach taken by the study is to use an export coefficient model coupled with a description of mineralisation and immobilisation of nitrogen within soil reserves. The study applies the modelling approach to the whole of the UK from 1925 to 2007 using long term records of: land use (including - agricultural, forestry and urban uses); livestock; human population and atmospheric deposition. The study shows that: i) The flux of nitrate from the UK soils varied from 420 to 1463 Ktonnes N/yr with two peaks in the period since 1925, one in 1944 and one in 1967, the first is caused by mineralisation of soil organic matter following large-scale land use change in the Second World War, and the second is a multifactorial response to land use change and intensification. ii) The current trend in the release from soils is downward whilst the current fluvial flux at the tidal limit is upwards. With the current trends fluvial flux at the tidal limit will be greater than release from the soils of the UK, i.e. there will be net gain across the fluvial network. This apparent gain can be explained by the breakthrough of high nitrate groundwater into surface waters.

  17. Teaching Botanical Identification to Adults: Experiences of the UK Participatory Science Project "Open Air Laboratories"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Bethan C.; Donkin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Taxonomic education and botany are increasingly neglected in schools and universities, leading to a "missed generation" of adults that cannot identify organisms, especially plants. This study pilots three methods for teaching identification of native plant species to forty-three adults engaged in the participatory science project…

  18. PHYSICAL EXCHANGES AT THE AIR-SEA INTERFACE UK-SOLAS Field Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brooks, Ian M.; Yelland, Margaret J.; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Nightingale, Philip D.; Archer, Steve; d'Asaro, Ericic; Beale, Rachael; Beatty, Cory; Blomquist, Byron; Bloom, A. Anthony; Brooks, Barbara J.; Cluderay, John; Coles, David; Dacey, John; DeGrandpre, Michael; Dixon, Jo; Drennan, William M.; Gabriele, Joseph; Goldson, Laura; Hardman-Mountford, Nick; Hill, Martin K.; Horn, Matt; Hsueh, Ping-Chang; Huebert, Barry; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Leighton, Timothy G.; Liddicoat, Malcolm; Lingard, Justin J. N.; McNeil, Craig; McQuaid, James B.; Moat, Ben I.; Moore, Gerald; Neill, Craig; Norris, Sarah J.; O'Doherty, Simon; Pascal, Robin W.; Prytherch, John; Rebozo, Mike; Sahlee, Erik; Salter, Matt; Schuster, Ute; Skjelvan, Ingunn; Slagter, Hans; Smith, Michael H.; Smith, Paul D.; Srokosz, Meric; Stephens, John A.; Taylor, Peter K.; Telszewski, Maciej; Walsh, Roisin; Ward, Brian; Woolf, David K.; Young, Dickon; Zemmelink, Henk

    As part of the U. K. contribution to the international Surface Ocean-Lower Atmosphere Study, a series of three related projects-DOGEE, SEASAW, and HiWASE-undertook experimental studies of the processes controlling the physical exchange of gases and sea spray aerosol at the sea surface. The studies

  19. 12th Air Force > Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force AOR Travel Info News prevnext Slide show 76,410 pounds of food delivered to Haiti 12th Air Force the French Air Force, Colombian Air Force, Pakistan Air Force, Belgian Air Force, Brazilian Air Force

  20. Decision support for risk prioritisation of environmental health hazards in a UK city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Mae; Crabbe, Helen; Close, Rebecca; Studden, Mike; Milojevic, Ai; Leonardi, Giovanni; Fletcher, Tony; Chalabi, Zaid

    2016-03-08

    There is increasing appreciation of the proportion of the health burden that is attributed to modifiable population exposure to environmental health hazards. To manage this avoidable burden in the United Kingdom (UK), government policies and interventions are implemented. In practice, this procedure is interdisciplinary in action and multi-dimensional in context. Here, we demonstrate how Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used as a decision support tool to facilitate priority setting for environmental public health interventions within local authorities. We combine modelling and expert elicitation to gather evidence on the impacts and ranking of interventions. To present the methodology, we consider a hypothetical scenario in a UK city. We use MCDA to evaluate and compare the impact of interventions to reduce the health burden associated with four environmental health hazards and rank them in terms of their overall performance across several criteria. For illustrative purposes, we focus on heavy goods vehicle controls to reduce outdoor air pollution, remediation to control levels of indoor radon, carbon monoxide and fitting alarms, and encouraging cycling to target the obesogenic environment. Regional data was included as model evidence to construct a ratings matrix for the city. When MCDA is performed with uniform weights, the intervention of heavy goods vehicle controls to reduce outdoor air pollution is ranked the highest. Cycling and the obesogenic environment is ranked second. We argue that a MCDA based approach provides a framework to guide environmental public health decision makers. This is demonstrated through an online interactive MCDA tool. We conclude that MCDA is a transparent tool that can be used to compare the impact of alternative interventions on a set of pre-defined criteria. In our illustrative example, we ranked the best intervention across the equally weighted selected criteria out of the four alternatives. Further work is needed

  1. Topgrass. A trial of the suitability of switchgrass and reed canary grass as biofuel crops under UK conditions. 4th interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riche, A.B.

    2004-04-01

    This report summarises the results of the Topgrass project growing miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass at nine UK sites and covers a one year period between the winter harvesting of the plots in 2002/3 and 2003/4. Details are given of the rainfall, air temperature and solar radiation; crop monitoring for pests, diseases and weeds; crop measurements; and a comparison of all sites. Appendices present individual site diaries and individual site operations and costs.

  2. Wisconsin Air Cargo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Air cargo is a key economic lifeline for the communities that have airports. Manufacturers, businesses, hospitals and : other community cornerstone employers depend on air cargo to successfully operate. While there is no doubt that air : cargo repres...

  3. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  4. Air Sensor Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Sensor Toolbox provides information to citizen scientists, researchers and developers interested in learning more about new lower-cost compact air sensor technologies and tools for measuring air quality.

  5. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  6. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  7. Environmental radioactivity in the UK: the airborne geophysical view of dose rate estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamish, David

    2014-01-01

    This study considers UK airborne gamma-ray data obtained through a series of high spatial resolution, low altitude surveys over the past decade. The ground concentrations of the naturally occurring radionuclides Potassium, Thorium and Uranium are converted to air absorbed dose rates and these are used to assess terrestrial exposure levels from both natural and technologically enhanced sources. The high resolution airborne information is also assessed alongside existing knowledge from soil sampling and ground-based measurements of exposure levels. The surveys have sampled an extensive number of the UK lithological bedrock formations and the statistical information provides examples of low dose rate lithologies (the formations that characterise much of southern England) to the highest sustained values associated with granitic terrains. The maximum dose rates (e.g. >300 nGy h −1 ) encountered across the sampled granitic terrains are found to vary by a factor of 2. Excluding granitic terrains, the most spatially extensive dose rates (>50 nGy h −1 ) are found in association with the Mercia Mudstone Group (Triassic argillaceous mudstones) of eastern England. Geological associations between high dose rate and high radon values are also noted. Recent studies of the datasets have revealed the extent of source rock (i.e. bedrock) flux attenuation by soil moisture in conjunction with the density and porosity of the temperate latitude soils found in the UK. The presence or absence of soil cover (and associated presence or absence of attenuation) appears to account for a range of localised variations in the exposure levels encountered. The hypothesis is supported by a study of an extensive combined data set of dose rates obtained from soil sampling and by airborne geophysical survey. With no attenuation factors applied, except those intrinsic to the airborne estimates, a bias to high values of between 10 and 15 nGy h −1 is observed in the soil data. A wide range of

  8. History of UK contribution to astronautics: Politics and government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks CB, Colin

    2009-12-01

    In all developed countries, once it emerged from the amateur era, Space (and especially rocketry) moved on the public agenda because of its potential significance for both the civil and military policies of governments (coupled with its appetite for new money). In the UK the policy treatment of Space broadly paralleled that in other countries until the post-Empire trauma, the burn-out of the White-Hot Technological revolution of Harold Wilson, and the financial crises of the 1970s exhausted the public appetite for large scale publicly funded projects in high technology. The culmination for Space of these pressures came in 1986-1987 when the UK rejected the emerging international consensus and, almost alone, stayed outside the manned space commitments which developed into the International Space Station. In this paper, Colin Hicks will review the UK political developments which led up to the 1986-1987 decision and how the politics and organisation of UK space activity have developed since then to the point where in 2008 a major government review of the UK involvement in manned space was commissioned.

