WorldWideScience

Sample records for uf physics undergraduate

  1. Health physics considerations in UF{sub 6} handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.C. [Norway Assoicates, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Uranium is a radioactive substance that emits alpha particles and very small amounts of gamma radiation. Its daughter products emit beta and gamma radiation. In uranium handling operations these are the radiations one must consider. This presentation will review the characteristics of the radiations, the isotopes from which they originate, the growth and decay of the uranium daughter products, and some specific health physics practices dictated by these factors.

  2. Mechanics problems in undergraduate physics

    CERN Document Server

    Strelkov, S P

    2013-01-01

    Problems in Undergraduate Physics, Volume I: Mechanics focuses on solutions to problems in physics. The book first discusses the fundamental problems in physics. Topics include laws of conservation of momentum and energy; dynamics of a point particle in circular motion; dynamics of a rotating rigid body; hydrostatics and aerostatics; and acoustics. The text also offers information on solutions to problems in physics. Answers to problems in kinematics, statics, gravity, elastic deformations, vibrations, and hydrostatics and aerostatics are discussed. Solutions to problems related to the laws of

  3. Physical activity level among undergraduate students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity level among undergraduate students in Terengganu, Malaysia using pedometer. N.A.M. Yusoff, S Ganeson, K.F. Ismail, H Juahir, M.R. Shahril, L.P. Lin, A Ahmad, S.W. Wafa, S Harith, R Rajikan ...

  4. Undergraduate physics laboratory: Electrophoresis in chromatography paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Alexander; Batishchev, Oleg

    2015-12-01

    An experiment studying the physical principles of electrophoresis in liquids was developed for an undergraduate laboratory. We have improved upon the standard agarose gel electrophoresis experimental regime with a straightforward and cost-effective procedure, in which drops of widely available black food coloring were separated by electric field into their dye components on strips of chromatography paper soaked in a baking soda/water solution. Terminal velocities of seven student-safe dyes were measured as a function of the electric potential applied along the strips. The molecular mobility was introduced and calculated by analyzing data for a single dye. Sources of systematic and random errors were investigated.

  5. Building Undergraduate Physics Programs for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilborn, Robert

    2001-04-01

    Undergraduate physics programs in the United States are under stress because of changes in the scientific and educational environment in which they operate. The number of undergraduate physics majors is declining nationwide; there is some evidence that the "best" undergraduate students are choosing majors other than physics, and funding agencies seem to be emphasizing K-12 education. How can physics departments respond creatively and constructively to these changes? After describing some of the details of the current environment, I will discuss the activities of the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, supported by the American Institute of Physics, the America Physical Society, the American Association of Physics Teachers and the ExxonMobil Foundation. I will also present some analysis of Task Force site visits to departments that have thriving undergraduate physics programs, pointing out the key features that seem to be necessary for success. Among these features are department-wide recruitment and retention efforts that are the theme of this session.

  6. Reactor physics computations for nuclear engineering undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The undergraduate program in nuclear engineering at the University of Cincinnati provides three-quarters of nuclear reactor theory that concentrate on physical principles, with calculations limited to those that can be conveniently completed on programmable calculators. An additional one-quarter course is designed to introduce the student to realistic core physics calculational methods, which necessarily requires a computer. Such calculations can be conveniently demonstrated and completed with the modern microcomputer. The one-quarter reactor computations course includes a one-group, one-dimensional diffusion code to introduce the concepts of inner and outer iterations, a cell spectrum code based on integral transport theory to generate cell-homogenized few-group cross sections, and a multigroup diffusion code to determine multiplication factors and power distributions in one-dimensional systems. Problem assignments include the determination of multiplication factors and flux distributions for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores under various operating conditions, such as cold clean, hot clean, hot clean at full power, hot full power with xenon and samarium, and a boron concentration search. Moderator and Doppler coefficients can also be evaluated and examined

  7. Physics in ;Real Life;: Accelerator-based Research with Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klay, J. L.

    All undergraduates in physics and astronomy should have access to significant research experiences. When given the opportunity to tackle challenging open-ended problems outside the classroom, students build their problem-solving skills in ways that better prepare them for the workplace or future research in graduate school. Accelerator-based research on fundamental nuclear and particle physics can provide a myriad of opportunities for undergraduate involvement in hardware and software development as well as ;big data; analysis. The collaborative nature of large experiments exposes students to scientists of every culture and helps them begin to build their professional network even before they graduate. This paper presents an overview of my experiences - the good, the bad, and the ugly - engaging undergraduates in particle and nuclear physics research at the CERN Large Hadron Collider and the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center.

  8. Introduction to Computational Physics for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairi, Omair; Weber, Fridolin

    2018-03-01

    This is an introductory textbook on computational methods and techniques intended for undergraduates at the sophomore or junior level in the fields of science, mathematics, and engineering. It provides an introduction to programming languages such as FORTRAN 90/95/2000 and covers numerical techniques such as differentiation, integration, root finding, and data fitting. The textbook also entails the use of the Linux/Unix operating system and other relevant software such as plotting programs, text editors, and mark up languages such as LaTeX. It includes multiple homework assignments.

  9. Analysis of graphical representation among freshmen in undergraduate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, A. S.; Anggrayni, S.; Kholiq, A.; Putri, N. P.; Suprapto, N.

    2018-03-01

    Physics concept understanding is the importance of the physics laboratory among freshmen in the undergraduate program. These include the ability to interpret the meaning of the graph to make an appropriate conclusion. This particular study analyses the graphical representation among freshmen in an undergraduate physics laboratory. This study uses empirical study with quantitative approach. The graphical representation covers 3 physics topics: velocity of sound, simple pendulum and spring system. The result of this study shows most of the freshmen (90% of the sample) make a graph based on the data from physics laboratory. It means the transferring process of raw data which illustrated in the table to physics graph can be categorised. Most of the Freshmen use the proportional principle of the variable in graph analysis. However, Freshmen can't make the graph in an appropriate variable to gain more information and can't analyse the graph to obtain the useful information from the slope.

  10. Time and space: undergraduate Mexican physics in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Antonia

    2010-09-01

    This is an ethnographic study of the trajectories and itineraries of undergraduate physics students at a Mexican university. In this work learning is understood as being able to move oneself and, other things (cultural tools), through the space-time networks of a discipline (Nespor in Knowledge in motion: space, time and curriculum in undergraduate physics and management. Routledge Farmer, London, 1994). The potential of this socio-cultural perspective allows an analysis of how students are connected through extended spaces and times with an international core discipline as well as with cultural features related to local networks of power and construction. Through an example, I show that, from an actor-network-theory (Latour in Science in action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1987), that in order to understand the complexities of undergraduate physics processes of learning you have to break classroom walls and take into account students' movements through complex spatial and temporal traces of the discipline of physics. Mexican professors do not give classes following one textbook but in a moment-to-moment open dynamism tending to include undergraduate students as actors in classroom events extending the teaching space-time of the classroom to the disciplinary research work of physics. I also find that Mexican undergraduate students show initiative and display some autonomy and power in the construction of their itineraries as they are encouraged to examine a variety of sources including contemporary research articles, unsolved physics problems, and even to participate in several physicists' spaces, as for example being speakers at the national congresses of physics. Their itineraries also open up new spaces of cultural and social practices, creating more extensive networks beyond those associated with a discipline. Some economic, historical and cultural contextual features of this school of sciences are analyzed in order to help understanding the particular

  11. Greek Undergraduate Physical Education Students' Basic Computer Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamakis, Manolis; Zounhia, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine how undergraduate physical education (PE) students feel about their level of competence concerning basic computer skills and to examine possible differences between groups (gender, specialization, high school graduation type, and high school direction). Although many students and educators believe…

  12. Social cognitive perspective of gender disparities in undergraduate physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angela M.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article synthesizes sociopsychological theories and empirical research to establish a framework for exploring causal pathways and targeted interventions for the low representation of women in post-secondary physics. The rationale for this article is based upon disproportionate representation among undergraduate physics majors in the United States; women earned only 19.7% of physics undergraduate degrees in 2012. This disparity has been attributed to a variety of factors, including unwelcoming classroom atmospheres, low confidence and self-efficacy, and few female role models in physics academic communities. Recent empirical studies have suggested gender disparities in physics and related STEM fields may be more amenable to social cognitive interventions than previously thought. Social psychologists have found that women improved physics self-concept when adopting a malleable view of intelligence, when they received support and encouragement from family and teachers, and when they experienced interactive learning techniques in communal environments. By exploring research-based evidence for strategies to support women in physics, precollege and university faculty and administrators may apply social cognitive constructs to improve the representation of women in the field.

  13. Social cognitive perspective of gender disparities in undergraduate physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Kelly

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article synthesizes sociopsychological theories and empirical research to establish a framework for exploring causal pathways and targeted interventions for the low representation of women in post-secondary physics. The rationale for this article is based upon disproportionate representation among undergraduate physics majors in the United States; women earned only 19.7% of physics undergraduate degrees in 2012. This disparity has been attributed to a variety of factors, including unwelcoming classroom atmospheres, low confidence and self-efficacy, and few female role models in physics academic communities. Recent empirical studies have suggested gender disparities in physics and related STEM fields may be more amenable to social cognitive interventions than previously thought. Social psychologists have found that women improved physics self-concept when adopting a malleable view of intelligence, when they received support and encouragement from family and teachers, and when they experienced interactive learning techniques in communal environments. By exploring research-based evidence for strategies to support women in physics, precollege and university faculty and administrators may apply social cognitive constructs to improve the representation of women in the field.

  14. Undergraduate Physics Course Innovations and Their Impact on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Heidi L.; Briggs, Derek C.; Ruiz-Primo, Maria A.; Talbot, Robert M.; Shepard, Lorrie A.

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents results of an NSF project in which the goal is to provide a synthesis of research on instructional innovations that have been implemented in undergraduate courses in physics. The research questions guiding the project are: What constitutes the range of principal course innovations that are being implemented in undergraduate physics courses? What are the effects of these course innovations on student learning? The paper describes: (1) the literature search procedures used to gather over 400 innovation-related journal articles, (2) the procedures followed to analyze the studies within these articles, (3) the characteristics of the studies reported, and (4) the results from synthesizing the quantitative results of those studies that met our criteria for inclusion.

  15. Exploring relativity: a workbook for undergraduate students (undergraduate lecture notes in physics)

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, Dunan

    2013-01-01

    Einstein’s special and general theories of relativity are explored graphically and quantitatively using elementary algebra through a series of fifteen interactive lectures designed for undergraduate physics majors.  Topics covered include:  space-time diagrams, special relativity, the equivalence principle, general relativity, and black holes.  The goal of this book is to provide the student with a sound, conceptual understanding of both the special and the general theories of relativity, so the student will gain insight into how astrophysicists are using these theories to study black holes in the universe.  At the end of each chapter, there is a set of exercises to further facilitate the student’s understanding of the material. The ultimate goal of the book is for students to continue to use it as a preferred reference during and after their undergraduate career.

  16. Hands-on physics displays for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Carl W.

    2014-07-01

    Initiated by Frank Oppenheimer in 1969, the Exploratorium in San Francisco has been the model for hands-on science museums throughout the world. The key idea has been to bring people with all levels of scientific background in contact with interesting and attractive exhibits that require the active participation of the visitor. Unfortunately, many science museums are now forced to cater primarily to very young audiences, often 8 years old or less, with predictable constraints on the intellectual depth of their exhibits. To counter this trend, the author has constructed several hands-on displays for the University of Michigan Physics Department that demonstrate: (1) magnetic levitation of pyrolytic graphite, (2) the varied magnetic induction effects in aluminum, copper and air, (3) chaotic motion of a double pendulum, (4) conservation of energy and momentum in a steel ball magnetic accelerator, (5) the diffraction pattern of red and green laser pointer beams created by CDs and DVDs, (6) a magnetic analog of the refraction of light at a dielectric boundary and (7) optical rotation of light in an aqueous fructose solution. Each of these exhibits can be constructed for something like $1000 or less and are robust enough to withstand unsupervised public use. The dynamic behavior of these exhibits will be shown in accompanying video sequences. The following story has a history that goes back quite a few years. In the late 70's, I was spending time at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center accompanied by my family that included our two grade school children. Needless to say, we much enjoyed weekend excursions to all sorts of interesting sites in the Bay Area, especially the Exploratorium, an unusual science museum created by Frank Oppenheimer that opened in 1969. The notion that exhibits would be designed specifically for "hands-on" interactions was at that time quite revolutionary. This idea captivated a number of people everywhere including a friend in Ann Arbor, Cynthia

  17. Undergraduate Research in Physics as an Educational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Toufic M.; Garg, Shila

    2001-03-01

    The National Science Foundation's 1996 report "Shaping the Future: New Expectations for Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology" urged that in order to improve SME&T education, decisive action must be taken so that "all students have access to excellent undergraduate education in science .... and all students learn these subjects by direct experience with the methods and processes of inquiry." Research-related educational activities that integrate education and research have been shown to be valuable in improving the quality of education and enhancing the number of majors in physics departments. Student researchers develop a motivation to continue in science and engineering through an appreciation of how science is done and the excitement of doing frontier research. We will address some of the challenges of integrating research into the physics undergraduate curriculum effectively. The departmental and institutional policies and infrastructure required to help prepare students for this endeavor will be discussed as well as sources of support and the establishment of appropriate evaluation procedures.

  18. Undergraduate physics course innovations and their impact on student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Heidi Louise

    Over the last several decades, the efficacy of the traditional lecture-based instructional model for undergraduate physics courses has been challenged. As a result, a large number of reform-oriented instructional innovations have been developed, enacted, and studied in undergraduate physics courses around the globe---all with the intended purpose of improving student learning. This thesis satisfies the need for a comprehensive synthesis of the effectiveness of these course innovations by analyzing: (1) the types of innovations that have been enacted, (2) the impact of these innovations on student learning, and (3) the common features of effective innovations. An exhaustive literature search for studies published after 1990 on undergraduate physics course innovations yielded 432 articles which were then coded with respect to the characteristics of the innovations used as well as the methodological characteristics of the studies. These codes facilitated a descriptive analysis which characterized the features of the pool of studies. These studies were then meta-analyzed in order to evaluate the effect of innovations on student learning. Finally, a case-study analysis was conducted in order to identify the critical characteristics of effective innovations. Results indicate that most innovations focus on introductory mechanics and use some combination of conceptually oriented tasks, collaborative learning, and technology. The overall effect of course innovations has been positive, but with the caveat that a large number of studies suffer from poor methodological designs and potential threats to validity. In addition, over half of the studies had to be eliminated from the meta-analysis because they did not report the data necessary for an effect size to be calculated. Despite these limitations the results of the meta-analysis indicated that there was one innovation which had particularly high effect sizes---Workshop/Studio Physics---an innovation which involves an

  19. Engaging undergraduate students in hadron physics research and instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Tanja

    2017-09-01

    Nuclear physics research is fundamental to our understanding of the visible universe and at the same time intertwined with our daily life. Nuclear physics studies the origin and structure of the atomic nuclei in terms of their basic constituents, the quarks and gluons. Atoms and molecules would not exist without underlying quark-gluon interactions, which build nearly all the mass of the visible universe from an assembly of massless gluons and nearly-massless quarks. The study of hadron structure with electromagnetic probes through exclusive and semi-inclusive scattering experiments carried out at the 12 GeV Jefferson Laboratory plays an important role in this effort. In particular, planned precision measurements of pion and kaon form factors and longitudinal-transverse separated deep exclusive pion and kaon electroproduction cross sections to the highest momentum transfers achievable play an important role in understanding hadron structure and masses and provide essential constraints for 3D hadron imaging. While a growing fraction of nuclear physics research is carried out at large international laboratories, individual university research groups play critical roles in the success of that research. These include data analysis projects and the development of state-of-the-art instrumentation demanded by increasingly sophisticated experiments. These efforts are empowered by the creativity of university faculty, staff, postdocs, and provide students with unique hands-on experience. As an example, an aerogel Cherenkov detector enabling strangeness physics research in Hall C at Jefferson Lab was constructed at the Catholic University of America with the help of 16 undergraduate and high school students. The ''Conference Experience for Undergraduates'' (CEU) provides a venue for these students who have conducted research in nuclear physics. This presentation will present the experiences of one of the participants in the first years of the CEU, her current research program

  20. Building an undergraduate physics program with Learning Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Edward

    2013-04-01

    In 2007, the CSUSM Physics Department began offering a B.S. in Applied Physics, its first physics bachelors degree program. The program has grown from 11 majors in 2008 to over 80 in 2012, due in part to recruiting students from local high schools and community colleges. More broadly, because most CSUSM students come from the local region, the longer-term health of the Department is coupled with the vitality and strength of local high school physics education. In addition, establishing a new physics degree required curriculum development and offered the opportunity to incorporate recent innovations in physics education when developing courses. A Learning Assistants (LA) Program, established by the Department in 2008, has been a critical component in these efforts to recruit students, build local educational networks, and implement innovative curricula. In an LA Program, undergraduate Learning Assistants assist faculty in class, meet regularly with the course instructor, and participate in a weekly seminar on teaching and learning, which provides guidance on effective instruction and an opportunity to reflect on their experiences in the classroom. The LA program promotes course transformation, improved student learning, and teacher recruitment. This talk will describe the CSUSM LA Program and its role in support of our growing applied physics degree program.

  1. A Thriving and Innovative Undergraduate Experiential Physics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughani, Bahram

    2013-03-01

    The thriving physics program at Kettering University has experienced a three-fold increase in the number of physics majors since 2002. Our unique physics program requires students alternate between on-campus academic terms and off-campus co-op work terms on a three months rotation format to complete their degree in 4.5 years that includes summer as either school or co-op term. Students complete a minimum of five terms (~15 months) of cooperative work terms, and two terms (~6 months) of senior thesis work. The IP of the thesis work done at a co-op site belongs to the company. This has attracted co-op sponsors for our program by removing the IP concerns. The cooperative and experiential education part of our program is required for graduation, without any credits assigned to it. At the end of every co-op term students' work performance is evaluated by their co-op supervisor, which should match expected performance standards. In addition to co-op and thesis, our programs include a senior capstone design project course, concentrations within physics (Acoustics, Optics, and Materials), a required technical sequence outside physics, as well as entrepreneurship across curriculum. The success of our student securing the highest paid jobs for undergraduate physics majors in the nation plus their success in graduate studies are the main ``Pull Factors'' that has lead to three fold increase the physics majors since 2002.

  2. Photoionization mass spectrometry of UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.

    1979-01-01

    The photoionization mass spectrum of 238 UF 6 was obtained. At 600 A = 20.66 eV, the relative ionic abundances were as follows: UF 6 + , 1.4; UF 5 + , 100; UF + , 17; UF 3 + , approx. 0.7; UF 2 + , very weak; UF + , very weak; U + , essentially zero. The adiabatic ionization potential for UF 6 was 13.897 +- 0.005 eV. The production of UF 5 + begins at approx. 887 A = 13.98 eV, at which energy the UF 6 + partial cross section abruptly declines and then levels off. This behavior suggests the vague possibility of an isotope effect. The UF 4 + signal begins at approx. 725 A = 17.10 eV, at which energy the UF 5 + signal reaches a plateau value. The UF 5 + photoionization yield curve displays some autoionization structure from its threshold to approx. 750 A

  3. Assessing Program Learning Objectives to Improve Undergraduate Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Carrie

    2014-03-01

    Our physics undergraduate program has five program learning objectives (PLOs) focusing on (1) physical principles, (2) mathematical expertise, (3) experimental technique, (4) communication and teamwork, and (5) research proficiency. One PLO is assessed each year, with the results guiding modifications in our curriculum and future assessment practices; we have just completed our first cycle of assessing all PLOs. Our approach strives to maximize the ease and applicability of our assessment practices while maintaining faculty's flexibility in course design and delivery. Objectives are mapped onto our core curriculum with identified coursework collected as direct evidence. We've utilized mostly descriptive rubrics, applying them at the course and program levels as well as sharing them with the students. This has resulted in more efficient assessment that is also applicable to reaccreditation efforts, higher inter-rater reliability than with other rubric types, and higher quality capstone projects. We've also found that the varied quality of student writing can interfere with our assessment of other objectives. This poster outlines our processes, resources, and how we have used PLO assessment to strengthen our undergraduate program.

  4. Should I Take Further Mathematics? Physics Undergraduates' Experiences of Post-Compulsory Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Jessica; Darlington, Ellie

    2017-01-01

    It is essential that physics undergraduates are appropriately prepared for the mathematical demands of their course. This study investigated physics students' perceptions of post-compulsory mathematics as preparation for their degree course. 494 physics undergraduates responded to an online questionnaire about their experiences of A-level…

  5. UF{sub 6} cylinder fire test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    With the increasing number of nuclear reactors for power generation, there is a comparable increase in the amount of UF{sub 6} being transported. Likewise, the probability of having an accident involving UF{sub 6}-filled cylinders also increases. Accident scenarios which have been difficult to assess are those involving a filled UF{sub 6} cylinder subjected to fire. A study is underway at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, as part of the US DOE Enrichment Program, to provide empirical data and a computer model that can be used to evaluate various cylinder-in-fire scenarios. It is expected that the results will provide information leading to better handling of possible fire accidents as well as show whether changes should be made to provide different physical protection during shipment. The computer model being developed will be capable of predicting the rupture of various cylinder sizes and designs as well as the amount of UF{sub 6}, its distribution in the cylinder, and the conditions of the fire.

  6. Experimental analysis of nonlinear oscillations in the undergraduate physics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, R; Page, A; Riera, J; Hueso, J L

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple experiment to introduce the nonlinear behaviour of oscillating systems in the undergraduate physics laboratory. The transverse oscillations of a spring allow reproduction of three totally different scenarios: linear oscillations, nonlinear oscillations reducible to linear for small displacements, and intrinsically nonlinear oscillations. The chosen approach consists of measuring the displacements using video photogrammetry and computing the velocities and the accelerations by means of a numerical differentiation algorithm. In this way, one can directly check the differential equation of the motion without having to integrate it, or perform an experimental study of the potential energy in each of the analysed scenarios. This experiment allows first year students to reflect on the consequences and the limits of the linearity assumption for small displacements that is so often made in technical studies. (paper)

  7. Undergraduate Student Construction and Interpretation of Graphs in Physics Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Godfrey, T. J.; Mayhew, Nicholas T.; Wiegert, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    Lab activities are an important element of an undergraduate physics course. In these lab activities, students construct and interpret graphs in order to connect the procedures of the lab with an understanding of the related physics concepts. This study investigated undergraduate students' construction and interpretation of graphs with best-fit…

  8. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, M M; McVitie, S

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  9. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, M M; McVitie, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.casey@physics.gla.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  10. Effects of online games on student performance in undergraduate physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Irfan

    The present state of physics teaching and learning is a reflection of the difficulty of the subject matter which has resulted in students' low motivation toward physics as well as lack of meaningful and deeper learning experiences. In light of an overall decline in interest in physics, an investigation of alternate teaching and learning methods and tools was appropriate. The research posed the following question: To what extent do online games about kinematics and two-dimensional motion impact student performance in undergraduate general physics as measured by a unit posttest? Two intact classes of 20 students each were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. Only the experimental group received the treatment of using online games. The duration of topics covered in the game content was identical to the lecture on kinematics and two-dimensional motion. Instructors for the experimental group incorporated online games in their regular classroom teaching, whereas those in the control group continued with their previously used curriculum without games. This study was conducted in three weekly sessions. Although students were not selected using random sampling, existing classes were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. There were 20 students in the experimental group and 20 students in the control group. The independent samples t test was conducted to compare the means of two independently sampled experimental and control groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine if the two groups were significantly different with regard to their general physics performance on the posttest while controlling for the pretest scores. Analysis of posttest and pretest scores revealed that game-based learning did not significantly impact student performance.

  11. Integrating numerical computation into the undergraduate education physics curriculum using spreadsheet excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Numerical computation has many pedagogical advantages: it develops analytical skills and problem-solving skills, helps to learn through visualization, and enhances physics education. Unfortunately, numerical computation is not taught to undergraduate education physics students in Indonesia. Incorporate numerical computation into the undergraduate education physics curriculum presents many challenges. The main challenges are the dense curriculum that makes difficult to put new numerical computation course and most students have no programming experience. In this research, we used case study to review how to integrate numerical computation into undergraduate education physics curriculum. The participants of this research were 54 students of the fourth semester of physics education department. As a result, we concluded that numerical computation could be integrated into undergraduate education physics curriculum using spreadsheet excel combined with another course. The results of this research become complements of the study on how to integrate numerical computation in learning physics using spreadsheet excel.

  12. What does a physics undergraduate education give you? A perspective from Australian physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manjula; Pollard, Judith; Mendez, Alberto; Mills, David; O'Byrne, John; Scott, Dale; Hagon, Sue; Gribble, Joan; Kirkup, Les; Livett, Michelle; Low, David; Merchant, Alex; Rayner, Anton; Swan, Geoff; Zadnik, Marjan; Zealey, Willam

    2008-01-01

    In a study to assess how effectively undergraduate physics studies have prepared students for the workplace, we attempted to locate and interview traditional 3-year or 4-year physics students who had graduated in the past five years (2000 to 2004), and the employers of these graduates. The study was limited to recent graduates who have majored in physics and not obtained further or concurrent degrees. Overseas studies of the destinations of physics graduates referred to in this paper have not isolated the group we interviewed as a distinct group. A major finding was that the number of these graduates was unexpectedly low. Indeed, most physics graduates have two degrees. Interviews with graduates and employers suggest that physics graduates have particular strengths in problem solving and are good at applying their skills at the workplace.

  13. SPIN-UP and Preparing Undergraduate Physics Majors for Careers in Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Seven years ago, the Strategic Programs for Innovations in Undergraduate Physics (SPIN-UP) Report produced by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics identified several key characteristics of thriving undergraduate physics departments including steps these departments had taken to prepare students better for careers in industry. Today statistical data from AIP shows that almost 40% of students graduating with a degree in physics seek employment as soon as they graduate. Successful undergraduate physics programs have taken steps to adapt their rigorous physics programs to ensure that graduating seniors have the skills they need to enter the industrial workplace as well as to go on to graduate school in physics. Typical strategies noted during a series of SPIN-UP workshops funded by a grant from NSF to APS, AAPT, and AIP include flexible curricula, early introduction of undergraduates to research techniques, revised laboratory experiences that provide students with skills they need to move directly into jobs, and increased emphasis on ``soft'' skills such as communication and team work. Despite significant success, undergraduate programs face continuing challenges in preparing students to work in industry, most significantly the fact that there is no job called ``physicist'' at the undergraduate level. supported by grant NSF DUE-0741560.

  14. SOCIAL NETWORKING IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: Undergraduate Students’ Views on Ning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülfem SEZEN BALCIKANLI

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available It was the aim of this study to investigate physical education undergraduate students’ views on the use of social networking, one of the most typical representations of Web 2.0 technologies. In order to do so, the researcher, who was the instructor of the class, entitled “Fair Play Education in Sport”, introduced Ning and its educational aspects to her students with a 50-minute presentation prior to the study. Following this, the students were encouraged to use this networking for 15 weeks in parallel with their class. During this application, the researcher helped the students to make the best use of Ning in educational settings. Upon the implementation, the researcher interviewed the students (n=19 in five groups on the basis of the questions prepared and piloted earlier. The interviews demonstrated that the students enjoyed using social networking in educational settings. The findings of the study were the following: Increasing student-student and teacher-student interaction, enhancing student motivation and classroom climate, sharing materials with the instructor and students, making use of students’ interests and needs, and making learning process more interesting and permanent. The research concluded that social networking could be used in PE classes effectively.

  15. Methods of teaching the physics of climate change in undergraduate physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Although anthropogenic climate change is generally accepted in the scientific community, there is considerable skepticism among the general population and, therefore, in undergraduate students of all majors. Students are often asked by their peers, family members, and others, whether they ``believe'' climate change is occurring and what should be done about it (if anything). I will present my experiences and recommendations for teaching the physics of climate change to both physics and non-science majors. For non-science majors, the basic approach is to try to develop an appreciation for the scientific method (particularly peer-reviewed research) in a course on energy and the environment. For physics majors, the pertinent material is normally covered in their undergraduate courses in modern physics and thermodynamics. Nevertheless, it helps to review the basics, e.g. introductory quantum mechanics (discrete energy levels of atomic systems), molecular spectroscopy, and blackbody radiation. I have done this in a separate elective topics course, titled ``Physics of Climate Change,'' to help the students see how their knowledge gives them insight into a topic that is very volatile (socially and politically).

  16. NSF Support for Physics at the Undergraduate Level: A View from Inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Duncan

    2015-03-01

    NSF has supported a wide range of projects in physics that involve undergraduate students. These projects include NSF research grants in which undergraduates participate; Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) centers and supplements; and education grants that range from upper-division labs that may include research, to curriculum development for upper- and lower-level courses and labs, to courses for non-majors, to Physics Education Research (PER). The NSF Divisions of Physics, Materials Research, and Astronomy provide most of the disciplinary research support, with some from other parts of NSF. I recently retired as the permanent physicist in NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), which supports the education grants. I was responsible for a majority of DUE's physics grants and was involved with others overseen by a series of physics rotators. There I worked in programs entitled Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI); Course and Curriculum Development (CCD); Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI); Transforming Undergraduate STEM Education (TUES); and Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE). NSF support has enabled physics Principal Investigators to change and improve substantially the way physics is taught and the way students learn physics. The most important changes are increased undergraduate participation in physics research; more teaching using interactive engagement methods in classes; and growth of PER as a legitimate field of physics research as well as outcomes from PER that guide physics teaching. In turn these have led, along with other factors, to students who are better-prepared for graduate school and work, and to increases in the number of undergraduate physics majors. In addition, students in disciplines that physics directly supports, notably engineering and chemistry, and increasingly biology, are better and more broadly prepared to use their physics education in these fields. I will describe NSF

  17. Enhancing interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science in an undergraduate life science program through physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursell, David P

    2009-01-01

    BIO2010 advocates enhancing the interdisciplinary, mathematics, and physical science components of the undergraduate biology curriculum. The Department of Chemistry and Life Science at West Point responded by developing a required physical chemistry course tailored to the interests of life science majors. To overcome student resistance to physical chemistry, students were enabled as long-term stakeholders who would shape the syllabus by selecting life science topics of interest to them. The initial 2 yr of assessment indicates that students have a positive view of the course, feel they have succeeded in achieving course outcome goals, and that the course is relevant to their professional future. Instructor assessment of student outcome goal achievement via performance on exams and labs is comparable to that of students in traditional physical chemistry courses. Perhaps more noteworthy, both student and instructor assessment indicate positive trends from year 1 to year 2, presumably due to the student stakeholder effect.

  18. Joint Task Force on Undergraduate Physics Programs: Implications for physics programs and why you should care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Theodore

    2016-03-01

    The content of undergraduate physics programs has not changed appreciably in 50 years, however, the jobs our students take have changed dramatically. Preparing students for careers they are likely to encounter requires physics programs to rethink and in some cases retool to provide an education that will not only educate an individual in the habits of mind and keen sense of how to solve complex technical problems, but also what related skills they will need to be effective in those careers. Do you teach your student how to read or create a budget? How about dealing with a low-performing member of an R&D team? This talk will explore driving forces behind this report, potential implications for physics departments, and practical steps faculty members can take to continue to consider improvements in experiences for our students. This work is supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF-1540570).

  19. Adapting to a Changing World--Challenges and Opportunities in Undergraduate Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "Adapting to a Changing World" was commissioned by the National Science Foundation to examine the present status of undergraduate physics education, including the state of physics education research, and, most importantly, to develop a series of recommendations for improving physics education that draws from the knowledge we have about…

  20. Instructors' Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in Teaching Undergraduate Physical Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Paulo Jose Barbosa Gutierres; Monteiro, Maria Dolores Alves Ferreira; da Silva, Rudney; Hodge, Samuel R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze adapted physical education instructors' views about the application of the theory of planned behavior (TpB) in teaching physical education undergraduate courses. Participants ("n" = 17) were instructors of adapted physical activity courses from twelve randomly selected institutions of higher…

  1. Reactions UF4 - ClO2F and UF5 - ClO2F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Raymond; Besnard, Ginette; Hartmanshenn, Olivier; Luce, Michel; Mougin, Jacques; Pelissie, Jean

    1970-02-01

    The study of the reaction UF 4 - ClO 2 F between 0 deg. and 100 deg. C, by various techniques (micro-sublimation, isopiestic method, IR and UV spectrography, thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction) shows that intermediate steps are possible before the production of UF 5 . The whole reaction may be schematised by two equations: (1) n UF 4 + ClO 2 F → n UF x + ClO 2 (4 4 + ClO 2 F → UF x + 1/2 Cl 2 + O 2 . The more the temperature rises, the more the second equation becomes experimentally verified. The reaction at 0 deg. C between UF 5 and ClO 2 F may be represented by: UF 5 + ClO 2 F → UF 6 ClO 2 . The reactions: UF 5 + ClO 2 F → UF 6 + ClO 2 , UF 5 + ClO 2 F → UF 6 + 1/2 Cl 2 + O 2 are verified, the first and the second at 25 deg. C., the second from 50 deg. to 150 deg. C. From the results of AGRON it is possible to predict the residual solids before complete volatilization as UF 6 . The IR spectra of ClO 2 F adsorbed on UF 4 and UF x at 60 deg. C have been compared with those of gaseous ClO 2 F and UF 6 adsorbed on UF 4 . (authors) [fr

  2. Transforming the Learning Environment of Undergraduate Physics Laboratories to Enhance Physics Inquiry Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Concerns persist regarding the lack of promotion of students’ scientific inquiry processes in undergraduate physics laboratories. The consensus in the literature is that, especially in the early years of undergraduate physics programs, students’ laboratory work is characterized by recipe type, step-by-step instructions for activities where the aim is often confirmation of an already well-established physics principle or concept. In response to evidence reflecting these concerns at their university, the authors successfully secured funding for this study. A mixed-method design was employed. In the 2011/2012 academic year baseline data were collected. A quantitative survey, the Undergraduate Physics Laboratory Learning Environment Scale (UPLLES was developed, validated, and used to explore students’ perceptions of their physics laboratory environments. Analysis of data from the UPLLES and from interviews confirmed the concerns evident in the literature and in a previous evaluation of laboratories undertaken in 2002. To address these concerns the activities that students were to perform in the laboratory section of the course/s were re/designed to engage students in more inquiry oriented thinking and activity. In Fall 2012, the newly developed laboratory activities and tutorials, were implemented for the first time in PHYS124; a first year course. These changes were accompanied by structured training of teaching assistants and changes to the structure of the evaluation of students’ laboratory performance. At the end of that term the UPLLES was administered (n = 266 and interviews with students conducted (n = 16 to explore their perceptions of their laboratory environments. Statistically significant differences (p<.001 between the students in the PHYS 124 classes of 2011/2012 and 2012/2013 across all dimensions were found. Effect sizes of 0.82 to 1.3, between the views of students in the first semester physics classes of 2011/2012 and 2012

  3. The performance assessment of undergraduate students in physics laboratory by using guided inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubarok, H.; Lutfiyah, A.; Kholiq, A.; Suprapto, N.; Putri, N. P.

    2018-03-01

    The performance assessment of basic physics experiment among undergraduate physics students which includes three stages: pre-laboratory, conducting experiment and final report was explored in this study. The research used a descriptive quantitative approach by utilizing guidebook of basic physics experiment. The findings showed that (1) the performance of pre-laboratory rate among undergraduate physics students in good category (average score = 77.55), which includes the ability of undergraduate physics students’ theory before they were doing the experiment. (2) The performance of conducting experiment was in good category (average score = 78.33). (3) While the performance of final report was in moderate category (average score = 73.73), with the biggest weakness at how to analyse and to discuss the data and writing the abstract.

  4. Review of potential models for UF6 dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, R.I.; Lewellen, W.S.

    1992-07-01

    A survey of existing atmospheric dispersion models has been conducted to determine the most appropriate basis for the development of a model for predicting the consequences of an accidental UF 6 release. The model is required for safety analysis studies and should therefore be computationally efficient. The release of UF 6 involves a number of physical phenomena which make the situation more complicated than passive dispersion of a trace gas. The safety analysis must consider the density variations in the UF 6 cloud, which can be heavier or lighter than the ambient air. The release also involves rapid chemical reactions and associated heat release, which must be modeled. Other Department of Energy storage facilities require a dense gas prediction capability, so the model must be sufficiently general for use with a variety of release scenarios. The special problems associated with UF 6 make it unique, so there are very few models with existing capability for the problem. There are, however, a large number of dense gas dispersion models, some with relevant chemical reaction modeling, that could potentially form the basis of an advanced UF 6 model. We have examined a large selection of possible candidates, and selected 5 models for detailed consideration

  5. Advantages and Challenges of Using Physics Curricula as a Model for Reforming an Undergraduate Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D. A.; Atkins, L. J.; Salter, I. Y.; Gallagher, D. J.; Kratz, R. F.; Rousseau, J. V.; Nelson, G. D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of a life sciences curriculum, targeted to undergraduate students, which was modeled after a commercially available physics curriculum and based on aspects of how people learn. Our paper describes the collaborative development process and necessary modifications required to apply a physics pedagogical model in a life…

  6. A Python Program for Solving Schro¨dinger's Equation in Undergraduate Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srnec, Matthew N.; Upadhyay, Shiv; Madura, Jeffry D.

    2017-01-01

    In undergraduate physical chemistry, Schrödinger's equation is solved for a variety of cases. In doing so, the energies and wave functions of the system can be interpreted to provide connections with the physical system being studied. Solving this equation by hand for a one-dimensional system is a manageable task, but it becomes time-consuming…

  7. Analysis of accidental UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yumao; Tan Rui; Gao Qifa

    2012-01-01

    As interim substance in the nuclear fuel enrichment process, Uranium Hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is widely applied in nuclear processing, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants. Because of its vivid chemical characteristics and special radiological hazard and chemical toxicity, great attention must be paid to accident of UF 6 leakage. The chemical reactions involved in UF 6 release processes were introduced, therewith potential release styles, pathways and characteristics of diffusion were analyzed. The results indicated that the accidental release process of UF 6 is not a simple passive diffusion. So, specific atmospheric diffusion model related to UF 6 releases need be used in order to analyze and evaluate accurately the accidental consequences. (authors)

  8. Pilot plant UF6 to UF4 test operations report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicha, W.J.; Fallings, M.; Gilbert, D.D.; Koch, G.E.; Levine, P.J.; McLaughlin, D.F.; Nuhfer, K.R.; Reese, J.C.

    1987-02-01

    The FMPC site includes a plant designed for the reduction of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) to uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ). Limited operation of the upgraded reduction facility began in August 1984 and continued through January 19, 1986. A reaction vessel ruptured on that date causing the plant operation to be shut down. The DOE conducted a Class B investigation with the findings of the investigation board issued in preliminary form in May 1986 and as a final recommendation in July 1986. A two-phase restart of the plant was planned and implemented. Phase I included implementing safety system modifications, changing reaction vessel temperature control strategy, and operating the reduction plant under an 8-week controlled test. The results of the test period are the subject of this report. 41 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Physical Exercise Practice and Associated Factors Among Undergraduate Students from a Southern Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira Marcio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and factors associated with not performing physical exercise in undergraduate students. Methods. The sample was composed of 2738 undergraduate students of Londrina city, Parana, Brazil. The dependent variables were: not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity for at least 30 minutes per week; not performing vigorous physical exercise for at least 20 minutes per week; not performing muscular strengthening exercises (8-12 repetitions in a week. The independent variables were gender, age, skin colour, marital status, housing, study pattern, year of course, paid work, and area of the course. Odds ratio (OR was estimated by multivariate analysis with the use of binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of undergraduate students not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity, of vigorous intensity, or muscular strengthening exercises was 47.3, 61.0, and 66.2%, respectively. Female sex was associated with a risk of not performing moderate physical exercise (OR = 1.23, vigorous physical exercise (OR = 1.47, and strengthening exercises (OR = 1.22. Undergraduate students of exact sciences (OR = 1.40 and 1.52, juridical sciences (OR = 1.48 and 1.51, and humanities (OR = 1.45 and 1.52 were at risk of not performing physical exercise of moderate or vigorous intensity, respectively. Being a 2nd (OR = 0.79, 3rd (OR = 0.74, or 4th (OR = 0.71 year student was bound with a lower likelihood of not performing physical exercise of moderate intensity. Conclusions. Intervention programmes with the aim of promoting physical exercise practice in undergraduate students should consider gender, year, and area of the course.

  10. TENERIFE program: high temperature experiments on A 4 tons UF6 container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.; Wataru, M.; Shiomi, S.; Ozaki, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    1993-01-01

    To know the input of the future thermo-mechanical code, we have to get a better understanding of the thermo-physical evolution of the UF 6 which pressurizes the container. This evolution is function of: a) the heat transfer rate from the fire to the container b) the UF 6 behaviour in the container. These tests are essentially analytical at simulated fire temperatures of between 800 and 1000degC. They use a representative mass of UF 6 (around 4 tons). The tests will not seek to rupture the test container which has a diameter equal to the 48Y container, but shorter length. These tests carried out in realistic conditions (typical thermal gradient at the wall, characteristic period for UF 6 internal mass transfer) should make possible to improve knowledge of two fundamental phenomena: 1) vaporization of UF 6 on contact with the heated wall (around 400degC), a phenomenon which controls the container internal pressurization kinetic, 2) the equivalent conductivity of solid UF 6 , a phenomenon which is linked to the heat transfer by UF 6 vaporization-condensation through the solid's porosities and which depends on the diameter of the container. In addition, they will allow the influence of other parameters to be studied, such as UF 6 container filling mode or the mechanical characteristics of the container material. A UF 6 container fitted with instruments (wall temperature, UF 6 temperature, pressure) is heated by a rapid heat transient in a radiating furnace where the temperature and thermal power supplied can be measured. The test continues until pre-established thresholds have been reached: 1) strain threshold measured on the container surface (strain gauges positioned on the outside), 2) maximum temperature threshold of UF 6 , 3) container internal pressure threshold. (J.P.N.)

  11. Impact of the Joint Task Force on Undergraduate Physics Programs for Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arion, Douglas

    The Joint Task Force on Undergraduate Physics Programs has worked diligently to develop recommendations for what physics programs could and should be doing to prepare graduates for 21st century careers. While the `traditional' physics curriculum has served for many years, the demands of the new workforce, and the recognition that only a few percent of physics students actually become faculty - the vast majority entering the workforce and applying their skills to a very diverse range of problems, projects, and products - implies that a review of the education undergraduates receives is in order. The outcomes of this study point to the need to provide greater connection between the education process and the actual skills, knowledge, and abilities that the workplace demands. This presentation will summarize these considerations, and show how entrepreneurship and innovation programs and curricula are a particularly effective means of bringing these elements to physics students.

  12. Effects of Online Games on Student Performance in Undergraduate Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Irfan

    2010-01-01

    The present state of physics teaching and learning is a reflection of the difficulty of the subject matter which has resulted in students' low motivation toward physics as well as lack of meaningful and deeper learning experiences. In light of an overall decline in interest in physics, an investigation of alternate teaching and learning methods…

  13. Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    2015-01-01

    Title: Promoting Clinical Reasoning in Undergraduate Physical Therapy Education: A Review of Strategies and Approaches Juneja H1, Brekke A F2 1,2 Physical Therapy Education, University College Zealand, Denmark Background: Clinical reasoning (CR) also referred to as “critical thinking” or “decision....... It is imperative that physical therapy educators utilize innovative pedagogical methods to facilitate learning of reasoning skills in students. Purpose: The review is an attempt to highlight and discuss selected pedagogical strategies and approaches to enhance clinical reasoning skills in undergraduate physical...... programs was shortlisted for the review. References of pertinent literature were scanned to identify further relevant citations. Results: The review provides a detailed insight into the interwoven nature of pedagogical techniques to promote clinical reasoning being used by different physical therapy...

  14. Relationships between Undergraduates' Argumentation Skills, Conceptual Quality of Problem Solutions, and Problem Solving Strategies in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well…

  15. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  16. The PASCO Wireless Smart Cart: A Game Changer in the Undergraduate Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif; Connor, Rainor

    2018-01-01

    With the introduction of the Wireless Smart Cart by PASCO scientific in April 2016, we expect a paradigm shift in undergraduate physics laboratory instruction. We have evaluated the feasibility of using the smart cart by carrying out experiments that are usually performed using traditional PASCO equipment. The simplicity, convenience, and…

  17. The Role of Humor in Learning Physics: A Study of Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Maria

    2017-01-01

    We all know that they do it, but what do students laugh "about" when learning science together? Although research has shown that students do use humor when they learn science, the role of humor in science education has received little attention. In this study, undergraduate students' laughter during collaborative work in physics has been…

  18. Guidelines for Undergraduate Exercise Physiology in a Physical Education Teacher Education Program. Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    A course in Exercise Physiology is a common requirement among undergraduate students preparing for a career in physical education, adult fitness, or athletic training. Often, such courses are taught to an assortment of students from a variety of disciplines (Van Donselaar & Leslie, 1990) with an emphasis on physiological principles applied to…

  19. Multimedia as a Means to Enhance Teaching Technical Vocabulary to Physics Undergraduates in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanganwa, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether the integration of ICT in education can facilitate teaching and learning. An example of such integration is computer assisted language learning (CALL) of English technical vocabulary by undergraduate physics students in Rwanda. The study draws on theories of cognitive load and multimedia learning to explore learning…

  20. Closing the Feedback Loop: Physics Undergraduates' Use of Feedback Comments on Laboratory Coursework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Pam

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory notebooks of physics undergraduates taking two second-year practical courses were audited to discover whether they had used feedback comments in their subsequent coursework. Ninety-five per cent of the 37 students on the first course and 100% of the 14 students on the second course whose work was audited had used feedback. The…

  1. Undergraduate Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Catherine A.; Kennedy, Catherine; Morgan, George; Anderson, Sharon K.; Morris, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of college students' physical activity and gender on depressive and suicidal symptoms. Method: The National College Health Assessment survey was administered to college students nationwide. Data were analyzed with 4x2 ANOVAs and Games-Howell post hoc tests when appropriate. Results: More frequent physical activity…

  2. Promoting and assessing creativity and innovation in physics undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick B.; Kuo, H. Vincent; Kowalski, Susan; Kowalski, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Creative thought and the ability to innovate are critical skills in industrial and academic careers alike. There exist attempts to foster creative skills in the business world, but little such work has been documented in a physics context. In particular, there are few tools available for those who want to assess the creativity of their physics students, making it difficult to tell whether instruction is having any effect. In this paper, we outline a new elective course at the Colorado School of Mines in the physics department designed to develop creativity and innovation in physics majors. We present our efforts to assess this course formatively, using tablet PCs and InkSurvey software, and summatively using the discipline-independent Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. We also describe early work towards developing a physics-specific instrument for measuring creativity.

  3. Air, Ocean and Climate Monitoring Enhancing Undergraduate Training in the Physical, Environmental and Computer Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, W. W.; Johnson, L. P.; Obl, W.; Stewart, A.; Harris, W. C.; Craig, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    Faculty in the Department of Physical, Environmental and Computer Sciences strongly believe in the concept that undergraduate research and research-related activities must be integrated into the fabric of our undergraduate Science and Technology curricula. High level skills, such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration and the ability to engage in research, are learned for advanced study in graduate school or for competing for well paying positions in the scientific community. One goal of our academic programs is to have a pipeline of research activities from high school to four year college, to graduate school, based on the GISS Institute on Climate and Planets model.

  4. Radiation protection knowledge in the undergraduate level for physics students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos-Baraja, J. M.; Sanchez-Carmona, G.; Hernando-Gonzalez, I.; Cid-Galache, A.; Castillo-Belmonte, A. del; Barrio-Lazo, F. J.; Pereda-Barroeta, N.; Iniguez de la Torre, M. P.; Barquero-Sanz, R.; Lopez-Lara-Martin, F.

    2004-01-01

    Medical physics knowledge and the ionising radiations use with medical purposes are a matter of growing interest among students will be titled in physics University degree. To familiarize to students of Physics University degree with this field is considered important so much so that they relate part of that learned in the curriculum ruled as to show them a possible unknown professional field for many. To detect necessities in this field it is carried out an evaluation of knowledge that it help to program activities with those that to satisfy formative necessities in this field. (Author) 17 refs

  5. Laboratory Safety Awareness Among General Physics Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. O. Ponferrada

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Safety awareness in the laboratory is essential to reduce occupational risks. This study was conducted to determine the students’ safety awareness in a Physics laboratory. This study determined the student perception towards safety awareness by factors of gender and college from which students are enrolled. A sum of 324 students enrolled in Physics10 (Mechanics and Heat and Physics11 (Electricity and Magnetism in the Mindanao University of Science and Technology (MUST were randomly selected as survey respondents. A modified survey questionnaire was used as research instrument. The results show that the students had positive level of safety awareness and perceived positively on the preventive measures to reduce laboratory risk. Further, regardless of gender students enrolled in Physics 10 were more positively aware towards safety awareness than students enrolled in Physics 11. Similarly, a variation among the students perception towards safety awareness from the College of Engineering and Architecture (CEA and College of Industrial and Information Technology (CIIT occurred. Overall, present findings indicate a need to introduce laboratory safety awareness in Physics classes.

  6. Properties of Sago Particleboards Resinated with UF and PF Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chiang Tay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sago processing industry in Mukah, Sarawak, had generated huge amount of sago waste after the milling process and scientists have employed the waste into composite material. In this work, sago residues were mixed with the Phenol Formaldehyde (PF and Urea Formaldehyde (UF for particleboard fabrication. The fabrication and testing methods are based on JIS A 5908 Standard. A single layer particleboard using sago particles was fabricated at targeted density of 600 kg/m3. Particles with weight fractions of 90%, 85%, and 80% with two different matrices were used in the fabrication. The results demonstrated that the samples with different weight fraction and matrix have great influence on the mechanical properties such as MOR, MOE, Young’s Modulus, tensile strength, impact strength, screw test, and internal bonding. The sago UF/PF particleboard only displays single stage decomposition. All the panels underwent physical tests which are water absorption and thickness swelling. The combination of sago particles with UF/PF can be utilized for general indoor application purposes such as furniture manufacturing. Sago particleboard made by UF/PF provided the advantages like optimized performance, minimized weight and volume, cost effectiveness, chemical resistance, and resistance to biodegradation.

  7. UF6 Cylinder Imaging by Fast Neutron Transmission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.; Hausladen, P.; Blackston, M.; Croft, S.

    2015-01-01

    The common use Non-Destructive Assay techniques for the determination of 235 U enrichment and mass of UF6 cylinders used in the production of nuclear reactor fuel require prior knowledge of the physical distribution of the UF6 within the cylinder. The measurement performance for these techniques is typically evaluated based on assumed bounding case distributions of the material. However, little direct data such as radiographic or tomographic images, regarding the distribution of the UF6 within the cylinder is available against which to judge these assumptions. We have developed and tested a prototype active neutron tomographic imaging system employing an Associated Particle Imaging (API) neutron generator and an array of pixelated neutron scintillation counters. This system has been successfully used to obtain the 3-dimensional map of the distribution of UF6 within a type 12B storage cylinder. Results from these measurements are presented and the potential performance and utility of this technique with larger 30B and 48Y cylinders is discussed. (author)

  8. Problem Solving in Physics: Undergraduates' Framing, Procedures, and Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modir, Bahar

    In this dissertation I will start with the broad research question of what does problem solving in upper division physics look like? My focus in this study is on students' problem solving in physics theory courses. Some mathematical formalisms are common across all physics core courses such as using the process of separation of variables, doing Taylor series, or using the orthogonality properties of mathematical functions to set terms equal to zero. However, there are slight differences in their use of these mathematical formalisms across different courses, possibly because of how students map different physical systems to these processes. Thus, my first main research question aims to answer how students perform these recurring processes across upper division physics courses. I break this broad question into three particular research questions: What knowledge pieces do students use to make connections between physics and procedural math? How do students use their knowledge pieces coherently to provide reasoning strategies in estimation problems? How do students look ahead into the problem to read the information out of the physical scenario to align their use of math in physics? Building on the previous body of the literature, I will use the theory family of Knowledge in Pieces and provide evidence to expand this theoretical foundation. I will compare my study with previous studies and provide suggestions on how to generalize these theory expansions for future use. My experimental data mostly come from video-based classroom data. Students in groups of 2-4 students solve in-class problems in quantum mechanics and electromagnetic fields 1 courses collaboratively. In addition, I will analyze clinical interviews to demonstrate how a single case study student plays an epistemic game to estimate the total energy in a hurricane. My second research question is more focused on a particular instructional context. How do students frame problem solving in quantum mechanics? I

  9. Undergraduate students’ challenges with computational modelling in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simen A. Sørby

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In later years, computational perspectives have become essential parts in several of the University of Oslo’s natural science studies. In this paper we discuss some main findings from a qualitative study of the computational perspectives’ impact on the students’ work with their first course in physics– mechanics – and their learning and meaning making of its contents. Discussions of the students’ learning of physics are based on sociocultural theory, which originates in Vygotsky and Bakhtin, and subsequent physics education research. Results imply that the greatest challenge for students when working with computational assignments is to combine knowledge from previously known, but separate contexts. Integrating knowledge of informatics, numerical and analytical mathematics and conceptual understanding of physics appears as a clear challenge for the students. We also observe alack of awareness concerning the limitations of physical modelling. The students need help with identifying the appropriate knowledge system or “tool set”, for the different tasks at hand; they need helpto create a plan for their modelling and to become aware of its limits. In light of this, we propose thatan instructive and dialogic text as basis for the exercises, in which the emphasis is on specification, clarification and elaboration, would be of potential great aid for students who are new to computational modelling.