  9. Long-term mercury dynamics in UK soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, E.; Wadsworth, R.A.; Norris, D.A.; Hall, J.R.; Ilyin, I.

    2011-01-01

    A model assuming first-order losses by evasion and leaching was used to evaluate Hg dynamics in UK soils since 1850. Temporal deposition patterns of Hg were constructed from literature information. Inverse modelling indicated that 30% of 898 rural sites receive Hg only from the global circulation, while in 51% of cases local deposition exceeds global. Average estimated deposition is 16 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural soils, 19 μg Hg m -2 a -1 to rural and non-rural soils combined. UK soils currently hold 2490 tonnes of reactive Hg, of which 2140 tonnes are due to anthropogenic deposition, mostly local in origin. Topsoil currently releases 5.1 tonnes of Hg 0 per annum to the atmosphere, about 50% more than the anthropogenic flux. Sorptive retention of Hg in the lower soil exerts a strong control on surface water Hg concentrations. Following decreases in inputs, soil Hg concentrations are predicted to decline over hundreds of years. - Highlights: → Spatial data for mercury in UK soils can be related to past atmospheric deposition. → The residence time of Hg (c. 400 years) depends on gaseous evasion and leaching. → UK soils currently contribute more Hg 0 to the atmosphere than human activities. → Sorption of Hg by deeper soil is a strong control on surface water concentrations. - Atmospherically-deposited anthropogenic mercury, mostly of local origin, has accumulated in UK soils, and is now a significant source of Hg 0 to the global circulation.

  10. Economic Effects of Migration from Poland to the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering that large numbers of the EU-8 immigrants was a strong argument for the Brexit, the objective of this paper is to assess some economic effects of migration from Poland to the UK for both countries. Intensive emigration of the Poles to the UK since 2004 negatively affected Poland’s economic growth in the long run, but it also reduced tensions at the labour market by decreasing the unemployment rate. On the other hand, the increase in Polish immigrants in the UK did not significantly affect economic growth and unemployment rate in the destination country in the short run in the period 2004-2015. A significance influence was observed only in the long run, when the UK economic growth decreased, but the pressures on the labour market significantly reduced. From these empirical findings, some policy recommendations are required for both countries: for Poland, migration policies to promote the return of migrants and more efficient utilization of labour force, while for the UK – shaping a more flexible labour market.

  11. UK strategy for radioactive discharges 2001-2020. Consultation document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    This consultation draft of a strategy for radioactive discharges describes how the United Kingdom (UK) will implement the agreements reached at the 1998 Ministerial meeting of the OSPAR Commission, with regard to radioactive substances. It also provides a policy base for future reviews of discharge authorisations by the regulatory bodies and for strategic planning by the nuclear operators. The strategy sets a framework for radioactive discharges from UK installations over the next twenty years. Its aims are: progressive and substantial reductions in radioactive discharges from the UK as a whole and from each of the main sectors responsible for such discharges; progressive reduction of human exposure to ionising radiation resulting from radioactive discharges, so that no member of the general public in the UK will be exposed to a dose of more than 0.02 mSv a year, as a result of authorised radioactive discharges made from 2020 onwards; progressive reductions in concentrations of radionuclides in the marine environment resulting from radioactive discharges, such that by 2020 they add close to zero to historic levels. The scope of the UK strategy encompasses radioactive discharges from nuclear licensed sites, defence activities and other nuclear and non-nuclear sources of radioactive discharges. It covers both liquid and aerial discharges, although it is assumed that in general liquid discharges will have the largest and most measurable effects in the marine environment

  12. Motivation Types and Mental Health of UK Hospitality Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotera, Yasuhiro; Adhikari, Prateek; Van Gordon, William

    2018-01-01

    The primary purposes of this study were to (i) assess levels of different types of work motivation in a sample of UK hospitality workers and make a cross-cultural comparison with Chinese counterparts and (ii) identify how work motivation and shame-based attitudes towards mental health explain the variance in mental health problems in UK hospitality workers. One hundred three UK hospitality workers completed self-report measures, and correlation and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify significant relationships. Findings demonstrate that internal and external motivation levels were higher in UK versus Chinese hospitality workers. Furthermore, external motivation was more significantly associated with shame and mental health problems compared to internal motivation. Motivation accounted for 34-50% of mental health problems. This is the first study to explore the relationship between motivation, shame, and mental health in UK hospitality workers. Findings suggest that augmenting internal motivation may be a novel means of addressing mental health problems in this worker population.

  13. Local policies for DSM: the UK's home energy conservation act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Leach, M.

    2000-01-01

    Residential energy use accounts for approximately 28 per cent of total primary energy use in the UK, with consumption in this sector forecast to increase due partly to expanding numbers of households. Finding ways to reduce residential energy consumption must form a key part of the climate change strategies of the UK and all developed countries. In 1995, an innovative piece of legislation was passed in the UK, devolving residential energy efficiency responsibility to local government. Under 'The Home Energy Conservation Act' (HECA), local authorities are obliged to consider the energy efficiency of private as well as public housing stock. Authorities were given a duty to produce a strategy for improving residential energy efficiency in their area by 30 per cent in the next 10-15 years. This paper describes the enormous variation in the quality of local authorities' strategies and discusses reasons for this variation. Based on a nationwide survey of HECA lead officers, it considers the opportunities and constraints facing local authorities, and what has been achieved to-date under the Act. It also examines how HECA fits into the UK's national energy policy and explains the roles of other institutions across the public, private and voluntary sector in facilitating implementation of the Act. Finally, the paper considers how other countries can learn from the UK's HECA experience and can use the Act as a template to apply the principle of subsidiarity to this area of environmental policy. (Author)

  14. Financing the UK power sector: Is the money available?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blyth, William; McCarthy, Rory; Gross, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The UK power generation sector faces a major new round of investment: the coincidence of asset retiring and ambitious goals for decarbonisation is not unique, but is particularly acute in the UK. The UK government has put in place a raft of new policies that seek to promote new, low carbon investment and ensure security of supply. The traditional channel for financing the sector has been through large utility companies, but this now looks challenging for various reasons. The UK therefore offers an interesting case study on several counts; the scale of the challenge, effectiveness of new policies, and the availability of alternative finance. We find that the link between the finance sector and the electricity sector is not ‘broken’, but the flow of money to the sector is threatened by the current weakness of the utilities’ business model. This paper compares estimates of the scale of investment required in the UK with historical investment rates. It summarises contemporary finance industry views of conditions and trends, and potential policy interventions that might be needed to bridge the investment gap. The potential for channelling institutional investor funds directly into energy assets is reviewed. - Highlights: • Power investment need to scale up compared to historical trends, but is achievable. • Traditionally, low-cost finance has been through bonds and shares of large utilities. • Utilities are suffering high debt, reduced demand, and suppressed prices. • Policy interventions to scale-up investment are reviewed.

  15. 60 years of UK visibility measurements: impact of meteorology and atmospheric pollutants on visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajit; Bloss, William J.; Pope, Francis D.

    2017-02-01

    Reduced visibility is an indicator of poor air quality. Moreover, degradation in visibility can be hazardous to human safety; for example, low visibility can lead to road, rail, sea and air accidents. In this paper, we explore the combined influence of atmospheric aerosol particle and gas characteristics, and meteorology, on long-term visibility. We use visibility data from eight meteorological stations, situated in the UK, which have been running since the 1950s. The site locations include urban, rural and marine environments. Most stations show a long-term trend of increasing visibility, which is indicative of reductions in air pollution, especially in urban areas. Additionally, the visibility at all sites shows a very clear dependence on relative humidity, indicating the importance of aerosol hygroscopicity on the ability of aerosol particles to scatter radiation. The dependence of visibility on other meteorological parameters, such as wind speed and wind direction, is also investigated. Most stations show long-term increases in temperature which can be ascribed to climate change, land-use changes (e.g. urban heat island effects) or a combination of both; the observed effect is greatest in urban areas. The impact of this temperature change upon local relative humidity is discussed. To explain the long-term visibility trends and their dependence on meteorological conditions, the measured data were fitted to a newly developed light-extinction model to generate predictions of historic aerosol and gas scattering and absorbing properties. In general, an excellent fit was achieved between measured and modelled visibility for all eight sites. The model incorporates parameterizations of aerosol hygroscopicity, particle concentration, particle scattering, and particle and gas absorption. This new model should be applicable and is easily transferrable to other data sets worldwide. Hence, historical visibility data can be used to assess trends in aerosol particle

  16. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  17. AirPEx: Air Pollution Exposure Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van; LBO

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The

  18. Comments on 'The effects of air humidity on ionisation chamber response'; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C.K.; Rogers, D.W.O.; Meger, C.M.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Pearson, D.W.; Attix, F.H.; Venci, R.

    1988-01-01

    A criticism of recent work on the effect of air humidity on ionization chamber response in 60 Co beams is given. A supplementary comment by the authors admits to an error in the calculation of the linear stopping power for humid air. Other differences between the recent work and previous studies are argued to be reasonably consistent within the very difficult experimental measurements involved. (U.K.)

  19. The UK Human Genome Mapping Project online computing service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, F R; Bishop, M J; Gibbs, G P; Williams, G W

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of computing and networking facilities developed by the Medical Research Council to provide online computing support to the Human Genome Mapping Project (HGMP) in the UK. The facility is connected to a number of other computing facilities in various centres of genetics and molecular biology research excellence, either directly via high-speed links or through national and international wide-area networks. The paper describes the design and implementation of the current system, a 'client/server' network of Sun, IBM, DEC and Apple servers, gateways and workstations. A short outline of online computing services currently delivered by this system to the UK human genetics research community is also provided. More information about the services and their availability could be obtained by a direct approach to the UK HGMP-RC.

  20. Nuclear merchant ship propulsion. The present status in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    The latest report of the Nuclear Ship Stearing Group which deals with three important aspects; economic assessments, international safety and operating procedures for nuclear ships, and the industrial capability of the UK shipbuilding and nuclear industries, is discussed. The integral design concept for a pressurised water reactor for use as a marine reactor is considered. The operational safety aspects of such reactors and of the attendant refuelling facilities are discussed. U.K. capability in the whole nuclear merchant ship propulsion project is considered; reference being made to the design and construction of small PWR reactors, the development, design and supply of the nuclear propulsion unit, financial aspects, and the requirement for cooperation between industrial interests and governmental research units. (U.K.)

  1. UK Hazard Assessment for a Laki-type Volcanic Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Claire; Felton, Chris; Daud, Sophie; Aspinall, Willy; Braban, Christine; Loughlin, Sue; Hort, Matthew; Schmidt, Anja; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    Following the impacts of the Eyjafjallajokull eruption in 2010, two types of volcanic eruption have been added to the UK Government's National Risk Register for Civil Emergencies. One of these, a large gas-rich volcanic eruption, was identified as a high impact natural hazard, one of the three highest priority natural hazards faced by the UK. This eruption scenario is typified by the Laki eruption in Iceland in 1783-1784. The Civil Contingency Secretariat (CCS) of the UK's Cabinet Office, responsible for Civil Protection in the UK, has since been working on quantifying the risk and better understanding its potential impacts. This involves cross-cutting work across UK Government departments and the wider scientific community in order to identify the capabilities needed to respond to an effusive eruption, to exercise the response and develop increased resilience where possible. As part of its current work, CCS has been working closely with the UK Met Office and other UK agencies and academics (represented by the co-authors and others) to generate and assess the impacts of a 'reasonable worst case scenario', which can be used for decision making and preparation in advance of an eruption. Information from the literature and the findings of an expert elicitation have been synthesised to determine appropriate eruption source term parameters and associated uncertainties. This scenario is then being used to create a limited ensemble of model simulations of the dispersion and chemical conversion of the emissions of volcanic gases during such an eruption. The UK Met Office's NAME Lagrangian dispersion model and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology's EMEP4UK Eulerian model are both being used. Modelling outputs will address the likelihood of near-surface concentrations of sulphur and halogen species being above specified health thresholds. Concentrations at aviation relevant altitudes will also be evaluated, as well as the effects of acid deposition of volcanic species on

  2. The future of UK/Irish surgery: A European solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzgalis, M; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) and Republic of Ireland (ROI) hospital systems are dependent on junior doctors for their functionality however it is increasingly difficult to recruit UK/ROI trained doctors to fill these posts. Directive 2005/36/EC, which came into force in 2007, is the principal European legislation on the recognition of equivalence of professional qualifications across Europe. European trained doctors are therefore attractive candidates for junior doctor posts. However, although their training is recognised as equivalent by the Irish Medical Council (IMC) and General Medical Council (GMC) they are not being appointed to equivalent posts by the Health Service Executive (HSE) or National Health Service (NHS). With the influence of European Union (EU) centralisation, modification of UK/ROI consultant grade is imminent, possibly to pyramidal structure of the Continental European model with clearer lines of corporate responsibility. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolving trauma and orthopedics training in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaparthy, Praveen K; Sayana, Murali K; Maffulli, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    The ever-growing population of the UK has resulted in increasing demands on its healthcare service. Changes have been introduced in the UK medical training system to avoid loss of training time and make it more focused and productive. Modernizing medical careers (MMC) was introduced in 2005. This promised to reduce the training period for a safe trauma specialist, in trauma and orthopedics, to 10 years. At around the same time, the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) was introduced to reduce the working hours for junior doctors in training, to improve patient safety and also work-life balance of junior doctors. Introduction of the assessment tools from Orthopedic Competency assessment project (OCAP) will help tailor the training according to the needs of the trainee. The aim of this article is to review the changes in the UK orthopedic surgical training over the past two decades. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. UK wants more revenue from North Sea oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-03-09

    The first report from the Committee of Public Accounts of the UK Parliament on North Sea gas and oil has revealed a situation under which the UK Exchequer apparently does not receive cash intake comparable to the Exchequers of other oil producing countries. So important are these findings that some of them are presented so that the industry at large, and particularly those engaged in North Sea exploration and production, will be aware of the UK situation. Recomendations are made that the government should take action substantially to improve the effective tax yield from operations on the continental shelf, and should consider among other methods the possibility of imposing a system of quantity taxation.