  10. Success Stories of Undergraduate Retention: A Pathways Study of Graduate Students in Solar and Space Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Stoll, W.; Moldwin, M.; Gross, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation describes results from an NSF-funded study of the pathways students in solar and space physics have taken to arrive in graduate school. Our Pathways study has documented results from structured interviews conducted with graduate students attending two, week-long, NSF-sponsored scientific workshops during the summer of 2011. Our research team interviewed 48 solar and space physics students (29 males and 19 females currently in graduate programs at US institutions,) in small group settings regarding what attracted and retained them along their pathways leading to grad school. This presentation addresses what these students revealed about the attributes and influences that supported completion of their undergraduate experience and focused their aspirations toward graduate school. In advance of the interview process, we collected 125 on-line survey responses from students at the two workshops. This 20-item survey included questions about high school and undergraduate education, as well as about research and graduate experience. A subset of the 125 students who completed this on-line survey volunteered to be interviewed. Two types of interview data were collected from the 48 interviewees: 1) written answers to a pre-interview questionnaire; and 2) detailed notes taken by researchers during group interviews. On the pre-interview questionnaire, we posed the question: "How did you come to be a graduate student in your field?" Our findings to date are based on an analysis of responses to this question, cross correlated with the corresponding on-line survey data. Our analysis reveals the importance of early research experiences. About 80% of the students participating in the Pathways study cited formative undergraduate research experiences. Moreover, about 50% of participants reported undergraduate research experiences that were in the field of their current graduate studies. Graduate students interviewed frequently cited a childhood interest in science

  11. Liquid crystals: a new topic in physics for undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlin, Jerneja; Čepič, Mojca; Vaupotič, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a teaching module about liquid crystals. Since liquid crystals are linked to everyday student experiences and are also a topic of current scientific research, they are an excellent candidate for a modern topic to be introduced into education. We show that liquid crystals can provide a pathway through several fields of physics such as thermodynamics, optics and electromagnetism. We discuss what students should learn about liquid crystals and what physical concepts they should know before considering them. In the presentation of the teaching module, which consists of a lecture and experimental work in a chemistry and physics laboratory, we focus on experiments on phase transitions, polarization of light, double refraction and colours. A pilot evaluation of the module was performed among pre-service primary school teachers who have no special preference for natural sciences. The evaluation shows that the module is very efficient in transferring knowledge. A prior study showed that the informally obtained pre-knowledge on liquid crystals of the first-year students from several different fields of study was negligible. Since social science students are the least interested in natural sciences, it can be expected that students in any study programme will on average achieve at least as good qualitative knowledge of phenomena related to liquid crystals as the group involved in the pilot study. (paper)

  12. What Works for Women in Undergraduate Physics and What We Can Learn from Women's Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Barbara L.; Dorato, Shannon R.; Duncombe, Margaret L.; Allen, Patricia E.; Blaha, Cynthia A.; Butler, Heather Z.; Shaw, Kimberly A.; Taylor, Beverley A. P.; Williams, Barbara A.

    We are studying the recruitment and retention of women in undergraduate physics by conducting site visits to physics departments. In this second phase of the project, we visited six physics departments in women's colleges. We compared these departments to each other and to the nine departments in coeducational schools that we visited in phase 1 of the project (Whitten, Foster, & Duncombe, 2003a; Whitten et al., 2003b; Whitten et al., 2004). We learned that women's colleges, much more than coed schools, try to recruit students into the physics major. This has led us to criticize the "leaky pipeline" metaphor often used to describe women in physics and to call attention to women dropping in to the physics pipeline. We discuss our results for students and pedagogy and for faculty and institutions, and we offer some advice on how to make a physics department more female friendly.

  13. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.

  14. Expressive writing promotes self-reported physical, social and psychological health among Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihan; Tang, Xiaoqing; Duan, Wenjie; Zhang, Yonghong

    2015-03-01

    The present study examines the efficacy of expressive writing among Chinese undergraduates. The sample comprised of 74 undergraduates enrolled in a 9-week intervention (35 in experimental class vs. 39 in control class). The writing exercises were well-embedded in an elective course for the two classes. The 46-item simplified Chinese Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale, which assesses psychological, physical and social health, was adopted to measure the outcome of this study. Baseline (second week) and post-test (ninth week) scores were obtained during the classes. After the intervention on the eighth week, the self-reported psychological, social and physical health of the experimental class improved. Psychological health obtained the maximum degree of improvement, followed by social and physical health. Furthermore, female participants gained more psychological improvement than males. These results demonstrated that the expressive writing approach could improve the physical, social and psychological health of Chinese undergraduates, and the method can be applied in university psychological consulting settings in Mainland China. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Sexual Harassment Reported Among a Sample of Undergraduate Women in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Lauren M.; Brewe, Eric; Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hazari, Zarha; Hodapp, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    The field of physics lags behind most other scientific fields in gender parity of students earning bachelor's degrees. The transition from enrollment in high school physics to graduating with physics degree represents the biggest decrease in the proportion of female students for any step in physics educational attainment. Sexual harassment contributes to an unwelcome climate. It is unknown how prevalent sexual harassment is in the field of physics and whether it's a contributing factor to the field's inability to recruit and retain female students. Our goal was to measure a quantitative baseline for sexual harassment--associated with physics--observed and experienced by a sample of female undergraduate students. As part of a larger conference evaluation survey, we conducted an internet-based survey (n = 632) of attendees of the APS Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics to measure the extent to which they personally experienced or observed sexual harassment in a context associated with physics. We will present results from this survey. Opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF, DOE, or APS. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (PHY-1346627) and by the Department of Energy (DE-SC0011076).

  16. THERMOPHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND WATER ACTIVITY OF TRANSFERRED CHEESE (UF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Dalvi Esfahan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the thermophysical properties of cheese in the ripening process.The main objective of this work was to investigate the effects of brining and temperature on the thermophysical properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, specific heat, density and water activity of UF cheese and finally we measure surface heat transfer coefficient .Then we develop models for thermophysical properties based on physical and multiple regression concept .

  17. The PASCO Wireless Smart Cart: A Game Changer in the Undergraduate Physics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif; Connor, Rainor

    2018-03-01

    With the introduction of the Wireless Smart Cart by PASCO scientific in April 2016, we expect a paradigm shift in undergraduate physics laboratory instruction. We have evaluated the feasibility of using the smart cart by carrying out experiments that are usually performed using traditional PASCO equipment. The simplicity, convenience, and cost-saving achieved by replacing a plethora of traditional laboratory sensors, wires, and equipment clutter with the smart cart are reported here.

  18. Physical Fitness and Metabolic Profile among Malay Undergraduates of a Public University in Selangor Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Emad; M. Kandiah; W. K. Lim; M. Y. Barakatun-Nisak; A. Rahmat; S. Norasruddin; M. Appukutty

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated health-related components of physical fitness consisting of morphological fitness (body fat % or BF %; Body Mass Index or BMI; and waist circumference or WC), metabolic fitness (blood glucose, lipid profiles and haemoglobin) and aerobic capacity (VO2max). This crosssectional study involved 324 undergraduates recruited voluntarily by systematic random sampling from a public university in the city Shah Alam, Selangor Malaysia. The respondents’ aerobic capacity was measur...

  19. Undergraduate Labs for Biological Physics: Brownian Motion and Optical Trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kelvin; Laughney, A.; Williams, J.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a set of case-study driven labs for an upper-division biological physics course. These labs are motivated by case-studies and consist of inquiry-driven investigations of Brownian motion and optical-trapping experiments. Each lab incorporates two innovative educational techniques to drive the process and application aspects of scientific learning. Case studies are used to encourage students to think independently and apply the scientific method to a novel lab situation. Student input from this case study is then used to decide how to best do the measurement, guide the project and ultimately evaluate the success of the program. Where appropriate, visualization and simulation using VPython is used. Direct visualization of Brownian motion allows students to directly calculate Avogadro's number or the Boltzmann constant. Following case-study driven discussion, students use video microscopy to measure the motion of latex spheres in different viscosity fluids arrive at a good approximation of NA or kB. Optical trapping (laser tweezer) experiments allow students to investigate the consequences of 100-pN forces on small particles. The case study consists of a discussion of the Boltzmann distribution and equipartition theorem followed by a consideration of the shape of the potential. Students can then use video capture to measure the distribution of bead positions to determine the shape and depth of the trap. This work supported by NSF DUE-0536773.

  20. A study of UF4 preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, I.S.; Doh, J.B.; Choi, Y.D.

    1985-05-01

    Uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ), green salt, is very important intermediate in the production of metallic uranium and uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) for enrichment. The hydrofluorination of uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) with anhydrous hydrogen fluoride (HF), produced from ADU (ammonium diuranate) process or AUC (ammonium uranyl carbonate) process, are commercially used for the production of uranium tetrafluoride. At present, a new approach such as direct UF 4 preparation at the mine-site without further precipitation, filteration and drying of yellow cake from leaching solution has been studied. The single step continous reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride is one of the most interesting process being applied for the commercial use of a large amount of depleted UF 6 which is produced in tail after enrichment. The direct conversion of UF 6 and UF 4 with hydrogen and fluorine gases using cold wall reactor has a certain advantage over various wet process such as AUD and AUC processes in which hydrolysis of UF 6 and various kind of chemicals are required, including liquid waste treatment. This report reviews and analyzes the theory and processes being used commercially or under study. (Author)

  1. Physical inactivity among physiotherapy undergraduates: exploring the knowledge-practice gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Chathuranga; Sigera, Chathurani; Ranasinghe, Priyanga; Jayawardena, Ranil; Ranasinghe, Ayodya C R; Hills, Andrew P; King, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a common risk factor for several non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Increasing physical activity could reduce the burden of disease due to major NCDs and increase life expectancy. Undergraduate physiotherapy students represent a group of young-adults expected to have a good knowledge of physical activity. We evaluated physical activity levels of undergraduate physiotherapy students of University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and determined their motives and barriers for participation in physical activity. All physiotherapy undergraduates studying at the University of Colombo, Sri Lanka in 2013 were invited for the study. Phase one was a quantitative study to evaluate the physical activity levels and phase two was a qualitative study to identify motives and barriers for physical activity and sports in the same cohort. Physical activity levels (phase 1) were assessed using the interviewer administered International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long-version). The qualitative study (phase 2) was conducted in the same population using Focus Group Discussions ( n  = 3) and individual In-depth Interviews ( n  = 5). Sample size in phase 1 and phase 2 were 113 (response rate = 98%; [N-115]) and 87 (response rat = 97%; [N-90]) respectively. Mean age (±SD) of participants was 23.4 ± 1 years. The mean weekly total MET minutes (±SD) of the study population was 1791.25 ± 3097. According to the IPAQ categorical score a higher percentage of participants were 'inactive' (48.7%), while only 15.9% were in the 'Highly active' group. Lack of support and encouragement received during childhood to engage in sports activity seem to have played an important role in continuing their exercise behavior through to the adult life. Academic activities were given priority by both parents and teachers. The environment and support from teachers, family and friends were important to initiate and adhere to sports and physical activity. A higher

  2. Relationship between academic performance with physical, psychosocial, lifestyle, and sociodemographic factors in female undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Maude Dubuc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old. All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA, handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max (Bruce Protocol and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2max (r = 0.32, intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27 and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002. In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P < 0.05. Finally, a stepwise linear regression analysis showed that external regulation, intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment, VO2max levels and eating a daily breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.

  3. Relationship between Academic Performance with Physical, Psychosocial, Lifestyle, and Sociodemographic Factors in Female Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Marie-Maude; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Karelis, Antony D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old). All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA), handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) (Bruce Protocol) and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO 2 max ( r = 0.32), intrinsic motivation toward knowledge ( r = 0.23), intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment ( r = 0.27) and external regulation ( r = -0.30, P = 0.002). In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance ( P breakfast explained 28.5 % of the variation in the GPA in our cohort. Results of the present study indicate that motivational, physical and lifestyle factors appear to be predictors of academic performance in female undergraduate students.

  4. Health perceptions, self and body image, physical activity and nutrition among undergraduate students in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Liat; Gonen, Ester; Shaked, Yael; Golan, Moria

    2013-01-01

    This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships between these variables differed between the subpopulation in the sample and the different genders. Engagement in physical exercise contributed to positive body image and positive health perceptions more than engagement in healthy nutrition. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, positive self and body image and higher engagement in physical exercise in comparison to all other students in the sample. This study suggests, as have many before, that successful health promotion policy should reflect a collectivist rather than an individualist ethos by providing health prerequisites through a public policy of health-promotion, where the academic settings support a healthy lifestyle policy, by increasing availability of a healthy, nutritious and varied menu in the cafeterias, and offering students various activities that enhance healthy eating and exercise. IMPLICATIONS AND CONTRIBUTION: This study examined health perceptions, self-image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students and found high correlations between these topics. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, and positive self and body image and engaged more in physical exercise when compared with all other students in the sample.

  5. Sensitivity of UF-R, UF-VCh, UF-VR films used for soft x-ray (lambda=2+10A) detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglitskij, E.V.; Bojko, V.A.; Kalinkina, T.A.

    1975-01-01

    The sensitometric characteristics of the following types of photographic film were measured in the range of wavelengths 2-10A: UF-R, UF-VCh, and UF-VR. It was demonstrated that UF-VR photographic film is four times as sensitive as UF-R film and 1.6 times as sensitive as UF-VCh film; it is also most suitable film for x-ray spectroscopy of multiply charged ions and for diagnosing high-temperature laser plasma

  6. Gamification: using elements of video games to improve engagement in an undergraduate physics class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J. A.; O'Meara, J. M.; Gerhardt, T. C.; Williams, M.

    2016-09-01

    Gamification has been extensively implemented and studied in corporate settings and has proven to be more effective than traditional employee-training programs, however, few classroom studies of gamification have been reported in the literature. Our study explored the potential of gamified on-line undergraduate physics content as a mechanism to enhance student learning and motivation. Specifically, the main objective of this work was to determine whether extrinsic motivation indicators commonly used in video games could increase student engagement with course content outside of the classroom. Life Science students taking an introductory physics course were provided access to gamified multiple choice quizzes as part of their course assessment. The quizzes incorporated common gaming elements such as points, streaks, leaderboards and achievements, as well as some gamified graphical enhancements and feedback. Student attitudes and performance among those using the gamified quizzes were examined and compared to non-gamified control groups within the same course. Student engagement was quantified through examining student participation above and beyond the minimum course requirements. The results showed that gaming techniques are significantly correlated with increased engagement with course material outside of the classroom. These results may assist instructors in engaging and motivating students outside the classroom through carefully designed online and distance-delivered undergraduate physics content. Furthermore, the gaming elements incorporated in this study were not specifically tied to the physics content and can be easily translated to any educational setting.

  7. Relationship between Academic Performance with Physical, Psychosocial, Lifestyle, and Sociodemographic Factors in Female Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Marie-Maude; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Karelis, Antony D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical, psychosocial, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors with academic performance in female undergraduate students. Methods: One hundred undergraduate female students from the Faculty of Science at the University of Quebec at Montreal participated in this study (mean age = 24.4 ± 4.6 years old). All participants provided their university transcript and had to complete at least 45 course credits from their bachelor degree. Body composition (DXA), handgrip strength, estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) (Bruce Protocol) and blood pressure were measured. Participants also completed a questionnaire on their psychosocial, academic motivation, lifestyle and sociodemographic profile. Results: Significant correlations were observed between GPA with estimated VO2 max (r = 0.32), intrinsic motivation toward knowledge (r = 0.23), intrinsic motivation toward accomplishment (r = 0.27) and external regulation (r = -0.30, P = 0.002). In addition, eating breakfast every morning and being an atheist was positively associated with academic performance (P academic performance in female undergraduate students. PMID:28479964

  8. Integration of physics and biology: synergistic undergraduate education for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Terry; Vasaly, Helen; McBride, Duncan; White, Gary

    2013-06-01

    This is an exciting time to be a biologist. The advances in our field and the many opportunities to expand our horizons through interaction with other disciplines are intellectually stimulating. This is as true for people tasked with helping the field move forward through support of research and education projects that serve the nation's needs as for those carrying out that research and educating the next generation of biologists. So, it is a pleasure to contribute to this edition of CBE-Life Sciences Education. This column will cover three aspects of the interactions of physics and biology as seen from the viewpoint of four members of the Division of Undergraduate Education of the National Science Foundation. The first section places the material to follow in context. The second reviews some of the many interdisciplinary physics-biology projects we support. The third highlights mechanisms available for supporting new physics-biology undergraduate education projects based on ideas that arise, focusing on those needing and warranting outside support to come to fruition.

  9. The undergraduate physics tutorial program at CSU Los Angeles assessment of utility and areas of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetyan, Smbat

    The Physics Education Research (PER) group at the University of Washington have researched traditional teaching methods and found that students in introductory physics are lacking a conceptual understanding of the physics material. The solution they put forth is an interactive tutorial program designed to meet the lack of conceptual understanding. Since the tutorial programs inception at CSU Los Angeles in Fall 2006 no evaluation has been successfully undertaken therefore the effect of the tutorial program in the physics 200 series is deeply obscure to the department. The research has shed light on the tutorial program and brought into context its effectiveness on the overall physics 200 series courses at CSU Los Angeles. The researcher has addressed the following research questions, what overall effect does the tutorial program have on the Physics 200 series curriculum? What is the size and significance of gains attributable to the undergraduate calculus based Physics 200 series tutorial program at CSU Los Angeles? What can we learn from gains about individual weekly lessons from the Physics 200 series tutorial courses? What is the correlation of tutorial gains with student final course grades? Are the gains from the tutorial program different for genders? Is there a difference in gains based on the different students' colleges?

  10. Optics and communication technology major of physics undergraduate degree at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranasiri, Prathan

    2014-09-01

    A physics undergraduate degree major in optics and communication technology has been offered at King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok, Thailand. There are nine required three credit hour courses including two laboratory courses plus a number of selections in optics and communication based technology courses. For independent thinking and industrial working skills, nine credit hours of research project, practical training or overseas studies are included for selection in the final semester. Students are encouraged to participate in international conferences and professional organizations. Recently the program, with support from SPIE and OSA, has organized its first international conference on photonic solutions 2013 (ICPS 2013).

  11. Content of Curriculum in Physical Education Teacher Education: Expectations of Undergraduate Physical Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spittle, Michael; Spittle, Sharna

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of university physical education students of the importance of physical education curriculum content areas and how those perceptions related to the reasons for course choice and motivation. Physical education degree students (n = 188) completed measures of their perceptions of physical education content areas,…

  12. Uranium isotope exchange between gaseous UF6 and solid UF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yato, Yumio; Kishimoto, Yoichiro; Sasao, Nobuyuki; Suto, Osamu; Funasaka, Hideyuki

    1996-01-01

    Based on a collision model, a new rate equation is derived for uranium isotope exchange between gaseous UF 6 and solid UF 5 by considering the number of UF 5 molecules on the solid surface to be dependent on time. The reaction parameters included in the equation are determined from the experimental data and compared with the previous ones. A remarkable agreement is found between the particle sizes of UF 5 estimated from the reaction parameter and from the direct observation with an electron microscope. The rate equation given in this work fully satisfies the related mass conservation and furthermore includes explicitly the terms related to the UF 6 density and the mean size of UF 5 particles, both of which are considered to cause an important effect on the reaction. This remarkable feature facilitates the simulation studies on this reaction under various conditions. The long term behavior of a simulated exchange reaction is studied under the condition considered to be close to that in a recovery zone of the MLIS process. The result indicates that the reaction is virtually limited to the solid surface under this conditions and thus the depletion of 235 UF 5 concentration averaged over the whole UF 5 particles is not significant even after 200 h of the exchange reaction

  13. Chemical exchange between UF6 and UF6- ion in anhydrous hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelet, J.; Luce, M.; Plurien, P.; Rigny, P.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical exchange between UF 6 and the UF 6 - ion is of potential interest for the separation of U isotopes. In this paper, results concerning the value of the separation factor and the kinetics of the homogeneous exchange are given [fr

  14. Studies on (2UF4 + H2 = 2UF3 + 2HF) and vapour pressure of UF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, K.N.; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, V.; Singh, Z.; Sood, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    Equilibrium constants for 2UF 4 (s) + H 2 (g) = 2UF 3 (s) + 2HF(g) have been measured in the temperature range 967 to 1120 K. An expression is given for the results. The results have been treated by second- and third-law methods to obtain ΔH 0 (298.15 K) and the values are given. The value of ΔS 0 (298.15 K) has been calculated by the second-law method. An expression is given for the vapour pressure of UF 3 (s), measured by the transpiration technique in the range 1229 to 1367 K. The standard enthalpy of vaporization ΔH 0 sub(v) (298.15 K) and the standard entropy of vaporization ΔS 0 sub(v) (298.15 K) have been calculated. The vaporization results have also been used for the calculation of ΔH 0 sub(f)(UF 3 , g, 298.15 K) and ΔS 0 sub(f)(UF 3 ,g, 298.15 K). (author)

  15. Accelerator-based techniques for the support of senior-level undergraduate physics laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.R.; Clark, J.C.; Isaacs-Smith, T.

    2001-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, Auburn University replaced its aging Dynamitron accelerator with a new 2MV tandem machine (Pelletron) manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC). This new machine is maintained and operated for the University by Physics Department personnel, and the accelerator supports a wide variety of materials modification/analysis studies. Computer software is available that allows the NEC Pelletron to be operated from a remote location, and an Internet link has been established between the Accelerator Laboratory and the Upper-Level Undergraduate Teaching Laboratory in the Physics Department. Additional software supplied by Canberra Industries has also been used to create a second Internet link that allows live-time data acquisition in the Teaching Laboratory. Our senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students perform a number of experiments related to radiation detection and measurement as well as several standard accelerator-based experiments that have been added recently. These laboratory exercises will be described, and the procedures used to establish the Internet links between our Teaching Laboratory and the Accelerator Laboratory will be discussed

  16. A new course and textbook on Physical Models of Living Systems, for science and engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip

    2015-03-01

    I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The only prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional courses: Basic modeling skills Probabilistic modeling skills Data analysis methods Computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python Dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. These basic skills, which are relevant to nearly any field of science or engineering, are presented in the context of case studies from living systems, including: Virus dynamics Bacterial genetics and evolution of drug resistance Statistical inference Superresolution microscopy Synthetic biology Naturally evolved cellular circuits. Work supported by NSF Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  17. An undergraduate course, and new textbook, on ``Physical Models of Living Systems''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip

    2015-03-01

    I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The only prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in several science and engineering departments. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional courses, including: basic modeling skills, probabilistic modeling skills, data analysis methods, computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python, dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. These basic skills, which are relevant to nearly any field of science or engineering, are presented in the context of case studies from living systems, including: virus dynamics; bacterial genetics and evolution of drug resistance; statistical inference; superresolution microscopy; synthetic biology; naturally evolved cellular circuits. Publication of a new textbook by WH Freeman and Co. is scheduled for December 2014. Supported in part by EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  18. Esoteric elementary particle phenomena in undergraduate physics: spontaneous symmetry breaking and scale invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    We take two rather abstract concepts from elementary particle physics, and show that there actually exist analogs to both of them in undergraduate physics. In the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking, we provide an example where the most symmetrical state of a simple system suddenly becomes unstable, while a less symmetrical state develops lower energy and becomes stable. In the case of scale invariance, we consider an example with no natural scale determined, and show that a straightforward dimensional analysis of the problem leads to incorrect results, because of the occurrence of infinities, even though they would appear to be irrelevant infinities that might not be expected to affect the dimensions of the answer. We then show how a simple use of the scale invariance of the problem leads to the correct answer

  19. Depleted UF6 programmatic environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has developed a program for long-term management and use of depleted uranium hexafluoride, a product of the uranium enrichment process. As part of this effort, DOE is preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for the depleted UF 6 management program. This report duplicates the information available at the web site (http://www.ead.anl.gov/web/newduf6) set up as a repository for the PEIS. Options for the web site include: reviewing recent additions or changes to the web site; learning more about depleted UF 6 and the PEIS; browsing the PEIS and related documents, or submitting official comments on the PEIS; downloading all or part of the PEIS documents; and adding or deleting one's name from the depleted UF 6 mailing list

  20. Corrosion of breached UF6 storage cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, E.J.; Taylor, M.S.; DeVan, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the corrosion processes that occurred following the mechanical failure of two steel 14-ton storage cylinders containing depleted UF 6 . The failures both were traced to small mechanical tears that occurred during stacking of the cylinders. Although subsequent corrosion processes greatly extended the openings in the wall. the reaction products formed were quite protective and prevented any significant environmental insult or loss of uranium. The relative sizes of the two holes correlated with the relative exposure times that had elapsed from the time of stacking. From the sizes and geometries of the two holes, together with analyses of the reaction products, it was possible to determine the chemical reactions that controlled the corrosion process and to develop a scenario for predicting the rate of hydrolysis of UF 6 , the loss rate of HF, and chemical attack of a breached UF 6 storage cylinder

  1. Metamorphosis: Phases of UF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R.H. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A 15-minute videotape is presented. The subject matter is 150 grams of UF{sub 6} sealed in a glass tube. Close-up views show the UF{sub 6} as phase changes are effected by the addition or removal of heat from the closed system. The solid-to-liquid transition is shown as heat is added, both slowly and rapidly. The solid phases which result from freezing and from desublimation are contrasted. In the solid state, uranium hexafluoride is a nearly-white, dense crystalline solid. The appearance of this solid depends on whether it is formed by freezing from the liquid or by desublimation from the vapor phase. If frozen from the liquid, the solid particles take the form of irregularly shaped coarse grains, while the solid product of desublimation tends to be a rather formless mass without individually distinguishable particles. The changes in state are presented in terms of the UF{sub 6} phase diagram.

  2. Advantages and challenges of using physics curricula as a model for reforming an undergraduate biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, D A; Atkins, L J; Salter, I Y; Gallagher, D J; Kratz, R F; Rousseau, J V; Nelson, G D

    2013-06-01

    We report on the development of a life sciences curriculum, targeted to undergraduate students, which was modeled after a commercially available physics curriculum and based on aspects of how people learn. Our paper describes the collaborative development process and necessary modifications required to apply a physics pedagogical model in a life sciences context. While some approaches were easily adapted, others provided significant challenges. Among these challenges were: representations of energy, introducing definitions, the placement of Scientists' Ideas, and the replicability of data. In modifying the curriculum to address these challenges, we have come to see them as speaking to deeper differences between the disciplines, namely that introductory physics--for example, Newton's laws, magnetism, light--is a science of pairwise interaction, while introductory biology--for example, photosynthesis, evolution, cycling of matter in ecosystems--is a science of linked processes, and we suggest that this is how the two disciplines are presented in introductory classes. We illustrate this tension through an analysis of our adaptations of the physics curriculum for instruction on the cycling of matter and energy; we show that modifications of the physics curriculum to address the biological framework promotes strong gains in student understanding of these topics, as evidenced by analysis of student work.

  3. 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, January 18-20, 2013, Urbana, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Kevin T. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    2016-04-28

    This document is the program for the 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, which was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on January 18-20, 2013. The goals of the conference were to foster a culture in which undergraduate women are encouraged and supported to pursue, and also to succeed in, higher education in physics; to provide career information to students in physics and related fields; to give women the resources, motivation, and confidence to apply to graduate school and successfully complete a Ph.D. program in Physics; to provide information and dispel misconceptions about the application process for graduate school and the diverse employment opportunities in physics and related fields, enabling women to make more informed decisions about their goals and attain them; and to connect female physics students with successful female physicists to whom they can relate and who can act as inspirational role models and mentors.

  4. Evaluation of the Undergraduate Physics Programme at Indira Gandhi National Open University: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Mishra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The undergraduate science programme was launched at the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU in 1991-92 with an enrolment of 1,210 students. The programme was well received, and enrolments increased over the years. However, the success rates have not kept pace with enrolment.In this paper, the authors report the results of an evaluation of the undergraduate Physics programme at IGNOU. The evaluation, the first of its type for this programme, adapted the major tenets of the CIPP model. The findings are based on the responses from a randomly chosen sample of 509 learners across India. The methods employed for the study include records, document, and database analysis, surveys, and case studies.Although the University has enhanced access to higher science education, the attrition rate is high (73%, and the success rate is low. The authors recommend that the University review and reorient its strategies for providing good quality, learner-centred higher education in science subjects. The programme should address the concerns of the learners about the effectiveness of the student support systems, the difficulty level, and the learner-friendliness of study materials with the goal of achieving long-term sustainability while maintaining parity with the conventional system. The need for improving the presentation of the courses and simplifying the mathematical details is emphasised.

  5. [THE COMPARISON BETWEEN FOOD HABITS AND PHYSICAL CONDITION AMONG PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND OTHER UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Badilla, Pablo; Godoy-Cumillaf, Andrés; Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás; Durán-Agüero, Samuel

    2015-08-01

    college students show a great susceptibility to acquire inadequate habits during their university studies, which they could maintain along their life. compare the dietary habits and physical fitness among physical education students and other university careers at the same university and campus. the sample included 343 students, mainly men (70%), 212 students from the career of Physical Education (PE) and 131 students of other careers (OC) of the Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Temuco campus. A validated survey about eating habits and physical fitness tests were applied to each student. in comparison with the students from other careers, the men of PE have a lower frequency of consumption of dairy, vegetables, alcohol (p consumption of homemade food, biscuits and sweet snacks (p junk food, cookies and sweet snacks. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  6. Conversion of non-nuclear grade feedstock to UF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponelis, A.A.; Slabber, M.N.; Zimmer, C.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The South African Conversion route is based on the direct feed of ammonium di-uranate produced by any one of a number of different mines. The physical and chemical characteristics of the feedstock can thus vary considerably and influence the conversion rate as well as the final UF 6 product purity. The UF 4 conversion reactor is a Moving Bed Reactor (MBR) with countercurrent flow of the reacting gas phases. Initial problems to continuously operate the MBR were mostly concerned with the physical nature of the UO 3 feed particles. Different approaches to eventually obtain a successful MBR are discussed. Besides obtaining UO 3 feed particles with certain physical attributes, the chemical impurities also have an effect on the operability of the MBR. The influence of the feedstock variables on the reduction and hydrofluorination rates after calcining has largely been determined from laboratory and pilot studies. The effect of chemical impurities such as sodium and potassium on the sinterability of the reacting particles and therefore the optimum temperature range in the MBR is also discussed. Confirmation of the effect of sodium and potassium impurities on the conversion rate has been obtained from large scale reactor operation. (author)

  7. Reactions UF{sub 4} - ClF, UF{sub 4} - ClF{sub 3}, UF{sub 5} - ClF, UF{sub 5} - ClF{sub 3}; Reactions UF{sub 4} - ClF, UF{sub 4} - ClF{sub 3}, UF{sub 5} - ClF, UF{sub 5} - ClF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luce, M; Benoit, R; Hartmanshenn, O [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The reaction between ClF{sub 3} and UF{sub 4} is partially explained by the study of the reactions of the three systems: UF{sub 4}-ClF, UF{sub 5}-ClF and UF{sub 5}-ClF{sub 3}. The analytical techniques used are: the micro-sublimation, the infra-red spectroscopy and the thermogravimetry. The origin of the by-products is indicated. (authors) [French] La reaction entre ClF{sub 3} et UF{sub 4} est partiellement expliquee grace a l'etude des reactions des trois systemes UF{sub 4}-ClF, UF{sub 5}-ClF et UF{sub 5}-ClF{sub 3}. Les techniques analytiques utilisees sont: la micro-sublimation, la spectroscopie infrarouge et la thermogravimetrie. L'origine des sous-produits est indiquee. (auteurs)

  8. A Study of Faculty Approaches to Teaching Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Michael Ryan

    Chemistry education researchers have not adequately studied teaching and learning experiences at all levels in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum leaving gaps in discipline-based STEM education communities understanding about how the upper- division curricula works (National Research Council, 2012b; Towns, 2013). This study explored faculty approaches to teaching in upper-division physical chemistry course settings using an interview-based methodology. Two conceptualizations of approaches to teaching emerged from a phenomenographic analysis of interview transcripts: (1) faculty beliefs about the purposes for teaching physical chemistry and (2) their conceptions of their role as an instructor in these course settings. Faculty who reported beliefs predominantly centered on helping students develop conceptual knowledge and problem-solving skills in physical chemistry often worked with didactic models of teaching, which emphasized the transfer of expert knowledge to students. When faculty expressed beliefs that were more inclusive of conceptual, epistemic, and social learning goals in science education they often described more student-centered models of teaching and learning, which put more responsibilities on them to facilitate students' interactive engagement with the material and peers during regularly scheduled class time. Knowledge of faculty thinking, as evinced in a rich description of their accounts of their experience, provides researchers and professional developers with useful information about the potential opportunities or barriers that exist for helping faculty align their beliefs and goals for teaching with research-based instructional strategies.

  9. Comparison study of resistance exercise nomenclature adopted among professionals and undergraduate physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mendes de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p233   In the past few years, increased popularity of resistance training (RT and a significant increase in the number of professionals and undergraduate in Physical Education students have been observed. A variety of names has been usually adopted for the same resistance exercise in fields. The aim of the study was to compare the resistance exercise nomenclature adopted by physical education professionals and students, and also to identify the frequencies of names adopted for these resistance exercises. The study included 191 graduate students and active physical education professionals of RT centers and gyms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten exercises traditionally performed on RT programs were selected. The results indicated that there was no association between the nomenclature of exercises and academic degree for all exercises included in the survey. However, there was significant difference (p <0.001 among response frequencies for each exercise, for the whole sample. In this sense, this study enabled identifying significant differences in the nomenclature of resistance exercises. Therefore, nomenclature standardization is essential to establish a direction and clearness in communication among professionals.

  10. Exploring problem-based cooperative learning in undergraduate physics labs: student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergin, S. D.; Murphy, C.; Shuilleabhain, A. Ni

    2018-03-01

    This study examines the potential of problem-based cooperative learning (PBCL) in expanding undergraduate physics students’ understanding of, and engagement with, the scientific process. Two groups of first-year physics students (n = 180) completed a questionnaire which compared their perceptions of learning science with their engagement in physics labs. One cohort completed a lab based on a PBCL approach, whilst the other completed the same experiment, using a more traditional, manual-based lab. Utilising a participant research approach, the questionnaire was co-constructed by researchers and student advisers from each cohort in order to improve shared meaning between researchers and participants. Analysis of students’ responses suggests that students in the PBCL cohort engaged more in higher-order problem-solving skills and evidenced a deeper understanding of the scientific process than students in the more traditional, manual-based cohort. However, the latter cohort responses placed more emphasis on accuracy and measurement in lab science than the PBCL cohort. The students in the PBCL cohort were also more positively engaged with their learning than their counterparts in the manual led group.

  11. A Comparison of Online, Video Synchronous, and Traditional Learning Modes for an Introductory Undergraduate Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulconer, E. K.; Griffith, J.; Wood, B.; Acharyya, S.; Roberts, D.

    2018-05-01

    While the equivalence between online and traditional classrooms has been well-researched, very little of this includes college-level introductory Physics. Only one study explored Physics at the whole-class level rather than specific course components such as a single lab or a homework platform. In this work, we compared the failure rate, grade distribution, and withdrawal rates in an introductory undergraduate Physics course across several learning modes including traditional face-to-face instruction, synchronous video instruction, and online classes. Statistically significant differences were found for student failure rates, grade distribution, and withdrawal rates but yielded small effect sizes. Post-hoc pair-wise test was run to determine differences between learning modes. Online students had a significantly lower failure rate than students who took the class via synchronous video classroom. While statistically significant differences were found for grade distributions, the pair-wise comparison yielded no statistically significance differences between learning modes when using the more conservative Bonferroni correction in post-hoc testing. Finally, in this study, student withdrawal rates were lowest for students who took the class in person (in-person classroom and synchronous video classroom) than online. Students that persist in an online introductory Physics class are more likely to achieve an A than in other modes. However, the withdrawal rate is higher from online Physics courses. Further research is warranted to better understand the reasons for higher withdrawal rates in online courses. Finding the root cause to help eliminate differences in student performance across learning modes should remain a high priority for education researchers and the education community as a whole.

  12. Learning physical biology via modeling and simulation: A new course and textbook for science and engineering undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip

    To a large extent, undergraduate physical-science curricula remain firmly rooted in pencil-and-paper calculation, despite the fact that most research is done with computers. To a large extent, undergraduate life-science curricula remain firmly rooted in descriptive approaches, despite the fact that much current research involves quantitative modeling. Not only does our pedagogy not reflect current reality; it also creates a spurious barrier between the fields, reinforcing the narrow silos that prevent students from connecting them. I'll describe an intermediate-level course on ``Physical Models of Living Systems.'' The prerequisite is first-year university physics and calculus. The course is a response to rapidly growing interest among undergraduates in a broad range of science and engineering majors. Students acquire several research skills that are often not addressed in traditional undergraduate courses: •Basic modeling skills; •Probabilistic modeling skills; •Data analysis methods; •Computer programming using a general-purpose platform like MATLAB or Python; •Pulling datasets from the Web for analysis; •Data visualization; •Dynamical systems, particularly feedback control. Partially supported by the NSF under Grants EF-0928048 and DMR-0832802.

  13. Predictors of Academic Achievement among Physical Education and Sports Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertuğrul Şahin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have attempted to determine the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of students’ academic performance, there are few studies in the literature that examine the correlates of academic achievement for physical education and sports undergraduate students. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the academic achievement of first-year physical education and sports students and their sociodemographics, attitudes towards the teaching profession, personality traits, and achievement goal orientations. The participants of the study consisted of 127 (67% male physical education and sports students, ranging in age from 16 to 30 years old when they began their studies. Participants responded to a questionnaire to determine their sociodemographic characteristics, their attitudes towards the teaching profession in their high school years, their core self-evaluations, and their achievement goal orientations. Pearson correlation analysis results showed that students’ first year grade-point average (GPA was associated with gender, high school GPA, core-self evaluations, and mastery-approach achievement goal orientation. Results of the regression analysis suggested that the three variables that predicted the students’ first year GPA were their mastery-approach scores, attitudes towards the teaching profession in high school years, and high school GPA. In order to prevent academic failure in physical education and sports students, those who do not have a mastery-approach goal orientation and who had a low high school GPA should be identified at the beginning of the academic year, so that educational interventions can be directed at these students.

  14. Value Added: History of Physics in a ``Science, Technology, and Society'' General Education Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Dwight

    2016-03-01

    In thirty years of teaching a capstone ``Science, Technology, and Society'' course to undergraduate students of all majors, I have found that, upon entering STS, to most of them the Manhattan Project seems about as remote as the Civil War; few can describe the difference between nuclear and large non-nuclear weapons. With similar lack of awareness, many students seem to think the Big Bang was dreamed up by science sorcerers. One might suppose that a basic mental picture of weapons that held entire populations hostage should be part of informed citizenship. One might also suppose that questions about origins, as they are put to nature through evidence-based reasoning, should be integral to a culture's identity. Over the years I have found the history of physics to be an effective tool for bringing such subjects to life for STS students. Upon hearing some of the history behind (for example) nuclear weapons and big bang cosmology, these students can better imagine themselves called upon to help in a Manhattan Project, or see themselves sleuthing about in a forensic science like cosmology. In this talk I share sample student responses to our class discussions on nuclear weapons, and on cosmology. The history of physics is too engaging to be appreciated only by physicists.

  15. Physical Fitness and Metabolic Profile among Malay Undergraduates of a Public University in Selangor Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated health-related components of physical fitness consisting of morphological fitness (body fat % or BF %; Body Mass Index or BMI; and waist circumference or WC, metabolic fitness (blood glucose, lipid profiles and haemoglobin and aerobic capacity (VO2max. This crosssectional study involved 324 undergraduates recruited voluntarily by systematic random sampling from a public university in the city Shah Alam, Selangor Malaysia. The respondents’ aerobic capacity was measured by field fitness tests and anthropometric measurements using standard protocols. The mean BMI of respondents was 22.51 ± 4.18 kg/m2, and majority of the respondents (93% are within normal range of WC. The prevalence of underweight was 13.5% and overweight/obese was 20.2%. The blood glucose levels of respondents were within the normal range (94.4% and about 5% of female respondents had moderate anaemia. More than 70% of the males and 25% of the females had poor VO2max levels (aerobic capacity. In summary, the present results suggest the necessity of health promotion programme focusing on physical activity and nutrition for university students.

  16. Thermal plasma reduction of UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.; Haggard, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct plasma reduction of depleted uranium hexafluoride to uranium metal. The process exploits the large departures from equilibrium that can be achieved in the rapid supersonic expansion of a totally dissociated and partially ionized mixture of UF 6 , Ar, He, and H 2 . The process is based on the rapid condensation of subcooled uranium vapor and the relatively slow rate of back reaction between metallic uranium and HF to F 2 to reform stable fluorides. The high translational velocities and rapid cooling result in an overpopulation of atomic hydrogen which persists throughout the expansion process. Atomic hydrogen shifts the equilibrium composition by inhibiting the reformation of uranium-fluorine compounds. This process has the potential to reduce the cost of reducing UF 6 to uranium metal with the added benefit of being a virtually waste free process. The dry HF produced is a commodity which has industrial value

  17. Physical examination in undergraduate medical education in the field of general practice - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßhammer, Dirk; Graf, Joachim; Joos, Stefanie; Hertkorn, Rebekka

    2017-11-25

    Physical examination (PE) is an essential clinical skill and a central part of a physician's daily activity. Teaching of PE has been integrated into medical school by many clinical disciplines with respective specific examination procedures. For instance, PE teaching in general practice may include a full-body examination approach. Studies show that PE-skills of medical students often need enhancement. The aim of this article was to scope the literature regarding the teaching and research of PE within general practice during undergraduate medical education. We evaluated a wide breadth of literature relating to the content, study design, country of research institution and year of publication. Literature search in Medline along the PRISMA-P protocol was performed by search syntax ("physical examination" AND "medical education" AND "undergraduate" AND general practice) considering Medline MeSH (Medical Subject Heading)-Terms and Medline search term tree structure. Independent title, abstract and full-text screening with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria was performed. Full texts were analyzed by publication year, country of origin, study design and content (by categorizing articles along their main topic according to qualitative content analysis of Mayring). One-hundred seven articles were included. The annual number of publications ranged from 4 to 14 and had a slightly rising trend since 2000. Nearly half of the publications originated from the United States (n = 54), 33 from Canada and the United Kingdom. Overall, intervention studies represented the largest group (n = 60, including uncontrolled and controlled studies, randomized and non-randomized), followed by cross-sectional studies (n = 29). The 117 studies could be assigned to five categories "teaching methods (n = 53)", "teaching quality (n = 33)", "performance evaluation and examination formats (n=19)", "students' views (n = 8)" and "patients' and standardized patients' views

  18. New regulatory aspects of UF6 transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, A.L.; Lee Gonzales, H.M.; Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Novo, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    In nuclear industry, a great amount of uranium is transformed from a chemical form to another. When the fuel cycle requires enrichment, uranium hexafluoride (UF 6) is handled, stored and transported in great quantities. To analyze the risks involved in possible accidents associated with UF 6 , radiological and chemical aspects must be considered. So far, the international practice was based on the adoption of regulations from a particular country (ANSI No. 14.1-1982.U.S.A.). In this way, the adoption of these norms at international level is difficult. For that reason, the International Atomic Energy Agency has attempted to consider the chemical risks associated with UF 6 in order to establish a more universal basis ('Recommendations for Providing Protection during the Transport of Uranium Hexafluoride' IAEA-TECDOC-423, Vienna, June 1987 - Austria). A critical analysis of these recommendations is presented in this work. The coherence and the degree of completion of the new recommendations are evaluated and the safety level is compared with that of the accepted regulations for toxic or corrosive substances and for radioactive materials transport. (Author)

  19. Do it yourself: optical spectrometer for physics undergraduate instruction in nanomaterial characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuryantini, Ade Yeti; Mahen, Ea Cahya Septia; Sawitri, Asti; Nuryadin, Bebeh Wahid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a homemade optical spectrometer using diffraction grating and image processing techniques. This device was designed to produce spectral images that could then be processed by measuring signal strength (pixel intensity) to obtain the light source, transmittance, and absorbance spectra of the liquid sample. The homemade optical spectrometer consisted of: (i) a white LED as a light source, (ii) a cuvette or sample holder, (iii) a slit, (iv) a diffraction grating, and (v) a CMOS camera (webcam). In this study, various concentrations of a carbon nanoparticle (CNP) colloid were used in the particle size sample test. Additionally, a commercial optical spectrometer and tunneling electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize the optical properties and morphology of the CNPs, respectively. The data obtained using the homemade optical spectrometer, commercial optical spectrometer, and TEM showed similar results and trends. Lastly, the calculation and measurement of CNP size were performed using the effective mass approximation (EMA) and TEM. These data showed that the average nanoparticle sizes were approximately 2.4 nm and 2.5 ± 0.3 nm, respectively. This research provides new insights into the development of a portable, simple, and low-cost optical spectrometer that can be used in nanomaterial characterization for physics undergraduate instruction. (paper)

  20. An Interdisciplinary Undergraduate Space Physics Course: Understanding the Process of Science Through One Field's Colorful History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ramon E.

    1996-01-01

    Science education in this country is in its greatest period of ferment since the post-Sputnik frenzy a generation ago. In that earlier time, however, educators' emphasis was on producing more scientists and engineers. Today we recognize that all Americans need a good science background. The ability to observe, measure, think quantitatively, and reach logical conclusions based on available evidence is a set of skills that everyone entering the workforce needs to acquire if our country is to be competitive in a global economy. Moreover, as public policy increasingly crystallizes around scientific issues, it is critical that citizens be educated in science so that they may provide informed debate and on these issues. In order to develop this idea more fully, I proposed to teach a historically based course about space physics as an honors course at the University of Maryland-College Park (UMCP). The honors program at UMCP was established to foster broad-based undergraduate courses that utilize innovative teaching techniques to provide exemplary education to a select group of students. I designed an introductory course that would have four basic goals: to acquaint students with geomagnetic and auroral phenomena and their relationship to the space environment; to examine issues related to the history of science using the evolution of the field as an example; to develop familiarity with basic skills such as describing and interpreting observations, analyzing scientific papers, and communicating the results of their own research; and to provide some understanding of basic physics, especially those aspect that play a role in the near-earth space environment.

  1. The process research of drying UF4 by microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Guo; Wang Yunbo; Liu Long

    2010-01-01

    This paper make use of microwave to dry UF 4 filter cake, the aim is desorbed adsorption water. The research focus on such process conditions, boat material, thickness of filter cake, drying time, setting temperature, heating power and so on. the research of desorption crystal water of UF 4 that dried by microwave in fixed bed .When UF 4 drying by microwave and claiming by fixed bed, the qualified UF 4 powder is prepared. The research is shown that microwave can desorbs adsorption water which contain in UF 4 filter cake. There is a stable water contents in UF 4 after drying, and the sum of two members is less. After drying by microwave and claiming by fixed bed, the contents of water, UO 2 and UO 2 F 2 are all according to the quality standard. (authors)

  2. Relationships between undergraduates' argumentation skills, conceptual quality of problem solutions, and problem solving strategies in introductory physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Carina M.

    This study explored the effects of alternative forms of argumentation on undergraduates' physics solutions in introductory calculus-based physics. A two-phase concurrent mixed methods design was employed to investigate relationships between undergraduates' written argumentation abilities, conceptual quality of problem solutions, as well as approaches and strategies for solving argumentative physics problems across multiple physics topics. Participants were assigned via stratified sampling to one of three conditions (control, guided construct, or guided evaluate) based on gender and pre-test scores on a conceptual instrument. The guided construct and guided evaluate groups received tasks and prompts drawn from literature to facilitate argument construction or evaluation. Using a multiple case study design, with each condition serving as a case, interviews were conducted consisting of a think-aloud problem solving session paired with a semi-structured interview. The analysis of problem solving strategies was guided by the theoretical framework on epistemic games adapted by Tuminaro and Redish (2007). This study provides empirical evidence that integration of written argumentation into physics problems can potentially improve the conceptual quality of solutions, expand their repertoire of problem solving strategies and show promise for addressing the gender gap in physics. The study suggests further avenues for research in this area and implications for designing and implementing argumentation tasks in introductory college physics.

  3. Physical and mental health perspectives of first year undergraduate rural university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Rafat; Guppy, Michelle; Robertson, Suzanne; Temple, Elizabeth

    2013-09-15

    University students are often perceived to have a privileged position in society and considered immune to ill-health and disability. There is growing evidence that a sizeable proportion experience poor physical health, and that the prevalence of psychological disorders is higher in university students than their community peers. This study examined the physical and mental health issues for first year Australian rural university students and their perception of access to available health and support services. Cross-sectional study design using an online survey form based on the Adolescent Screening Questionnaire modeled on the internationally recognised HEADSS survey tool. The target audience was all first-year undergraduate students enrolled in an on-campus degree program. The response rate was 41% comprising 355 students (244 females, 111 males). Data was analysed using standard statistical techniques including descriptive and inferential statistics; and thematic analysis of the open-ended responses. The mean age of the respondents was 20.2 years (SD 4.8). The majority of the students lived in on-campus residential college style accommodation, and a third combined part-time paid work with full-time study. Most students reported being in good physical health. However, on average two health conditions were reported over the past six months, with the most common being fatigue (56%), frequent headaches (26%) and allergies (24%). Mental health problems included anxiety (25%), coping difficulties (19.7%) and diagnosed depression (8%). Most respondents reported adequate access to medical doctors and support services for themselves (82%) and friends (78%). However the qualitative comments highlighted concerns about stigma, privacy and anonymity in seeking counselling. The present study adds to the limited literature of physical and mental health issues as well as barriers to service utilization by rural university students. It provides useful baseline data for the

  4. Just-in-Time Teaching in undergraduate physics courses: Implementation, learning, and perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Jessica Hewitt

    Regardless of discipline, a decades-long battle has ensued within nearly every classroom in higher education: instructors getting students to come to class prepared to learn. In response to this clash between teacher expectations and frequent student neglect, a group of four physics education researchers developed a reformed instructional strategy called Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT). This dissertation investigates the following three areas: 1) the fidelity with which undergraduate physics instructors implement JiTT, 2) whether student performance predicts student perception of their instructor's fidelity of JiTT implementation, and 3) whether student perception of their instructor's fidelity of JiTT implementation correlates with student views of their physics course. A blend of quantitative data (e.g., students grades, inventory scores, and questionnaire responses) are integrated with qualitative data (e.g., individual faculty interviews, student focus group discussions, and classroom observations). This study revealed no statistically significant relationship between instructors who spent time on a predefined JiTT critical component and their designation as a JiTT user or non-user. While JiTT users implemented the pedagogy in accordance with the creators' intended ideal vision, many also had trouble reconciling personal concerns about their role as a JiTT adopter and the anticipated demand of the innovation. I recommend that this population of faculty members can serve as a JiTT model for other courses, disciplines, and/or institutions. Student performance was not a predictor of student perception instructor fidelity of JiTT implementation. Additionally, the majority of students in this study reported they read their textbook prior to class and that JiTT assignments helped them prepare for in-class learning. I found evidence that exposure to the JiTT strategy may correlate with a more favorable student view of their physics course. Finally, according to students

  5. Assessment of UF6 Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, P; Chand, K; Warren, D; Vandersall, J

    2009-02-11

    A common assumption in the mathematical analysis of flows of compressible fluids is to treat the fluid as a perfect gas. This is an approximation, as no real fluid obeys the perfect gas relationships over all temperature and pressure conditions. An assessment of the validity of treating the UF{sub 6} gas flow field within a gas centrifuge with perfect gas relationships has been conducted. The definition of a perfect gas is commonly stated in two parts: (1) the gas obeys the thermal equation of state, p = {rho}RT (thermally perfect), and, (2) the gas specific heats are constant (calorically perfect). Analysis indicates the thermally perfect assumption is valid for all flow conditions within the gas centrifuge, including shock fields. The low operating gas pressure is the primary factor in the suitability of the thermally perfect equation of state for gas centrifuge computations. UF{sub 6} is not calorically perfect, as the specific heats vary as a function of temperature. This effect is insignificant within the bulk of the centrifuge gas field, as gas temperatures vary over a narrow range. The exception is in the vicinity of shock fields, where temperature, pressure, and density gradients are large, and the variation of specific heats with temperature should be included in the technically detailed analyses. Results from a normal shock analysis incorporating variable specific heats is included herein, presented in the conventional form of shock parameters as a function of inlet Mach Number. The error introduced by assuming constant specific heats is small for a nominal UF{sub 6} shock field, such that calorically perfect shock relationships can be used for scaling and initial analyses. The more rigorous imperfect gas analysis should be used for detailed analyses.