  5. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dietary reference values, some meals exceeded SFA and TFA recommendations from just one meal. Takeaway food would be an obvious target to reduce SFA and TFA contents and increase the potential of meeting UK recommendations. Strategies such as reformulation and smaller takeaway portion sizes warrant investigation.

  6. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, J. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Maritime Studies and International Transport

    1999-09-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered.

  7. The environmental management of oil tanker routes in UK waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, J.

    1999-01-01

    The recent Haven, Aegean Sea and Sea Empress incidents have highlighted the need for protective measures against the risks posed by the shipping industry to the UK coast. This is particularly the case in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas. The principal objectives of this paper are to investigate the state of environmental management of tanker traffic in the UK by putting the geography of shipping into its environmental context. Regional traffic levels, accident rates, oil spills, and their potential consequences upon the environment have been summarised via a risk assessment which also considers coastal sensitivity. An assessment of measures available at international level then sets the scene for a review of marine traffic management schemes in operation around the UK. The state of management and its approaches are also discussed and a number of recommendations put forward during marine conferences in the last twelve months are considered

  8. Essentials for profitable coalbed methane production in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creel, J.C.; Rollins, J.B. [Cawley, Gillespie & Associates, Inc. (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The UK coalbed methane industry is now poised for a continuation of its growth. For this potential growth to be realized, coalbed methane production must be profitable for producers. Commercial viability of coalbed methane production in the UK depends on th fulfilment of essential technical, regulatory, and economic conditions. Technically, coalbed methane reservoirs must have an adequate thickness of permeable gas saturated coal. The regulatory environment must offer favorable treatment regarding taxation, royalties, and policies on well spacing, wellsite locations, and market accessibility. Economically, gas prices and initial capital costs must be sufficiently favorable to yield an acceptable rate of return. If these essential conditions can be fulfilled, UK coalbed methane production can be expected to be a commercially viable industry. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Financing nuclear power in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) are responsible for bulk supplies of electricity to the 12 Area Boards responsible for retailing in England and Wales. As such, the Board are responsible for over 90% of total generation in the UK and are therefore the body principally concerned with the financing of nuclear power growth. The author first looks at the problem of financing nuclear power from the point of view of the CEGB. Thereafter the situation in the UK is dealt with more generally and in that section reference is also made to the total call on the UK's resources involved in financing energy growth in general and nuclear power in particular. (author)

  10. Are UK undergraduate Forensic Science degrees fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Charles; Hannis, Marc

    2011-09-01

    In October 2009 Skills for Justice published the social research paper 'Fit for purpose?: Research into the provision of Forensic Science degree programmes in UK Higher Education Institutions.' The research engaged employers representing 95% of UK Forensic Science providers and 79% of UK universities offering Forensic Science or Crime Scene degree programmes. In addition to this, the research collected the views of 430 students studying these degrees. In 2008 there were approximately 9000 people working in the Forensic Science sector in the UK. The research found that the numbers of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees in the UK have more than doubled since 2002-03, from 2191 in to 5664 in 2007-08. Over the same period there were twice as many females as males studying for these degrees. The research concluded that Forensic Science degree programmes offered by UK universities were of a good quality and they provided the student with a positive learning experience but the content was not relevant for Forensic Science employers. This echoed similar research by the former Government Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills on graduates from wider science, technology, engineering and mathematics degree programmes. The research also found that 75% of students studying Forensic Science or Crime Scene degrees expected to have a career in the Forensic Science sector, meaning that ensuring these courses are relevant for employers is a key challenge for universities. This paper reflects on the original research and discusses the implications in light of recent government policy. Copyright © 2011 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Undergraduate teaching in UK general practice: a geographical snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Helen; Rees, Eliot; Gay, Simon P; McKinley, Robert K

    2014-06-01

    Learning in general practice is an essential component of undergraduate medical education; currently, on average, 13% of clinical placements in the UK are in general practice. However, whether general practice can sustainably deliver more undergraduate placements is uncertain. To identify the geographical distribution of undergraduate teaching practices and their distance from the host medical school. National survey of all medical schools in the UK. All 33 UK medical schools were invited to provide the postcodes of their undergraduate teaching practices. These were collated, de-duplicated, and mapped. The distance in kilometres and journey times by car and public transport between each medical school and its teaching practices was estimated using Transport Direct (www.transportdirect.info). The postcodes of every practice in the UK were obtained from the UK's health departments. All 33 UK medical schools responded; 4392 practices contributed to teaching, with a median (minimum-maximum) of 142 (17-385) practices per school. The median (minimum-maximum) distance between a school and a teaching practice was 28 km (0-1421 km), 41 (0:00-23:26) minutes' travel by car and 1 hour 12 (0:00-17:29) minutes' travel by public transport. All teaching practices were accessible by public transport in one school and 90-99% were in a further four schools; 24 schools had >20% of practices that were inaccessible by public transport. The 4392 undergraduate teaching general practices are widely distributed and potentially any practice, no matter how isolated, could contribute to undergraduate education. However, this is, at the price of a considerable travel burden. © British Journal of General Practice 2014.

  12. An experimental chamber simulating the equilibrium between radon and its daughters in mine air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanski, T.; Chruscielewski, W.; Orzechowski, W.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental chamber simulating the equilibrium between radon and its daughters in uranium mine air is described. The apparatus is useful for testing track detectors, air samplers, masks and filters and for determining occupational exposures. Increasing the humidity of the chamber air and increasing the amounts of aerosol injected both increase the values of the equilibrium factor, F. The equilibrium in the chamber air decreases after the aerosol injection but by using controlled pulse injections it was shown that the stability of F could be maintained inside the chamber for 4 hours. Results are also given for the structure of the equilibrium between radon and its daughters Qsub(i)/Q 0 in the chamber air as a function of the chamber air factor F and also for the potential α-energy of unattached products in relation to the total α-potential energy of radon daughter products in the chamber air as a function of factor F. (U.K.)

  13. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 26, Number 1, January-February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    does not involve a giant step for Air Force medical personnel. After all, humanitarian work often motivates young people to enter the health career...and Minimum Standards for Humanitarian Re- sponse ( Rugby , UK: Practical Action Publishing, 2011), http://www.sphereproject.org/. 21. Bret Stephens

  14. UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonenkov, Vasily D.; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Sormunen, Raija T.; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism

  15. Stakeholder involvement facilitates decision making for UK nuclear accident recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C; Burt, R; Nisbet, A F

    2005-01-01

    The importance of major stakeholders participating in the formulation of strategies for maintaining food safety and agricultural production following a nuclear accident has been successfully demonstrated by the UK 'Agriculture and Food Countermeasures Working Group' (AFCWG). The organisation, membership and terms of reference of the group are described. Details are given of the achievements of the AFCWG and its sub-groups, which include agreeing management options that would be included in a recovery handbook for decision-makers in the UK and tackling the disposal of large volumes of contaminated milk, potentially resulting from a nuclear accident.