  6. Optimizing UF Cleaning in UF-SWRO System Using Red Sea Water

    KAUST Repository

    Bahshwan, Mohanad

    2012-07-01

    Increasing demand for fresh water in arid and semi-arid areas, similar to the Middle East, pushed for the use of seawater desalination techniques to augment freshwater. Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) is one of the techniques that have been commonly used due to its cost effectiveness. Recently, the use of Ultrafiltration (UF) was recommended as an effective pretreatment for SWRO membranes, as opposed to conventional methods (i.e. sand filtration). During UF operation, intermittent cleaning is required to remove particles and contaminants from the membrane\\'s surface and pores. The different cleaning steps consume chemicals and portion of the product water, resulting in a decrease in the overall effectiveness of the process and hence an increase in the production cost. This research focused on increasing the plant\\'s efficiency through optimizing the cleaning protocol without jeopardizing the effectiveness of the cleaning process. For that purpose, the design of experiment (DOE) focused on testing different combinations of these cleaning steps while all other parameters (such as filtration flux or backwash flux) remained constant. The only chemical used was NaOCI during the end of each experiment to restore the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) to its original state. Two trains of Dow™ Ultrafiltration SFP-2880 were run in parallel for this study. The first train (named UF1) was kept at the manufacturer\\'s recommended cleaning steps and frequencies, while the second train (named UF2) was varied according to the DOE. The normalized final TMP was compared to the normalized initial TMP to measure the fouling rate of the membrane at the end of each experiment. The research was supported by laboratory analysis to investigate the cause of the error in the data by analyzing water samples collected at different locations. Visual inspection on the results from the control unit showed that the data cannot be reproduced with the current feed water quality. Statistical analysis

  7. UV dissociation of vibrationally excited UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandre, M.; Clerc, M.; Gagnon, R.; Gilbert, M.; Isnard, P.; Nectoux, P.; Rigny, P.; Weulersse, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Before application of laser photodissociation of UF 6 to the separation of uranium isotopes becomes practical, isotopic selectivity should be optimized. We present here results on the cross sections involved in the irradiation of UF 6 simultaneously with infrared and ultraviolet lasers, as a function of wavelengths, fluence and temperature (at 293 K and 105 K, in an adiabatic expansion). The experiment uses a Nd 3+ YAG pumped lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator as a tunable 16 μ light source. Energies of the order of 1 mJ can be obtained with linewidths smaller than 0.1 cm - . The UV source used is based on ND 3+ YAG pumped dye laser and various frequency mixing schemes. At low temperature the frequency variation of the absorbed infrared energy per molecule depends markedly on the IR fluence phisub(IR) with a maximum value varying as phisub(IR)sup(-1/2) and a frequency extension far beyond the low level absorption spectrum. The absorbed vibrational energy leads to a change in the UV cross section comparable with the effect of a rise in temperature. Using this a model is put forward to express the isotopic selectivity 235 U/ 238 U as a function of UV wavelength and IR irradiation conditions. Experimental results agree with this model, and yield to maximum selectivity close to two [fr

  8. Obtaining of uranium tetrafluoride UF4 by electrodialysis reactive from uranium concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz Lay, Danny Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    The generation of uranium fuels has always been a topic worldwide. The uranium fuel manufacturing base is made under very strict parameters of radiological and industrial safety, being a stage called 'nuclear fuel cycle'. In Chile, it is done constant research for fuels. This report focuses primarily on participating in such research; mainly in the production of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) .The tetrafluoride production is very crucial for the nuclear fuel industry. Its production varies from precipitation in stirred conditions to electrolysis in mercury. However, both processes has shortcomings either in performance and environmental pollution, which is why it is proposed a new method of production based on a friendly process to the environment and easier to operate, the reactive electrodialysis (RED). Electrodialysis is a hybrid reactive process of separation by membranes, cationic and / or anionic, namely, ionic species. In the process, ions are induced to move by an electric potential applied and separated by these membranes, a highly selective physical barrier which allows passage of ions with certain charge, and prevents the passage of oppositely charged ions. And in turn, it is reactive because it forces a chemical reaction, redox, to obtain uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ). The results of these experiments show that by reactive electrodialysis, NH 4 UF 5 deposits were obtained. However, calcinating the NH 4 UF 5 to 450 o C, it decomposes to obtain uranium tetrafluoride, UF 4 . The best working conditions were obtained with an electric current of 0.5 (A), 41 o C and a flow of 16 (ml / s) of the electrolyte. It was possible to obtain 5,995 (g) to 3 (h), giving a current efficiency of 71.42%. In turn, working at high temperatures and flow recirculation is possible to operate with a potential difference of 1.7 (V)

  9. Technical documentation of HGSYSTEM/UF6 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.R.; Chang, J.C.; Zhang, J.X.

    1996-01-01

    MMES has been directed to upgrade the safety analyses for the gaseous diffusion plants at Paducah KY and Piketon OH. These will require assessment of consequences of accidental releases of UF 6 to the atmosphere at these plants. The HGSYSTEM model has been chosen as the basis for evaluating UF 6 releases; it includes dispersion algorithms for dense gases and treats the chemistry and thermodynamics of HF, a major product of the reaction of UF 6 with water vapor in air. Objective of this project was to incorporate additional capability into HGSYSTEM: UF 6 chemistry and thermodynamics, plume lift-off algorithms, and wet and dry deposition. The HGSYSTEM modules are discussed. The hybrid HGSYSTEM/UF 6 model has been evaluated in three ways

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring enrichment of UF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas Roy [Santa Fe, NM; Ianakiev, Kiril Dimitrov [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-06-07

    A system and method are disclosed for determining the enrichment of .sup.235U in Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6) utilizing synthesized X-rays which are directed at a container test zone containing a sample of UF6. A detector placed behind the container test zone then detects and counts the X-rays which pass through the container and the UF6. In order to determine the portion of the attenuation due to the UF6 gas alone, this count rate may then be compared to a calibration count rate of X-rays passing through a calibration test zone which contains a vacuum, the test zone having experienced substantially similar environmental conditions as the actual test zone. Alternatively, X-rays of two differing energy levels may be alternately directed at the container, where either the container or the UF6 has a high sensitivity to the difference in the energy levels, and the other having a low sensitivity.

  11. Measurement of the sound absorption coefficient for an advanced undergraduate physics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho-Stadler, E.; Elejalde-García, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a simple experiment that allows advanced undergraduates to learn the basics of the acoustic properties of materials. The impedance tube-standing wave method is applied to study the normal absorption coefficient of acoustics insulators. The setup includes a tube, a speaker, a microphone, a digital function generator and an oscilloscope, material available in an undergraduate laboratory. Results of the change of the absorption coefficient with the frequency, the sample thickness and the sample density are analysed and compared with those obtained with a commercial system.

  12. The physical and chemical properties of uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes what uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is, gives some of its pertinent physical properties, illustrates significant reactions between UF 6 and other substances, touches on its toxic properties, and states some of the ''do's'' and ''don't's'' of UF 6 handling. The properties of UF 6 determine how it must be handled and make direct observation impossible. To determine that the material in a container is UF 6 , one must use other instruments in addition to a scale. Because of the very large volume expanision of UF 6 upon melting, diligence must be exercised in filling cylinders in which the UF 6 is partially solidified. A cylinder of liquified UF 6 with no ullage is potentially the equivalent of a superheated hot water heater, not just a hydraulically overpressurized cylinder. Finally, UF 6 can be handled safely by careful attention to the suggested precautions. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellis, Birgit; Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004-2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students.

  14. Factors affecting the number and type of student research products for chemistry and physics students at primarily undergraduate institutions: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Patricia; Bruce, Chrystal D.; Lacueva, Graciela; Wilson, Anne M.; Jayasekare, Rasitha

    2018-01-01

    For undergraduate students, involvement in authentic research represents scholarship that is consistent with disciplinary quality standards and provides an integrative learning experience. In conjunction with performing research, the communication of the results via presentations or publications is a measure of the level of scientific engagement. The empirical study presented here uses generalized linear mixed models with hierarchical bootstrapping to examine the factors that impact the means of dissemination of undergraduate research results. Focusing on the research experiences in physics and chemistry of undergraduates at four Primarily Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) from 2004–2013, statistical analysis indicates that the gender of the student does not impact the number and type of research products. However, in chemistry, the rank of the faculty advisor and the venue of the presentation do impact the number of research products by undergraduate student, whereas in physics, gender match between student and advisor has an effect on the number of undergraduate research products. This study provides a baseline for future studies of discipline-based bibliometrics and factors that affect the number of research products of undergraduate students. PMID:29698502

  15. Fracture mechanics performance of UF6 containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.E.; Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to determine the fracture mechanics performance of UF 6 transport cylinders type ANSI N14.1.30B, which was made from ASTM A 516 Grade 70 steel. It was assumed an internal surface axial crack subjected to stresses due to service, proof and transport accident loads. The KUMAR-GERMAN-SHIH elastoplastic methodology gave adequate results for crack depth estimation. The results validate the leak-before-break criteria for service and proof conditions but not for accident ones. In the last case a non-destructive examination must be done in order to assure the absence of defects larger than one third of the cylinder wall thickness. (Author)

  16. Investigation of UF6 behavior in a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.R.

    1988-01-01

    Reactions between UF 6 and combustible gases and the potential for UF 6 -filled cylinders to rupture when exposed to fire are addressed. Although the absence of kinetic data prevents specific identification and quantification of the chemical species formed, potential reaction products resulting from the release of UF 6 into a fire include UF 4 , UO 2 F 2 , HF, C, CF 4 ,COF 2 , and short chain, fluorinated or partially fluorinated hydrocarbons. Such a release adds energy to a fire relative to normal combustion reactions. Time intervals to an assumed point of rupture for UF 6 -filled cylinders exposed to fire are estimated conservatively. Several related studies are also summarized, including a test series in which small UF 6 -filled cylinders were immersed in fire resulting in valve failures and explosive ruptures. It is concluded that all sizes of UF 6 cylinders currently in use may rupture within 30 minutes when totally immersed in a fire. For cylinders adjacent to fires, rupture of the larger cylinders appears much less likely

  17. UF{sub 6} pressure excursions during cylinder heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.G. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    As liquid UF{sub 6} inside a cylinder changes from a liquid to a solid, it forms a porous solid which occupies approximately the same volume as that of the liquid before cooling. Simultaneously as the liquid cools, UF{sub 6} vapor in the cylinder ullage above the liquid desublimes on the upper region of the inner cylinder wall. This solid is a dense, glass-like material which can accumulate to a significant thickness. The thickness of the solid coating on the upper cylinder wall and directly behind the cylinder valve area will vary depending on the conditions during the cooling stage. The amount of time lapsed between UF{sub 6} solidification and UF{sub 6} liquefaction can also affect the UF{sub 6} coating. This is due to the daily ambient heat cycle causing the coating to sublime from the cylinder wall to cooler areas, thus decreasing the thickness. Structural weakening of the dense UF{sub 6} layer also occurs due to cylinder transport vibration and thermal expansion. During cylinder heating, the UF{sub 6} nearest the cylinder wall will liquefy first. As the solid coating behind the cylinder valve begins to liquefy, it results in increased pressure depending upon the available volume for expansion. At the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) during the liquefaction of the UF{sub 6} in cylinders in the UF{sub 6} feed and sampling autoclaves, this pressure increase has resulted in the activation of the systems rupture discs which are rated at 100 pounds per square inch differential.

  18. How diverse are physics instructors’ attitudes and approaches to teaching undergraduate level quantum mechanics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Shabnam; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-01-01

    Understanding instructors’ attitudes and approaches to teaching undergraduate-level quantum mechanics can be helpful in developing effective instructional tools to help students learn quantum mechanics. Here we discuss the findings from a survey in which 12 university faculty members reflected on various issues related to undergraduate-level quantum mechanics teaching and learning. Topics included faculty members’ thoughts on the goals of a college quantum mechanics course, general challenges in teaching the subject matter, students’ preparation for the course, views about foundational issues and the difficulty in teaching certain topics, reflection on their own learning of quantum mechanics when they were students versus how they teach it to their students and the extent to which they incorporate contemporary topics into their courses. The findings related to instructors’ attitudes and approaches discussed here can be useful in improving teaching and learning of quantum mechanics. (paper)

  19. Modelling of the behaviour of a UF_6 container in a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinton, Eric

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is justified by the safety needs about storage and transport of UF_6 containers. To define their behaviour under fire conditions, a modelling was developed. Before tackling the numerical modelling, a phenomenological interpretation with experimental results of containers inside a furnace (800 C) during a fixed period was carried out. The internal heat transfers were considerably improved with these results. The 2D elaborated model takes into account most of the physical phenomena encountered in this type of situation (boiling, evaporation, condensation, radiant heat transfers through an absorbing gas, convection, pressurisation, thermal contact resistance, UF_6 expansion, solid core sinking in the liquid, elastic and plastic deformations of the steel container). This model was successfully confronted with experiments. (author) [fr

  20. Adducts of UF5 with SbF5 and structure of UF5 . 2SbF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawodny, W.; Rediess, K.

    1980-01-01

    Both α-UF 5 and β-UF 5 form only a 1:2 compound UF 5 . 2SbF 5 reacting directly with SbF 5 , from which UF 5 . SbF 5 can be obtained by thermal decomposition. UF 5 . 2SbF 5 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /c with the following lattice constants a = 8.110(4), b = 14.129(6), c = 10.032(6) A and β = 96.97(5) 0 ; Z = 4. An X-ray study shows centrosymmetric four-membered rings of alternating UF 8 and SbF 6 polyhedra connected by other SbF 6 entities. This structure is similar to that of UOF 5 . 2SbF 5 , but the distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal coordination of the U atom found there is increased to a dodecahedral coordination by an additional U-F-Sb bridge, though with a somewaht larger UF distance. (author)

  1. How Can We Improve Problem Solving in Undergraduate Biology? Applying Lessons from 30 Years of Physics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, A.-M.; Caballero, M. D.; Knight, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research. PMID:23737623

  2. How can we improve problem solving in undergraduate biology? Applying lessons from 30 years of physics education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, A-M; Caballero, M D; Knight, J K

    2013-06-01

    If students are to successfully grapple with authentic, complex biological problems as scientists and citizens, they need practice solving such problems during their undergraduate years. Physics education researchers have investigated student problem solving for the past three decades. Although physics and biology problems differ in structure and content, the instructional purposes align closely: explaining patterns and processes in the natural world and making predictions about physical and biological systems. In this paper, we discuss how research-supported approaches developed by physics education researchers can be adopted by biologists to enhance student problem-solving skills. First, we compare the problems that biology students are typically asked to solve with authentic, complex problems. We then describe the development of research-validated physics curricula emphasizing process skills in problem solving. We show that solving authentic, complex biology problems requires many of the same skills that practicing physicists and biologists use in representing problems, seeking relationships, making predictions, and verifying or checking solutions. We assert that acquiring these skills can help biology students become competent problem solvers. Finally, we propose how biology scholars can apply lessons from physics education in their classrooms and inspire new studies in biology education research.

  3. In the foot steps of Madame Curie: A cross-case study of female undergraduate physics majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaladanki, Vani Savithri

    Females are disproportionately underrepresented in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors. Further, the number of females who take physics in college has declined. While female students make up 61% of graduates in biological sciences and 50% in chemistry, the proportion of women completing physics degrees is only 21% (Sawtelle, 2011). In order to improve women's access to science and engineering education, research must focus on personal and environmental factors that motivate them to select these fields (AAUW, 2010). The purpose of this study was to explore how the educational experiences of three female undergraduate physics majors contribute to their current dispositions toward, interest in, and pursuit of physics as a major at a large southern research university. This qualitative study employs symbolic interactionism (Blumer, 1969) as its methodological framework and social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 2002) as its theoretical framework. Case study methods (Yin, 2006) were implemented to investigate the experiences of three participants. The primary sources of data included critical incident interviews (Flanagan, 1954), photographs, documents, object elicitations, and the researcher's reflections. Narrative and arts-based techniques were employed to analyze and represent data. Findings are presented as co-constructed narratives of the participants' journeys to becoming undergraduate physics majors. Three major themes emerged from the cross case analysis: carving new spaces, authoring an empowered self, and show me you care and so will I. The direct experiences of engaging with science at a young age and social persuasions of family members, teachers, and peers strongly influenced the participants' interest in and pursuit of physics. Their current dispositions to physics result from vicarious experiences with professors and peers in combination with the social persuasions of the latter. This study informs science

  4. Anisotropy of the fluorine chemical shift tensor in UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigny, P.

    1965-04-01

    An 19 F magnetic resonance study of polycrystalline UF 6 is presented. The low temperature complex line can be analyzed as the superposition of two distinct lines, which is attributed to a distortion of the UF 6 octahedron in the solid. The shape of the two components is studied. Their width is much larger than the theoretical dipolar width, and must be explained by large anisotropies of the fluorine chemical shift tensors. The resulting shape functions of the powder spectra are determined. The values of the parameters of the chemical shift tensors yield estimates of the characters of the U-F bonds, and this gives some information on the ground state electronic wave function of the UF 6 molecule in the solid. (author) [fr

  5. Results of ultrasonic testing evaluations on UF6 storage cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lykins, M.L.

    1997-02-01

    The three site cylinder management program is responsible for the safe storage of the DOE owned UF 6 storage cylinders at PORTS, PGDP and at the K-25 site. To ensure the safe storage of the UF 6 in the cylinders, the structural integrity of the cylinders must be evaluated. This report represents the latest cylinder integrity investigation that utilized wall thickness evaluations to identify thinning due to atmospheric exposure

  6. SU-E-E-07: An Adaptable Approach for Education On Medical Physics at Undergraduate and Postgraduate Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller-Clemente, R; Mendez-Perez, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To contribute to the professional profile of future medical physicists, technologists and physicians, and implement an adaptable educational strategy at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Methods: The Medical Physics Block of Electives (MPBE) designed was adapted to the Program of B.S. in Physics. The conferences and practical activities were developed with participatory methods, with interdisciplinary collaboration from research institutions and hospitals engaged on projects of Research, Development and Innovation (RDI). The scientific education was implemented by means of critical analysis of scientific papers and seminars where students debated on solutions for real research problems faced by medical physicists. This approach included courses for graduates not associated to educational programs of Medical Physics (MP). Results: The implementation of the MPBE began in September 2014, with the electives of Radiation MP and Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The students of second year received an Introduction to MP. This initiative was validated by the departmental Methodological Workshop, which promoted the full implementation of the MPBE. Both postgraduated and undergraduate trainees participated in practices with our DICOM viewer system, a local prototype for photoplethysmography and a home-made interface for ROC analysis, built with MATLAB. All these tools were designed and constructed in previous RDI projects. The collaborative supervision of University’s researchers with clinical medical physicists will allow to overcome the limitations of residency in hospitals, to reduce the workload for clinical supervisors and develop appropriate educational activities. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of adaptable educational strategies, considering available resources. This provides an innovative way for prospective medical physicists, technologists and radiation oncologists. This strategy can be implemented in several regions

  7. SU-E-E-07: An Adaptable Approach for Education On Medical Physics at Undergraduate and Postgraduate Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller-Clemente, R [Centro de Biofisica Medica, Santiago De Cuba, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Universidad de Oriente, Santiago De Cuba, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Mendez-Perez, L [Universidad de Oriente, Santiago De Cuba, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To contribute to the professional profile of future medical physicists, technologists and physicians, and implement an adaptable educational strategy at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Methods: The Medical Physics Block of Electives (MPBE) designed was adapted to the Program of B.S. in Physics. The conferences and practical activities were developed with participatory methods, with interdisciplinary collaboration from research institutions and hospitals engaged on projects of Research, Development and Innovation (RDI). The scientific education was implemented by means of critical analysis of scientific papers and seminars where students debated on solutions for real research problems faced by medical physicists. This approach included courses for graduates not associated to educational programs of Medical Physics (MP). Results: The implementation of the MPBE began in September 2014, with the electives of Radiation MP and Introduction to Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The students of second year received an Introduction to MP. This initiative was validated by the departmental Methodological Workshop, which promoted the full implementation of the MPBE. Both postgraduated and undergraduate trainees participated in practices with our DICOM viewer system, a local prototype for photoplethysmography and a home-made interface for ROC analysis, built with MATLAB. All these tools were designed and constructed in previous RDI projects. The collaborative supervision of University’s researchers with clinical medical physicists will allow to overcome the limitations of residency in hospitals, to reduce the workload for clinical supervisors and develop appropriate educational activities. Conclusion: We demonstrated the feasibility of adaptable educational strategies, considering available resources. This provides an innovative way for prospective medical physicists, technologists and radiation oncologists. This strategy can be implemented in several regions

  8. Predicting Physical Activity and Healthy Nutrition Behaviors Using Social Cognitive Theory: Cross-Sectional Survey among Undergraduate Students in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Pu, Yang; Sharma, Manoj; Rao, Yunshuang; Cai, Yilin; Zhao, Yong

    2017-11-05

    (1) Background: Generally suggested public health measures to reduce obesity were to limit television (TV) viewing, enhance daily physical activities, enable the consumption of fruit and vegetables, and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake. This study analyzed the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these behaviors among Chinese undergraduate students. (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1976 undergraduate students from six universities in Chongqing, China. A self-administered five-point Likert common physical activity and nutrition behavior scale based on social cognitive theory was utilized. (3) Results: This study included 687 (34.77%) males and 1289 (65.23%) females. A total of 60.14% of the students engaged in exercise for less than 30 min per day. Approximately 16.5%of the participants spent at least 4 h watching TV and sitting in front of a computer daily. Approximately 79% of the participants consumed less than five cups of fruit and vegetables daily. Undergraduate students who had high self-efficacy scores had more leisure time physical activities. Those who have high expectation scores had considerable time watching TV and sitting in front of a computer. Undergraduate students who had high expectation and self-efficacy scores had substantially low consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Those who had high self-efficacy scores consumed considerable amounts of fruit and vegetables. Furthermore, the type of university, BMI group, gender, age, lack of siblings, and grade level were associated with the aforementioned four behaviors. (4) Conclusion: Physical inactivity and unhealthy nutrition behaviors are common among undergraduate students. This study used social cognitive theory to provide several implications for limiting the TV viewing, enhancing daily physical activities, consuming fruit and vegetables, and reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake among undergraduate students.

  9. Sensitometric characteristics of UF-4, UF-5, and UFSh-O films in the quantum-energy range of 5-30 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datsko, I.M.; Slabkovskaya, M.A.; Sokolov, A.S.; Uvarova, N.V.; Sheromov, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The sensitivity, gamma, and transmission of UF-4, UF-5, and UFSh-O for quanta with energies of 5-30 keV extracted from a beam of synchrotron radiation are measured. UFSh-O photographic film is more sensitive by a factor of 1.5-2 than are the UF-4 and UF-5 films. The gamma of all the films is greatly dependent on the quantum energy

  10. Investigation of the UF6 aerosol behavior in air, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Junichiro; Sakamoto, Genji; Takeda, Seiichi; Kato, Jinzo

    1979-01-01

    When gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) is released into air, it hydrolizes with moisture in air to produce HF gas and particulate UO 2 F 2 which is visible. The lowest visible concentration in air is about 5 x 10 -8 μCi/cm 3 in case of releasing UF 6 and about 10 -9 μCi/cm 3 in case of released UF 6 cloud. By watching the occurrence of released UF 6 cloud, it is possible to take necessary action without delay. But in the case that there is no one to watch or that the concentration is not high enough to be visible, an alarm monitor system has to be relied on. Therefore the characteristics of the alarm monitors which can detect UF 6 promptly were examined. As UF 6 is hydrolized into gaseous HF and particulate UO 2 F 2 , three monitoring methods are considered; (1) to detect the alpha radiation of uranium, (2) to detect HF gas and (3) to detect airborne particles (aerosol). Performance tests were conducted on an alpha dust monitor, an electrochemical HF monitor, a thin film electrolyte HF monitor and an ionized smoke detector. The relationship between radioactivity concentration and HF concentration was investigated especially regarding with the conditions of released UF 6 amount and the distance from a release point to the observation point. The experimental facilities containing a large glove-box made of SUS and acrylic resin walls, a dust monitor, an HF monitor, a smoke detector and a filter, and the experimental procedure are explained. As the experimental results, the response characteristics of the dust monitor and HF monitor, the relationship of radioactivity concentration to HF concentration in air and the relation of the distance from the release point to the concentration of U and HF are presented. (Nakai, Y.)

  11. Practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activity and associated factors in first year undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Salvador Claumann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The changes that occur with the beginning of university life may interfere with the practice of physical activities by students. The aim was to investigate the association between the practice of walking, moderate and vigorous physical activities with sociodemographic factors and weight status in freshman students in the first semester of the first year of a public university in Florianopolis/SC. This study assessed198 students (86 men and 112 women. The practice of physical activities was collected with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire – IPAQ, short version. Students of human and educational sciences reported higher amounts of moderate physical activity when compared to health and exact science counterparts (p< 0.05. It was verified that male students, from higher economic status, from the health sciences, and full-time students showed higher time of practice of vigorous physical activity (p< 0.05. Significant associations were also observed between study period and walking, and between gender, scientific field and vigorous physical activity. It was concluded that the variables associated with the practice of physical activity differ according to the type and intensity of physical activity.

  12. Using Mole Ratios of Electrolytic Products of Water for Analysis of Household Vinegar: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabke, Rajeev B.; Gebeyehu, Zewdu

    2012-01-01

    A simple 3-h physical chemistry undergraduate experiment for the quantitative analysis of acetic acid in household vinegar is presented. The laboratory experiment combines titration concept with electrolysis and an application of the gas laws. A vinegar sample was placed in the cathode compartment of the electrolysis cell. Electrolysis of water…

  13. Evaluation of a Voluntary Tutoring Program in Chemistry, Physics and Mathematics for First-Year Undergraduates at Universidad Andres Bello, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Verónica A.; Acuña, Fabiola C.; Quiero, Felipe J.; López, Margarita; Zahn, Carmen I.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the preliminary results of a tutoring program that provides personalized academic assistance to first-year undergraduates enrolled in introductory chemistry, physics and mathematics courses at Universidad Andres Bello (UNAB), in Concepción, Chile. Intervened courses have historically large enrolments, diverse student population…

  14. The Effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning in the Web-Based Environment for the Delivery of an Undergraduate Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, Hanafi; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Idrus, Rozhan M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the investigation of the effectiveness of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) within a web-based environment in the delivery of an undergraduate Physics course. The effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the performances and the perceptions of the sample students (n=67) using the web-based PBL and comparing the outcomes with those of…

  15. The Effect of Problem-Based Learning on Undergraduate Students' Learning about Solutions and Their Physical Properties and Scientific Processing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Cemal; Taskesenligil, Yavuz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on undergraduate students' learning about solutions and their physical properties, and on their scientific processing skills. The quasi experimental study was carried out through non-equivalent control and comparison groups pre-post test design. The data were…

  16. Injuries and their probable causes in undergraduates of the Physical Education course at the State University of Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saturno Madureira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to analyse the occurrence of injuries in undergraduates of the Physical Education Course at the State University of Maringá. Types of injuries were diagnosed, the opinion of students and professors with regard to their probable causes was taken and the factors that could render injuries less damaging were identified. Research was carried out in the second semester of 1991 when 231 students were regularly enlisted. Data were collected by means of questionnaires for professors and for students. Forty injury cases were verified, 13 with males and 27 with females. The most common type of injury was bruises (55% followed by strain (18%. The inferior members were the most affected region. Judo was the subject in which the greatest number of injuries occurred. Students stated that salient probable causes were: agressivity of colleages in practical exercises (33% and defective sports facilities (25%. In the professors opinion, however, the two chief causes were: students’ distraction (20% and physical inability (20%. The establishment of an Internal Commission for the Prevention of Accidents has been suggested made up of professors, under graduate students and personnel of the Physical Education Department at the State University of Maringá. Its aims are to carry out a following up of this situation, to promote the prevention of injuries and to suggest possible improvements in the premises.

  17. Using Robots and Contract Learning to Teach Cyber-Physical Systems to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenshaw, T. L. A.

    2013-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are a genre of networked real-time systems that monitor and control the physical world. Examples include unmanned aerial vehicles and industrial robotics. The experts who develop these complex systems are retiring much faster than universities are graduating engineering majors. As a result, it is important for undergraduates…

  18. Investigation of technology for monitoring UF6 mass flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    The applicability of gas flow meters, in-line enrichment monitors, and instruments for measuring uranium or UF 6 concentrations in process streams as a means for verifying declared plant throughput have been investigated. The study was performed to assist the International Atomic Energy Agency in the development of an effective international safeguards approach for aerodynamic uranium enrichment plants. Because the process gas in an aerodynamic enrichment facility is a mixture of UF 6 and H 2 , a mass flow measurement in conjunction with a measurement of the uranium (or UF 6 ) concentration in the process gas is required to quantify the amount of uranium being fed into, and withdrawn from, the cascades for nuclear materials accountability verification. In-line enrichment monitors developed for the US gas centrifuge enrichment plant are found to be applicable only to pure UF 6 streams. Of the five gas flow meters evaluated, the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter are judged the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low-velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high-velocity gas, large diameter piping. Of the six procedures evaluated for measurement of uranium or UF 6 concentration in a mixed process stream, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement. 4 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez Triki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim: To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods: A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5–24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results: LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%. The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p0.05. The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion: LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Moez; Koubaa, Abdessalem; Masmoudi, Liwa; Fellmann, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    Introduction : For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower) spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim : To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods : A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5-24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results : LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%). The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p0.05). The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion : LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP.

  1. Contemporary undergraduate physiotherapy education in terms of physical activity and exercise prescription: practice tutors' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Cusack, Tara; Doody, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    Practice tutors' evaluation to (i) establish current physical activity and exercise promotion and prescription curriculum content and (ii) their knowledge, attitudes and beliefs concerning physical activity and exercise prescription in clinical education, in terms of contemporary and emerging health trends and priorities. A cross sectional survey employing a questionnaire and focus groups. All practice tutors delivering physiotherapy undergraduate education in four physiotherapy schools in Ireland (n=38) were invited to participate. Thirty participated giving a response rate of 79%. Two methods of data collection were employed. Clinical content questionnaires were administered, the results of which informed follow-up focus groups. Focus group transcriptions were analysed using the 'Framework Analysis' method. 66% of practice tutors were unhappy with their own knowledge and felt they required further training in the following areas: strategies for changing physical activity behaviour; exercise promotion and prescription for public health; exercise prescription for lifestyle related disease. Main themes emerging from the focus groups were (i) perceptions of the physiotherapist's role, (ii) perceptions of the practice tutor's role and (iii) facilitators and barriers to change. In terms of physical activity and exercise prescription education, practice tutors identified a need for further education to improve their knowledge base. However, their attitudes and beliefs relating to physiotherapists' and educators' role in terms of teaching contemporary and emerging health trends and priorities were mixed. Results of this study provide useful data to inform future physiotherapy curricula development in terms of physical activity and exercise content. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Medical Physics in the new undergraduate curriculum of Spanish medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.

  3. UF6 fissile mass flow simulation at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalczo, J.T.; March-Leuba, J.; Valentine, T.E.; Mattingly, J.K.; Uckan, T.; McEvers, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Basis for measuring fissile mass flow in slurries, liquid, and gaseous streams is activation of a fissile stream by neutrons and then detection of delayed radiation from resulting fission products. This paper describes recent simulation measurements with the first prototype of the system for fissile mass flow measurements with HEU UF 6 gas for use in blenddown facilities. Theory was only 15% higher than actual measured; thus calibration factor would be 0.85. This simulation of HEU gas flow confirms well the understanding of the physical phenomena associated with this measurement system

  4. UF{sub 6} cylinder inspections at PGDP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, G.W.; Whinnery, W.N. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Routine inspections of all UF{sub 6} cylinders at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant have been mandated by the Department of Energy. A specific UF{sub 6} cylinder inspection procedure for what items to inspect and training for the operators prior to inspection duty are described. The layout of the cylinder yards and the forms used in the inspections are shown. The large number of cylinders (>30,000) to inspect and the schedule for completion on the mandated time table are discussed. Results of the inspections and the actions to correct the deficiencies are explained. Future inspections and movement of cylinders for relocation of certain cylinder yards are defined.

  5. The use of physical and virtual manipulatives in an undergraduate mechanical engineering (Dynamics) course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Edward A.

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is a national focus. Engineering education, as part of STEM education, needs to adapt to meet the needs of the nation in a rapidly changing world. Using computer-based visualization tools and corresponding 3D printed physical objects may help nontraditional students succeed in engineering classes. This dissertation investigated how adding physical or virtual learning objects (called manipulatives) to courses that require mental visualization of mechanical systems can aid student performance. Dynamics is one such course, and tends to be taught using lecture and textbooks with static diagrams of moving systems. Students often fail to solve the problems correctly and an inability to mentally visualize the system can contribute to student difficulties. This study found no differences between treatment groups on quantitative measures of spatial ability and conceptual knowledge. There were differences between treatments on measures of mechanical reasoning ability, in favor of the use of physical and virtual manipulatives over static diagrams alone. There were no major differences in student performance between the use of physical and virtual manipulatives. Students used the physical and virtual manipulatives to test their theories about how the machines worked, however their actual time handling the manipulatives was extremely limited relative to the amount of time they spent working on the problems. Students used the physical and virtual manipulatives as visual aids when communicating about the problem with their partners, and this behavior was also seen with Traditional group students who had to use the static diagrams and gesture instead. The explanations students gave for how the machines worked provided evidence of mental simulation; however, their causal chain analyses were often flawed, probably due to attempts to decrease cognitive load. Student opinions about the static diagrams and dynamic

  6. HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF6 blending alternative to produce LEU UF6 for commercial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF 6 to produce a UF 6 product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF 6 blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed

  7. Safety provisions for UF{sub 6} handling in the design of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, S.P. [British Nuclear Fuels plc, Preston (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Fuel Division is currently undertaking the final design and construction of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant at its production site at Springfields near Preston in the north of England. The Company has gained much experience in the handling of UF{sub 6} during operation of plants on site since 1961. The major hazard occurs during the liquefication cycle and the basis of the maximum credible incident scenario adopted for safety assessment and design purposes is discussed. This paper considers the design features which have been incorporated in the new plant to counter the hazards presented by the presence of UF{sub 6} in gaseous and liquid form and explains current thinking on operational procedures in areas of potential risk such as cylinder filling. The plant emergency response philosophy and systems are described and specific design provisions which have been included to satisfy the UK regulatory bodies are outlined in some detail.

  8. Students' Reactions to Undergraduate Science. Higher Education Learning Project (h.e.l.p.) - Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon, Ed.; And Others

    The transcripts of interviews with 115 physics students from ten different British universities are analyzed. Each student was encouraged to tell about one good learning experience and one bad learning experience. The characteristics of the good and bad stories are discussed and some general comments are made. The interview model explained in this…

  9. To What Extent Does A-Level Physics Prepare Students for Undergraduate Laboratory Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alaric

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a summary of a small-scale research project carried out to investigate the transition from A-level to university physics, with a specific focus on practical or laboratory skills. A brief description of the methods used precedes the headline findings of the research. A non-evidential discussion of the possible reasons behind any…

  10. Computer Based Learning in an Undergraduate Physics Laboratory: Interfacing and Instrument Control Using Matlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J. S.; Glover, P. M.; Moseley, W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe the recent changes to the curriculum of the second year practical laboratory course in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nottingham. In particular, we describe how Matlab has been implemented as a teaching tool and discuss both its pedagogical advantages and disadvantages in teaching undergraduate…

  11. Medical educators' perspectives of teaching physical examinations using ultrasonography at the undergraduate level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Ma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is increasingly used for teaching physical examination in medical schools. This study seeks the opinions of educators as to which physical examinations would be most enhanced by the addition of ultrasonography. We also asked when ultrasound-aided physical examination teaching could have deleterious effects if used outside its intended scope. Methods: All of the educators from the University of Calgary Master Teacher Program were invited to complete a 22-item paper-based survey. Survey items were generated independently by two investigators, with input from an expert panel (N = 5. Results: Of the 36 educators, 27 (75% completed the survey. Examinations identified to be potentially most useful included: measuring the size of the abdominal aorta, identifying the presence/absence of ascites, identifying the presence/absence of pleural effusions, and measuring the size of the bladder. Examinations thought to be potentially most harmful included: identifying the presence/absence of intrauterine pregnancy, measuring the size of the abdominal aorta, and identifying the presence/absence of pericardial effusion. Conclusions: Examinations that are potentially the most useful may also be potentially the most harmful. When initiating an ultrasound curriculum for physical examinations, educators should weigh the risks and benefits of examinations chosen.

  12. The Interactions of Relationships, Interest, and Self-Efficacy in Undergraduate Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Remy

    This collected papers dissertation explores students' academic interactions in an active learning, introductory physics settings as they relate to the development of physics self-efficacy and interest. The motivation for this work extends from the national call to increase participation of students in the pursuit of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Self-efficacy and interest are factors that play prominent roles in popular, evidence-based, career theories, including the Social cognitive career theory (SCCT) and the identity framework. Understanding how these constructs develop in light of the most pervasive characteristic of the active learning introductory physics classroom (i.e., peer-to-peer interactions) has implications on how students learn in a variety of introductory STEM classrooms and settings structured after constructivist and sociocultural learning theories. I collected data related to students' in-class interactions using the tools of social network analysis (SNA). Social network analysis has recently been shown to be an effective and useful way to examine the structure of student relationships that develop in and out of STEM classrooms. This set of studies furthers the implementation of SNA as a tool to examine self-efficacy and interest formation in the active learning physics classroom. Here I represent a variety of statistical applications of SNA, including bootstrapped linear regression (Chapter 2), structural equation modeling (Chapter 3), and hierarchical linear modeling for longitudinal analyses (Chapter 4). Self-efficacy data were collected using the Sources of Self-Efficacy for Science Courses - Physics survey (SOSESC-P), and interest data were collected using the physics identity survey. Data for these studies came from the Modeling Instruction sections of Introductory Physics with Calculus offered at Florida International University in the fall of 2014 and 2015. Analyses support the idea that students

  13. Impact of Maple(TM) on the design, instruction and performance in an undergraduate physics mathematical methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Alan Paul

    1997-10-01

    A traditional undergraduate physics course on mathematical methods has been redesigned to incorporate the use of Maplesp{sc {TM}}, a computer algebra program, during all aspects of the course. Topics covered were: complex number theory; series approximations; matrix theory; partial differentiation; vector algebra; and vector calculus. Five undergraduate students were enrolled, from sophomore to senior in academic class standing. A qualitative case study methodology was used to describe the changes in the course design resulting from the incorporation of Maplesp{sc {TM}} and their impact on the instruction of the course, and to determine the effects on the students' learning and development of problem solving skills in physics using Maplesp{sc {TM}} as a problem solving tool. The impact of using Maplesp{sc {TM}} on the number and types of interactions is presented. The entire semester long course was included in this study. Each class session is described in detail. Examples of the Maplesp{sc {TM}} materials used are given. The use of the Maplesp{sc {TM}} program was allowed on all homework and exams with each student having their own computer during class. Constraints were made so that the assessment emphasis remained on the mathematics and the conceptual understanding of the problem solving methods. All of the students demonstrated some level of proficiency in using Maplesp{TM} to solve the assigned problems. Strategies for effectively using Maplesp{TM} were presented and were individualized by the students. The students reported positive and negative impacts of using Maplesp{sc {TM}}. All of the students satisfactorily completed the course requirements, receiving final course grades from B to A+. All of them continued to voluntarily use Maplesp{sc {TM}} during the following semester. Instructional methods used included various lecture techniques without Maplesp{sc {TM}} assistance, lectures and demonstrations using only Maplesp{sc {TM}}, and student tasks

  14. Anisotropic Rotational Diffusion Studied by Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Simulation: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuson, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…

  15. Kinetics of magnesiothermic reduction of UF4 by DTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, Amulya; Agarwal, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Uranium metal production for nuclear fuel is usually carried out by magnesio-thermic reduction of UF 4 (s). This is a highly exothermic reaction: UF 4 +2Mg → 2MgF 2 + U, ΔH r 298.15 K = -349 kJ/mol. The process is carried out by loading 1:2 molar ratio of UF 4 and Mg mixture in a large stainless steel vessel lined with insulating MgF 2 . This bomb reactor is heated to ~1023 K, but the reaction is known to start at lower temperature. The furnace heat and reaction heat results in shooting mixture temperature to >1800 K. Attaining such high temperatures is desired for complete segregation of fluoride slag (T m MgF 2 =1538 K) and uranium melt (T m =1406 K) due to large difference in their densities, 3.4 gm/cc and 17.9 gm/cc, respectively. For efficient and economic magnesio-thermic reduction of UF 4 , it is desired to understand heat distribution in the reactor vessel, which requires kinetic parameters of this reaction: activation energy (E α ) and A. As this is a solid-solid reaction, studying this reaction kinetics can be approximated by nonisothermal DTA analysis using different heating rates. For non-isothermal conditions, the heating rate (ϕ) = dT/dt is related to rate of propagation of reaction

  16. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti

  17. Conversion of U3O8 to UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodu, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Three main processes for the production of UF 6 from the uranium ores (yellow cake) is described. The economic aspects of the conversion - capital cost, operating costs and conversion market and the future of conversion - capacity and prices - are discussed. (HPH) [de

  18. Urenco`s experience of UF{sub 6} handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saelmans, F. [Urenco Almelo (Netherlands); Scane, C. [Urenco Capenhurst (United Kingdom); Christofzik, J. [Urenco Gronau (Germany)

    1991-12-31

    Urenco operates enrichment plants at three sites, Almelo (Netherlands), Capenhurst (United Kingdom) and Gronau (Germany). Current installed separative work capacity is 2,500 tSWpa. Since 1971, when the first pilot plants were built, enrichment production has totalled 18,000 tSW. During this last 20 years over 3,500 48 containers of UF{sub 6} have been fed to the plants, over 3,700 30 containers have been filled with product and delivered successfully to Urenco`s customers worldwide and over 3,000 48 containers of depleted tails have been filled and have either been returned to customers or retained for long term storage on site. The paper gives a brief outline of Urenco`s experience in handling UF{sub 6}: the equipment and methods used in receiving, feeding, filling, blending, liquid sampling, storing, moving on site and despatching of UF{sub 6} containers. Some of the difficulties experienced with UF{sub 6} containers are appended.

  19. Temporary patching of damaged UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, A.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Patching techniques based on application of epoxy resins have been developed for temporarily repairing UF{sub 6} cylinders which have sustained relatively minor damage and must be safely emptied. The method is considerably faster and simpler than metallurgical weld repairs. Laboratory tests, detailed operational procedures, and case histories of experience at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described.

  20. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hortel, J.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  1. Alternative method of retesting UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, R. [Nuclear Crago + Service GmbH, Hanau (Germany)

    1991-12-31

    The paper describes an alternative method to perform the periodic inspection of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The hydraulic test is replaced by ultrasonic checking of wall thickness and by magnetic particle testing of all the weld seams. Information about the legal background, the air leak test and the qualification of inspectors is also given.

  2. Why Don't More Women and Minorities Study Undergraduate Physics? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hillary; Weisel, Derek

    2008-04-01

    It has often been suggested that the lack of women and ethnic minorities studying physics in college can be traced back to the science and math education of students in high school and before. This talk presents data from a two-part survey of high school science students. First, students were asked what subjects they enjoy and their perceived level of competency in math and science. Second, students were asked their plans for secondary education and what factors contributed to this decision. The results been correlated to gender and ethnicity. Analysis of the results indicates trends along gender and ethnic lines in what students believe they are good at, what they enjoy studying, in what ways they plan to continue their education, and what they plan to study in college.

  3. Investigation of technology for the monitoring of UF6 mass flow in UF6 streams diluted with H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, O.J.; Cooley, J.N.; Hewgley, W.A.; Moran, B.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1986-12-01

    The applicability, availability, and effectiveness of gas flow meters are assessed as a means for verifying the mass flows of pure UF 6 streams diluted with a carrier gas. The initial survey identified the orifice, pitot tube, thermal, vortex shedding, and vortex precession (swirl) meters as promising for the intended use. Subsequent assessments of these flow meters revealed that two - the orifice meter and the pitot tube meter - are the best choices for the proposed applications: the first is recommended for low velocity gas, small diameter piping; the latter, for high velocity gas, large diameter piping. Final selection of the gas flow meters should be based on test loop evaluations in which the proposed meters are subjected to gas flows, temperatures, and pressures representative of those expected in service. Known instruments are evaluated that may be applicable to the measurement of uranium or UF 6 concentration in a UF 6 - H 2 process stream at an aerodynamic enrichment plant. Of the six procedures evaluated, four have been used for process monitoring in a UF 6 environment: gas mass spectrometry, infrared-ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, gas chromatography, and acoustic gas analysis. The remaining two procedures, laser fluorimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy, would require significant development work before they could be used for process monitoring. Infrared-ultravioloet-visible spectrophotometry is judged to be the best procedure currently available to perform the required measurement

  4. Perekayasaan Heat Exchanger Sebagai Pemanas Umpan Uf 6 Dalam Pabrik Elemen Bakar Nuklir

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharias, Petrus; Pancoko, Marliyadi

    2011-01-01

    DESIGN OF HEAT EXCHANGER FOR HEATING UF6 FEED IN NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENT PLANT. The process of conversion of UF6 to UO through Integrated Dry Route (IDR) i s done in a rotary kiln reactor. There are two stages of initi al treatment / conditioni ng before inserting the UF 6 in to the reactor : changing UF6 2 solid into the gas phase at a temperature of 60°C in an evaporator, and then, raising the temperature of UF C to 2900 C i n a Heat Exchanger (HE). Therefore it i s necessary to desi gn...

  5. Uranium isotope fractionation resulting from UF6 vapor distillation from containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedge, W.D.; Turner, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    This empirical study for possible isotopic fractionation due to UF 6 vapor distillation from valved containers was performed to determine the effects of repeated vapor sampling. Four different experiments were performed, each of which varied by the method of measuring the isotopic contents and/or by the difference in temperature gradients as follows: The ratio of the parent UF 6 to the desublimed UF 6 collected at liquid nitrogen temperature and homogenized was measured by sampling the containers. The ratio of the parent UF 6 to the desublimed UF 6 collected at liquid nitrogen temperature and homogenized was measured by direct comparison to each other without subsampling. The ratio of the parent UF 6 to the desublimed UF 6 collected at liquid nitrogen and ice-water temperatures and homogenized was measured by indirect comparison to a common UF 6 reference material without subsampling. The ratio of the parent UF 6 to the desublimed UF 6 collected at liquid nitrogen temperature without homogenizing was measured by indirect comparison to a common UF 6 reference. Gas-phase, relative mass spectrometry was used for all isotopic measurements. Results of the study indicate that fractionation does occur. The U-235 isotope becomes more enriched in the parent container as the UF 6 is vaporized from it and desublimed into the receiving cylinder; i.e., the vaporized fraction is enriched in the U-238 isotope. The degree of fractionation indicates that the separation is due to the U-238 isotope of UF 6 having a higher vapor pressure than the U-235 isotope of UF 6 . 3 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  6. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence and nature of misconceptions in physics amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Ian; Homer, Matt; Sharpe, Rachael; Zhou, Mengyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background:Despite the large body of literature regarding student misconceptions, there has been relatively little cross-cultural research to directly compare the prevalence of common scientific misconceptions amongst students from different cultural backgrounds. Whilst previous research does suggest the international nature of many misconceptions, there is little evidence as to whether the prevalence of such common misconceptions varies from culture to culture. Purpose:To undertake a preliminary examination of the prevalence and reasons for some previously studied scientific misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduate students so as to ascertain whether there is any evidence of cultural difference. Such a finding could help to identify teaching approaches in either country that are more effective in reducing the prevalence of common student misconceptions. Sample:The study involved a convenience sample of 40 undergraduate students - 20 English and 20 Chinese drawn equally from two universities in the North of England - whose formal science education ended at ages 16 and 15 respectively. Design and methods:The study employed semi-structured interview schedule containing eight questions. Results:Whilst similar misconceptions existed amongst both English and Chinese undergraduates, their prevalence was significantly higher amongst the English students (Overall mean score for scientifically correct answers amongst Chinese students was 27.7% higher, p Differences in the prevalence of misconceptions amongst English and Chinese undergraduates appear to arise from differences in the way in which specific areas of physics are taught in both countries. It might be possible to reduce the prevalence of misconceptions in both countries if a better understanding could be developed of how, and why, undergraduates use certain erroneous analogies, and why some teaching approaches seem more effective in reducing the prevalence of misconceptions than others.

  7. The COMURHEX 2 project. Investing in UF6 long-term security of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzon, Pierre; Lacombe, Philippe; Durante, Pierre; Teyssier, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The front-end nuclear fuel supply chain for LWRs encompasses four major industrial stages that are mining and concentration, conversion, enrichment, and eventually fuel fabrication. The different stages involve uranium in different chemical and physical forms. Enrichment of the 235-U fissile isotope requires gaseous UF6. As the standard output of mine is U3O8, referred to as ''yellow cake'', a purely chemical stage is therefore needed to fluorinate U3O8 and turn it into UFe: this is the conversion stage. U3O8 inventories management is thus performed at the conversion sites.Purification of the mining concentrates is also needed prior to actual conversion into UFe. This step is important because the front-end supply chain facilities have strict specifications concerning impurities. The conversion stage may involve intermediary products, namely UO3 and/or UF4, depending on the industrial scheme implemented. With the Comurhex 2 project, AREVA is not only shaping the future of conversion market and contributing to the security of supply of its customers, but it is also developing innovative techniques and reorganizing the conversion process steps. Providing such guaranteed and valuable conversion supply with a brand new plant is our strong commitment to a sustainable nuclear fuel cycle. And AREVA is the first that has launched such a project, looking further ahead. The three main axes of sustainable development, economical, social, and environmental, are truly taken into account in the development of the new project.

  8. Experimental Determination of the Solubility of Industrial UF4 Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazel, V.; Houpert, P.; Paquet, F.; Ansoborlo, E.; Henge-Napoli, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical solubility in cell culture medium and in Gamble's solution and the biokinetic behaviour on rats of an industrial UF 4 compound have been studied in order to predict experimentally absorption parameters (f r , s r , s s ) after inhalation and to provide data for interpreting bioassay data. According to these results, this compound has been found to have an intermediate type of absorption between Types F and M as designated by ICRP for the human respiratory tract. A dose coefficient of 1.4 μSv.Bq -1 has been calculated for an inhaled aerosol with an AMAD of 5.1 μm (σg 2.5), which corresponded to the mean value encountered at the fluorination workplace. Predictive urinary and faecal excretion and lung retention curves have also been deduced to calculate the incorporated activity and the received dose in case of an inhalation of UF 4 by workers. (author)

  9. Development of AN Active 238UF6 Gas Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, C.; Enders, J.; Freudenberger, M.; Göök, A.; von Neumann-Cosel, P.; Oberstedt, A.; Oberstedt, S.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed studies of the fission process, e.g., the search for parity nonconservation (PNC) effects, the energy dependence of fission modes or the population of fission isomers, depend on high quality data, therefore requiring high luminosities. An active gas target containing uranium may overcome the deterioration of energy and angular resolution caused by large solid target thicknesses. A single Frisch-grid ionization chamber has been built to test a mixture of standard counting gases (e.g., argon) with depleted uranium hexafluoride (238UF6), utilizing a triple alpha source to evaluate signal quality and drift velocity. For mass fractions of up to 4 percent of 238U the drift velocity increases with rising UF6 content, while a good signal quality and energy resolution is preserved.