  16. Future UK markets for stand-alone renewable energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paish, O.

    1999-01-01

    A study to identify and quantify the market for stand-alone renewable energy supplies of power (photovoltaics, wind and micro-hydro electricity systems) was described. The study focused on small systems, generally less than a few kW installed capacity. It was suggested that in the UK, the emphasis on grid-connected renewable energy technologies (RETs) has blurred the fact that it is 'off-grid' renewable systems that can offer more immediate real commercial markets for the renewables business. With the likelihood of a significant increase in demand for renewables world wide over the next ten years, the UK needs to make a special effort to become involved

  17. Food irradiation in the UK and the European Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolston, John E-mail: johnw@isotron.co.uk

    2000-03-01

    Food irradiation in the UK has been authorised since the early 1990s. In principle it is possible to irradiate a wide range of foods for a variety of purposes. In practice food irradiation is virtually non-existent. The structure of food retailing in the UK, a continual stream of food safety scares and a developing public 'crisis of confidence' in the food producer/supply chain have combined to make the future for food irradiation look bleak. The new European Directive on Food Irradiation is unlikely to alter this outlook. (author)

  18. The disposition of civil plutonium in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadnicki, M.J.; Barker, F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper quantifies the likely future stockpile of UK separated plutonium, and reviews current UK policy. The current strategy of storing plutonium oxide powder is shown to be inconsistent with passivity and disposability objectives. Analysis also shows that there is little potential for use on a commercial basis of Mixed-Oxide (MOX) fuel to reduce the stockpile. Four plutonium immobilisation options are defined, with particular reference to non-proliferation goals. The resource costs of implementing these options are quantified, together with the resource costs of a programme of Government-subsidized MOX use. Immobilisation may offer a more cost-effective solution than a MOX fuel route. (author)

  19. UK key performance indicators and quality assurance standards for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Colin J; Thomas Gibson, Siwan; Rutter, Matt D; Baragwanath, Phil; Pullan, Rupert; Feeney, Mark; Haslam, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Colonoscopy should be delivered by endoscopists performing high quality procedures. The British Society of Gastroenterology, the UK Joint Advisory Group on GI Endoscopy, and the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland have developed quality assurance measures and key performance indicators for the delivery of colonoscopy within the UK. This document sets minimal standards for delivery of procedures along with aspirational targets that all endoscopists should aim for. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  1. Recycling experience in the UK - past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has been commercially recycling uranium and developing the technology for the recycle of plutonium from reprocessing of spent fuel for more than two decades. In this article, a spokesman from British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) describes the current experience of recycling in the UK and identifies the remaining technical and strategic elements being implemented to develop fully the recycle of all the products of reprocessing. He also discusses the economic and commercial benefits of using mixed oxide fuels now and in the future. (author)

  2. Food irradiation in the UK and the European Directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolston, John

    2000-01-01

    Food irradiation in the UK has been authorised since the early 1990s. In principle it is possible to irradiate a wide range of foods for a variety of purposes. In practice food irradiation is virtually non-existent. The structure of food retailing in the UK, a continual stream of food safety scares and a developing public 'crisis of confidence' in the food producer/supply chain have combined to make the future for food irradiation look bleak. The new European Directive on Food Irradiation is unlikely to alter this outlook. (author)

  3. The UK Bribery Act: Business Integrity and Whistleblowers

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, I

    2012-01-01

    This article’s main focus is the extent to which the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 and the Guidance Document prepared by the Secretary of State, address- ing the procedures that commercial organizations can put into place to prevent bribery, include whistleblower protection. The article also exam- ines provisions for whistleblower protection in the four anti-corruption conventions that the U.K. has ratified in order to provide the context for a discussion of whistleblower protection in the Bribery Ac...

  4. The UK safeguards R and D support program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, B.H.; Andrew, G.; Tuley, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The UK Safeguards R and D Programme in support of IAEA safeguards was formally initiated in 1981. Funding is provided by HM Government through the Department of Energy, responsibility for managing and carrying out the work being placed in the hands of the UK Atomic Energy Authority The programme covers safeguards in a variety of areas, including reprocessing and enrichment plants, nuclear materials in waste, authentication of facility computer systems, training courses for safeguards inspectors, containment and surveillance, destructive and non-destructive assay techniques and techniques for assessing diversion path analysis. In this paper an overview of the work is presented

  5. Radwaste management in the UK - present status and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, B.

    1991-01-01

    In 1976, the Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, chaired by Lord Flowers, undertook a thorough review of the status of radioactive waste management in the United Kingdom (UK). Its report became the stimulus which launched a new programme of strategic and technical work to establish a total system plan for the processing, storage, transport and disposal of all radioactive wastes in the UK. This article, which describes the evolution of the programme, is the basis of the presentation to the Korean nuclear industry earlier this year by the Deputy Chairman and Chief Executive of AEA Technology. (author)

  6. Saturated and trans-fatty acids in UK takeaway food

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ian Glynn; Blackham, Toni; Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Taylor, Catherine; Ashton, Matthew; Stevenson, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the saturated fatty acid (SFA) and trans-fatty acid (TFA) contents of popular takeaway foods in the UK (including English, pizza, Chinese, Indian and kebab cuisine). Samples of meals were analyzed by an accredited public analyst laboratory for SFA and TFA. The meals were highly variable for SFA and TFA. English and Pizza meals had the highest median amount of SFA with 35.7 g/meal; Kebab meals were high in TFA with up to 5.2 g/meal. When compared to UK dieta...

  7. UK Natural Analogue Coordinating Group: fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, D.; Hooker, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. All of the analogue sites under investigation, both in the U.K. and overseas, are located where elevated uranium concentrations occur naturally. Coordination of the programme is achieved through the UK Natural Analogue Co-ordinating Group (NACG) which has met three times in this reporting period. The NACG is steered by the British Geological Survey. Its purpose is to ensure that the different research projects have an integrated function aimed at increasing our understanding of natural geochemical processes. Effort is also being expended in testing research models which may be used in such assessments. (author)

  8. A field study of the uptake of 35S and 14C into crops characteristic of the UK diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluczewski, S.M.; Bell, J.N.B.; Nair, S.

    1986-02-01

    The uptake of 35 S and 14 C into crops characteristic of the UK diet was studied. Four common types of green vegetable, six common types of root vegetable and perennial ryegrass were grown in a garden plot in the environs of Hinkley Point Nuclear Power Station and the 35 S and 14 C contents of the crops were measured. Also measured were the corresponding air concentrations over the plot averaged over a range of time periods between sowing and harvesting. The results were analysed in terms of air to crop transfer factors for 35 S and 14 C and the implications of these for dose calculations were assessed for both collective dose and for a hypothetical critical group consuming a range of foods produced in situ. (author)

  9. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Students to Environmental Health Information Menu Home Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ... Pollution Indoor Air Pollution Print this Page Air Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution ...

  10. Kajian Analitik Perencanaan Pintu Air Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Air

    OpenAIRE

    Pradoto, Pradoto

    1993-01-01

    Pada pintu air pembangkit listrik tenaga air umumnya dipasang pengauat-penguat (girder). Tujuannya agar pintu air kuat dalam menahan tekanan air. Tekanan air yang diderita oleh pintu air cukup besar karena dipasang pada kedalaman + 50 meter di bawah permukaan air. Permasalahan yang timbul adalah menentukan posisi atau letak girder pada pintu air.