  10. Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a new uranium(V) compound: H3O+UF6-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, J.P.; Desmoulin, J.P.; Charpin, P.; Bougon, R.

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of equimolar amounts of UF 5 and H 2 O in hydrogen fluoride results in the partial dissolution of UF 5 , yielding a blue-green solution from which the new salt oxonium hexafluorouranate(V)(H 3 O + UF 6 - ) could be isolated as a green crystalline solid. Calorimetric measurements showed H 3 O + UF 6 - to decompose at about 68 0 C and its heat of formation to be equal to -628 +- 2 kcal mol. Its ionic nature in the solid state and in HF solutions was demonstrated from vibrational and electronic spectra. The electronic spectrum is closely similar to those of LiUF 6 , NaUF 6 , and CsUF 6 and differs from those of RbUF 6 and KUF 6 . This adduct shows a strong ESR signal, with g = -0.78 +- 0.10, characteristic of UF 6 - salts. Based on its x-ray powder diffraction pattern, H 3 O + UF 6 - is cubic with a = 5.2229 +- 0.0005 A

  12. Integrating UF6 Cylinder RF Tracking With Continuous Load Cell Monitoring for Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, Alan M.; Miller, Paul; Pickett, Chris A.; Richardson, Dave; Rowe, Nathan C.; Whitaker, J. Michael; Younkin, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating the integration of UF6 cylinder tracking, using RF technology, with continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) at mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F and W) stations. CLCM and cylinder tracking are two of several continuous-monitoring technologies that show promise in providing integrated safeguards of F and W operations at enrichment plants. Integrating different monitoring technologies allows advanced, automated event processing to screen innocuous events thereby minimizing false alerts to independent inspectors. Traditionally, international inspectors rely on batch verification of material inputs and outputs derived from operator declarations and periodic on-site inspections at uranium enrichment plants or other nuclear processing facilities. Continuously monitoring F and W activities between inspections while providing filtered alerts of significant operational events will substantially increase the amount of valuable information available to inspectors thereby promising to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards and to improve efficiency in conducting on-site inspections especially at large plants for ensuring that all operations are declared.

  13. Characterization of the solid, airborne materials created when UF6 reacts with moist air flowing in single-pass mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickrell, P.W.

    1985-10-01

    A series of experiments has been performed in which UF 6 was released into flowing air in order to characterize the solid particulate material produced under non-static conditions. In two of the experiments, the aerosol was allowed to stagnate in a static chamber after release and examined further but in the other experiments characterization was done only on material collected a few seconds after release. Transmission electron microscopy and mass measurement by cascaded impactor were used to characterize the aerosol particles which were usually single spheroids with little agglomeration in evidence. The goal of the work is to determine the chemistry and physics of the UF 6 -atmospheric moisture reaction under a variety of conditions so that information about resulting species and product morphologies is available for containment and removal (knockdown) studies as well as for dispersion plume modeling and toxicology studies. This report completes the milestone for reporting the information obtained from releases of UF 6 into flowing rather than static air. 26 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Evaluation of a RF-Based Approach for Tracking UF6 Cylinders at a Uranium Enrichment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, Chris A; Younkin, James R; Kovacic, Donald N; Laughter, Mark D; Hines, Jairus B; Boyer, Brian Martinez

    2008-01-01

    Approved industry-standard cylinders are used globally to handle and store uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) feed, product, tails, and samples at uranium enrichment plants. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies on time-consuming physical inspections to verify operator declarations and detect possible diversion of UF 6 . Development of a reliable, automated, and tamper-resistant system for near real-time tracking and monitoring UF 6 cylinders (as they move within an enrichment facility) would greatly improve the inspector function. This type of system can reduce the risk of false or misreported cylinder tare weights, diversion of nuclear material, concealment of excess production, utilization of undeclared cylinders, and misrepresentation of the cylinders contents. This paper will describe a proof-of-concept approach that was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using radio frequency (RF)-based technologies to track individual UF 6 cylinders throughout a portion of their life cycle, and thus demonstrate the potential for improved domestic accountability of materials, and a more effective and efficient method for application of site-level IAEA safeguards. The evaluation system incorporates RF-based identification devices (RFID) which provide a foundation for establishing a reliable, automated, and near real-time tracking system that can be set up to utilize site-specific, rules-based detection algorithms. This paper will report results from a proof-of-concept demonstration at a real enrichment facility that is specifically designed to evaluate both the feasibility of using RF to track cylinders and the durability of the RF equipment to survive the rigors of operational processing and handling. The paper also discusses methods for securely attaching RF devices and describes how the technology can effectively be layered with other safeguard systems and approaches to build a robust system for detecting cylinder diversion. Additionally, concepts for off

  15. Application of the HGSYSTEM/UF6 model to simulate atmospheric dispersion of UF6 releases from uranium enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, W.D. Jr.; Bloom, S.G.; Keith, K.D. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride is a dense, reactive gas used in Gaseous Diffusion Plants (GDPs) to make uranium enriched in the 235 U isotope. Large quantities of UF 6 exist at the GDPs in the form of in-process gas and as a solid in storage cylinders; smaller amounts exist as hot liquid during transfer operations. If liquid UF 6 is released to the environment, it immediately flashes to a solid and a dense gas that reacts rapidly with water vapor in the air to form solid particles of uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride gas. Preliminary analyses were done on various accidental release scenarios to determine which scenarios must be considered in the safety analyses for the GDPS. These scenarios included gas releases due to failure of process equipment and liquid/gas releases resulting from a breach of transfer piping from a cylinder. A major goal of the calculations was to estimate the response time for mitigating actions in order to limit potential off-site consequences of these postulated releases. The HGSYSTEM/UF 6 code was used to assess the consequences of these release scenarios. Inputs were developed from release calculations which included two-phase, choked flow followed by expansion to atmospheric pressure. Adjustments were made to account for variable release rates and multiple release points. Superpositioning of outputs and adjustments for exposure time were required to evaluate consequences based on health effects due to exposures to uranium and HF at a specific location

  16. Epidemiologisk forskning om uførepensjon i Norden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Håkon Bjørngaard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En relativ stor andel av befolkningen i yrkesaktiv alder i de nordiske landene mottar uførepensjon, og i Norge er det en klar tendens til økning. Parallelt med dette har interessen for forskning rundt uførepensjon som fenomen økt. Vi har i denne studien beskrevet den epidemiologiske forskningen om uførepensjon i Norden. I en systematisk litteraturgjennomgang fant vi 118 aktuelle artikler. Alle de nordiske landene er godt representert. Kohortstudier med uførepensjon som endepunkt utgjorde hovedvekten av materialet, hvor 67 var populasjonsbaserte mens 29 tok utgangspunkt i selekterte pasientpopulasjoner. I alt seks kohortstudier benyttet uførepensjon som eksponering. Vi fant videre syv kasus-kontrollstudier og ni forsøk. Det er betydelig dokumentasjon på at ulike sykdommer og helseplager er assosiert med økt risiko for uførhet, i tillegg til at sosioøkonomiske og arbeidsrelaterte forhold er av betydning. Gjennomgangen viser at den epidemiologiske forskningen for det meste har rettet blikket mot individuelle årsaker til uførepensjonering. Selv om denne forskningen er viktig, kan den neppe forklare økningen vi har sett i det siste tiåret. Den videre forskningen bør utforske nærmere hvordan individuell sårbarhet ender i utstøtelse fra arbeidslivet. Med tanke på den omfattende forskningen om årsaker på dette feltet, bør man også i større grad gjennomføre forsøk for å bedre utsatte gruppers arbeidsdeltakelse.Bjørngaard JH, Krokstad S, Johnsen R, Karlsen AO, Pape K, Støver M, Sund E, Westin S. Epidemiological research on disability benefits in the Nordic countries. Nor J Epidemiol 2009; 19 (2: 103-114 ENGLISH SUMMARYA substantial part of the workforce in the Nordic countries receives a disability benefit, and in Norway this beneficiary rate is growing. As a result, disability benefit has been the subject of new interest and research. In this study we have reviewed the epidemiological research on disability benefit in the

  17. Quality assurance in the transport of UF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenscroft, N.L. [Edlow International Company, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Edlow International`s primary business is the international transportation of radioactive materials. Therefore, Edlow has the responsibility to ensure that shipments are performed in compliance with regulatory requirements. In this regard, Edlow maintains a Quality Assurance (QA) Program. A major part of this Program is the establishment and use of QA Procedures. This paper addresses QA procedural requirements and how they are applied to a routine international shipment of low enriched UF{sub 6}. Only the major requirements for scheduling shipments will be addressed.

  18. Storage and uses alternatives of depleted UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, S.; Dotto, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U-enrichment of the Angra-1 pellets (Brazil) have generated about 792 ton of depleted-U, which is nowadays beeing stored by URENCO. The possible sending of this compound to Brazil, added to the fact that in the future, NUCLEI (Nuclebras Enriquecimento Isotopico) itself will generate it, reopens the discussion of the destination of this compound. In this context, the necessity, interest and viability aspects of a reconvertion plant of UF 6 in Brazil are getting important and are, in what follows, breafly discussed. (author) [pt

  19. Radiation-Triggered Surveillance for UF6 Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This paper recommends the use of radiation detectors, singly or in sets, to trigger surveillance cameras. Ideally, the cameras will monitor cylinders transiting the process area as well as the process area itself. The general process area will be surveyed to record how many cylinders have been attached and detached to the process between inspections. Rad-triggered cameras can dramatically reduce the quantity of recorded images, because the movement of personnel and equipment not involving UF6 cylinders will not generate a surveillance review file.

  20. An investigation into the impact of question structure on the performance of first year physics undergraduate students at the University of Cambridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Valerie; Jardine-Wright, Lisa; Bateman, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    We describe a study of the impact of exam question structure on the performance of first year Natural Sciences physics undergraduates from the University of Cambridge. The results show conclusively that a student’s performance improves when questions are scaffolded compared with university style questions. In a group of 77 female students we observe that the average exam mark increases by 13.4% for scaffolded questions, which corresponds to a 4.9 standard deviation effect. The equivalent observation for 236 male students is 9% (5.5 standard deviations). We also observe a correlation between exam performance and A2-level marks for UK students, and that students who receive their school education overseas, in a mixed gender environment, or at an independent school are more likely to receive a first class mark in the exam. These results suggest a mis-match between the problem-solving skills and assessment procedures between school and first year university and will provide key input into the future teaching and assessment of first year undergraduate physics students.

  1. Transport of natural UF6 in a challenging environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chollet, P.; Presta, A.

    2004-01-01

    At the entrance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the front-end material transportation takes a major and specific place. After years of stability the landscape of front-end industry is going toward significant changes regarding capacity, implementation of new technologies, imbalance of conversion capacity between geographical areas with increasing volumes of natural UF6 to transport and transport issues such as new regulations and denial of shipments by liners and ports. Facing this evolution the front end-industry is re-organizing its environment to increase robustness of the logistical chain: by being active in industrial organizations such as WNTI and WNA to share technical views and develop licensed standard transport equipment usable worldwide by developing other safe and reliable comprehensive logistics solutions as an alternative to conventional transport means. Our paper will describe the solutions under review to meet nuclear fuel cycle companies expectations: qualification of several robust logistics systems chartered vessels for maritime transport of UF6 specific 20' flat racks for safer handling of 48Y cylinders with future thermal protections

  2. Potential detection systems for monitoring UF6 releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.E.; Bostick, W.D.; Armstrong, D.P.; McNeely, J.R.; Stockdale, J.A.D.

    1994-09-01

    In the near future, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will begin to regulate the gaseous diffusion plants. Them is a concern that the smoke detectors currently used for uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) release detection will not meet NRC safety system requirements such as high reliability and rapid response. The NRC's position is that licensees should utilize state-of-the-art equipment such as hydrogen fluoride (HF) detectors that would provide more dependable detection of a UF 6 release. A survey of the literature and current vendor information was undertaken to define the state-of-the-art and commercial availability of HF (or other appropriate) detection systems. For the purpose of this report, classification of the available HF detection systems is made on the basis of detection principle (e.g., calorimetric, electrochemical, separational, or optical). Emphasis is also placed on whether the device is primarily sensitive to response from a point source (e.g., outleakage in the immediate vicinity of a specific set of components), or whether the device is potentially applicable to remote sensing over a larger area. Traditional HF point source monitoring typically uses gas sampling tubes or coated paper tapes with color developing indicator, portable and small area HF monitors are often based upon electrochemical or extractive/separational systems; and remote sensing by optical systems holds promise for indoor and outdoor large area monitoring (including plant boundary/ambient air monitoring)

  3. Treatment of car wash wastewater by UF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istirokhatun, Titik; Destianti, Puti; Hargianintya, Adenira; Oktiawan, Wiharyanto; Susanto, Heru

    2015-12-01

    The existence of car wash service facilitates car owners to remove dirt and grime from their vehicles. However, the dirt washed off vehicles as well as the cleaning materials themselves may be harmful to the environment if they are not properly managed and discharged. Many technologies have been proposed to treat car wash wastewater such as coagulation flocculation, tricking filter and flocculation-flotation. Nevertheless, these technologies have low efficiency to eliminate oil and small organic compounds. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were used in this study to treat car wash wastewater. This study investigated the performance of UF membranes under various pressures to remove COD, oil and grease, and also turbidity from car wash waste water. The membrane performance was examined by investigation of permeate flux and membrane rejection. The results meet the standard of environmental regulation and it is possible to be reused. The highest rejection was shown by PES10 (polyethersulfone 10 kDa) in 1 bar operation with complete rejection for both turbidity and oil and grace and 95% rejection for COD.

  4. Spectroscopic properties of K5Li2UF10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbowiak, M.; Gajek, Z.; Drozdzynski, J.

    2005-01-01

    A new uranium (III) fluoro-complex of the formula K 5 Li 2 UF 10 has been synthesised and characterised by X-ray powder diffraction and electronic absorption spectra measurements. The compound crystallises in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma, with a = 20.723, b = 7.809, c = 6.932 A, V = 1121.89 A 3 , Z = 4 and is isostructural with its K 5 Li 2 NdF 10 and K 5 Li 2 LaF 10 analogous. The absorption spectrum of a polycrystalline sample of K 5 Li 2 UF 10 was recorded at 4.2 K in the 3500-45,000 cm -1 range and is discussed. The observed crystal-field levels were assigned and fitted to parameters of the simplified angular overlap model (AOM) and next to those of a semi-empirical Hamiltonian, which was representing the combined atomic and one-electron crystal-field interactions. The starting values of the AOM parameters were obtained from ab initio calculations. The analysis of the spectra enabled the assignment of 71 crystal-field levels of U 3+ with a relatively small r.m.s. deviation of 37 cm -1 . The total splitting of 714 cm -1 was calculated for the 4 I 9/2 ground multiplet

  5. Spectroscopic properties of K 5Li 2UF 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowiak, M.; Gajek, Z.; Drożdżyński, J.

    2005-04-01

    A new uranium (III) fluoro-complex of the formula K 5Li 2UF 10 has been synthesised and characterised by X-ray powder diffraction and electronic absorption spectra measurements. The compound crystallises in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma, with a = 20.723, b = 7.809, c = 6.932 Å, V = 1121.89 Å 3, Z = 4 and is isostructural with its K 5Li 2NdF 10 and K 5Li 2LaF 10 analogous. The absorption spectrum of a polycrystalline sample of K 5Li 2UF 10 was recorded at 4.2 K in the 3500-45,000 cm -1 range and is discussed. The observed crystal-field levels were assigned and fitted to parameters of the simplified angular overlap model (AOM) and next to those of a semi-empirical Hamiltonian, which was representing the combined atomic and one-electron crystal-field interactions. The starting values of the AOM parameters were obtained from ab initio calculations. The analysis of the spectra enabled the assignment of 71 crystal-field levels of U 3+ with a relatively small r.m.s. deviation of 37 cm -1. The total splitting of 714 cm -1 was calculated for the 4I 9/2 ground multiplet.

  6. Transport of natural UF6 in a challenging environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chollet, P.; Presta, A. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    At the entrance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the front-end material transportation takes a major and specific place. After years of stability the landscape of front-end industry is going toward significant changes regarding capacity, implementation of new technologies, imbalance of conversion capacity between geographical areas with increasing volumes of natural UF6 to transport and transport issues such as new regulations and denial of shipments by liners and ports. Facing this evolution the front end-industry is re-organizing its environment to increase robustness of the logistical chain: by being active in industrial organizations such as WNTI and WNA to share technical views and develop licensed standard transport equipment usable worldwide by developing other safe and reliable comprehensive logistics solutions as an alternative to conventional transport means. Our paper will describe the solutions under review to meet nuclear fuel cycle companies expectations: qualification of several robust logistics systems chartered vessels for maritime transport of UF6 specific 20' flat racks for safer handling of 48Y cylinders with future thermal protections.

  7. Computer programs for developing source terms for a UF{sub 6} dispersion model to simulate postulated UF{sub 6} releases from buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W.R.

    1985-03-01

    Calculational methods and computer programs for the analysis of source terms for postulated releases of UF{sub 6} are presented. Required thermophysical properties of UF{sub 6}, HF, and H{sub 2}O are described in detail. UF{sub 6} reacts with moisture in the ambient environment to form HF and H{sub 2}O. The coexistence of HF and H{sub 2}O significantly alters their pure component properties, and HF vapor polymerizes. Transient compartment models for simulating UF{sub 6} releases inside gaseous diffusion plant feed and withdrawl buildings and cascade buildings are also described. The basic compartment model mass and energy balances are supported by simple heat transfer, ventilation system, and deposition models. A model that can simulate either a closed compartment or a steady-state ventilation system is also discussed. The transient compartment models provide input to an atmospheric dispersion model as output.

  8. The applicability of fluoride volatility process to producing UF6 from yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Dechang

    2005-01-01

    The schematic diagrams producing UF 6 from yellow cake are showed in this paper. The characteristics and process improvements of the fluoride volatility process are explained. The applicability of the fluoride volatility process to producing UF 6 from yellow cake is discussed. (authors)

  9. Évolution qualitative et quantitative des composantes de l'œuf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    28 févr. 2014 ... contrôle de coquille et de calibre dans les fermes. Mots clés : œuf, pondeuse, ... dynamique qualitative des composantes de l'œuf . Certains auteurs ont ... programme de conduite et de gestion d'élevage. Élevées en bande ...

  10. Gas-phase UF6 enrichment monitor for enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Tape, J.W.

    1980-03-01

    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF 6 feed stream of an enrichment plant. The nondestructive gamma-ray assay method can be used to determine the enrichment of natural UF 6 with a relative precision of better than 1% for a wide range of pressures

  11. Are Virtual Labs as Effective as Hands-on Labs for Undergraduate Physics? A Comparative Study at Two Major Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrah, Marjorie; Humbert, Roxann; Finstein, Jeanne; Simon, Marllin; Hopkins, John

    2014-01-01

    Most physics professors would agree that the lab experiences students have in introductory physics are central to the learning of the concepts in the course. It is also true that these physics labs require time and money for upkeep, not to mention the hours spent setting up and taking down labs. Virtual physics lab experiences can provide an…

  12. Barriers to undergraduate peer-physical examination of the lower limb in the health sciences and strategies to improve inclusion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Gordon James

    2013-10-01

    Peer-physical examination is a widely adopted and an integral component of the undergraduate curriculum for many health science programs. Unwillingness or perceived inability to participate in peer-physical examination classes may have a negative impact upon students' abilities to competently conduct physical examinations of patients in future as registered health professionals. A literature review on the perceptions and attitudes of peer-physical examination of the lower limb amongst medical and health science students was conducted to identify potential barriers to participation, and to review strategies to improve participation in classes designed to develop clinical examination skills. A pragmatic search strategy of the literature from PubMed and Google Scholar published prior to June 2012 yielded 23 relevant articles. All articles were concerned with the views of medical students' education and there were no articles explicitly addressing the role of peer-physical examination in health science disciplines. Several ethical issues were identified including feelings of coercion, embarrassment, and perceptions of a lack of consideration for cultural and religious beliefs. The available evidence suggests that barriers to participation may be overcome by implementing standard protocols concerned with obtaining informed written consent, adequate choice of peer-examiner, changing facilities and garment advice, and possible alternative learning methods.

  13. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group's organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals

  14. Reactor Physics Experiments by Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly Program (KUGSiKUCA Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyeon, Cheol Ho; Misawa, Tsuyoshi; Unesaki, Hironobu; Ichihara, Chihiro; Shiroya, Seiji; Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Myung Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The Reactor Laboratory Course for Korean Under-Graduate Students in Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUGSiKUCA) program has been launched from 2003, as one of international collaboration programs of Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI). This program was suggested by Department of Nuclear Engineering, College of Advanced Technology, Kyunghee University (KHU), and was adopted by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korean Government as one of among Nuclear Human Resources Education and Training Programs. On the basis of her suggestion for KURRI, memorandum for academic corporation and exchange between KHU and KURRI was concluded on July 2003. The program has been based on the background that it is extremely difficult for any single university in Korea to have her own research or training reactor. Up to this 2006, total number of 61 Korean under-graduate school students, who have majored in nuclear engineering of Kyunghee University, Hanyang University, Seoul National University, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Chosun University and Cheju National University in all over the Korea, has taken part in this program. In all the period, two professors and one teaching assistant on the Korean side led the students and helped their successful experiments, reports and discussions. Due to their effort, the program has succeeded in giving an effective and unique course, taking advantage of their collaboration

  15. Avslag på uførepensjon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders M. Galaasen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduksjon: Mens mye er skrevet om hvem som får uførepensjon, foreligger det få vitenskapelige artikler om avslag på søknad om uførepensjon.Mål: Vi har gjennomført en undersøkelse over hvem som får avslag på søknad om uførepensjon og hvorledes det går med dem i en 6-7 års oppfølging.Metoder: Data fra FD-trygd, koplet med Statistisk sentralbyrås demografiske data er brukt for å sammenlikne dem som får avslag med dem som blir innvilget uførepensjon 1993 ut fra alder, kjønn, utdanning, etnisitet og inntekt. Trygdestatus for dem med avslag er så fulgt til 2000.Resultater: Vi har funnet at kvinner oftere får avslag enn menn, at de eldste og yngste sjeldnere får avslag og at de med minst inntekt og ikke-vestlig bakgrunn oftere får avslag, mens avslagsprosenten er omtrent den samme på alle utdanningsnivåer. I en oppfølging frem til 2000 viser det seg at de fleste ender opp med trygdeytelser, og at kjønnsforskjellene ytterligere forsterkes. De få av de yngste som får avslag, er relativt hyppig fortsatt uten ytelser.Konklusjon: Selv om noen av dem som får avslag, klarer å komme tilbake til normalt lønnsarbeid, og derigjennom bidra til økt produktivitet, resulterer avslag oftere kun i en utsettelse av overgang til permanente trygdeytelser. Hva den eventuelle samfunnsøkonomiske gevinsten av en slik utsettelse er, når man også tar i betraktning økt saksbehandling fra NAV, samt utgifter til attføring og rehabilitering, er et spørsmål for videre forskning. Galaasen AM, Bruusgaard D, Claussen B. Denial of disability pension. Nor J Epidemiol 2009; 19 (2: 203-208. ENGLISH SUMMARYIntroduction: While much is written about who gets disability pensions, there are few scientific articles on the denial of disability pension.Objective: We conducted a survey of who is rejected disability pension and how their life situation evolves in a 6- 7-year follow-up.Methods: Data from FD-trygd, coupled with Statistics Norway

  16. Dynamic coating of mf/uf membranes for fouling mitigation

    KAUST Repository

    Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh

    2017-01-19

    A membrane system including an anti-fouling layer and a method of applying an anti-fouling layer to a membrane surface are provided. In an embodiment, the surface is a microfiltration (MF) or an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane surface. The anti-fouling layer can include a stimuli responsive layer and a dynamic protective layer applied over the stimuli responsive layer that can be a coating on a surface of the membrane. The stimuli responsive polymer layer can act as an adhesive prior to coating with the dynamic protective layer to aid in adhering the dynamic protective layer to the membrane surface. The dynamic protective layer can be formed by suitable nanoparticles that can prevent adhesion of foulants directly to the membrane surface. The stimuli responsive layer can be responsive to physio- chemical stimuli to cause a release of the stimuli responsive layer and the dynamic protective layer including foulants from the membrane.

  17. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, J.H.; Clement, J.D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a 233 UF 6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li 7 F, BeF 2 , ThF 4 ) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. A maximum breeding ratio of 1.22 was found. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. Optimization of a Rankine cycle for a gas core breeder reactor employing an intermediate heat exchanger gave a maximum efficiency of 37 percent. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. The advantages of the GCBR are as follows: (1) high efficiency, (2) simplified on-line reprocessing, (3) inherent safety considerations, (4) high breeding ratio, (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides, and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion

  18. Study on UF6 condensing receiving system improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhenxing; Li Yingfeng; Li Zhenfeng; He Ping; Wang Yanping; Tian Yushan

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve receiving capacity of UF 6 condensing system, the pressure release mode is changed through modifying gas phase inlet of the first-grade condenser, thus pressure release time is reduced from 13.1 h to 8.1 h. Be- cause of improvement of utility condensers of the two product lines, both the flexibility of feeding nitrogen and the emergency capacity of condensers are improved greatly. And modification of fluid transferring and sampling system make the remains in system transfer flexibly. The practise shows that metal direct recovery rises to the extent, and capacity of the first-grade condensing receiving system improves 8.4%, which strongly guarantees fluorination production safely, continuously and stably run. (authors)

  19. Construction of a scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials in undergraduate physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBrake, Scott M.; Vineyard, Michael F.; Turley, Colin F.; Moore, Robert D.; Johnson, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    We have developed a new scattering chamber for ion-beam analysis of environmental materials with the 1.1-MV Pelletron accelerator at the Union College Ion-Beam Analysis Laboratory. The chamber was constructed from a ten-inch, Conflat, multi-port cross and includes a three-axis target manipulator and target ladder assembly, an eight-inch turbo pump, an Amptek X-ray detector, and multiple charged particle detectors. Recent projects performed by our undergraduate research team include proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses of atmospheric aerosols collected with a nine-stage cascade impactor in Upstate New York. We will describe the construction of the chamber and discuss the results of some commissioning experiments.

  20. Epistemological beliefs of physics undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in the context of a well-structured and an ill-structured problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercan, Fatih C.

    This study examines epistemological beliefs of physics undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in the context of solving a well-structured and an ill-structured problem. The data collection consisted of a think aloud problem solving session followed by a semi-structured interview conducted with 50 participants, 10 participants at freshmen, seniors, masters, PhD, and faculty levels. The data analysis involved (a) identification of the range of beliefs about knowledge in the context of the well-structured and the ill-structured problem solving, (b) construction of a framework that unites the individual beliefs identified in each problem context under the same conceptual base, and (c) comparisons of the problem contexts and expertise level groups using the framework. The results of the comparison of the contexts of the well-structured and the ill-structured problem showed that (a) authoritative beliefs about knowledge were expressed in the well-structured problem context, (b) relativistic and religious beliefs about knowledge were expressed in the ill-structured problem context, and (c) rational, empirical, modeling beliefs about knowledge were expressed in both problem contexts. The results of the comparison of the expertise level groups showed that (a) undergraduates expressed authoritative beliefs about knowledge more than graduate students and faculty did not express authoritative beliefs, (b) faculty expressed modeling beliefs about knowledge more than graduate students and undergraduates did not express modeling beliefs, and (c) there were no differences in rational, empirical, experiential, relativistic, and religious beliefs about knowledge among the expertise level groups. As the expertise level increased the number of participants who expressed authoritative beliefs about knowledge decreased and the number of participants who expressed modeling based beliefs about knowledge increased. The results of this study implied that existing developmental and

  1. 2D modelling of a UF6 container in a fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    We present some results on 2D thermal modelisation of the behaviour of UF6 in a fire. A cylindrical container is engulfed by a high temperature space where the heat transfer is expected to occur by radiation only. During the first minutes, we assume that the thermal resistance is between the external wall and the UF6 solid, the heat transfer can be split up into three kinds: 1) conduction to solid UF6 through a contact surface. 2) radiative transfer. 3) gas layer with a small heat conductance. This thermal resistance is initially determined by the UF6 filling type, shape and also is time dependant by thermal dilatation effects. On the onset of liquifying the heat transfer increases because of the larger liquid exchange. The liquid and boiling heat flow is then calculated by a model on the basis of classical correlations in vertical cavities. Numerical evaluations have been performed with a finite element model using: ANSYS. With a realistic hypothesis, the effect of the following parameters is estimated: thermal conductivity of UF6 solid, contact surface fraction, UF6 emissivity, gas gap thickness, liquid UF6 wall exchange, solid liquid transition criteria, non condensation factor k. (J.P.N.)

  2. FTIR spectroscopy of UF6 clustering in a supersonic Laval nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimura, Shinobu; Okada, Yoshiki; Takeuchi, Kazuo

    1996-01-01

    The clustering of UF 6 seeded in Ar was observed in a continuous supersonic Laval nozzle flow. The onset conditions for UF 6 clustering were investigated by measuring the FTIR spectra of UF 6 monomer and clusters in the nozzle. The onset conditions for the clustering, temperature, density of UF 6 (or partial pressure), and cooling rate, were determined. The onset temperature determined here was higher by 40-50 K than that determined by a light-scattering method. The frequency shift of the main peak of the UF 6 clusters from the monomer peak was about -17 cm -1 , which was smaller than the shift of the crystalline UF 6 by about 11 cm -1 . The increase in temperature caused by the heat of condensation and the change of the spectra of UF 6 clusters with the growth after the onset were also observed. It was shown that the clustering rate due to the collision between the monomer and cluster is much higher than that due to the collision between the monomers. 19 refs., 9 figs

  3. Physical activity education in the undergraduate curricula of all UK medical schools. Are tomorrow's doctors equipped to follow clinical guidelines?

    OpenAIRE

    Weiler, Richard; Chew, Stephen; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of disease prevention and treatment. There is, however, a considerable disparity between public health policy, clinical guidelines and the delivery of physical activity promotion within the National Health Service in the UK. If this is to be addressed in the battle against non-communicable diseases, it is vital that tomorrow's doctors understand the basic science and health benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the provision...

  4. Determination of UO2 little quantity in UF4 by X-rays diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.I.; Sato, I.M.; Imakuma, K.

    1977-01-01

    In the fluorination process, the final product UF 4 contain different levels of UO 2 as a contaminant. A routine method for quantitative analysis by x-ray diffraction has been developed. Standard curves have been plotted using mixtures of UO 2 /UF 4 with measures of intensity of (III) peak of UO 2 by the step scanning process. The integrated intensity versus UO 2 concentration curves present a linear behavior in the range from 0 to 4%. A good reprodutibility of measuring process has been observed through statistical analysis which permits to determine low fractions of UO 2 in UF 4 with +- 0,08% of accuracy [pt

  5. Preliminary Hazard Analysis applied to Uranium Hexafluoride - UF6 production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomzhinsky, David; Bichmacher, Ricardo; Braganca Junior, Alvaro; Peixoto, Orpet Jose

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the Preliminary hazard Analysis applied to the UF 6 Production Process, which is part of the UF 6 Conversion Plant. The Conversion Plant has designed to produce a high purified UF 6 in accordance with the nuclear grade standards. This Preliminary Hazard Analysis is the first step in the Risk Management Studies, which are under current development. The analysis evaluated the impact originated from the production process in the plant operators, members of public, equipment, systems and installations as well as the environment. (author)

  6. Reimiep 87. An interlaboratory U-235 enrichment determination by gamma measurement on solid UF6 sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Cresti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopy technique, based on the measurement of U 235 186 KeV flux, is now currently used for the determination of Uranium enrichment in different material of nuclear fuel cycle, namely: Uranium metallic, UO 2 pellets, UF 6 liquid or solid. The present paper describes the use of such a technique and the obtained results in determining the U 235 /U atomic isotopic abundance on a certified UF 6 solid sample. The measurements have been carried out in the frame work of the partecipation to the ''UF 6 Interlaboratory Measurements Evaluation Programme'' organized by CBNM/Geel with the support of the ESARDA (European Safeguards Research and Development Association)

  7. The electron spectrum of UF6 recorded in the gas phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mârtensson, N.; Malmquist, P.-Å.; Svensson, S.; Johansson, B.

    1984-06-01

    Gas phase core and valence electron spectra from UF6, excited by AlKα monochromatized x rays, in the binding energy range 0-1000 eV are presented. It is shown that the AlKα excited valence electron spectrum can be used to reassign the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in UF6. Many-body effects on the core levels are discussed and core level lifetimes are determined. The shift between solid phase and gas phase electron binding energies for core lines is used to discuss the U5 f population in UF6.

  8. Physical activity education in the undergraduate curricula of all UK medical schools: are tomorrow's doctors equipped to follow clinical guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Richard; Chew, Stephen; Coombs, Ngaire; Hamer, Mark; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone of disease prevention and treatment. There is, however, a considerable disparity between public health policy, clinical guidelines and the delivery of physical activity promotion within the National Health Service in the UK. If this is to be addressed in the battle against non-communicable diseases, it is vital that tomorrow's doctors understand the basic science and health benefits of physical activity. The aim of this study was to assess the provision of physical activity teaching content in the curricula of all medical schools in the UK. Our results, with responses from all UK medical schools, uncovered some alarming findings, showing that there is widespread omission of basic teaching elements, such as the Chief Medical Officer recommendations and guidance on physical activity. There is an urgent need for physical activity teaching to have dedicated time at medical schools, to equip tomorrow's doctors with the basic knowledge, confidence and skills to promote physical activity and follow numerous clinical guidelines that support physical activity promotion.

  9. Research of heat releasing element of an active zone of gaseous nuclear reactor with pumped through nuclear fuel - uranium hexafluoride (UF6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batyrbekov, G.; Batyrbekov, E.; Belyakova, E.; Kunakov, S.; Koltyshev, S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the offered project is learning physics and substantiation of possibility of creation gaseous nuclear reactor with pumped through nuclear fuel-hexafluoride of uranium (Uf6).Main problems of this work are'. Determination of physic-chemical, spectral and optical properties of non-equilibrium nuclear - excited plasma of hexafluoride of uranium and its mixtures with other gases. Research of gas dynamics of laminar, non-mixing two-layer current of gases of hexafluoride of uranium and helium at availability and absence of internal energy release in hexafluoride of uranium with the purpose to determinate a possibility of isolation of hexafluoride of uranium from walls by inert helium. Creation and research of gaseous heat releasing element with pumped through fuel Uf6 in an active zone of research nuclear WWR-K reactor. Objects of a research: Non-equilibrium nuclear - excited plasma of hexafluoride of uranium and its mixtures with other gases. With use of specially created ampoules will come true in-reactor probe and spectral diagnostics of plasma. Calculations of kinetics with the account of main elementary processes proceeding in it, will be carried out. Two-layer non-mixed streams of hexafluoride of uranium and helium at availability and absence of internal energy release. Conditions of obtaining and characteristics of such streams will be investigated. Gaseous heat releasing element with pumped through fuel - Uf6 in an active zone of nuclear WWR-K reactor

  10. Exploration of factors that affect the comparative effectiveness of physical and virtual manipulatives in an undergraduate laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn J. Chini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent research results have failed to support the conventionally held belief that students learn physics best from hands-on experiences with physical equipment. Rather, studies have found that students who perform similar experiments with computer simulations perform as well or better on measures of conceptual understanding than their peers who used physical equipment. In this study, we explored how university-level nonscience majors’ understanding of the physics concepts related to pulleys was supported by experimentation with real pulleys and a computer simulation of pulleys. We report that when students use one type of manipulative (physical or virtual, the comparison is influenced both by the concept studied and the timing of the post-test. Students performed similarly on questions related to force and mechanical advantage regardless of the type of equipment used. On the other hand, students who used the computer simulation performed better on questions related to work immediately after completing the activities; however, the two groups performed similarly on the work questions on a test given one week later. Additionally, both sequences of experimentation (physical-virtual and virtual-physical equally supported students’ understanding of all of the concepts. These results suggest that both the concept learned and the stability of learning gains should continue to be explored to improve educators’ ability to select the best learning experience for a given topic.

  11. Longitudinal effects of college type and selectivity on degrees conferred upon undergraduate females in physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Stacy Mckimm

    There has been much research to suggest that a single-sex college experience for female undergraduate students can increase self-confidence and leadership ability during the college years and beyond. The results of previous studies also suggest that these students achieve in the workforce and enter graduate school at higher rates than their female peers graduating from coeducational institutions. However, some researchers have questioned these findings, suggesting that it is the selectivity level of the colleges rather than the comprised gender of the students that causes these differences. The purpose of this study was to justify the continuation of single-sex educational opportunities for females at the post-secondary level by examining the effects that college selectivity, college type, and time have on the rate of undergraduate females pursuing majors in non-traditional fields. The study examined the percentage of physical science, life science, math and computer science, and social science degrees conferred upon females graduating from women's colleges from 1985-2001, as compared to those at comparable coeducational colleges. Sampling for this study consisted of 42 liberal arts women's (n = 21) and coeducational (n = 21) colleges. Variables included the type of college, the selectivity level of the college, and the effect of time on the percentage of female graduates. Doubly multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance testing revealed significant main effects for college selectivity on social science graduates, and time on both life science and math and computer science graduates. Significant interaction was also found between the college type and time on social science graduates, as well as the college type, selectivity level, and time on math and computer science graduates. Implications of the results and suggestions for further research are discussed.

  12. HEU to LEU Conversion and Blending Facility: UF{sub 6} blending alternative to produce LEU UF{sub 6} for commercial use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials; the nuclear material will be converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Examining options for increasing the proliferation resistance of highly enriched uranium (HEU) is part of this effort. Five technologies for blending HEU will be assessed; blending as UF{sub 6} to produce a UF{sub 6} product for commercial use is one of them. This document provides data to be used in the environmental impact analysis for the UF{sub 6} blending HEU disposition option. Resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards, accident scenarios, and intersite transportation are discussed.

  13. Impact of Acid Cleaning on the Performance of PVDF UF Membranes in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment

    KAUST Repository

    Alsogair, Safiya

    2016-01-01

    required to maintain the characteristics of the membrane. This research was made with the purpose of investigating the effects of acid cleaning during chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB) on the performance of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in seawater

  14. 18 years experience on UF{sub 6} handling at Japanese nuclear fuel manufacturer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinaga, H.; Yamazaki, N.; Takebe, N. [Japan Nucelar Fuel Conversion Co., Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1991-12-31

    In the spring of 1991, a leading nuclear fuel manufacturing company in Japan, celebrated its 18th anniversary. Since 1973, the company has produced over 5000 metric ton of ceramic grade UO{sub 2} powder to supply to Japanese fabricators, without major accident/incident and especially with a successful safety record on UF{sub 6} handling. The company`s 18 years experience on nuclear fuel manufacturing reveals that key factors for the safe handling of UF{sub 6} are (1) installing adequate facilities, equipped with safety devices, (2) providing UF{sub 6} handling manuals and executing them strictly, and (3) repeating on and off the job training for operators. In this paper, equipment and the operation mode for UF{sub 6} processing at their facility are discussed.

  15. Aspects of uranium chemistry pertaining to UF{sub 6} cylinder handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, R.L.; Barber, E.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Under normal conditions, the bulk of UF{sub 6} in storage cylinders will be in the solid state with an overpressure of gaseous UF{sub 6} well below one atmosphere. Corrosion of the interior of the cylinder will be very slow, with formation of a small amount of reduced fluoride, probably U{sub 2}F{sub 9}. The UO{sub 3}-HF-H{sub 2}O phase diagram indicates that reaction of any inleaking water vapor with the solid UF{sub 6} will generate the solid material [H{sub 3}O]{sub 2}(U(OH){sub 4}F{sub 4}) in equilibrium with an aqueous HF solution containing only small amounts of uranium. The corrosion of the steel cylinder by these materials may be enhanced over that observed with gaseous anhydrous UF{sub 6}.

  16. Electron affinity of UF6. Final report, March 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, E.W.

    1977-06-01

    Ionization reactions are observed in crossed molecular beams, usually of thermal energy, alkalis and MoF 6 , WF 6 and UF 6 . Previous studies have indicated large electron affinities for these hexafluorides, and this is confirmed here. Ionization at thermal energies proceeds with the alkali dimers, A 2 , for all three hexafluorides, but with alkali atoms, A, only for UF 6 . Several ionization paths are observed, allowing the deduction of molecular energies. A few experiments are done with eV-range beams. Lower limits for the elecron affinities are 4.5, 3.3, 4.9, 4.3 and 1.9 eV for MoF 6 , MoF 5 , WF 6 , UF 6 and UF 5 , respectively. Possible mechanisms are discussed

  17. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF6 release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF 6 -) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF 6 , Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF 6 released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF 6 -specific models, using field data on releases of UF 6 and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF 6 and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF 6 -specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF 6 reaction with water

  18. Validation of the Cristallini Sampling Method for UF6 by High Precision Double-Spike Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    RICHTER STEPHAN; JAKOBSSON ULF; HIESS JOE; AMARAGGI D.

    2017-01-01

    The so-called "Cristallini Method" for sampling of UF6 by adsorption and hydrolysis in alumina pellets inside a fluorothene P-10 tube was developed by the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) several years ago. This method has several advantages compared to the currently used sampling method, for which UF6 is distilled into a stainless steel tube for transportation, with hydrolysis and isotopic analysis being performed after shipping to the analyt...

  19. Presentation and interpretation of field experiments of gaseous UF6 releases in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabol, B.; Boulaud, D.; Deville-Cavelin, G.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental programme concerning the behaviour of UF 6 released in gaseous phase in the atmosphere has been conducted in the years 1986-1989 by the french Atomic Energy Commission and Eurodif. Three field tests have been performed on the CEA/CESTA experimental site. These experiments permitted to get informations about the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of the UF 6 , the behaviour of the hydrolysis products in the atmosphere and the granulometry of the solid particles

  20. Presentation and interpretation of field experiments of gaseous UF6 releases in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabol, B.; Boulaud, D.; Deville-Cavelin, G. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de l`Environnement et des Installations; Geisse, C.; Iacona, L. [EURODIF, 26 - Pierrelatte (France)

    1992-12-31

    An experimental programme concerning the behaviour of UF{sub 6} released in gaseous phase in the atmosphere has been conducted in the years 1986-1989 by the french Atomic Energy Commission and Eurodif. Three field tests have been performed on the CEA/CESTA experimental site. These experiments permitted to get informations about the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of the UF{sub 6}, the behaviour of the hydrolysis products in the atmosphere and the granulometry of the solid particles.

  1. Criticality safety review of 2 1/2-, 10-, and 14-ton UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    1991-10-01

    Currently, UF 6 cylinders designed to contain 2 1/2 tons of UF 6 are classified as Fissile Class 2 packages with a transport index (TI) of 5 for the purpose of transportation. The 10-ton UF 6 cylinders are classified as Fissile Class 1 with no TI assigned for transportation. The 14-ton cylinders, although not certified for transport with enrichments greater than 1 wt % because they have no approved overpack, can be used in on-site operations for enrichments greater than 1 wt %. The maximum 235 U enrichments for these cylinders are 5.0 wt % for the 2 1/2-ton cylinder and 4.5 wt % for the 10- and 14-ton cylinders. This work reviews the suitability for reclassification of the 2 1/2-ton UF 6 packages as Fissile Class 1 with a maximum 235 U enrichment of 5 wt %. Additionally, the 10- and 14-ton cylinders are reviewed to address a change in maximum 235 U enrichment from 4.5 to 5 wt %. Based on this evaluation, the 2 1/2-ton UF 6 cylinders meet the 10 CFR.71 criteria for Fissile Class 1 packages, and no TI is needed for criticality safety purposes; however, a TI may be required based on radiation from the packages. Similarly, the 10- and 14-ton UF 6 packages appear acceptable for a maximum enrichment rating change to 5 wt % 235 U. 11 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Scenarios and analytical methods for UF6 releases at NRC-licensed fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siman-Tov, M.; Dykstra, J.; Holt, D.D.; Huxtable, W.P.; Just, R.A.; Williams, W.R.

    1984-06-01

    This report identifies and discusses potential scenarios for the accidental release of UF 6 at NRC-licensed UF 6 production and fuel fabrication facilities based on a literature review, site visits, and DOE enrichment plant experience. Analytical tools needed for evaluating source terms for such releases are discussed, and the applicability of existing methods is reviewed. Accident scenarios are discussed under the broad headings of cylinder failures, UF 6 process system failures, nuclear criticality events, and operator errors and are categorized by location, release source, phase of UF 6 prior to release, release flow characteristics, release causes, initiating events, and UF 6 inventory at risk. At least three types of releases are identified for further examination: (1) a release from a liquid-filled cylinder outdoors, (2) a release from a pigtail or cylinder in a steam chest, (3) an indoor release from either (a) a pigtail or liquid-filled cylinder or (b) other indoor source depending on facility design and operating procedures. Indoor release phenomena may be analyzed to determine input terms for a ventilation model by using a time-dependent homogeneous compartment model or a more complex hydrodynamic model if time-dependent, spatial variations in concentrations, temperature, and pressure are important. Analytical tools for modeling directed jets and explosive releases are discussed as well as some of the complex phenomena to be considered in analyzing UF 6 releases both indoors and outdoors

  3. Evaluation of tecniques for controlling UF6 release clouds in the GAT environmental chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    Studies designed to characterize the reaction between UF 6 and atmospheric moisture, evaluate environmental variables of UF 6 cloud formation and ultimate cloud fate, and UF 6 release cloud control procedure have been conducted in the 1200 cu. ft. GAT environmental chamber. In earlier chamber experiments, 30 separate UF 6 release tests indicated that variations of atmospheric conditions and sample sizes had no significant effect on UO 2 F 2 particle size distribution, release cloud formation, or cloud settling rates. During the past year, numerous procedures have been evaluated for accelerating UF 6 cloud knockdown in a series of 37 environmental chamber releases. Knockdown procedures included: coarse water spray; air jet; steam spray (electrostatically charged and uncharged); carbon dioxide; Freon-12; fine water mist (uncharged); boric acid mist (charged and uncharged); and an ionized dry air stream. UF 6 hydrolysis cloud settling rates monitored by a laser/powermeter densitometer, indicated the relative effectiveness of various cloud knockdown techniques. Electrostatically charged boric acid/water mist, and electrostatically ionized dry air were both found to be very effective, knocking down the UO 2 F 2 release cloud particles in two to five minutes. Work to adapt these knockdown techniques for use under field conditions is continuing, taking into account recovery of the released uranium as well as nuclear criticality constraints

  4. Natural phenomena evaluations of the K-25 site UF6 cylinder storage yards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, K.E.

    1996-01-01

    The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards are used for the temporary storage of UF 6 normal assay cylinders and long-term storage of other UF 6 cylinders. The K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards consist of six on-site areas: K-1066-B, K-1066-E, K-1066-F, K-1066-J, K-1066-K and K-1066-L. There are no permanent structures erected on the cylinder yards, except for five portable buildings. The operating contractor for the K-25 Site is preparing a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) to examine the safety related aspects of the K-25 Site UF 6 cylinder storage yards. The SAR preparation encompasses many tasks terminating in consequence analysis for the release of gaseous and liquid UF 6 , one of which is the evaluation of natural phenomena threats, such as earthquakes, floods, and winds. In support of the SAR, the six active cylinder storage yards were evaluated for vulnerabilities to natural phenomena, earthquakes, high winds and tornados, tornado-generated missiles, floods (local and regional), and lightning. This report summarizes those studies. 30 refs

  5. Photochemical removal of NpF6 and PuF6 from UF6 gas streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    A novel photochemical method of removing reactive fluorides from UF 6 gas has been discovered. This method reduces generated waste to little more than the volume of the removed impurities, minimizes loss of UF 6 , and can produce a recyclable by-product, fluorine gas. In our new method, impure UF 6 , is exposed to ultraviolet light which dissociates the UF 6 to UF 5 and fluorine atom. Impurities which chemically react with UF 5 are reduced and form solid compounds easily removed from the gas while UF 5 is converted back to UF 6 . Proof-of-concept testing involved UF 6 containing NpF 6 and PuF 6 with CO added as a fluorine atom scavenger. In a single photolysis step, greater than 5000-fold reduction of PuF 6 was demonstrated while reducing NpF 6 by more than 40-fold. This process is likely to remove corrosion and fission product fluorides that are more reactive than UF 6 and has been demonstrated without an added fluorine atom scavenger by periodically removing photogenerated fluorine gas. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Reduction of UF4 to U-metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namkung, H.; Min, B.T.; Kim, J.S.; Whang, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    In the second years of study for the production of the metallic uranium with reactors which can produce 1 Kg and 4 Kg U-metal, various factors on the yield of U-metal and the leaching condition for uranium recovery with nitric acid are examined. The jolter has been used for the charging with liner (MgF 2 ) while the hand-tamping method for the filling of reaction mixtures (UF 4 -Mg) in the reactor, and their average densities are 1.23g/cc and 2.90g/cc, respectively. The various effects on the yield such as magnesium excess, furnace control temperatue, charge densities of liner and reaction mixtures, have been studied but the yields of crude metal production are in the wide range from 93 % down to about 65 %. Generally, six percent magnesium excess produced higher yields than did either 2 or 10 percent excess. The leaching condition for the uranium recovery from slag are also investigated with dilute nitric acid (3-6N) as well as higher concentrated nitric acid (9.5N) but the leaching yields are same in either solution. Uranium recovery from the slag is very effective with dilute nitric acid (3N) leaching for less than one hour at 60degC. (Author)

  7. Investigation of breached depleted UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVan, J.H. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In June 1990, during a three-site inspection of cylinders being used for long-term storage of solid depleted UF{sub 6}, two 14-ton cylinders at Portsmouth, Ohio, were discovered with holes in the barrel section of the cylinders. An investigation team was immediately formed to determine the cause of the failures and their impact on future storage procedures and to recommend corrective actions. Subsequent investigation showed that the failures most probably resulted from mechanical damage that occurred at the time that the cylinders had been placed in the storage yard. In both cylinders evidence pointed to the impact of a lifting lug of an adjacent cylinder near the front stiffening ring, where deflection of the cylinder could occur only by tearing the cylinder. The impacts appear to have punctured the cylinders and thereby set up corrosion processes that greatly extended the openings in the wall and obliterated the original crack. Fortunately, the reaction products formed by this process were relatively protective and prevented any large-scale loss of uranium. The main factors that precipitated the failures were inadequate spacing between cylinders and deviations in the orientations of lifting lugs from their intended horizontal position. After reviewing the causes and effects of the failures, the team`s principal recommendation for remedial action concerned improved cylinder handling and inspection procedures. Design modifications and supplementary mechanical tests were also recommended to improve the cylinder containment integrity during the stacking operation.

  8. A realidade da pesquisa no DEN/UFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvair de Brito Alves

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa trata do processo de pesquisar no Departamento de Enfermagem e Nutrição da Universidade Federal de Sergipe - DEN/UFS. Ela foi desenvolvida a partir de entrevistas semi estruturadas realizadas com as docentes. Dos materiais obtidos, apresentamos concepções das docentes sobre grupos, linhas e projetos de pesquisa; a produção científica docente e discente; dificuldades e possibilidades relativas à atividade de pesquisar; estratégias que esse Departamento vem utilizando para o desenvolvimento da pesquisa, para a capacitação docente e formação de pesquisadores, além da inserção de estudantes (de graduação e de pós graduação no "mundo científico". Ela conclui pela necessidade de aprofundamento dessa atividade e pela divulgação e aplicação dos seus resultados na prática de enfermagem.

  9. Undergraduate Convexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Niels

    Based on undergraduate teaching to students in computer science, economics and mathematics at Aarhus University, this is an elementary introduction to convex sets and convex functions with emphasis on concrete computations and examples. Starting from linear inequalities and Fourier-Motzkin elimin...

  10. Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jamie

    2001-04-01

    This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.

  11. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects. Copyright © 2011 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Molecular Self-Diffusion Coefficients Using Pulsed-Field-Gradient NMR: An Experiment for Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Jennifer; Coffman, Cierra; Villarrial, Spring; Chabolla, Steven; Heisel, Kurt A.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V.

    2012-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has become one of the primary tools that chemists utilize to characterize a range of chemical species in the solution phase, from small organic molecules to medium-sized proteins. A discussion of NMR spectroscopy is an essential component of physical and biophysical chemistry lecture courses, and a number of instructional…

  13. Introduction of Vertical Integration and Case-Based Learning in Anatomy for Undergraduate Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Suresh K.; Rathinam, Bertha A. D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present pilot study was to evaluate the benefits of innovative teaching methodologies introduced to final year occupational and physical therapy students in Christian Medical College in India. Students' satisfactions along the long-term retention of knowledge and clinical application of the respiratory anatomy have been…

  14. The reach of Spanish-language YouTube videos on physical examinations made by undergraduate medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Ramos-Rincón

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and reach of YouTube videos on physical examinations made by Spanish university students. We analyzed performance metrics for 4 videos on physical examinations in Spanish that were created by medical students at Miguel Hernández University (Elche, Spain and are available on YouTube, on the following topics: the head and neck (7:30, the cardiovascular system (7:38, the respiratory system (13:54, and the abdomen (11:10. We used the Analytics application offered by the YouTube platform to analyze the reach of the videos from the upload date (February 17, 2015 to July 28, 2017 (2 years, 5 months, and 11 days. The total number of views, length of watch-time, and the mean view duration for the 4 videos were, respectively: 164,403 views (mean, 41,101 views; range, 12,389 to 94,573 views, 425,888 minutes (mean, 106,472 minutes; range, 37,889 to 172,840 minutes, and 2:56 minutes (range, 1:49 to 4:03 minutes. Mexico was the most frequent playback location, followed by Spain, Colombia, and Venezuela. Uruguay, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico had the most views per 100,000 population. Spanish-language tutorials are an alternative tool for teaching physical examination skills to students whose first language is not English. The videos were especially popular in Uruguay, Ecuador, and Mexico.

  15. The reach of Spanish-language YouTube videos on physical examinations made by undergraduate medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and reach of YouTube videos on physical examinations made by Spanish university students. We analyzed performance metrics for 4 videos on physical examinations in Spanish that were created by medical students at Miguel Hernández University (Elche, Spain) and are available on YouTube, on the following topics: the head and neck (7:30), the cardiovascular system (7:38), the respiratory system (13:54), and the abdomen (11:10). We used the Analytics application offered by the YouTube platform to analyze the reach of the videos from the upload date (February 17, 2015) to July 28, 2017 (2 years, 5 months, and 11 days). The total number of views, length of watch-time, and the mean view duration for the 4 videos were, respectively: 164,403 views (mean, 41,101 views; range, 12,389 to 94,573 views), 425,888 minutes (mean, 106,472 minutes; range, 37,889 to 172,840 minutes), and 2:56 minutes (range, 1:49 to 4:03 minutes). Mexico was the most frequent playback location, followed by Spain, Colombia, and Venezuela. Uruguay, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico had the most views per 100,000 population. Spanish-language tutorials are an alternative tool for teaching physical examination skills to students whose first language is not English. The videos were especially popular in Uruguay, Ecuador, and Mexico. PMID:29278903

  16. The reach of Spanish-language YouTube videos on physical examinations made by undergraduate medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Rincón, José M; Belinchón-Romero, Isabel; Sánchez-Ferrer, Francisco; Torre, Guillermo Martínez-de la; Harris, Meggan; Sánchez-Fernández, Javier

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and reach of YouTube videos on physical examinations made by Spanish university students. We analyzed performance metrics for 4 videos on physical examinations in Spanish that were created by medical students at Miguel Hernández University (Elche, Spain) and are available on YouTube, on the following topics: the head and neck (7:30), the cardiovascular system (7:38), the respiratory system (13:54), and the abdomen (11:10). We used the Analytics application offered by the YouTube platform to analyze the reach of the videos from the upload date (February 17, 2015) to July 28, 2017 (2 years, 5 months, and 11 days). The total number of views, length of watch-time, and the mean view duration for the 4 videos were, respectively: 164,403 views (mean, 41,101 views; range, 12,389 to 94,573 views), 425,888 minutes (mean, 106,472 minutes; range, 37,889 to 172,840 minutes), and 2:56 minutes (range, 1:49 to 4:03 minutes). Mexico was the most frequent playback location, followed by Spain, Colombia, and Venezuela. Uruguay, Ecuador, Mexico, and Puerto Rico had the most views per 100,000 population. Spanish-language tutorials are an alternative tool for teaching physical examination skills to students whose first language is not English. The videos were especially popular in Uruguay, Ecuador, and Mexico.

  17. Developing Effective Undergraduate Research Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael; Ilie, Carolina C.

    2011-03-01

    Undergraduate research is a valuable educational tool for students pursuing a degree in physics, but these experiences can become problematic and ineffective if not handled properly. Undergraduate research should be planned as an immersive learning experience in which the student has the opportunity to develop his/her skills in accordance with their interests. Effective undergraduate research experiences are marked by clear, measurable objectives and frequent student-professor collaboration. These objectives should reflect the long and short-term goals of the individual undergraduates, with a heightened focus on developing research skills for future use. 1. Seymour, E., Hunter, A.-B., Laursen, S. L. and DeAntoni, T. (2004), ``Establishing the benefits of research experiences for undergraduates in the sciences: First findings from a three-year study''. Science Education, 88: 493--534. 2. Behar-Horenstein, Linda S., Johnson, Melissa L. ``Enticing Students to Enter Into Undergraduate Research: The Instrumentality of an Undergraduate Course.'' Journal of College Science Teaching 39.3 (2010): 62-70.

  18. On-Line Enrichment Monitor for UF{sub 6} Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K. D.; Boyer, B.; Favalli, A.; Goda, J. M.; Hill, T.; Keller, C.; Lombardi, M.; Paffett, M.; MacArthur, D. W.; McCluskey, C.; Moss, C. E.; Parker, R.; Smith, M. K.; Swinhoe, M. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-06-15

    This paper is a continuation of the Advanced Enrichment Monitoring Technology for UF{sub 6} Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) work, presented in the 2010 IAEA Safeguards Symposium. Here we will present the system architecture for a planned side-by-side field trial test of passive (186-keV line spectroscopy and pressure-based correction for UF{sub 6} gas density) and active (186-keV line spectroscopy and transmission measurement based correction for UF{sub 6} gas density) enrichment monitoring systems in URENCO's enrichment plant in Capenhurst. Because the pressure and transmission measurements of UF{sub 6} are complementary, additional information on the importance of the presence of light gases and the UF{sub 6} gas temperature can be obtained by cross-correlation between simultaneous measurements of transmission, pressure and 186-keV intensity. We will discuss the calibration issues and performance in the context of accurate, on-line enrichment measurement. It is hoped that a simple and accurate on-line enrichment monitor can be built using the UF{sub 6} gas pressure provided by the Operator, based on online mass spectrometer calibration, assuming a negligible (a small fraction of percent) contribution of wall deposits. Unaccounted-for wall deposits present at the initial calibration will lead to unwanted sensitivity to changes in theUF{sub 6} gas pressure and thus to error in the enrichment results. Because the accumulated deposits in the cascade header pipe have been identified as an issue for Go/No Go measurements with the Cascade Header Enrichment Monitor (CHEM) and Continuous Enrichment Monitor (CEMO), it is important to explore their effect. Therefore we present the expected uncertainty on enrichment measurements obtained by propagating the errors introduced by deposits, gas density, etc. and will discuss the options for a deposit correction during initial calibration of an On-Line Enrichment Monitor (OLEM).

  19. The Effects of a Campus Forest-Walking Program on Undergraduate and Graduate Students' Physical and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Kyung-Sook; Lee, Insook; Kim, Sungjae; Lim, Chun Soo; Joh, Hee-Kyung; Park, Bum-Jin; Song, Min Kyung

    2017-07-05

    We conducted a campus forest-walking program targeting university and graduate students during their lunchtime and examined the physical and psychological effects of the program. We utilized a quasi-experimental design with a control group and a pretest-posttest design. Forty-seven men (M = 25.5 ± 3.8 years) and 52 women (M = 23.3 ± 4.3 years) volunteered to participate (experimental group n = 51, control group n = 48). The intervention group participated in campus forest-walking program once a week for six weeks; they were also asked to walk once a week additionally on an individual basis. Additionally, participants received one lecture on stress management. Post-tests were conducted both just after the program ended and three months after. A chi-square test, t -test, and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to evaluate the effects of the program. Health promoting behaviors ( F = 7.27, p = 0.001, ES = 0.27) and parasympathetic nerve activity ( F = 3.69, p = 0.027, ES = 0.20) significantly increased and depression ( F = 3.15, p = 0.045, ES = 0.18) significantly decreased in the experimental group after the intervention compared to the control group. In conclusion, using the campus walking program to target students during their lunchtime is an efficient strategy to promote their physical and psychological health.

  20. Undergraduate Convexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Niels

    Based on undergraduate teaching to students in computer science, economics and mathematics at Aarhus University, this is an elementary introduction to convex sets and convex functions with emphasis on concrete computations and examples. Starting from linear inequalities and Fourier-Motzkin elimin......Based on undergraduate teaching to students in computer science, economics and mathematics at Aarhus University, this is an elementary introduction to convex sets and convex functions with emphasis on concrete computations and examples. Starting from linear inequalities and Fourier......-Motzkin elimination, the theory is developed by introducing polyhedra, the double description method and the simplex algorithm, closed convex subsets, convex functions of one and several variables ending with a chapter on convex optimization with the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, duality and an interior point...... algorithm....

  1. The effects of topic choice in project-based instruction on undergraduate physical science students' interest, ownership, and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2001-07-01

    Motivating nonscience majors in science and mathematics studies became one of the most interesting and important challenges in contemporary science and mathematics education. Therefore, designing and studying a learning environment, which enhances students' motivation, is an important task. This experimental study sought to explore the implications of student autonomy in topic choice in a project-based Physical Science Course for nonscience majors' on students' motivational orientation. It also suggested and tested a model explaining motivational outcomes of project-based learning environment through increased student ownership of science projects. A project, How Things Work, was designed and implemented in this study. The focus of the project was application of physical science concepts learned in the classroom to everyday life situations. Participants of the study (N = 59) were students enrolled in three selected sections of a Physical Science Course, designed to fulfill science requirements for nonscience majors. These sections were taught by the same instructor over a period of an entire 16-week semester at a large public research university. The study focused on four main variables: student autonomy in choosing a project topic, their motivational orientation, student ownership of the project, and the interest in the project topic. Achievement Goal Orientation theory became the theoretical framework for the study. Student motivational orientation, defined as mastery or performance goal orientation, was measured by an Achievement Goal Orientation Questionnaire. Student ownership was measured using an original instrument, Ownership Measurement Questionnaire, designed and tested by the researchers. Repeated measures yoked design, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and multivariate regression analysis were implemented in the study. Qualitative analysis was used to complement and verify quantitative results. It has been found that student autonomy in the project choice did not make a

  2. Confirmatory measurements of UF6 using the neutron self-interrogation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.E.; Ensslin, N.; Menlove, H.O.; Cowder, L.R.; Polk, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    A passive neutron counting method has been developed for measurement of the 235 U mass in Model 5A cylinders of UF 6 . The unique neutronic properties of UF 6 containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) permit 235 U assay using only passive neutron counting. The sample effectively assays itself by self-interrogation. Shipped from enrichment plants and received at fuel fabrication and conversion facilities, 5A UF 6 cylinders hold up to approx.17 kg of 235 U each. Field measurements at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (GDP) showed an average assay accuracy of 6.8% (1sigma) for 44 cylinders with enrichments from 6 to 98% and with a range of fill heights. Further measurements on 38 cylinders containing 97%-enriched material yielded an accuracy of 2.8% (1sigma). Typical counting times for these measurements were less than 5 min. An in-plant instrument for receipts confirmation measurements of 5A UF 6 cylinders has been developed for the Savannah River Plant. The Receipts Assay Monitor (RAM) is currently being tested and calibrated. It is designed to confirm declared fissile mass in all incoming 5A cylinders containing HEU in the form of UF 6 . One of the computer-controlled features is a removable cadmium liner for the sample cavity. The liner allows a sample fill-height correction, which significantly improves assay accuracy

  3. [Experimental evaluation of the Sysmex UF-1000i for ruling out non-gonococcal urethritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Shamanta; Bruschetta, Graziano; Camporese, Alessandro

    2012-09-01

    Acute nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections affecting men and women. The diagnosis of NGU has traditionally required microscopic evidence of urethritis. However, a significant proportion of patients with urethral symptoms do not have microscopic evidence of urethritis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the UF1000i, a recently introduced fluorescence flow cytometer intended for urinalysis purposes which provides new analytical features that seem particularly suitable for microbiological diagnostics, for ruling out NGU or predicting the presence of infection. The Sysmex UF1000i is a flow cytometry analyzer capable of quantifying a lot of particles, including bacteria (BACT) and white blood cells (WBCs). To evaluate the analytical performance of the UF1000i as a method for ruling out NGU, we examined 200 urethral smear samples, collected in a new liquid transport medium (Copan), and compared the UF1000i results with standard culture/molecular and microscopic Gram stain results. With instrument cut-off values of 200 BACT x 10^6/L and 500 WBCs x 10^6/L, we obtained a sensitivity of 84%, a specificity of 82%, and a high negative predictive value (96%). Culture/molecular detection of pathogens remains the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of NGU. However, the Sysmex UF1000i is capable of improving the efficiency of NGU presumptive diagnosis, providing results in a few minutes, with a high negative predictive value and high values of sensitivity.

  4. High temperature experiments on a 4 tons UF6 container TENERIFE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C.; Duret, B.; Seiler, J.M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1991-12-31

    The paper presents an experimental program (called TENERIFE) whose aim is to investigate the behaviour of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when exposed to a high temperature fire for model validation. Taking into account the experiments performed in the past, the modelization needs further information in order to be able to predict the behaviour of a real size cylinder when engulfed in a 800{degrees}C fire, as specified in the regulation. The main unknowns are related to (1) the UF{sub 6} behaviour beyond the critical point, (2) the relationship between temperature field and internal pressure and (3) the equivalent conductivity of the solid UF{sub 6}. In order to investigate these phenomena in a representative way it is foreseen to perform experiments with a cylinder of real diameter, but reduced length, containing 4 tons of UF{sub 6}. This cylinder will be placed in an electrically heated furnace. A confinement vessel prevents any dispersion of UF{sub 6}. The heat flux delivered by the furnace will be calibrated by specific tests. The cylinder will be changed for each test.

  5. Evaluation of the MF/UF Performance for the Reuse of Sand Filter Backwash Water from Drinking Water Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Shirzadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the application of micro-filtration and ultra-filtration membrane systems in order to improve the physical and microbial quality and the reuse of backwash water from the sand filter units in water treatment plants. The backwash water from filters makes up for 3 to 5 percent of the total water treated, which is disposed in most WTPs. However, the treatment and reuse of the backwash water is more admissible from technical and economic viewpoints, especially in view of the present water scarcity. For the purposes of this study, use was made of membrane modules of micro- and ultra-filters on a pilot scale. The micro-filter employed consisted of a polypropylene membrane module with a porosity of 1 micron in size and a fiberglass module with a porosity of 5 microns. The ultra-filter was made of PVC hollow fiber with a molecular weight of 100,000 Dalton. In order to feed the two pilots, backwash water from a sand filter was collected from one of the WTPs in Tehran. After samples were taken from the backwash water, the physical and microbial removal efficiency was periodically evaluated based on the standard method and the micro-filtration, ultra-filtration, and combined MF/UF processes were compared with respect to their performance. The results indicate that the combined MF/UF process is able to decrease turbidity, MPN, COD, TSS, and Fe with efficiency values of 99.9, 100, 61.5, 99.9 and 98.8 percent, respectively. Overall, the findings confirmed the technical capabilities of this method for the recovery and reuse of the effluent produced in the backwashing mechanism of sand filters in WTPs.

  6. Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume VIII, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiner, K. S.; Graham, S.; Khan, M.; Dilks, J.; Mayer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Th e Journal of Undergraduate Research (JUR) provides undergraduate interns the opportunity to publish their scientific innovation and to share their passion for education and research with fellow students and scientists. Fields in which these students worked include: Biology; Chemistry; Computer Science; Engineering; Environmental Science; General Sciences; Materials Sciences; Medical and Health Sciences; Nuclear Sciences; Physics; Science Policy; and Waste Management.

  7. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

  8. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF6. Milestone U361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF 6 production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF 6 Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF 6 production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF 4 , (3) fluorination of UF 4 to UF 6 , (4) cold trap collection of the UF 6 product, (5) UF 6 purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF 6 in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF 6 production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF 6 production

  9. Undergraduate Convexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Niels

    -Motzkin elimination, the theory is developed by introducing polyhedra, the double description method and the simplex algorithm, closed convex subsets, convex functions of one and several variables ending with a chapter on convex optimization with the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions, duality and an interior point......Based on undergraduate teaching to students in computer science, economics and mathematics at Aarhus University, this is an elementary introduction to convex sets and convex functions with emphasis on concrete computations and examples. Starting from linear inequalities and Fourier...

  10. Analyses of postulated accidental releases of UF6 inside process buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Neto, Jose Messias de; Nunes, Beatriz Guimaraes; Dias, Cristiane

    2009-01-01

    Uranium Hexafluoride is a material used in the various processes which comprise the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle (conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication). Confinement of UF 6 is a very important safety requirement since this material is highly reactive and presents safety hazards to humans. The present paper discusses the safety relevant aspects of accidental releases of UF 6 inside process confinement buildings. Postulated accidental scenarios are analyzed and their consequences evaluated. Implant releases rates are estimated using computer code predictions. A time dependent homogeneous compartment model is used to predict concentrations of UF 6 , hydrogen fluoride and uranyl fluoride inside a confinement building, as well as to evaluate source terms released to the atmosphere. These source terms can be used as input to atmospheric dispersion models to evaluate consequences to the environment. The results can also be used to define adequate protective measures for emergency situations. (author)

  11. Theoretical study of relativistic effects in the electronic structure and chemical bonding of UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, Jun; Takeuchi, Kazuo; Sekine, Rika; Nakamatsu, Hirohide; Mukoyama, Takeshi; Adachi, Hirohiko.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed the relativistic molecular orbital calculation for the ground state of UF 6 , using the discrete-variational Dirac-Slater method (DV-DS), in order to elucidate the relativistic effects in the electronic structure and chemical bonding. Compared with the electronic structure calculated by the non-relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater (DV-X α )MO method, not only the direct relativistic effects (spin-orbit splitting etc), but also the indirect effect due to the change in screening core potential charge are shown to be important in the MO level structure. From the U-F bond overlap population analysis, we found that the U-F bond formation can be explained only by the DV-DS, not by the DV-X α . The calculated electronic structure in valence energy region (-20-OeV) and excitation energies in UV region are in agreement with experiments. (author)

  12. UF{sub 6} tiedowns for truck transport - right way/wrong way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, F.W. Jr. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Tiedown systems for truck transport of UF{sub 6} must be defined and controlled to assure the least risk for hauling the material over the highways. This paper and an associated poster display will present the current status of regulatory criteria for tiedowns, analyze the structural stresses involved in tiedowns for two major UF{sub 6} packaging systems, the 21PF series of overpacks and the 48 in. diameter shipping cylinders, and will present photographs showing some {open_quote}right ways{close_quotes} and some {open_quotes}wrong (or risky) ways{close_quotes} currently used for tiedown systems. Risky tiedown methods must be replaced with safer less risky methods to insure the safe transport of UF{sub 6}.

  13. Testing of one-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valves under simulated fire conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, P.G. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Accurate computational models which predict the behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders exposed to fires are required to validate existing firefighting and emergency response procedures. Since the cylinder valve is a factor in the containment provided by the UF{sub 6} cylinder, its behavior under fire conditions has been a necessary assumption in the development of such models. Consequently, test data is needed to substantiate these assumptions. Several studies cited in this document provide data related to the behavior of a 1-inch UF{sub 6} cylinder valve in fire situations. To acquire additional data, a series of tests were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) under a unique set of test conditions. This document describes this testing and the resulting data.

  14. Correlates of Achieving the Guidelines of Four Forms of Physical Activity, and the Relationship between Guidelines Achievement and Academic Performance: Undergraduate Students in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Suominen, Sakari; Draper, Steve

    2017-06-01

    We surveyed and compared, by gender, the levels and correlates of achieving the international guidelines of four forms of physical activity (PA): moderate PA (MPA), vigorous PA (VPA), moderate or vigorous PA (MVPA), and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA). The study assessed the associations between achieving the guidelines of the four PA forms and a range of socio-demographic, health and academic performance variables. Data was collected across the seven faculties of the University of Turku (2013-2014 from a representative sample of 1,189 undergraduates). An English language online self-administered questionnaire assessed frequency and duration of PA/week for each form of PA. We employed cut-offs for the guidelines in accordance with the American Heart Association. Chi-square statistic tested the differences in PA, socio-demographic variables and academic performance between males and females. Binary logistic regression examined the factors associated with achieving the four PA guidelines and linear regression examined the association between the frequency of PA and academic performance. Achievement of PA guidelines was relatively low across the sample. Female students were less likely to achieve the VPA or MSPA guidelines, but were more health conscious and in generally exhibited better academic performace than males. High health awareness and excellent/very good self-rated health were the strongest predictors of achieving all forms of PA. Parents' education level was positively related to likelihood of achieving the VPA, MVPA and MSPA guidelines. Achieving the MPA guidelines (but not VPA or MSPA) was positively associated with subjective perceptions of better academic performance. Achievement of PA guidelines was generally low for this sample of Finnish students, and was associated with positive health status and high health awareness. Universities need a holistic approach to improve awareness of health and promote PA in students' lifestyles. Copyright© by the

  15. The toxic and radiological risk equivalence approach in UF6 transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringot, C.; Hamard, J.

    1988-12-01

    After a brief description of the safety in transport of UF 6 , we discuss the equivalence of the radioactive and chemical risks in UF 6 transport regulations. As the concept of low specific activity appears to be ill-suited for a toxic gas, we propose a quantity of material limit designated T 2 (equivalent to A 2 for radioactive substances) for packagings unable to withstand accident conditions (9 m drop, 800 0 C fire environment for 30 minutes). It is proposed that this limit be chosen for the amount of release acceptable after AIEA tests. Different possible scenarios are described, with fire assumed to be the most severe toxic risk situation

  16. Handling of UF6 in U.S. gaseous diffusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeay, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive systems analysis of UF 6 handling has been made in the three U.S. gaseous diffusion plants and has resulted in a significant impact on the equipment design and the operating procedures of these facilities. The equipment, facilities, and industrial practices in UF 6 handling operations as they existed in the early 1970's are reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the changes which have been implemented. The changes were applied to the systems and operating methods which evolved from the design, startup, and operation of the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in 1945

  17. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in the diffusion cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffer, J.E. [Parallax, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF{sub 6} in plant operations..

  18. Nuclear criticality safety aspects of gaseous uranium hexafluoride (UF6) in the diffusion cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffer, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    This paper determines the nuclear safety of gaseous UF 6 in the current Gaseous Diffusion Cascade and auxiliary systems. The actual plant safety system settings for pressure trip points are used to determine the maximum amount of HF moderation in the process gas, as well as the corresponding atomic number densities. These inputs are used in KENO V.a criticality safety models which are sized to the actual plant equipment. The ENO V.a calculation results confirm nuclear safety of gaseous UF 6 in plant operations

  19. Presentation and interpretation of field experiments of gaseous UF{sub 6} releases in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabol, B.; Boulaud, D.; Deville-Cavelin, G. [CEA/Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de l' Environnement et des Installations, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Geisse, C.; Iacona, L. [EURODIF/Production, Site de Tricastin, Pierrelatte Cedex (France)

    1992-07-01

    An experimental programme concerning the behaviour of UF{sub 6} released in gaseous phase in the atmosphere has been conducted in the years 1986-1989 by the French Atomic Energy Commission and EURODIF. Three field tests have been performed on the CEA/CESTA experimental site. These experiments permitted to get information about the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction of the UF{sub 6}, the behaviour of the hydrolysis products in the atmosphere and the granulometry of the solid particles. (author)

  20. Thermal reactions of uranium metal, UO 2, U 3O 8, UF 4, and UO 2F 2 with NF 3 to produce UF 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bruce; Scheele, Randall; Kozelisky, Anne; Edwards, Matthew

    2009-11-01

    This paper demonstrates that NF 3 fluorinates uranium metal, UO 2, UF 4, UO 3, U 3O 8, and UO 2F 2·2H 2O to produce the volatile UF 6 at temperatures between 100 and 550 °C. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis reaction profiles are described that reflect changes in the uranium fluorination/oxidation state, physiochemical effects, and instances of discrete chemical speciation. Large differences in the onset temperatures for each system investigated implicate changes in mode of the NF 3 gas-solid surface interaction. These studies also demonstrate that NF 3 is a potential replacement fluorinating agent in the existing nuclear fuel cycle and in actinide volatility reprocessing.

  1. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.; Ekowati, Yuli; Winters, Harvey; Amy, Gary L.; Schippers, Jan Cornelis; Kennedy, Maria Dolores

    2015-01-01

    the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans

  2. Physics matters

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2017-01-01

    This is a collection of essays on physics topics. It is written as a textbook for non-physics science and arts students, at the undergraduate level. Topics covered include cellphone radiation, lasers, the twin paradox, and more.

  3. Modeling of UF{sub 6} enrichment with gas centrifuges for nuclear safeguards activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, G.; Peerani, P.; Richir, P.; Janssens, W.; Eklund, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements Via Fermi, 2749-TP181,20127 Ispra (Italy)

    2012-09-26

    The physical modeling of uranium isotopes ({sup 235}U, {sup 238}U) separation process by centrifugation of is a key aspect for predicting the nuclear fuel enrichment plant performances under surveillance by the Nuclear Safeguards Authorities. In this paper are illustrated some aspects of the modeling of fast centrifuges for UF{sub 6} gas enrichment and of a typical cascade enrichment plant with the Theoretical Centrifuge and Cascade Simulator (TCCS). The background theory for reproducing the flow field characteristics of a centrifuge is derived from the work of Cohen where the separation parameters are calculated using the solution of a differential enrichment equation. In our case we chose to solve the hydrodynamic equations for the motion of a compressible fluid in a centrifugal field using the Berman - Olander vertical velocity radial distribution and the solution was obtained using the Matlab software tool. The importance of a correct estimation of the centrifuge separation parameters at different flow regimes, lies in the possibility to estimate in a reliable way the U enrichment plant performances, once the separation external parameters are set (feed flow rate and feed, product and tails assays). Using the separation parameters of a single centrifuge allow to determine the performances of an entire cascade and, for this purpose; the software Simulink was used. The outputs of the calculation are the concentrations (assays) and the flow rates of the enriched (product) and depleted (tails) gas mixture. These models represent a valid additional tool, in order to verify the compliance of the U enrichment plant operator declarations with the 'on site' inspectors' measurements.

  4. Application of fixed bed trapping technology for the removal of low concentration UF6 from plant gaseous effluent streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    For the trapping of UF 6 in nitrogen, NaF > Al 2 O 3 > CaSO 4 . UF 6 inlet concentration has little effect on loading of alumina. Velocity shows an effect on UF 6 loading on alumina, with higher loading at low velocity. There is no significant difference in UF 6 loading between alumina 201A and 202HF. UF 6 outlet concentrations prior to breakthrough were measured to be as low as 2 O 3 until breakthrough (6.6% vs 5.3%), after which NaF experiences more loading (7.5% vs 11.5% at 1 ppM in the outlet). Higher trap loadings at lower pressures for both NaF and Al 2 O 3 . Al 2 O 3 was more efficient than NaF at higher velocities

  5. The determination of UO2 and UF4 in fused fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batiste, D.J.; Lee, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of uranium oxide solubilities in fused fluoride salts is important in the electrolytic preparation of uranium metal. This project was initiated to develop a method for the determination of UO 2 separately from UF 4 in UF 4 -CaF 2 -LiF fused salts. Previous methods used for the determination of UO 2 in fused fluoride salts involved inert gas fusions where oxygen was liberated as CO 2 , and hydrofluorination where oxygen was released as H 2 O; but the special equipment used for these procedures was no longer available. These methods assumed that all of the oxygen liberated was due to UO 2 and does not consider impurities from reagents and other oxygen sources that amount to a bias of approximately 0.3 wt %. This titrimetric method eliminates the bias by selectively extracting the UF 4 with a Na 2 EDTA-H 3 BO 3 solution. The remaining uranium oxide residue is treated and titrated gravimetrically to a potentiometric endpoint with NBS standard K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . An aliquot of the Na 2 EDTA-H 3 BO 3 extract is also titrated gravimetrically to a potentiometric endpoint, this uranium component is determined and calculated as UF 4 . 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  6. LX-17 and ufTATB Data for Corner-Turning, Failure and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Lauderbach, L; Garza, R; Vitello, P; Hare, D E

    2010-02-03

    Data is presented for the size (diameter) effect for ambient and cold confined LX-17, unconfined ambient LX-17, and confined ambient ultrafine TATB. Ambient, cold and hot double cylinder corner-turning data for LX-17, PBX 9502 and ufTATB is presented. Transverse air gap crossing in ambient LX-17 is studied with time delays given for detonations that cross.

  7. Depleted UF6 Management Information Network - A resource for the public,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depleted UF6 Management Information Network Web Site is an online repository of information about the U.S ) and DUF6, research and development efforts for beneficial uses of DU, DOE's program for management of line DUF6 Guide DUF6 Guide line Introductory information about depleted uranium: how it is created

  8. Electrically Cooled Germanium System for Measurements of Uranium Enrichments in UF6 Cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvornyak, P.; Koestlbauer, M.; Lebrun, A.; Murray, M.; Nizhnik, V.; Saidler, C.; Twomey, T.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of Uranium enrichment in UF6 cylinders is a significant part of the IAEA Safeguards verification activities at enrichment and conversion plants. Nowadays, one of the main tools for verification of Uranium enrichment in UF6 cylinders used by Safeguards inspectors is the gamma spectroscopy system with HPGe detector cooled with liquid nitrogen. Electrically Cooled Germanium System (ECGS) is a new compact and portable high resolution gamma spectrometric system free from liquid nitrogen cooling, which can be used for the same safeguards applications. It consists of the ORTEC Micro-trans-SPEC HPGe Portable Spectrometer, a special tungsten collimator and UF6 enrichment measurement software. The enrichment of uranium is determined by of quantifying the area of the 185.7 keV peak provided that the measurement is performed with a detector viewing an infinite thickness of material. Prior starting the verification of uranium enrichment at the facility, the ECGS has to be calibrated with a sample of known uranium enrichment, material matrix, container wall thickness and container material. Evaluation of the ECGS capabilities was performed by carrying out a field test on actual enrichment verification of uranium in UF6 cylinder or other forms of uranium under infinite thickness conditions. The results of these evaluations allow to say that the use of ECGS will enhance practicality of the enrichment measurements and support unannounced inspection activities at enrichment and conversion plants. (author)

  9. HGSYSTEMUF6, Simulating Dispersion Due to Atmospheric Release of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, G; Chang, J.C.; Zhang, J.X.; Bloom, S.G.; Goode, W.D. Jr; Lombardi, D.A.; Yambert, M.W.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HGSYSTEMUF6 is a suite of models designed for use in estimating consequences associated with accidental, atmospheric release of Uranium Hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and its reaction products, namely Hydrogen Fluoride (HF), and other non-reactive contaminants which are either negatively, neutrally, or positively buoyant. It is based on HGSYSTEM Version 3.0 of Shell Research LTD., and contains specific algorithms for the treatment of UF 6 chemistry and thermodynamics. HGSYSTEMUF6 contains algorithms for the treatment of dense gases, dry and wet deposition, effects due to the presence of buildings (canyon and wake), plume lift-off, and the effects of complex terrain. The models components of the suite include (1) AEROPLUME/RK, used to model near-field dispersion from pressurized two-phase jet releases of UF6 and its reaction products, (2) HEGADAS/UF6 for simulating dense, ground based release of UF 6 , (3) PGPLUME for simulation of passive, neutrally buoyant plumes (4) UF6Mixer for modeling warm, potentially reactive, ground-level releases of UF 6 from buildings, and (5) WAKE, used to model elevated and ground-level releases into building wake cavities of non-reactive plumes that are either neutrally or positively buoyant. 2 - Methods: The atmospheric release and transport of UF 6 is a complicated process involving the interaction between dispersion, chemical and thermodynamic processes. This process is characterized by four separate stages (flash, sublimation, chemical reaction entrainment and passive dispersion) in which one or more of these processes dominate. The various models contained in the suite are applicable to one or more of these stages. For example, for modeling reactive, multiphase releases of UF 6 , the AEROPLUME/RK component employs a process-splitting scheme which numerically integrates the differential equations governing dispersion, UF 6 chemistry, and thermodynamics. This algorithm is based on the assumption that

  10. Modeling and analyses of postulated UF6 release accidents in gaseous diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Keith, K.D.; Schmidt, R.W.; Carter, J.C.; Dyer, R.H.

    1995-10-01

    Computer models have been developed to simulate the transient behavior of aerosols and vapors as a result of a postulated accident involving the release of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) into the process building of a gaseous diffusion plant. UF 6 undergoes an exothermic chemical reaction with moisture (H 2 O) in the air to form hydrogen fluoride (HF) and radioactive uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ). As part of a facility-wide safety evaluation, this study evaluated source terms consisting of UO 2 F 2 as well as HF during a postulated UF 6 release accident in a process building. In the postulated accident scenario, ∼7900 kg (17,500 lb) of hot UF 6 vapor is released over a 5 min period from the process piping into the atmosphere of a large process building. UO 2 F 2 mainly remains as airborne-solid particles (aerosols), and HF is in a vapor form. Some UO 2 F 2 aerosols are removed from the air flow due to gravitational settling. The HF and the remaining UO 2 F 2 are mixed with air and exhausted through the building ventilation system. The MELCOR computer code was selected for simulating aerosols and vapor transport in the process building. MELCOR model was first used to develop a single volume representation of a process building and its results were compared with those from past lumped parameter models specifically developed for studying UF 6 release accidents. Preliminary results indicate that MELCOR predicted results (using a lumped formulation) are comparable with those from previously developed models

  11. Transport of UF6 in compliance with TS-R-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekker, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    The IAEA Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1, Revised) 1996 Edition include requirements for packages containing uranium hexafluoride (UF6); these are the first and only substance-specific requirements in the IAEA regulations. These requirements have already particularly affected, and will further affect, the transport of non-fissile and fissile excepted UF 6 and the packages used for these transports. Non-fissile and fissile excepted UF6 (ASTM C 787) has been transported worldwide for decades in a safe and reliable manner, using internationally standardised packages. Under the auspices of the World Nuclear Transport Institute (WNTI), an industry working group has been evaluating the existing packages against the requirements in TS-R-1. As new requirements came into effect, there were new challenges for the use of these standard packages, including the free drop test and the thermal requirements. In close cooperation with the WNTI HEXT Industry Working Group, a consortium of UF6 producers/users has worked together on the design and development, testing and certification of technical solutions for modification and optimisation of the existing packages to comply with TS-R-1. This paper reviews the existing standard packages against the requirements in TS-R-1. An update is also given describing the enhancements to the standard packages that have been designed and developed recently. The paper also describes how these solutions have been tested and certified, as well as the status of implementation. Finally, a review is made of the options that are available internationally to transport UF6 in compliance with TS-R-1. (author)

  12. A conference experience for undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, L.A.; Magee, N.H.; Bryant, H.C.; Zeilik, M.

    1999-01-01

    Programs launched by many universities and the federal government expose many undergraduate students in the physical sciences to research early in their careers. However, in their research experiences, undergraduates are not usually introduced to the modes by which scientific knowledge, which they may have helped gather, is communicated and evaluated by working scientists. Nor is it always made clear where the research frontiers really lie. To this end, we guided a selected group of undergraduates through a national scientific conference, followed by a week of tutorials and discussions to help them better understand what had transpired. The program complemented the basic undergraduate research endeavors by emphasizing the importance of disseminating results both to other scientists and to society in general. Tutors and discussion leaders in the second week were experts in their fields and included some of the invited speakers from the main meeting. A considerable improvement in the understanding of the issues and prospects for a career in physics was discernible among the students after their two-week experience. copyright 1999 American Association of Physics Teachers

  13. The Comparing Options for Management: Patient-centered Results for Uterine Fibroids (COMPARE-UF) Registry: Rationale and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Elizabeth A; Lytle, Barbara L; Thomas, Laine; Wegienka, Ganesa R; Jacoby, Vanessa; Diamond, Michael P; Nicholson, Wanda K; Anchan, Raymond M; Venable, Sateria; Wallace, Kedra; Marsh, Erica E; Maxwell, George L; Borah, Bijan J; Catherino, William H; Myers, Evan R

    2018-05-08

    To design and establish a uterine fibroid (UF) registry based in the United States (US) to provide comparative effectiveness data regarding UF treatment. We report here the design and initial recruitment for the Comparing Options for Management: Patient-centered Results for Uterine Fibroids (COMPARE-UF) registry (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02260752), funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) in collaboration with the-Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). COMPARE-UF is designed to help answer critical questions about treatment options for women with symptomatic UF. Women undergoing a procedure for UF (hysterectomy, myomectomy [abdominal, hysteroscopic, vaginal and laparoscopic/robotic], endometrial ablation, radiofrequency fibroid ablation, uterine artery embolization, magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound or progestin-releasing intrauterine device insertion) at one of the COMPARE-UF sites are invited to participate in a prospective registry with three years follow-up for post-procedural outcomes. Enrolled participants provide annual follow-up through an online portal or through traditional phone contact. A central data abstraction center provides information obtained from imaging, operative or procedural notes and pathology reports. Women with uterine fibroids and other stakeholders are a key part of the COMPARE-UF registry and participate at all points from study design to dissemination of results. We built a network of nine clinical sites across the US with expertise in the care of women with UF to capture geographic, racial, ethnic and procedural diversity. Of the initial 2031 women enrolled in COMPARE-UF, 42% are self-identified as Black or African-American and 40% are age 40 years or younger with 16% of participants under age 35. Women undergoing myomectomy comprise the largest treatment group at 46% of all procedures with laparoscopic or robotic myomectomy comprising the largest subset of myomectomies at 19% of all

  14. Finite element modelling of fire situations in UF6 transport containers; Modelado por elementos finitos de situaciones de incendio en contenedores para el transporte de UF6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basombrio, F G

    1997-12-31

    In this report we describe some runs made with the code FASES2. They concern different situations associated to fires originated by accidents in the transport of containers filled with UF6. Such situations have been inspired in cases taken from the current literature, and related to numerical modelling or experiments. We aim to consign the most relevant aspects of such runs, with the future purpose of comparing them with the predictions made with simpler lumped models. In such a way, it will be possible to calibrate the simple models with the results coming from detailed models. (author). 6 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Elucidating Bioethics with Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Betty B.; Shannon, Thomas A.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing bioethics programs for undergraduate students. Two aspects are considered: (1) current areas of concern and sources of bibliographic information; and (2) problems encountered in undergraduate projects. A list of references is provided. (HM)

  16. Calculational criticality analyses of 10- and 20-MW UF6 freezer/sublimer vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.C.

    1993-02-01

    Calculational criticality analyses have been performed for 10- and 20-MW UF 6 freezer/sublimer vessels. The freezer/sublimers have been analyzed over a range of conditions that encompass normal operation and abnormal conditions. The effects of HF moderation of the UF 6 in each vessel have been considered for uranium enriched between 2 and 5 wt % 235 U. The results indicate that the nuclearly safe enrichments originally established for the operation of a 10-MW freezer/sublimer, based on a hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratio of 0.33, are acceptable. If strict moderation control can be demonstrated for hydrogen-to-uranium moderation ratios that are less than 0.33, then the enrichment limits for the 10-MW freezer/sublimer may be increased slightly. The calculations performed also allow safe enrichment limits to be established for a 20-NM freezer/sublimer under moderation control

  17. Ultra-low field NMR for detection and characterization of 235 UF6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espy, Michelle A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Magnelind, Per E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Matlashov, Andrei N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Urbaitis, Algis V [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volegov, Petr L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated the first ultra-low field (ULF) nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}), both depleted and 70% enriched, which is used in the uranium enrichment process. A sensitive non-invasive detection system would have an important role in non-proliferation surveillance. A two-frequency technique was employed to remove the transients induced by rapidly switching off the 50 mT pre-polarization field. A mean transverse relaxation time T{sub 2} of 24 ms was estimated for the un-enriched UF{sub 6} sample measured at a mean temperature of 80 C. Nuclear magnetic resonance at ULF has several advantages including the ability to measure through metal, such as pipes, and simple magnetic field generation hardware. We present here recent data and discuss the potential for non-proliferation monitoring of enrichment and flow velocity.

  18. Releases of UF6 to the atmosphere after a potential fire in a cylinder storage yard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Williams, W.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), a toxic material, is stored in just over 6200 cylinders at the K-25 site in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The safety analysis report (SAR) for cylinder yard storage operations at the plant required the development of accident scenarios for the potential release of UF 6 to the atmosphere. In accordance with DOE standards and guidance, the general approach taken in this SAR was to examine the functions and contents of the cylinder storage yards to determine whether safety-significant hazards were present for workers in the immediate vicinity, workers on-site, the general public off-site, or the environment. and to evaluate the significance of any hazards that were found. A detailed accident analysis was performed to determine a set of limiting accidents that have potential for off-site consequences. One of the limiting accidents identified in the SAR was the rupture of a cylinder engulfed in a fire

  19. A 1D coordination polymer of UF{sub 5} with HCN as a ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, Benjamin; Rudel, Stefan S.; Buchner, Magnus R.; Kraus, Florian [Fachbereich Chemie, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg (Germany); Karttunen, Antti J. [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University (Finland)

    2017-01-05

    β-Uranium(V) fluoride was reacted with liquid anhydrous hydrogen cyanide to obtain a 1D coordination polymer with the composition {sup 1}{sub ∞}[UF{sub 5}(HCN){sub 2}], {sup 1}{sub ∞}[UF{sub 4/1}F{sub 2/2}-(HCN){sub 2/1}], revealed by single-crystal X-ray structure determination. The reaction system was furthermore studied by means of vibrational and NMR spectroscopy, as well as by quantum chemical calculations. The compound presents the first described polymeric HCN Lewis adduct and the first HCN adduct of a uranium fluoride. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Sampling and characterization of aerosols formed in the atmospheric hydrolysis of UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; McCulla, W.H.; Pickrell, P.W.; Branam, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    When gaseous UF 6 is released into the atmosphere, it rapidly reacts with ambient moisture to form an aerosol of uranyl fluoride and HF. As part of our Safety Analysis program, we have performed several experimental releases of UF 6 (from natural uranium) in contained volumes in order to investigate techniques for sampling and characterizing the aerosol materials. The aggregrate particle morphology and size distribution have been found to be dependent upon several conditions, including the relative humidity at the time of the release and the elapse time after the release. Aerosol composition and settling rate have been investigated using isokinetic samplers for the separate collection of UO 2 F 2 and HF, and via laser spectroscopic remote sensing (Mie scatter and infrared spectroscopy). 8 references

  1. A probabilistic safety analysis of UF{sub 6} handling at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G.J.; Lewis, S.R.; Summitt, R.L. [Safety and Reliability Optimization Services (SAROS), Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A probabilistic safety study of UF{sub 6} handling activities at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has recently been completed. The analysis provides a unique perspective on the safety of UF{sub 6} handling activities. The estimated release frequencies provide an understanding of current risks, and the examination of individual contributors yields a ranking of important plant features and operations. Aside from the probabilistic results, however, there is an even more important benefit derived from a systematic modeling of all operations. The integrated approach employed in the analysis allows the interrelationships among the equipment and the required operations to be explored in depth. This paper summarizes the methods used in the study and provides an overview of some of the technical insights that were obtained. Specific areas of possible improvement in operations are described.

  2. Recycling Cellulase from Enzymatic Hydrolyzate of Laser-Pretreated Corn Stover by UF Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Qi Tian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrafiltration membrane reactor, utilizing a membrane module with a suitable molecular weight alleyway, retains the larger cellulase components. Smaller molecules, such as the fermentable reducing sugars and water, pass through the membrane. The purpose of this work was to investigate the capability of recycling cellulase in the UF membrane. PS30 hollow fiber membrane, an ultrafiltration method using internal pressure, was found to be an ideal membrane separation device, allowing re-use of the enzyme. A Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD established the following optimum pretreatment parameters: operation pressure at 1.73 bar, temperature at 36.38 °C, and a pH of 5.92. Under these conditions, the model predicted a membrane flux yield of 2.3174 L/(m2•h. The rejection rate of the UF membrane was over 95%.

  3. The regulations and the problems of their implementation in UF6 transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Grenier, M.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.

    1988-12-01

    UF 6 is currently transported in packagings which were developed in the sixties - standardized and used all over the world, these packagings perform their duty adequately. Nevertheless, the growing amounts of UF 6 and the changes in the regulations now raises the problem of compliance of these packagings with the latter. The problems which deserve special attention are: selection of the packaging type in terms of the origin and the enrichment, design of valve covers, behaviour at low temperatures, regulatory requirements in handling, tying down cleaning and unloading, allowable dose rate increase in case of minor mishaps, behaviour in fire, taking into account the toxicity, identification of special features required in the case of controlled moderation of fissile packages, transport conditions of empty packagings containing heels. In this paper are reviewed the results of this analysis, which is limited to the case of transport using cylinders of 48Y and 30B

  4. Long-term evaluation of fluoroelastomer O-rings in UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, R.G.; Otey, M.G.; Dippo, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A major component in the gaseous centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) was fluoroelastomer O-rings, which were used to seal the uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) gas system. A program utilizing accelerated test conditions was used to help identify the best material out of four selected candidates and to predict the service life of these materials at GCEP conditions. The tests included accelerated temperatures, mechanical stress, and UF 6 exposure. Data were evaluated using the Newman--Keuls 1 ranking system to identify the best material and a zero-order reaction rate equation to help predict service life. This presentation includes a description of the test facility, the materials tested, the types of tests, objectives of the study, service life predictions, and conclusions. The O-rings are predicted to last approx. 30 years, and a high-molecular-weight polymer had the best performance ranking

  5. Thermodynamic assessment of the LiF–ThF4–PuF3–UF4 system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelli, E.; Benes, O.; Konings, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The LiF–ThF4–PuF3–UF4 system is the reference salt mixture considered for the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept started with PuF3. In order to obtain the complete thermodynamic description of this quaternary system, two binary systems (ThF4–PuF3 and UF4–PuF3) and two ternary systems

  6. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF{sub 6} release: Model evaluation report. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Radonjic, Z.R.; Coutts, P.T.; Lewis, C.J.; Hammonds, J.S.; Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1997-11-01

    Three uranium hexafluoride-(UF{sub 6}-) specific models--HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6}, Science Application International Corporation, and RTM-96; three dense-gas models--DEGADIS, SLAB, and the Chlorine Institute methodology; and one toxic chemical model--AFTOX--are evaluated on their capabilities to simulate the chemical reactions, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion of UF{sub 6} released from accidents at nuclear fuel-cycle facilities, to support Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis. These models are also evaluated for user-friendliness and for quality assurance and quality control features, to ensure the validity and credibility of the results. Model performance evaluations are conducted for the three UF{sub 6}-specific models, using field data on releases of UF{sub 6} and other heavy gases. Predictions from the HGSYSTEM/UF{sub 6} and SAIC models are within an order of magnitude of the field data, but the SAIC model overpredicts beyond an order of magnitude for a few UF{sub 6}-specific data points. The RTM-96 model provides overpredictions within a factor of 3 for all data points beyond 400 m from the source. For one data set, however, the RTM-96 model severely underpredicts the observations within 200 m of the source. Outputs of the models are most sensitive to the meteorological parameters at large distances from the source and to certain source-specific and meteorological parameters at distances close to the source. Specific recommendations are being made to improve the applicability and usefulness of the three models and to choose a specific model to support the intended analyses. Guidance is also provided on the choice of input parameters for initial dilution, building wake effects, and distance to completion of UF{sub 6} reaction with water.

  7. Scoping study to expedite development of a field deployable and portable instrument for UF6 enrichment assay

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, CYG; Valentine, JD; Russo, RE

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study is to identity the most promising, viable technologies that are likely to culminate in an expedited development of the next-generation, field-deployable instrument for providing rapid, accurate, and precise enrichment assay of uranium hexafluoride (UF6). UF6 is typically involved, and is arguably the most important uranium compound, in uranium enrichment processes. As the first line of defense against proliferation, accurate analytical techniques t...

  8. Analysis of an indirect neutron signature for enhanced UF_6 cylinder verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulisek, J.A.; McDonald, B.S.; Smith, L.E.; Zalavadia, M.A.; Webster, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) currently uses handheld gamma-ray spectrometers combined with ultrasonic wall-thickness gauges to verify the declared enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF_6) cylinders. The current method provides relatively low accuracy for the assay of "2"3"5U enrichment, especially for natural and depleted UF_6. Furthermore, the current method provides no capability to assay the absolute mass of "2"3"5U in the cylinder due to the localized instrument geometry and limited penetration of the 186-keV gamma-ray signature from "2"3"5U. Also, the current verification process is a time-consuming component of on-site inspections at uranium enrichment plants. Toward the goal of a more-capable cylinder assay method, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed the hybrid enrichment verification array (HEVA). HEVA measures both the traditional 186-keV direct signature and a non-traditional, high-energy neutron-induced signature (HEVA_N_T). HEVA_N_T enables full-volume assay of UF_6 cylinders by exploiting the relatively larger mean free paths of the neutrons emitted from the UF_6. In this work, Monte Carlo modeling is used as the basis for characterizing HEVA_N_T in terms of the individual contributions to HEVA_N_T from nuclides and hardware components. Monte Carlo modeling is also used to quantify the intrinsic efficiency of HEVA for neutron detection in a cylinder-assay geometry. Modeling predictions are validated against neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra from laboratory measurements and a relatively large population of Type 30B cylinders spanning a range of enrichments. Implications of the analysis and findings on the viability of HEVA for cylinder verification are discussed, such as the resistance of the HEVA_N_T signature to manipulation by the nearby placement of neutron-conversion materials.

  9. UF6 reconversion experience by means of Sumitomo ADU process at JCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, H.; Yamazaki, N.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1973, Japan Nuclear Fuel Conversion Co., Ltd. (JCO), a leading company in Japan on nuclear fuel manufacturing, has been involved in UF 6 reconversion to ceramic grade uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) for LWR fuel by means of the original ADU process developed by Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd.. This paper deals with the details of the Sumitomo ADU process as well as the performance results of it, especially from the standpoint of product quality

  10. Analysis of an indirect neutron signature for enhanced UF{sub 6} cylinder verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulisek, J.A., E-mail: Jonathan.Kulisek@pnnl.gov; McDonald, B.S.; Smith, L.E.; Zalavadia, M.A.; Webster, J.B.

    2017-02-21

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) currently uses handheld gamma-ray spectrometers combined with ultrasonic wall-thickness gauges to verify the declared enrichment of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The current method provides relatively low accuracy for the assay of {sup 235}U enrichment, especially for natural and depleted UF{sub 6}. Furthermore, the current method provides no capability to assay the absolute mass of {sup 235}U in the cylinder due to the localized instrument geometry and limited penetration of the 186-keV gamma-ray signature from {sup 235}U. Also, the current verification process is a time-consuming component of on-site inspections at uranium enrichment plants. Toward the goal of a more-capable cylinder assay method, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed the hybrid enrichment verification array (HEVA). HEVA measures both the traditional 186-keV direct signature and a non-traditional, high-energy neutron-induced signature (HEVA{sub NT}). HEVA{sub NT} enables full-volume assay of UF{sub 6} cylinders by exploiting the relatively larger mean free paths of the neutrons emitted from the UF{sub 6}. In this work, Monte Carlo modeling is used as the basis for characterizing HEVA{sub NT} in terms of the individual contributions to HEVA{sub NT} from nuclides and hardware components. Monte Carlo modeling is also used to quantify the intrinsic efficiency of HEVA for neutron detection in a cylinder-assay geometry. Modeling predictions are validated against neutron-induced gamma-ray spectra from laboratory measurements and a relatively large population of Type 30B cylinders spanning a range of enrichments. Implications of the analysis and findings on the viability of HEVA for cylinder verification are discussed, such as the resistance of the HEVA{sub NT} signature to manipulation by the nearby placement of neutron-conversion materials.