  11. Chinese air pollution embodied in trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid economic development in China has been accompanied by high levels of air pollution in many areas of China. Although researchers have applied a range of methods to monitor and track pollutant emissions in the atmosphere, studies of the underlying economic and technological drivers of this pollution have received considerably less attention. I will present results of a series of studies that have quantified the air pollutants embodied in goods being traded both within China and internationally. The results show that trade is facilitating the concentration of pollution in less economically developed areas, which in turn export pollution-intensive goods to more affluent areas. However, the export-related pollution itself is sometimes transported long distances; for instance, we have quantified the impacts of the Chinese pollution embodied in internationally-exported goods on air quality in the US. These findings important implications for Chinese efforts to curb CO2 emissions and improve air quality. The research to be presented reflects the efforts of a multiple year, ongoing collaboration among interdisciplinary researchers in China, the US and the UK.

  12. The impacts of road traffic management on urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduyemi, K.O.K. [School of Construction and Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Davidson, B. [Department of Environmental Health and Consumer Protection, Dundee City Council, Tayside House, Crichton Street, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-11

    The effects of road traffic emissions on urban air quality are investigated, using long-term nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) data. The effectiveness of the several traffic management measures that have been made in Dundee city centre, UK, within the last 5 years in relation to urban air quality is discussed. The information assessed during this study indicates that the annual mean NO{sub 2} levels at all the study sites are, at present, below the current EC and WHO (long-term) air quality standards for NO{sub 2} concentration in the ambient air. Traffic restrictions appear to be effective in protecting urban air quality. The annual mean NO{sub 2} concentration at two of the study sites is currently close to 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, a value published in the Air Quality Regulations 1997 for the air quality objective to be achieved by the year 2005. Proactive traffic management mitigation measures are proposed for these sites and a methodology for the consideration of traffic management alternatives, based upon traffic flow modal split, is described. Some measures proposed are based upon a survey of vehicle occupancy rates, carried out at the busiest of the four study sites. The methodology and assessment procedures presented should be invaluable to assessors of traffic management and local air quality management in a small city, both at the planning and at the auditing stage

  13. The Availability of Advanced Airway Equipment and Experience with Videolaryngoscopy in the UK: Two UK Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Gill

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibreoptic intubation, high frequency jet ventilation, and videolaryngoscopy form part of the Royal College of Anaesthetists compulsory higher airway training module. Curriculum delivery requires equipment availability and competent trainers. We sought to establish (1 availability of advanced airway equipment in UK hospitals (Survey I and (2 if those interested in airway management (Difficult Airway Society (DAS members had access to videolaryngoscopes, their basic skill levels and teaching competence with these devices and if they believed that videolaryngoscopy was replacing conventional or fibreoptic laryngoscopy (Survey II. Data was obtained from 212 hospitals (73.1% and 554 DAS members (27.6%. Most hospitals (202, 99% owned a fiberscope, 119 (57.5% had a videolaryngoscope, yet only 62 (29.5% had high frequency jet ventilators. DAS members had variable access to videolaryngoscopes with Airtraq 319 (59.6% and Glidescope 176 (32.9% being the most common. More DAS members were happy to teach or use videolaryngoscopes in a difficult airway than those who had used them more than ten times. The majority rated Macintosh laryngoscopy as the most important airway skill. Members rated fibreoptic intubation and videolaryngoscopy skills equally. Our surveys demonstrate widespread availability of fibreoptic scopes, limited availability of videolaryngoscopes, and limited numbers of experienced videolaryngoscope tutors.

  14. The UK waste input-output table: Linking waste generation to the UK economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Al-Tabbaa, Abir; Reynolds, Christian

    2016-10-01

    In order to achieve a circular economy, there must be a greater understanding of the links between economic activity and waste generation. This study introduces the first version of the UK waste input-output table that could be used to quantify both direct and indirect waste arisings across the supply chain. The proposed waste input-output table features 21 industrial sectors and 34 waste types and is for the 2010 time-period. Using the waste input-output table, the study results quantitatively confirm that sectors with a long supply chain (i.e. manufacturing and services sectors) have higher indirect waste generation rates compared with industrial primary sectors (e.g. mining and quarrying) and sectors with a shorter supply chain (e.g. construction). Results also reveal that the construction, mining and quarrying sectors have the highest waste generation rates, 742 and 694 tonne per £1m of final demand, respectively. Owing to the aggregated format of the first version of the waste input-output, the model does not address the relationship between waste generation and recycling activities. Therefore, an updated version of the waste input-output table is expected be developed considering this issue. Consequently, the expanded model would lead to a better understanding of waste and resource flows in the supply chain. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  16. The status of ISI in the UK nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bann, T.; Rogerson, A. [AEA Technology, Risley (United Kingdom). Nuclear NDE Services

    1999-08-01

    This paper reviews the status of in-service inspection (ISI) in UK nuclear power generation industry through the experience of its nuclear utilities. The paper is intended to be a summary of some of the most recent and relevant ISI issues facing the utilities and the solutions devised to address those issues. (orig.)

  17. Safety assessment standards for modern plants in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbison, S.A.; Hannaford, J.

    1993-01-01

    The NII has revised its safety assessment principles (SAPs). This paper discusses the revised SAPs and their links with international standards. It considers the licensing of foreign designs of plant - a matter under active consideration in the UK -and discusses how the SAPs and the licensing process cater for that possibility. (author)

  18. Embracing the UNCRC in Wales (UK): Policy, Pedagogy and Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Most countries are signatories to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). In 1999, the Government of Wales was devolved from the UK, and in 2011 the "Children and Young Persons Rights Measure" put the UNCRC as the basis of all its work. Any programme introduced in schools should therefore promote the UNCRC. To…

  19. Management of School Attendance in the UK: A Strategic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Prior to 1997, managing school attendance was the sole responsibility of the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Since devolution, responsibility for school attendance has resided with each of the four UK-wide administrations. These are the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) in England; the Scottish Executive Education…

  20. L130-million cut to grants hits UK physical scientists

    CERN Multimedia

    Cressey, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    "UK physicists, still reeling from massive funding cuts announced earlier this year, have learnt of worse to come. Roughly L130 million (US$260 million)is being slashed from research grants awarded by the Engineering and Physical Scienes Research Council (EPSRC), it announced on 17 March." (2 pages)

  1. Project SEARCH UK--Evaluating Its Employment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehne, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study reports the findings of an evaluation of Project SEARCH UK. The programme develops internships for young people with intellectual disabilities who are about to leave school or college. The aim of the evaluation was to investigate at what rate Project SEARCH provided employment opportunities to participants. Methods: The…

  2. Kosovan refugees in the UK: the Rolls Royce or rickshaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Bloch

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the different reception and support entitlements offered to spontaneous asylum seekers from Kosovo and their UNHCR programme counterparts, plus the operation of the Kosovo reception programme. It also discusses the Asylum and Immigration Bill and itsimplications for asylum seekers to the UK.

  3. Leveraged Public to Private Transactions in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Simons, T.; Wright, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the magnitude and the sources of the expected shareholder gains in UK public to private transactions (PTPs) in the second wave from 1997-2003.Pre-transaction shareholders on average receive a premium of 40% and the share price reaction to the PTP announcement is about 30%.The

  4. Perceptions of HPV Vaccine amongst UK University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ellen; Senior, Naomi; Abdullah, Ammar; Brown, Janine; Collings, Suzanne; Racktoo, Sophie; Walpole, Sarah; Zeiton, Moez; Heffernan, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this small-scale focus group study is to explore the impact the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has on attitudes towards HPV, cervical cancer and sexual risk taking amongst university students in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on notice boards throughout the…

  5. The UK shielding Forum. Best Practice through consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.; Gunston, K.; Gunston, K.