  11. Whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients—UF Series B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2006-09-01

    Following the previous development of the head and torso voxel phantoms of paediatric patients for use in medical radiation protection (UF Series A), a set of whole-body voxel phantoms of paediatric patients (9-month male, 4-year female, 8-year female, 11-year male and 14-year male) has been developed through the attachment of arms and legs from segmented CT images of a healthy Korean adult (UF Series B). Even though partial-body phantoms (head-torso) may be used in a variety of medical dose reconstruction studies where the extremities are out-of-field or receive only very low levels of scatter radiation, whole-body phantoms play important roles in general radiation protection and in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Inclusion of the arms and legs is critical for dosimetry studies of paediatric patients due to the presence of active bone marrow within the extremities of children. While the UF Series A phantoms preserved the body dimensions and organ masses as seen in the original patients who were scanned, comprehensive adjustments were made for the Series B phantoms to better match International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) age-interpolated reference body masses, body heights, sitting heights and internal organ masses. The CT images of arms and legs of a Korean adult were digitally rescaled and attached to each phantom of the UF series. After completion, the resolutions of the phantoms for the 9-month, 4-year, 8-year, 11-year and 14-year were set at 0.86 mm × 0.86 mm × 3.0 mm, 0.90 mm × 0.90 mm × 5.0 mm, 1.16 mm × 1.16 mm × 6.0 mm, 0.94 mm × 0.94 mm × 6.00 mm and 1.18 mm × 1.18 mm × 6.72 mm, respectively.

  12. The legal status of UF{sub 6}-cylinder testing and licensing in Germany (and Europe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieser, K.E. [Federal Institute for Material Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany); Tietze, A. [Bergische Universitaet - Gesamthochschule Wuppertal (Germany)

    1991-12-31

    New German and European transport regulations for road and rail transport of UF{sub 6}-cylinders are presented, in particular those provisions which have direct impact on the majority of cylinders used in shipments touching ADR and RID member states. First experiences and difficulties in it`s application are highlighted taking into account experiences of a for running German regulation. A summary of research efforts on the behaviour of cylinders in fire environments concludes the paper.

  13. Computer-optimized γ-NDA geometries for uranium enrichment verification of gaseous UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichers, V.A.; Aaldijk, J.K.; Betue, P.A.C. de; Harry, R.J.S.

    1993-05-01

    An improved collimator pair of novel design tailored for deposit independent enrichment verification of gaseous UF 6 at low pressures in cascade-to-header pipes of small diameters in centrifuge enrichment plants is presented. The designs are adapted for use in a dual-geometry arrangement for simultaneous measurements with both detection geometries. The average measurement time with the dual-geometry arrangement is approximately half an hour for deposit-to-gas activity ratios as high as 20. (orig.)

  14. Benchmark calculation of APOLLO-2 and SLAROM-UF in a fast reactor lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, T.

    2009-07-01

    A lattice cell benchmark calculation is carried out for APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF on the infinite lattice of a simple pin cell featuring a fast reactor. The accuracy in k-infinity and reaction rates is investigated in their reference and standard level calculations. In the 1. reference level calculation, APOLLO2 and SLAROM-UF agree with the reference value of k-infinity obtained by a continuous energy Monte Carlo calculation within 50 pcm. However, larger errors are observed in a particular reaction rate and energy range. The major problem common to both codes is in the cross section library of 239 Pu in the unresolved energy range. In the 2. reference level calculation, which is based on the ECCO 1968 group structure, both results of k-infinity agree with the reference value within 100 pcm. The resonance overlap effect is observed by several percents in cross sections of heavy nuclides. In the standard level calculation based on the APOLLO2 library creation methodology, a discrepancy appears by more than 300 pcm. A restriction is revealed in APOLLO2. Its standard cross section library does not have a sufficiently small background cross section to evaluate the self shielding effect on 56 Fe cross sections. The restriction can be removed by introducing the mixture self-shielding treatment recently introduced to APOLLO2. SLAROM-UF original standard level calculation based on the JFS-3 library creation methodology is the best among the standard level calculations. Improvement from the SLAROM-UF standard level calculation is achieved mainly by use of a proper weight function for light or intermediate nuclides. (author)

  15. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  16. Computational simulation studies of the reduction process of UF4 to metallic uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Wesden de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    The production of metallic uranium is essential for production of fuel elements for using in nuclear reactors manufacturing of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. In IPEN, metallic uranium is produced by magnesiothermical reduction of UF 4 . This reaction is performed in a closed graphite crucible inserted in a sealed metal reactor and no contact with the outside environment. The set is gradually heated in an oven pit, until it reaches the ignition temperature of the reaction (between 600-650 degree C). The modeling of the heating profile of the system can be made using simulation programs by finite element method. Through the thermal profiles in the load, we can have a notion of heating period required for the reaction to occur, allowing the identification of the same group in a greater or smaller yield in metallic uranium production. Thermal properties of UF 4 are estimated, obtaining thermal conductivity and heat capacity using the Flash Laser Method, and for the load UF 4 + Mg, either. The results are compared to laboratory tests to simulate the primary production process. (author)

  17. Experimental study of lactose hydrolysis and separation in cstr-uf membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Namvar-Mahboub

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of processing conditions on the performance of continuous stirred tank -ultrafiltration (CSTR-UF in dead - end mode was investigated. An UF membrane with a molecular weight cutoff of 3 kDa made of regenerated cellulose material was used to separate enzyme from products. The effect of operating pressure ranging between 2 and 5 bar and time on the performance of the CSTR-UF system was studied. The experiments were performed with a 0.139 molar aqueous solution of lactose as feed. According to the experimental data, the lactose concentration in the permeate decreased with time due to concentration polarization and hydrolysis. It was found that the rejection factor of lactose increases from 33 to 77% with time from 5 to 85 min. Permeation flux of the membrane was evaluated in terms of pure water flux (PWF and lactose aqueous solution. Results showed that a high operating pressure led to a high permeation flux for both mentioned cases. Also, adding lactose and enzyme to pure water caused a reduction of the permeation flux due to concentration polarization.

  18. Materials considerations for UF6 gas-core reactor. Interim report for preliminary design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    1977-04-01

    The limiting materials problem in a high-temperature UF 6 core reactor is the corrosion of the core containment vessel. The UF 6 , the lower fluorides of uranium, and the fluorine that exist at the anticipated reactor operating conditions (1000 K and about one atmosphere UF 6 ) are all corrosive. Because of this, the materials evaluation effort for this reactor design study has concentrated on the identification of a viable system for the containment vessel that meets both the materials and neutronic requirements. A study of the literature has revealed that the most promising corrosion-resistant candidates are Ni or Ni-Al alloys. One of the conclusions of this work is that the containment vessel use a nickel liner or clad since the use of Ni as a structural member is precluded by its relative blackness to thermal neutrons. Estimates of corrosion rates of Ni and Ni-Al alloys, the effects of the pressure and temperature of F 2 on the corrosion rates, calculated equilibrium gas compositions at reactor core operating conditions, suggested methods of fabrication, and recommendations for future research and development are included

  19. Removal of a synthetic organic chemical by PAC-UF systems. II: Model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y; Colas, F; Yuasa, A

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes several application potentials with a recently developed model for predicting the synthetic organic chemical (SOC) removal by powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption during ultrafiltration (UF) and discusses the removal mechanism. The model was successfully applied, without any modification, to dead-end mode operation as well as to cross-flow mode operation, validating the assumption of the internal diffusion control mechanism and the continuously-stirred-tank-reactor (CSTR) concept. Even when UF was operated in a cross-flow mode, PAC added was re-circulating in suspension for only a short time. Then, solute uptake took place mostly by PAC immobilized in membrane tubes not only for dead-end operation but also for cross-flow operation. Therefore, cross-flow operation did not have any advantage regarding the SOC mass transfer on PAC in UF loop over dead-end operation. The model simulation implied that pulse PAC addition at the beginning of filtration cycle resulted better SOC removal than continuous PAC addition. However, for the pulse PAC addition mode, the model predicted somewhat lower effluent SOC concentration than the observed values, and the benefit of pulse PAC application in terms of reducing SOC over its continuous dosage was not confirmed. Longer detention time of PAC dosed in a pulse than continuously dosed PAC could possibly further decrease internal diffusivity.

  20. Actual and Idealized Crystal Field Parameterizations for the Uranium Ions in UF 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Z.; Mulak, J.; Krupa, J. C.

    1993-12-01

    The crystal field parameters for the actual coordination symmetries of the uranium ions in UF 4, C2 and C1, and for their idealizations to D2, C2 v , D4, D4 d , and the Archimedean antiprism point symmetries are given. They have been calculated by means of both the perturbative ab initio model and the angular overlap model and are referenced to the recent results fitted by Carnall's group. The equivalency of some different sets of parameters has been verified with the standardization procedure. The adequacy of several idealized approaches has been tested by comparison of the corresponding splitting patterns of the 3H 4 ground state. Our results support the parameterization given by Carnall. Furthermore, the parameterization of the crystal field potential and the splitting diagram for the symmetryless uranium ion U( C1) are given. Having at our disposal the crystal field splittings for the two kinds of uranium ions in UF 4, U( C2) and U( C1), we calculate the model plots of the paramagnetic susceptibility χ( T) and the magnetic entropy associated with the Schottky anomaly Δ S( T) for UF 4.

  1. UF6 Density and Mass Flow Measurements for Enrichment Plants using Acoustic Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, Morris S.; Smith, Leon E.; Warren, Glen A.; Jones, Anthony M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Roy, Surajit; Moran, Traci L.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Longoni, Gianluca

    2017-09-01

    A key enabling capability for enrichment plant safeguards being considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is high-accuracy, noninvasive, unattended measurement of UF6 gas density and mass flow rate. Acoustic techniques are currently used to noninvasively monitor gas flow in industrial applications; however, the operating pressures at gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) are roughly two orders magnitude below the capabilities of commercial instrumentation. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is refining acoustic techniques for estimating density and mass flow rate of UF6 gas in scenarios typical of GCEPs, with the goal of achieving 1% measurement accuracy. Proof-of-concept laboratory measurements using a surrogate gas for UF6 have demonstrated signatures sensitive to gas density at low operating pressures such as 10–50 Torr, which were observed over the background acoustic interference. Current efforts involve developing a test bed for conducting acoustic measurements on flowing SF6 gas at representative flow rates and pressures to ascertain the viability of conducting gas flow measurements under these conditions. Density and flow measurements will be conducted to support the evaluation. If successful, the approach could enable an unattended, noninvasive approach to measure mass flow in unit header pipes of GCEPs.

  2. Styrene process condensate treatment with a combination process of UF and NF for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijun; Liu, Guangmin; Huang, Jin; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Guangbin; Su, Xudong; Qi, Hong

    2013-01-15

    Aiming at reusing the SPC to save water resource and heat energy, a combination treatment process of UF/NF was applied to remove inorganic irons, suspended particles and little amount of organic contaminants in this article. To achieve the indexes of CODM≤5.00 mg L(-1), oil≤2.00 mg L(-1), conductivity≤10.00 μs cm(-1), pH of 6.0-8.0, the NF membrane process was adopted. It was necessary to employ a pretreatment process to reduce NF membrane fouling. Hence UF membrane as an efficient pretreatment unit was proposed to remove the inorganic particles, such as iron oxide catalyst, to meet the influent demands of NF. The effluent of UF, which was less than 0.02 mg L(-1) of total iron, went into a security filter and then was pumped into the NF process unit. High removal efficiencies of CODM, oil and conductivity were achieved by using NF process. The ABS grafting copolymerization experiment showed that the effluent of the combination process met the criteria of ABS production process, meanwhile the process could alleviate the environment pollution. It was shown that this combination process concept was feasible and successful in treating the SPC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Outcomes for Over 250 Undergraduate Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troischt, Parker; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 19 institutions founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. In this talk we present outcomes for the more than 250 undergraduate students who have who have participated in the program during the 8 years of funding. 40% of these students have been women and members of underrepresented groups. To date 148 undergraduate students have attended annual workshops at Arecibo Observatory, interacting with faculty, graduate students, their peers, and Arecibo staff in lectures, group activities, tours, and observing runs. Team faculty have supervised 159 summer research projects and 120 academic year (e.g., senior thesis) projects. 68 students have traveled to Arecibo Observatory for observing runs and 55 have presented their results at national meetings such as the AAS. Through participation in the UAT, students are made aware of career paths they may not have previously considered. More than 90% of alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women. This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, and AST-1211005

  4. Translation and validation of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Oliveira Brito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Uterine fibroids (UF, also known as leiomyomas, are the most prevalent gynecological tumors. The Uterine Fibroid Symptoms and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL is the only specific questionnaire that assesses symptom intensity and quality-of-life issues for women with symptomatic UF; however, it only exists in the English language. Thus, we aimed to translate and culturally validate the UFS-QOL questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese language. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, FMRP-USP. METHODS: 113 patients with UF (case group and 55 patients without UF (control group were interviewed using the UFS-QOL questionnaire after translation and cultural adaptation. The Short Form-36 questionnaire was used as a control. Demographic and psychometric variables were analyzed. RESULTS: Women with UF presented higher mean age, body mass index, weight, parity and comorbidities than the control group (P < 0.05. The most prevalent complaints were abnormal uterine bleeding (93.8%, pelvic pain (36.3% and extrinsic compression (10.6% and these presented adequate construct validity regarding UFS-QOL severity (P < 0.05. The UFS-QOL questionnaire presented good internal consistency regarding symptom severity and quality-of-life-related domains (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.82/0.88. Structural validity presented correlation coefficients ranging from 0.59 to 0.91. Test-retest comparison did not show differences among the UFS-QOL subscales. After treatment, women with UF presented improvements on all subscales. CONCLUSION: The UFS-QOL questionnaire presented adequate translation to the Brazilian Portuguese language, with good internal consistency, discriminant validity, construct validity, structural validity and responsiveness, along with adequate test-retest results.

  5. Teaching Astrophysics to Upper Level Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn Bradt, Hale

    2010-03-01

    A Socratic peer-instruction method for teaching upper level undergraduates is presented. Basically, the instructor sits with the students and guides their presentations of the material. My two textbooks* (on display) as well as many others are amenable to this type of teaching. *Astronomy Methods - A Physical Approach to Astronomical Observations (CUP 2004) *Astrophysics Processes-The Physics of Astronomical Phenomena (CUP 2008)

  6. The state-of-the-practice in low enriched UF6 isotopic measurements in the European Community: results of REIMEP UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, W. de; Damen, R.; Bievre, P. de; Nagel, W.; Meyer, H.; Lycke, W.; Wolters, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    After the interruption of the SALE programme, CBNM has established a Regular European Interlaboratory Measurement Evaluation Programme (REIMEP) with the support of the ESARDA Working Group for techniques and standards for destructive analysis (WGDA), the ESARDA Working Group for techniques and standards for non-destructive analysis (WGNDA) and the IAEA. On the basis of a questionnaire with answers from 41 laboratories, 36 laboratories have announced their interest for such a programme. In this paper we report on the 1986/87 round of the programme establishing the measurement capability or State Of the Practice in UF 6 isotopic measurements by methods left at the discretion of the participants (thermal ionization mass spectrometry, electron impact mass spectrometry and gamma-ray spectrometry). Pictures of the State Of the Practice are presented as graphs displaying participants results

  7. The Accuracy of the Sysmex UF-1000i in Urine Bacterial Detection Compared With the Standard Urine Analysis and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, Patrick; Anderson, Brian; Zacko, J Christopher; Taylor, Kirk; Donaldson, Keri

    2017-11-01

    - Urinary tract infections are characterized by the presence of microbial pathogens within the urinary tract. They represent one of the most common infections in hospitalized and clinic patients. - To model the parameters of the Sysmex UF-1000i to the gold standard, urine culture, and to compare the detection of dipstick leukocyte esterase and nitrates to urine cultures and UF-1000i results. - Data were compared from urine samples collected in sterile containers for bacterial culture and microscopic analysis. One sample was used to inoculate a 5% sheep blood agar and MacConkey agar plate using a 0.001-mL calibrated loop. The second sample was analyzed by urinalysis-associated microscopy. The media plates were investigated for growth after 18 to 24 hours of aerobic incubation at 37°C. The second sample was analyzed for bacteria and leukocytes with the Sysmex UF-1000i according to the manufacturer's guidelines. Three definitions for culture results, sensitivity, and specificity at different cutoff values were calculated for the UF-1000i. - The negative predictive value for any positive culture in the adult population included in the study was 95.5%, and the negative predictive value for positive cultures containing growth of 100 000 or more colony-forming units was 99.3% using the Sysmex UF-1000i. - Sysmex UF-1000i showed 98% sensitivity and 93.7% specificity with a 95.5% negative predictive value. Thus, a negative screen with the UF-1000i using defined thresholds for white blood cell counts and bacteria was likely to be a true negative, decreasing the need for presumptive antibiotics.

  8. Method for selectively removing fluorine and fluorine-containing contaminants from gaseous UF/sub 6/. [ClF/sub 3/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R.L.; Otey, M.G.; Perkins, R.W.

    1980-11-24

    This invention is a method for effecting preferential removal and immobilization of certain gaseous contaminants from gaseous UF/sub 6/. The contaminants include fluorine and fluorides which are more reactive with CaCO/sub 3/ than is UF/sub 6/. The method comprises contacting the contaminant-carrying UF/sub 6/ with particulate CaCO/sub 3/ at a temperature effecting reaction of the contaminant and the CaCO/sub 3/.

  9. Heat transfer characteristics of UF6 in a container heated from outer surface. Pt. 1. Thermal hydraulic analysis method taking account of phase change and volume expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wataru, Masumi; Gomi, Yoshio; Yamakawa, Hidetsugu; Tsumune, Daisuke

    1995-01-01

    Natural UF6 is transported in a steel container from foreign countries to the enrichment plant in Japan. If the container meets fire accident, it is heated by fire (800degC) and rupture of the container may occur. For the safety point of view, it is necessary to know whether rupture occurs or not. Because UF6 has a radiological and chemical hazards, it is difficult to perform a demonstration test with UF6. So thermal calculation method has to be developed. The rupture is caused by UF6 gaseous pressure or volume expansion of liquid UF6. To know time history of internal pressure and temperature distribution in the container, it is important to evaluate thermal phenomena of UF6. When UF6 is heated, it changes from solid to liquid or gas at low temperature (64degC) and then its volume expands little by little. In this study, thermal calculation method has been developed taking phase change and thermal expansion of UF6 into account. In the calculation, a two-dimensional model is adopted and natural convection of liquid UF6 is analyzed. As a result of this study, numerical solutions have been obtained taking phase change and volume expansion into account. (author)

  10. Thermodynamics a complete undergraduate course

    CERN Document Server

    Steane, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    This is an undergraduate textbook in thermodynamics—the science of heat, work, temperature, and entropy. The text presents thermodynamics in and of itself, as an elegant and powerful set of ideas and methods. These methods open the way to understanding a very wide range of phenomena in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. Starting out from an introduction of concepts at first year undergraduate level, the roles of temperature, internal energy, and entropy are explained via the laws of thermodynamics. The text employs a combination of examples, exercises, and careful discussion, with a view to conveying the feel of the subject as well as avoiding common misunderstandings. The Feynman–Smuluchowski ratchet, Szilard’s engine, and Maxwell’s daemon are used to elucidate entropy and the second law. Free energy and thermodynamic potentials are discussed at length, with applications to solids as well as fluids and flow processes. Thermal radiation is discussed, and the main ideas significant to global...

  11. Metals, heavy metals and microorganism removal from spent filter backwash water by hybrid coagulation-UF processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Mahdavi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Spent filter backwash water (SFBW reuse has attracted particular attention, especially in countries that experience water scarcity. It can act as a permanent water source until the water treatment plant is working. In this study, the concentrations of Fe, Al, Pb, As, and Cd with total and fecal coliform (TC/FC were investigated in raw and treated SFBW by hybrid coagulation-UF processes. The pilot plant consisted of pre-sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation, clarification, and ultrafiltration (UF units. Poly-aluminum ferric chloride (PAFCL and ferric chloride (FeCl3 were used as pretreatment. The results showed that, at the optimum dose of PAFCl, the average removal of TC and FC was 88 and 79% and with PAFCl-UF process, it reached 100 and 100%, respectively. For FeCl3, removal efficiency of TC and FC were 81 and 72% and by applying FeCl3-UF process, it reached 100 and 100%, respectively. In comparison with FeCl3, PAFCl showed better removal efficiency for Fe, Pb, As, and Cd, except residual Al concentration. Coagulation-UF process could treat SFBW efficiently and treated SFBW could meet the US-EPA drinking water standard. Health risk index values of Fe, AL, Pb, AS, and Cd in treated SFBW indicate no risk of exposure to the use of this water.

  12. MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter from bloom-forming marine and freshwater algae

    KAUST Repository

    Villacorte, Loreen O.

    2015-07-01

    Pretreatment with microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration (UF) membranes has been proposed for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plants to address operational issues associated with algal blooms. Here, we investigated the MF/UF rejection and fouling potential of algal organic matter (AOM) released by common species of bloom-forming marine (Alexandrium tamarense and Chaetoceros affinis) and freshwater (Microcystis sp.) algae. Batch culture monitoring of the three algal species illustrated varying growth pattern, cell concentration, AOM released and membrane fouling potential. The high membrane fouling potential of the cultures can be directly associated (R2>0.85) with AOM such as transparent exopolymer particle (TEP) while no apparent relationship with algal cell concentration was observed. The AOM comprised mainly biopolymers (e.g., polysaccharides and proteins) and low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., humic-like substances). The former were largely rejected by MF/UF membranes while the latter were poorly rejected. MF (0.4μm and 0.1μm pore size) rejected 14%-56% of biopolymers while conventional UF (100kDa) and tight UF (10kDa) rejected up to 83% and 97%, respectively. The retention of AOM resulted in a rapid increase in trans-membrane pressure (δP) over time, characterised by pore blocking followed by cake filtration with enhanced compression as illustrated by an exponential progression of δP. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Measurement of 235U content and flow of UF6 using delayed neutrons or gamma rays following induced fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Peurrung, A.J.; Reeder, P.L.; Perkins, R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Feasibility experiments conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory demonstrate that either delayed neutrons or energetic gamma rays from short-lived fission products can be used to monitor the blending of UF 6 gas streams. A 252 Cf neutron source was used to induce 235 U fission in a sample, and delayed neutrons and gamma rays were measured after the sample moved open-quotes down-stream.close quotes The experiments used a UO 2 powder that was transported down the pipe to simulate the flowing UF 6 gas. Computer modeling and analytic calculation extended the test results to a flowing UF 6 gas system. Neutron or gamma-ray measurements made at two downstream positions can be used to indicate both the 235 U content and UF 6 flow rate. Both the neutron and gamma-ray techniques have the benefits of simplicity and long-term reliability, combined with adequate sensitivity for low-intrusion monitoring of the blending process. Alternatively, measuring the neutron emission rate from (a, n) reactions in the UF 6 provides an approximate measure of the 235 U content without using a neutron source to induce fission

  14. Review of models used for determining consequences of UF6 release: Development of model evaluation criteria. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.K.; Chambers, D.B.; Park, S.H.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the usefulness and effectiveness of currently existing models that simulate the release of uranium hexafluoride from UF 6 -handling facilities, subsequent reactions of UF 6 with atmospheric moisture, and the dispersion of UF 6 and reaction products in the atmosphere. The study evaluates screening-level and detailed public-domain models that were specifically developed for UF 6 and models that were originally developed for the treatment of dense gases but are applicable to UF 6 release, reaction, and dispersion. The model evaluation process is divided into three specific tasks: model-component evaluation; applicability evaluation; and user interface and quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) evaluation. Within the model-component evaluation process, a model's treatment of source term, thermodynamics, and atmospheric dispersion are considered and model predictions are compared with actual observations. Within the applicability evaluation process, a model's applicability to Integrated Safety Analysis, Emergency Response Planning, and Post-Accident Analysis, and to site-specific considerations are assessed. Finally, within the user interface and QA/QC evaluation process, a model's user-friendliness, presence and clarity of documentation, ease of use, etc. are assessed, along with its handling of QA/QC. This document presents the complete methodology used in the evaluation process

  15. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; O’Hara, Matthew J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Addleman, R. Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J.

    2016-07-01

    Abstract: We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other uranium compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within the chamber to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of uranium deposits that range between ~0.01 and 470±34 ng∙cm-2. The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogram∙cm-2 level. Additionally, the isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the uranium source materials. We demonstrate a layering technique whereby two uranium solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit of UF6 that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two uranium sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics.

  16. Calculations of electronic structure of UF6 molecule and crystal UO2 with relativistic pseudopotential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehvarestov, R.A.; Panin, A.I.; Bandura, A.V.

    2008-01-01

    Account of relativistic effects on the properties of uranium hexafluoride is testified. Detailed comparison of single electron energies spectrum revealed in nonrelativistic (by Hartree-Fock method), relativistic (by Dirac-Fock method), and scalar-relativistic (using relativistic potential of atomic uranium frame) has been conducted. Optimization procedures of atomic basis in LCAO calculations of molecules and crystals permissive taking into account distortion of atomic orbitals when chemical bonding are discussed, and optimization effect of atomic basis on the results of scalar-relativistic calculations of UF 6 molecule properties is analyzed. Calculations of electronic structure and properties of UO 2 crystal having relativistic and nonrelativistic pseudopotentials have been realized [ru

  17. Practical experience of backwashing with SWRO permeate for UF fouling control

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Sheng; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Verberk, J. Q J C; Amy, Gary L.; Van Dijk, Johannis C.

    2013-01-01

    Effectiveness of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) permeate backwash on fouling control of seawater ultrafiltration was investigated at a pilot scale. A standard membrane module was used in this pilot to represent full-scale desalination plants. Results of the pilot show a good reproducibility. When the UF permeate was used for backwash, the frequency of chemically enhanced backwash (CEB) was around once per day. However, results of the pilot show that SWRO permeate backwashing could significantly reduce the CEB frequency. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of UF sub 6 measured with a ballistic piston compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, D. E.; Lalos, G. T.; Schneider, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    From experiments performed with a ballistic piston compressor, certain thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride were investigated. Difficulties presented by the nonideal processes encountered in ballistic compressors are discussed and a computer code BCCC (Ballistic Compressor Computer Code) is developed to analyze the experimental data. The BCCC unfolds the thermodynamic properties of uranium hexafluoride from the helium-uranium hexafluoride mixture used as the test gas in the ballistic compressor. The thermodynamic properties deduced include the specific heat at constant volume, the ratio of specific heats for UF6, and the viscous coupling constant of helium-uranium hexafluoride mixtures.

  19. Development of a UF{sub 6} cylinder transient heat transfer/stress analysis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W.R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A heat transfer/stress analysis model is being developed to simulate the heating to a point of rupture of a cylinder containing UF{sub 6} when it is exposed to a fire. The assumptions underlying the heat transfer portion of the model, which has been the focus of work to date, will be discussed. A key aspect of this model is a lumped parameter approach to modeling heat transfer. Preliminary results and future efforts to develop an integrated thermal/stress model will be outlined.

  20. Development and design of a UF{sub 6} gas pressure meter for 42 mm pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, E.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-08-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has proved to be a feasible method of measuring the pressure of UF{sub 6}-gas for enrichment verification purposes. Complications will arise under extreme conditions, such as high uranium deposit to gas ratios, pipe diameters smaller than 40 mm and pressures less than 100 Pa. This report presents an experimental analysis of the XRF method for design worst case conditions for 42 outer diameter cascade-to-header pipes and the development of a prototype measurement device. This prototype is integrated in the construction of the enrichment verification system. (orig.).

  1. Development and design of a UF6 gas pressure meter for 42 mm pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.; Wichers, V.A.

    1995-08-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has proved to be a feasible method of measuring the pressure of UF 6 -gas for enrichment verification purposes. Complications will arise under extreme conditions, such as high uranium deposit to gas ratios, pipe diameters smaller than 40 mm and pressures less than 100 Pa. This report presents an experimental analysis of the XRF method for design worst case conditions for 42 outer diameter cascade-to-header pipes and the development of a prototype measurement device. This prototype is integrated in the construction of the enrichment verification system. (orig.)

  2. Method of absorbing UF6 from gaseous mixtures in alkamine absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafferty, R.H.; Smiley, S.H.; Radimer, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for recovering UF 6 from gaseous mixtures by absorption in a liquid. The liquid absorbent must have a relatively low viscosity and at least one component of the absorbent is an alkamine having less than 3 carbon atoms bonded to the amino nitrogen, less than 2 of the carbon atoms other than those bonded to the amino nitrogen are free of the hydroxy radical and precipitate the absorbed uranium from the absorbent. At least one component of the absorbent is chosen from the group consisting of ethanolamine, diethanolamine, and 3-methyl-3-amino-propane-diol-1,2

  3. Developments of solid materials for UF6 sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Nicholas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Hebden, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Savina, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-11-15

    This project demonstrated that a device using majority Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) components could be used to collect uranium hexafluoride samples safely from gaseous or solid sources. The device was based on the successful Cristallini method developed by ABACC over the past 10 years. The system was designed to capture and store the UF6 as an inert fluoride salt to ease transportation regulations. In addition, the method was considerably faster than traditional cryogenic methods, collected enough material to perform analyses without undue waste, and could be used either inside a facility or in the storage yard.

  4. Process for decontamination of surfaces in an facility of natural uranium hexafluoride production (UF6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Claudio C. de; Silva, Teresinha M.; Rodrigues, Demerval L.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2017-01-01

    The experience acquired in the actions taken during the decontamination process of an IPEN-CNEN / SP Nuclear and Energy Research Institute facility, for the purpose of making the site unrestricted, is reported. The steps of this operation involved: planning, training of facility operators, workplace analysis and radiometric measurements. The facility had several types of equipment from the natural uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production tower and other facility materials. Rules for the transportation of radioactive materials were established, both inside and outside the facility and release of materials and installation

  5. Finite element modelling of fire situations in UF6 transport containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basombrio, F.G.

    1996-01-01

    In this report we describe some runs made with the code FASES2. They concern different situations associated to fires originated by accidents in the transport of containers filled with UF6. Such situations have been inspired in cases taken from the current literature, and related to numerical modelling or experiments. We aim to consign the most relevant aspects of such runs, with the future purpose of comparing them with the predictions made with simpler lumped models. In such a way, it will be possible to calibrate the simple models with the results coming from detailed models. (author). 6 refs., 12 figs

  6. Rupture of Model 48Y UF6 cylinder and release of uranium hexafluoride. Cylinder overfill, March 12-13, 1986. Investigation of a failed UF6 shipping container. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    NUREG-1179, Volume 1, reported on the rupture of a Model 48Y uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder and the subsequent release of UF 6 . At the time of publication, a detailed metallurgical examination of the damaged cylinder was under way and results were not available. Subsequent to the publication of Volume 1, a second incident occurred at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility. On March 13, 1986, a Model 48X cylinder was overfilled during a special one-time draining procedure; however, no release of UF 6 occurred. An Augmented Investigation Team investigated this second incident. This report, NUREG-1179, Volume 2, presents the findings made by the Augmented Investigation Team of the March 13 incident and the report of the detailed metallurgical examination conducted by Battelle Columbus Division of the cylinder damaged on January 4, 1986

  7. Undergraduate Student Use of the Physical and Virtual Library Varies according to Academic Discipline. A Review of: Bridges, L.M. (2008. Who is not using the library? A comparison of undergraduate academic disciplines and library use. portal: Libraries and the Academy, 8(2, 187‐196.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan von Isenburg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine differences in undergraduate studentsʹ use of the physical library and virtual library by academic disciplines.Design – Online multiple‐choice survey followed by focus groups and secondary online survey with open‐ended questions.Setting – Oregon State University (OSU, a land‐grant university with over 19,000 students located in Corvallis, Oregon, United States.Subjects – A random sample of 22% (n = 3,227 of the undergraduate population (n = 14,443, drawn by the registrarʹs office. Distance education and students at branch campuses were not included. From this pool, 949 usable survey responses (29% of the sample were collected. The respondent demographics proved to be reasonably equivalent to those of the total undergraduate population in terms of class standing (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior and academic discipline.Methods – The study consisted of three phases. In phase one, an email invitation with a link to the four‐item multiple choice online survey was sent to students in the sample population. Results were analyzed using Pearson chi‐square tests to determine goodness of fit between the following variables: class standing and library visits, class standing and virtual library use, academic college and library visits, and academic college and virtual library use.When significant dependence was detected, researchers examined relationships between the specific groups (e.g., freshman and sophomore and library use, and also compared each group to one another using odds ratios and by constructing 95% confidence intervals.Phase two was intended to gather qualitative information from the 275 infrequent or non‐users of the library in focus groups. However, researchers invited the 95 students in this group who had indicated a willingness to be contacted for further study, and only five students participated. The author therefore does not report on this limited data.In phase three, researchers

  8. Release of UF6 from a ruptured model 48Y cylinder at Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility: lessons-learned report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) release of January 4, 1986, at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility has been reviewed by a NRC Lessons-Learned Group. A Model 48Y cylinder containing UF 6 ruptured upon being heated after it was grossly overfilled. The UF 6 released upon rupture of the cylinder reacted with airborne moisture to produce hydrofluoric acid (HF) and uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ). One individual died from exposure to airborne HF and several others were injured. There were no significant immediate effects from exposure to uranyl fluoride. This supplement report contains NRC's response to the recommendations made in NUREG-1198 by the Lessons Learned Group. In developing a response to each of the recommendations, the staff considered actions that should be taken: (1) for the restart of the Sequoyah Fuels Facility; (2) to make near-term improvement; and (3) to improve the regulatory framework

  9. Hydraulic breakage of tanks for the transport of uranium hexafluoride (UF6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, A.L.; Lee Gonzales, H.M.; Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Novo, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    To begin with, the tank models that are proposed by the international norms for the transport and storage of hexafluoride of uranium (UF 6 ) are briefly described. The operations related to the transport in its different forms are also described, particularly those that can produce the hydraulic breakage of tanks during its course or in later stages, when incorrectly performed. With reference to those operations, the most important physicochemical properties of UF 6 as for safety are analyzed. A quantitative evaluation of the deviations of parameters that are controlled during the heating of tanks, comparing them with the normative nominal values, is performed. Adopting some simplifying hypothesis, a general study, applicable to all tank models proposed by norms, is carried out to determine the temperature at which the hydraulic breakage takes place when they are heated in closed-valve conditions. A curve is obtained by plotting the hydraulic breakage temperature against the filling degree. To conclude, the values obtained are compared with the results of other theoretical studies on this subject. (Author)

  10. Determination of UO2F2, UO2 and UF4 in tetrafluoride of uranium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras Guzman, Ariel; Arlegui Hormazabal, Oscar

    2003-01-01

    The combustible elements for investigation reactors that at the present are manufacturing by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) they are based on aluminum and silicide uranium powdered which is obtained from metallic uranium. At the present the Conversion Units, is developing the technology of transformation UF 6 in metallic Uranium, reason for which is necessary that the Chemical Analysis Laboratory have a methodology that allows to quantify the presence of UO 2 F 2 , UO 2 and UF 4 in the samples obtained in this transformation process. For this reason we are implements the methodology of sequential analysis that had been developed previously, for the Institute of Energy and Nuclear Investigations, IPEN Brasil, and to adapt it to the present conditions in the Laboratory of Chemical Analysis of the CCHEN. This method is based on the different solubilities that present those sample in front of solvents as ethanol and solutions of ammonium oxalate, what allows the separation of these compounds for a later analysis by means of the method of Davies and Gray. This method is based on the reduction of the uranium (VI) to uranium (IV) with ferrous ion amid phosphoric acid, quantifying the present uranium in the samples by means of titration with potassium dicromate. With the purpose of checking the efficiency of the method, the sum of all values of uranium coming from each compound and compares it with the total uranium of the sample (author)

  11. UF/sub 6/ test loop for evaluation and implementation of international enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Fields, L.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A functional test loop capable of simulating UF/sub 6/ flows, pressures, and pipe deposits characteristic of gas centrifuge enrichment plant piping has been designed and fabricated by the Enrichment Safeguards Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The purpose of the test loop is twofold: (1) to enable the IAEA to evaluate and to calibrate enrichment safeguards measurement instrumentation to be used in limited frequency-unannounced access (LFUA) inspection strategy measurements at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and (2) to train IAEA inspectors in the use of such instrumentation. The test loop incorporates actual sections of cascade header pipes from the centrifuge enrichment plants subject to IAEA inspections. The test loop is described, applications for its use by the IAEA are detailed, and results from an initial demonstration session using the test loop are summarized. By giving the IAEA the in-house capability to evaluate LFUA inspection strategy approaches, to develop inspection procedures, to calibrate instrumentation, and to train inspectors, the UF/sub 6/ cascade header pipe test loop will contribute to the IAEA's success in implementing LFUA strategy inspections at gas centrifuge enrichment facilities subject to international safeguards inspections

  12. RESPEITO À CIDADANIA: PROVENDO ACESSIBILIDADE WEB NA UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE SERGIPE (UFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quelita Araújo Diniz da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O acesso à informação facilitado pelas Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC é um dos principais elementos da sociedade do conhecimento, sendo visto como possibilidade de inclusão social. Entretanto, alguns indivíduos possuem necessidades, permanentes ou temporárias, que os limitam no acesso às informações disponibilizadas, mantendo-os à periferia da sociedade. Este trabalho tem como objetivo discutir a acessibilidade na Web, discutindo os principais padrões, as diretrizes e técnicas para o projeto de webapps acessíveis. Como também, expor o conceito de tecnologias assistivas e como elas adequam às funcionalidades computacionais ao internauta com necessidades especiais auxiliando-o na navegação. Por fim, descrever um estudo de caso realizado no site da POSGRAP – UFS objetivando viabilizar à comunidade Sergipana à inclusão provendo acessibilidade aos produtos e serviços da UFS.

  13. Optimization of the isotopic analysis of UF6 by quadrupole mass spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porto, Peterson

    2006-01-01

    In the present work a procedure for determination of the isotopic ratio 238 U/ 235 U in UF 6 samples was established using a quadrupole mass spectrometer with ionization by electron impact and ion detection by Faraday cup or electron multiplier. For this, the following items were optimized in the spectrometer: the parameters in the ion source that provided the most intense peak, with good shape, for the corresponding mass of the most abundant isotope; the resolution that reduced the non linear effects and the number of analytic cycles that reduced the uncertainty in the results. The measurement process was characterized with respect to the effects of mass discrimination, linearity and memory effect. The mass discrimination showed to be linearly dependent of the sample pressure in the batch volume, for the pressure ranges from 0.15 to 0.30 mbar and from 0.30 to 0.40 mbar. The spectrometer was shown linear in the measurement of isotopic ratios between 0.005 and 0.045. The memory factor for the ion source and for the introduction system were, respectively, 1.000 ± 0.001 and 1.003 ± 0.003; the first one can be ignored, the second one can be eliminated by washing the batch volume with the new sample. A methodology for routine analysis of UF 6 samples and the determination of the uncertainties were set up in details as well. (author)

  14. Evaluation of coverage of enriched UF6 cylinder storage lots by existing criticality accident alarms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.L. Jr.; Dobelbower, M.C.; Woollard, J.E.; Sutherland, P.J.; Tayloe, R.W. Jr.

    1995-03-01

    The Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is leased from the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), a government corporation formed in 1993. PORTS is in transition from regulation by DOE to regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One regulation is 10 CFR Part 76.89, which requires that criticality alarm systems be provided for the site. PORTS originally installed criticality accident alarm systems in all building for which nuclear criticality accidents were credible. Currently, however, alarm systems are not installed in the enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder storage lots. This report analyzes and documents the extent to which enriched UF 6 cylinder storage lots at PORTS are covered by criticality detectors and alarms currently installed in adjacent buildings. Monte Carlo calculations are performed on simplified models of the cylinder storage lots and adjacent buildings. The storage lots modelled are X-745B, X-745C, X745D, X-745E, and X-745F. The criticality detectors modelled are located in building X-343, the building X-344A/X-342A complex, and portions of building X-330 (see Figures 1 and 2). These criticality detectors are those located closest to the cylinder storage lots. Results of this analysis indicate that the existing criticality detectors currently installed at PORTS are largely ineffective in detecting neutron radiation from criticality accidents in most of the cylinder storage lots at PORTS, except sometimes along portions of their peripheries

  15. Electrochemical separation of uranium in the molten system LiF-NaF-KF-UF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenko, M.; Straka, M.; Szatmáry, L.; Ambrová, M.; Uhlíř, J.

    2013-09-01

    This article is focused on the electrochemical investigation (cyclic voltammetry and related studies) of possible reduction of U4+ ions to metal uranium in the molten system LiF-NaF-KF(eut.)-UF4 that can provide basis for the electrochemical extraction of uranium from molten salts. Two-step reduction mechanism for U4+ ions involving one electron exchange in soluble/soluble U4+/U3+ system and three electrons exchange in the second step were found on the nickel working electrode. Both steps were found to be reversible and diffusion controlled. Based on cyclic voltammetry, the diffusion coefficients of uranium ions at 530 °C were found to be D(U4+) = 1.64 × 10-5 cm2 s-1 and D(U3+) 1.76 × 10-5 cm2 s-1. Usage of the nickel spiral electrode for electrorefining of uranium showed fairly good feasibility of its extraction. However some oxidant present during the process of electrorefining caused that the solid deposits contained different uranium species such as UF3, UO2 and K3UO2F5.

  16. The approach of toxic and radiological risk equivalence in UF6 transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringot, C.; Hamard, J.

    1989-01-01

    After a brief description of the present situation concerning the safety of the transport of UF6 and the new regulation project which is being developed under the behalf of IAEA, the equivalence of radioactive and chemical risks is considered for UF6 transport regulations. The concept of low specific activity appearing misfitting to toxic gas, it is proposed a quantity limit of material, T 2 (equivalent to A 2 for radioactive materials), for packagings which do not resist to accidental conditions, (9 m drop, 800 0 C, 30 minutes fire environment). It is proposed that this limit is chosen as the release rate which is acceptable after the IAEA tests for packages having a capacity higher than T 2 kilograms. The fire being considered as the most severe situation for the toxic risk, different possible scenarios are described. This approach of risk equivalence leads to impose that the packaging resists a 800 0 C - 30 minutes fire and that in this condition the release is less than T 2 . The problem of the behaviour of the shell and the openings (in particular the valve) is raised in this context [fr

  17. Criticality Safety Evaluation for 30B and 48X UF6 Cylinders for Transportation and Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhatri, Homami Zahra; Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Kamyab, Shahabeddin

    2011-01-01

    30B and 48X cylinders are two standard containers have been used for transportation and storage of uranium hexafluoride with 21/2-ton and 10-ton loading capacity, respectively. For the sake of nuclear safety, the long-term safe storage and transportation of the cylinders are necessary to be concerned. Safe limits in handling and storage of 30B and 48X cylinders from the criticality safety considerations, has been investigated in this paper, by using the MCNP.4C code with ENDF/B-VI library data for the neutron cross sections. An infinite array model (with and without over pack) incorporating an internal H/U ratio of 0.088 was then developed to determine the optimal interstitial moderation. The maximum k eff value for the conditions of optimal interstitial moderation with the premise of no water leakage into the UF 6 cylinder has been shown to be 0.79209 ± 0.0011 for the 30B cylinder and 0.7625±0.0013 for 48X cylinder with 5 wt % 235 U enrichment. Based on this evaluation, the 30B and 48X UF 6 cylinders with 5 wt % 235 U enrichment meet the 10 CFR part 71 criteria for Fissile Class I packages, even in the worst case, and has a Transport Index (TI) of zero for criticality safety purposes

  18. Computer simulation of cooling properties of UF5 hot-clusters in argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Fubito

    1999-01-01

    Brownian collision-coalescence models have been proposed by many researchers to describe a cluster or a particle growth process. In these mathematical models, the effect of a cluster temperature on a sticking probability is not included, although the cluster temperature is one of the most important factors which determines the particle growth rate at the incipient stage of coagulation. A hot-cluster consisting of 30 UF 5 molecules is formed in a computer and is bombarded with argon atoms. Measuring a kinetic energy of argon atom scattered from the hot-cluster, the cluster temperature can be estimated by molecular dynamics simulations. It is concluded that the hot-cluster is rapidly cooled under the conditions of molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) process, so that the cluster-argon system can reach its thermal equilibrium state. Therefore, in the analysis of the dynamics of clustering process, the temperature of UF 5 molecular cluster may be set equal to that of argon gas. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic properties of a high pressure subcritical UF6He gas volume (irradiated by an external source)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterritt, D.E.; Lalos, G.T.; Schneider, R.T.

    1976-12-01

    A computer simulation study concerning a compressed fissioning UF 6 gas is presented. The compression is to be achieved by a ballistic piston compressor. Data on UF 6 obtained with this compressor were incorporated in the simulation study. As a neutron source to create the fission events in the compressed gas, a fast burst reactor was considered. The conclusion is that it takes a neutron flux in excess of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s to produce measurable increases in pressure and temperature, while a flux in excess of 10 19 n/cm 2 -s would probably damage the compressor

  20. Medical Physics in the new undergraduate curriculum of Spanish medical schools; La Fisica Medica en los nuevos planes de estudio de grado de las facultades de medicina espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.

  1. Impact of Acid Cleaning on the Performance of PVDF UF Membranes in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment

    KAUST Repository

    Alsogair, Safiya

    2016-05-05

    Low-pressure membrane systems such as Microfiltration (MF) and Ultrafiltration (UF) have been presented as viable option to pre-treatment systems in potable water applications. UF membranes are sporadically backwashed with ultra-filtered water to remove deposited matter from the membrane and restore it. Several factors that may cause permeability and selectivity decrease are involved and numerous procedures are applicable to achieve this objective. Membrane cleaning is the most important step required to maintain the characteristics of the membrane. This research was made with the purpose of investigating the effects of acid cleaning during chemically enhanced backwashing (CEB) on the performance of ultrafiltration (UF) membranes in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pretreatment. To accomplish this, the questions made were: Does the acid addition (before or after the alkali CEB) influence the overall CEB cleaning effectiveness on Dow UF membrane? Does the CEB order of alkali (NaOCl) and acid (H2SO4) affect the overall CEB cleaning effectiveness? If yes, which order is better/worse? What is the optimal acid CEB frequency that will ensure the most reliable performance of the UF?. To answer this queries, a series of sequences were carried out with different types of chemical treatments: Only NaOCl, daily NaOCl plus weekly acid, daily NaOCl plus daily acid, and weekly acid plus daily NaOCl. To investigate the consequence of acid by studying the effect of operational data like the trans-pressure membrane, resistance or permeability and support that by the analytical experiments (organic, inorganic and microbial characterization). Microorganisms were removed almost completely at hydraulic cleaning and showed no difference with addition of acid. As a conclusion of the operational data the organic and inorganic chatacterization resulted in the elimination of the first sequence due to the acummulation of fouling over time, which produces that the cleaning increases downtime

  2. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  3. Technology Assessment for Proof-of-Concept UF6 Cylinder Unique Identification Task 3.1.2 Report – Survey and Assessment of Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wylie, Joann; Hockert, John

    2014-04-24

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and International Security’s (NA-24) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the nuclear industry have begun to develop approaches to identify and monitor uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The NA-24 interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to its interest in supporting the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in deterring and detecting diversion of UF6 (e.g., loss of cylinder in transit) and undeclared excess production at conversion and enrichment facilities. The industry interest in a global monitoring system for UF6 cylinders relates to the improvements in operational efficiencies that such a system would provide. This task is part of an effort to survey and assess technologies for a UF6 cylinder to identify candidate technologies for a proof-of-concept demonstration and evaluation for the Cylinder Identification System (CIS).

  4. Scoping study to expedite development of a field deployable and portable instrument for UF6 enrichment assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, George; Valentine, John D.; Russo, Richard E.

    2017-09-14

    The primary objective of the present study is to identity the most promising, viable technologies that are likely to culminate in an expedited development of the next-generation, field-deployable instrument for providing rapid, accurate, and precise enrichment assay of uranium hexafluoride (UF6). UF6 is typically involved, and is arguably the most important uranium compound, in uranium enrichment processes. As the first line of defense against proliferation, accurate analytical techniques to determine the uranium isotopic distribution in UF6 are critical for materials verification, accounting, and safeguards at enrichment plants. As nuclear fuel cycle technology becomes more prevalent around the world, international nuclear safeguards and interest in UF6 enrichment assay has been growing. At present, laboratory-based mass spectrometry (MS), which offers the highest attainable analytical accuracy and precision, is the technique of choice for the analysis of stable and long-lived isotopes. Currently, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) monitors the production of enriched UF6 at declared facilities by collecting a small amount (between 1 to 10 g) of gaseous UF6 into a sample bottle, which is then shipped under chain of custody to a central laboratory (IAEA’s Nuclear Materials Analysis Laboratory) for high-precision isotopic assay by MS. The logistics are cumbersome and new shipping regulations are making it more difficult to transport UF6. Furthermore, the analysis is costly, and results are not available for some time after sample collection. Hence, the IAEA is challenged to develop effective safeguards approaches at enrichment plants. In-field isotopic analysis of UF6 has the potential to substantially reduce the time, logistics and expense of sample handling. However, current laboratory-based MS techniques require too much infrastructure and operator expertise for field deployment and operation. As outlined in the IAEA Department of Safeguards Long

  5. Fourier transform infrared spectrometery: an undergraduate experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, L

    2016-01-01

    Simple apparatus is developed, providing undergraduate students with a solid understanding of Fourier transform (FT) infrared (IR) spectroscopy in a hands on experiment. Apart from its application to measuring the mid-IR spectra of organic molecules, the experiment introduces several techniques with wide applicability in physics, including interferometry, the FT, digital data analysis, and control theory. (paper)

  6. Death metaphors in Korean undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kae-Hwa; An, Gyeong-Ju

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the meaning of death metaphors seen by 133 undergraduate nursing students through open questionnaires and collage artworks, using qualitative content analysis in Korea. The 4 themes emerged: "rest-physical," "fear-psychological," "separating-social," and "new life-spiritual."

  7. Cross-Course Collaboration in the Undergraduate Chemistry Curriculum: Primary Kinetic Isotope Effect in the Hypochlorite Oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert J.; Fitch, Richard W.; Kjonaas, Richard A.; Wyatt, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    A kinetic isotope effect (KIE) experiment is described for the physical chemistry laboratory. Students conduct a hypochlorite (household bleach) oxidation of an equimolar mixture of 1-phenylethanol and 1-deuterio-1-phenylethanol to acetophenone. The reaction occurs in a biphasic reaction mixture and follows first-order kinetics with respect to…

  8. Using Student Centred Evaluation for Curriculum Enhancement: An Examination of Undergraduate Physiotherapy Education in Relation to Physical Activity and Exercise Prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Grainne; Doody, Catherine; Cusack, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiotherapy students' perceptions of current education content of entry-level physiotherapy programmes in terms of physical activity (PA) and exercise promotion and prescription (EPP). Sixty-two physiotherapy students from three Irish Universities participated. Three Structured Group Feedback Sessions…

  9. Flash Photolysis Experiment of o-Methyl Red as a Function of pH: A Low-Cost Experiment for the Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Molly C.; Perkins, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    A low-cost, time-resolved spectroscopy experiment appropriate for third year physical chemistry students is presented. Students excite o-methyl red in basic solutions with a laser pointer and use a modular spectrometer with a CCD array detector to monitor the transient spectra as the higher-energy cis conformer of the molecule converts back to the…

  10. Avaliação do conhecimento em odontologia e educação física acerca dos protetores bucais Assessment of odontology and physical education undergraduation students knowledge on mouth guard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rodrigues Sizo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve o propósito de avaliar o nível de conhecimento de 150 alunos de graduação dos cursos de Odontologia e Educação Física acerca dos protetores bucais no município de Belém, Brasil. Além disso, objetivou-se promover maior informação a esses futuros profissionais, por meio de palestras e distribuição de folders, nas quais o foco principal eram os protetores bucais, suas indicações, seus tipos, sua higienização e armazenamento. Os participantes da pesquisa pertenciam ao último ano de seus referidos cursos de graduação. A análise dos resultados permitiu evidenciar que 68% dos alunos entrevistados ainda não possuem informação adequada acerca dos protetores bucais, mas que, apesar disso, em sua maioria são conscientes quanto aos riscos a que vários atletas são submetidos em esportes que exigem impacto físico. Os autores acreditam que é extremamente importante que haja maior divulgação da importância da utilização de protetores bucais na prática esportiva, visando a prevenção e a promoção de saúde da população em geral.This study had the aim to assess the level of knowledge of 150 Odontology and Physical Education undergraduation students concerning mouth guards in the city of Belém, Brazil. Besides that, we tried to provide further information to these future professionals through speeches and distribution of folders in which the main focus was the mouth guards, their indications, types as well as hygienization and storage. The participants in the research were in the last year of their specific undergraduation courses. The analysis of the results showed that 68% of the interviewed students still do not have suitable information on the mouth guards, but despite of that, in their majority they are aware of the risks many athletes face in sports which have physical impact. The authors believe the spread of the information on the use of mouth guards in sportive practice is relevant and aims to

  11. Tight ceramic UF membrane as RO pre-treatment: The role of electrostatic interactions on phosphate rejection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shang, R.; Verliefde, A.R.D.; Hu, J.; Zeng, Z; Lu, L.; Lu, L.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Deng, H.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Heijman, S.G.J.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate limitation has been reported as an effective approach to inhibit biofouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems for water purification. The rejection of dissolved phosphate by negatively charged TiO2 tight ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (1 kDa and 3 kDa) was observed. These membranes can

  12. PGDP [Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant]-UF6 handling, sampling, analysis and associated QC/QA and safety related procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This document is a compilation of Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant procedures on UF 6 handling, sampling, and analysis, along with associated QC/QA and safety related procedures. It was assembled for transmission by the US Department of Energy to the Korean Advanced Energy Institute as a part of the US-Korea technical exchange program

  13. Uniform deposition of uranium hexafluoride (UF6): Standardized mass deposits and controlled isotopic ratios using a thermal fluorination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bruce K; O'Hara, Matthew J; Casella, Andrew M; Carter, Jennifer C; Addleman, R Shane; MacFarlan, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    We report a convenient method for the generation of volatile uranium hexafluoride (UF6) from solid uranium oxides and other U compounds, followed by uniform deposition of low levels of UF6 onto sampling coupons. Under laminar flow conditions, UF6 is shown to interact with surfaces within a fixed reactor geometry to a highly predictable degree. We demonstrate the preparation of U deposits that range between approximately 0.01 and 500ngcm(-2). The data suggest the method can be extended to creating depositions at the sub-picogramcm(-2) level. The isotopic composition of the deposits can be customized by selection of the U source materials and we demonstrate a layering technique whereby two U solids, each with a different isotopic composition, are employed to form successive layers of UF6 on a surface. The result is an ultra-thin deposit that bears an isotopic signature that is a composite of the two U sources. The reported deposition method has direct application to the development of unique analytical standards for nuclear safeguards and forensics. Further, the method allows access to very low atomic or molecular coverages of surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. P-T-x phase diagrams of MeF-UF4(Me=Li-Cs) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, Yu.M.; Rykov, A.N.; Varkov, M.V.; Novoselova, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor composition and general pressure at three-phase equilibria in the MeF-UF 4 (Me=Li-Cs) systems are calculated using the values of independent component activities obtained earlier together with the data on fusibility diagrams. P-T and T-x projections of phase diagrams of these systems are constructed

  15. "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures" - Development of faculty-wide standards for physical examination techniques and clinical procedures in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikendei, C; Ganschow, P; Groener, J B; Huwendiek, S; Köchel, A; Köhl-Hackert, N; Pjontek, R; Rodrian, J; Scheibe, F; Stadler, A-K; Steiner, T; Stiepak, J; Tabatabai, J; Utz, A; Kadmon, M

    2016-01-01

    The competent physical examination of patients and the safe and professional implementation of clinical procedures constitute essential components of medical practice in nearly all areas of medicine. The central objective of the projects "Heidelberg standard examination" and "Heidelberg standard procedures", which were initiated by students, was to establish uniform interdisciplinary standards for physical examination and clinical procedures, and to distribute them in coordination with all clinical disciplines at the Heidelberg University Hospital. The presented project report illuminates the background of the initiative and its methodological implementation. Moreover, it describes the multimedia documentation in the form of pocketbooks and a multimedia internet-based platform, as well as the integration into the curriculum. The project presentation aims to provide orientation and action guidelines to facilitate similar processes in other faculties.

  16. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  17. Testing of the Model 48-14 overpack for UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stitt, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    Shipment of UF 6 enriched to 1.0% or greater assay 235 U currently is done in either the 30-B overpack or the Paducah tiger overpack. The former contains a 2-1/2 ton cylinder, 30 in. in diameter, while the latter contains a 10-ton cylinder, 48 in. in diameter. There are apparent economy and safety considerations associated with shipping in the larger containers due to the reduced number of shipments and connect and disconnect operations. Further reductions in connect and disconnect operations and shipping costs could be achieved through use of the 14-ton cylinder for shipment of enriched material. With this thought, a program was initiated in 1980 to develop a protective overpack for the Model 48Y cylinder. Two prototype overpacks of wood and stainless steel construction were fabricated. The results from the drop tests and the thermal exposure test are presented

  18. Evaluation of environmental-control technologies for commercial nuclear fuel-conversion (UF6) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.L.

    1982-10-01

    At present in the United States, there are two commercial conversion facilities. These facilities process uranium concentrate into UF 6 for shipment to the enrichment facilities. One conversion facility uses a dry hydrofluor process, whereas the other facility uses a process known as the wet solvent extraction-fluorination process. Because of the different processes used in the two plants, waste characteristics, quantities, and treatment practices differ at each facility. Wastes and effluent streams contain impurities found in the concentrate (such as uranium daughters, vanadium, molybdenum, selenium, arsenic, and ammonia) and process chemicals used in the circuit (including fluorine, nitrogen, and hydrogen), as well as small quantities of uranium. Studies of suitable disposal options for the solid wastes and sludges generated at the facilities and the long-term effects of emissions to the ambient environment are needed. 30 figures, 34 tables

  19. Determination of the isotopic ratio 235U/238U in UF6 using quadrupole mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusahara, Helena Sueco

    1979-01-01

    In this work measurements of isotope ratios 235 U / 23 '8U in uranium hexafluoride are carried out using a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The operational parameters, which affect the final precision of the results, are standardized. Optimized procedures for the preparation of uranium hexafluoride samples by fluorination of uranium oxides using cobalt trifluoride method are established. Careful attention is given to the process of purification of uranium hexafluoride samples by fractional distillation. Adequate statistical methods for analysing the results obtained for single ratio measurements as well as the ratio ' of isotopic ratios of sample and standard ar.e developed. A precision of about 10 -4 for single ratio measurements and accuracy of about 0,3% for the ratio of sample and standard ratios are obtained. These results agree with the values which have been obtained using magnetic mass spectrometers. The procedures and methods established in this work can be employed in the systematic uranium isotope analysis in UF 6 form. (author)

  20. Portable load-cell based system for weighing UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Gordon, D.; Dermendjiev, E.; Terrey, D.; Mitchell, R.

    1982-01-01

    A load-cell-based portable weighing system which is capable of verifying the weights of 2.2 tonne 30-inch UF 6 cylinders has been developed by the US National Bureau of Standards (NBS). This system weighs about 13 kg and has an attainable accuracy of about 1 kg. After an initial calibration at NBS, the system is ready for use in the field. Approximately 5 to 10 minutes are needed for assembly, and, if an overhead crane has access to all cylinders to be weighed, from 10 to 15 weighings may be performed in one hour. During the past year the system has been tested at several facilities around the world with satisfactory results and with favorable comments from the facility operators. Results of several tests are presented in this paper

  1. Magnesio-thermic reduction of UF4 to uranium metal : plant operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayekar, S.V.; Singh, H.; Meghal, A.M.; Koppiker, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    Uranium Metal Plant has switched over from calcio-thermy to magnesio-thermy for production of uranium ingots. In this paper, the plant operating experience for magnesio-thermic reduction is described. Based on trials, the production has been stepped up from 40 kg ingots to 200 kg ingots. The operating parameters optimised include : heating schedule, UF 4 quality, magnesium quantity and quality, and particle size. The effect of quality of refractory lining has been discussed. Conditions for lining are optimised with regard to type of material used and size. Developmental work has also been carried out on use of pelletised charge and on use of graphite sleeves. Some experience in the machining of ingots for removal of surface slag is also discussed. Impurity problems, occasionally encountered, have been investigated and results are discussed. Based on the experience gained, specifications for operation have been laid down, and areas for further improvement are identified. (author). 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Fission product range effects on HEU fissile gas monitoring for UF6 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, J.K. Jr.; Valentine, T.E.; Perez, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    The amount of 235 U in UF 6 flowing in a pipe can be monitored by counting gamma rays emitted from fission fragments carried along by the flowing gas. Neutron sources are mounted in an annular sleeve that is filled with moderator material and surrounds the pipe. This provides a source of thermal neutrons to produce the fission fragments. Those fragments that remain in the gas stream following fission are carried past a gamma detector. A typical fragment will be quite unstable, giving up energy as it decays to a more stable isotope with a significant amount of this energy being emitted in the form of gamma rays. A given fragment can emit several gamma rays over its lifetime. The gamma ray emission activity level of a distribution of fission fragments decreases with time. The monitoring system software uses models of these processes to interpret the gamma radiation counting data measured by the gamma detectors

  3. UF6 test loop for evaluation and implementation of international enrichment plant safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Fields, L.W.; Swindle, D.W. Jr.

    1987-06-01

    A functional test loop capable of simulating UF 6 flows, pressures, and pipe deposits characteristic of gas centrifuge enrichment plant piping has been designed and fabricated by the Enrichment Safeguards Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for use by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Purpose of the test loop is twofold: (1) to enable the IAEA to evaluate and to calibrate enrichment safeguards measurement instrumentation to be used in limited frequency-unannounced access (LFUA) inspection strategy measurements at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and (2) to train IAEA inspectors in the use of such instrumentation. The test loop incorporates actual sections of cascade header pipes from the centrifuge enrichment plants subject to IAEA inspections. The test loop is described, applications for its use by the IAEA are detailed, and results from an initial demonstration session using the test loop are summarized

  4. Cracked lifting lug welds on ten-ton UF{sub 6} cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorning, R.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Ten-ton, Type 48X, UF{sub 6} cylinders are used at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant to withdraw enriched uranium hexafluoride from the cascade, transfer enriched uranium hexafluoride to customer cylinders, and feed enriched product to the cascade. To accomplish these activities, the cylinders are lifted by cranes and straddle carriers which engage the cylinder lifting lugs. In August of 1988, weld cracks on two lifting lugs were discovered during preparation to lift a cylinder. The cylinder was rejected and tagged out, and an investigating committee formed to determine the cause of cracking and recommend remedial actions. Further investigation revealed the problem may be general to this class of cylinder in this use cycle. This paper discusses the actions taken at the Portsmouth site to deal with the cracked lifting lug weld problem. The actions include inspection activities, interim corrective actions, metallurgical evaluation of cracked welds, weld repairs, and current monitoring/inspection program.

  5. Thermodynamic assessment of the LiF-NaF-ThF4-UF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, O.; Beilmann, M.; Konings, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    A thermodynamic assessment of the LiF-NaF-ThF 4 -UF 4 system is presented in this study. The binary phase diagrams are optimized based on the known experimental data and the excess Gibbs energies of liquid and solid solutions are described using a modified quasi chemical model and polynomial formalism respectively. The higher order systems are extrapolated according to asymmetric Toop mathematical formalism. Based on the developed thermodynamic database the fuel composition of the molten salt fast reactor is optimized. In total three different fuel compositions are identified. Properties of these fuel compositions such as melting point, vapour pressure and the boiling temperature are derived from the obtained thermodynamic assessment and are presented in this study.

  6. High frequency titration in non-aqueous solvents. Application to HF and UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neveu, Claude

    1965-01-01

    In this research thesis, the author first presents the main theoretical notions regarding high frequency titration, notably by studying characteristic curves, i.e. the titration meter indication with respect to conductibility. He reports the use of this method for the study of various reactions in non-aqueous medium: reaction of AlCl 3 with pyridine in acetonitrile, of AlCl 3 with HCl in tetrachloroethane and in nitromethane. He also reports the attempt of application of this method to the titration of HF in presence of UF 6 in CCl 4 as solvent, or by using F acceptors like BF 3 , PF 5 or ClF 3 as reactants [fr

  7. Development of on-line uranium enrichment monitor of gaseous UF6 for uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xuesheng; Liu Guorong; Jin Huimin; Zhao Yonggang; Li Jinghuai; Hao Xueyuan; Ying Bin; Yu Zhaofei

    2013-01-01

    An on-line enrichment monitor was developed to measure the enrichment of UF 6 , flowing through the processing pipes in uranium enrichment plant. A Nal (Tl) detector was used to measure the count rates of the 185.7 keV γ-ray emitted from 235 U, and the total quantity of uranium was determined from thermodynamic characteristics of gaseous uranium hexafluoride. The results show that the maximum relative standard deviation is less than 1% when the measurement time is 120 s or more and the pressure is more than 2 kPa in the measurement chamber. Uranium enrichment of gaseous uranium hexafluoride in the output end of cascade can be monitored continuously by using the device. It should be effective for nuclear materials accountability verifications and materials balance verification at uranium enrichment plant. (authors)

  8. Undergraduate Admissions | NSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Continuing Education Financial Aid Career Development Regional Campuses International Affairs Veterans Admissions Honors College Experiential Education Study Abroad Research Opportunities Career Preparation SharkLink California Disclosure International Affairs Undergraduate Advising Career Development Libraries at

  9. TRANSFORMING NIGERIA UNDERGRADUATE TRAINING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communication skills for the development of information competencies amongst Nigerian undergraduates .... Determine the information requirement forthe research question. ... primary school postgraduate work, its methodology has been extensively ... skills through workbooks, computer tutorials classroom instructions, etc.

  10. Electronic, magnetic, transport, and thermal properties of single-crystalline UF e2A l10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troć, R.; Samsel-Czekała, M.; Talik, E.; Wawryk, R.; Gajek, Z.; Pasturel, M.

    2015-09-01

    The valence and core-level x-ray photoemission spectra (XPS), performed on an UF e2A l10 single crystal, were measured using the Al Kα radiation. The results of valence XPS show practically two separate regions of spectral intensity, one just at the Fermi level (EF) and the other one being a wide content with its maximum at about 0.8 eV below EF. These give rise to two electronic configurations of the 5 f states in the studied aluminide, itinerant and localized ones, i.e., their dual character. In such a situation the corresponding valence spectra, calculated within the local density approximation (LDA), well explain the former configuration, being responsible for a metallic behavior of the studied compound. Moreover, this behavior is confirmed clearly also by our results of magnetotransport measurements. On the other hand, the obtained magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermoelectric power data support very well the local character of the 5 f2 -electron configuration of the U4 + ion in UF e2A l10 having the orthorhombic and cage-type crystal structure. Based on that configuration, the magnetic and thermal characteristics of the compound were modeled by the effective crystal field (CF) potential in the intermediate coupling scheme using initial parameters obtained by the angular overlap model (AOM). The obtained final CF parameters yielded the CF level scheme, composed of only singlets, proper for orthorhombic symmetry. Such a set of singlets reproduces in a satisfactory way both the strongly anisotropic temperature variations of the magnetic susceptibility, measured along the three main crystallographic directions, as well as the Schottky anomaly, evaluated using specific heat results of isomorphic ThF e2A l10 as a phonon reference. Also, the strongly anisotropic behavior of the Seebeck coefficient and its low temperature maxima observed for the compound studied here have been explained roughly by the CF effect.

  11. 235U enrichment determination on UF6 cylinders with CZT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Reinhard; Mortreau, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    Measurements of uranium enrichment in UF6 transit cylinders are an important nuclear safeguards verification task, which is performed using a non-destructive assay method, the traditional enrichment meter, which involves measuring the count rate of the 186 keV gamma ray. This provides a direct measure of the 235U enrichment. Measurements are typically performed using either high-resolution detectors (Germanium) with e-cooling and battery operation, or portable devices equipped with low resolution detectors (NaI). Despite good results being achieved when measuring Low Enriched Uranium in 30B type cylinders and natural uranium in 48Y type containers using both detector systems, there are situations, which preclude the use of one or both of these systems. The focus of this work is to address some of the recognized limitations in relation to the current use of the above detector systems by considering the feasibility of an inspection instrument for 235U enrichment measurements on UF6 cylinders using the compact and light Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. In the present work, test measurements were carried out, under field conditions and on full-size objects, with different CZT detectors, in particular for situations where existing systems cannot be used e.g. for stacks of 48Y type containers with depleted uranium. The main result of this study shows that the CZT detectors, actually a cluster of four μCZT1500 micro spectrometers provide as good results as the germanium detector in the ORTEC Micro-trans SPEC HPGe Portable spectrometer, and most importantly in particular for natural and depleted uranium in 48Y cylinders.

  12. Spectroscopic properties of K{sub 5}Li{sub 2}UF{sub 10}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbowiak, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of WrocIaw, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 WrocIaw (Poland)]. E-mail: karb@wchuwr.chem.uni.wroc.pl; Gajek, Z. [W. Trzebiatowski Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 WrocIaw (Poland); Drozdzynski, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of WrocIaw, ul. F. Joliot-Curie 14, 50-383 WrocIaw (Poland)

    2005-04-04

    A new uranium (III) fluoro-complex of the formula K{sub 5}Li{sub 2}UF{sub 10} has been synthesised and characterised by X-ray powder diffraction and electronic absorption spectra measurements. The compound crystallises in the orthorhombic system, space group Pnma, with a = 20.723, b = 7.809, c = 6.932 A, V = 1121.89 A{sup 3}, Z = 4 and is isostructural with its K{sub 5}Li{sub 2}NdF{sub 10} and K{sub 5}Li{sub 2}LaF{sub 10} analogous. The absorption spectrum of a polycrystalline sample of K{sub 5}Li{sub 2}UF{sub 10} was recorded at 4.2 K in the 3500-45,000 cm{sup -1} range and is discussed. The observed crystal-field levels were assigned and fitted to parameters of the simplified angular overlap model (AOM) and next to those of a semi-empirical Hamiltonian, which was representing the combined atomic and one-electron crystal-field interactions. The starting values of the AOM parameters were obtained from ab initio calculations. The analysis of the spectra enabled the assignment of 71 crystal-field levels of U{sup 3+} with a relatively small r.m.s. deviation of 37 cm{sup -1}. The total splitting of 714 cm{sup -1} was calculated for the {sup 4}I{sub 9/2} ground multiplet.

  13. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Overview and Policy Context of UF6 Cylinder Tracking Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, J. Michael [ORNL; White-Horton, Jessica L. [ORNL; Durbin, Karyn R. [NNSA

    2012-07-12

    Thousands of cylinders containing uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) move around the world from conversion plants to enrichment plants to fuel fabrication plants, and their contents could be very useful to a country intent on diverting uranium for clandestine use. Each of these large cylinders can contain close to a significant quantity of natural uranium (48Y cylinder) or low-enriched uranium (LEU) (30B cylinder) defined as 75 kg {sup 235}U which can be further clandestinely enriched to produce 1.5 to 2 significant quantities of high enriched uranium (HEU) within weeks or months depending on the scale of the clandestine facility. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) kicked off a 5-year plan in April 2011 to investigate the concept of a unique identification system for UF{sub 6} cylinders and potentially to develop a cylinder tracking system that could be used by facility operators and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The goal is to design an integrated solution beneficial to both industry and inspectorates that would improve cylinder operations at the facilities and provide enhanced capabilities to deter and detect both diversion of low-enriched uranium and undeclared enriched uranium production. The 5-year plan consists of six separate incremental tasks: (1) define the problem and establish the requirements for a unique identification (UID) and monitoring system; (2) develop a concept of operations for the identification and monitoring system; (3) determine cylinder monitoring devices and technology; (4) develop a registry database to support proof-of-concept demonstration; (5) integrate that system for the demonstration; and (6) demonstrate proof-of-concept. Throughout NNSA's performance of the tasks outlined in this program, the multi-laboratory team emphasizes that extensive engagement with industry stakeholders, regulatory authorities and inspectorates is essential to its success.

  14. Tight ceramic UF membrane as RO pre-treatment: the role of electrostatic interactions on phosphate rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ran; Verliefde, Arne R D; Hu, Jingyi; Zeng, Zheyi; Lu, Jie; Kemperman, Antoine J B; Deng, Huiping; Nijmeijer, Kitty; Heijman, Sebastiaan G J; Rietveld, Luuk C

    2014-01-01

    Phosphate limitation has been reported as an effective approach to inhibit biofouling in reverse osmosis (RO) systems for water purification. The rejection of dissolved phosphate by negatively charged TiO2 tight ultrafiltration (UF) membranes (1 kDa and 3 kDa) was observed. These membranes can potentially be adopted as an effective process for RO pre-treatment in order to constrain biofouling by phosphate limitation. This paper focuses on electrostatic interactions during tight UF filtration. Despite the larger pore size, the 3 kDa ceramic membrane exhibited greater phosphate rejection than the 1 kDa membrane, because the 3 kDa membrane has a greater negative surface charge and thus greater electrostatic repulsion against phosphate. The increase of pH from 6 to 8.5 led to a substantial increase in phosphate rejection by both membranes due to increased electrostatic repulsion. At pH 8.5, the maximum phosphate rejections achieved by the 1 kDa and 3 kDa membrane were 75% and 86%, respectively. A Debye ratio (ratio of the Debye length to the pore radius) is introduced in order to evaluate double layer overlapping in tight UF membranes. Threshold Debye ratios were determined as 2 and 1 for the 1 kDa and 3 kDa membranes, respectively. A Debye ratio below the threshold Debye ratio leads to dramatically decreased phosphate rejection by tight UF membranes. The phosphate rejection by the tight UF, in combination with chemical phosphate removal by coagulation, might accomplish phosphate-limited conditions for biological growth and thus prevent biofouling in the RO systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physics momentum 'stars' draw majors

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindström, I

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).

  16. Journal of Undergraduate Research, Volume IX, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiner, K. S.; Graham, S.; Khan, M.; Dilks, J.; Mayer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Each year more than 600 undergraduate students are awarded paid internships at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Laboratories. Th ese interns are paired with research scientists who serve as mentors in authentic research projects. All participants write a research abstract and present at a poster session and/or complete a fulllength research paper. Abstracts and selected papers from our 2007–2008 interns that represent the breadth and depth of undergraduate research performed each year at our National Laboratories are published here in the Journal of Undergraduate Research. The fields in which these students worked included: Biology; Chemistry; Computer Science; Engineering; Environmental Science; General Science; Materials Science; Medical and Health Sciences; Nuclear Science; Physics; Science Policy; and Waste Management.

  17. Satisfação corporal em acadêmicos de Educação Física: proposta de um questionário Body satisfaction in Physical Education undergraduate students: questionnaire proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Cardoso

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A satisfação corporal pode ser dimensionada em: imagem corporal, satisfação com o peso e catexia corporal. Avaliou-se a satisfação corporal de 302 acadêmicos de Educação Física e sugeriu-se um questionário. Os estudantes se consideraram de médio a muito satisfeitos com seus corpos. Os homens apresentaram maiores médias para: "quanto acha seu corpo proporcional" e "quanto está satisfeito com seu corpo". Já as mulheres para: "quanto olha seu corpo no espelho", "quanto toca o corpo de forma geral", "quanto percebe que os outros acham sexy" e "quanto gostaria de ser mais magra". A análise fatorial confirmou o modelo e obteve-se α=,757.Body satisfaction can be divided into: body image, satisfaction with weight and body cathexis. Body satisfaction of 302 Physical Education undergraduate students was evaluated and a questionnaire was proposed. Students self-evaluated as medium to very satisfied with their bodies. Men had higher means (p<.05 regards "to feel their body proportionate" and "being satisfied with their bodies". And women "look more their bodies at the mirror", "touch more the bodies in general", "find themselves more sexy" and "would like to be thinner". The factor analysis confirmed the model and got a α =. 757.

  18. Probing the electronic structures of low oxidation-state uranium fluoride molecules UF{sub x}{sup −} (x = 2−4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei-Li; Jian, Tian; Lopez, Gary V.; Wang, Lai-Sheng, E-mail: lai-sheng-wang@brown.edu [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun, E-mail: junli@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Su, Jing [Department of Chemistry and Key Laboratory of Organic Optoelectronics and Molecular Engineering of Ministry of Education, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-28

    We report the experimental observation of gaseous UF{sub x}{sup −} (x = 2−4) anions, which are investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy and relativistic quantum chemistry. Vibrationally resolved photoelectron spectra are obtained for all three species and the electron affinities of UF{sub x} (x = 2−4) are measured to be 1.16(3), 1.09(3), and 1.58(3) eV, respectively. Significant multi-electron transitions are observed in the photoelectron spectra of U(5f{sup 3}7s{sup 2})F{sub 2}{sup −}, as a result of strong electron correlation effects of the two 7s electrons. The U−F symmetric stretching vibrational modes are resolved for the ground states of all UF{sub x} (x = 2−4) neutrals. Theoretical calculations are performed to qualitatively understand the photoelectron spectra. The entire UF{sub x}{sup −} and UF{sub x} (x = 1−6) series are considered theoretically to examine the trends of U−F bonding and the electron affinities as a function of fluorine coordination. The increased U−F bond lengths and decreased bond orders from UF{sub 2}{sup −} to UF{sub 4}{sup −} indicate that the U−F bonding becomes weaker as the oxidation state of U increases from I to III.

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    A remarkable amount of progress has been made in Physics since the last CMS Week in June given the exponential growth in the delivered LHC luminosity. The first major milestone was the delivery of a variety of results to the ICHEP international conference held in Paris this July. For this conference, CMS prepared 15 Physics Analysis Summaries on physics objects and 22 Summaries on new and interesting physics measurements that exploited the luminosity recorded by the CMS detector. The challenge was incorporating the largest batch of luminosity that was delivered only days before the conference (300 nb-1 total). The physics covered from this initial running period spanned hadron production measurements, jet production and properties, electroweak vector boson production, and even glimpses of the top quark. Since then, the accumulated integrated luminosity has increased by a factor of more than 100, and all groups have been working tremendously hard on analysing this dataset. The September Physics Week was held ...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    There have been numerous developments in the physics area since the September CMS week. The biggest single event was the Physics/Trigger week in the end of Octo¬ber, whereas in terms of ongoing activities the “2007 analyses” went into high gear. This was in parallel with participation in CSA07 by the physics groups. On the or¬ganizational side, the new conveners of the physics groups have been selected, and a new database for man¬aging physics analyses has been deployed. Physics/Trigger week The second Physics-Trigger week of 2007 took place during the week of October 22-26. The first half of the week was dedicated to working group meetings. The ple¬nary Joint Physics-Trigger meeting took place on Wednesday afternoon and focused on the activities of the new Trigger Studies Group (TSG) and trigger monitoring. Both the Physics and Trigger organizations are now focused on readiness for early data-taking. Thus, early trigger tables and preparations for calibr...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    The CPT project came to an end in December 2006 and its original scope is now shared among three new areas, namely Computing, Offline and Physics. In the physics area the basic change with respect to the previous system (where the PRS groups were charged with detector and physics object reconstruction and physics analysis) was the split of the detector PRS groups (the old ECAL-egamma, HCAL-jetMET, Tracker-btau and Muons) into two groups each: a Detector Performance Group (DPG) and a Physics Object Group. The DPGs are now led by the Commissioning and Run Coordinator deputy (Darin Acosta) and will appear in the correspond¬ing column in CMS bulletins. On the physics side, the physics object groups are charged with the reconstruction of physics objects, the tuning of the simulation (in collaboration with the DPGs) to reproduce the data, the provision of code for the High-Level Trigger, the optimization of the algorithms involved for the different physics analyses (in collaboration with the analysis gr...

  2. Laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to UF6 by fluidized-bed processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Urza, I.J.; Cathers, G.I.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) to UF 6 and on purification of the UF 6 . Experimental laboratory studies on the removal of residual nitrate from uranium trioxide (UO 3 ) calcine and the fluorination of technetium and subsequent sorption on MgF 2 were conducted to support the pilot-plant work. Two engineering-scale pilot plants utilizing fluidized-bed processes were constructed for equipment and process testing of the calcination of UNH to UO 3 and the direct fluorination of UO 3 to UF 6

  3. Laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate to UF/sub 6/ by fluidized-bed processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, E.L.; Urza, I.J.; Cathers, G.I.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes laboratory and pilot-plant studies on the conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) to UF/sub 6/ and on purification of the UF/sub 6/. Experimental laboratory studies on the removal of residual nitrate from uranium trioxide (UO/sub 3/) calcine and the fluorination of technetium and subsequent sorption on MgF/sub 2/ were conducted to support the pilot-plant work. Two engineering-scale pilot plants utilizing fluidized-bed processes were constructed for equipment and process testing of the calcination of UNH to UO/sub 3/ and the direct fluorination of UO/sub 3/ to UF/sub 6/.

  4. Adsorção e propriedades de volume de misturas binárias água álcool: um experimento didático com base em medidas de tensão superficial An undergraduate experiment in physical chemistry: adsorption and bulk properties of alcohol-water mixtures based on surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelly C. dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An undergraduate physical chemistry experiment based on the drop counting method for surface tension measurements is proposed to demonstrate adsorption isotherms of binary aqueous solutions of ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol. Excess surface is obtained by the derivative of surface tension taken with respect to alcohol activity, after this activity calculation using van Laar equation. Laboratory class contents are surface tension, excess surface, percolation of hydrogen bonds, micelle, activity, and ideal solution.

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Submitted by

    Physics Week: plenary meeting on physics groups plans for startup (14–15 May 2008) The Physics Objects (POG) and Physics Analysis (PAG) Groups presented their latest developments at the plenary meeting during the Physics Week. In the presentations particular attention was given to startup plans and readiness for data-taking. Many results based on the recent cosmic run were shown. A special Workshop on SUSY, described in a separate section, took place the day before the plenary. At the meeting, we had also two special DPG presentations on “Tracker and Muon alignment with CRAFT” (Ernesto Migliore) and “Calorimeter studies with CRAFT” (Chiara Rovelli). We had also a report from Offline (Andrea Rizzi) and Computing (Markus Klute) on the San Diego Workshop, described elsewhere in this bulletin. Tracking group (Boris Mangano). The level of sophistication of the tracking software increased significantly over the last few months: V0 (K0 and Λ) reconstr...

  6. Quantum mechanical wavefunction: visualization at undergraduate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chhabra, Mahima; Das, Ritwick

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics (QM) forms the most crucial ingredient of modern-era physical science curricula at undergraduate level. The abstract ideas involved in QM related concepts pose a challenge towards appropriate visualization as a consequence of their counter-intuitive nature and lack of experiment-assisted visualization tools. At the heart of the quantum mechanical formulation lies the concept of ‘wavefunction’, which forms the basis for understanding the behavior of physical systems. At undergraduate level, the concept of ‘wavefunction’ is introduced in an abstract framework using mathematical tools and therefore opens up an enormous scope for alternative conceptions and erroneous visualization. The present work is an attempt towards exploring the visualization models constructed by undergraduate students for appreciating the concept of ‘wavefunction’. We present a qualitative analysis of the data obtained from administering a questionnaire containing four visualization based questions on the topic of ‘wavefunction’ to a group of ten undergraduate-level students at an institute in India which excels in teaching and research of basic sciences. Based on the written responses, all ten students were interviewed in detail to unravel the exact areas of difficulty in visualization of ‘wavefunction’. The outcome of present study not only reveals the gray areas in students’ conceptualization, but also provides a plausible route to address the issues at the pedagogical level within the classroom. (paper)

  7. Quantum mechanical wavefunction: visualization at undergraduate level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Mahima; Das, Ritwick

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanics (QM) forms the most crucial ingredient of modern-era physical science curricula at undergraduate level. The abstract ideas involved in QM related concepts pose a challenge towards appropriate visualization as a consequence of their counter-intuitive nature and lack of experiment-assisted visualization tools. At the heart of the quantum mechanical formulation lies the concept of ‘wavefunction’, which forms the basis for understanding the behavior of physical systems. At undergraduate level, the concept of ‘wavefunction’ is introduced in an abstract framework using mathematical tools and therefore opens up an enormous scope for alternative conceptions and erroneous visualization. The present work is an attempt towards exploring the visualization models constructed by undergraduate students for appreciating the concept of ‘wavefunction’. We present a qualitative analysis of the data obtained from administering a questionnaire containing four visualization based questions on the topic of ‘wavefunction’ to a group of ten undergraduate-level students at an institute in India which excels in teaching and research of basic sciences. Based on the written responses, all ten students were interviewed in detail to unravel the exact areas of difficulty in visualization of ‘wavefunction’. The outcome of present study not only reveals the gray areas in students’ conceptualization, but also provides a plausible route to address the issues at the pedagogical level within the classroom.

  8. Beliefs and Attitudes about Science and Mathematics in Pre-Service Elementary Teachers, STEM, and Non-STEM Majors in Undergraduate Physics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaluk, Lynnette; Stoiko, Rachel; Stewart, Gay; Stewart, John

    2018-04-01

    Elementary teachers often hold inaccurate beliefs about the Nature of Science (NoS) and have negative attitudes toward science and mathematics. Using a pre-post design, the current study examined beliefs about the NoS, attitudes toward science and mathematics, and beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science in a large sample study ( N = 343) of pre-service teachers receiving a curriculum-wide intervention to improve these factors in comparison with Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) and non-STEM majors in other physics courses ( N = 6697) who did not receive the intervention, over a 10-year period. Pre-service teachers evidenced initially more negative attitudes about mathematics and science than STEM majors and slightly more positive attitudes than non-STEM majors. Their attitudes toward mathematics and science and beliefs about the NoS were more similar to non-STEM than STEM majors. Pre-service teachers initially evidenced more positive beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science, and their beliefs even increased slightly over the course of the semester, while these beliefs in other groups remained the same. Beliefs about the NoS and the teaching of mathematics and science were significantly negatively correlated for STEM and non-STEM majors, but were not significantly correlated for pre-service teachers. Beliefs about the NoS and attitudes toward mathematics and science were significantly positively correlated for both pre-service teachers and STEM students pursing the most mathematically demanding STEM majors. Attitudes toward science and mathematics were significantly positively correlated with accurate beliefs about the teaching of mathematics and science for all student groups.

  9. Quantum optics and nano-optics teaching laboratory for the undergraduate curriculum: teaching quantum mechanics and nano-physics with photon counting instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukishova, Svetlana G.

    2017-08-01

    Laboratory Physics Association.

  10. From the Lab to the real world : sources of error in UF6 gas enrichment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Marcie L.

    2012-01-01

    Safeguarding uranium enrichment facilities is a serious concern for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Safeguards methods have changed over the years, most recently switching to an improved safeguards model that calls for new technologies to help keep up with the increasing size and complexity of today's gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). One of the primary goals of the IAEA is to detect the production of uranium at levels greater than those an enrichment facility may have declared. In order to accomplish this goal, new enrichment monitors need to be as accurate as possible. This dissertation will look at the Advanced Enrichment Monitor (AEM), a new enrichment monitor designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Specifically explored are various factors that could potentially contribute to errors in a final enrichment determination delivered by the AEM. There are many factors that can cause errors in the determination of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) gas enrichment, especially during the period when the enrichment is being measured in an operating GCEP. To measure enrichment using the AEM, a passive 186-keV (kiloelectronvolt) measurement is used to determine the 235 U content in the gas, and a transmission measurement or a gas pressure reading is used to determine the total uranium content. A transmission spectrum is generated using an x-ray tube and a 'notch' filter. In this dissertation, changes that could occur in the detection efficiency and the transmission errors that could result from variations in pipe-wall thickness will be explored. Additional factors that could contribute to errors in enrichment measurement will also be examined, including changes in the gas pressure, ambient and UF 6 temperature, instrumental errors, and the effects of uranium deposits on the inside of the pipe walls will be considered. The sensitivity of the enrichment calculation to these various parameters will then be evaluated. Previously, UF 6 gas enrichment

  11. Undergraduate experiments on statistical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Ruediger; Friege, Gunnar; Weber, Kim-Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Since the pioneering experiments of Forrester et al (1955 Phys. Rev. 99 1691) and Hanbury Brown and Twiss (1956 Nature 177 27; Nature 178 1046), along with the introduction of the laser in the 1960s, the systematic analysis of random fluctuations of optical fields has developed to become an indispensible part of physical optics for gaining insight into features of the fields. In 1985 Joseph W Goodman prefaced his textbook on statistical optics with a strong commitment to the ‘tools of probability and statistics’ (Goodman 2000 Statistical Optics (New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.)) in the education of advanced optics. Since then a wide range of novel undergraduate optical counting experiments and corresponding pedagogical approaches have been introduced to underpin the rapid growth of the interest in coherence and photon statistics. We propose low cost experimental steps that are a fair way off ‘real’ quantum optics, but that give deep insight into random optical fluctuation phenomena: (1) the introduction of statistical methods into undergraduate university optical lab work, and (2) the connection between the photoelectrical signal and the characteristics of the light source. We describe three experiments and theoretical approaches which may be used to pave the way for a well balanced growth of knowledge, providing students with an opportunity to enhance their abilities to adapt the ‘tools of probability and statistics’. (paper)

  12. The UF family of reference hybrid phantoms for computational radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Hurtado, Jorge; Pafundi, Deanna; Williams, Jonathan L; Bolch, Wesley E

    2010-01-01

    Computational human phantoms are computer models used to obtain dose distributions within the human body exposed to internal or external radiation sources. In addition, they are increasingly used to develop detector efficiencies for in vivo whole-body counters. Two classes of computational human phantoms have been widely utilized for dosimetry calculation: stylized and voxel phantoms that describe human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and 3D voxel matrices, respectively. Stylized phantoms are flexible in that changes to organ position and shape are possible given avoidance of region overlap, while voxel phantoms are typically fixed to a given patient anatomy, yet can be proportionally scaled to match individuals of larger or smaller stature, but of equivalent organ anatomy. Voxel phantoms provide much better anatomical realism as compared to stylized phantoms which are intrinsically limited by mathematical surface equations. To address the drawbacks of these phantoms, hybrid phantoms based on non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surfaces have been introduced wherein anthropomorphic flexibility and anatomic realism are both preserved. Researchers at the University of Florida have introduced a series of hybrid phantoms representing the ICRP Publication 89 reference newborn, 15 year, and adult male and female. In this study, six additional phantoms are added to the UF family of hybrid phantoms-those of the reference 1 year, 5 year and 10 year child. Head and torso CT images of patients whose ages were close to the targeted ages were obtained under approved protocols. Major organs and tissues were segmented from these images using an image processing software, 3D-DOCTOR(TM). NURBS and polygon mesh surfaces were then used to model individual organs and tissues after importing the segmented organ models to the 3D NURBS modeling software, Rhinoceros(TM). The phantoms were matched to four reference datasets: (1) standard anthropometric data, (2) reference

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.  Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish how ready we are to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the week was thus pac...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Futyan

    A lot has transpired on the “Physics” front since the last CMS Bulletin. The summer was filled with preparations of new Monte Carlo samples based on CMSSW_3, the finalization of all the 10 TeV physics analyses [in total 50 analyses were approved] and the preparations for the Physics Week in Bologna. A couple weeks later, the “October Exercise” commenced and ran through an intense two-week period. The Physics Days in October were packed with a number of topics that are relevant to data taking, in a number of “mini-workshops”: the luminosity measurement, the determination of the beam spot and the measurement of the missing transverse energy (MET) were the three main topics.   Physics Week in Bologna The second physics week in 2009 took place in Bologna, Italy, on the week of Sep 7-11. The aim of the week was to review and establish (we hoped) the readiness of CMS to do physics with the early collisions at the LHC. The agenda of the...

  15. Level 4 Milestone (M4): M41UF033201 - Review of Radiolysis of Brines on the Surface of a Waste Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutton, Mark [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-08-12

    This milestone report (M41UF033201) documents a literature review of relevant publications for gamma radiolysis occurring within a droplet of water on the outside of a waste package in a repository environment within the “

  16. Biodegradation behavior of natural organic matter (NOM) in a biological aerated filter (BAF) as a pretreatment for ultrafiltration (UF) of river water

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Guocheng; Meng, Fangang; Zheng, Xing; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Huijun; Jekel, Martin R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, biodegradation of natural organic matter (NOM) in a biological aerated filter (BAF) as pretreatment of UF treating river water was investigated. Photometric measurement, three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence

  17. Rupture of Model 48Y UF6 cylinder and release of uranium hexafluoride, Sequoyah Fuels Facility, Gore, Oklahoma, January 4, 1986. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    At 11:30 a.m. on January 4, 1986, a Model 48Y UF 6 cylinder filled with uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) ruptured while it was being heated in a steam chest at the Sequoyah Fuels Conversion Facility near Gore, Oklahoma. One worker died because he inhaled hydrogen fluoride fumes, a reaction product of UF 6 and airborne moisture. Several other workers were injured by the fumes, but none seriously. Much of the facility complex and some offsite areas to the south were contaminated with hydrogen fluoride and a second reaction product, uranyl fluoride. The interval of release was approximately 40 minutes. The cylinder, which had been overfilled, ruptured while it was being heated because of the expansion of UF 6 as it changed from the solid to the liquid phase. The maximum safe capacity for the cylinder is 27,560 pounds of product. Evidence indicates that it was filled with an amount exceeding this limit. 18 figs

  18. Undergraduate Program: Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsock, Lori

    2008-08-01

    Undergraduate chemical science students—join us in Philadelphia on August 17 and 18, 2008, for an educational and career-oriented program designed specifically for you. Attend symposia about global climate change and clean energy; hear Nobel Laureate F. Sherwood Rowland speak about his fascinating career, "A Life in Tracer Chemistry". Weigh options for your future by attending the Graduate School Reality Check and graduate school recruiting events. All events will take place in the Sheraton Philadelphia City Center at 17th and Race Streets, except the Undergraduate Poster Sessions and Sci-Mix, which will be held in the Pennsylvania Convention Center.

  19. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2005-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, and maximal tori.

  20. Analysis of enriched HF-UF6 systems. Influence by impurity and density upon the value of the multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta, N.B.; Canavese, S.I.; Lopez, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is analyzing the influence of impurity in hydrogen fluoride and in density variation (UF 6 -HF) upon the value of the effective multiplication factor (Kef) in enriched uranium hexafluoride and hydrogen fluoride systems. The identification of the values of such multiplication factors were performed by means of the Monte-Carlo (MONK V.II) code, which is specific for criticality problems. Diverse systems were considered by keeping the same geometry and varying the density value and the impurity percentages, while the assumptions made for each model were described on a case-by-case basis. Also, systems with and without water infinite reflector were evaluated. Finally, an analysis is made of the influence of each parameter upon the effective multiplication factor, in the postulated enriched UF 6 -HF systems. (Author) [es

  1. Influence of UF4 physico-chemical properties on the assessment of the chronic exposure to this compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansoborlo, E.; Chalabreysse, J.

    1990-01-01

    A method was developed in order to assess uranium exposure hazards at work stations based on the industrial experience acquired by Comurhex Malvesi at Narbonne. Applied to uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) the method involves 4 steps: 1. characterization of the industrial compound, including its physico-chemical properties (density, surface area, X-ray spectrum and uranium enrichment); 2. assessment of work station concentrations and particle size distribution (AMAD); 3. In vitro biological solubility with different synthetic fluids such as Gamble solutions with different gases or compounds added (oxygen or superoxide ions O 2 - ) in order to determine the solubility class D, W or Y; 4. workers' monitoring by routine measurements of urinary excretion completed, if necessary, by fecal excretion and γ-spectrometry. Results and present data on UF 4 are presented. 3 tabs., 4 figs [fr

  2. Removal of uranium and thorium from aqueous solution by ultrafiltration (UF) and PAMAM dendrimer assisted ultrafiltration (DAUF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaiyaraja, P.; Ashish Kumar Singha Deb; Ponraju, D.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on removal of U(VI) and Th(IV) from aqueous solution have been carried out by ultrafiltration (UF) and dendrimer assisted ultrafiltration (DAUF) using regenerated cellulose acetate membrane and PAMAM [poly(amido)amine] dendrimer chelating agent. In UF, the U(VI) and Th(IV) are removed from aqueous solution by adsorption/mass deposition on the membrane at pH > 4. In DAUF, the water soluble PAMAM dendrimer chelating agent effectively concentrates these metal ions in retentate thereby preventing the mass deposition on membrane. At acidic pH (≤3), the binding of metal ions with PAMAM dendrimer is very weak and hence PAMAM can be regenerated and reused. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10967-014-3462-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (author)

  3. Theoretical physics 8 statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to statistical physics, one of the core components of advanced undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, using methods of probability theory and statistics to solve physical problems. The first part of the book gives a detailed overview on classical statistical physics and introduces all mathematical tools needed. The second part of the book covers topics related to quantized states, gives a thorough introduction to quantum statistics, followed by a concise treatment of quantum gases. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in quantum mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successf...

  4. Validation of Cristallini Sampling Method for UF6 by High Precision Double-Spike Measurements Collaboration between JRC-G.2, Team METRO and SGAS/IAEA

    OpenAIRE

    RICHTER Stephan; HIESS Joe; JAKOBSSON Ulf

    2016-01-01

    The so-called "Cristallini Method" for sampling of UF6 by adsorption and hydrolysis in alumina pellets inside a fluorothene P-10 tube has been developed by the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) several years ago [1]. This method has several advantages compared to the currently used sampling method, for which UF6 is distilled into a stainless steel tube for transportation, with hydrolysis and isotopic analysis being performed after shipping to t...

  5. Treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater using a static granular bed reactor (SGBR) coupled with ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basitere, M; Rinquest, Z; Njoya, M; Sheldon, M S; Ntwampe, S K O

    2017-07-01

    The South African poultry industry has grown exponentially in recent years due to an increased demand for their products. As a result, poultry plants consume large volumes of high quality water to ensure that hygienically safe poultry products are produced. Furthermore, poultry industries generate high strength wastewater, which can be treated successfully at low cost using anaerobic digesters. In this study, the performance of a bench-scale mesophilic static granular bed reactor (SGBR) containing fully anaerobic granules coupled with an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system, as a post-treatment system, was investigated. The poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was characterized by a chemical oxygen demand (COD) range between 1,223 and 9,695mg/L, average biological oxygen demand of 2,375mg/L and average fats, oil and grease (FOG) of 554mg/L. The SGBR anaerobic reactor was operated for 9 weeks at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs), i.e. 55 and 40 h, with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.01 and 3.14g COD/L.day. The SGBR results showed an average COD, total suspended solids (TSS) and FOG removal of 93%, 95% and 90% respectively, for both OLR. The UF post-treatment results showed an average of COD, TSS and FOG removal of 64%, 88% and 48%, respectively. The overall COD, TSS and FOG removal of the system (SGBR and UF membrane) was 98%, 99.8%, and 92.4%, respectively. The results of the combined SGBR reactor coupled with the UF membrane showed a potential to ensure environmentally friendly treatment of poultry slaughterhouse wastewater.

  6. Conceptual design for the field test and evaluation of the gas-phase UF6 enrichment meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strittmatter, R.B.; Leavitt, J.N.; Slice, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    An in-line enrichment monitor is being developed to provide real-time enrichment data for the gas-phase UF 6 feed stream of an enrichment plant. Data from proof-of-principle measurements using a laboratory prototype system are presented. A conceptual design for an enrichment monitor to be field tested and evaluated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is reported

  7. In-line coagulation prior to UF of treated domestic wastewater - foulants removal, fouling control and phosphorus removal

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing; Plume, Stephan; Ernst, Mathias; Croue, Jean-Philippe; Jekel, Martin R.

    2012-01-01

    The present work investigated fouling control and phosphorus removal by applying in-line coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) of treated domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in both lab- and pilot-scale under close to neutral pH condition. Lab-scale foulant removal tests showed that increasing the dosage of FeCl3, AlCl3 and polymeric aluminum chloride (PACl) can improve biopolymer removal. Specifically, PACl reduced preferentially the proteinaceous fraction of biopolymer while the other two coagulants showed no significant preference. The filterability of water samples was improved after coagulation, which is contributed to biopolymer removal and the formation of larger particles. Pilot UF experiments demonstrated that in-line coagulation improved the performance of UF to a large extent. Within 0.037-0.148mmol Me3+/L dosage range, adding more FeCl3 and AlCl3 slowed down the development of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) correspondingly, while changing PACl dosage showed little effect on the variation of TMP increase rate. Further investigations indicated that PACl related precipitates contributed to more irreversible fouling than that which the monomeric coagulants made. Fouling control is thus considered as a co-effect determined by foulant removal efficiency, fouling layer structure and the adherence of hydrolysis products/precipitates onto the membrane. With respect to phosphorus removal, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 achieved higher removal efficiency than using PACl. Based on lab- and pilot-scale results, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 at a relative dosage of over 2.5mol Me3+ per mol total phosphorus (TP) in feedwater is necessarily required to keep the TP concentration under 50μg/L in UF permeate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. In-line coagulation prior to UF of treated domestic wastewater - foulants removal, fouling control and phosphorus removal

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Xing

    2012-06-01

    The present work investigated fouling control and phosphorus removal by applying in-line coagulation prior to ultrafiltration (UF) of treated domestic wastewater. Experiments were conducted in both lab- and pilot-scale under close to neutral pH condition. Lab-scale foulant removal tests showed that increasing the dosage of FeCl3, AlCl3 and polymeric aluminum chloride (PACl) can improve biopolymer removal. Specifically, PACl reduced preferentially the proteinaceous fraction of biopolymer while the other two coagulants showed no significant preference. The filterability of water samples was improved after coagulation, which is contributed to biopolymer removal and the formation of larger particles. Pilot UF experiments demonstrated that in-line coagulation improved the performance of UF to a large extent. Within 0.037-0.148mmol Me3+/L dosage range, adding more FeCl3 and AlCl3 slowed down the development of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) correspondingly, while changing PACl dosage showed little effect on the variation of TMP increase rate. Further investigations indicated that PACl related precipitates contributed to more irreversible fouling than that which the monomeric coagulants made. Fouling control is thus considered as a co-effect determined by foulant removal efficiency, fouling layer structure and the adherence of hydrolysis products/precipitates onto the membrane. With respect to phosphorus removal, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 achieved higher removal efficiency than using PACl. Based on lab- and pilot-scale results, dosing FeCl3 and AlCl3 at a relative dosage of over 2.5mol Me3+ per mol total phosphorus (TP) in feedwater is necessarily required to keep the TP concentration under 50μg/L in UF permeate. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Incandela

    The all-plenary format of the CMS week in Cyprus gave the opportunity to the conveners of the physics groups to present the plans of each physics analysis group for tackling early physics analyses. The presentations were complete, so all are encouraged to browse through them on the Web. There is a wealth of information on what is going on, by whom and on what basis and priority. The CMS week was followed by two CMS “physics events”, the ICHEP08 days and the physics days in July. These were two weeks dedicated to either the approval of all the results that would be presented at ICHEP08, or to the review of all the other Monte-Carlo based analyses that were carried out in the context of our preparations for analysis with the early LHC data (the so-called “2008 analyses”). All this was planned in the context of the beginning of a ramp down of these Monte Carlo efforts, in anticipation of data.  The ICHEP days are described below (agenda and talks at: http://indic...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Joe Incandela

    There have been two plenary physics meetings since the December CMS week. The year started with two workshops, one on the measurements of the Standard Model necessary for “discovery physics” as well as one on the Physics Analysis Toolkit (PAT). Meanwhile the tail of the “2007 analyses” is going through the last steps of approval. It is expected that by the end of January all analyses will have converted to using the data from CSA07 – which include the effects of miscalibration and misalignment. January Physics Days The first Physics Days of 2008 took place on January 22-24. The first two days were devoted to comprehensive re¬ports from the Detector Performance Groups (DPG) and Physics Objects Groups (POG) on their planning and readiness for early data-taking followed by approvals of several recent studies. Highlights of POG presentations are included below while the activities of the DPGs are covered elsewhere in this bulletin. January 24th was devo...