    2000-01-01

    The UK national shielding Forum has been established to represent all key industry groups in the UK (including the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII), the national regulatory authority). The Forum's aim is to increase awareness and confidence in the range of professional practice within the UK shielding community, with a view to having a coherent and dynamic role within the international shielding community. In the past, no comprehensive representative body covering the whole UK nuclear industry has existed, and the different industry shielding groups have developed local ways of working to address their particular requirements. Inevitably, there are common issues arising from these requirements which benefit from a wider consensus. As a result of the formation of the Forum (initiated by the NII and subsequently chaired by BNFL as an industry key player), expertise, experience and best working practice are now being actively shared between shielding professionals, and there has been a strong and successful drive to achieving consensus on key issues, which is also reflected in the increasing quality of industry-regulator relationships. (author)

  6. The Future of Family Business Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lorna; Seaman, Claire; Graham, Stuart; Stepek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This practitioner paper aims to question basic assumptions about management education and to argue that a new paradigm is needed for UK business schools which embraces an oft neglected, yet economically vital, stakeholder group, namely family businesses. It seeks to pose the question of why we have forgotten to teach about family business…

  7. Lively Bureaucracy? The ESRC's Doctoral Training Centres and UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Ingrid; McAlpine, Lynn; Mills, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the changing relationships between the UK government, its research councils and universities, focusing on the governing, funding and organisation of doctoral training. We use the Doctoral Training Centres (DTCs) funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) as a prism through which to study the shifting nature of…

  8. Paokil uks ja 13 noort hinge / Pille-Riin Purje

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Purje, Pille-Riin, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    12. mail esietendus Eesti Riiklikus Nukuteatris noortestuudio debüütlavastus "Kolmteist + uks" L. Knutzoni näidendi "Kõigepealt sa sünnid" põhjal, lavastaja R. Toots, muusikaline kujundaja J. Kreen, liikumine E. Ülevainult

  9. Electronographic calibration of UK 1.2-m Schmidt plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Two electronographic sequences are given in the South Galactic Pole region down to msub(B) = approximately 23 +- 0.3 mag. These sequences are used to obtain a calibration for COSMOS measures of UK 1.2-m Schmidt plates and evaluate their photometric transfer properties. (author)

  10. New Dimensions for Manufacturing: A UK Strategy for Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Semiconductors, Peratech, BP (Sunbury), Pfizer, Kodak, Unilever , Carpenter Technology, and Morgan-Matroc. Opinion is divided over whether companies based in the...14 Part 1: Background ...economy, even including companies in areas such as pharmaceuticals and chemicals where the UK still has a strong position. The likely extent of the

  11. Functions of Turkish complementary schools in the UK: Official vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complementary schools in the United Kingdom (UK) are community organised schools with the general aim of teaching younger generations their 'native' languages and cultures. However, the aims and practices of these schools are predominantly dependent on changes in the social and political contexts both in the host ...

  12. Engineering Careers in the UK: Still Not What Women Want?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Liz; Hamill, Les

    2006-01-01

    Of all professions, engineering is ranked near the bottom in the UK in terms of the proportion of female applicants for university places, so the engineering industry is missing out on some of the best young talent available. Despite initiatives to increase the number of women entering engineering, there has been little change over the last…

  13. Empowering sustainable niches: Comparing UK and Dutch offshore wind developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Florian; Verhees, Bram; Raven, Rob; Smith, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Offshore wind has been positioned as a promising technology that could play a major role in moving towards more sustainable energy systems, but deployment varies significantly across countries. This article aims to explain the contrast between the boom in the UK versus stagnation in The

  14. LGBT refugee protection in the UK: from discretion to belief?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Gray

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The UK government used to have no specific guidance or trainingfor decision-makers for claims brought on the grounds of sexualorientation. It was only in 2010 following a combination of judicial,civil society and political pressures that specific policy guidance wasspeedily issued and significant progress was seen.

  15. The Global Economic Cost of Osteoarthritis: How the UK Compares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine all relevant literature on the economic costs of osteoarthritis in the UK, and to compare such costs globally. Methods. A search of MEDLINE was performed. The search was expanded beyond peer-reviewed journals into publications by the department of health, national orthopaedic associations, national authorities and registries, and arthritis charities. Results. No UK studies were identified in the literature search. 3 European, 6 North American, and 2 Asian studies were reviewed. Significant variation in direct and indirect costs were seen in these studies. Costs for topical and oral NSAIDs were estimated to be £19.2 million and £25.65 million, respectively. Cost of hip and knee replacements was estimated to exceed £850 million, arthroscopic surgery for osteoarthritis was estimated to be £1.34 million. Indirect costs from OA caused a loss of economic production over £3.2 billion, £43 million was spent on community services and £215 million on social services for osteoarthritis. Conclusions. While estimates of economic costs can be made using information from non-published data, there remains a lack of original research looking at the direct or indirect costs of osteoarthritis in the UK. Differing methodology in calculating costs from overseas studies makes direct comparison with the UK difficult.

  16. Performance Management in UK Universities: Implementing the Balanced Scorecard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John; Baines, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, UK universities have become increasingly concerned with performance management. This trend reflects both growing competition and marketisation within higher education, and the increasing requirements for accountability. In response, institutions have begun to explore the application of formal methodologies for performance…

  17. Do UK Universities Communicate Their Brands Effectively through Their Websites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleo, Chris; Duran, Maria Victoria Carrillo; Diaz, Ana Castillo

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to explore the effectiveness of UK universities' websites. The area of branding in higher education has received increasing academic investigation, but little work has researched how universities demonstrate their brand promises through their websites. The quest to differentiate through branding can be challenging in the…

  18. The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The Big Bang: UK Young Scientists' and Engineers' Fair is an annual three-day event designed to promote science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) careers to young people aged 7-19 through experiential learning. It is supported by stakeholders from business and industry, government and the community, and brings together people from various…

  19. Automated Mobility Transitions: Governing Processes in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Hopkins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary systems of mobility are undergoing a transition towards automation. In the UK, this transition is being led by (often new partnerships between incumbent manufacturers and new entrants, in collaboration with national governments, local/regional councils, and research institutions. This paper first offers a framework for analyzing the governance of the transition, adapting ideas from the Transition Management (TM perspective, and then applies the framework to ongoing automated vehicle transition dynamics in the UK. The empirical analysis suggests that the UK has adopted a reasonably comprehensive approach to the governing of automated vehicle innovation but that this approach cannot be characterized as sufficiently inclusive, democratic, diverse and open. The lack of inclusivity, democracy, diversity and openness is symptomatic of the post-political character of how the UK’s automated mobility transition is being governed. The paper ends with a call for a reconfiguration of the automated vehicle transition in the UK and beyond, so that much more space is created for dissent and for reflexive and comprehensive big picture thinking on (automated mobility futures.

  20. "Vaikne ja rahulik öö uks..." : [luuletused] / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: "Vaikne ja rahulik öö uks..." ; "Lehehundlane kõnnib mööda kõrt..." ; "Zhuangzi kutsub oma surivoodile liblikaid..." ; "Võõras linnas..." ; "Kohe nüüd..." ; "Juba nad tunglevad leti ees..." : "Laste hääled tänaval..." ; "Metsikult..."