  11. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  12. Fate of antibiotics in activated sludge followed by ultrafiltration (CAS-UF) and in a membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, Eyal; Messalem, Rami; Cikurel, Haim; Aharoni, Avi; Brenner, Asher; Godehardt, Manuel; Jekel, Martin; Ernst, Mathias

    2011-10-15

    The fates of several macrolide, sulphonamide, and trimethoprim antibiotics contained in the raw sewage of the Tel-Aviv wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were investigated after the sewage was treated using either a full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) system coupled with a subsequent ultrafiltration (UF) step or a pilot membrane bioreactor (MBR) system. Antibiotics removal in the MBR system, once it achieved stable operation, was 15-42% higher than that of the CAS system. This advantage was reduced to a maximum of 20% when a UF was added to the CAS. It was hypothesized that the contribution of membrane separation (in both systems) to antibiotics removal was due either to sorption to biomass (rather than improvement in biodegradation) or to enmeshment in the membrane biofilm (since UF membrane pores are significantly larger than the contaminant molecules). Batch experiments with MBR biomass showed a markedly high potential for sorption of the tested antibiotics onto the biomass. Moreover, methanol extraction of MBR biomass released significant amounts of sorbed antibiotics. This finding implies that more attention must be devoted to the management of excess sludge. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Release of UF6 from a ruptured Model 48Y cylinder at Sequoyah Fuels Corporation Facility: lessons-learned report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) release of January 4, 1986, at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation facility has been reviewed by a NRC Lessons-Learned Group. A Model 48Y cylinder containing UF 6 ruptured upon being heated after it was grossly overfilled. The Uf 6 released upon rupture of the cylinder reacted with airborne moisture to produce hydrofluoric acid (HF) and uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ). One individual died from exposure to airborne HF and several others were injured. There were no significant immediate effects from exposure to uranyl fluoride. This report of the Lessons-Learned Group presents discussions and recommendations on the process, operation and design of the facility, as well as on the responses of the licensee, NRC, and other local, state and federal agencies to the incident. It also provides recommendations in the areas of NRC licensing and inspection of fuel facility and certain other NMSS licensees. The implementation of some recommendations will depend on decisions to be made regarding the scope of NRC responsibilities with respect to those aspects of the design and operation of such facilities that are not directly related to radiological safety

  14. Argon/UF6 plasma exhaust gas reconstitution experiments using preheated fluorine and on-line diagnostics. [fissioning uranium plasma core reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling system permitted on-line measurements of the UF6 concentration at different locations in the exhaust system. Negligible amounts ( 100 ppm) of UF6 were detected in the axial bypass exhaust duct and the exhaust ducts downstream of the cryogenic trap system used to collect the UF6, thus verifying the overall system efficiency over a range of operating conditions. Use of a porous Monel duct as part of the exhaust duct system, including provision for injection of pure fluorine, provided a viable technique to eliminate uranium compound residue on the inside surface of the exhaust ducts. Typical uranium compound mass deposition per unit area of duct was 2 micron g/sq cm. This porous duct technique is directly applicable to future uranium compound transfer exhaust systems. Throughout these experiments, additional basic data on the corrosion aspects of hot, pressurized UF6/fluorine were also accumulated.

  15. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  16. Neutron methods for measuring 235U content in UF6 gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromswold, D.C.; Peurrung, A.J.; Reeder, P.L.; Pappas, R.A.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-10-01

    In the United States and Russia, UF 6 gas streams of highly enriched uranium and lower enrichment uranium am being blended to reduce the stockpile of the highly enriched material. The resultant uranium is no longer useful for weapons, but is suitable as fuel for nuclear reactors. A method to verify the blending of high- and low-enrichment uranium was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Research and Development (NN-20). In the United States, blending occurs at the U.S. Department of Energy's Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant located near Portsmouth, Ohio. In Russia, the blending takes place at Novouralsk. The United States is purchasing the blended product produced in Russia in a program to reduce the availability of enriched uranium that can be used for weapons production. Monitoring the 235 U mass flux of the input stream having the highly enriched uranium will provide confidence that high-enrichment uranium is being consumed in the blending process, and monitoring the output stream will provide an on-line measure of the 235 U in the mixed product. The Portsmouth plant is a potential test facility for non-destructive technology to monitor blending. In addition, monitoring the blending at Portsmouth can support International Atomic Energy Agency activities on controlling and reducing enriched uranium stockpiles

  17. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Michael M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Myjak, Mitchell J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  18. Influence of hydraulic retention time on UASB post-treatment with UF membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Peláez, M L; Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

    2011-01-01

    A pilot UASB reactor coupled with an external ultrafiltration (UF) membrane was operated under three different hydraulic retention times (HRT) for domestic wastewater treatment. The aim was to assess the HRT influence on system performance and fouling. The highest concentrations of COD, total solids, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) in UASB effluent and permeate were found when the UASB reactor was operated under the lowest HRT studied (4 hours); although the fulfillment of Mexican Standard for wastewater reclamation was not compromised. This fact could be attributed to the higher shear stress forces inside the UASB reactor when it was operated at low HRT, which promoted the release of biopolymeric substances in its effluent. Besides, the fouling propensity in the UASB effluent was worsened with HRT reduction, by increasing the fouling rate and the specific cake resistance. Based on these results, it is recommended to avoid operating the UASB reactor at low HRTs (less than 4 hours) in order to control SMP and EPS fouling potential. The results presented also suggest that HRT reduction has a detrimental effect on performance and fouling.

  19. Investigation of severe UF membrane fouling induced by three marine algal species

    KAUST Repository

    Merle, Tony

    2016-02-06

    Reducing membrane fouling caused by seawater algal bloom is a challenge for regions of the world where most of their freshwater is produced by seawater desalination. This study aims to compare ultrafiltration (UF) fouling potential of three ubiquitous marine algal species cultures (i.e., Skeletonena costatum-SKC, Tetraselmis sp.-TET, and Hymenomonas sp.-HYM) sampled at different phases of growth. Results showed that flux reduction and irreversible fouling were more severe during the decline phase as compared to the exponential phase, for all species. SKC and TET were responsible for substantial irreversible fouling but their impact was significantly lower than HYM. The development of a transparent gel layer surrounding the cell during the HYM growth and accumulating in water is certainly responsible for the more severe observed fouling. Chemical backwash with a standard chlorine solution did not recover any membrane permeability. For TET and HYM, the Hydraulically Irreversible Fouling Index (HIFI) was correlated to their biopolymer content but this correlation is specific for each species. Solution pre-filtration through a 1.2 μm membrane proved that cells and particulate algal organic matter (p-AOM) considerably contribute to fouling, especially for HYM for which the HIFI was reduced by a factor of 82.3.

  20. Measurement of 235U enrichment in UF6 by passive gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Hideo; Ochiai, Ken-ichi; Kaya, Akira

    1979-01-01

    For the assay of UF 6 , a single-channel analyzer (SCA) system of a passive gamma spectrometer has been developed. Basic measuring conditions were studied: such as the effects of sample density and heterogeneity and the effects of cylinder material and wall thickness. Called ''enrichment analyzer'', the system is operated to carry out the measurement and calculation of 235 U enrichment by a directive of the program in a calculator. The resulting data are available in real time output. Measurements were carried out in two modes: ''all way'' mode which measured in the rotation of the cylinder and the up-and-down motion of the detector, and ''spot'' mode which measured at one point on the cylinder. The average accuracy was about 1.8% in case of the former, and 3.2% in case of the latter. It was shown that the ''all way'' mode is preferable, but the ''spot'' mode is also necessary for the assay of large cylinders such as 30 A type. (J.P.N.)

  1. Application of a Kalman filter to UF6 gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruppel, F.R.

    1992-03-01

    A signal is required to control the flow of UF 6 in gaseous diffusion plant freezer/sublimer systems. The original strategy envisioned for deriving a flow signal was to take the derivative of the freezer/sublimer weigh cell signal. However, the derivative of the digitized weight signal is noisy, preventing good control. In addition, a bias is introduced into the weight derivative signal because a refrigerant is circulated through a shell-and-tube heat exchanger inside the freezer/sublimer. The weight of the refrigerant is included in the weight measured by the weigh cell. If the circulation rate of the refrigerent is not steady state, a bias exists. Measurements of upstream pressure, vessel pressure, and output to the system control valve are available to the control system. Thus, if the flow through the control valve is characterized properly by the measurements, a Kalman filter can be used in conjunction with these auxiliary inputs and the weigh cell input to overcome the noise and bias problem and provide an improve estimate of flow rate. A discussion of the development and the current status of a Kalman filter used for this application is given. 5 refs

  2. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  3. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Guenther Dissertori

    The time period between the last CMS week and this June was one of intense activity with numerous get-together targeted at addressing specific issues on the road to data-taking. The two series of workshops, namely the “En route to discoveries” series and the “Vertical Integration” meetings continued.   The first meeting of the “En route to discoveries” sequence (end 2007) had covered the measurements of the Standard Model signals as necessary prerequisite to any claim of signals beyond the Standard Model. The second meeting took place during the Feb CMS week and concentrated on the commissioning of the Physics Objects, whereas the third occurred during the April Physics Week – and this time the theme was the strategy for key new physics signatures. Both of these workshops are summarized below. The vertical integration meetings also continued, with two DPG-physics get-togethers on jets and missing ET and on electrons and photons. ...

  4. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Chris Hill

    2012-01-01

    The months that have passed since the last CMS Bulletin have been a very busy and exciting time for CMS physics. We have gone from observing the very first 8TeV collisions produced by the LHC to collecting a dataset of the collisions that already exceeds that recorded in all of 2011. All in just a few months! Meanwhile, the analysis of the 2011 dataset and publication of the subsequent results has continued. These results come from all the PAGs in CMS, including searches for the Higgs boson and other new phenomena, that have set the most stringent limits on an ever increasing number of models of physics beyond the Standard Model including dark matter, Supersymmetry, and TeV-scale gravity scenarios, top-quark physics where CMS has overtaken the Tevatron in the precision of some measurements, and bottom-quark physics where CMS made its first discovery of a new particle, the Ξ*0b baryon (candidate event pictured below). Image 2:  A Ξ*0b candidate event At the same time POGs and PAGs...

  5. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2011-01-01

    Since the last CMS Week, all physics groups have been extremely active on analyses based on the full 2010 dataset, with most aiming for a preliminary measurement in time for the winter conferences. Nearly 50 analyses were approved in a “marathon” of approval meetings during the first two weeks of March, and the total number of approved analyses reached 90. The diversity of topics is very broad, including precision QCD, Top, and electroweak measurements, the first observation of single Top production at the LHC, the first limits on Higgs production at the LHC including the di-tau final state, and comprehensive searches for new physics in a wide range of topologies (so far all with null results unfortunately). Most of the results are based on the full 2010 pp data sample, which corresponds to 36 pb-1 at √s = 7 TeV. This report can only give a few of the highlights of a very rich physics program, which is listed below by physics group...

  6. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF6) packages tracking Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.

    2004-01-01

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF 6 ) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF 6 ) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF 6 ) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards

  7. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with (UF{sub 6}) packages tracking Suez Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, M. [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC), Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Egypt has a unique problem - the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passing regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. Moreover there are also about 1000 metric tons of uranium hexaflouride (UF6) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all precautions taken in the transportation, accidents with packages containing (UF{sub 6}) and shipped through the Suez Canal, accidents may arise even though the probability is minimal. These accidents, may be accompanied by injuries or death of persons and damage to property. Due to the radiation and criticality hazards of (UF{sub 6}) and its high risk of chemical toxicity. The probability of a fire accident with a cargo carrying (UF{sub 6}) during its crossing the Suez Canal can cause serious chemical toxic and radiological hazards, particularly if the accident occurred close or near to one of the three densely populated cities (Port-Said, Ismailia, and Suez), which are located along the Suez Canal, west bank. The government of Egypt has elaborated a national radiological emergency plan inorder to face probable radiological accidents, which may be arised inside the country. Arrangements have been also elaborated for the medical care of any persons who, might be injured or contaminated, or who, have been exposed to severe radiation doses. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to visualize a fire accident scenario occurring in industrial packages containing UF6 on board of a Cargo crossing the Suez Canal near Port-Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are going to be presented and discussed. The proposed emergency response actions taken to face the accident are going to be also presented. The work presented had revealed the importance of public awareness will be needed for populations located in densely populated areas along Suez Canal bank inorder to react timely and effectively to avoid the toxic and radiological

  8. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  9. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  10. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    D. Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The Physics Groups are actively engaged on analyses of the first data from the LHC at 7 TeV, targeting many results for the ICHEP conference taking place in Paris this summer. The first large batch of physics approvals is scheduled for this CMS Week, to be followed by four more weeks of approvals and analysis updates leading to the start of the conference in July. Several high priority analysis areas were organized into task forces to ensure sufficient coverage from the relevant detector, object, and analysis groups in the preparation of these analyses. Already some results on charged particle correlations and multiplicities in 7 TeV minimum bias collisions have been approved. Only one small detail remains before ICHEP: further integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC! Beyond the Standard Model measurements that can be done with these data, the focus changes to the search for new physics at the TeV scale and for the Higgs boson in the period after ICHEP. Particle Flow The PFT group is focusing on the ...

  11. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    the PAG conveners

    2011-01-01

    The delivered LHC integrated luminosity of more than 1 inverse femtobarn by summer and more than 5 by the end of 2011 has been a gold mine for the physics groups. With 2011 data, we have submitted or published 14 papers, 7 others are in collaboration-wide review, and 75 Physics Analysis Summaries have been approved already. They add to the 73 papers already published based on the 2010 and 2009 datasets. Highlights from each physics analysis group are described below. Heavy ions Many important results have been obtained from the first lead-ion collision run in 2010. The published measurements include the first ever indications of Υ excited state suppression (PRL synopsis), long-range correlation in PbPb, and track multiplicity over a wide η range. Preliminary results include the first ever measurement of isolated photons (showing no modification), J/ψ suppression including the separation of the non-prompt component, further study of jet fragmentation, nuclear modification factor...

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Demortier

    Physics-wise, the CMS week in December was dominated by discussions of the analyses that will be carried out in the “next six months”, i.e. while waiting for the first LHC collisions.  As presented in December, analysis approvals based on Monte Carlo simulation were re-opened, with the caveat that for this work to be helpful to the goals of CMS, it should be carried out using the new software (CMSSW_2_X) and associated samples.  By the end of the week, the goal for the physics groups was set to be the porting of our physics commissioning methods and plans, as well as the early analyses (based an integrated luminosity in the range 10-100pb-1) into this new software. Since December, the large data samples from CMSSW_2_1 were completed. A big effort by the production group gave a significant number of events over the end-of-year break – but also gave out the first samples with the fast simulation. Meanwhile, as mentioned in December, the arrival of 2_2 meant that ...

  13. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      2012 has started off as a very busy year for the CMS Physics Groups. Planning for the upcoming higher luminosity/higher energy (8 TeV) operation of the LHC and relatively early Rencontres de Moriond are the high-priority activities for the group at the moment. To be ready for the coming 8-TeV data, CMS has made a concerted effort to perform and publish analyses on the 5 fb−1 dataset recorded in 2011. This has resulted in the submission of 16 papers already, including nine on the search for the Higgs boson. In addition, a number of preliminary results on the 2011 dataset have been released to the public. The Exotica and SUSY groups approved several searches for new physics in January, such as searches for W′ and exotic highly ionising particles. These were highlighted at a CERN seminar given on 24th  January. Many more analyses, from all the PAGs, including the newly formed SMP (Standard Model Physics) and FSQ (Forward and Small-x QCD), were approved in February. The ...

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Document Server

    C. Hill

    2012-01-01

      The period since the last CMS Bulletin has been historic for CMS Physics. The pinnacle of our physics programme was an observation of a new particle – a strong candidate for a Higgs boson – which has captured worldwide interest and made a profound impact on the very field of particle physics. At the time of the discovery announcement on 4 July, 2012, prominent signals were observed in the high-resolution H→γγ and H→ZZ(4l) modes. Corroborating excess was observed in the H→W+W– mode as well. The fermionic channel analyses (H→bb, H→ττ), however, yielded less than the Standard Model (SM) expectation. Collectively, the five channels established the signal with a significance of five standard deviations. With the exception of the diphoton channel, these analyses have all been updated in the last months and several new channels have been added. With improved analyses and more than twice the i...

  15. Providing Real Research Opoportunities to Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozzine, Darin

    2016-01-01

    The current approach to undergraduate education focuses on teaching classes which provide the foundational knowledge for more applied experiences such as scientific research. Like most programs, Florida Institute of Technology (Florida Tech or FIT) strongly encourages undergraduate research, but is dominated by content-focused courses (e.g., "Physical Mechanics"). Research-like experiences are generally offered through "lab" classes, but these are almost always reproductions of past experiments: contrived, formulaic, and lacking the "heart" of real (i.e., potentially publishable) scientific research. Real research opportunities 1) provide students with realistic insight into the actual scientific process; 2) excite students far more than end-of-chapter problems; 3) provide context for the importance of learning math, physics, and astrophysics concepts; and 4) allow unique research progress for well-chosen problems. I have provided real research opportunities as an "Exoplanet Lab" component of my Introduction to Space Science (SPS1020) class at Florida Tech, generally taken by first-year majors in our Physics, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Planetary Science, and Astrobiology degree programs. These labs are a hybrid between citizen science (e.g., PlanetHunters) and simultaneously mentoring ~60 undergraduates in similar small research projects. These projects focus on problems that can be understood in the context of the course, but which benefit from "crowdsourcing". Examples include: dividing up the known planetary systems and developing a classification scheme and organizing them into populations (Fall 2013); searching through folded light curves to discover new exoplanets missed by previous pipelines (Fall 2014); and fitting n-body models to all exoplanets with known Transit Timing Variations to estimate planet masses (Fall 2015). The students love the fact that they are doing real potentially publishable research: not many undergraduates can claim to have discovered

  16. Computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A complete introduction to the field of computational physics, with examples and exercises in the Python programming language. Computers play a central role in virtually every major physics discovery today, from astrophysics and particle physics to biophysics and condensed matter. This book explains the fundamentals of computational physics and describes in simple terms the techniques that every physicist should know, such as finite difference methods, numerical quadrature, and the fast Fourier transform. The book offers a complete introduction to the topic at the undergraduate level, and is also suitable for the advanced student or researcher who wants to learn the foundational elements of this important field.

  17. Undergraduate Program: New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsock, Lori

    2008-03-01

    Undergraduate chemical science students—join us in New Orleans on April 6-7, 2008 for an educational program designed specifically for you. Attend symposia on chemistry in sports and health and learn how it impacts your life everyday; meet with graduate school recruiters. Focus on your professional future in chemistry by learning more about careers in public health and how to communicate and work effectively with cross-functional teams. Hear eminent scientist Richard B. Silverman (John Evans Professor of Chemistry, Northwestern University and author of The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action 2004) speak about "Drug Discovery: Ingenuity or Serendipity?" All events will take place at the Hilton Riverside Hotel in New Orleans, except the Undergraduate Research Poster Sessions and Sci-Mix, both of which will be held in Hall A of the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center.

  18. Researching with undergraduate students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Andersen, Trine Østergaard; Mogensen, Kevin; Hjort-Madsen, Peder

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a particular case of undergraduate students working on subprojects within the framework of their supervisors' (the authors') research project during Autumn Semester 2012 and Spring Semester 2013. The article's purpose is to show that an institutionalized focus on students...... as "research learners" rather than merely curriculum learners proves productive for both research and teaching. We describe the specific university learning context and the particular organization of undergraduate students' supervision and assistantships. The case builds on and further enhances a well......-established and proven university model of participant-directed, problem-oriented project work. We explore students' and researchers' experiences of being part of the collaboration, focusing on learning potentials and dilemmas associated with the multiple roles of researcher and student that characterized...

  19. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    J. D'Hondt

    The Electroweak and Top Quark Workshop (16-17th of July) A Workshop on Electroweak and Top Quark Physics, dedicated on early measurements, took place on 16th-17th July. We had more than 40 presentations at the Workshop, which was an important milestone for 2007 physics analyses in the EWK and TOP areas. The Standard Model has been tested empirically by many previous experiments. Observables which are nowadays known with high precision will play a major role for data-based CMS calibrations. A typical example is the use of the Z to monitor electron and muon reconstruction in di-lepton inclusive samples. Another example is the use of the W mass as a constraint for di-jets in the kinematic fitting of top-quark events, providing information on the jet energy scale. The predictions of the Standard Model, for what concerns proton collisions at the LHC, are accurate to a level that the production of W/Z and top-quark events can be used as a powerful tool to commission our experiment. On the other hand the measure...

  20. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Christopher Hill

    2013-01-01

    Since the last CMS Bulletin, the CMS Physics Analysis Groups have completed more than 70 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete Run 1 dataset. In parallel the Snowmass whitepaper on projected discovery potential of CMS for HL-LHC has been completed, while the ECFA HL-LHC future physics studies has been summarised in a report and nine published benchmark analyses. Run 1 summary studies on b-tag and jet identification, quark-gluon discrimination and boosted topologies have been documented in BTV-13-001 and JME-13-002/005/006, respectively. The new tracking alignment and performance papers are being prepared for submission as well. The Higgs analysis group produced several new results including the search for ttH with H decaying to ZZ, WW, ττ+bb (HIG-13-019/020) where an excess of ~2.5σ is observed in the like-sign di-muon channel, and new searches for high-mass Higgs bosons (HIG-13-022). Search for invisible Higgs decays have also been performed both using the associ...

  1. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    In the period since the last CMS Bulletin, the LHC – and CMS – have entered LS1. During this time, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have performed more than 40 new analyses, many of which are based on the complete 8 TeV dataset delivered by the LHC in 2012 (and in some cases on the full Run 1 dataset). These results were shown at, and well received by, several high-profile conferences in the spring of 2013, including the inaugural meeting of the Large Hadron Collider    Physics Conference (LHCP) in Barcelona, and the 26th International Symposium on Lepton Photon Interactions at High Energies (LP) in San Francisco. In parallel, there have been significant developments in preparations for Run 2 of the LHC and on “future physics” studies for both Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrades of the CMS detector. The Higgs analysis group produced five new results for LHCP including a new H-to-bb search in VBF production (HIG-13-011), ttH with H to γ&ga...

  2. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Hill

    2013-01-01

    The period since the last CMS bulletin has seen the end of proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy 8 TeV, a successful proton-lead collision run at 5 TeV/nucleon, as well as a “reference” proton run at 2.76 TeV. With these final LHC Run 1 datasets in hand, CMS Physics Analysis Groups have been busy analysing these data in preparation for the winter conferences. Moreover, despite the fact that the pp run only concluded in mid-December (and there was consequently less time to complete data analyses), CMS again made a strong showing at the Rencontres de Moriond in La Thuile (EW and QCD) where nearly 40 new results were presented. The highlight of these preliminary results was the eagerly anticipated updated studies of the properties of the Higgs boson discovered in July of last year. Meanwhile, preparations for Run 2 and physics performance studies for Phase 1 and Phase 2 upgrade scenarios are ongoing. The Higgs analysis group produced updated analyses on the full Run 1 dataset (~25 f...

  3. Frames for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Deguang; Larson, David; Weber, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Frames for Undergraduates is an undergraduate-level introduction to the theory of frames in a Hilbert space. This book can serve as a text for a special-topics course in frame theory, but it could also be used to teach a second semester of linear algebra, using frames as an application of the theoretical concepts. It can also provide a complete and helpful resource for students doing undergraduate research projects using frames. The early chapters contain the topics from linear algebra that students need to know in order to read the rest of the book. The later chapters are devoted to advanced topics, which allow students with more experience to study more intricate types of frames. Toward that end, a Student Presentation section gives detailed proofs of fairly technical results with the intention that a student could work out these proofs independently and prepare a presentation to a class or research group. The authors have also presented some stories in the Anecdotes section about how this material has moti...

  4. Emergency preparedness and response in case of a fire accident with UF6 packages traversing the Suez Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, M.

    2004-01-01

    Egypt has a unique problem, the Suez Canal. Radioactive cargo passes regularly through the canal carrying new and spent reactor fuel. There are also about 1000 metric tonnes of uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) passing through the canal every year. In spite of all the precautions taken in the transport, accidents with packages containing UF 6 shipped through the Suez Canal may arise, even though the probability is minimal. Such accidents may be accompanied by injuries to or death of persons and damage to property including radiation and criticality hazards and high chemical toxicity, particularly if the accident occurred close to one of the three densely populated cities (Port Said, Ismailia and Suez), which are located along the west bank of the Suez Canal. The government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to deal with any radiological accidents which may arise inside the country. This paper considers the effect of a fire accident to industrial packages containing UF 6 on board a cargo ship passing along the Suez Canal near Port Said City. The accident scenario and emergency response actions taken during the different phases of the accident are presented and discussed. The paper highlights the importance of public awareness for populations located in densely populated areas along the bank of the Suez Canal, in order to react in a timely and effective way to avoid the toxic and radiological hazards resulting from such a type of accident. The possibility of upgrading the capabilities of civil defence and fire-fighting personnel is also discussed (author)

  5. Thermodynamic assessment of the LiF–ThF{sub 4}–PuF{sub 3}–UF{sub 4} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelli, E. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2629JB (Netherlands); Beneš, O., E-mail: ondrej.benes@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Konings, R.J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2629JB (Netherlands)

    2015-07-15

    The LiF–ThF{sub 4}–PuF{sub 3}–UF{sub 4} system is the reference salt mixture considered for the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) concept started with PuF{sub 3}. In order to obtain the complete thermodynamic description of this quaternary system, two binary systems (ThF{sub 4}–PuF{sub 3} and UF{sub 4}–PuF{sub 3}) and two ternary systems (LiF–ThF{sub 4}–PuF{sub 3} and LiF–UF{sub 4}–PuF{sub 3}) have been assessed for the first time. The similarities between CeF{sub 3}/PuF{sub 3} and ThF{sub 4}/UF{sub 4} compounds have been taken into account for the presented optimization as well as in the experimental measurements performed, which have confirmed the temperatures predicted by the model. Moreover, the experimental results and the thermodynamic database developed have been used to identify potential compositions for the MSFR fuel and to evaluate the influence of partial substitution of ThF{sub 4} by UF{sub 4} in the salt.

  6. Cognitive diversity in undergraduate engineering: Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Velvet R.

    In the United States, institutions have established multiple programs and initiatives aimed at increasing the diversity of both faculty and students in engineering as means to produce a workforce that will better serve society. However, there are two major problems in addressing engineering student diversity. First, the engineering education research community has paid little attention to date as to how engineering education research characterizes diversity in its broadest sense. Second, research on persons with disabilities in undergraduates engineering, a population of interests within diversity, is minimal. Available disability studies tend to be skewed toward physical disabilities, leading to a neglect of cognitive differences such as learning disabilities (LD). In addition, disability research questions and study designs are inherently steeped in ability bias. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the meaning of ability for students with dyslexia while in undergraduate engineering and establish the significance of cognitive diversity, focusing on LD and more specifically dyslexia, in undergraduate engineering education and answer the following research question: How do undergraduate engineering students with dyslexia experience ability while pursuing and persisting in engineering? The motivation was to lay the groundwork for future engineering education studies on undergraduate students with LD in general but dyslexia in specific. The first goal was to conduct a critical literature review pertaining to the academic strengths of undergraduate students with LD, specifically, dyslexia and the second goal was to describe how undergraduate engineering students with dyslexia experience ability. The intent was not to redefine dyslexia or disability. The intent is to provide an inclusive account of dyslexia, weakness and strengths, within the field of engineering education. This study was conducted from a qualitative inquiry approach, within the social

  7. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    V.Ciulli

    2011-01-01

    The main programme of the Physics Week held between 16th and 20th May was a series of topology-oriented workshops on di-leptons, di-photons, inclusive W, and all-hadronic final states. The goal of these workshops was to reach a common understanding for the set of objects (ID, cleaning...), the handling of pile-up, calibration, efficiency and purity determination, as well as to revisit critical common issues such as the trigger. Di-lepton workshop Most analysis groups use a di-lepton trigger or a combination of single and di-lepton triggers in 2011. Some groups need to collect leptons with as low PT as possible with strong isolation and identification requirements as for Higgs into WW at low mass, others with intermediate PT values as in Drell-Yan studies, or high PT as in the Exotica group. Electron and muon reconstruction, identification and isolation, was extensively described in the workshop. For electrons, VBTF selection cuts for low PT and HEEP cuts for high PT were discussed, as well as more complex d...

  8. Om direktørers fuldmagt på baggrund af UfR 2012.2533 H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lennart Lynge; Schaumburg-Muller, Peer

    2012-01-01

    Den bemyndigelse, en adm. direktør - og den øvrige direktion - har til (bl.a.) at fastsætte løn- og ansættelsesvilkår for selskabets medarbejdere har hverken i den arbejdsretlige, selskabsretlige eller den aftaleretlige teori og praksis påkaldt sig megen opmærksomhed gennem årene. Højesterets dom...... af 2. maj 2012 (UfR 2012.2533 H) omhandler netop dette forhold, og afgørelsen må af flere grunde anses for principiel....

  9. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrod, S.R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}. Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  10. Implementation of conduct of operations at Paducah uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) sampling and transfer facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penrod, S.R. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the initial planning and actual field activities associated with the implementation of {open_quotes}Conduct of Operations{close_quotes}, Conduct of Operations is an operating philosophy that was developed through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO). Conduct of Operations covers many operating practices and is intended to provide formality and discipline to all aspects of plant operation. The implementation of these operating principles at the UF{sub 6} Sampling and Transfer Facility resulted in significant improvements in facility operations.

  11. CISG DEL II og Værneting i UfR 1998.1092 ØLK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    I UfR 1998.1092 ØLK anvender en dansk domstol reglerne om købsaftalers indgåelse i CISG-konventionens del II. Det sker for at afgøre, om der er værneting i Danmark efter EF-domskonventionens artikel 5, nr. 1, når sagsøgte bestrider, at der er indgået en købsaftale. Sagen sætter fokus på behovet...

  12. Extremely low temperature behaviour of the thermodynamical properties of gaseous UF6 under an exact quantum approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarante, J.A.A. do.

    1979-10-01

    The thermodynamic functions of molecules of type XF 6 are calculated under an exact quantum-mechanical approach, which also yields general expressions valid for other types of molecules. The formalism is used to analyse the behavior of gaseous UF 6 at very low temperatures (around and below 1 0 K), where symmetry effects due to Pauli principle lead to results which are very markedly different from those obtained with the semi-classical approximation. It is shown that this approximation becomes sufficiently accurate only for temperatures about ten times the rotational temperature. (Author) [pt

  13. A comparative study between inhibitory effect of L. lactis and nisin on important pathogenic bacteria in Iranian UF Feta cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mirdamadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction : In the present study, the inhibitory effect of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis during co-culture and pure standard nisin were assessed against selected foodborne pathogenes in growth medium and Iranian UF Feta cheese. In comparison L lactis, not only proves flavor but also plays a better role in microbial quality of Iranian UF Feta cheese as a model of fermented dairy products.   Materials and method s: L. lactis subsp. lactis as nisin producer strain, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as pathogenic strains were inoculated in Ultra-Filtered Feta cheese. Growth curve of bacterial strains were studied by colony count method in growth medium and UF Feta cheese separately and during co-culture with L. lactis. Nisin production was determined by agar diffusion assay method against susceptible test strain and confirmed by RP-HPLC analysis method.   Results : Counts of L. monocytogenes decreased in cheese sample containing L. lactis and standard nisin, to 103 CFU/g after 7 days and it reached to undetectable level within 2 weeks. S. aureus counts remained at its initial number, 105 CFU/g, after 7 days then decreased to 104 CFU/g on day 14 and it was not detectable on day 28. E. coli numbers increased in both treatments after 7 days and then decreased to 104 CFU/g after 28 days. Despite the increasing number of E. coli in growth medium containing nisin, due to the synergistic effect of nisin and other metabolites produced by Lactococcus lactis and starter cultures, the number of E. coli decreased with slow rate . Discussion and conclusion : The results showed, L. monocytogenes was inhibited by L. lactis before entering the logarithmic phase during co-culture. S. aureus was also inhibited during co-culture, but it showed less sensitivity in comparison with L. monocytogenes. However, the number of E. coli remained steady in co-culture with L. lactis. Also, we found that, in all cheese samples, E

  14. Viability Study for an Unattended UF_6 Cylinder Verification Station: Phase I Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Leon E.; Miller, Karen A.; Garner, James R.; Branney, Sean; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Zalavadia, Mital A.; Todd, Lindsay C.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Nordquist, Heather; Deshmukh, Nikhil S.; Stewart, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has pursued innovative techniques and an integrated suite of safeguards measures to address the verification challenges posed by the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the unattended instruments currently being explored by the IAEA is an Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS) that could provide automated, independent verification of the declared relative enrichment, "2"3"5U mass, total uranium mass and identification for all declared UF_6 cylinders in a facility (e.g., uranium enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants). Under the auspices of the United States and European Commission Support Programs to the IAEA, a project was undertaken to assess the technical and practical viability of the UCVS concept. The US Support Program team consisted of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL, lead), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savanah River National Laboratory (SRNL). At the core of the viability study is a long-term field trial of a prototype UCVS system at a Westinghouse fuel fabrication facility. A key outcome of the study is a quantitative performance evaluation of two nondestructive assay (NDA) methods being considered for inclusion in a UCVS: Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA), and Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM). This report provides context for the UCVS concept and the field trial: potential UCVS implementation concepts at an enrichment facility; an overview of UCVS prototype design; field trial objectives and activities. Field trial results and interpretation are presented, with a focus on the performance of PNEM and HEVA for the assay of over 200 ''typical'' Type 30B cylinders, and the viability of an ''NDA Fingerprint'' concept as a high-fidelity means to periodically verify that the contents of a given cylinder are consistent with previous scans. A modeling study, combined with field-measured instrument

  15. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, Matthew R; Geyer, John W; Bolch, Wesley [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Aris, John P [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Shifrin, Roger Y, E-mail: wbolch@ufl.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2011-08-07

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations

  16. The UF family of hybrid phantoms of the developing human fetus for computational radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, Matthew R; Geyer, John W; Bolch, Wesley; Aris, John P; Shifrin, Roger Y

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the development of computational phantoms for radiation dosimetry has primarily been directed at capturing and representing adult and pediatric anatomy, with less emphasis devoted to models of the human fetus. As concern grows over possible radiation-induced cancers from medical and non-medical exposures of the pregnant female, the need to better quantify fetal radiation doses, particularly at the organ-level, also increases. Studies such as the European Union's SOLO (Epidemiological Studies of Exposed Southern Urals Populations) hope to improve our understanding of cancer risks following chronic in utero radiation exposure. For projects such as SOLO, currently available fetal anatomic models do not provide sufficient anatomical detail for organ-level dose assessment. To address this need, two fetal hybrid computational phantoms were constructed using high-quality magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography image sets obtained for two well-preserved fetal specimens aged 11.5 and 21 weeks post-conception. Individual soft tissue organs, bone sites and outer body contours were segmented from these images using 3D-DOCTOR(TM) and then imported to the 3D modeling software package Rhinoceros(TM) for further modeling and conversion of soft tissue organs, certain bone sites and outer body contours to deformable non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces. The two specimen-specific phantoms, along with a modified version of the 38 week UF hybrid newborn phantom, comprised a set of base phantoms from which a series of hybrid computational phantoms was derived for fetal ages 8, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 38 weeks post-conception. The methodology used to construct the series of phantoms accounted for the following age-dependent parameters: (1) variations in skeletal size and proportion, (2) bone-dependent variations in relative levels of bone growth, (3) variations in individual organ masses and total fetal masses and (4) statistical percentile variations in

  17. Using High-Precision Specific Gravity Measurements to Study Minerals in Undergraduate Geoscience Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriss, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes ways to incorporate high-precision measurements of the specific gravities of minerals into undergraduate courses in mineralogy and physical geology. Most traditional undergraduate laboratory methods of measuring specific gravity are suitable only for unusually large samples, which severely limits their usefulness for student…

  18. A New Cost-Effective Diode Laser Polarimeter Apparatus Constructed by Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisboa, Pedro; Sotomayor, Joo; Ribeiro, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The construction of a diode laser polarimeter apparatus by undergraduate students is described. The construction of the modular apparatus by undergraduate students gives them an insight into how it works and how the measurement of a physical or chemical property is conducted. The students use the polarimeter to obtain rotation angle values for the…

  19. A community of scientists: cultivating scientific identity among undergraduates within the Berkeley Compass Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceves, Ana V.; Berkeley Compass Project

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Compass Project is a self-formed group of graduate and undergraduate students in the physical sciences at UC Berkeley. Our goals are to improve undergraduate physics education, provide opportunities for professional development, and increase retention of students from populations typically underrepresented in the physical sciences. For students who enter as freshmen, the core Compass experience consists of a summer program and several seminar courses. These programs are designed to foster a diverse, collaborative student community in which students engage in authentic research practices and regular self-reflection. Compass encourages undergraduates to develop an identity as a scientist from the beginning of their university experience.

  20. Integrating Clinical Neuropsychology into the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Antonio E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Claims little information exists in undergraduate education about clinical neuropsychology. Outlines an undergraduate neuropsychology course and proposes ways to integrate the subject into existing undergraduate psychology courses. Suggests developing specialized audio-visual materials for telecourses or existing courses. (NL)

  1. Sage for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Bard, Gregory V

    2015-01-01

    Professor Bard has provided a valuable service by carefully explaining everything an undergraduate student of mathematics, or a teacher of these topics, needs to get started with Sage quickly and easily. It will also be useful for any student or teacher of another STEM discipline. There is an excellent mix of the most frequently used commands, along with warnings about common pitfalls or caveats. I highly recommend it for anyone new to Sage, or who desires an overview of the system's impressive capabilities. -Robert A. Beezer, University of Puget Sound This book is a sort of "Missing Manual"

  2. Statistical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wannier, Gregory Hugh

    1966-01-01

    Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for

  3. Nível de atividade física e tabagismo em universitários Nivel de actividad física y tabaquismo en universitarios Level of physical activity and smoking in undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Sofia Ribeiro Rodrigues

    2008-08-01

    muestra estudiada incluye 871 universitarios. Para evaluar el nivel de actividad física fue aplicado el cuestionario International Physical Activity Questionnaire-8. El consumo de tabaco fue evaluado por cuestionario modificado de la Organización Mundial de Salud y el grado de dependencia nicotínica de los fumantes por la escala de Fagerström. Las frecuencias, prevalencias y razones de prevalencia de tabaquismo y sedentarismo fueron determinadas aplicando el teste ji-cuadrado pelo método de Yates o el test exacto de Fisher, según grupo general y estratificadas por área, curso, turno y sexo, al nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: La media de edad fue 25 (dp±8 años y la media de edad de la primera experiencia tabaquistica fue 17 (dp±4 años. La prevalencia de sedentarismo fue de 29,9% y de tabaquismo 7,2%. La prevalencia general de sedentarios fumantes fue de 8,5% y la de no-fumantes 91,5%; pero sin diferencia en la proporción de sedentarios entre fumantes y no-fumantes. Tabaquismo y sedentarismo fueron más prevalentes en individuos arriba de 25 años (48,6%, p0,05. CONCLUSIONES: Sedentarismo ocurre en fumantes y no-fumantes en la misma proporción, no indicando asociación entre esos dos factores. Las bajas prevalencias de sedentarismo y tabaquismo encontradas pueden estar asociadas a la actuación de programas nacionales, por la aplicación de medidas preventivas y educativas continuas, sendo necesario que sean mantenidas a largo plazo.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of physical activity in undergraduate students and to investigate its potential association with smoking. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with a stratified sample proportional to the total number of students was carried out in Gurupi, Central-West Brazil, in 2005. The sample comprised 871 subjects. The IPAQ-8 short version was applied to assess the level of physical activity. Smoking status was evaluated by a modified World Health Organization (WHO questionnaire and the magnitude of

  4. Standard test method for determination of bromine and chlorine in UF6 and uranyl nitrate by X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This method covers the determination of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) in uranium hexafluoride (UF6) and uranyl nitrate solution. The method as written covers the determination of bromine in UF6 over the concentration range of 0.2 to 8 μg/g, uranium basis. The chlorine in UF6 can be determined over the range of 4 to 160 μg/g, uranium basis. Higher concentrations may be covered by appropriate dilutions. The detection limit for Br is 0.2 μg/g uranium basis and for Cl is 4 μg/g uranium basis. 1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Estimation of time to rupture in a fire using 6FIRE, a lumped parameter UF6 cylinder transient heat transfer/stress analysis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, W.R.; Anderson, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The transportation of UF 6 is subject to regulations requiring the evaluation of packaging under a sequence of hypothetical accident conditions including exposure to a 30-min 800 degree C (1475 degree F) fire [10 CFR 71.73(c)(3)]. An issue of continuing interest is whether bare cylinders can withstand such a fire without rupturing. To address this issue, a lumped parameter heat transfer/stress analysis model (6FIRE) has been developed to simulate heating to the point of rupture of a cylinder containing UF 6 when it is exposed to a fire. The model is described, then estimates of time to rupture are presented for various cylinder types, fire temperatures, and fill conditions. An assessment of the quantity of UF 6 released from containment after rupture is also presented. Further documentation of the model is referenced

  6. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  7. Role of contaminants in the fluorination of β-UO3 to UF4 by freon-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, B.S.; Rofail, N.H.

    1992-01-01

    Ammonium uranate was precipitated from uranyl nitrate or sulphate by NH 3 gas or urea, and decomposed to β-UO 3 by calcination at 623 or 773 K. Oxides contaminated by high contents of nitrates (non-washed uranate) displayed higher conversion to UF 4 in comparison to the respective pre-washed uranate. Products of thermal treatment at 623 K were also more reactive towards fluorination, which was ascribed to the highly-disordered, loosely bound, high surface area products. The presence of residual nitrate, and probably ammonium, ions help in the partial reduction to lower oxides and in preventing recrystallization of the reaction solids. Ammonium uranate precipitated from uranyl sulphate and decomposed at 623 K is more easily fluorinated than the product decomposed at 773 K; it is also better product for fluorination than the uranate precipitated from uranyl nitrate. The complete conversion to UF 4 i attained after 45 min with the uranate precipitated from uranyl sulphate and treated at 623 K, but it needs 120 min with the product formed from uranyl nitrate and decomposed at the same temperature. (orig.)

  8. An Operator Perspective from a Facility Evaluation of an RFID-Based UF6 Cylinder Accounting and Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyn, Rose; Fitzgerald, Peter; Stehle, Nicholas D.; Rowe, Nathan C.; Younkin, James R.

    2011-01-01

    An operational field test of a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system for tracking and accounting UF6 cylinders was conducted at the Global Nuclear Fuel Americas (GNF) fuel fabrication plant in 2009. The Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) was designed and deployed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and evaluated in cooperation with GNF. The system required that passive RFID be attached to several UF6 30B cylinders as they were received at the site; then the cylinders were tracked as they proceeded to interim storage, to processing in an autoclave, and eventually to disposition from the site. This CATS deployment also provided a direct integration of scale data from the site accountability scales. The integration of this information into the tracking data provided an attribute for additional safeguards for evaluation. The field test provided insight into the advantages and challenges of using RFID at an operating nuclear facility. The RFID system allowed operators to interact with the technology and demonstrated the survivability of the tags and reader equipment in the process environment. This paper will provide the operator perspective on utilizing RFID technology for locating cylinders within the facility, thereby tracking the cylinders for process and for Material Control and Accounting functions. The paper also will present the operator viewpoint on RFID implemented as an independent safeguards system.

  9. Electrochemical separation of uranium in the molten system LiF–NaF–KF–UF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenko, M., E-mail: Michal.Korenko@savba.sk [Fluorine Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Řež Plc., Husinec-Řež 130, CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, SK-845 36 Bratislava (Slovakia); Straka, M.; Szatmáry, L. [Fluorine Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Řež Plc., Husinec-Řež 130, CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); Ambrová, M. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Technology and Materials, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, SK-812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Uhlíř, J. [Fluorine Chemistry Department, Nuclear Research Institute (NRI) Řež Plc., Husinec-Řež 130, CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic)

    2013-09-15

    This article is focused on the electrochemical investigation (cyclic voltammetry and related studies) of possible reduction of U{sup 4+} ions to metal uranium in the molten system LiF–NaF–KF(eut.)–UF{sub 4} that can provide basis for the electrochemical extraction of uranium from molten salts. Two-step reduction mechanism for U{sup 4+} ions involving one electron exchange in soluble/soluble U{sup 4+}/U{sup 3+} system and three electrons exchange in the second step were found on the nickel working electrode. Both steps were found to be reversible and diffusion controlled. Based on cyclic voltammetry, the diffusion coefficients of uranium ions at 530 °C were found to be D(U{sup 4+}) = 1.64 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1} and D(U{sup 3+}) 1.76 × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2} s{sup −1}. Usage of the nickel spiral electrode for electrorefining of uranium showed fairly good feasibility of its extraction. However some oxidant present during the process of electrorefining caused that the solid deposits contained different uranium species such as UF{sub 3}, UO{sub 2} and K{sub 3}UO{sub 2}F{sub 5}.

  10. Surface Activity of Sulfactin Recovered and Purified from Fermentation Broth Using a Two-Step Ultrafiltration (UF) Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafez Mohd Isa; Frazier, A.R.; Jauregi, P.

    2011-01-01

    B. subtilis under certain types of media and fermentation conditions can produce surfactant, a bio surfactant which belongs to the lipo peptide class. Surfactant has exceptional surfactant activity, and exhibits some interesting biological characteristics such as antibacterial activity, anti tumoral activity against ascites carcinoma cells, and a hypercholesterolaemia activity that inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase, as well as having anti-HIV properties. A cost effective recovery and purification of surfactant from fermentation broth using a two-step ultrafiltration (UF) process has been developed in order to reduce the cost of surfactant production. In this study, competitive adsorption of surfactant and proteins at the air-water interface was studied using surface pressure measurements. Small volumes of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and β-casein solutions were added to the air-water interface on a Langmuir trough and allowed to stabilise before the addition of surfactant to the sub phase. Contrasting interfacial behaviour of proteins was observed with β-casein showing faster initial adsorption compared to BSA. On introduction of surfactant both proteins were displaced but a longer time were taken to displace β-casein. Overall the results showed surfactant were highly surface-active by forming a β-sheet structure at the air-water interface after reaching its critical micelle concentration (CMC) and were effective in removing both protein films, which can be explained following the orogenic mechanism. Results showed that the two-step UF process was effective to achieve high purity and fully functional surfactant. (author)

  11. Temperature evaluation of UF6 and cluster detection in nozzle expansion using low-resolution infrared absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbampato, M.E.; Antunes, L.M.D.; Miranda, S.F.; Sena, S.C.; Santos, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The continuous supersonic expansion of pure gaseous UF 6 and mixtures of UF 6 with argon and nitrogen through a bidimensional nozzle was studied using low-resolution infrared spectroscopy in the ν 3 absorption band region. The experiments were carried out in order to calculate the molecular temperature of the beam and also to verify cluster formation in the expansion. The molecular beam temperature evaluation was based on the measurements of the low-resolution bandwidth, which were compared to simulated spectra results. The temperatures were also evaluated using the measured pressure at the end of the nozzle by a Pitot tube. In the conditions where no cluster formation was observed the calculated theoretical temperatures using an equilibrium expansion model are in good agreement with the data obtained through the analysis of the experimental spectra and through the Pitot tube pressure measurement. Cluster formation was observed for temperatures below about 120 K. In these conditions the infrared spectra showed shoulders in the region above 630 cm -1 and a shoulder or band between 616 and 600 cm -1 . (orig.)

  12. Development of a fine and ultra-fine group cell calculation code SLAROM-UF for fast reactor analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazama, Taira; Chiba, Go; Sugino, Kazuteru

    2006-01-01

    A cell calculation code SLAROM-UF has been developed for fast reactor analyses to produce effective cross sections with high accuracy in practical computing time, taking full advantage of fine and ultra-fine group calculation schemes. The fine group calculation covers the whole energy range in a maximum of 900-group structure. The structure is finer above 52.5 keV with a minimum lethargy width of 0.008. The ultra-fine group calculation solves the slowing down equation below 52.5 keV to treat resonance structures directly and precisely including resonance interference effects. Effective cross sections obtained in the two calculations are combined to produce effective cross sections over the entire energy range. Calculation accuracy and improvements from conventional 70-group cell calculation results were investigated through comparisons with reference values obtained with continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. It was confirmed that SLAROM-UF reduces the difference in k-infinity from 0.15 to 0.01% for a JOYO MK-I fuel subassembly lattice cell calculation, and from - 0.21% to less than a statistical uncertainty of the reference calculation of 0.03% for a ZPPR-10A core criticality calculation. (author)

  13. Ultrafiltration (UF Pilot Plant for Municipal Wastewater Reuse in Agriculture: Impact of the Operation Mode on Process Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Falsanisi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Following increasing interest in the use of UltraFiltration (UF membrane processes as an alternative advanced disinfection technique, the performance of a UF pilot plant was investigated under two opposite operating conditions (“stressed operating condition” versus “conventional operating condition”. The results indicate that for both conditions, the reclaimed effluent complied with the Italian regulations for unrestricted wastewater reuse (i.e., Total Suspended Solids (TSS < 10 mg/L; Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD < 100 mg/L and Escherichia coli < 10 CFU/100 mL. On the other hand, when compared with the Title 22 of the California Wastewater Reclamation Criteria, only the effluent produced under the “conventional operating condition” met the stipulated water quality standards (i.e., TSS and turbidity undetectable and total coliforms < 2.2 CFU/100 mL. It should be noted that, in spite of the nominal cut-off size, total coliforms breakthrough was indeed occasionally observed. A localized membrane pore micro-enlargement mechanism was hypothesized to explain the total coliforms propagation in the ultrafiltered effluent, as monitoring of the membrane permeability and transmembrane pressure highlighted that gel/cake formation had only a minor contribution to the overall membrane fouling mechanism with respect to pore plugging and pore narrowing mechanisms.

  14. Study on treating of low-level radioactive reactor wastewater by combined membrane process (UF-RO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yunyun; Cao Qiru; Chen Yunming; Huang Lijuan; Bai Xiaofeng; Li Bing; Feng Liang

    2013-01-01

    According to the characteristics of radionuclide exists in the low-level radioactive reactor waste water from HFETR, we use a new combined membrane process separation technology to study the efficient treating of low-lever radioactive reactor wastewater. First, the prepared the simulated wastewater contained Cs + , Sr 2+ , CO 2+ , Ni 2+ , and Fe 3+ . Then, we sequentially investigated the pressure, ion concentration, pH value and EDTA, which have effects on the desalination rate of membrane processing metal ions in wastewater. The results show that: in the condition of pH = 7, and added 0.15 mol/L EDTA, the simulated wastewater separated by UF-RO, desalination rates of Cs + , Sr 2+ , CO 2+ , Ni 2+ and Fe 3+ are all above 95%; In the subsequent trials, adding 0.15 mol/L EDTA into the radioactive residuary solution, and then treating by UF-RO-RO, the decontamination efficiency can reach 95.7%. (authors)

  15. Undergraduate students' perceived academic environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationship between undergraduates' perception of the academic environment, their attitude to academic work and achievement. A total of 348 undergraduates who formed the sample were drawn from five departments in three universities in Nigeria. The study revealed that four dimensions of the ...

  16. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  17. Undergraduate Students' Information Search Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, Kleopatra; Gialamas, Vasilis

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates undergraduate students' information search practices. The subjects were 250 undergraduate students from two university departments in Greece, and a questionnaire was used to document their search practices. The results showed that the Web was the primary information system searched in order to find information for…

  18. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher

    2016-01-01

    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  19. Automation of the Process to Obtain U F{sub 4} Powders; Ingenieria Basica para la Automatizacion del Proceso de Obtencion de Polvos de UF{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenocchio, A D [Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Atomico Bariloche, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-07-01

    Here is exposed the preliminary analysis of the control system to be implemented in the Production Plant of UF{sub 4} Powders.The work has been done in the electronic laboratory.This implies, the setting of devices (PLC, Temperature Controllers, etc.) and the setting of the communications using the proper protocol.Also is shown a study about the logic for the first part of the conversion process of UF{sub 6}: the evaporation.This study is used to define the methodology to follow in a future PLC program.

  20. Monitoring the mass of UF6 gas and uranium deposits in aluminium pipes using X-ray fluorescence and X-ray transmission gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, T.W.; Smith, S.M.

    1984-12-01

    In order to determine the enrichment of UF 6 gas in centrifuge plant pipework it is necessary to measure the mass of the gas (pressure) and the mass per unit area of any uranium deposited on the pipe. This paper shows that it is possible to determine the pressure of the UF 6 gas in pipes 120 mm in diameter using an energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. Results are also given of transmission measurements made using a low power X-ray generator operated at two different applied voltages. A method of using the two measurements to determine the mass per unit area of deposited uranium is described. (author)