  1. The role of gas infrastructure in promoting UK energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skea, Jim; Chaudry, Modassar; Wang Xinxin

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers whether commercially driven investment in gas infrastructure is sufficient to provide security of gas supply or whether strategic investment encouraged by government is desirable. The paper focuses on the UK in the wider EU context. A modelling analysis of the impact of disruptions, lasting from days to months, at the UK's largest piece of gas infrastructure is at the heart of the paper. The disruptions are hypothesised to take place in the mid-2020s, after the current wave of commercial investments in storage and LNG import facilities has worked its way through. The paper also analyses the current role of gas in energy markets, reviews past disruptions to gas supplies, highlights current patterns of commercial investment in gas infrastructure in the UK and assesses the implications of recent EU legislation on security of gas supply. The paper concludes with an analysis of the desirability of strategic investment in gas infrastructure. - Highlights: ► We examine the impact of disruptions to gas supplies on UK energy markets. ► The policy implications of the EU regulation on gas security are discussed. ► We investigate the role of gas infrastructure investment in mitigating gas shocks. ► The policy case for strategic investment in gas storage is assessed.

  2. Lock-In Agreements in Venture Capital Backed UK IPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espenlaub, S.; Goergen, M.; Khurshed, A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of venture-capital backing of UK companies issuing shares at flotation on the characteristics of the lock-in agreements entered into by the existing shareholders, and on the abnormal returns realised around the expiry of the directors' lock-in agreements.The study

  3. Energy UK 1986. An economic, social and policy audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A; Gretton, J [eds.

    1986-01-01

    In a yearbook on energy in the UK with emphasis on economic, social and policy issues, eleven articles are presented of which nine were selected and indexed separately. The topics covered include energy forecasting, energy conservation, its balance with respect to supply investment, government relationships with fuel industries, fuel poverty, acid rain and efficiency studies of the electricity supply industry.

  4. Learning the Price of Poverty across the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivinson, Gabrielle; Thompson, Ian; Beckett, Lori; Egan, David; Leitch, Ruth; McKinney, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    In 2016, the British Educational Research Association (BERA) Commission on Poverty and Policy Advocacy brought together several academics from across the four jurisdictions of the UK already engaged in work on poverty, education and schooling. The aim of this BERA Commission was to build a network of research-active practitioners across the UK…

  5. UK Higher Education Institutions and the Third Stream Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Stephen; Bagley, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses upon the adoption and implementation of United Kingdom government support for third stream business-facing activities in UK higher education institutions (HEIs). The article, concerned with income generation and the creation and application of knowledge beyond the confines of the academy, draws on policy literature and…

  6. Refugee Children in the UK. Education in an Urbanised Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Jill

    2006-01-01

    Asylum migration causes intense media and political debate. However, little attention has been paid to how forced migrants can rebuild their lives in the UK or elsewhere. This timely book analyzes the social policies that impact on refugee children's education, and: (1) Provides the background to the migration of refugees; (2) Explores how…

  7. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  8. UK parliamentary debate analysis: bombing ISIL in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments presented for and against the UK government's motion for the UK to intervene militarily in Syria in the House of Commons debate on ISIL in Syria that took place on 2 December 2015. It considers what the most common arguments were in favour of and in opposition to the motion as well as which arguments were given the most emphasis, in order to understand the prime justifications given that led to the decision to approve the motion. It suggests that due to the shadow of the 2003 Iraq war, politicians in the debate placed a considerable emphasis on the legal justification for military intervention. It argues that the focus on the national security of the UK and its allies in this particular debate seems to contrast with previous military interventions where humanitarian motives were more widely stated. This paper calls for further comparative research of parliamentary debates in order to track such changes in the rhetoric used by UK politicians to defend their support for military intervention.

  9. Summary Report: U.S.- UK Integration in Helmand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    from tactical hands-on training at the checkpoint level to mentoring at the company , battalion, or district police headquarters levels was also not...8  An integrated U.S.-UK operational headquarters , RC(SW) ............................................ 8  Aviation... headquarters ....................................... 16  Leveraging complementary capabilities

  10. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac. L'Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac finance la recherche novatrice sur les politiques fiscales qui appuient la lutte antitabac dans les pays à faible revenu ...

  11. East African refugees adapting to life in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bekalo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the first-hand life experiences of refugees ofEast/Horn of Africa origin on arrival in the UK. The experiences – someof which could be seen as humorous or sad – may be informative andrelevant for other practitioners.

  12. Creating Cultures of Integrity: Ethics Education in UK Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emma; Caulfield, Paul; Hibbert, Paul; Jennings, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals and responses by regulators have created an environment in which there is a heightened awareness of business ethics. This report presents a series of case studies exploring how the current curricula in UK business schools could be scoped differently to give new business leaders the tools required for strong ethical…

  13. Developing Competence Frameworks in UK Healthcare: Lessons from Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lindsay; Boak, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to review the use of competence frameworks in the UK healthcare sector and to explore characteristics of the sector that may influence the success of projects to develop new frameworks. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on project reports and evaluations of practice in a range of recent projects…

  14. UK Higher Education Viewed through the Marketization and Marketing Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedbalová, Eva; Greenacre, Luke; Schulz, John

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the Economic Market mechanisms and the 4P Marketing Mix as lenses to review the context of UK higher education (HE) and to explore the relationship between the market and marketing disciplines and practice. Four Economic Market mechanisms--autonomy, competition, price and information--are contrasted with the four Ps of marketing:…

  15. The UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshop Programme...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albone, Eric; Okano, Toru

    2012-01-01

    The authors have been running UK-Japan Young Scientist Workshops at universities in Britain and Japan since 2001: for the past three years in England with Cambridge University and, last year, also with Kyoto University and Kyoto University of Education. For many years they have worked jointly with colleagues in a group of Super Science High…

  16. Maturity and Interculturality: Chinese Students' Experiences in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Increasing global competition for students has witnessed an ever more rapid internationalisation of higher education. In the case of the UK, there has been a major influx of Chinese students to British universities since the launch of the British Government's long-term worldwide educational campaign in 1999. Drawing upon evidence from an extensive…

  17. Trends in occupational exposure within the UK civil nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    The UK civil nuclear industry was established in the 1950s and workers in the industry have received occupational radiation exposures since that time. Data on occupational exposures over this period show a reduction in annual doses. This trend was initiated by more restrictive statutory dose limitation requirements, and was achieved by greater emphasis on radiation protection methods. (Author)

  18. The role of fire in UK peatland and moorland management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, G.M.; Kettridge, Nicholas; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Gray, Alan; Ascoli, Davide; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Marrs, Rob; Allen, Katherine A.; Doerr, Stefan H.; Clay, Gareth D.; McMorrow, Julia; Vandvik, Vigdis

    2016-01-01

    Fire has been used for centuries to generate and manage some of the UK’s cultural landscapes. Despite its complex role in the ecology of UK peatlands and moorlands, there has been a trend of simplifying the narrative around burning to present it as an only ecologically damaging practice. That

  19. Civic Engagement and the Arts and Humanities: A UK Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Higher education in the UK is in a state of flux and this is having particular impact on the humanities. On the one hand, the pressure to support a STEM agenda is seen by some as forcing higher education down a narrow economic agenda, while government requirements for assessing the social and economic impact of research have raised concerns about…

  20. The End of the Botany Degree in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The last student enrolled in a pure "Botany" degree in the UK began in the University of Bristol this year, 2010. In recent years only the University of Reading also offered the Botany degree, before it was dropped there 3 years ago. This short article is written to draw attention to this fact and to a more general relative decline in…